7 Burst results for "zagged Moi"

"zagged moi" Discussed on The Best of Stuff

The Best of Stuff

06:27 min | 10 months ago

"zagged moi" Discussed on The Best of Stuff

"Well Arm Lago sin colleagues archaeological clues to identify the source of the tetracycline which was beer Of course beer is another one of Ultimately it falls under zagged. Moi's domain. Oh yeah though. This is different because tetracycline is not made from a fungus. It is actually an antibacterial that is a byproduct of some bacteria. Oh okay so. It's bacterial byproduct but essentially okay. So technically it's doable. Okay point to Jubilee this jubilee versus Ju Blake's Oh yes that's going to happen with your demon. Lords introduced lean warfare So beer is made from fermented grain of course and the fermented grain in this ancient Nubian beer apparently contained the bacteria streptomycetes which creates Tetra cycling as a byproduct but a question of course so like these traces of tetracycline in Nubian mummy bones. A sign of like a bad batch of beer got contaminated by accident or were these people deliberately culturing their beer with antibiotic producing bacteria and so to look at a study from the American Journal of Physical Anthropology from twenty. Ten of which are Malaga's was one of the authors The authors examined tetracycline in skeletal remains from throughout this period and the evidence indicates that the ancient Nubians were consuming these antibiotics on a regular basis in the authors suggest that these ancient people were intentionally producing this medicine and this links up with some evidence from Other ancient peoples nearby such as the Egyptians that sometimes apparently used beer as a treatment for conditions like gum disease and other types of infections in the author even found evidence of a four year old child whose skull contained lots of tetracycline from this beer suggesting that the child had been fed. High Doses. Of this like Antibiotic Beer. Perhaps in an attempt to cure an illness. Maybe the illness that killed him. And so the levels of tetracycline residue found in the bones. These mummies is only explicable if they were repeatedly consuming this antibiotic in their Diet and there are actually other. Archaeological remains that. Show evidence of antibiotic use in the ancient world for example samples taken from the. Famara of skeletal remains from the dock. Leo ACIS in Egypt From people who live sometime in the late Roman period also showed evidence of the same thing of tetracycline and the Diet and this consumption of tetracyclene is consistent with other evidence showing a relatively rate of infectious disease in Sudanese Nubia during that time period and a lack of bone infections apparent in these remains from the this acis in Egypt so it really does look like people in ancient Africa discovered a somewhat effective form of antibiotics centuries before the discovery of penicillin and the isolation and mass production of focused antimicrobial medicines. Now to be clear I think like a beer that had tetracycline content from from being cultured with bacteria like this probably would not be as potent and focused and effective as like the isolated compounds in the drugs you take orally or through injection would be today right but it would have some effect and it appeared that it probably was somewhat effective in fighting infectious disease. Right and of course. They wouldn't know exactly what they had here but they knew they had some sort of beer that seemed to Some sort of holy liquid that that that had some sort of curative property to it exactly fascinating discovery from the ancient world. Another interesting fact. Tetracyclene is relatively unique in that it leaves clear signatures in the bones that can be discovered long after the person has died so other antibiotics. Don't leave these clear markers like this that. Make it easy for archaeologists to detect. So you have to wonder like are. They were there other cases of ancient peoples in various places in times using some kind of antibiotics or bacterial or fungal cultures To treat diseases like these ancient Nubian people were But that we don't have evidence of because it doesn't show up in the bones. Tetracycline does yeah. You could have just been lost to history I was reading an interesting paper from frontiers in microbiology. In two thousand ten by a Rostom on Minova called a brief history of the antibiotic Era Lessons Learned and challenges for the future and Aminov points out this unique quality of tetracycline and notes. Just what I was. Basically just saying like how easy it would be for evidence of other uses of antibiotics in the ancient world to be lost to us though he he also mentioned that. There are other anecdotes from history about like cultural traditions. That show Proto antibiotic technologies in these other. Examples would include red soils found in Jordan that are used for treating skin infections. It's been discovered that these soils contain some antibiotic producing organisms. I'd guess they're probably also some major risks in applying soil to wounds And then also plants used in traditional Chinese medicine that actually do have some antimicrobial properties. Yeah because one thing we have to remember is like the modern antibiotic effort is ultimately based in going out into the natural world in finding these weapons that already exist yeah and then reusing them in adapting them of for Human Madison and you know this is essentially. What is going on in traditional medicines as well and it also means that there are weapons out there that either have not been discovered all especially in particularly vibrant ecosystem. Some of which of course of are threatened all the more reason to us to Not Decimate Say The rain forests or the deep ocean right but then there are also things that may have been discovered to some degree in the past but have been forgotten will. Yeah that that does seem possible because despite all evidence of ancient sort of Proto antibiotic technologies the worldwide rates of death from infectious disease in the periods for which we have data right before the invention of modern antibiotics shows that humans generally did not have effective antimicrobials in that period. So maybe some of this knowledge was lost over time. All right well on that note. We're GONNA take our first break but when we come back we're going to return to the mold research the nineteenth century and.

tetracycline American Journal of Physical A Moi Tetracyclene Arm Lago Ju Blake Lords Leo ACIS Egypt Malaga Sudanese Nubia Minova penicillin Aminov Africa
"zagged moi" Discussed on The Best of Stuff

The Best of Stuff

03:51 min | 10 months ago

"zagged moi" Discussed on The Best of Stuff

"Don't they? Or they have some sort of fantasy penicillin I've never heard of that, don't they? Have something the the the the the masters would mention having to do with with Brad in mold or something, didn't they? I? Don't remember that I just remember people get cuts, and then they get infected indic-. Give him milk of the poppy I mean they have milk the poppy maybe. Our game of thrones our our our George. Martin readers left to right in on that, but I vaguely remember there being like allusion to something like some sort of mole based. Medicine that they were using. Let could be wrong. Well. I can't see that being something that's thrown in there as a little aside, but like isn't widely recognized for us. And it's interesting how that kind of parallels. Some interesting pieces of evidence for Proto Antibiotic Technology in the real world, even going back to ancient times so I won't look at the work of the emory university bio archaeologists George. Jr Mela goes. Who is now deceased I think he died in twenty fourteen but he's interest eight interesting scholar, and he discovered something very curious back in nineteen eighty, so the subject he was looking at was a set of human bones from ancient Nubia dating. Dating from between three fifty and five fifty C E, and so the the bones came from Nubia, which is a region of Africa along the Nile, river, but south of Egypt in what would be modern day Sudan, and what these bones showed was evidence that the people they belong to had been taking tetracycline now. Tetracyclene is not the same as penicillin, but it is an antibiotic. It can be used to treat all kinds of infections for minor problems like acne concert with some other drugs. Drugs two major diseases like play or to leukemia, or even syphilis and tetracycline works primarily binding to the Ribe, assumes of bacterial cells, ribes, zones or sort of the cellular factories they build proteins that are needed in order for organisms to live and grow, and by binding to the Ri-. Zome tetracycline makes it difficult for the bacterium to create new proteins. It was patented in the nineteen fifties and became widely used in the second half of the Twentieth Century So, what was it? It doing in the bones of Nubian. People who live like seventeen hundred years ago, well Arm Lago sin colleagues followed archaeological clues to identify the source of the tetracycline, which was beer of course, beer is another one of Ultimately, it falls under zagged Moi's domain. Oh. Yeah, though this is different. Because tetracycline is not made from a fungus, it is actually an antibacterial. That is a byproduct of some bacteria. Oh, okay, so it's bacterial byproduct, but essentially okay, so technically it's duplex. Point to jubilee this jubilee versus Gibb Lakes Right. I mean that's going to happen with your demon. Lord I introduced lean warfare so beer is made from fermented grain of course and the fermented grain in this ancient. Beer apparently contained the bacteria streptomycetes, which creates Tetra cycling as a byproduct, but a question of course so like were these traces of tetracycline in Nubian mummy bones, a sign of like a bad batch of beer, got contaminated by accident, or were these people deliberately culturing their beer with antibiotic producing bacteria, and so to look at a study from the American Journal of Physical Anthropology from twenty. Ten of which are Malaga's was one of the authors the authors examined tetracycline in skeletal remains from throughout this period, and the evidence indicates that the ancient Nubians were consuming these antibiotics on a regular basis in the authors suggest that these ancient people..

tetracycline George penicillin Brad Proto Antibiotic Technology Nubia dating Gibb Lakes American Journal of Physical A Jr Mela emory university Nubia Martin Africa Malaga Arm Lago Sudan leukemia Tetracyclene Egypt zagged Moi
"zagged moi" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

14:27 min | 10 months ago

"zagged moi" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

"Hey Welcome to invention. My name is Robert Lamb. And I'm Joe McCormack and Robert I know you WanNa talk about. Dnd before we get to the real subject. Well I don't know I I was thinking about doing it last. We can go ahead and talk about it. Upfront dragons. These various demon lords and they rule over various portions of the of the fiend population in the game and their two demon lords in particular that I was thinking about in regards. Today's episode And that that would be a boy and jubilee so zagged. Moi is the the Demon Lord of fungi the Queen Fungi Master of decay and then opposing her ever at odds with her is jubilant the faceless Lord which is God of uses and slimes and blobs losing nasty creatures of Dungeons and dragons and yeah they oppose each other. They're a constant war with each other and in some campaigns like their forces and even their their embodied forms do battle with one another and it it actually ties in a bit with the subject. We're talking about today of Penicillin Penicillin. The fungus that fights. I don't know would you call diseases slimes? Well I feel like jubilee being the Demon Lord of uses and slimes kind of makes it the the demon Lord of of microbiology as well and microbes and And microbial illnesses so okay. We'll so today we're going to be talking about penicillin. I guess maybe one of the the great real weapons of Zog to Moi yes But this this came up I think because we'd been talking about fungus on our other podcasts. On stuff to blow your mind where we just finished recording a five part series on psychedelics. Yea Looking at Fungal psychedelics ongoing research into how these substances could enhance our mental wellbeing and help in the treatment of psychological issues and one of our big take homes. Was these fungi could help save lives and improve the quality of human life. But it would not be the first or only fungi to do so because we can certainly look to various interactions between human hell's the different fungal species and their use in traditional medicine. We can point to various products including products of fermentation for instance including alcohol. But there's an even better example of better living through fungi in that's penicillin right so today. We're going to briefly. Explore the invention of penicillin which is often cited as the first true antibiotic technology. Of course antibiotics are medications that treat infections by killing injuring or slowing the growth of bacteria in the body and antibiotics are a class of what you would call antimicrobial drugs. Medicines that kill microbes present a threat to the body? Of course antibiotics generally fight bacterial infections. Whereas you could have others like Antifungal 's that Fungal infections or antivirals that fight viral infections. No antimicrobials and antibiotics are gigantic subject area. That we're of course not going to be able to get into every nook and cranny of the subjects but we hope we could have An interesting introductory introductory discussion. Maybe come back to antibiotics sometime again in the future because it's It's a broad invention that has lots of little invention tributaries throughout history. Yeah but it is such a fascinating case to look at and I think should make for a great episode of invention here because for starters. It's it's the twentieth century invention slash discovery off and of course the line between invention and discovery is a little bit gray but we we can pinpoint it to nineteen twenty eight and ultimately like rolled out by nineteen forty or so that we can. We can look to it. We can look at the world before and we can look at the world after with with clarity that we don't always have with certainly the older or more ancient inventions exactly because we always like to ask the question on the show. What came before the invention what what changed when this invention came on the scene And what came? Before widespread. Modern antibiotics was stupendous amounts of death and misery from infectious disease. In blood poisoning. I I was wondering like is it even possible to to get stats on what the world of infectious disease look like before we had antibiotics around the mid twentieth century. Yeah I mean to a certain extent of the suffering is just incalculable. Especially if you go back and sort of consider all of human history up to that point in the various factors that that influenced Infectious Disease Injury. You know the eventually the rise of germ theory but also this things like the rise of cities and so forth but but luckily yes. It was such a reason invention. We have some pretty incredible stats on the matter. Suddenly thanks to this new miracle drug diseases that simply ravaged the global population like syphilis could be cured. The shadow of lethal infection. No longer hung at least as heavily over every scrape injury and war wound and with wounds were often talking about sepsis which is a term that was used a by hippocrates back in the fourth century BC meaning blood rod or blood poisoning and he was referring more in generally I think to decay but the term came to be applied to blood poisoning which arises when the body's response to infection causes because injury to its own tissue and organs but just prior to the twentieth century infectious diseases accounted for high morbidity and mortality rates around the world even in the industrialized world according to w. a Adedeji in the treasure called antibiotics from two thousand sixteen. The average life expectancy at birth was forty seven years forty six and forty eight years for men and women respectively and this was due to the dangers of smallpox cholera diphtheria pneumonia typhoid fever plague tuberculosis typhus syphilis and a host of other ailments that could afflictions and enduring the antibiotic era That follow again. A rising in the middle of the twentieth century the leading cause of death in the United States change from communicable diseases. Noncommunicable diseases like carpet cardiovascular disease cancer and stroke and the average life expectancy at birth rose to seventy eight point eight years so the elderly were no longer a mere four percent of the population grow to become a whopping thirteen percent of the population. So we're talking about. You know profound changes demographics based on this new this new invention. Yeah the changes huge. I mean we live in a world now where if you have access to high quality modern medicine and a lot of people. Don't I mean insure mind but if you have access to high quality. Modern Science based medicine and you can get antibiotics and And can get to a hospital or see a doctor. You very likely have good chance to beat most of the common infectious diseases that that people get unless you have some kind of you know like another condition that exacerbates ed or something. Before antibiotics. This was just not the people just died from diseases that you catch like diseases that are common for people to catch all the time. Yeah or you had certain diseases like syphilis that were virtually uncurable and and some of the the cures that were attempted were pretty horrendous and had an generally did not work you know talking about using mercury and so forth and you mentioned before contamination of wounds. I mean this is just a huge thing just like a you know you might. You might cut yourself while gardening and you die from it. Yeah Heaven Forbid you undergo say Medieval Gallstone surgery or something like that. Yeah by the way I think. Tuberculosis has a you know is a good example to look at for some of these stats as well according to the CDC TB was a leading cause of death in the US in nineteen forty prior to the rollout of antibiotic therapy in one thousand nine hundred one hundred ninety four of every one hundred thousand. Us residents died. From deep tb most were residents of urban areas in one thousand nine hundred three leading causes of death in the US word pneumonia tuberculosis and diarrhea and interruptus which together with diptheria caused one third of all deaths and of these deaths. Forty percent were among children aged less than five years old. Now to your point in not everybody has access to Antibiotics that say people enjoy in say Europe and the United States Yeah TB remains a the leading cause of death from an infectious disease in many parts of the world? Particularly the developing world and some antibiotic treatments are in about assisted. Treatments are more complicated. More difficult than others. I mean I know the treatment for TB is not as say easy is the round of just orally administered antibiotics that you might get for a standard bacterial infection right but it suddenly was just Heralded is a as a miracle invention when it came about you buy. I saw an image of a of sign on a garbage can or mailbox. I'm from the Mid Twentieth Century Advertising. That now you can get gonorrhea cured in like four hours. Thanks to the these new developments in antibiotics it could be difficult to put ourselves in that mindset having grown up in the wake of antibiotics or at least most of us. Most people listening to this show. I was just thinking about how many like. Us presidents died of infections of various kinds. That seems like that would be a very unusual thing to happen now. But in the eighteen hundreds James Garfield got shot but it wasn't the initial gunshot that killed him live for like I think weeks afterwards He got an infection in the wound. Think because they were digging around with dirty hands to try to get the bullet out of him and he and they didn't have antibiotics of course when he got an infection so he died. I think another. Us was William Henry Harrison who I think down died from probably drinking fecal contaminated water and the White House. Yeah so many different Injuries and infections were just far more likely to be lethal with you. Know without modern antibiotics to step in and And aid in the fight. Now there were some things that were kind of like versions of antibiotics or antimicrobials from before the discovery of Penicillin in nineteen twenty eight. The best example from the period just immediate immediately prior to penicillin would be the Fontham is or the sulfur drugs. And these were the first antibacterial to be used Systematically and they were synthesized in one thousand nine hundred thirty two in the German laboratories of bear a G. Now you might be thinking about the time line like wait a minute. Didn't we just say that penicillin was discovered in twenty eight? But it took a long time. After the discovery of penicillins antibacterial properties for it to be made a useful medical dry like it was nineteen forty generally. That's the day you see for when penicillin actually became an actionable thing in medicine so before that we had The the SOFA drugs and it had they had a rocky start but they did prove very effective in preventing wound infections during the Second World War. They were used on both sides in the in the form of sulfur pills and also Sulfur powders that would be sprinkled over a wound. So if you've ever watched a lot know the Some sort of a period piece so especially a war piece of the twentieth century. And you see somebody sprinkling powder mover injury. That is what that's supposed to be sulfur drugs. They're not as effective is true. Antibiotics like penicillin in. There are a number of possible side effects that one that can take place and it also can't be used to treat syphilis and also can't treat SOFA resistant infections. Now of course. This is also a twentieth century invention so I was wondering. Did anybody come up with any version of antibiotics or proto? Antibiotics before the twentieth century we know penicillin hadn't been discovered and isolated and made stable as a useful medicine. But were there any things like antibiotics are sort of precursors of antibiotic? Because in game of thrones right. They have penicillin don't they? Or they have some sort of fantasy version. I've never heard of that. Don't they have something that that the the the old naysayers would mention having to do with Brad and mold or something? I don't remember that I just remember. People get cuts and then they get infected and die. Give him milk the poppy. I mean they have milk in the poppy. Maybe you're at. Our game of thrones Our George Martin readers left to right in on that but I vaguely remember there being like allusion to something like Some sort of mole based medicine that they were using. I could be wrong on that. Well I can't see that being something that's thrown in there as a little aside but the like isn't widely recognized her us and it's interesting how that kind of parallels some interesting pieces of evidence for pro antibiotic technology in the real world even going back to ancient times. So I WANNA look at the work of the emory university bio archaeologists. George J R Mela goes who is now deceased. I think he died in twenty fourteen But he's interesting interesting scholar and he discovered something very curious back in nineteen eighty so the subject he was looking at was a set of human bones from ancient Nubia dating from between three fifty and five fifty c e and so the bones came from Nubia which is a region of Africa along the Nile River but south of Egypt in what would be modern day Sudan and what these bones showed was evidence that the people they belong to had been taking tetracycline now. Tetracyclene is not the same as penicillin but it is an antibiotic. It can be used to treat all kinds of infections for minor. Problems like acne. I think in concert with some other drugs Two major diseases like plague or to leukemia.

penicillin Penicillin Penicillin US syphilis Moi pneumonia Infectious Disease Mid Twentieth Century Advertis Robert Lamb emory university Joe McCormack Tuberculosis Modern Science based medicine gonorrhea James Garfield typhus Europe Nile River
"zagged moi" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

05:54 min | 10 months ago

"zagged moi" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

"Hey Welcome to invention. My name is Robert. Lamb and I'm Joe. McCormack and Robert. I know you WanNa talk about dnd before we get to the real subject. Well I don't know I. I was thinking about doing it last. We can go ahead and talk about it upfront. Dragons. These various Demon Lords, and they rule over various portions of the of the fiend population in the game, and they're to demon lords in particular that I was thinking about in regards today's episode and that that would be a boy and jubilee. So zagged Moi is the the demon Lord of Fungi, the Queen Fungi the master of decay and then opposing her. Ever at odds with her is jubilant, the faceless Lord which is God of Oozes and slimes and blobs. Losing Nasty creatures of Dungeons and dragons, and yeah, they oppose each other. They're a constant war with each other and in some. Campaigns like their forces, and even their their embodied forms do battle with one another and it. It actually ties in a bit with the subject. We're talking about today of penicillin. Penicillin the fungus that fights. I don't know. Would you call diseases slimes? Well I feel like jubilee, being the Demon Lord of uses and slimes kind of makes it the the demon Lord of of microbiology, as well and microbes and and microbial illnesses. So okay we'll so today we're going to be talking about. Penicillin may be one of the the great real weapons of Zog to Moi. Yes, but this this came up I think because we'd been talking about fungus on our other podcasts on stuff to blow your mind where we just finished recording a five part series on psychedelics yeah. Yeah looking at Fungal psychedelics ongoing research into how these substances could enhance our mental wellbeing and help in the treatment of psychological issues and one of our big take homes was that these fungi could help save lives and improve the quality of human life, but it would not be the first or only fungi to do so because we can certainly look to various interactions between human hell's the different fungal species and their use in traditional medicine. We can point to various products including products of fermentation for instance including alcohol. But, there's an even better example of better living through fungi in that's penicillin. Right so today we're going to briefly explore the invention of penicillin, which is often cited as. The first true antibiotic technology of course antibiotics are medications that treat infections by killing injuring or slowing the growth of bacteria in the body and antibiotics are a class of what you would generally call antimicrobial drugs medicines that kill microbes present a threat to the body of course, antibiotics generally fight bacterial infections, whereas you could have others like Antifungal 's that Fungal infections or antivirals that fight viral infections, no antimicrobials antibiotics are gigantic subject area that we're. We're of course not going to be able to get into every nook and cranny of the subjects, but we hope we could have a an interesting introductory introductory discussion. Maybe come back to antibiotics sometime again in the future because it's it's a broad invention that has lots of little invention tributaries throughout history. Yeah, but it is such a fascinating case to look at and I think should make for a great episode of invention here because. For starters it's it's a twentieth century invention. Slash discovery off, and of course, the line between invention and discovery is a little bit gray. But. We we can pinpoint it to nineteen twenty eight, and ultimately like rolled out by nineteen forty or so. That we can, we can look to it. We can look at the world before and we can look at the world after with with the sort of clarity that we don't always have with certainly the older or more ancient inventions, exactly because we always like to ask the question on the show what came before the invention what what changed when this invention came on the scene and what came before widespread modern antibiotics was stupendous amounts of death and misery from infectious disease in blood poisoning. I I was wondering like. Is it even possible? To to get stats on WHAT THE WORLD OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE! Look like before we had antibiotics mid twentieth century. Yeah, I mean to a certain extent. A lot of the suffering is just incalculable. Especially, if you go back and sort of consider all of human history up to that point in the various factors that that influenced infectious disease injury, you know the eventually the rise of germ theory, but also this things like the rise of cities and so forth, but but luckily yes, it was such a reason invention. We have some pretty incredible stats on the matter. Suddenly. Thanks to this new miracle. Drug Diseases that simply ravaged the global population like syphilis could be cured. The shadow of lethal infection no longer hung at least as heavily over every scrape, injury and war wound, and with wounds were often talking about Sepsis, which is a term that was used a by hippocrates back in the fourth century, BC meaning, blood, Rod, or blood poisoning, and he was referring more in generally I, think to decay, but the term came to be applied to blood poisoning, which arises when the body's response to infection causes because injury to its own tissue and organs. But just prior to the twentieth century, infectious diseases accounted for high morbidity and mortality rates around the world, even in the industrialized world, according to w. a. g. in the treasure called antibiotics from two thousand sixteen, the average life expectancy at birth was forty seven years..

penicillin Penicillin Robert zagged Moi Lamb Sepsis McCormack w. a. g. BC Rod
"zagged moi" Discussed on Invention

Invention

10:42 min | 1 year ago

"zagged moi" Discussed on Invention

"So we often don't don't do a lot of what if on invention doubt. I thought we. We can't do certain extent but I mean a lot of times. It's harder case to be made like what if this had not been invention or discovered because in most cases you can you. Can you can look at the data you can look at other individuals where like if the Wright brothers had not invented the airplane not created that That FIRST PROTOTYPE. That release showed what was possible like clearly there were. There were other individuals in the world. Working on this someone would have cracked it. If if front getting had not discovered x rays in eighteen ninety one whatever year it was somebody else would have discovered them pretty soon right but when it comes to penicillin Potentially gets a little more complicated than that. I ran across a cool article on the topic. Titled What He Fleming had not discovered penicillin and this was published in the Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences by al-Harbi at all the authors. Admit that that certainly. Fleming had made the discovery someone else might have in the years to follow probably in the early nineteen forties. They they estimate so we could still well have have arrived in the antibacterial age however they also explore the possibility that we might have simply not made the discovery at all. Well it's an interesting argument so I WANNA. I WanNa read a quote from the paper here. Quote of course penicillin could have been discovered the day after Fleming missed the opportunity but in reality there was no parallel discovery. That took place as a result. Anyone taking an interest in penicillin during the nineteen thirties did so in the knowledge of Fleming's work in particular. The seems no reason to believe that. Flory and chain would have discovered penicillin since their work depended on Fleming's famous paper and their access to one of his penicillin producing cultures. Okay so that's referring to the thing I mentioned about how Fleming in his assistance. Were just like sharing the penicillin. Strain out with everybody like. Hey can you figure out what's going on with this? Can you isolate secretion or the compound in the station? Yeah so think about that. There was there was so far as these. Researchers can determine no other effort out there that would have struck Peter. In the absence of Fleming's research the Oxford Group would have been looking for it Selman Walkman. The father of modern antibiotics sometimes called as we made several key. Discoveries later was also inspired by Fleming So it's yeah it's one of these cases where like. He seems to be the epicenter. Not only him. But just the the the the these seemingly chance encounter in his lab that day That that We're suddenly this halo appears in the Petri dish and that gives birth to a to a whole class of other discoveries right because not all Antibiotics are derived from penicillin penicillin. Class of antibiotics become sort of like one sort of grandfather class but then there are all these other classes that are discovered during this golden age of Antibiotics. The takes place over the next few decades. Yeah and there are various. Just additional medical breakthroughs. That would not have occurred without penicillin such as organ transplant. But then there's also the question like what would what would have happened in the wider world because again penicillin comes online during the second world. War and So you can easily ask what would have happened if allied troops had not benefited from access to antibiotics at D Day. I've never thought about that. In fact I before looking at this episode I probably would not have known the answer to whether or not. They had access antibiotics well. Penicillin production was actually swiftly. Scaled up Just to make sure that allied soldiers had access to at D Day. Well so there's a legitimate question to be asked might. The allies not have won the Second World War without penicillin. I think there are a lot of factors to consider there. I don't think there is quite a Gotcha question. But it's it's worth thinking about the authors argue that without flemming's discovery would have had to depend on the SOFA drugs. You know an imperfect native to to antibiotics in these You know these were described in the nineteen thirties and Fleming worked with him prior to his discovery but without penicillin in play the authors argue that sulfur drugs might have become the standard and even push the discovery of true antibiotics well beyond the nineteen sixties and this is also true of the Axis powers had risen in victorious in World War because they're the access powers depended on sulfur drugs and their their key treatment. They do point out. The you know quote. Despite the fact that the Germans and their allies where considerable the sulfur drugs did a relatively good job at reducing battle casualties so not to just completely You know cast aside the effectiveness of soft drugs but still. They're not as effective as true. Antibiotics it's weird to think about the political implications of specific medical technologies. Yeah and then when you get down to the curious cases of individuals it also gets interesting. Where he touched on presidents who died that would have lived potentially if there had been penicillin around right and so they point out that That Sotho drugs saved Churchill's life in nineteen forty three when he was suffering from pneumonia. I as well as FDR's life but there's also evidence by the way that actual penicillin may have saved Hitler's life following the Stauffenberg assassination attempt of July twentieth nineteen forty four. This was the plot that tried to kill Hitler with a briefcase bomb right like where the some of the officers conspired against him and they put a briefcase bomb in the room with him and it did explode but he was protected by like a heavy table that prevented from killing him. He was obviously injured. I think he had like nerve damage after I'd so the idea here is that perhaps his injuries were treated by by penicillin. Yeah that's at least. An argument has been made that they had access to penicillin I'm unclear on how they would have obtained it. You know maybe there's a spy story there. I don't know but the idea being well if he had it had didn't have access to Penicillin. Then perhaps he would have died and that would have arguably ended the war. You know in a different manner forcing us to re imagine an entirely different postwar world so again playing with with what if series and in also we minor standings. We don't know for sure that Hitler had accessed penicillin following that assassination attempt but there is the overall scenario of the allies having penicillin and having this ramped up penicillin production leading into D day. Yeah that is really interesting. I never contemplated that before Now something that I we do often have to think about. We should probably acknowledged at the end here before we move on. Maybe this'll be something to come back and do in the future with a recent invention episode is the idea of a possible end of the antibiotics age. I mean this is a kind of a scary thing to imagine like what if the antibiotics age is essentially a period in history. That has a beginning an end. Because as we. You've you've probably heard about this. Many disease causing bacteria and other disease causing microbes are over time evolving Antibiotic Resistance are evolving to powerful enough to survive are antimicrobial drugs and I think specifically one thing that's exacerbating this is overuse of antibiotics and people not taking the entire course of antibiotics when they're giving them. Yeah because Again to come back to the Zagged Moi Jubilee War a scenario you know it is an ongoing battle and the the forces evolve to better deal with the threats on each side. Yeah and so You know we're we're we're we're seeing this occur we're seeing the overuse of antibiotics producing strains that are that are resistant. And it's reversing some of the therapeutic miracles of the last fifty years and underscores the importance of disease prevention in addition to treatment and that means not not abandoning some of our other vital tools for human health like vaccination. Oh Yeah we should come back and revisit vaccination yes or maybe even various different vaccinations in the future. Yeah another thing to keep in mind that I don't think we've mentioned earlier. That the nineteen forties through the nineteen seventies are are considered the golden age of Antibiotic Research. Yeah and we haven't seen we haven't seen any new classes of antibiotics emerged. Since that time period right now there have been new developments in antibiotics. But I think the way I've read it is that they're generally modifications on existing classes of antibiotics. Sorta like we. We haven't we haven't found anything radically new since then basically you. We reached out into the natural war between Between Fungi and microbial legions and we stole some of the tools we stole some of that prometheus fire We keep adapting that fire to our own purposes. But we haven't we haven't found any new weapon from that world and And then their ongoing war continues to change. I'd be interested Do you out there you the listener dee work in medical research or are you working on areas involved in antibiotic resistance the future of anti-microbials? I please get in touch with us. I would like to hear about that. What what are you doing in your work? And what does the future look like to you on the inside absolutely we would. We would love to hear from you again. We've only scratched the surface here though. Thanks to antibiotics. Hopefully that scratch will not life threatening infection but yeah there's a lot more history here but but hopefully what we've done here. Today is of course highlight just a very very cool story from the history of inventions and discoveries in human history and outlined the impact of of one of the greatest inventions or discoveries. Again however you want to classify it from the twentieth century. Yeah totally in the meantime. If you want to check out other episodes of invention you can check out our homepage. Invention POD DOT COM and. That'll have all the episode right there if you want to support the show and we would appreciate it. If did sports show. There are few simple things you can do. Tell friends about it. You know. Tell Tell Your family members about invention and then if you have the ability to do so rate in reviews wherever you got this podcast huge. Thanks as always to our excellent Audio Maya Coal. If you'd like to get in touch with us to.

penicillin Fleming D Day Hitler Wright Saudi Journal of Biological Sc Oxford Group FDR Peter flemming Selman Flory Antibiotic Research pneumonia Churchill Stauffenberg
"zagged moi" Discussed on Invention

Invention

11:58 min | 1 year ago

"zagged moi" Discussed on Invention

"Name is Robert Lamb. And I'm Joe McCormick and we are bringing you a classic episode of Invention Today. This is an episode on penicillin that originally published July Fifteenth Two Thousand Nineteen. Yes a fungal accident. In the early twentieth century that opened the door for the Medical Wonders of the Antibiotic Age. So yeah this was a pretty fun one and an important one so we'll just dive right in. Welcome to invention a production of iheartradio. Hey Welcome to invention. My name is Robert Lamb. And I'm Joe McCormick and Robert I know you WanNa talk about. Dnd before we get to the real subject well. I don't know I was thinking about doing. It lasts but we can go ahead and talk about it up front. Yeah we'll in dungeons and dragons various Demon Lords And they rule over various portions of the of the fiend population in the game and there are two demon lords in particular that I was thinking about in regards to today's episode And that that would be boy and jubilo x. So zagged Moi is the the demon Lord of Fungi. The Queen of fungi the master of decay and then opposing her Ever at odds with their is jubilee the faceless Lord which is a god of loses and slimes and blobs all the losing nasty creatures of Dungeons and dragons and there. They oppose each other. There are constant war with each other and in some campaigns like their forces. And even there there you know in bodied forms do battle with one another and it. It actually ties in a bit with this subject. We're talking about today of penicillin. Okay so penicillin. The fungus that fights. I don't know. Would you call diseases slimes a well? I feel like jubilee. Being the demon Lord of uses in slimes kind of makes it the the Demon Lord of of microbiology as well and You know Mike Groves and And microbial illnesses so okay. We'll so today we're going to be talking about penicillin. I guess maybe one of the Great Real Weapons of Soaked Moi yes But this this came up. I think because we'd been talking about fungus on our other podcasts. On stuff to blow your mind where we just finished recording a five part series on psychedelics. Yeah yeah looking at Fungal psychedelics and ongoing research into how these substances could enhance our mental wellbeing and helping the treatment of psychological issues and one of our big take home was these guy could help save lives and improve the quality of human life but it would not be the first or only fungi to do so because we can certainly look to. Various interactions between human. Hell's the different fungal species. In their use in traditional medicine we can point to various products include products of fermentation for instance including alcohol. But there's an even better example of better living through fungi in that's penicillin right so today we're going to briefly explored the invention of penicillin which is often cited as the first true antibiotic technology. Of course antibiotics are medications that treat infections by killing injuring or slowing the growth of bacteria in the body. Antibiotics are a class of what you would generally call antimicrobial drugs. Medicines that kill microbes that present a threat to the body of course antibiotics generally fight bacterial infections whereas you could have others like Antifungal. 's THAT FIGHT. Fungal infections or antivirals that fight viral infections now. Antimicrobials and antibiotics are gigantic subject. Area that we're of course not going to be able to get into every nook and cranny of the subjects but we hope we could have An interesting introductory introductory discussion. Maybe come back to antibiotics sometime again in the future. Because it's a it's a broad invention that has lots of little invention tributaries throughout history but it is such a fascinating case to look at and I think should make for a great episode of invention here because for starters it's it's a twentieth century Inventions slash discovery off. Of course the line between innovation. Discovery is a little bit gray But we can. We can pinpoint the nineteen twenty eight and ultimately like rolled out by nineteen forty or so But so we can. We can look to it. We can look at the world before we can look at the world after with sort of clarity that we don't always have with certain late older or more ancient invention exactly because we always like to ask the question on the show what came before the invention what what changed when this invention came on the scene And what became before widespread? Modern antibiotics was stupendous amounts of death and misery from infectious disease. In blood poisoning. I I was wondering like is it even possible to get stats on what the world of infectious disease looked like before we had antibiotics around the mid twentieth century. Yeah I mean to a certain extent of the suffering is just incalculable Especially if you go back and sort of consider all of human history up to that point in the various factors that that influenced Infectious Disease and injury eventually the rise of germ theory but also things like the rise of cities and so forth but but luckily yes. Since it was such a a reason invention we have some pretty incredible stats on the matter. Suddenly thanks to this new Miracle Drug Diseases. It simply ravaged. The global population like syphilis could be cured. The shadow of lethal infection. No longer hung least as heavily over every scrape injury and war wound and with wounds. Where often talking about sepsis which is a term that was used by hippocrates back in the fourth century BC meaning blood rod or blood poisoning and he was referring more generally I think to decay but the term came to be applied to blood poisoning which arises when the body's response to infection causes causes injury to its own tissue and organs but just prior to the twentieth century infectious diseases accounted for high morbidity and mortality rates around the world even in the industrialized world according to w a Adedeji in the treasurer called antibiotics from two thousand sixteen. The average life expectancy at birth was forty seven years forty six and forty eight years for men and women respectively and this was due to the dangerous smallpox cholera diphtheria pneumonia typhoid fever plague tuberculosis typhus syphilis and a host of other ailments that could Affleck and endearingly antibiotic era They follow again arising in the middle of the twentieth century. The leading cause of death in the United States change from communicable diseases to noncommunicable diseases like Carter cardiovascular disease cancer and stroke and the average life expectancy at birth rose to seventy eight point eight years so the elderly were no longer a mere four percent of the population. But grow to become a whopping thirteen percent of the population. So we're talking about profound changes distant demographics based on this new this new invention. Yeah the changes huge. I mean we live in a world. Now where if you have access to high quality. Modern medicine and a lot of people don't mind but if you have access to high-quality modern science based medicine and you can get antibiotics and And get to a hospital or see a doctor. You very likely have a good chance to beat most of the Common Infectious Diseases. That that people get unless you have some kind of you know like another condition that exacerbates it or something. Before antibiotics. This was just not the people just died from diseases that you catch like diseases that are common for people to catch all the time. Yeah or you had certain diseases like syphilis. That were virtually uncurable. Yeah you know. And and some of the. The cures that were attempted were pretty horrendous. And had an generally did not work. You know talking about using mercury and so forth And you mentioned before contamination of wounds. I mean just a huge thing just like a you know you might You might cut yourself all gardening and you die from it. Yeah Heaven Forbid you undergo a say medieval Gallstone surgery or something like that. Yeah a by the way I think. Turkey loaf has you know is a good example to look at for some of these stats as well according to the CDC TB was a leading cause of death in the US in nineteen forty prior to the roll out of antibiotic therapy in one thousand nine hundred one hundred ninety four of every one hundred thousand. Us residents died from deep tb most residents of urban areas in nineteen hundred the three leading causes of death in the US were pneumonia tuberculosis and diarrhea and interrupt us which together with Diptheria caused one third of all deaths and of these deaths forty percent were among children aged less than five years old. Now to your point in not everybody has access to Antibiotics that Say people enjoy in Europe and the United States? Yeah TB remains a the leading cause of death from an infectious disease in many parts of the world? Particularly the developing world and some antibiotic treatments are in about assisted treatments are more complicated and more difficult than others. I mean I know the treatment for TB is not as say easy is the round of just orally administered antibiotics that you might get for a standard bacterial infection right but it suddenly was just a heralded rightfully so is Is a miracle invention when it came about. I saw an image of a of a sign on a garbage can or mailbox from the Mid Twentieth Century Advertising. That now you can get gonorrhea cured in in like four hours and thanks to the you know these new developments in antibiotics You know it's just a a it can be difficult to put ourselves in that mindset having grown up in the wake of antibiotics or at least most of us most people listening to this show. I was just thinking about how many like. Us presidents died of infections of various kinds l. Yeah that that seems like it would be very unusual thing to happen now but like in the eighteen. Hundreds James Garfield got shot but it wasn't the initial gunshot that killed him. He lived for like two weeks afterwards. he got an infection in the wound. Think because they were digging around with dirty hands to try to get the bullet out of him and he and they didn't have antibiotics of course when he got an infection so he died. I think another a US. Was IT William Henry Harrison who? I think they think Dow died from probably like drinking fecal contaminated water in the White House. Yeah so many. Different Injuries and infections were just far more likely to be lethal with You know without modern antibiotics to step in and And aid in the fight. Now there were some things that were kinda versions of antibiotics or antimicrobials from before the discovery of Penicillin in nineteen twenty eight. The best example from the the period just immediate immediately prior to penicillin would be the Sultana miser the sulfur drugs in these. Were the first antibacterial to be used. Systematically they were synthesized in nineteen thirty two in the German laboratories of Bayer a G. Now you might be thinking about the time line like wait a minute. Didn't we just say that penicillin was discovered in twenty eight but it took a long time after the discovery of penicillin antibacterial properties for it to be made as a useful medical drive like it was nineteen forty generally. That's the date you see for went. Penicillin actually became an actionable thing in medicine..

penicillin Infectious Disease United States Robert Lamb Joe McCormick pneumonia Mid Twentieth Century Advertis Mike Groves Bayer zagged Moi William Henry Harrison Europe gonorrhea James Garfield Robert I typhus Dow White House treasurer
"zagged moi" Discussed on Invention

Invention

04:01 min | 1 year ago

"zagged moi" Discussed on Invention

"Hey Welcome to invention. My name is Robert Lamb and I'm Joe McCormack and Robert. I know you WanNa Talk About D._N._D.. Indeed before we get to the real subject well. I don't know I was thinking about doing it last but we can go ahead and talk about it up front yeah we'll in dungeons and dragons these various Demon Lords and uh they they rule over various portions of the of the fiend population in the game and their two demon lords in particular that I was thinking about in regards to today's episode <hes> and that that would be boy and Jubilee Eulex so zagged Moi is the demon Lord of fungi the Queen of fungi the master of decay and then opposing her ever at odds with their is jubilee the faceless as Lord which is a god of loses and slimes and blobs you know all the losing nasty creatures of Dungeons and dragons and yeah there they oppose each other their constant war with each other and in some campaigns like their forces and even they're they're in embodied forms do battle with one another and it it actually ties in a bit with this subject. We're talking about today of penicillin okay so penicillin the fungus that fights I don't know would you call diseases diseases slimes well I feel like jubilee being the Demon Lord of Oozes and slimes kind of makes it the the Demon Lord of of microbiology as well and <hes> you know microbes and <hes> and microbial illnesses so okay well so today we're going to be talking about penicillin. I guess maybe one of the the great real weapons of spoke to Moi yes <hes> but this this came up I think because we'd been talking about fungus on our other podcasts on stuff to blow your mind where we just finished recording a five part series on psychedelics yeah yeah looking at <hes> Fungal psychedelics and ongoing research into how these substances could enhance our mental wellbeing and helping the treatment of psychological issues and one of our big take home was these fungi could help save lives improve the quality of human life but it would not be the first or only fungi to do so because we can certainly look to various interactions between human. Hell's the different fungi species and their use in traditional medicine. We can point to various various products including <hes> products of fermentation for instance including alcohol but there's an even better example of better living through fungi in that's penicillin right so today we're going to briefly explore the invention of penicillin which is often cited as the first true antibiotic technology of course antibiotics are medications that treat infections by killing injuring or slowing the growth of bacteria in the body and antibiotics are a class of what you would generally call whole antimicrobial drugs medicines that kill microbes that presents a threat to the body of course antibiotics generally fight bacterial infections whereas you could have others like Antifungal that fight Fungal infections or antivirals that fight viral infections and now antimicrobials antibiotics are a gigantic subject area that we're of course not going to be able to get into every nook and cranny of the subjects but we hope we could have an interesting introductory introductory discussion may become back to antibiotics sometime sometime again in the future because it's it's a broad invention that has lots of little invention tributaries throughout history yeah but it is such a fascinating case to look at and I think should make for a great episode of invention here because for starters it's it's a twentieth century century invention slash discovery off and of course the line between invasion of discovery is a little bit gray but we we can pinpoint it to nineteen twenty eight and ultimately like rolled out by nineteen forty or so <hes> but we can we can look to it we can look at the world before we can look at the world after with with the sort of clarity that we don't always have with <hes> certainly <hes> older or more ancient inventions exactly because we always like to ask.

penicillin Robert Lamb zagged Moi Jubilee Eulex Joe McCormack