20 Episode results for "university of florida"
"This merriam webster's word of the day for july eight today's word is metastasis spelled m e t t h e s i s metastasis this is a now that means eight change of place or conditions such as transposition of two phonemes in a word or a chemical reaction in which different kinds of molecules exchange parts to form other kinds of molecules here's the word used in a sentence from the independent florida alligator from the university of florida by jordan mackenzie axe an ask both derive from one bourbon old english that featured the same transposition of sounds end gave rise to to equally valid pronunciations ascii in an axiom in linguistic terminology this transposition or swapping of sounds is called metastasis one familiar example example of metastasis is english word thrill t h r i l l which was fairly in in old english end fairlane in middle english by the late sixteenth century native english speakers had switched the placement of they are to form thrill another example is alteration of kurd into cried he earliest sensitive which was unsurprisingly kurd it probably won't surprise you to learn that the origin of metastasis lies in the idea of transposition
216 - Invasive Species
"Monster? House. Percents. Wants to talk is an independent podcast production. Of Monster House LLC, you can show your support by subscribing to our AD free extended episodes. That patriot dot com forward slash monster talk we want to grow monster talk audience and the easiest way to accomplish status for listeners to leave his five star reviews on itunes. Positive reviews have a huge impact not only take a moment. Invasive species have been a staple of horror for a long time in a sense of vampire often comes into community is like an invasive species slowly expanding its influence growing is legions of followers sometimes exponentially. The nineteen sixty two film day of the trip is loosely based on the novel by John Wyndham can follows what happens in England when the country's invaded by carnivorous plants. But these scenarios, new species coming into our ecosystems and wreaking. Havoc. Are? Not. All science fiction unfortunately there are often Poor. Perhaps no country in the world better exemplifies this than Australia. For Variety of unfortunately misguided schemes to use imported animals to various purposes have left the native fauna and flora overwhelmed by unchecked populations of foxes, rabbits, and the subject of today's episode enormous poisonous toads. Quite unlike anything we've ever seen before. Giant Very Locke. Ness. A twenty four mile. Long bottomless. Lake. Highlands. If the creature known as the Loch. Ness Monster. More stir doll. Welcome to monster talk the science show about monsters I'm Blake Smith and I'm Karen Stalls ner. Today, we're to be talking with Dr Steven Johnson of the University of Florida about the invasive species known as the cane toad. There were frighteningly resilient species of toad that breeds aggressively in excretes toxic fluid from Zitli glands on their back. You can check the show those pictures while they're definitely more harmful than a mere nuisance. I can't help but be impressed with their astonishing biological arsenal. Well I say that now. But Australia isn't the only country they've invaded and it may not be long until they joined the fire ants the Armadillo in the coyote species that have all showed up unexpectedly in my home state during my lifetime. Special. Thanks to Karen Stolz. No for putting this interview together. We hope you enjoy it more doll. All right. Welcome. The Monster Talk Steven Johnson Stephen is an associate professor in the Department of Wildlife Ecology and conservation at the University of Florida. Now, that's in Florida right Would Be Gainesville Florida North Central Florida. Okay Yeah. I've been through Gainesville many times and for the show Stacey. Sharp hails from there. And In the northern central part not too far from the state line or Orlando about a two hour drive. If you drive eighty miles an hour stephen I watched a documentary on cane toads, a couple of scarves and having grown up in Australia I'm very familiar with cane toads in the problem become in some parts of the country. So for quite some time, we've been wanting to do an episode on King tides and when I googled cane toads you came up. Your your lab at the University of Florida. So maybe if you could begin by telling us a little bit about the Johnson Laboratory at. The University of Florida. Yeah. So So I'm a native Floridian I've been in Florida pretty much all my life with a few exceptions it four as a matter of fact, Sabbatical Australia a number of years ago but My students and I do like teaching outreach in the research is conducted through collaborators, my students and. Students frequently studied native and invasive species and these ranch from things from rhesus macaque monkeys to Cuban tree frogs which are native to the Caribbean and are introduced and invasive in Florida as well as the the cane toad, which is not a Florida, not maybe toss dry and it's invasive in both places. I actually had a post doc from Australia who was here up until a couple of months ago, and we've found a lot of new information on King's toads in Florida that. Is Different From what what has been found in Australia in some regards also similars of. Just. Have a lot of interest in non native species and teaching people about them and A. Cane toads, kind of near and dear to my heart that are little monsters. I'm very fond of, but it's a love hate relationship I'm sure. Sabbatical in Australia's. Out Sabbatical. That is yes. Nine months off and I went to Australia to learn about their incredible. There, they don't have any native toads in Australia, which is probably why McCain also many issues. That's weird. Though why did they have any native influence at all? They've got tomato frog. So there's three. VAMP had been. There are the frogs of the neurons there the salamanders or the euro deals as they're sometimes called and then Sicilians. against. When Jess is on the line. which are this sort of worm lied along gate slender snake licking type of Amphibian and Australia only has frogs whereas here in Florida North America we have frogs and Salamanders, and then if you go to the tropics like let's go down Brazil. You'd have Sicilians and frogs and salamanders but so but but even though they have frogs, there's no native toads in in the family that became tote is in in Australia and that's probably why they is such an issue there and they have been a male for the ozzy unfortunately. Oh, absolutely. Yes. So I'm sure we'll get a lot into that tonight bought. How did you get an interesting tides to begin with? Well my interest the. Turtles as a kid I love biology and you know going up went to. Undergraduate Graduate School PhD working. With Sea Turtles. Initially than a salamander and I was working for the IT Aaron Florida for the US Geological Survey as a research wildlife biologist and I was working on the Amphibian Research and monitoring initiative arm I which is a federal program to study and monitor amphibian populations throughout the US mainly on public land and I was getting emails from. From friends and colleagues at the University of Florida where I've got my PhD about Cuban tree frogs and sort of that piqued my interest and so i. Sort of delve into there, and that was my entrance into working with non native. An invasive species amid the Cuban tree frog is it's a monster in flora little monster in its own right and that sorta led to other things and eventually no cane toads came on my radar and I became interested because I was getting emails and calls from people who were having problems with cane toads and I thought well, I need to I need to address from a from a research teaching and outreach perspective. Great Perfect this episode I know we've talked a lot about biology on over the decade. We've done this show and one of the things that I find really interesting is the distinctions the humans try to do to put animals into groups. So we talk a lot about the follow genetics and how the taxonomy and those sort of classifications. But toads and frogs like I grew up learning the basic distinction but I'm not so sure there is the distinction that I think there is can you talk about the current thinking around the difference between a toad and frog? Hi this and this comes up a lot when you're right we. As humans and as biologists I think we like to compartmentalize things and organize them in a in a framework that we can understand and people often say, oh, we're know they talk about toads and frogs or salamanders and newts example but the bottom line is is a toad is just a specific type of frog. All toads are frogs but not all frogs toads just like newt is a specific type of salamander. All new are salamanders but not all salamanders are nudes. So toads in general at least the ones that we have in Florida North America tend to be stout bodied terrestrial. Drier skin than you know than some other than than other frogs, even though they will dry out and desiccated if they're in the really dry conditions and their warranty and. Painted has these big paranoid glance. All veterans had very glandular skin but the bottom line is when you talk about it towed, it's just a particular type of a particular type of frog would probably exiled questions like that. Yes. We should've should've warned you. Got A FROGGER FROG got A. Job, for you later if you'll indulge me so yes, absolutely you're entitled to whatever you need to do. So, could we stop with some of the basics about canines? Maybe some information about their biology with a from. Short. So their their native to central South America? In down into Brazil, the actually do get into the United States in theory extreme southern Texas they like they need to be near water like many many frogs they lay eggs in like Tuchman toes they lay eggs and long string strings, and they have a free living, aquatic tadpole stage and the mail. The mail calls to attract females like in many frogs although there are some. There's some frogs I mentioned that had a tadpole. There are some frogs that lay their eggs terrestrially and there is no tadpole stage but like the sort of standard frog frog. Think about. They have tadpoles that had to develop water. Interestingly enough unlike many frogs, the Kato. The history, they eggs, the tadpoles, juvenile's, and the adults are all toxic adults are the most toxic They tend to be more terrestrial though burrow down with the rear feet. They're generalist Predator feeding on all kinds of invertebrates although a big Kim is eat could easily take a small vertebrate like a like a small mouth or a small snake. There like all frogs they have beautiful eyes. If you've never gazed into the eyes of a before, I would encourage you to do that look into my eyes. So. Severe redeeming feature. They do have beautiful eyes like most other frogs but. They may have their native range like I said a very broad native range that they're. They caused no problems but they've been introduced to become invasive many places they like to they. They're they're spurred to read. It's at least in in Florida Austrailia to when it's warmer and it's wet out because as amphibians they have permeable skin and they'll lose moisture if it's too dry out. A. Little bit about their their their their biology. Will now, my understanding is that they're also toxic. They have. So toads in the family on Ity. This does the family that king is going back to the file genetics or the our how we compartmentalize organisms to to to understand hopefully how they're related. That's that's why we you know we we put them in groups, and so any any towed or any fraud in the same family, we would presume evolutionary speaking is is more closely related them one dies in a different family and one's in the same scientific genus. So every you know every organism. On the planet follows the classification that was developed Well over one hundred, maybe two hundred years ago by the scientist. Lemay And they'll have a genus species and so the genus part of name during the same genus, they're more closely related. We hope evolutionary evolutionary speaking. So there in the family who fond a day and a half, these large particularly, canes have these really large glands on their shoulders called parathyroid glands, and it's this large Glam that an accumulation of a bunch of poison ducks and if that land is put under pressure, it will literally scored out like like literally you're popping as it. Back under pressure on this very viscous thick booth Oh toxin will actually squirt. Is. The poison that's the poison yields that this? That's this little monsters it's it's weapon than in a big issue is if a if a an animal like a dog here in Florida or Australia many of the native mammals that they bite a toad? And it squirts that thick viscous talks amount that can that can spell trouble for the animal that's been at impossibly sometimes caused death. Even to humans in some cases. Humans. I don't know the details server from what I've seen. You mentioned the there's two these came into Dr Documentaries and I've seen one and it's you know it's pretty campy and sort of cultish. But the information by largest correct and I heard that it can cause temporary blindness and actually cause hallucinations and I believe in Queensland Australia State Aucoin came to talks Toxin this considered a controlled substance even or it was at one time I was wondering about that and some people do there are toads that people look for listening to genetic effect but also I was curious about is it toxic to your skin or does it have to be ingested obviously if it gets in your eyes and it sounds like a bad. Yes. So it's a poison rather than then on so i. Like a venomous snake bites you and injects Ben a Bee stings you and injects event. The toads are not venomous their poisonous. By that also they're toxic. So. You want to avoid your pet, your dog encountering they came to whether you're in Australia or Florida or wherever they already, that can be a bad thing. But yet so they're poisonous or they're toxic to a to a pack that ingests it. And the toad that that Glen that her toy line has to be under pressure to score down although a stress towed consorted Uis that. But unless you unless that, that gland is under pressure, they can't squirt it so. You don't have to worry about a cane toad hopping up to you and sort of you know rearing up on its reelection, squirting you in the eye with its with its. With. Its poison that can't do that but it will lose out and it's mainly again if it's under pressure and it can work in a you know several feet I made the mistake of squeezing expressing attack cane toad gland at that talk one time I was getting on. Florida and the people in front row. I was like Whoa that win a lot further than I thought. I'm certain needless to say I did not do that again. So we having made of Toad here in Florida called a southern toad that also has these clans and after handling a bunch of then one night knowing they were getting their their paranoid gland talks I tasted just out of curiosity it was quite quite bit I didn't see. Rainbow. Effects I. DIDN'T I didn't. Off of it but I I, we you know scientific curiosity. So I gave it taste bitter and I assume a Predator with taste that bitterness as well. Good on you for trying. He's Here in Australia that crows not they're. The candidates have this is poison on their backs and they flip them over and eat billy's instead crows. Is same thing here or there are certain animals that know how to deal with them but flip them over go through the underbelly you know you can avoid those big toxic glands virtually up. So you've already mentioned that. have come to be invasive species in Florida and Australia I. Guess we should talk about a few of these examples I think the case. In Australia, is particularly interesting. Can you tell us a little bit about that? I, let me back up in so. We used the term invasive species and always like to define that because different. Concepts in their mind. So by the loosely, the definition I follow is an invasive species is a species of animal and it's it's geographically you gotta put it into context because in their native range cane toads are not in basit their native. But in their introduced range or they had been moved to by people either accidentally on purpose and in Florida both cases was on purpose particular floor Australia particularly Australia they wrench reduced their on purpose with the you the concept that they would control the sugar cane grubs did not. Introduce this came to this total Austrailia. Native Ostra it was brought there by people and then invasive species is one that's introduced outside its native range either intentionally or unintentionally by people where does or has certainly has the potential to cause negative environmental. Impacts have negative impacts on the economy where it's been introduced or and or have negative impacts on human welfare and human quality of life. And certainly in Australia it has had major. Environmental Impacts. AUSE, local declines of species such as qualls, which is this really fabulous small cap like Marsupial as well as declines of some. Crocodiles freshwater crocodiles as well as awesome. Of Australia's frog eating snakes. It's had negative economic impacts on Australia's well because there's been a lot of money spent on studying the toes doing research to try to figure out how they can be trapped and removed also doing research to understand about them and no doubt of Ted. Negative. Impacts on human quality of life when when Ozzy's have a dog that attacks want a pet dog that either has to incur a cost to the veterinary or dog guys. That's a major negative impact on you in Florida it's more of a socio-economic thing the my. View now. That might change as time passes, but they don't really invade Bush lines or natural areas so much in Florida as they do. Australia. But in Australia so they were brought in and the third is to control ABS brought from Australia released several sites in Queensland absence just spread all over the place and they really really interesting study species for gaming Dr Rick Shine students have published probably hundreds of papers on Kane Toes, and they've looked. Evolution impacts all kinds of really interesting studies that is. About, that's a little bit of silver mining they extorted. An unintended. Monster Natural Experiment in Australia. and. What's the population like? Do you have any idea because I think originally, they just re released a few of them they and then they thought they had some success initially and then they released. Fifty thousand or sixty, thousand and nowadays I've no idea how many of their I think what it was for animals that were brought over by back in the thirties we weren't as global economy has brought over by ship from Hawaii, and then released at several places in Queensland. One, there's a site south of south of cans, which is very or people will pronounce it canyons because that's helped the the folks from the US at least because that's not say cans. Canton Gordon Gordon Veil, and there's actually a small park there. I'd been to a number times with with my students study abroad, and there's a euro talking about the story, the cane toad. But so they were introduced and and several other places and those original toge just they're. They're very prolific. So large female might lay thirty thousand eggs at one. End. All if if if a good portion of tadpole survive, that's a huge bump in the population and then nate read you know and so on and they just expand in the canes in Australia and Australia's about the size of the continental us. In spur if you know the US, you know you think about it. Okay. They would've been introduced around North Carolina north of North. Carolina that's roughly if you superimpose Australia over the United States but but they would have spread literally as far across the Dakotas if you thinking Australia's the US and almost as far south as Georgia in the US and Australia that's way over across the top end and. The Northern Territory into Western Australia and then had. Far, south south of Brisbane down towards Sydney, and there's an invasion where the toads move very rapidly and they have then they hopped farther they hop faster they have they have a body style vets more adapted through evolution to dispersing than animals and that more established areas. So it's been a really really interesting yet sad situation in Australia from a scientific standpoint, extremely extremely interesting and and. And the subject of a lot of research but also the major impacts on that unique Australian fauna that is just been plagued by feral invasive species. Be They Fox's or cats, and then came to so there such a problem there. I'm glad they're not as big of an issue here in. Florida. Right now, but there's still a concern. There's still a concern for US Nobel. Statistically. To get those numbers, do they have to do a lot of Ted pulling? A lot of work tadpole growing. Yes. Animals I don't think anyone can can answer that question how many are there in Australia? Millions if not billions and then you here in Florida. And it's it's so difficult. People say well, Hammadi are there. It's so difficult to answer that he sure sure. Sorry. This is just It's just a typical challenge. No. Census, how many people are there in the US any cane toad since? US All your senses to get the answers. Exactly. On People's doors, they how many? have living in your yard. Exactly. Legally, legally. He Keeps As they would say in Australia. Florida also having some big problems with the. Burmese pythons, right. I mean they're. Interesting problems. I mean, it's interesting parallel I guess a lot of ways what's going on and tells Julia. Is. The global epicenter of introductions a purpose? Meaning reptiles mainly reptiles. The cane toad is one of the only about half a dozen of established and breeding species a fraud that we have got about three times as many introduced, non native established breeding species of lizards in Florida. As we do native species of lizards in Florida we've got Burmese pythons we've got Telugu Lizards and a and and we've got no lion fish off our coast. In the keys yeah. All these kinds of things and a lot of it you know with the with the Kaneohe, the invasion pathway was intentional introduction for biological control. But the more recently, it's be the pet industry the pet trade importing animals for the pet trade is something. Florida and the US really needs to crack down on the Australians. Do a great job of that. They don't allow you to bring. But they've learned from their mistakes of the past we have. You'd mentioned that cane toads are dangerous to crocodiles and snakes in Australia, and I'm just wondering how does that work? How's that possible? I thought that it'd be the other way around. Yeah. It's just that you know. So Australia Australia is such an awesome place Austrailia was part of when the. Back in the day, you know millions of years ago the as best we can tell all of the terrestrial continents were together in a big supercontinent called Panja. So right now we need to re in a metaphorical since we need we need to reunite tangent we need to bring everyone from the world the realize, hey, we're on one planet. We're one people we happen to solve our problems together but I digress so Panji broke up and there was. Some northern continents and there was the southern continents in the southern continents were part of this big landmass called Gondwana and Australia broke off from Gondwana from South America, and even Antarctica in it drifted alone in splendid isolation for millions of years and as it did when it when it broke off, it took a sub sample of the Gondwana Fon with it, and then you had a lot of unique abolution every history of mammals there. That's why you had. The marsupials become so diverse and you have the the monitoring that are there, Gondwana and Australia New Zealand in no nowhere else in Washington say north of there in Papua New Guinea and so Have this in Australia that did not evolve with a toxic prey item like the Kaneohe and therefore you go go how cane toad kill a snake large snake. Oil is because those nick of animals in Australia have not come to recognize the cane toad is toxic and they don't have is Yala G to be able to deal with that toxin whereas I think one of the reasons in Florida why hasn't been as you are possibly is that a lot of our native mammals. Native reptiles. Were closer related native species and either no to avoid them or they have evolved the physiological mechanisms to deal with their talks and so that's that's that's my best guess as to. Why they can kill pocket. That's that's really interesting. So we've talked about how? Can Learn to flip the toads to avoid the. Crows and Jays they're smart young. But but other animals if I understand what you're saying, they have a couple of vectors towards dealing with this one would be to develop toxicity resistance right and that would be a slow change over time clearly some natural selection at play. But the other one would be. To figure out as a species, how to recognize and I like how to recognize the toads as toxic and avoid them, and that seems like that would also. Be something like if the animals don't have the mental facility to communicate to each other like some of these birds do how is that something that is also naturally selected for a preference against I think it is and I I recall reading some research and Australia, and then the the odds are. They're incredibly resourceful and creative people. I'm pretty sure I've seen in the literature where there's been some sort of version train to try to teach some Australian animals can capture situation but maybe even extending this and you guys could probably you know do some Google searching the literature and see but but actually doing this maybe with wild animals and there's been some evidence to show that that populations of of Australian animals encountered Caja General, you'll have the number of more aggressive other. For the selection ticker, you gotTa have a lot of individual variation. attack. Just full on might die. But then once that myrtle more sheepish, they might have a bad experience but not die and learn to avoid them and so that kind of evolution I believe is occurring on a believed Australia actually using that to their advantage to try to sort of training view well, some of the native fauna to avoid the toads. IDEA ABOUT PATACA I grew up in Sydney and I never sold one that the whole time that I was there But my mother lives in Queensland on the Sunshine Coast and I, mean you see them everywhere often uc desiccated ones around occasionally you'll see a live one and they do. It they much bigger than they are physically there I i. don't know if you've I'm sure you've encountered the in the wild, but they really aggressive and they like to boat themselves up into challenge you I mean their main boss. Out there little monsters. You know if they're if they're if you pick one up, it will swell. and. That's a standard in her frogger toting to make yourself be larger to. To approach here but I've seen I've seen lots of lots of them in. Australia. I've been traveling around you know under lights or caravan or RV parks you know are just hopping around in the yards. Folks that I've friends that I stayed with. Them, they seen them in Hawaii as well as the first the first name Vivian Native Fittings in the Lai. But first thing I saw a Wasserman living standpoint was a cane toad a fortunately, we don't have up here in Gainesville Florida yet, but they're from about Orlando Central Florida you know South and a and people are learning more and more about them because here in Florida, they seem to really do their best in human. Modified environments whereas in Australia they'll do good in in in a suburban areas as well in the butch now they'll they need they need water sources. So there's research step suggests that because Australia's up very aired country. So the troughs or the tanks are basically the holes in the ground that the Ozzy's dig too for for water for the cattle has facilitated the movement of of Cane Toads Australia so there it's the same as. Humans have modified the environmental lot to the end these you know these invasive monsters you know, take take advantage of that many of them. Yeah I remember one day ads racing the car at my mother's place and one. Soros and just challenged the car just blew itself. Open was really really defined. There's a there's a great these two great documentaries. Cane toads unnatural history. A little girl that lives in the table land outside of cans, and she has this massive. She calls dairy queen. Matosas Toda's is just huge. She's a little girl now video this is a massive towed the size of a dinner plate and A. Really big poison blanchette of dog attacks in by stat clan. For Forget. It for the dog and then there's the second documentary. it's called till the conquest. It's a lot of the same characters. They're really really interesting to see for correct. The great documents show those to students in in my invasion ecology class if they're entertaining but the. Fact fact spilled in there and you can learn a lot about cane toads in their biological and their socioeconomic impacts in. Australia's really really great. That's like almost you now. You gotta put a link to the people and get this. It's really it's really great. Area. Of Kobe, all stuck at home screw Netflix's let's wash them cain toads. I know. When you see something smaller than you behave in a way where it's not afraid, it could be very disconcerting even to a human these these guys these painters they bow up when they're in defensive mode so. Is that mean this is not really a joke is that leading to a lot of people mowing their lawn mowers? That kind of thing is? I don't know about that, but they will you know they feel threatened bill they'll suck in air and those sort of stand up and they can lean towards you. They just trying to look more intimidating you know. A lot of snakes in the US will will puff up, they'll flare out their jaws they make themselves look more intimidating. That's their mechanism to try to protect themselves. You know shingle. And some people will to put off by that you know those of us route looking for them and like oh good. You're not going to run or try to call rate from your easy to pick up or you're gonNA, make yourself a better. Subject for for a photo but it's just you know it just their mechanisms to try to protect themselves tour. On why? No here like. It I don't know if they're really invasive because they've been in the United States but the the way you probably have their to, in fact, I know you do. We've got a ARMADILLOS. Now that was not a thing when I was a kid I mean they existed they weren't my state, and now they've they've made it into Georgia. So I know. That, we saw the mull over Orlando when we were a few years ago and unlike the possum which has the bad habit of its defenses to out. Not Good. If you're on the road, the ARMADILLOS defense is apparently hop up and which I guess would be great if it didn't put to brighten the grill of the car. So. I've experienced that tribe Estrada possum with jeep. I had one time and it was scared jumping hit Denver. Sorry. My jeep from when I was coming home from work there lay belly up on the road so. Sometimes, you know animals are maladaptive just like the Burmese pythons. Gets a on the rare. Instead, we get a really cold snap and Florida. The pythons are coming at they will come out into the sun to try to bask to warm up but then it gets too cold for them and they can succumb if they would just hang out underground, they would avoid that. So there's sort of map adapted to deal with that cold. So but it were good where they were needed more are good here but you know it hasn't done anything to curtail their populations. They're they're they're they're proliferating and in the everglades in south Florida and they've had major major impacts there a real real bad invasive species Florida without a doubt. So, I know that there seemed to be a lot of religions about cantons I know in the sort of Brisbane Sunshine Coast Gold Coast, areas the people think you can freeze them to kill them and there will pouring soulful backs. What's a different ways to get rid of the you aware of any of these urban legends and what actually does work to indicate them I am not, but I'm not surprised to hear them. So I had the cake. You know I got a series of outreaching documents videos done educate people here in Florida and same in Oscar you know that you know it's not. You know it's it's not the toads fault or the Cuban tree frogs ball pythons, fault. So to speak that they're here but they shouldn't Baker and to protect our economies and our maiden environments to be an advocate for native species, I encourage people to catch and you mainly euthanize he'd been tree rods. And with toads, there is research done out of Australia. Again. By this by this Professor Rick Stein. He teamed up with some neurologists and and they show that you know from the data that they had the paper that I read. If you take a cane till you hand captured, you could just use you know plastic sack that you would get at a grocery store captured the tow by hand if you have them in your yard. Night, in China, torch if you're in Australia, which is basically US American for flashlight. Just decisively grabbed the toad trying the bag inside out tight shut, and if you're willing to put it in your refrigerator for a couple of hours and that that that physically. As an anesthetic, it slows down the toads metabolism and you can put it in the freezer for twenty four hours and we'll kill it humanely or if you ask, you can apply A. Coin Aesthetic such as a one that you might spray on your topically on your skin or for for rash. Poison Ivy or sunburn or even apply jail that she would use. You know to deal with to aches and within the next ties the towed, and then you put it in the freezer for twenty four hours and it will kill humanely. Now a lot of weight. Are you suggesting we novacaine towed? Yes. No And then freezing. It's not GonNa Taint Your Vanilla ice cream if the Toda's breast smacking A. Threat to your your food you can still reach a frozen pork chops in your pizza, but that's what I tell folks. That that's true I presented that growing up and I thought that was A. Eban legend of some kind. So that's Amazing we're speaking specifically about humanely killing the total. So anything that is rapid and is a sort of peace or painless. Would be considered humane but I advocate that either the chemical or the. Aesthetic, followed by freezing match what I tell. Is that follows you know veterinary guidelines There's actually a product in Australia called hop stop. That's an anesthetic spray that as it has been marketed, had some issues with the Kanza sort of exploiting but I believe it still says she heard. Toads with that but then in the US. Put Red or Bleejon you don't WanNa you don't want the animal to suffer right? Now a humane death if you're going to kill it, the bleach would ruin the flavor. There's so many things to consider like. People eat frogs to people eat toads, I don't know if you were. You know what I'd be darn sure to take the skin off. Okay. Yeah Gross. Yeah. The poison glands are I've never I've never tried I've tried now monitor Lizard. That's that's an invasive species in Florida that one of my colleagues cotton cooked and it was you know I'm I'm GonNa stick with the with. That's that's yeah that. If we started talking about we're things we've eaten. We'd be here all night because I've eaten a lot of weird things. For another show show. So? I'm very interested. This is such a weird. Strange apology but this sort of hot between these ridiculous jokes in like serious biological. Between I know I know it's what we do. You. Okay see I do actually. To Karen I actually do understand subtlety but people don't think that I do the problem is when I'm subtle nobody laughs roles Irizar. Remember got project joke for you know. Anytime, you want to tell it. Are you asking Yes oh yeah. If you hear this perfect, let's go for it. So. Even? What type of SODA DO FROGS DRINK No idea. Of. Course Crow Cola. Thank you laughing. I started my wife yesterday. My Wife's Kathleen has done Kathleen yesterday I walked into the kitchen and said I've just come to this great invention. Mechanical Uterus. It's a labor saving device. And she repeated that on facebook generally of her immediate response was she was in front of the sink and I really thought she was going to throw up. I throw at you boy. It is dangerous to do that in the kitchen where all the knives and stuff are. This be kind of a follow up which would be do we know what predators they do have in in their native world we've talked about. Obviously, the birds aren't doing enough in Australia to keep up with it. But like WH- animals do successfully eat these without too much harm. Bit would be birds to deal with them. you know some mammals against. There's there was A. Wasn't a natural setting, this sort of contrive. But when I had a I had a post doc here in Florida within the past year name, a doctor Benjamin Muller, and we tested this track that set produced by a company called Acta of as Australian, and it's a it's a cage trap metal track but the steel roof and bottom, and it has a You hang a a little call were in there a little speaker that plays a cane toad call also has a little led light and it's attached to A. Along wired to a solar panel that charges it, and when the panel stopped sending a charge to that to the mechanism in the trap, it signals Al K it's gotten dark, which is time cane toads are becoming active and the lower starts playing the cane toad call with the idea that attracts females. and and very rare never. Australia. Did they catch any non-target organisms? Toads and we hardly ever caught any non-target organisms Australia but one time we did catch A. An American possum or Virginia opossums you know. Virginia and that thing eight that towed it didn't go in through the belly. It didn't go around it just seemed to consume the whole darn towed without any apparent toxic affects. It did need to go around it around the Natasha. And the. Little Small Note a manuscript right now that is sort of summarizing some observations of floors, snakes and carrying me toads and I've seen a photograph of one of our native. The water snakes that was dead and it hit rotted in the clearly there was a cane toad within its stomach, but I've seen other instances where snakes have just consumed them consume them whole so. You know I, don't know again evolutionary history maybe they have it that they're able to deal with it. But so some mammals we know might be able to consume them whole other ones could. Flip them over and go through the belly and eat Eat the the internal organs and avoid those toxic lands so. A hungry animal. Generally tends to be pretty persistent in smart, but I In Florida we just don't know enough about that about the impacts on. On Native Wildlife. It doesn't appear to be much in. It's either one because the cane toads don't invade the natural areas so much like they do in. Australia that possibly part of it, and might also be that You know our species of just able to to deal with the Kentucky is like we talked about earlier they evolved in Australia in. Australia they haven't but generally larger Predator pieds just kind of attack whole but it was a really interesting observation that we made of that a possum just consuming in entire towed without at ill-effects you know which was kind of a surprising. Amazing. and. So we were talking about the introduction of cane toads to Australia but could read. Some going back a little bit further into the the being to be that we've done so far but I'm just wondering why is it that the toads fails to control the GRUBS? What what went wrong? I think I think the ill-fated experiment are ill ill-fated effort to begin with. So this whole concept of biological control is using one you know animal or organism to control the population of another, and it's it's been used in for invasive species for a while and so for instance, introducing Mongoose, which is like a up there in a small carnivore to control whatever it might be snakes or something we've learned that vertebrates vertebrate animals mongoose came to whether they're really bad biological controls because they are not. Lists. So while you might have had some cane toads, some places, Mina beaten some cane grubs. In fact, they don't they just weren't at the right place together at the right time Ma. They ate so much more. They weren't specific to that. So for a biological control to to really work, you want it to avoid non target organisms. So you WanNa let's say bring in some species of beetle that only eat one species or a small group of plants that are not native in an area and. You don't want it to eat closely related species that are native and it turns out that came to are just very generalist. Predator. So while they might have eaten cane beetles, they did not eat enough of them and they didn't focus specifically on those came Beatles to be affected and it took a while for us to you know or people to to realize that and these days you know you just don't introduce a vertebrae more of a generalist Predator control anything. It's Veg that this building up. Experiments press to finally realize that that's the wrong strategy to take. Letter mistakes what year was. Introduced do we know. Through of other places around the world, there was in the nineteen thirties that was sort of the he hates. Wasn't that around the same time, the introduced Kudzu to. Georgia like. Other. Invasive species is like. I don't know the history of that. But yeah, it's all over the eastern. US. And I think it was brought in either to stabilize of erosion or has cattle food and it just is spread all over the place. No, but we do have a lot of great examples of species being introduced and they don't become invasive. They stayed where there's there's supposed to be and they're they're valuable economically. So it just we have to do a better job as science of knowing in doing the research and knowing this is a risk worth taking. It's worth done the. Jobs as we can introduce, this is a crop plant or an ornamental plant, and it's not likely to escape where we put. But you know we're we're still we're still learning and our past mistakes or something we definitely need need to take into account before make decisions like ask future. Just verification. Kudzu came to the US for the first time ever eighteen, seventy six for an exposition. But in the Nineteen Thirties, the civilian conservation corps introduced it for. Controlling soil erosion. So yeah. It did I mean it also controlled the ability to see pine trees or anything the gotten his way. So it's A big big blanket of green over plants that do not need that. Yes I. Like my I like my speaking of monsters. My first memory of of just like recurring monster images was near my home. When I was a little boy like not even five there was a hilltop with the light of pine trees across the top that was completely coated in Kudzu. So when we would go home in the evening and the sun was setting, it would look for all the world like. Line of monsters in some sort of weird happy Dr seuss parade it was gorgeous. I can. See that. Of this freeze covered with that, they look like these big monsters. Yes. Absolutely burned into my memory. Like night I would see that was just amazing. So but let's get a science question before we go. We've talked before a monster talk about some of the strange and interesting ways that. Gender changes across reptiles and Amphibians, and I know that like we've talked about alligators and they're the gender of the of the EG. is going to be determined by the temperature that it's late in and are. Being developed. I read that Cain toads have. Gender swapping thing that can happen you aware of that or can you talk a little bit about how gender fluidity works? Vivians I not familiar with that I don't think that's well known in in general I certainly am not have to go look that up I do not know about that and came towards. A quick insert here the article I was reading was referring to the gender ultra-effective human-made chemicals on the life cycle of Vivians I misread the article want preparing for the show and I thought it was talking about a previously unknown gender swapping ability similar to some fish or the environmentally produced gender changes to some reptiles. Half this is not that, but this is the same effect that led to one notable tin foil hat wearing philosopher to a pine. I don't like them putting chemicals in the water turn the frigging slogs gay in on that chunky spoonful of wisdom we return to our interview with Dr Steven Johnson. But as you mentioned in Crocodilians and turtles a environmental or temperature dependent sex determination. So they don't have the sex chromosomes like we have, and then I know in some species of fish what you just crazy some reef fish, you know I think all our mail the largest one disappears you know the biggest male becomes a female you know, and that's just you know that's Canada what we think of. As, humans but also you know we've just in our society gender becoming more the way we think about that is becoming more fluids maybe we're becoming more like. Animals than than we think are I don't I don't know about that incantatory amphibians again I think it's four. We started to amount to check that out. It is interesting like even one of our earliest interviews with biologist Steve Jones and he he's his specialty is slugs and snails, and he told us this thrilling story about. The how to slugs will come together. and. They're HERMAPHRODITES S-, I in an imperfect world, they would both mate successfully the the male of each side would mate with the female of each side, but it's a real to be the female. So one of them will try to bite off the penis of the. So the only, it's like non-reciprocal. So Banana slugs I think of that way in Califor-. Yeah. So In there's fish that change gender, it's like humans have a really narrow view like we know what we know and if it's not that we get real that's not right. But yeah, it turns out the Nassar's got so many more ideas about what's natural than we do so. Number parsonage genetic reptiles. To mention that? Yeah. Yeah. A little. Some geckos lizards, there's a little snake call grandpa type lops Brandis flowerpot snake which. Is might be the most widely distributed reptile in the world because it moves around through, you know inadvertently through movement of our mental plant and it's Parthenon genetic where you know wanted to digital. Basically produces clones of itself, and so that has the advantage of if you get moved somewhere else you only need one of you but it has. Disadvantages that you really cut down maybe on the amount of genetic diversity that you can produce and the more genetic diversity, the more adaptable to change the species is, but clearly, this Partha genetic strategy has worked for a number of S- a number of species. So yeah. So bottom is biology is really really interesting. It's. Truth is stranger than fiction in the more. The more William know about you know animals plant biology in general, but the the more I think we realized we don't know when we realized what an incredible world that we live in and you know we need we need to do all. We can to save this by diversity including these monster, Geno so we can learn more about them because we might be able to apply what we learn about them to you know to to ourselves and maybe help come up with therapeutics or whatever we. Get insights into into us as humans in that the sort of animal part of us being human in the bottom line is we're just you know we're a really highly evolved animal that's having a really major impact on the planet, and therefore we we need to you know it's upon us to to try to do things to lessen that impact in my opinion. Beautifully said absolutely and Blake is routed to has to be famous. Guys for being a male aged where just was certainly hassle to be a mom. You know I can't speak to any of the rest of it but I've watched what's happened to my poor? Karen and everybody else who has to. Take its toll, but it's worth it. As a species, we really need it. So thank you. Thank you for you and all MOMS everywhere. Here Is the the hormone that may navy the downfall of the human race as we know it so. A. Stephen GonNa final question for you. It's a question we like to ask all of our guests. What's your favorite monster? Lou My favorite monster. Let me think about this. What all I have to go back to being a kid and I was really intrigued. By you know national, geographic true. Still all this kind of stuff and I. My favorite monster I would have to be bigfoot but not just bigfoot the subspecies quote unquote that's in Florida, and that would be the skunk ape. That's my favorite monster. I've never seen one, but I have high hopes. So they have some sort of gland to apparently. You. If want to catch one Lima beans I've read is a really good baked. Interesting I'm trying to my candidate these Lima beans I need to feed our big. Practice. that. Big Football. Specifically the skunk eight that always. Intrigued News. Again, I'm still intrigue now but I'm fortunate enough to get to study cane toads and and other smaller smaller monster. So I I'm very fortunate. Very fortunate. Person Scientists I think we were very skeptical but. I, think on behalf of everyone I really hope that the swamps are able to avoid the Burmese pythons and McCain. Toads. More Dole. You've been listening to monster talk the science show about monsters I'm Blake Smith and I'm Karen Stolz now you just heard an interview with Dr Steven Johnson of the University of Florida I'll be putting a link to his program at you NFL in the show along with photos of cane toads. We hope you've enjoyed this episode of Monster Talk. Each episode we strive to bring you the very best in monster related content with the focus on bringing scientific skepticism into the conversation. If you enjoy monster talk. We now have a variety of ways to support the show all with convenient links at muster talk dot org forward slash support. That's your talk dot org forward slash support. We have links there to our patriarch page as well as a donation button. Another great way to support the show is to buy books from our Amazon Muster Talk wishlist, which directly helps us with our research. We love used books very much. So don't feel compelled to buy new ones and we love kindles. So we can share our digital libraries with each other and finally without spending any money at all, you can support us by leaving a positive review at I tunes or wherever you get your podcasts. Positive reviews help keep us visible in Itunes, which is a great way to help us find you listeners. And please share our show on your favorite social media platforms. Out Our monster talk merchandise at Monster Talk Dot Org forward slash store where you can find a variety of cool products to show that your next level monster enthusiast muster talk theme music is by Pete stealing monkeys. Thank you so much for listening. is been a monster house presentation and the Grand Prize winner though Hypno- towed. All Glory to the HIP. No.
Big Tech is prepping for California's tough new privacy law
What might help Apple sell more iPhones? Cheaper iPhones
"This. Marketplace podcast is brought to you by the university of Florida Warrington college of business transform your future with an MBA from one of America's top ten universities. Learn more at Warrington dot ufl dot EDU slash MBA. And by Lenovo for small business when it comes to IT Lenovo dedicated to offering solutions that can make a difference for you and your company from devices to technology services to learn more. Visit WWW dot Lenovo dot com slash S M B powered by Intel. Hey, you know, what might help apple sell more phones cheaper iphones from American public media? This is marketplace tech demystifying the digital economy. I'm Ali would. Apple released its earnings yesterday afternoon. And although it met its lowered expectations revenue from phones was down. Fifteen percent over the same quarter last year and the future trend is also down for years. Apple smartphone strategy has been to make premium devices with a premium price tag, a thousand bucks is basically the starting price for a new flagship iphone, but those prices are hard to swallow in China and India markets apple is depending on to grow. It's global market share. And even here in the US consumers just aren't upgrading their phones as much as they used to duly. Ask is principal analyst at Forrester research. I asked her if apple can keep commanding such high prices, they've relied on a very fluid base of consumers in the past that could afford to buy not only devices, but services and subscriptions within the ecosystem. And I think one of the things it's hard to tell. I think one of the things they're not gonna tell us is it inhibiting their ability to attract new consumers into the ecosystem. Yeah. It's interesting because it feels like. It was a strategy based on sort of an old economic model of ongoing recovery where you know, if you tie it to the broader economy, it was based on the idea that there'd be an economic recovery in wages would continue to go up and there'd be lots of consumer spending. And we're kind of not seeing that. Yeah. So we're not seeing that. And I think if you look at the opportunities for growth, it's either get the same people to upgrade faster or it's attract new consumers into your market. And you look at who those new consumers are and they're simply not as a flu inter as wealthy as the existing base there. Either young or they're living in markets where there's lower wages overall. I think the trouble with these large. Consumer electronics companies is is the smartphone came along at this time. And it's been like an amazing amazing ten to fifteen year right at this point. But there isn't like another it devices that's coming after it. That's going to make up for the revenue with the slower replacement cycles and the slower uptake from consumers in the market today. So what do you think comes next? I mean, some manufacturers are sort of bucking this trend. Oneplus is going with a cheaper phone is that overly simplistic as an answer or would cheaper phones. Help sell more phones if I were smartphone manufacturer, I would test the market with less expensive devices. And Molly I say that based on someone who studies consumer behavior the devices that are selling now in the market for a thousand dollars eleven hundred twelve hundred dollars are amazing for photography and playing video games and watching TV and when we see five G come out. It's going to be awesome. That said the vast majority of the activity that consumers are doing on these phones, it's still around communication instant messaging, texting my friends triaging, Email for work. And I don't need the latest greatest device to do that. And so I think it is reasonable to expect the consumers will say, hey, how do I really use this device, and do I really need something that caused the thousand twelve hundred dollars to triage, my Email, duly ask is principal analyst at poster research. Ch- according to the motley fool apple shipments were down ten percent in China in the third quarter of last year and down fifty percent in India over twenty eighteen. And now for some related links. We talk a lot about the Chinese market. But India is huge for smartphone makers shipments almost doubled between two thousand fourteen and twenty eighteen to one hundred and fifty million phones according to analysts and ZD net report out of New Delhi says that for a few years apple was selling its older models in India for low prices, which wasn't that thrilling because we're talking about the iphone five c here people. But then apple started pushing more expensive bones sometimes even selling models for more than they were selling for in the US that didn't fly either. And it happened just as Chinese manufacturers like Xiaomi and one plus came into India with super cool tricked out smartphones that were half the price of the iphone. So you could have a heck of old iphone for the same price as brand new flagship smartphone from one plus easy choice. The one plastics was released in India in twenty. Eighteen ziti net. Says its old a million units in twenty two days for comparison apple sold one point seven million units in India in all of twenty eighteen combined and on a completely different note. I totally missed that earlier this month the department of defense released a document about a twenty two million dollar program by the Defense Intelligence Agency. That was researching warp drives invisibility cloaks wormholes star gates an alien tracking. I mean say what you want about government spending. But this is how we got the internet. Also, apparently, according to an old blog post, I found about secret military projects the CIA once tried putting listening devices on house cats, not every idea is a hit you guys. But I'm holding out hope for the wormholes. I'm Molly would and that's marketplace tech. This is a PM Carolina in Brooklyn New York wrote to tell us she's a longtime fan of marketplace, tech and appreciates the content and the mission thinks Caroline to join her and keeping marketplace tech going strong donate online today. Marketplace dot org, and thanks to Caroline and all the marketplace investors who make our work possible. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by Cronos FM L A F L essay ACA EEOC it's harder than ever for businesses to keep up with today's evolving, alphabet soup of regulations. What's a company to do Cronos with Cronos you can minimize compliance risk and track HR policies making sure they are applied consistently and fairly HR payroll talent and timekeeping in one unified system all with a proven implementation approach and simplified transparent pricing. Learn more at Kronos dot com slash compliance. Kronos, workforce innovation that works.
Episode 88: Duane Mitchell talks about the uphill battle to treat aggressive brain tumors
"Welcome to stem talk. Stem, talk stem talk. Welcome to stem, talk for introduce you to fascinating people who passionately inhabit the scientific and technical frontiers of our society. Hi, I'm your host on Cornelius. Joining me to introduce as podcasts man behind the curtain. Dr Ken Ford, agency's director, and chairman of the double secret selection committee. That's all guests who appear on some talk who done great to be here. So I guess today is a good friend Dr Dwayne Mitchell. He is Phyllis Cutler Freedman professor in the department of surgery at the university of Florida college of medicine. He's also the co director of the university is present wells junior center for brain tumor therapy, and director of the brain tumor immune therapy program Dwayne, and I actually met while we were both at Duke University where we served on the institutional review board together, wink has medical degree and doctorate at Duke. And then joined the faculty where he spent the next decade before moving to the university of Florida in two thousand thirteen Dwayne his team at Florida among the world leaders. Uphill battle to find ways to treat Leo blessed? Oma an aggressive form of brain cancer. Affects about sixteen thousand Americans annually. But before we get to today's interview with Dwayne we have some housekeeping to take care of. I we really appreciate all of you who have subscribed to stem talk. And we are especially appreciative of all the wonderful five star reviews. As always the double secret sucks committee has been continually and carefully reviewing I tunes. Google Stitcher and other podcasts apps for the wittiest and this lavishly praised filled reviews to read on stem talk. As always if you hear you review, read on stem talk, just contact us at stem talk at agency dot US to claim your fficials stem. Talk t shirt today. Our winning review was posted by someone who goes by the moniker YO hiker the review is titled awaiting the next stem talk, the review, reads stem talk is the one podcast I listened to while on my bike trainer seating quietly at the end of the day or unrolled trips I often replay many sections and scribble. Oats in my notebook. This gives me a clear picture of how all of the podcasts are interrelated and build upon one. Another topics based on leading science by the scientists in their field. Most telling though is several times a week. I'm checking in for the latest stem talk program hosted by dawn in Ken disappointed. When new episode is not there. I'm like a kid opening gift wrapped present when a new podcast arrives. This is a five star podcast. Well, thank you. Why hiker and thank you to over other Semtex listeners of helps them talk become such a great success. Okay. And now onto our interview with Dr Dwayne Mitchell. Stems stem, talk stem talk. Hi, welcome to stem talk. I'm your host on connect. And joining us today is our guest Wayne Mitchell. Dwayne welcome to the podcast warning. And also joining us as Ken Ford pollute on. Hello doing good morning said Dwayne. I understand that you liked to collect quotes. And that every Monday morning in your research group, you share a quote of the week with your colleagues. So what's the story behind that? Well, when they decided to think about how we could start on the same page as a team I like to review quotes that just remind me to somewhat simplify all the complexities of life. Cut him have some themes that you can focus on. And so it's a voluntary Email list. I don't believe in spam. But I've asked the my colleagues if they would enjoy also having a little bit of inspiration. The the start of the weekend. We started this as a tradition that's now gone on for the last five and a half years. That's a great idea. It is indeed a good. I hear that one of your favorite quotes comes from Mark Twain, who famously said I have never let my schooling interfere with my education is that. Right. Well that I am very fond of that quote. And I think it's it to me is just a reminder that your education really is ongoing. And in some ways begins once you've completed formal education, and certainly some of the most valuable lessons learned either in life or incients have come outside of didactic, teaching and formal schooling couldn't agree more. And speaking of schooling, you grew up and went to school in New Jersey, where your father was a scientist. I understand that early on you became interested in science and that biology was one of your favorite subjects is it true. That by six grade, you're going around telling people that you were going to become a doctor. That is true. I initially it was very interested in being physician, and particularly at that time cardiology, and I had I have an older sister who is a practicing physician today. But at the time she was in high school, and she. You bet me one hundred dollars. I would change my mind about being a doctor by the time I finished college. So I had a little bit of extra motivation to stick with it. And I she hasn't paid me. But I, but I've maintained that interest since the sixth grade. So Dwayne what led you to attend records college while grew up in Somerset New Jersey, which was very about twenty minutes from the Rutgers college campus, and when I was applying to different schools, I had wanted to go to a large university was interested in getting an expanded experience beyond high school and actually after looking at a number of different schools, both in state and out of state. I was impressed with the opportunities at Rutgers and the idea that I could live off campus, but still be within thirty minutes of home for meals and other essentials was very attractive. And so that that was part of the decision. I also got some merit scholarships. That allowed me to have to issue a covered for attending Rutgers college. And that was also a influence on the decision at Rutgers. You were interested in gene and cell therapy. Within your junior year. I understand that you read the transformed cell. It's a book by Steven Rosenberg. Can you talk about the impact that book had on you? Yes. The my interest at that time. Whereas you mentioned are in biology. I was interested in becoming a physician, but it started to learn about the notion of having a career in biomedical research where you could attempt to improve existing treatments for patients, and I read Stephen Rosenberg's book on, you know, his quest at that time in trying to engage the immune system in battling one of the most aggressive cancers metastatic melanoma, and the concept of being a physician scientist and spending time both with patients and in a laboratory trying to work on cures for their disease, really captivated, my interest head in particular, the idea that you could potentially use the body's own defenses to fight malignant disease was was a new concept for me. And I really just was was intellectually captivated by that concept and decided then that that was the area that I wanted to pursue after. College interns, my medical training and research training. So Dwayne you and I met at Duke University, but understand that almost an happen because your head someplace else for med school and your doctorate. So here you have an interesting story about how you ended up at Duke. What is that? I was applying to that time MD ph PHD programs. I decided I wanted to become a physician scientist and pursue both graduate research as well as medical training. I had a shortlist of investigators that I was very interested in potentially training with and one of the top choices was a scientist by the name of Dr league abo- who ended up being my PHD mentor at he was at the time. I was applying to school actually at Memorial Sloan Kettering. And so I had my list of places that I was hoping to gain entry to and the top of the list was the Cornell Rockefeller Memorial Sloan Kettering program, and when I gained acceptance there, I also have gotten accepted to Duke university's program and was very impressed by their curriculum. But was you know, excited about joining Dr Gaba was lab. And so when I called Dr Gilboa about finding out of he would. Take graduate students. I would be starting grad school in a couple of years. He informed me that he would definitely be training graduate students, but he was relocating his laboratory to Duke. And so that really solidified my decision I chose to attend to diversity specifically. So that I could train Dr POS lab after receiving your MD an PHD from Duke in two thousand one year main that the university for the next twelve years, and this isn't clued your postgraduate training and pathologic which is which is actually my department at Duke and the neuro oncology research fellowship prior to joining its faculty in the narrow surgery department, and as faculty you held a number of positions, which include director preclinical research at the press and Robert Tisch brain tumor center, associate director of Duke, brain tumor, immunotherapy program and institutional review board member, I only put this in there because that's where you and I met. And during your time at Duke, you became known as a trailblazer in the application and research of immunotherapy for cancer and specifically brain tumors. Sue, can you give our listeners overview of the rule that immunotherapy plays and training brain tumors. Sure. So I think many people are aware that immunotherapy has really over the last ten years and particularly the last five years really moved into the forefront of new methods of battling aggressive cancers. And certainly has led to several new FDA approved treatments for refractory tumors in the treatment of brain tumors. The use of therapy is still in its developmental experimental stages. We don't have yet FDA approved immunotherapy treatment for malignant brain tumors. But there is a lot of research being done on how we can more effectively. Engage the immune system to recognize a malignant brain tumor cells lead to their rejection and ideally spare damage to normal brain tissues. And so our group and many others around the country are very active in clinical trials, and we've certainly seen. And evidence of the immune system's capacity to recognize and reject malignant brain tumors in twenty thirteen you. Join the faculty at the university of Florida and you brought your entire teen from Duke with you. How did that transition from Duke to UF come about while I received a phone call from the chairman of the neurosurgeon department of that time Dr William Friedman about a search for a research director for the brain tumor center at the university of Florida and that I was under consideration. If I was interested in that position. So I was both humbled and flattered to be considered and decided that a a certainly an exploratory visit was worthwhile. When I came to university of Florida. I was really impressed knew a lot about the clinical program and the neurosurgeon program, which is very very strong. I was really impressed by their vision for a research translational brain tumor program. And so after a series of interviews that resulted in the offer to to join the brain tumor center at UF and with that the ability to recruit to several fast. Not positions. And so I discussed with colleagues that I was working with that Duke that were part of a large therapy program. Whether they were interested in the opportunity, and they followed a similar journey. Mine came on an exploratory visit were very impressed by what they saw. And ultimately we had a number of number of colleagues that relocated with us to initiate the research program in UF see gained considerable clinical and translational research experience as a PI on seven I in human protocols through FDA approved clinical trials, and that Florida you offer unique clinical options for adult and pediatric patients who are diagnosed with malignant brain tumors. Can you give us an overview of the work that you're doing it Florida right now? Sure. So I direct the UF brain tumor immunotherapy program, which is really a collaborative and comprehensive translational effort with myself and several other principal investigators. We actually have five primary faculty members who are part of the brain of program editions myself, and we have a number of. Approaches to trying to engage in system in combating refractory pediatric and adult brain tumors are most advanced programs at this time are focused around cellular therapy where we use patient's own immune cells that are harvested from them modified to either stimulate tesol responses against their own tumors in the case of we called injured excel vaccines, or we also have clinical trials that are pursuing something called adoptive cell therapy where we actually activate the patient's own T cells outside of their body. Expand them to large numbers, and then reinfusing those tumor specific and activated T cells back to those patients. So in the time that we've been here at UF we've had four unique clinical trials employing, either dendritic cell vaccines, and or adoptive t cell therapies for both refractory pediatric and adult brain tumors. Very interesting research, I'm told that there are over a hundred and twenty different types of primary brain tumors with some being quite common and others. Very rare. Can you give our listeners a brief? Oh. Review of what defines a brain tumor type, and what some of the more common tumor types, actually are. Sure. So it within the central nervous system. We think about the brain. Of course, we often think of the neurons that are performing the primary functions of cognition and carrying electrical signals involved in neurologic control. But in terms of brain tumors. It turns out that these tumors typically arise from other cell types in the brain that are important for support of an accessory functions that support the neurons. Most commonly the will gleam cells oftentimes are the cell type in which tumors arise. And we classify brain tumors now by a combination of cell of origin, as well as a much more in depth understanding of the genetics of those tumors and the biology that's driving them and still the appearance of those tumors under the microscope histopathology is still a very important component of diagnosis and staging. But over the last several years, we've gained an increasing understanding that even tumors that look very similar have. Stink genetic subtypes. And so oftentimes if a patient is diagnosed the brain tumor today, we'll have a tissue type of origin, a cell type of origin diagnosis along with several molecular markers that further classify what type of tumor how aggressive that chamber is in those patients as mentioned glioma cells are one of the more common cell types for the origin of malignant brain tumors. But we have a diversity of of tumor types Pendle cells, essentially any anatomical region where you have distinct cell types with specific functions. We can oftentimes find some incidents of either low grade or high-grade team that can arise from those cell types and children in addition to the different cell types. There's quite a spectrum of teamers across the different ages from earth to Adelaide since that we see arising in the pediatric patient population Glebe last, which is often referred to GBM as an aggressive form of brain cancer. That kills fifteen thousand Americans each year, and it's the type of tumor that took the life of Senator John McCain Senator Edward Kennedy also died from the disease most people diagnosed with GBM less than two years. And I'm curious. Why did you decide to specialize disease that is so deadly as you described this is a disease ity that if you really look over the last three to four decades, we've only made marginal improvements measured in weeks to months for the survival of patients with Cleveland Toma. It is also the most common malignant brain tumor that we see in adult. So, unfortunately, the most common presentation is the most aggressive form of cancers that we see in these patients, and so the clear unmet need to try to improve outcomes for those patients, and I felt that if if the immune system could make a difference for combating malignant brain tumors than we would certainly be able to realize that in Glebe less Doma with such the characteristically short survival times that we would have an in some ways of more rapid understanding of whether we were really making making a difference with the approaches we were taking what are the typical characteristics of glioma blessed Dema that make it so tough to treat. So there are a number of. Challenges in successfully treating Leah blessed to I think, you know, probably one of the most difficult approaches is the invasive nature of these tumors. And so when a patient presents with symptoms that ultimately leads to the diagnosis of brain tumors, such as Glebe last Doma, we know that although we can see the tumor mass on an MRI and the surgeons depending on an atomic location can do a very good job of removing all visible tumor that there are islands of tumor cells that have migrated away from that central tumor mass and are in bedded deep within normal brain tissues, even on the other side of the brain, a we know that these tumor cells existent so following up with treatments that can reach these invasive islands of tumor cells at affective enough doses to kill them or hope their growth and yet not harm normal. Tissues is a real challenge on one of the major challenges. You can imagine. It's gotta be tough. What does the current standard of care? Look like for these malignant brain tumors and comparatively speaking. How effective are these approaches? I mean, you've said that we've only had marginal improvements over the last decades, but what is the standard of care these days? So we were to look at Glebe less Dilma adults the standard of care for most Molina brain tumors is to do initially maximal surgical reception. We do know that the larger amount of tumor, particularly we can get greater than ninety five percent of the visible tumor mass out of patience with surgery safely that this does significantly add extend survival, but that has mentioned that is not going to reach those invasive tumor sounds so the standard treatments after it's typically consist of radiation conform radiation, where a radiation oncologist will carefully outlined the areas of highest risk of tumor involvement or clear tumor involvement and design a plan that can deliver maximal radiation to those areas and try to spare critical critically important normal brain tissues that can typically be six to seven weeks of radiation therapy that is often delivered at the same time with a chemotherapy drug called team. Zola mine, and then those patients are typically treated with with additional six to twelve months of psych monthly cycles of teams Zola mind as adjutant chemotherapy that had been the standard backbone treatment for glee blessed Doma for a number of years really since two thousand and five recently over the last two years, we've seen a new modality called tumor treating fields which actually uses alternating electrical fields to disrupt the cell division of Glebe, blessed Oma tumor cells, and this was FDA approved and shown to extend survival by several months in patients with Glebe less Dilma that are receiving that while getting standard chemotherapy treatment. So the backbone of surgery radiation chemotherapy with or without tumor treating fields is the current standard of care. That's very interesting. I've ran into several researchers supplementing the standard of care a with Kitone esters or the Q Jiang diet as well. And we have quite a bit of reactive investigator. Within a department who's focused on specifically exploring the role of the Kita genyk diet and a modified ketogenic diet for haltingly blessed on we hope to be starting a clinical trial evaluating that shortly. So when it comes to therapy is a standalone approach for treating brain tumors or is it ministered in conjunction with standard therapy. And second question for you. If the latter can changes to the immune system that occur through radiating chemotherapy have a negative effect on therapy. Severi important great question, and I would say that the our our efforts have really focused on the integration of image therapeutic approaches with standard treatment, and the rationale for us has been we think that perhaps the best window to try to tackle these tumors as early on in the diagnosis when we can get the patient to minim- minimal tumor burden in this possible. We know we're having some effects with standard treatment, and if we were able to affectively engage the immune system during that window. We feel that that may be the best opportunity for control as opposed to waiting until that treatment has failed. Into mors have come back there. Typically, more aggressive at that stage in at least more resistant to standard treatments. So we have really explored the integration of immune therapies with chemotherapy. Particularly the edge of chemotherapy that patients receive your question of, you know, will does the radiation than in the chemotherapy, how have affects on the immune system. The we absolutely know that they have profound affects on systemic, immunity, immunity, what we don't really have a great understanding yet as of the net effects negative or positive. So chemotherapy, certainly depletes. You're circulating white cells. We know that and that end can lead to suppression. We have patients that are at increased risk for infections when the have chemotherapy at the same time, we and others have shown that if you stimulate immune response during the recovery from these episodes of we'll call lymph opinion or suppressed white cells because the body is focused on trying to replenish the immune system. There's actually a window of enhanced factors that lead to t cell expansion and growth, and so you may be able to leverage the recover. Every from chemotherapy to actually get stronger in responses, and then radiation similarly can kill tumor cells and lead to antigen release, which may allow the immune system to be both alerted through the inflammation and be and be more effective at recognizing tumor antigens, but of course, re high doses radiation would be toxic to circulating immune cells as well. So we are actively and others trying to study and understand it's probably a matter of dose, timing and the appropriate integration. But we think there is an opportunity where you can these can work if not additive potentially synergistically, that's really fascinating. So the next question this is kind of personal to me just because I'm really interested in the brain lymphatic systems show. It was once thought that the central nervous system had its own isolated immune system. But recent studies have shown when fatty networks from the central nervous system. That are connected to deep cervical draining lymph nodes and by extension, the principal paddock system. So it may not be as isolated as we once thought it was how do these new findings impact at their approaches? Her brain tumors. It's a really important point the notion of the brain. Being immune privileged came from observing. An experimental settings where foreign tissues, for instance, can survive in the brain and the central nervous system and not be rejected either at all or or at a much slower rate than if those same foreign graphs were in the periphery, and this led to the notion that the immune system really did not survey the CNS, or at least was very impaired in that surveillance really understand now that both from the an atomic connections that exist, and that the activated immune cells circulate with different patterns than your quiescent or naive immune system. So the brain is relatively devoid of will. We will call naive circulating t cells. You really don't find them in the Perenco of the brain tissue. But if a t cell becomes activated against antigen, which typically happens in the peripheral lymph nodes it is capable of circulating through all compartments of the body, including the central nervous system. This is how we protect against viral infections in the brain. If we couldn't get immune cells there, we would we would be a significant risk. So our new understanding really is not that the immune system. Can't get access to brain tissue and therefore attention reject brain tumors. It becomes a question of where is the most effective site for engaging those cells, and is it more effective to activate those cells in the periphery and allow them to migrate into the brain. Or in the case of some adoptive cell Therapy's is delivering them locally into the, you know, either tumor itself or the ventricles of the central nervous system is a local regional delivery of these immune cells more effective. So this is something that's being actively explored. But we no longer believe that, you know, you're it were incapable of generating Putin immune responses in the brain can you describe in rather general terms, how our immune system naturally deals with cancer us? So it has an effective or not effective response. Sure. So our understanding of how the system engages cancer is I would say incomplete, but obviously under very active studying, we know that the immune system is very effective at recognizing foreign pathogens like. Viruses, and bacteria and the process by which immune cells recognize an abnormality that should lead to reaction is a combination of there being an antigen something foreign or something different that the immune system can pick up on as not being a normal protein or tissue. We know cancers have mutations and other alterations that can be recognized by the immune system. The other important factor, though is an inflammatory stimulus that really triggers an immune response, or let's the immune system. There's something abnormal occurring that this cascade of reactions of immune rejection should be triggered what we believe. With happens with cancer is is that we do have the the potential for antigens to be recognized by the system, but since cancer cells, come from normal cells, a simplistic interpretations, they're delivering sort of mixed signals. There are some inflammatory stimuli that there's a pathologic process that does attract immune cells. But there are also at the same time signals that this is a normal tissue that perhaps is in need of. Pair and needs more blood supply. And so you have competing I would say repair and growth signals being a signal by these cancer cells as well as this rejection response. So when a patient presents with cancer, we oftentimes see evidence of both things occurring in the tumor tissue immune cells that appear to be recognizing and potentially rejecting the tumor, but usually a much greater number of immune cells that appear to have been recruited to assist in tumor growth or repair damaged tissues and probably helping perpetuate the tomb. And so that's one problem that we know we confront and then the other is cancer cells have evolved or our express number of immunosuppressive molecules and signs in li- Ganz that actually down regulate these effector immune responses, so even if you generate a strong immune response against some of these cancer antigens, the tumor tissue often is expressing many signals that turn that response off. And so the challenge in therapy is either to. Use a strong enough response against existing antigens. And usually also overcome these negative regulatory signals. Fascinating says speaking of which the program cell death, PD one PD L one pathway, isn't adaptive immune resistance mechanism. That's exerted by tumor cells in response to endogenous immune system, anti tumor activity and pedia one is commonly over expressed on tumor cells or on non transformed cells in the tumor, micro environment and research that this pathway otherwise known as the PD one one checkpoint pathway since molecular signals from the tumor to prevent immune cells from recognizing attacking the tumor. So there's a new immunotherapy drug class in these are called immune checkpoint inhibitors that block these signals allow immune cells to be more effective in fighting the tumor. So where does the research stand with these drugs and their efficacy and brain cancer? So this new class of treatment called immune checkpoint? Inhibitors I would say is really has been the foundational revolution in cancer amino therapy because we saw first. FDA approved use of these drugs in two thousand eleven and over the last eight years there too many new FDA approvals for me to even a numerate. But it seems about every few months we are hearing about another FDA approved use of checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of refractory, solid cancers. So the PD one PD L one blocking drugs and other immune checkpoint inhibitors have really taught us that one of the big challenges was not just stimulating immune response or stepping on the gas for trying to stimulate immunity, but it was actually that. They're the brakes were being fully engaged through these inhibitory lions called checkpoint inhibitor pathways and by blocking that removing the breaks on the immune system, you can allow the endogenous response to really become very effective in a in a large number of cancers. But in a proportion of patients, we've not yet seen checkpoint inhibitors reach an FDA approval for brain cancers, but there is new evidence. From some recent trials that these drugs do have activity in Glebe last. Dilma, and it may be very important when you deliver these checkpoint inhibitors as to whether you see this activity. So there's a I would say almost a renewed enthusiasm and excitement about the potential for checkpoint inhibitors to also improve survival for patients with Franken's. It's exciting. Stem talk is an educational service of the Florida institute for human machine mission. A not for profit research lab pioneering groundbreaking technologies aimed at leveraging and extending human cognition perception, locomotion and resilience. Someone step aside for just a second. Ask you something. We'll different you're helping lead health organiz coalition known as the remission alliance as university of Florida initiative that brings together neuro oncology experts from institutions across the US and Canada key talk about that a little bit. Yes. The remission alliance is essentially a translational research collaborative with a number of institutions and really partners in investigators that have been engaged in the brain tumor space have a strong interest in brain tumor imminent therapy. And in many ways were partners that we have been engaged with collaborative research over the last several years whether through clinical trials, and or preclinical research efforts what we recently have done is formed a more formalized network with some funding support to really elevate the sharing of data and the functional activity of these collaborations and to bring some of the best mine. Minds in the areas of imaging bioinformatics machine based learning and -nology as well as brain tumor biology together in a to provide lend their expertise to a number of ongoing projects within this coalition. And so we're hopeful that that through a or formalized research collaboration that spans preclinical research through clinical trials that will be able to celebrate the pace of discovery particularly for immunotherapy applications for brain cancer. One reads in the literature and also here's of anti dodo -ly stories end, and as I said published literature one here's of ketogenic diets being beneficial in the context of cancer, and this is typically attributed to the Warburg effect. I'm wondering if you've given any thought to the role of h Dak inhibitors beta hydroxybutyrate is ineffective h Dak inhibitor, and perhaps some of the benefit that has been reported is not only from the energetic affective Kito bodies. But also. Oh from I signaling effect such as H Dak Uni Bishen. That's a really interesting question. And something that we have given some thought to in terms of how epi genetic modification of cancer cells may actually funnel into immunotherapy or immune recognition as well. As you know, the changes in gene expression profile that occurs with H deck. In addition can obviously lead to reprogramming of tumor cell growth and differentiation that can have an anti-tumor effect. But we also know that it can potentially turn on the expression of genes that we would call tumor associated antigens that were perhaps not expressed previously and these could lead to new targets for the immune system to recognize. And so one of the exciting areas, I think of exploration is to actually look at the combination of an H Dak inhibitor along with an image therapeutic approach to really explore whether this treatment allows us to have new targets for the immune system to go after and perhaps targets. They have been tolerant hasn't been tolerant against and could could lead to much more effective therapeutic approaches. So I think the opportunity for synergy and combinations. Very attractive. A recent paper in the journal nature communications describes how you and your colleagues at Florida have discovered a new use of stem cells that could clear a revolutionary pathway to make immunotherapy drugs effective in treating brain cancer. Can you talk about why you think this is one of the more exciting development that you've seen in in several years. He has the work you you speak of comes from recent studies that really were led by Dr Catherine floors at our university who is a stem cell biologist by training and a number of years ago dot Flores got interested in trying to understand what the role of stem cells outta poetic stem cells from the bone marrow may be in immune recognition and immune modulation against malignant brain tumors. And in studies that we've done in collaboration. We've discovered a unique role for. Bone marrow derived stem cells and not only just replenishing the immune system after you know, lymph deplete of chemotherapy radiation. But actually, these stem cells migrate to areas of invasive tumor growth and have a profound effect on the tumor, micro environment itself, and these effects include being able to recruit immune cells into the tumor, micro violent and also for these stem cells to play a role in presenting antigens as they differentiate into antigen presenting cells to the immune system. And so this is a unveiled a unique opportunity to use out of putting bone marrow derived stem cells, not just as a rescue therapy. But actually as a population of cells that can enhance the effects of immune therapies, and we in fact found that you could take tumors that were completely resistant to check point treatment alone, and when combined with a stems intravenous stem cell delivery, these tumors were now a sensitized to becoming responsive to PD one, blockade and other immune, checkpoint and hip. Hitters, and this was shown in multiple brain tumor models that were in distinct areas of the brain and distinct genetic subtypes, so we're really excited that this may have the potential to be broadly applicable approach to treating malignant brain tumors, and possibly other cancers. Aw, though, it'd be credible. We're excited about I can see why cancer vaccines have been in the news allot lately. Can you tell us a bit about how cancer vaccines work? Yes. So the the term cancer vaccines really just implies a stimulus that is given to a patient's own immune system that either initiates Android Hance is a response against altered proteins in the tumor. These are typically what we call therapeutic vaccines, not preventative vaccines in the classical sense. So we are talking typically, but a patient already has cancer, and we are trying to boost the immunity against their tumor cells by administering some type of vaccine formulation. And there are a number of different types. So there could be peptides that encode for tumor antigens that are delivered in vaccine formulation. There could be viruses that are used to express to manage ins, we use the patient's own cells dendritic cells, which are responsible for stimulating in responses as a cell based vaccine where they are loaded with tumor antigens. So there's a variety of different ways of trying to deliver these antigens, but they all work essentially by stimulating the patient's own T cell response. Typically, and other effector immune cells to now recognize those antigens and seek out and kill the tumor cells. So you also have a study investigating personalized brain tumor targeting vaccines for treatment of pediatric Mitchell, blessed Doma, Hugh tells a little bit more about the study. Yes. So one of the challenges in developing vaccines against brain cancers. And and and other cancers is that they're very heterogeneous and oftentimes even patients with the same diagnosis like metal blessed Toma have individual distinctions in terms of what proteins tumors are expressing. And so we derived an approach where we take the genetic material from the patient's own tumor obtained during a biopsy or during surgery, and we extract that in the form of messenger Arna. So we take the whole Marin a profile of the tumor, which is really just the blueprint of what proteins are being expressed in that patient's tumor cells. And then we deliver that Marin a to the dendritic cells of the immune system, which really responsible for. Processing, presenting antigens and initiating tesol response. And so these patients receive back their own dendritic cells that have been loaded with genetic material isolated from their cancers in a way that we believe is much more effective at stimulating an immunologic response against those tumor antigens fascinating and the past received a lot of attention for the results of clinical trial, using an enhanced vaccine credited with significantly extending the lives of multiple GBM patients, including one woman who is in her thirteenth year being cancer free. So can you give us an overview this trial, and what you've learned from it? Yes. So this was a trial that explored the use of again, a tala goose didn't Riddick cell vaccine that was loaded with RA and coding for amateur expressed within Glebe less Dilma tumor cells, and these cells were delivered back to the patients where we inject the dendritic cells under the skin as an introduce vaccine and their job is to migrate to the lymph nodes and stimulated in response. It turned out in our early trial. We knew that these dendritic cells while they are. Affective doing that the efficiency of them migrating to lymph nodes is not extraordinarily high. And so we explored in a cohort of patients could we enhance that process by also delivering a very strong vaccine in this case, the tetanus diphtheria booster vaccine at the same time. We were delivering the dendritic cells, and we monitored whether this did enhanced the migration and the activity of the Riddick cells, and it turned out the combination was very effective at doing that. What was somewhat surprising was that not only did this enhanced the migration of these cells to the lymph nodes, but the patients who received that combination had twice the survival of patients who had received the vaccine without the tetanus diphtheria combination. And so those were pretty compelling results. It was a small phase one study at the time, but that allowed us to get National Cancer Institute funding to repeat a very large phase two clinical trial, which is ongoing now at the university of Florida and in collaboration with my colleagues at Duke where we will look to treat a one hundred twenty patients with Cleo Blackstone and see if we can replicate the. Pretty impressive clinical effects that we saw on the early phase trial. Don just mentioned a woman that's in her thirteenth year cancer free, and she had globalist Noma how frequently do we see long term survival of this disease? So glib less stone the prospects for long term survival. We typically define that as you know, greater than say five years. Arrival occurs in less than ten percent of patients with glass Toma. We do know that with standard treatment, though, there are there is a subset of patients who do have prolong survival through extensive genetic characterization as well as examining clinical factors. These are typically younger patients, and they had that have a particular type of Glebe less Doma that is more responsive to chemotherapy, and has some characteristic mutations that also determines they have a differential growth pattern of those tumors. When we look at older patients, and the more characteristic profile, Cleo, blessed home of the number of long-term survivors. Goes down dramatically. And so in the early phase trials we have seen this patient. The example, you is our was our longest terms arrive. One of earliest treated patients who we've seen several patients that would not have a predicted profile that was favorable for long term survival have survivals pass five years, but we always have to be cautiously optimistic when we're conducting early phase studies because they don't have the the numbers to really determine what the true impact of the treatment is going to be in a large population. So that's what we're excited about exploring currently, but very encouraged by the early signals, obviously, there are these outliers exceptional responders. I tend to think that they may perhaps have an immune response that we really should be trying to study and see if there are any common characteristics beyond tumor biology. The might have the secret there said twain a fair bit of research is focused on the fact that tumors can be rather heterogeneous. So that is there's a variety of distinct micro environments with varying populations of neoplastic cells and other types of cells and heterogeneity can have. Ignificant impact on response to therapy. So is there in effect of tumor micro environment response to Munich therapy? Fantastic question and the early studies in examining this notion. Have certainly concluded that yes, the immune micro environment of tumors is also heterogenius, but when we look across distinct will we call molecular subtypes of say either glee blessed Oba or mental bless Doma where we know different genetic mutations define the subset of tumors. We have actually found and published as well as others that the immune micro environments of these distinct subtypes of tumors can differ quite significantly at least in preclinical studies. We have shown that the molecular subtype of for instance, magical Blackstone results in a significant difference in the immune micro environment and a significant difference in the response to him. You know therapy and patients because we don't yet have an FDA approved treatment for patients with brain cancer using particularly in therapy. We haven't had large cohorts of patients that we could classify as respond. There's versus non responders to really know how much of the response to mean therapy in patients is dictated by the heterogeneity of the of the tumor mechanize, but all indications demonstrate that there's going to be as much complexity and heterogeneity within the immune micro environment. As we're seeing within the tumor biology in tumor, micro itself side, read some articles that bio material based nanoparticles could be a potential solution for delivery of cancer antigens, immune cells to circumvent these tumor. Mike environments that are immune suppressive, can you? Tell us more about how these nanoparticles would work and where this research stands. So that we think is potentially very exciting is to use strategies that not only delivered tumor antigens to the immune system. Actively say in the form of a cancer vaccine, but also have the capacity to significantly modify the tumor micro environment from a classically or more characteristically immune. Suppressive? Mike Grimm virement to an immune activating, micro environment and studies that have been led by one of one of my colleagues at the university of Florida. Dr Liese say our recently published that aren't based nanoparticles. So these are liposomes that have been loaded with 'em Arna that encode for tumor antigens can be very effective as vaccine, but perhaps even more interestingly have a profound effect on activating the immune system systemically. And so we see within the tumor micro environment. A profound change of the expression profile on immune cells and the activation of immune cells in the tumor micro environment from an immunosuppressive profile too much, more Munich potentiating and being activating CRA follow. And so we think liposomes are nanoparticles of of different formulation types. Maybe really important biologic response modifiers for the framing of therapy. Indeed. So you touched on this earlier, but are our genetic or EPA genetic factors that strongly influence the response that one sees from immunotherapy. Yes. So this is an area that's were gaining increasing understanding of you know, you might call the immunogenetics. And so how does the genetic profile impact the potential to respond to me in therapy as well as the treatment course, or response? And there's really I think to where we already know that there are important differences one is the factors within the tumor Micron Varman itself. So certain genetic subtypes, for instance, of Cleo blastoff have a constituent of expression of PD L, which we know was very potent. I mean, checkpoint again immunosuppressive lion. And so although PD L one can be up regulated in the context of an inflammatory response. There are some tumor subtypes that seem to express this molecule more constituent of leave due to genetical rations. And so you might imagine that the propensity to be responsive than to checkpoint blockade can be very different if the mechanism by which the league is being expressed is driven as a secondary illogic response or perhaps constituent upregulation from gene modifications were still gaining understanding of that. But there's clear evidence that the genetic backgrounds, and in this case, we're talking about within the tumor can profoundly influence the expression of in markers the other area that hasn't been quite as well studied. But we're gaining that are standing on the patient's own host immune response as you can imagine with H A types across different backgrounds. We are already seeing your own h allay type may influence, your propensity to respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors, and so certain d- that may be indicative of either, you know, how well you present certain antigens. We don't quite understand what the mechanistic link is. But there's clear evidence that a patient's own genetic background can influence their propensity to response. So this is an area that's being actively explore. I like to loosely call it perhaps the immuno genome IX of trying to understand both the genetics of the tumor as well as the host. And how that influences response to therapy. It's an incomplete picture, but we know it's very very important fascinating. We are learning more and more these days about the gut microbiome bended influences all kinds of things including immune system. Regulation. Does it have an influence with respect to immunotherapy have you seen a connection in cancer? Immunotherapy? Yes. I think one of the more at least to me fascinating. Recent understanding in discoveries has been the profound role that the gut microbiome or the microbiome plays in imminent logic, systemic responses and response to me in therapy. So there's been direct evidence in the study of checkpoint. In addition that the gut microbiome can have a profound influence certainly in an experimental settings in terms of making the diff. Between responding to check when innovation or being completely unresponsive to check on innovation in the same tumor. Experimental models can be modulated just based on differences between the micro biomass in the intestinal and micro environments entreated hosts, there's also been very strong cooperative linkage in patients who respond to checkpoint inhibitors versus don't do not respond and differences between the gut microbiome between responders and non responders which strongly suggests that this has a profound influence in humans as well. We have really interesting experiments where you can transfer the micro biomass that's associated with response. And again, these are experimental settings to hosts that would be resistant and now convey sensitivity. So we think that this is this is a whole new universe. In terms of understanding the complexity of the genomes that are in involved now in in in these species, but they they clearly have have a really profound response on our immune response. And we're just. Ginning to really peel back. Our understanding of of how to systematically characterize that. And then importantly, how to take advantage of this understanding to to have better responses, impatient. So nominally complex it is. And I think fascinating phenomenally complex. But, but I also think you know, is a is a really exciting new avenue to think about how we may be able to hopefully one day use that understanding to to convert a greater number of patients to responders who Navarre earlier guests on stem talk Elise. Alesia Fasano is thought leader in microbiome, and I suggest that folks interested in that might want to go back to that episode. And and listen to it. We we have within our cancer therapeutics program Christian Jomon is a is a leader in the microbiome arena. Who's part of our cancer therapeutics? He's Khalid of cancer therapeutics program. So it's a major area of of studied interest that we're trying to get a handle on. Yeah. I think it's Inara that will require advice. Danced methods. I'm particularly some modern AI methods ignorant machine learning and others. Yeah. One you start thinking about the number of the we'll call Olmecs platforms that you can characterize just on tumor host and now micro bio, the ability to integrate all of that data meaningful, and I deeply elucidate informative patterns or prognostic. Or predictive information is going to take some type of sophisticated machine base learning algorithms to to a group project. Where'd you see the next exciting steps in research for brain tumor treatment coming from like what you see around the corner that really excites you I think there are perhaps two major areas I'm really excited about in terms of the future directions for brain gym in therapy one. As I mentioned earlier, we have some new recent evidence that something called Neo advent therapy or to starting immune therapy before you take patients to the operating room has a profound effect on potentially a profound effect on their propensity to respond to immune therapies mechanistically. This is just beginning to be investigated. But the observation has been that patients who started an immune checkpoint inhibitor prior to surge Cobra section had much greater evidence of biologic immunologic activity to the treatment and greater survival compared to pay since you started treatment post operative Lii. And so this will we call Neo advent treatment strategy, really. Is new avenue for exploration. And and I think attention very exciting area. Now for combinations. That may be very effective for patients with brain cancer. And so that's one area. The other is you know, there's a lot of enthusiasm about immune therapy treatments, obviously in general. But when we really look and dig deep in the data what we see is right now, a sub population of patients seem to be having these remarkable responses, and so, you know, converting say a twenty or thirty percent response rate in a cancer that previously had no responses is very exciting. But obviously for that seventy to eighty percent of the patients who are not deriving benefit. We really haven't had a profound impact on their survival yet. So we and others have been really been focusing mechanisms of resistance, why do some patients failed to respond some tumors characteristically failed to respond, and what can we do to overcome those mechanisms of resistance, and we at least have some I think early findings that are giving us indications of where to focus. So I think over the next five to ten. Years seeing increasing percentages and really meaning. I don't say meaningful the numbers that are responding very meaningful now, but, you know, much higher impact in terms of the pennant patients who benefit and then this new new approach in terms of thinking about how we treat brain tumors before we perhaps perform surgery and patients really interesting, really exciting. Okay. So by nineteen seventy cancer had become the second leading cause of death. The United States in nineteen seventy-one president Nixon signed a landmark piece of legislation called the National Cancer act. Some curious can you talk about the impact legislation has had on research and our efforts to reduce cancer mortality in America. Yes. So the National Cancer act really formalized our nation's commitment to funding cancer research created a the the NCI the National Cancer institute's funding mandate that came from the which allows the NCI director to be directly appointed and have a distinct and dedicated budget to fund extramural and intramural cancer research programs at the NIH and abroad. And this is really been a huge engine for innovation particularly in discovery research that of course is then capitalized upon by by pharmaceutic development and commercial development. So if we look over the last thirty years, there are cancers that in nineteen seventy perhaps childhood leukemia is maybe one of the. The greatest examples that had mortality rates of ninety five percents. If you were diagnosed with childhood leukemia. He had about ninety five percent chance of losing your child to this disease today of those same diagnoses have about a ninety five percent curate. And so we have through sisters through the systematic organization of clinical research preclinical, research, basic, science discoveries and support a major part of that support being from the NCI. But also, the all the Ansari funding that has come from that we can see diseases that have been transformed by those efforts where we are today. I think is is that we are really are able to hone in on the cancers that are perhaps rare and incidence and haven't received as much attention or have just been characteristically refractory, and brain cancers, I think is one of those examples where the we can't we don't have a narrative yet like we have in in those leukemia's. So I think it's continued to have a tremendous impact in terms of overall cancer mortality, but. We still have a long ways to go in some areas prevention has also been a huge part of that. We don't, you know, those of us working therapeutics oftentimes forget to mention certainly for cancers like lung cancer, perhaps the most profound impact has just been decreasing in smoking rates has had the most profound impact on decreasing metality from lung cancer HP vaccination as a prevention for HVAC associated cancers and vaccines against viral induced cancers, such as Liber cancer have is a profound effect on on incidences. So there are certainly great examples of dramatic successes. But that allows us, of course, to to turn a focus to the areas where we haven't seen as much progress said Dwayne, although you are still relatively young in your career. You've had an impressive track record of research success. So do you have any advice for aspiring researchers or physicians or even physician researchers? Yes, I think well two things I think a career in research, I believe is one of the most rewarding careers. You can have a chance to wake up every day. And think about you know, is there something we can do I can do our team can do that potentially could have an impact a favorable impact on patient's lives in the future. And they're very few. I think professional opportunities where we have the privilege of being able to potentially makes a significant contribution to not forget that as we're all, you know, lost in our grant writing precious to publish and the experiments that aren't going exactly what we plan that. We still are privileged to be engaged in in in this field. And then the other is, you know to follow your your desires in your passions in your career choices. My fundamental philosophy has been as long as I'm enjoying what I'm doing. It's not really work. You have to work hard at it. But if you could find something that you would do even if you weren't being compensated, then I think it can it can really contribute to fantastic rewarding career definitely agree on that here. So Dwayne you've talked about how much you love your career. But what? Else? Do you do outside of work? My passion outside work right house. My family been married to my wife for we just celebrate our twentieth. Anniversary a few months ago, we have three wonderful boys eleven nine and five years old. And so when I have some spare time we really enjoy doing things with the children, whether it's their sports activities, they religion are being outdoors and fishing. So I right now just to joy having those moments with my three sons and my wife to just enjoy their their presence and take step away from work for a little bit. And just to watch the children who don't really seem to have a care in the world of having fun and enjoying themselves. And that's really been a great pleasure for us. Yeah. It's wonderful kids. Always remember going fishing with their parents to their whole life. My boys. Love we have a little fishing pond close to our home and dressing. I moved. I think that was my no matter what time I got home from work. If there was any light left in of before sundown we had to run out there and throw pull that letter. And it's been great fun. That's a great way to end the day said Dwayne. Thank you so much for joining us to Dan, some talk that was my pleasure. Thank you. But thank you is really good. Stem stem talk. So it's fantastic. Having Dwayne on the podcast is great to know while he's do Cuba's absolutely respected by the faculty that I have a chance to work with and student population there as well. So very excited to have them here on stem talk done. Thank you for suggesting doing to the double secret selection committee where all votes are unanimous. And it was of course, in this case as well our conversation with Dwayne was very enlightening and very enjoyable. Yeah. Absolutely. Fascinating research, he's doing very impactful so few enjoy this interview as much as Kenan. I did we invite you to visit the stem talk web page where you can find the show notes for this and other episodes stem talk that US this is Don Carnegie signing off for now. And this is Ken Ford, saying goodbye until we meet again on stem talk. Thank you for listening to stem talk. We want this podcast to be discovered by others. So please take a minute to go to ITN's to rate the podcast, and perhaps even writer view more information about this and other episodes can be found at our website stem, talk dot US there. You can also find more information about guests. We interview.
Someone is tracking e-scooter injuries, and it's getting ugly
"This. Marketplace podcast is brought to you by the university of Florida Warrington college of business transform your future with an MBA from one of America's top ten universities. Learn more at Warrington dot ufl dot EDU slash NBA and by brother Inc fest -ment tank printers. It's happened to all of us right before an important presentation. The printer runs out of ink brother Inc. Vestment tank printers help put a stop to this. And can literally change the way you Inc. Your choice of up to one or two years of ink included in box helps eliminate the expense and hassle of frequently buying and replacing in cartridges. Learn more at change the way you Inc dot com. Start with an update from the trade war. I'm David Brancaccio in New York trade talks between the US and China are going very, well, according to President Trump yesterday as for the March first deadline for a deal or US tariffs on Chinese goods, go up sharply. The president said it's quote, not a magical date a Chinese government newspaper. Just ran an editorial warning new tariffs encounter tariffs would quote be catastrophic for stock markets a Chinese delegation is headed to Washington for the next round set for tomorrow. But as marketplace's Scott Tong reports, it's not clear if they're getting anywhere on the most challenging items, the easy part is Beijing pledging to buy more American stuff so beans, natural gas, helicopters, the hard part undoing a Chinese system that critics say subsidizes homegrown companies illegally blocks competition and siphons American technology. David Hathaway is with the DC consultancy Albright. Stonebridge we haven't. Seen a willingness on the Chinese side's bring much new to the table in the areas where there's the most US concern, those areas spark tariffs on Chinese imports. That is scheduled to go up on March. First before lowering them, the US wants China to commit to playing fair or suffer the consequences. Lynn Fisher, FOX, former US trade negotiator says American officials have options they could pull them tariffs back and then hold reserves -bility to put them back in place. Any deal would likely be general framework with a roadmap for more talks as for the March one deadline? President Trump said it's not quote, a magical date and could be extended. I'm Scott Tong for marketplace. Checking numbers the footsie in London is up a tenth percent US stock index futures are down slightly minus a tenth of a percent for the future. Now, fresh installment of if only we had an app today's edition tide detergent, you might think it's about selling laundry. So. So but this app, take some more meta view of cleaning close. Marketplace's Ben Bradford reports on how the tide has turned the business pitch was clearly Uber, but for laundry tides maker Procter and gamble says it will expand its app based washing fold service to hundreds of cities in the next year. PNG's Sunder Rahman says it is a shift for the company rebranded augury screen, nor an iconic orange borrow on a store shelf. Instead a customer could leave their dirty clothes in an orange tide dropbox placed in their apartments lobby or local supermarket. The tide app would notify affiliated cleaner to pick the close up P and G already runs similar services in a few cities and colleges and it will compete against several other laundry startups, Bruce begs at the trade magazine, American dry cleaner says on demand laundry delivery is a growth industry laundry. One of those things that we have to do. But it's not necessarily that. We have to be the ones who do it. And. Sales in particular are doing less laundry in house, that's because they're less likely to own homes than previous generations and more likely to rent apartments without a washer and dryer in unit. I'm Ben Bradford for marketplace. We recently heard from Tom in Basel, Switzerland who wrote to tell us that you re sheet some trust the way that marketplace analyzes the economy without foolishness or bias and makes him think about issues in different ways. Now, if you agree with Tom, please join as a marketplace investor by donating online at marketplace dot ORG, thanks to Tom and everyone who makes work possible. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by the United States postal service. Every day. We talk about how innovative companies are reinventing the way business happens. But none of that's possible without the right people to enable it people who get packages to over one hundred and fifty million delivery points affordably on time with the latest technology and expertise. So who can help you deliver the future of commerce, the United States postal service? See why they deliver more ecommerce packages to homes than anyone in the country at USPS dot com slash future. Now, there was story about electric scooters with a serious theme. The scooters have taken US cities by storm over the last year with companies such as lime and bird now valued at about two billion dollars. Each cities are scrambling to write the rules for these things amid many trips to the emergency room by riders. That's also true that there's danger in biking or just walking. But we have marketplace's Jack Stewart now on the unintended consequences of scooting the other evening here in a I was headed to a restaurant about a mile and a half away. And I really didn't want to drive. So I hopped on one of the now ubiquitous electric scooters that you rent by the mile. So it's really as simple as tracking one of these things down via the app scanning code on the handlebars and should be ready to go. I often use them for show Jones, these as they can be a lot of fun. They have peppy exceleron which wishes them forwards quietly, although the small wheels do tend to thaw debates into the bumps profess beat I'm on a failure t were owed. So I feel quite safe here. But. Can understand how you could take full to visual? Bam soul is chief of trauma surgery at scripts Missy hospital in San Diego and the list of scooter injuries. He's treated is enough to make me rethink my transit choices risk, fractures, armed, fractures, leg fractures, pelvic, fractures, spine fractures, severe traumatic brain injury bleeding in the brain. Yeah. And that's just one Ryan Felton at consumer reports cold one hundred ten hospitals across the country to get the big picture. The motivating factor for me. And doing this reporting was that there is no national data on this at this point. He was able to count at least fifteen hundred ER visits since the scooter onslaught began in late twenty seventeen. In a statement, bud says those injuries only a fraction of one percent of total rides lime says it's working on educating writers on safety state and city authorities scrambling now to regulate scooters they're also demanding. Data from operators which could eventually help with accident prevention off a grim back at UC Berkley says roads built for Qasr sidewalks for people bike lanes for well bikes. Visit misalignment between in the merging moat at the fears over the course of a year and a half and the street design which has been there for decades. If cities want these disruptive new arrivals to be a safe option. They might have to get inventive. Of course. None of this is simple the injuries trauma surgeon. Dr Bansal sees are often when people add extra risk factors. Intoxication driving at night and driving without a helmet and driving against the rules. So the message is really these things can be fun. They can even be efficient that the onus on being safe is on us for marketplace on an east Kuta, I'm Jack Stewart, and we're also covering the biggest mining company in the world capping its coal-production as Glencore sees the writing on the wall about climate change. It'll be in the marketplace morning. Report podcast feed later on. If you miss our coverage on the air in New York, I'm David Brancaccio with the marketplace morning. From APM American public media. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by. Indeed, are you hiring with? Indeed, you can post a job in minutes set up screener questions than zero in on your shortlist of qualified candidates using an online dashboard get started today at indeed that com slash marketplace. That's indeed dot com slash marketplace.
Apple Podcasts now available on the web
"From the show in Las Vegas. The latest from pod news dot net. Apple podcasts is now. Available on the web with a brand new web interface pages are responsive and work on desktop and on Android phones. All these new pages are already indexed within Google search, including specific episode pages. First time, I think that podcast episode pages have surfaced in search Google podcasts are also working on a web interface, but yet to probably launch their products and these pages don't appear in ordinary search results both apple and Google products. Still lack of front page or a method of subscribing all access reports on podcasting presence here at the show in Las Vegas in Nevada. It covers many of the sessions, including one that our editor spoke at me, Edison. Research released the podcast consumer two thousand nineteen later today. You can watch the webinar today at two o'clock eastern time. Good news for CBC podcast fan. So use overcast. Everything is apparently working again the athletic a subscription. Sports website has added podcasting to their offer. We've introduced a premier audio experience as part of our subscription, featuring more than twenty exclusive podcast shows with more succumb hosted by the lettuce world class talent says that's from Email sent to subscribers podcasts are available on their website and app, you research from the future media university of Florida and NABC two hundred nineteen national podcast listeners study, which studies podcast listeners contains much data and statistics about you as podcast listeners catching our eye today. Sixteen percent of podcast listeners. Don't subscribe to any podcasts. Thirty three percent of listeners you Spotify. Listen, thirty two percent news. Apple podcasts. Surprisingly seventy percent plan to use YouTube possibly related to the above streaming podcast is more popular than downloading and two thirds of listeners say. Prefer host read advertising than creep reduced spots. Audio crops podcast festival have announced new speakers to their event in Sydney New, South Wales. Stray Leah from the end of may to the beginning of June speakers from Spotify Radio New Zealand and everything is alive. Ian Chile have been announced the third annual pop con podcast awards will take place at popcorn in Indianapolis. In indiana. The awards are open to anyone who has had a podcast with five episodes or more. And this no cost to submit the event also has a life podcast stage open to everybody as well. As a podcast marathon, it's between June the seventh and ninth and U s podcast app is being announced podcasts might Yuna is a free and fully featured app including support for car play. An apple TV particularly it allows filtering podcasts by country language or category. It's from a team based in Portugal. Meanwhile, since a short form audio platform has released a number of enhancements, including automated podcast imports. And jessica. Sherman is returning to at large media as vice president of affiliate sales and content to you podcast to tell you about today. A little bit me with Ted Sandra is from the standard comedian and wonder is one plus one back for a new season this time focusing on Mexican artists Frida Kahlo and Diego. Rivera the podcast explores history's most notable partnerships. And that's the very latest from our newsletter at pod news dot net.
The heat is on
"This. Marketplace podcast is brought to you by the university of Florida Warrington college of business transform your future with an MBA from one of America's top ten universities. Learn more at Warrington dot ufl dot EDU slash NBA. And by send pro from Pitney Bowes, send pro online software makes it easy to save time and money print shipping, labels and stamps, right? From your desk and access discounted rates. Try it free for thirty days and get a free ten pounds scale when you visit PBA dot com slash morning. That's PB dot com slash morning. We'll have some economic effects of the skin cracking cold. I'm David Brancaccio in New York. The big chill of the polar vortex is upon a great swath of North America cities are scrambling to get homeless peoples to shelter homeless people to shelter thousands of businesses in schools are closed. Here's marketplace's Kimberly Adams record colds can be costly, especially for low income families. Timothy smeeting researches poverty at the university of Wisconsin, Madison older draft your houses with poor heating, and so it's going to be colder where they are that can drive up utility bills and smeeting says they're forced not to work because businesses are closed that can put a real crimp in their budgets in most states, your utility company can't cut off your heat and bitter cold, even if you're behind on your bills and states are ready to step in our department is prepared to expedite requests for energy assistance because. We're anticipating there's going to be more Wheaton is with the Michigan department of health and human services, which runs the federally funded heating assistance program for the state if you furnace goes out, it's well below zero. It's an extreme emergency with much of the country under cold weather. Warnings officials want people to know help is available. I'm Kimberly Adams for marketplace. Because of the cold the post office is suspending delivery and parts of about a dozen states from the Dakotas through Chicago into western Pennsylvania. And how cold is it Amtrak? Crews put down ropes soaked in kerosene and set them on fire to warm up tracks people around the world or not upgrading iphones like used to Apple's latest profit report showed the first drop in sales during the holidays in over a decade analysts had been warned some weeks ago in some see these results is better than expected. The stock is up more than five percent in pre-market trading. Now sales of services hit an all time high. But most of the money apple makes still comes from smart. Phones, fifty one out of eighty four billion dollars. Molly would the host of marketplace tech is following this. I doubt this will change apples plans to release new phones every year at least not this year or maybe next year. But the company does have to come up with a strategy to sell more phones in China. And in India where sales are really lagging or figure out how to make country-specific phones that are cheaper or just cheaper flagship smartphones. These devices are just really good right now. So if you're in the United States, and you have an iphone eight or an iphone ten you just don't see a need to spend another thousand dollars on a new one if you're in India or China where alway and one plus and Xiaomi are making phones that are just as premium in terms of specs but half the price. The apple brand just isn't going to carry the day apple has been pretty cautious in its approach to services and to new markets, and it's actually time to put some of these plans into high gear in some way or start working on hardware like India specific phone models. It cost less and bring people in the door. Even some of these Sary's and services models and businesses that apple is developing still rely on people owning iphone, so it's just not a market that they can abandon its too tightly tied to the success of the business. Molly would host marketplace tech. Apple also said yesterday, it will it will cut prices for iphones in some countries. Where the falling value of the local currency made the phones a lot more expensive some numbers. The footsie in London is up one point three percents. Dow innocent futures are up three tenths percent. As a nonprofit news organization. Marketplace's able to do what we do everyday thanks to funding from public radio stations foundations corporate underwriters and listeners like you. Thank you to all the marketplace investors contributed over the last year for helping keep public service journalism strong all of us, really. Appreciate your support. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by with Sabi. Hot cloud storage. If your company's thinking about moving data storage to the cloud, check out the company. That's rethinking cloud storage with Sabi is less expensive than just the maintenance on your current on premises storage. Plus, it's eighty percent cheaper and six times faster than Amazon S three with no egress fees. Experience. It for yourself with free unlimited storage for a month. Go to Assab dot com. Click free trial and use the offer code with Sabi. In America about ten thousand baby boomers, turn sixty five among those sixty five and older one in five don't drive for health or economic reasons. This is an obvious challenge in a country so dependent on the car from shopping for food to socializing marketplace's Mitchell Hartman reports the national association of area agencies on aging recently surveyed older adults and CEO sandy Mark would says seventy two percent responded that getting transportation to medical points was the highest need that they had you can see that need by looking at the daily pattern of Uber and lift rides says Harvard Business School professor Joe fuller. There are a lot of people who want to be big airport in the morning, ten AM. There are a lot of people being taken to a medical appointments, but a lot of seniors can't afford ridesharing services or taxis. So many rely on family members fuller recently studied, how the aging population is placing economic burdens on caregiver. There's people of the preceding generation are moving from care providers to care recipients. Meaning a lot more people to care for across the country. There's a patchwork of programs to help seniors get to doctors appointments pharmacies and grocery stores in Portland, Oregon. There's a free payer funded service called right connection van driver. Michael Shepard meets me in the parking lot on a recent weekday morning. Finish my free trip here on this vehicle beyond way. I stop the Salvation Army women's shelter to pick up seventy year old Virginia Palmer and her sweater clad schnauzer named Oreo. Going to the dentist. Got four fan. This morning next. Stop is firm. Michael, jordan. He's sixty three and suffered a stroke several years ago. Jarding hasn't driven in years and says even getting to a bus, stop, his heart. I don't have the during the walk out far anymore and taxis just expensive his living on extinct. Come driver. Michael shepherd. Also does a weekly van trip to Costco, and department store Fred Meyer, and he says the value to seniors goes way beyond saving twenty bucks. They'd otherwise have to spend on a cab picked up lady the other day. And she said, yeah, this is the first time I've been out of the house and a couple of weeks, and I think that's even more of a help than the rightist. So as the population ages transportation challenges will grow more than six hundred thousand people age seventy and older stopped driving every year. I'm Mitchell Hartman for marketplace. And when the Federal Reserve wraps up its interest rate meeting in about seven hours here. It'll be interesting to hear what the fed chief says about patient patiently or patients is our words Jay Powell had been using to signal that his team is not in a hurry to raise interest rates again in New York. I'm David Brancaccio with the marketplace morning report from APM American public media. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by Sunpro by Pitney Bowes, Sunpro online software makes it easy to save time and money, no matter what you ship or mail print shipping, labels and stamps, right? From your desk and access discounted rates. Try it for free for thirty days and get a free ten pound scale when you visit PBA dot com slash morning. That's PB dot com slash morning.
The rent is too darn high in China, too
"This. Marketplace podcast is brought to you by the university of Florida Warrington college of business transform your future with an MBA from one of America's top ten universities. Learn more at Warrington dot ufl dot EDU slash NBA and by brother Inc fest -ment tank printers. It's happened to all of us right before an important presentation. The printer runs out of ink brother investment vestment tank printers. Help put a stop to this. And can literally change the way you Inc. Your choice of up to one or two years of ink included in box helps eliminate the expense and hassle of frequently buying and replacing in cartridges. Learn more at change the way you Inc dot com. Keeping tabs on the US economy amid a trade war. I'm David Brancaccio in New York, President Trump is possibly signaling some wiggle room for the impending deadline for a U S China trade agreement or tariffs on Chinese goods sharply rise March I is not the president said yesterday, a magical date with U S China trade talks set to resume tomorrow in Washington editorial in a Chinese government newspaper warned of a catastrophe for stock markets, higher tariffs and counter tariffs are enacted tomorrow. We'll get a rich menu of economic data, including orders for durable goods like to say that data will be fresh. But some of it will be a bit stale having been delayed by the federal government shutdown. Let's check in today with Karen Kavanagh market strategist at voyeur investment management had some delays because of the Washington shut down. But the data overall is still continuing to affirm the narrative that the US economy is is doing pretty good and investors are starting to respond. To that that global growth is a concern. But here in the US things have been going pretty well. I mean retail sales nut so good as we wrapped up last year. But we also saw that homebuilders this was dated from just yesterday. Home builders were quite optimistic about the months ahead that retail sales number was a little bit of an aberration. I think we'll probably see some positive revisions and guiding the sentiment of market participants in part is what happens with these trade talks with apparently a deadline March. I I think that we will see somewhat of a positive outcome. I don't think it will be resolved. But I think the investors are are looking at it with some optimism. And then also the fed has been pretty much on hold. If said they're going to do no harm. So that's another thing that investors can check off their lists. Doug trade. Of course, it could turn at any moment. I'll call you back. If that does change, right. It's it certainly can. But the fact that they're talking is is a good thing Darren Cavanaugh investment management. Thank you. You're very welcome. There's news. Is the biggest mining company in the world? Glenn core. The Anglo Swiss multinational is going to cap its coal output. Get in line with the big United Nations agreement to slow climate change marketplaces Renat sago is here with some details. They that Glencore says it's going to keep production at about one hundred fifty million tons of coal of year. That's about four million tonnes lower than what the company was forecasting to produce this year. This decision is huge for Glencore. The coal is made the company big money. That's allowed for billions of dollars in dividends. Share buybacks? Now, the company says it's gonna use this money instead to invest in renewable energy and metals used to make electric cars, and this is about the Paris climate change agreement to keep global temperatures down. Right. Environmental advocates have been pushing Glencore to cap its coal production for years that identified the company as a direct contributor to rapid climate change a group of pretty influential investors, including the church of England even got. Involved. This news really since a message to the global natural resources industry, the stand down, but Glencore still has to tend to its bottom line. Right, right. The company says it actually expects higher profit this year on call at even hinted that this news with Dr coal prices up. That's because we're seeing higher coal consumption in some parts of the world renowned. A thank you Glencore stock is down slightly in London. Despite the announcement of a stock buyback today. Now, the plan to keep rental prices down that didn't seem to work the cost of finding a place to live in China's mega-cities over the last decade has surpassed even increases in the San Francisco Bay area Silicon Valley China has a plan to fix this. But marketplace's China correspondent, Jennifer pack reports. Injure Young's fishing eel, stall at the chunk law market in central Shanghai. He does good business here. Just like his son who owns another seafood stall across town. But even together they still can't afford to buy an apartment in Shanghai. So they rent. It's a one bedroom place. There are six of us. Staying there me my wife. My son, my daughter-in-law in two grandchildren. The rent started at two hundred fifty dollars a month. But over the last four years it's gone up by fifty percent. Renton big cities continue to see double digit increases, even though China's government has pledged more affordable housing a John funded. Yang aging with real estate research institute e house says the government's plan is to attract investors with land and easy credit to build rental projects. The on. However, the policy did not address the demand side such as expanding the limited rights of tenants on top of that a new group of real estate brokers worked with landlords to upgrade the apartments, then rent them out at much higher prices agenda. Tweet the situation. Now is that there are still some empty rental units. Some rental projects shut or gone bankrupt. Because tenants can't afford the rent. Meanwhile, the government has demolished many buildings that don't meet fire safety codes. So there are fewer cheap places for migrant workers to rent. Back at the Chung while markets seafood merchant Rindge on young says he could return to his village in eastern Jiangsu province his house. There is far more spacious. Little pigs sleep in back home is bigger than the apartment or renting and Shanghai. CD? Living is hard. He says, but it's worth it. Because the money he makes injunction high allows him to own two properties in his hometown. In shanghai. I'm Jennifer Pap for marketplace. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by the United States postal service. Every day. We talk about how innovative companies are reinventing the way business happens. But none of that's possible without the right people to enable it people who get packages to over one hundred and fifty million delivery points affordably an on time with the latest technology and expertise. So who can help you deliver the future of commerce, the United States postal service? See why they deliver more ecommerce packages to homes than anyone in the country at USPS dot com slash future. Now to the Wednesday installment of house that Brexit going Britain, one of the promises of those pushing for the UK to leave the European Union was the the trade deals would snap into place with other big trade partners, including Japan and South Korea Wilmslow bunch the snapping the BBC's economics correspondent Andrew Walker joins us from London morning. Andrew good morning. David thought this. Supposed to be a trivial matter of cutting and pasting Britain could just switch over its trade relations beyond Europe to the rest of the world. It's not quite that easy. No. It hasn't. The has been some significant progress that have been continuity agreements made with some of these countries on the most important, one of all Switzerland. But some of the others are relatively small plans, the Faroe Islands, for example. And the business minister, Greg Clark has been saying that it doesn't look like we all going to have a couple of the really quite important ones done in time, namely, Japan and South Korea. This is I think a sign of something larger which is still a lot of work to do on post. Brexit arrangement. Absolutely both in terms of trade with the rest of the world issues and in terms of soda out. Exactly what our relationship is going to be with the European Union itself. Another thing we don't know what. Won't tariffs will the UK apply to products coming in from the rest of the world. Olis' remains still to this date with only a few weeks to go profoundly uncertain profoundly uncertain evolving. Terms of trade the BBC's economics correspondent Andrew Walker. Thank you. My pleasure, David. He mentioned the pharaohs their population fifty thousand it's an archipelago in the North Sea to the right of Iceland and to the left of Norway unless you're standing at the North Pole looking down. Then it's never mind in New York. I'm David Brancaccio with the marketplace morning report. From APM American public media. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by. Indeed, are you hiring with? Indeed, you can post a job in minutes set up screener questions than zero in on your shortlist of qualified candidates using an online dashboard get started today at indeed dot com slash marketplace. That's indeed dot com slash marketplace.
Phishing for the greater good
"This marketplace podcast is brought to you by bit site from the back office to the boardroom bit site helps companies of all sizes continuously manage cyber risk using it security ratings platform. Learn more at bit site dot com and by Capital One with the spark cashcard from Capital One. You earn unlimited two percent cashback on all of your business purchases. Think about it unlimited two percent cashback on everything you buy for your business, and that cashback can add up to thousands of dollars which you can reinvest back into your business, so you can keep growing. Learn more at Capital, One dot com. Capital, One, what's in your wallet? A new approach to figuring out who is at risk for being swindled or hacked. I'm David Brancaccio in New York, I in part, because of the US China trade war economists that the UN have revised their estimates for global growth downward to just two point seven percent this year. What is a portfolio manage your to do given it so tough to see where this trade wars going on Wednesdays? We consult Susan Schmidt, head of US equities at Viva investors normally in Chicago. But today with me here in the New York bureau, good to see you. Good morning. All right. Couple schools of thought on all this trade war business. If you're running a portfolio, you could I am fleeing China, I am getting out of the currency or you could sit tight. I mean, which camper you. Well, I prefer to sit tight, we just don't know. So this is a prolonged discussion that is going to have ups and downs. And I really don't see any clarity on it markets uncertainty. Some are choosing to flee. I'm choosing to wait it out. You worried about maybe a recession because of this trade war soon, interestingly, I just met with a bunch of Bank presidents from small and regional banks throughout the country, and they feel that the underlying economy in their towns is strong. So I'm not incredibly worried about a recession because I think the underlying economy in the US is holding up fairly. Well, Susan Schmidt at Aviva investors. Always good to talk to you. Likewise, the Federal Aviation Administration has convened a meeting tomorrow in Texas of air safety regulators from around the world. This says Boeing readies changes to get at seven thirty seven max eight airplanes. Back into the air after two fatal crashes, the European Union's regulator will be there, but they're laying down the line. Here's Johnny bloom, the BBC business correspondent the what the basically saying is not only do they want to see the books as it were unchecked. What Boeing's doing, but they're going to put their own tests on this echo full. They let it fly again. Now that's not. On hurdles, but it is pretty normal for the European Meghan American regulators and safety organizations to trust each other. Now in this case, there's a lot of skepticism about the and its relationship with Boeing, that's the trouble when trust erodes, now, do you think this tension is isolated to this particular seven thirty seven model? The max aid or d get the sense that European regulators are raising their profile preps further. I think it's not just related to this aircraft. But this is the one that's brought it to the full and what the Europeans are really worried about is not the specifics of this case, perhaps, but what's called regulatory capture, which is when the regulator is small relative to say one large company, which dominates an industry and over time develops to close relationship with that company. So for instance, Boeing does quite a lot of its own testing on that testing is an approved by the FAA endure. Group that really wouldn't happen, the regulator would do their own testing wouldn't take the company's word for it so much. So think that worry has been. They want to be convinced that the Americans are taking testing and safety as seriously as they do BBC business correspondent, Johnny bloom, speaking from London, Johnny, thanks a pleasure. David. Not everyone gets a chance to study the economy in school anyway, who doesn't need a brush up marketplace helps you continue your education in a way that we hope is smart accessible and hopefully even a bit fun. Your donation is not only an investment in your own learning, but also in helping us make more people smart about the economy, and that we think is good for everyone to learn how you can help. Visit marketplace dot ORG slash investors. Thank you. This. Marketplace podcast is brought to you by with Sabi hot cloud storage, thinking about moving your data storage to the cloud was obvious enterprise class, cloud storage, at one fifth the price of Amazon S three and up to six times faster with no hidden fees for egress or API. Requests was obvious low cost high speed fully secure storage blows away the competition, including Google and Microsoft disruption starts here. Do the math for yourself and start a free trial. I was Sabi dot com. Or in the middle of our project called brains and losses. The bottom line on aging and financial vulnerability data out of New York found that has few as one in forty four cases of elder financial exploitation are ever reported to thority impart out of shame this makes studying who is especially susceptible tough for researchers. But there's a novel approach in Florida where older people agree to be studied and researchers act like scammers. They sneak fake emails and other sketchy messages onto test subjects computers to see who bites the term is fishing with a ph at the beginning, sending innocuous seeming messages that trigger scams and hacks, part of that university of Florida research team is Natalie Abner a professor of psychology what we did is we simulated phishing attacks and sent those to our study, participants unbeknownst to them, and what we see in that study is that an almost majority of our sample forty three percent, fouth those phishing emails, this included. Young and older dice. But it was, especially the older women who show a particular by our ability in my introduction. I asserted that it's tough to find scam victims to study for researchers. But is it true? Yes. And I would agree that the titular league true in the elderly our approach has a bit of advantage that we actually don't need. Participants will be previously scanned by our simulation. We can basically see on the spot would they far for something if this occurred in real life, so we don't necessarily need for our research to have individuals who have previously fallen for attacks. You imagine like fanciers spam filters that might help older, people protect themselves or ways that if an older adult agrees to let a trusted loved one, help them with their day to day finances. Maybe there's some tech approach there that might facilitate that. Yes. So this is exactly one of the big goals for research project. It's really. Coming up with a tool that an individual computer user can basically just implement on their computers and use on a daily basis to be warned what we call on the spot warning. So this whole research, I'm doing together with my collaborator here at university of Florida Daniele Oliveira. So our idea is to use profile information about the computer user combined this with information. We have about fraud indicators in emails and combine this in a tool, which we plan to call Marlins. So this is under development at the moment, it's going to be the little advisor to the king, the computer user, and then informations information's being combined and generated into a warning, if it's a pass, a certain threshold Natalie, Abner is a professor in the department of psychology and the department of aging in geriatric research at the university of Florida. Thank you so much. Thank you very much, so Merlin, maybe in a couple of years, she says, another possible. For those -ceptable to scams. What researchers call low affect people feeling not depress necessarily, but those seeming, withdrawn or having a bad day? We're more likely to click on the sketchy messages. Listen for our one hour special about age related financial vulnerability in the coming days, on many public radio stations nationwide. Marketplace dot org has resources. This is the marketplace morning report from APM American public media. That's Mike appliance podcast is brought to you by the Capital, One spark cashcard offering unlimited two percent cashback on all of your business purchases. Learn more at Capitola dot com capital Len. What's in your wallet?
Chinas trade war trump card?
"This marketplace podcast is brought to you by the university of Florida Warrington college of business transform your future with an MBA from one of America's top ten universities. Learn more at Warrington dot ufl dot EDU slash NBA. And by the Michigan economic Development Corporation, John, Remmaneh Lee, founder and CEO of airspace. Experienced technology says in Michigan revolution is in the air. I know what planet am is doing to help businesses make that possible at planet m dot com. That's P. L A, Andy T, M dot com. Beijing lobs a fresh trade threat at America. Live from London. This is the marketplace morning report from the BBC World Service. I'm Victoria, Craig in for unin. Good morning, China has threatened to cut off supplies of its rare earth metals as new leverage in its ongoing trade spat with the United States, the country dominates global production of the metals that make up modern electronic like phones wind turbines, and crucially defense equipment. The BBC's sue ping Chan has more from the cell phone in your pocket to electric cause an x Ray machines. Rare earth elements apart of what makes modern gadgets, tick, China could you seventy eight percent of the stuff last year, and has managed to corner the market through a centuries long focus on exploring and extracting them country to the label us, actually aunt very raft. Some of them are more common than silver and COPA. But Carolina Bain capital economics is China's ability to provide a cheap and reliable source makes finding plan be a problem. It does take time for for minds to come onstream. So supply problem come be. Dealt with quickly, and they are very toxic to produce so that, it's, it's also not a terribly desirable industry from the environmental sense for anyone guessing how this traits by ends. Ryan Castillo item us intelligence says there are lessons from the past, there's only really been one major supply disruption within the past decade or so and not occur round two thousand ten when China temporarily cut off supplies to Japan. What we saw then was that there was no viable plan B and it really did temporarily paralyze. Japanese enters. They ultimately took a strong lesson from that incident and Japan has since been one of the most active countries in helping develop other sources of supply base say that this is just that a threat for now, at least by the US, China trade will does escalate ultimately, it'll be the consumer who pays the cash. Register in London. I'm the BBC seeping Chan for marketplace. Let's do the numbers. Worries about an intensifying trade spat between the world's two biggest economies are sending stocks lower all around the world. Hong Kong's Hang sang ended down half a percent while major averages in Europe are down at least one percent to Venezuela. Now we're the country's central Bank unexpectedly released data showing the economy, contracted more than twenty two percent in the third quarter of twenty eighteen that's from the year prior, Andres Abadia is an economist at pantheon macroeconomics. He explains these kinds of statistics are usually closely guarded, and the last time growth figures were published was in two thousand fifteen with inspecting that the central Bank was going to polish, it, these numbers, this, that I chose the state of the economy. The only that I see with the numbers that data suggesting that the inflation right now. He's around forty percent. This, obviously underestimated reasseration lies to believe evidence about thousand percent, and even the IMF is predicting it will reach a staggering ten million percent by the end of this year. So do you think this will put more? Focus on the dire need for economic reforms in Venezuela. Yeah. Yeah. Economy, collapsing, April, Sal, you know, in historic lows than he is, is tragic administrator. You we have seen that many people have flown the country are now as some pointed, it should be like a government change and each taking more time that we have expected. So why did the central Bank publish the stated I don't really know? I mean is kind of baffling in the trying to portray communist improving or is stabilizing, but nobody believes these dumber? Do you think it'll take the publication of more data like this, even the effective rolling power blackouts or the health sector collapse to really move the needle on the ongoing power struggle between president Madero and interim president as many see him one Guido in these to get more international pressure to regime change e would happen as long as their military support model Android. Abba today Nigerian president Muhammadu Bari begins his second and final term as leader of Africa's most populous nation. He vowed this week to cry. Crackdown on corruption and create twenty million new jobs. But in a nation dealing with twenty three percent unemployment, high inflation, and sluggish growth, our promises to kick start the economy enough as he's sworn in for another four years. My feminine is a venture capitalist at aggressive capital in Lagos. She talks about the challenges, she's seen just getting business off the ground. So initially it was a lot on perception. A lot of our work has to do with international partnerships and engaging a top echelon of, of businesses from around the world, common enter and operate in an area on an elsewhere. So it was a lot around perception, our first couple of trips. A lot of the fears of the travelers, where will we have armed guards will there be bulletproof vehicles because the perception of Boko haram in its nearness to Legos, which is not true said those were some of the factors that we were dealing with X far as more recently with technology investing on the continent. Some of the challenges have been around this sort of ever changing regulation. Specifically when it comes to financial services than other sectors where the government is starting to realize there's a lot of development. So if we look at the broader Nigerian economy, we know that the country is dealing with high unemployment of around twenty three percent. I wonder if you have a perspective of, how that's changed young people's aspirations for their expectations about, what kind of jobs, they hope to secure what they hope to do how they define what success is, yeah, in a couple ways, sub Saharan Africa for women has the highest rates of entrepreneurship in the world. And also just for sole proprietorships has one of the one of the highest rates are entrepreneurship in, in the world. But I think what this recent Veld of technology and entrepreneurship, it certainly changed from take this product adds value, and resell it to this more innovation in critical analysis, and also looking from creating businesses for a few people around, you to globally, scalable or thinking, sort of macro economically about the opportunities. So I'm seeing a lot of people come with pitch decks to us. For fashion type businesses for small trade based businesses in the agriculture space, those sort of things we saw the president this week, actually vowed to create twenty million new jobs in Nigeria, does it really matter are people opting more for entrepreneurship, anyway. So they'll create their own jobs. Private sectors booming, especially targeting the youth populations. People can learn whatever they want online, developers can become developers simply by taking courses online, designers can become designer simply by taking courses online. So I think that this new wave of employment and opportunity that we're seeing in the private sector without government intervention, Maya feminine, speaking to me from Lagos, and in London, I'm Victoria, Craig with the marketplace morning report from the BBC World Service.
How immigrants are revitalizing empty storefronts
"This. Marketplace podcast is brought to you by the university of Florida Warrington college of business transform your future with an MBA from one of America's top ten universities. Learn more at Warrington dot ufl dot EDU slash MBA. The trade conflict with China is boiling over again in New York. I'm Sabri Benesch or in for David Brancaccio. Who's on assignment late last year? President Trump suspended a planned increase in tariffs on Chinese goods to help the US and China negotiate a trade deal. Well, the president tweeted over the weekend that things were going to slowly for his taste. And those increases are back on two hundred billion dollars worth of Chinese goods. We'll have import taxes raised from ten percent to twenty five percent. Starting this Friday and tariffs on more goods will come shortly. He said markets did not respond. Well, let's take a look. The Shanghai composite in China closed down five point six percent this morning. The Dow Jones industrial average is down three hundred seventy nine points. That is one point four percent. The S and P five hundred is down one point three percent. The NASDAQ is down one point five percent. The ten year. Treasury yield is at two point four nine percent. So why such a negative reaction? Let's bring in. Julia Coronado founder of macro policy perspectives. Good morning. Good morning. So markets responded. So very negatively to the president's tweet. Why is that? Well, this is a complete turnaround from the expectations that were building for a deal. So for example, we were fielding questions from our clients about what the removal of tariffs would do to measures of consumer inflation over the next year. So the mindset very much has been talks are going. Well, the terrorists are going away. Not that they're going to escalate further. So this is a complete one eighty this is exactly what the IMF was warning us about when it made its economic projections for the year. What's your personal view on how this is gonna play out? I think it's a good reminder, which is the IMF perspective that the trade tensions that we've been seeing are part of a sort of global mosaic of political tensions and rising dysfunction. So we see that with Brexit and Italian budget issues and China and the US and auto tariffs and. Just a whole range of of issues across the globe. And they they're not gonna go away overnight. Even if this turns out to just be a bluff or a bargaining tactic. We are in the world of a lot of tensions over trade agreements and political developments. Julia Coronado founder of macro policy perspectives. Thank you, my pleasure. Secretary of state Mike Pompeo is in Finland today. He's there to speak at the Arctic Council to group of northern countries that meets to work on issues facing the Arctic region. The top of the world is warming at twice the rate of the rest of the planet. Thanks to climate change melting ice there presents both economic challenges and opportunities as marketplace's Scott Tong on our sustainability. Dusk reports a warmer. Arctic means less ice in the summer and more shipping oil drilling. And mining Pompeo is expected to voice concern that much of that activity is nine US. China has invested billions in energy projects with Russia, which doubled its Arctic shipping traffic in the last year Babson college economist, Michael Goldstein, there is a joke. I heard that before you couldn't go through because you get worried about hitting an iceberg. Now, you go through to get to get hit with an iceberg of paperwork for the Russian government. He says it makes sense the Chinese and the Russians are the first movers. Geographically their side of the Arctic is melting. I and economically. Russia needs the energy and China needs diverse shipping. Lanes says multiple Humpert of the Arctic institute think-tank China and Russia overly good at thinking long term, then not tied into two year election cycles, he says the challenge for the US is to engage more and invest more than as meeting will focus on commercial rules when it's okay to fish in a warmer Arctic and preventing oil spills, I'm Scott Tong for marketplace. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by Kronos Cronos knows that hiring and retaining a modern workforce of salaried hourly full and part-time workers can be challenging especially in today's competitive job market. That's why Kronos puts HR payroll talent and time in one place. So HR professionals supporting a blended workforce have all the tools, they need to engage and motivate their people every step of the way. Learn more at Kronos dot com slash HR. Swagger. Kronos, workforce innovation that works. Across the country. You can find big box retailers and even entire malls. That are sitting half empty or that have gone out of business altogether. But in some places, those empty spaces are being filled by small businesses run by immigrants Miguel Perez of K E R A in Dallas reports on these first time entrepreneurs Lhasa garland is nothing like the old abandoned K mart that used to occupy the space in a suburban shopping center northeast of Dallas. The building has been transformed into a giant marketplace. With a performance stage install selling Mexican ice cream being yet that's in handmade goods and Linda Lopez offers in array of colored candles inter small tiny town. For good luck candles and good luck oils and incense and each Saint has their their candle and specific colors specific prayers. Many of the merchants here are immigrants who say they're instilling a sense of community and culture into the space. Georgia Tech, professor Ellen Dunham Jones says that kind of entrepreneurism is key to reviving retail buildings. She studies the different ways outdated retail spaces have been retrofitted across the country. The retirement is certify hanging. In fact, doing really well tends to be retail that is providing an experience you cannot get online. But it took a lot of work to remake the space the KMart closed in two thousand three and officials in the city of garland struggled for years to revive the shopping center. The plaza didn't open until twenty seventeen David Gwynn leads the city's economic development team when regional retail was the primary driver. It was a different economic model that has gone away. And now you've seen a lot more smaller scale economic activity. He says the city changed zoning codes to carve up the former mart into smaller spaces that tenants. Now rent for five hundred to four thousand dollars a month. It really changed the opportunities that could come in there and make something different in in quite frankly, take a difficult situation and make it a more thriving commercial center. Once again, it's a move. That's taken an empty seventy five thousand square foot building and turned it into a hundred and twenty-five spaces and opportunities for local entrepreneurs in Dallas. I'm get bettas for marketplace. In New York, I'm revenge. Sure. With the marketplace morning report. From A P, m American public media. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by the United States postal service. Every day. We talk about how innovative companies are reinventing the way business happens. But none of that's possible without the right people to enable it people who get packages to over one hundred and fifty million delivery points affordably and on time with the latest technology and expertise. So who can help you deliver the future of commerce, the United States postal service? See why they deliver more ecommerce packages to homes than anyone in the country at USPS dot com slash future.
What do a lot of Americans have in common with Drake?
"This marketplace podcast is brought to you by the university of Florida Warrington college of business transform your future with an MBA from one of America's top ten universities. Learn more at Warrington dot ufl dot EDU slash NBA. And by the Michigan economic Development Corporation, Evan Lyle of rush enterprises is a big fan of Michigan as he put it the future mobility, is going to be decided right here in this state, visit planet dot com to find out why that's P. L. A. N. E T, M dot com. A few minutes is real estate a racket. I'm David Brancaccio in New York, President Trump says he will impose an escalating series of tariffs on all goods passing from Mexico into the US. President Trump is pressuring Mexico to stop migrants. The tariffs will start at five percent. Could grow to twenty five percent by October. This will surely complicate parallel efforts to approve a new trade deal with Mexico and Canada. Marketplace's Justin ho is on the story this morning. So here's a quick snapshot of what we import from Mexico. They're our biggest supplier of food imports. We took an almost six twenty six billion dollars worth last year. They also sent us ninety three billion dollars in cars and trucks. So overall, we imported almost three hundred and fifty billion dollars worth of products from Mexico last year. All right. But a tariff of five percent to start next month nickel, but it's not necessarily as simple as five percent, fee customs or something. So each warr Persad at Cornell University says supply chains between the US and next. Geico are really tightly linked groups go back and forth, the border multiple times before they end up as finished draw Deutsche Bank estimates that two-thirds of imports between Mexico and the US is trade between divisions of the same company. So the effective tax rate on finished products like cars, for instance could be even higher than five percent attacks US consumers pay. Right. Plus some companies like grope gopro had even moved production to Mexico to avoid the tariffs, we put on Chinese products. And this also comes in the middle of free trade negotiations between the US Canada and Mexico deal. Mexico hasn't ratified yet. In fact, the Mexican president sent the Mexican Senate, the trade deal for approval just hours before Trump tweeted about these tariffs on Justin. Thank you, a down day shaping up on the stock market possibly with tariffs in mind. The footsie in London is down one point one percent. The Dow future is down two hundred ninety five points on point two percent similar percentage drop for the SNP. Future NASDAQ future down one and a half percent. Now, if you've ever sold the house through a broker you're well aware of the commission sellers. Typically have to pay maybe six percent of the sale price that split between your broker and the buyer's broker. Well, some home sellers are suing over those fees, arguing they violate antitrust laws now the Justice department is investigating. Marketplace's Amy Scott joins me now. Hi, amy. Hi, david. What are the allegations? Well, I, we've gotta talk about something called the M L S which stands for multiple listing service and they're basically databases were brokers share properties. They're trying to sell on behalf of their clients. And there's an old rule that says a listing can only be published in the MLS if it includes an offer of compensation for the buyer's broker that commissions typically two and a half to three percent of the sale price, so on a three hundred thousand dollar house. We're talking about, you know, seventy five hundred to nine thousand dollars. Now, we love the work that. Realtors do. But is there something nefarious alleged about this practice? Yeah, that is the claim in now three separate lawsuits filed against the national association of realtors, and some large brokerage firms the plane of say that practice of requiring the broker compensation unfairly drives up costs for home sellers, and that it inflates commissions because agents basically won't show, their clients, homes, offering low commissions or maybe we'll show the ones with higher commissions. I that's the allegation for its part. The national association of realtors says the lawsuits are baseless, and it's seeking to have them dismissed. But the Justice department is also looking into this, right? So there's a company called core logic that provides data and software to the MLS is, it's confirmed that it's received a civil investigative order from Justice. Basically a subpoena demanding that it provide documents related to an antitrust investigation. I talked to a guy named Robert Hawn, who's a real -est. Consultant and blogger who got his hands on this request, and the focus seems to be on documents related to broker compensation, and how the SS restrict access to listings, we're on the outside looking in here, but it does seem to me that if the plaintiffs were to win or Justice department crackdown to be quite an earthquake for this industry. Yeah. I mean, there are billions of dollars in commissions at stake on told me it could be catastrophic, if the plaintiff prevail, then what they're essentially to win on the idea that sharing commissions having these seller pay the buyer's agents commission is anti competitive, so it may be the brokers are prohibited from sharing commissions. And if that happens buyers would have to figure out how to pay their own brokers, but Han told me nothing is likely to change soon. He expects seven to ten years of litigation could places Amy Scott. Thank you for watching this. You're welcome. Not everyone gets a chance to study the economy in school anyway, who doesn't need a brush up marketplace helps you continue your education in a way that we hope is smart accessible and hopefully even a bit fun. Your donation is not only an investment in your own learning, but also in helping us make more people smart about the economy, and that we think is good for everyone to learn how you can help. Visit marketplace dot ORG slash investors. Thank you. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by with Sabi hot cloud storage, thinking about moving your data storage to the cloud was obvi- is enterprise class, cloud storage, at one fifth the price of Amazon S three and up to six times faster with no hidden fees for egress or a p requests was obvious low cost high speed fully secure storage blows away the competition, including Google Microsoft disruption starts here. Do the math for yourself and start a free trial. I was Sabi dot com. The first time in NBA history we had a finals game outside the US last night. The Toronto Raptors beat the Golden State Warriors game one one eighteen to one oh nine you have to cross an international frontier to get to Toronto. The NBA wants to grow its brand everywhere. But for now they're probably happy to see Canadians getting into this. Marketplace's Andy ULA reports Toronto is the fourth largest city in North America. Pretty big market for the NBA, but Kevin pelton who writes about basketball for ESPN says it's not just people in Toronto who were cheering for the raptors the rest of the country has jumped on board and the raptors have embraced in encouraged that with their their slogan we north. In fact, a lot of people south of the border are rooting for Canada's team to it's the underdog. The warriors have won two straight championships. This series might not boost the NBA popularity across the seas. But sports business journal editor John Iran says the league does have a nice marketing opportunity through a famous raptor fan Canadian. Music star Drake who cheers courtside at all their games. They are able to sort of get into the entertainment. President is get into some of the music press. And, and it really goes beyond just a really hardcore sporting press, an MBA title would be something of a homecoming the raptors can pull it off. Dr James Naismith, the creator of basketball was born in Almonte Ontario. I may dealer for marketplace. More into bonds today. I'm looking at the yield on the government's ten year note is down two point one six percent at the moment. I'm David Brancaccio. Marketplace morning report from APM American public media.
UK competition watchdog deals blow to retail mega-merger
"This. Marketplace podcast is brought to you by the university of Florida Warrington college of business transform your future with an MBA from one of America's top ten universities. Learn more at Warrington dot ufl dot EDU slash NBA and by brother Inc fest -ment tank printers. It's happened to all of us right before an important presentation. The printer runs out of ink brother Inc. Vestment tank printers help put a stop to this. And can literally change the way you Inc. Your choice of up to one or two years of ink included in box helps eliminate the expense and hassle of frequently buying and replacing in cartridges. Learn more at change the way you Inc dot com. A day after WalMart reported strong holiday quarter earnings Britain's competition. Watch jug throws doubt on the retailers. UK grocery merger live from London. This is the marketplace morning report from the BBC World Service. I'm Victoria, Craig filling in for anew on good morning the competition markets. Authorities said today a tie up between UK grocery store chain Sainsbury's and WalMart owned Asda could lead to higher prices and less choice for consumers here adding insult to injury for the nearly twenty billion dollar merger. The CNA says it'll be difficult for the two chains to address those concerns Sainsbury's boss this morning, called the fundamentally flawed and outrageous. So where does WalMart go from here? Thomas Barrington is retail analyst at global data offerings pool inside of this isn't the defensive end of the story Sainsbury's, now's to both Alie situating statement saying that they were booby fighting this, and they will be pursuing the modus still. It's quite an unusual move from Samay because they really have hit them hawed and set it's not just the supermarkets. It's the few when online as well, it really is a blow. Sainsbury's an answer. From almost perspective. It's annoyance Greeley more than like a threatening situation because has the represents small amounts of WalMart's business. So the merger was meant to be away for WalMart to retreat from the British retail market where it struggled to compete with other grocery giants if this deal does fail. What does it mean for the company, and what could a plan b for WalMart? Look like, it's very difficult to see a very clear plan bay for because if this is something business, they still get rid of which it seems like it would be they already any retailers that would be willing to take on business as a whole of that song is I mean Sainsbury's was one of the few that could but any of the gross couldn't because they'd be blocked by the Samay likely as much as scientists would be on their own. Any other businesses could pay that much? I'm willing to take on that much space having set that as the has actually before we call well against other UK, grocery rejoins recently. It's just not performing as well as the rest of WalMart's operations ramp up its focus in the US amid growing competition with Amazon and entry into high growth. With markets like India, at least until the most recent quarter in the US. It's been struggling on. Both those friends does it need to shift strategy again. Or does it just need to give these efforts more time? It's been a little sad about how I'm going to become the king of retail, and that was through early investment and online on ammonium on which they now dominate the OMO half them, very, well, they shift Rushdie eighteen months to focus on his home. US market is starting to pay off that was seen in the law school to sales. Look good in the US. But it means that they can't really fight the battle to fronts and has to sacrifice some of his international and expansion. I'll lost that to pull that developments in his own country. Thomas Brandt in there. Let's do the numbers. Sainsburys shares dropped more than fifteen percent at the open in London. After the that's the regulator here released those preliminary findings. Meanwhile, European stocks are following Asia. Markets higher amid continued optimism on a deal between the US and China on its streets bath mining giant Glencore announced today, it'll cap global coal production going forward, the BBC swooping Chan reports grand coups. To cap coal production is the clear sign yet that the natural resources industry is using to invest a pressure on climate change. In a surprise announcement. The commodities giant largely ruled out any further expansion saying it would cut production at current levels. Glenn Coors, the world's top coal exposure. And one of the biggest produces outside of China, however pressure from climate action groups, including the pow food church of England has played an influential role in taking the pirates climate change agreement to limit global warming to below two degrees directly to glencoe the company stopped short of pulling out of cooperation together, the division remains lucrative contributing to close to a third of its underlying earnings in the posture in London, I'm the BBC seeping Chan for marketplace. Britain's prime minister heads to Brussels again today to try and seek concessions on her Brexit deal in order to get it through parliament while there are many sticking points. The future of UK fishing has been at the heart of the debate. The BBC is Sean farrington has more from Britain's biggest fishing port. They so busy morning because there's been full thousand boxes of whitefish of squid and row. A lot of people won't fish from UK sees the big control Versi around our relationship with the European Union. And how it plays after Brexit because the common fisheries policy is a way of divvying up who can fish in those seas, and who gets to sell fish onwards lighter. I'm joined with a couple of people price an ally. Bryce, you're from the university of you when you look at what's going on impacts ahead and the issues with the breakfast in the minute hedge of these two things tally. There's a lot of fish here. And there's a huge diversity as well. But actually most of this is going overseas and most of what British public eight is actually imported from other countries outside Europe. And as a result was trading relationships, a sewing potent, and that's what we're trying to balance up through Brexit. The industry wants, you know, more control more coaches for catching fish, but I also. I want to continue to trade freely and that's a difficult balancing act to achieve an ally. White you're from clydes fishing association issue, you still going to get the fish selling around Europe have does that tally with the argument of we want a bigger quota? Of course. More stops coming back in finished lifting quota, so that the men can fish more seasonally and fish diffent stolp Savell, but it's a difficult one. When you say a morning like this morning, Bryce is busy, but lots of people might say fishing is the whole UK economies at tiny tiny proportion. Why should we be worrying so much about its future? It is small in terms of GDP. But I think it has a bigger value than that, you know, Britain is an island nation, and it has a long history of fishing. And it's particularly important in some of the more remote parts of the coast fishing is is one of the few opportunities for jobs, Bryce analyzer. Thank you very much. Both the noise continues to head fish market as the last of the fish gets auctioned away. This will still be here come June. But what rules that will be trading under. We still don't quite know, Sean, Fanton reporting there finally can't get enough emojis next month in Australia, three hundred fifty bucks lets you add one to your license plate hard. Is anyone in London? I'm Victoria, Craig with the marketplace morning report from. The BBC World Service. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by. Indeed, are you hiring with? Indeed, you can post a job in minutes set up screener questions than zero in on your shortlist of qualified candidates using an online dashboard get started today at indeed dot com slash marketplace. That's indeed dot com slash marketplace.
What role does government play in innovation?
"This. Marketplace podcast is brought to you by the university of Florida Warrington college of business transform your future with an MBA from one of America's top ten universities. Learn more at Warrington dot ufl dot EDU slash MBA. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by equities N a premier platform bringing private markets to the public get access to tech unicorns like Uber. Airbnb and more sign up for free today at equities N dot com slash tech. A look at the secret sauce of innovation and it's less glamorous cousin adaptation from American public media. This is marketplace tech. I'm Tracey Samuelson in for Molly would. If you're a government day, the Chinese government looking to spur more innovation in your country. How do you do that you can think of innovation as a ladder of sorts? It might start with imitation. And then progressed you adaptation like tweaking a foreign idea to develop it for a local market. Finally, hopefully, you reach invention, perhaps even big industry changing ones. But the steps needed to climb that ladder can be elusive murky, and there's only so much governments can do says Regina abroa- me a professor at the university of Pennsylvania's Wharton school of business. I talked to her about China's efforts at state-sponsored innovation. It's something country. Can't cause to happen. It has to happen at a much more micro level, which is gonna what's the form of business organization in your country. Is it a collaborative is it a hierarchical places their scope for collaboration? What's the the nature of your education system? Are you teaching children to be problem solvers or are you rewarding? What are you? Awarding them for are you rewarding them for getting the answer's right or you're rewarding them for seeing something that you did wrong. But you know, I think we've I think we're at a point now where anyone who thinks that it's just about plopping cluster together meaning to say and China has lots of these right? Let's let's have one university in the next. Let's put a little tech park and extra. Let's do this other thing and magic show happen. It doesn't always work then then last, but not least. And this is not a trivial point you need a legal system where intellectual property is protected, right? Which is a chief US complaint about operating in China Raina, right? But it's not just us firms Chinese firms themselves also want to make sure that their IP is protected. It's interesting because the communist party's main in China twenty twenty five planets received a lot of attention recently for its attempts to you know, pick and develop specific Chinese industries is that type of industrial policy successful in fostering innovation. I think it's successful in fostering market leadership. Perhaps even market domination of a given sector within the Chinese context. And also potentially allowing for firms to compete in a way that gives them an advantage in the global marketplace. So it's not necessarily the case that industrial policy equals innovation policy. Yeah. So this idea of like, creative add patient versus a truly innovative breakthrough. But at a patient, you know is innovation. I mean, you know, as at the end of the day, this sort of hacking and making it work is a kind of innovation right? And certainly if we look at Chinese companies and their ability to sort of really target mid range markets, and how successful they've been in that space. It has been because they've been able to sort of make that those those adaptations that are targeted to our particular customer. They're trying to sell to. So it's it's not that China made in twenty twenty five has not succeeded in many ways it has. But that in an insane China the leading innovator in the world today. I think that we have to be a little bit more cautious on that front. Regina balmy at the Wharton school of business. Professor Rami made an important distinction. She said this isn't about the capacity of the Chinese people to be innovative. It's about the context and system they have to innovate within. Now for some related links. Professor brownie wrote an article called why China can't innovate in the Harvard. Business review back in two thousand fourteen much of that still applies today this China Morning Post had a couple of recent articles on China's intellectual property articles how they could be strengthened to meet US demands in the ongoing trade war and foster innovation the number of intellectual property rights cases in China increased more than forty percent last year and finally on the theme of creative thinking, there's this quantum magazine story from two thousand seventeen I just keep going back to it's about a retired statistician who solved a math proof others had struggled with for more than fifty years. He had the idea while brushing his teeth. I love stories of late bloomers. They give me hope. I'm Tracey Samuelson. And that's marketplace tech. This is a PM. You trust marketplace to cover more than business news. You rely on us to connect the dots between complex economic issues. And why they matter to you to keep public service journalism going, strong, please go to marketplace dot org today and become a marketplace investor with a donation in any amount, we appreciate your support. This. Marketplace podcast is brought to you by Kronos, look into any great business. Whether it's a manufacturer or a hotel a store school or hospital look into each and every one of them and you'll find the same thing. Great people at Cronos believe that great businesses are powered by great people. And with Kronos workforce solutions, it'll help you find them keep them and engage them. Learn more at kronoScom. Kronos, workforce innovation that works.
North Korea's US talks are high stakes for South Korea
"This. Marketplace podcast is brought to you by the university of Florida Warrington college of business transform your future with an MBA from one of America's top ten universities. Learn more at Warrington dot ufl dot EDU slash MBA. Is South Korea. The biggest loser from the failed summit between the US and North Korea. This is the marketplace morning report live from the BBC World Service. I'm on and good morning. The South Korean president moon. Jae in says meaningful progress was made during the two-day talks between the US and North Korea despite their failure to reach a deal on sanctions relief and denuclearization. Mr. moon said the summit between President Trump Trump and Kim Jong-Un in Vietnam gave the two leaders mutual understanding and trust the BBC's Robin Brandt reports from Hanoi South Korea's president would have hoped for a more celebratrions atmosphere to unveil his ambitious plan for closer economic ties with the north. But instead he to repeat the progress can only come once the elusive denuclearization is agreed in a speech in front of a crowd of thousands to Mark the one hundredth anniversary of the country's independence movement moon. Jae in said there had been progress in Hanoi. But now, South Korea had an even more important role to play the momentum has undoubtedly been slowed. But the onus will be on Seoul to try to rekindle the talks that South Korea's president has invested so much in Robin Brandt will Ellison Evans is an analyst at IHS market. She explained South Korea stake in improved relations between the US and North Korea. First and foremost, South Korea's largest national security threat is North Korea. And the other thing is that president moon Jae-in himself came to power on an agenda of resolving corruption. He also promised to improve the economy, and is known as someone who has worked on improving inter-korean relations in the past. And what we've seen over the past few years of his tenure is that he hasn't been able to make that much progress on the corruption front and on the economic front. In fact, South Korea's unemployment rating is the highest it's been in about nine. Eighteen years. So the one pot of his agenda that moon Jae-in has been been able to deliver on has been improving relations with North Korea. Now, there have also been economic ties between the south and the north. There was a joint industrial project which had to be scrapped because of these tensions economically. What's been at stake? For North Korea's economy is joint north-south products. Don't actually contribute to much, but they were definitely loss. The case on industrial zone that you're talking about was operated by South Korean companies until February twenty sixteen after North Korea's nuclear test, then president pack on head closed at as a punishment essentially North Korea continuing its nuclear weapons development. I think that's something that South Korea would look to open again in part because moon Jae-in brought big South Korea. Business leaders with him on his last trip to Pyongyang in an attempt to look forward to South Korean investment in North Korea. Again. One or the other no captions is a resort called Mount Kumgang in North Korea. There haven't been any South Korean tourists there since about two thousand and eight however, the other element that the North Koreans and South Koreans looking to do now is to join that to railway networks, but in order to continue they need exemptions from international sanctions and North Korea and South Korea were hoping probably to receive those after successful summit between us President Donald Trump and North Korean leader in Jenin. But because that's summit ended only without joint declaration or any agreements in now means that sanctions exemptions for those projects much less likely to come in the coming year. Alison, Evans, let's do the numbers. Chinese stocks are leading global markets higher. After figures showed a manufacturing rose from January lows at the same time euro-zone manufacturing activity fell for the seventh straight month. In February sliding into contraction for the first time since two thousand thirteen and share. Royal Dutch Shell are slightly higher. Despite warning that prosecutors in the Netherlands are preparing to issue criminal charges over a one point three billion dollar Nigerian oil deal in twenty eleven now as we live longer governments are grappling with higher healthcare costs so could technology reduce some of that financial burden. The BBC's Katie silver reports this different moods. Even go through with the goff's. They said, yeah. Ending on your environment. And what your vision is actually light, you can change through different sectors. And this is Rebecca Lue. She's an engineer for the company oxide which began at Oxford University. They product is called prism losses where we'll take -nology glasses the people with impaired size. So at the moment, you just clicked color edges. We'll my peripheral vision gone. It's almost like I'm looking at the world is a television screen. So we find this mood is quite hope for for people when they struck to see things like facial features glasses one of thousands of innovations on show at the giant health tech conference. The last few years dementia has overtaken for both men and women in the UK as the number one causes of death. This is health economist Chris Hafner, it costs in the dementia tax as it's as it's called is twenty six billion pounds a year. So the average dementia patient is playing about thirty two thousand pounds almost the average salary in the city of London to pay for their care. That's almost thirty three billion dollars over role or more than forty thousand dollars for each patient. Reminiscence is a huge component to preventing dementia. So just the simple act of engaging with an older individual and talking about their past experiences where they're generating memories. So we can use technology like Alexa, commercial devices like this to promote greater social interaction amongst the aging population, social, isolation and eyesight deterioration undoubtedly issues, which many elderly Payton. Ace and other which perhaps isn't spoken about as much is incontinent. These simple pair of shows basically can release one in three women from the misery of wherein pads for the rest of their lives. Must collect shoes is Europe's marketing manager at Atlantic therapeutics, which makes they look like lycra bicycle shorts with an inbuilt transistor that transmits 'electricity to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor as technology influences. More and more facets of our working lives. Exhibitors, he a bidding big on it revolutionizing the final use of our lives as well. That's Katie silver reporting from London and I'm with the marketplace morning report live from the BBC World Service. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by brother investment tank printers. It's happened to all of us right before an important presentation that printer runs out of ink brother investment tank printers, help put a stop to this. And can literally change the way you Inc. Your choice of up to one or two years of ink included inbox helps eliminate the expense and hassle of frequently buying and replacing ink. Cartridges learn more at change the way you Inc dot com.
The future of phone use is group chat and messaging
"Does marketplace podcast is brought to you by the university of Florida Warrington college of business transform your future with an MBA from one of America's top ten universities. Learn more at Warrington dot ufl dot EDU slash MBA. The future of phones is chat and messaging and plain old texting is not going to cut it from American public media. This is marketplace. Tech demystifying the digital economy, I'm Ali would. Messaging is the future of smartphones. And I don't mean plain old texting. I mean things like what's up and apples, I message apps that let you send videos group chat. See when someone is typing and gifts and animations China's we chat is the ultimate messaging dream, a service that lets its users do all of that, and shop and make payments and order food delivery. That's all what Facebook wants to become with its new plan to combine all of its messaging platforms, but most people are still just texting and that technology needs. An upgrade one possibility is our CS rich communication services, which would bring fancy chat features to the texting app on everyone's phone. Sam Barker is a lead analyst following mobile at juniper research. He says we might still use. What's apper message to chat with friends, but our CS is a huge business opportunity when it comes to, you know, to pay to pay a traffic. But everyone uses I think the operators who mice conceded that. What's up other that they're going to get that back? You'll be very, very difficult to the winning comes to the business messaging side of things the consumers and the enterprises engaging their customers. That's where operators will succeed and to the appropriate is to make all CSS. He big quizzes as SMS's now through the, the native mess JEAN CLAUDE on small foot. Okay. So I would just interact with the brand directly. I would do my shopping, I would maybe get my customer support, but it does seem like, really the future phone. Use is going to be messaging in some form, not so much mobile web or apps. Even exactly we've seen, you know, users migrate from online browsing to in-app browsing and the next step. So this will be all CFC when be a case of having a dedicated up per Brander enterprise. It'll be a single app, you use with multiple contacts is much of the same way you have a new you'll app now, the, the they'll be contacting the lousy to does he connect with, with the brand new an enterprise. You. Need to contact them? I unfortunately they come be able to contact you. That's one of the, the key requisites in the standards for all CS from then, then on you, can you can register in the same way would do out and have the same functionality. I love that. I like how you say, unfortunately they cannot contact me. I as a consumer, I'm great with that. Well, it also feels like that's going to be a real change the app economy drives so much revenue, it seems like that could potentially be a real change in the power structure. If, if, for example, apple is not getting the thirty percent cut, but your operator mobile phone operator is gay a big thing, we do see a big shift in ecosystem is the proc- mobile up in the maybe you will see introduction of the prices are considering moving into into the advertising space and men too much 'cause ruin it using your experience. So it really would be hastily from the operates, aside, how much says she they can get away with before they ruin the experience of off. Yes fascinating. So if it's really okay, I'm gonna ask one quick, follow up, because I'm feeling like the more, we talk, the more I'm realizing that if this actually rolls out, and it's affective and consumers adopted it could profoundly change the mobile ecosystem, Bouma messaging. So yes, he's been going on for number. As now and it never will we said that the tendency never really died, but never really felt takeoff either. They still just been hanging around waiting for big catalyst, which was Google. So you came in they getting a other stakeholders and bold and grocery still slow, but it's a little faster than it was three or four years ago. There's a little more excitement outfit, Sam Barker's lead analyst following mobile at juniper research, in two thousand seventeen Google combined all its messaging into the default Android text app and started pushing the industry to roll out our CS on all phones and carriers. It's not called our CS though, because boring Google calls it chat. And now for some related links. The Google pushes interesting because that company has goofed around with messaging for the last several years launching chat apps, like aloe video apps like duo sort of may be also having Google hangouts, but not really. But now, it's consolidating a lot of this under Android messages. And it hopes to be ready with its full fledged chat features whenever all the carriers and phone makers finally get on board with our CS. It's a little complicated. We'll have all these related links on our website, marketplace tech dot org, and it would be amazing. If everyone could just use the default app on their phone to do all the cool things like Sint gifts, that aren't weirdly, compressed or get read receipts, or see when someone's typing or group chat, or gap book a plane ticket without having download the airlines app. Let's do that. That sounds awesome. Couple of quick. Drawbacks, though, are isn't end to end encrypted the way I message or what's up is that means theoretically someone with a subpoena. Could get your phone carrier to decrypt your. Messages. And they could be read which not everyone loves and then also the whole magical thing where we'd all be on the same default app. No matter what phone we're on. What carrier we're using depends on apple getting on board and supporting our CS and since we know how much apple of its own systems at the expense of industry standards. I personally would not hold my breath for that. But, like San Barker said, Google getting behind our CS is pretty much as strong a push as the industry is going to get. So I guess we'll see if the future of messaging will be owned by a couple of companies or be available to all of us. I'm Molly would. And that's marketplace tech. This is APN. If you're a member of your local public radio station, we thank you, because your support helps those stations, keep programs like marketplace tech on the air, but for marketplace to really grow. We need additional investment from those who care most about what we do super fans like you help us keep telling stories that matter become a marketplace investor today at marketplace dot org. And thanks this. Marketplace podcast is brought to you by click share and word winning wireless presentation system with click share your meeting. You can share your screen instantly from any device, no more awkward small talk, or wasted time as you wait for tech problems to be fixed. Click share instantly projects any speakers laptop tablet or phone onto a presentation scream so everyone can work together share their ideas and create something great. That's the click share effect. Visit click share free trial dot com to learn more and sign up for your free trial.
The big story unfolding in the mobile world
"This. Marketplace podcast is brought to you by the university of Florida Warrington college of business transform your future with an MBA from one of America's top ten universities. Learn more at Warrington dot ufl dot EDU slash NBA. And by alliance for lifetime income an organization dedicated to educating and raising awareness about how a nude he's Consol retirement income needs because income planning that includes protected monthly income solutions helps ensure you'll never outlive your money in retirement. Find out if making a new it's vital component of your portfolio is the right choice for you. Learn more at retire your risk dot org. And influential company will now allow employees to take disputes to court. I'm David Brancaccio in New York. Google has agreed to end forced arbitration if you wanna work at a company might have to take any dispute to arbitration outside the regular court system as for Google. This will be for employees, not contractors in it's in response to pressure from Google workers who believe arbitration helps companies berries sexual misconduct cases. But Google's move is about harassment cases and more David knoll is associate professor at Rutgers law in New Jersey and an expert in these matters. This is a stamp beyond that Google is saying that it's not going to require employees arbitrate any disputes whatsoever. Now, the situation had Google may not represent what's going on more widely about arbitration in the economy more companies these days are requiring arbitration as a condition of employment. Our best estimate is that about half of the private sector, workforce is subject. To a mandatory arbitration provision, and it's important to keep in mind that Google is really kind of an exceptional employer. Google employees are uniquely informed and well organized, and so they were able to put pressure on the company to force it to change the way that handles legal disputes. So there's an interesting dynamic here where on the one hand employees at tech companies are having success persuading companies to drop arbitration where on the other hand other major employers are increasing their use of arbitration, professor David knoll, Rutgers law. Thank you so much for the briefing. My pleasure the mobile world. Congress starts in Barcelona or Celona Spain on Monday, it is the world's largest trade show devoted the phones. And it's going to be full of talk of superfast five wireless, folding screens, and some very high priced phones. Marketplace's Jack Stewart has more next week is going to be so packed with. Oh phone debuts that Samsung gotta jump on it with an event this week to show the galaxy fold which opens like a book, you can simply unfold. Your phone to see all the details on the bigger screen, a warm reception and told the price starting from nine thousand nine hundred and eighty dollars depending on your region in carrier that is the sound of sticker shock, Julius is a mobile analyst with forester research. I can get a talent smartphone and a laptop for two thousand dollars. Of course, the price of any new tech stocks high and then drops, but new phones are going to be faster with five G connections cameras will support virtual reality and fischel intelligence chips might even help stop spam. Kohl's if all that sounds useful to you. Well, it comes at a cost says Leslie robo at the consumer Technology Association. I think we'll see prices continue to increase slightly, especially as a lot more technologies become embedded in these devices. So maybe just make sure to buy a really good case too. I'm Jackie Stewart for marketplace. Not everyone gets a chance to study the economy in school. Anyway, who doesn't need a brush up. Marketplace helps you continue your education in a way that we hope is smart accessible, and hopefully even a bit fun. Your donation is not only an investment in your learning. But also in helping us make more people smart about the economy. And that we think is good for everyone to learn how you can help. Visit marketplace dot ORG slash investors. Thank you. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by wealth frame. Does your health care organization? Give people the support they need outside the walls of care delivery. It's time for a new approach. Well, frame calls it digital health management by delivering resources and guidance to address chronic conditions transitions of care as well as lifestyle, wellness and social determinants. Well, frame helps people and care teams build trusted relationships that Dr early interventions. Learn more at well frame dot com. Giant is take climate change. Seriously. Politicians often depends on their worldview what about people making big decisions about money. The communists have been studying this and marketplace's senior economics contributor has been reading in good morning. Good morning, David so money folks are taking climate change into account very seriously. And that's the conclusion of a recently published papers by two communists from Columbia University. They took this very clever way to see if traders are incorporating climate change predictions into their weather forecasts now, you might not know this. But there are futures contracts about the future weather traded on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, and these contracts are for eight cities, including where you are New York. And we're I am Minneapolis Saint Paul and you make bets on cooling days and heating degree days. All right, financial bets. Now who plays in a market like this. Well, you know. For some industries weather can play a big role on the revenue think agribusiness or utilities, so the futures market. Let's them hedge against mother nature. So the scholars compared bets that were made from two thousand two through two thousand and eight with predictions in the climate models and the bottom line, David the market is pricing in climate change. When money's at risk. People are in kissing climate trends in line with the scientific consensus, so interesting. But I mean, this is a bit of an esoteric piece of the market what about regular mortals like you me? My sister your ankle. I mean are we making similar pricing decision. We are how about residential real estate. Now. There's a study from Harvard University last year, and it looked at Miami Dade County in Florida single family homes, and what they found is that single family homes are rising in value more slowly near sea level compared to homes. Higher elevations. And this makes sense. Again, the fear is with global climate change to could reach a point where that home at sea level could be submerged it's going to be hard to sell at that point overall. You're saying that what's happening in these esatern financial markets may be a lesson for the rest of us. Well, you know, these Columbia University scholars they end their study with this David, and I really like this. I said you don't believe in global climate change. Okay. Bet against it in the futures market. Now, my guess is when money's on the line, many, people are not going to bet against the scientific consensus. Marketplace's senior economics contributed Chris Farrell speaking from very far away from the coast Saint Paul Minnesota, Chris thank you. Thanks. A lot David the benchmark ten year interest rate at the moment is down two point six five point seven with a ten year. Treasury yield. It's the marketplace morning report from APM American public media. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by. Indeed, are you hiring with? Indeed, you can post a job in minutes set up screener questions than zero in on your shortlist of qualified candidates using an online dashboard get started today at indeed that com slash marketplace. That's indeed dot com slash marketplace.
Hour 4: 6/17/20
"Foot odor, throwing you off your game, stick to a winning game plan with odor readers, featuring three advanced odor and wetness fighters, the lineup provides long-lasting Odor, control, plus more to keep your feet on their game. Ota Readers powder provides outstanding moisture control, clear drying sprays, the MVP in preventing athlete's foot, while insoles were continuously demanded, wetness will adding a layer of comfort pick up today at Walmart target CBS, dollar, general or other fine retailers. Destroy Foot Odor with the best in odor defense, the Paul Finebaum show podcast is presented by Iino the capital one assistant. What's in your wallet? The cried passion and pageantry of college. Football leaves here the. Paul Finebaum show our four podcast. We welcome you back. Final hour has arrived, and we'll continue with more of your calls. Eight, five, five, two, four, two, seven, two, eight five ricky up next in mobile, Alabama, ricky blue. Hey. Look I really been praying about this man. You know to put work to say because I don't want this. Come across nothing I won't ever man in. I'm Christian I want everybody to know what I know. That Jesus Christ was kicked out of this country sometime ago in the Bible. And I heard nobody talk about the wrath the God that's coming up on this land for the judgment of seeing. And that's where that's where the conversation needs to go with this and enforce your morals. God is the only moral authority over any of us. In Our conscious tells us right and wrong. When I right now I'm bill is Paul and Richard. I didn't know anything about racism. Until I saw politics I saw Democrats. You know publicly fighting course. Oh, liking one of them I'm an independent. And And to this day right now, if far slave. I mean the history and nobody knows civil war history. Evidently, nobody knows it because. They are still sell the slaves today in Africa. In India in all kinds of foster world, sex slaves, all kind of long or slave trade dono right now and they never stopped. In in ours blacks. Slave owners I don't know why the first black slave what was black. I don't know why nobody's talking about the actual fact. I could interrupt you for just a second in and I'm not really qualified to dispute anything you've said. is of that Germane to what is currently going on. Well number one is. The the children of life the children are light and the Children Darden's. We're at war would would would the devil is the only. Character witness high places, the Bible says we'd Rassam, not again flesh bud blood in the devil's main weapons, divide and conquer US looks like a pretty good I I certainly would not dispute that. I would. I might argue really what what relevance it has in this conversation, but anyway thanks for the call. Tim is up next Georgia. Hey Tim welcome to our program. Doing Paul Okay. our something today as listening to Randy and Andy on ninety nine the game. And I'm an Arkansas boy lived in Georgia for the last thirty five years, but don't consider myself raises. randy. McMichael damn good dog. He was talking about an experience on the lake Lake. Lanier here. and. Really Tom Easygoing Dude. Mentioned the vote became by with rebel flag on it. And yes, many feel. He said it made him comfortable. That's enough for me. I have no ties with that way. You know you know what you just said you know Tim. Was You said there is really what this is about and People are not comfortable, or and they're. They're affected by certain things, and it's a it's a conversation doesn't mean you have to change it, but I think I think. You. Do need to listen. Right well, you know I think back twenty years ago. My oldest son is going to wrestling camp at in Boston. It was call Adams Wrestling Camp Start at Twenty Day camp. By the way my son was state chant, because it called atoms and a guy and another matter color. or Done was last. Name can't call that. but he took our state flag. One of these these camps in hung it as window. And Arturo Not Arturo. McCall Adams actually made a comment about it. and. My son said that's state flag. It had the rebel symbol in there. Right. And I was not sensitive enough to respond to that. So I'm responsible. Plant no, seats. you know this this comes from? how we're brought up okay. It's not intentional I. Rented Ran Michael's comments. The other day really struck me. and. I have no intention on making someone uncomfortable, especially someone that ally damn beer with. I think this is really an important call and I think it's exactly what this conversation really should be about Hey, thanks, so go from Athens to. ATLANTA GREG is up next. Hey Paul how you doing today. Sir I am doing well. Thank you. Good good good, Hey, I know this is probably going to be a little bit uncomfortable to hear. But Paul, I gotta be honest with you. Man I don't like your position on the Mike Gundy situation and I'm not talking about anything prior to anything other than what he did in terms of going fishing innocent with his shunt, Sun and throw on a tee shirt on. and. When did it become not okay I mean it wouldn't matter. Yeah, the CNN shirt on Fox News Shirt or whatever? Why can't the man be able to express his own political views without somebody like ESPN and the cancer in the cancel culture coming after him? To me, that's just wrong. Paul is wrong, and it seems like every since you've been on ESPN. Unfortunately, you, it's almost like your mind's own by them. And you have to kind of be like Max Kellerman and Steven A. on all the issues and you've never been like that. You've always been very independent type thinkers and it just it concerns me man. I'm saying just like the silent majority you hear about for trump, and all of that they're the silent majority that may not even call in like me and express it and just turn you off and I. Don't want that to happen. I, really don't and not that. You're not entitled to Your Own Opinion. You are, but this whole cancel culture. It's gotten out of Control Paul. Paul man should lose his job for wearing a t shirt on a fishing trip with his son. He's not posting his t shirt and all his political views online he's he's simply innocently taken a picture. What saw I wouldn't wear a nice t shirt to go fishing the out of Dang. Oh, T shirt on. Why is that a big deal now and I'll be quiet listening. Well, thank you for your call. I've answered that question so many times now that I think it would be a wasted the audiences time. The only thing I would recommend for you to do A. Go back and watch the segment when I when I discussed it, because I think I explained in great detail, but thanks for listening and I hope you will continue to listen Mitch is up next in Spartanburg. South Carolina. Hello Mitch. Elevates Finebaum. How are you today doing great? Thank you. I I want to thank you from the barber, my heart and I to defend you. Someone called earlier in. I in that you about the way you've. Handled some of these coaches situations. You spoke your mind about Davos when he last week. And then this week you came back and you also. Congratulated him for what he did this past weekend. You showed your true feelings. I WANNA. Thank you for that. Well thank you I. You know it's pretty interesting. You always here. There's an online. When I was in the newspaper business that you could libel or slander somebody and it was on the front page, and then you know when when you realize when the guy gets. Voted when he when he when he's found not guilty, it's like on the third page. I mean daboh dabble did a fantastic thing over the weekend I spent a lot of time watching it and reading about it, and we had a guest on earlier. Who was there? I think he ended that controversy beautifully. Zere and because it was positive, we really don't talk about it anymore. Well, you show that you can be. As honest whenever you feel one way, and you can amid that you, your feelings change when they change and these people who are criticizing you about your feelings about whatever. They evidently don't work in the public sector because I work for a company that if I post something on facebook did appears employer. They will terminate me. Well. I don't know how many I'll say it one more time, but. What coach out there did. It, didn't it really did not offending at all? Players exactly I when I. When I hear, someone say with the previous caller said I understand the idea, the ideology, speaking and not the. Enough to context and that's fine I listen to talk. Radio I used to it a lot more I haven't really listened to much lately, but I used to listen to political shows all the time I get it. I mean I I mean rush. Limbaugh doesn't make thirty million dollars a year because he's boring. One time to me, my guns shouldn't go in his house and watch. TV Channel. I haven't heard you one time say he shouldn't walk in his backyard and not have shared. I really! I! Can report they looking at it, you can. That are agreed to everything I believe in, but it's really not gonNA. Bother me, but. It's an argument. That I've learned, you cannot win because you're arguing with people who really don't care what you said and why you said they only care about what they believe, and it's perfectly all right I've worked at ESPN for seven years and. For our last caller to discover that I've completely sold out my principles. This week is quite over. That I've been able to fool him all these years I don't take. USPA controls one more to comes out of your mouth. At this point in my career, people are well aware of where I am in my career. they are not going to tell me what to say, nor nor have they ever tried by the way. I'm. For that. I talked about the upcoming football season. Assuming we have one. I, just WANNA. Thank you Bob. My Heart. Forgiving people like myself a platform. This is your show. You could say we're not going to discuss politics. One did all we're going to discuss the sports, but you have allow people to visit for three months. And thank you so much for that and I. Hope You and your wife have a wonderful evening. Mitch thanks I appreciate the kind words and we will take a break. We'll talk about the University of Florida Football Program. Yes. You heard me correctly when we come back. You're listening to Paul Finebaum show podcast. Welcome back a lot happening out there. The NC Double A. has approved the six week. Lead up to the college football season, making many believe that the season is getting closer speaking of that. We are now joined by Thomson from the Orlando Paper who has covered the gators always a great guest editor first of all I. Hope you're doing well to talk to you in while what's going on? Well Paul famous. Everyone's trying to get by. You know cricket weather the storm. Covering College football when there is none released hasn't been much lately, so there's a little bit of news. Down There Dan Mullen speaking yesterday. You certainly listening and Encapsulated what he said. Full steam ahead, man, that's the way that the-these. The on I'm sure you've talked about it twenty. And Dan has taken the approach that. We have the. Edge there? On the air. Sorry, I'm sorry. I lost. I lost a couple of seconds of what you said. The audience may have heard it I may have just been in A. You said You said Dan Mullen full speed ahead, right? Yeah basically like the rest of the the. I think that we're what we're learning six weeks ago. Paul I don't know what you were saying exactly but I was very skeptical. There is GonNa be football, right and now six weeks from now there. If the NC Double A. Approves the plan to like guys start doing walk throughs them, and then July twenty four th. They'll be on the field for the first time since the Orange Bowl together. The gators and I think Dan fully engaged. Expect, and that's what's going to happen and they're. They're thanking season opener, September fifth, eastern Washington here we'll see with or without fans or how many fans but. I think the SEC plans to play football and you know that that's the attitude. I don't know that much is going to slow him down short of a major outbreak this stuff again. Well. Let me ask you about that. Because I heard earlier on this show Jimbo Fisher? Talking about fifty seventy, five, maybe more capacity. Dan Mullen was saying whatever he had to say, yesterday or wanted to say. But there are skeptics. Edgar and you watch the news. And Depending on what channel you're watching you. Maybe we've had a lot of conversation about cable news lately. But, but it does look like the country is seeing. An uptick significant uptick in a Lotta states, maybe even where you live in Florida so I'm wondering as journalists out there who tries to measure everything that you hear versus what you know. What do you really think I mean, are we? Are we really closer or do you think this is just a lot of people trying to be positive? For closer than we were six weeks ago. reclosed enough yet. I think the next six weeks. They're going to determine it I mean not not to cop out on the answer I know expert on this stuff. There are spikes. The Allots County area we're Gainesville is is is been pretty unscathed, but the fifty five thousand students are usually around here a good part of the year and that hasn't been the K.. So once bad starts to resign. Let's see how it goes, but I was at the you. Buy a University of Florida Board of Trustees meeting to write about the reopening plan for the university as a whole for our newspaper and. A feel like covid nineteen. Is this going to be a way of life on campuses this fall and they're accepting it, and they're going to mitigate the risk if they can and forge ahead when cases do occur, have quarantine measures in place, isolation and things like that so and do a lot of testing with teams. I assume I mean the student body. Not You know they're gonNA. Have to fall surveys I'll take temperatures and things to detach thing too expensive to do it for everyone, but yeah I I'm just taking away and see attitude. Now I am hoping for pollick played just like we all are, and that's what we do for a living I. There's a lot of obstacles declare and a lot of uncertainty ahead SCO obviously. I'm going to ask you about what you just said. If you take the college football. Piece out of this puzzle, and it's confusing enough having one hundred players locker rooms. We all know that. You mentioned the board talking about students back on campus and been on that campus, a million times I mean there are a lot of students on the University of Florida campus. Just like there. There are at every other campus. Knew what what are they saying? Other than dealing with it trying to mitigated? What what we twenty thirty forty thousand students professors. Personnel. Place will look different in in two months, does today. There's no doubt I mean. Floor is one of the biggest universities in the in the country and their enrollments like fifty five thousand. They do that. International students. Who are mainly PhD pro rooms and things not to return in large numbers at all, but in terms of regular student body undergraduate, they expect they they are on track to be at full capacity pretty much all their run it out. You know ninety percent of the the unit on campus, and on on on campus housing that is, and it seems like everyone says planning for business as usual in terms of. You know going to school, but it's going to be going to school in a much different man. I mean math. You'RE GONNA be enforced distancing and for. Their some classes are gonNA be Hybrid Paul. Which means there'll be some face to face online some we'll move entirely online. DUMB will be entirely face to face in terms of some of the arts. Law School things like that so. There I tell you this man you get in a room with all these PhD's and heavy hitting provost type, and you're really run from brainpower, and these people have put tremendous amounts of thought into it, and the plan is, is you know well conceived in their mind whether it goes off as planned remain, be saying, but you know these guys are behind the whole football point the planning behind football, the SEC and all the coaches and health experts and everything, and they're going to be cautious as possible because as you've discussed I'm sure many times call. I mean follow is the cash cow of all these folks departments, especially, if the SEC where they make tremendous amounts of revenue off, the sport runs everything. So if you were moved at suddenly, you have a role nightmare. You know in terms of balance, the budgets and things the school like Florida can probably weather a year without football. It would hurt. They could probably do it, but I don't know a lot of schools that can handle that. Just one more question on what she said. I walked into place the other day in early June. In a state that the numbers continue to rise, and there were probably fifteen or twenty people, and they're not. A single person had a mask on. How I'm not. I'm not asking you this question, but I am. How is the University of Florida or any other university going to mandate that students where mass? It funny outspoken student body President who is represented on the board of Trustees. At you and asked him straight up twenty two year old guy already, secondly year, law, role, impressive, young man and I'm like look man. I was twenty two one come on. How are you going to keep people separated you know, Frat, parties, just general socialization I. Mean That's it. I'm in I. Go to the public's around the corner I'm right near the university I don't see a lot of math. Burn with the younger. Population out that Mitt and he said look. We are GonNa make it almost has social stigma on campus. If you're not wearing a mouth, if you're not doing your part that way, we're going to go about it is. What happens when what happens when you walk off campus and go down to the Strip? Yeah Hey. That's the issue and that's the issue with these football players. Do you can't keep him locked in? You know their own. Look it's it's. Says it's a major problem potentially Paul I'm not arguing at all I. I'm cautiously optimistic that they're gonNA. Be Able to figure it out with the football program. It's a little more self contained. It's a much smaller population, but we're GONNA. See outbreak. Some college campuses throughout this country. Don't you start getting? I think we'd be naive to think not so. Like I mean all I can news takeaway attitude and remain hopeful they play football man, because it really is kind of the lifeblood of what we do for eleven to it and. Of course it is I. Mean we're we're we're? We're getting by right now, but. We all need we all want it. Hey, Edgar, thank you for your honesty and your reporting and we will see hopefully. Very, soon, Have a great week. We'll talk to you soon. Thanks for. Your Thompson reporter and writer for the Orlando. Sentinel and we're going to take a break. The Orlando Airport today had several hundred I think. Personnel test positive for Cova. We're up against a bright more of your phone calls when we come back. You're listening to the Paul Finebaum show podcast. Welcome you back back to the calls and Eric is in Florida Erika thanks for being your. Guarantee there. Did Not hear. About Jonathan next in Atlanta, Hey Jonathan. You're on the air. All I'm doing great. Thanks a lot. Just talk. You know I've heard a lot of people's last days. Talk about taking down the Maya moments because of reminding the statues and you know banning flag, and I kinda want to speak No, it's the person grow up in the south. African American who know what does that mean for us basically know. When we look at the monuments and you look at you, know statues of Property Lear Jefferson Davis for wild with days high school in Montgomery Alabama just a little bit of Reference Right. You start internalize exactly what that means what these people stood for you know more or less. They stood for and went to open Duggan's and with the war, the whole black people in bondage. For All time to set up. You know what we would call in the twentieth and twenty first century, a white ethnos state you know which has never been achieved. You start thinking about what tried to cheat in Nazi Germany. They find to do that in the nineteenth century in the south right and you start thinking about you know as a person of color. Brian the day, but I've accomplish that people thought of me be less than human. That didn't have the right to pursue an education I didn't have the ability to do. Some of the things I've done accomplished in my life. you know just the emotional team from their mark? Parents were born in the early twentieth century like. Nine nineteen twelve and I remember talking about you know people you know being lynched because they you know group in not you people who were slaves and. Things, it's very most for us to actually have you symbols around us most of our lives and just called in show before you know. In my late forties and you know you're looking at these symbols, and you understand to you know. Dig a little bit deeper that you know a lot of what they they. They prescribed what they fighting for the loss for the most part you know, basically, they said that the you know after the war that wasn't about slavery, but you start reading through the documentation. They really old opinion papers what they wrote in suspended their secession was about keeping human beings and bondage perpetually so it's hard for me. You know again. A lot of people call in their. Decent at people, but if you look at history itself, you know on to look through that. Look the own worse they're fighting for. You know in a you imagine being a person of color, and you know basically overlain that on top of the Sydney, socal significance from your own words you know. It's time for to down his. We really can't get to choose reconciliation as a sudden people as an American people into actually get to that. GIONTA everything you've said is very eloquent and compelling, and I moved by your thoughts and and. I don't love. I, can't answer. The question the same way you could because I, don't have the. I, I don't have the context. I can tell you that. If I walked in a building every day, and saw a statute of Adolf, Hitler and Nazi flag. I would be pretty offended considering what? My forefathers went through just like. How you laid it out so I do understand it I really do. Thank you for fishing. Thank you for sharing it and it was very really amazing. Conversation there. I appreciate that a lot Let's check in with Tim. WHO IS IN MINNESOTA HELLO TIM? How're you doing doing great? Thank you. For, fine caller like your show off. I guess my take my. Thought is. I read a little bit about Sunday. He said that he started watching that show. You're not when the virus is interesting. Do you think maybe he was just ignorant and watched it. 'cause I've looked on there. And the only thing that you'll false reporting and I'm not for this show at all. But maybe he just didn't know you. Know I think we're so quick to judge. Right now dabbles everything. They're attacking everybody or excuse me people. and maybe he just didn't know. I don't really know and I there is a difference wearing a I mean like we just got through talking about. I. I I think I think we're got. Him In trouble. Was the fact that he defended it. And it just seems strange because. That network is affiliated with a certain thought process, but. I'll keep gundy the benefit of the doubt I mean he? He dealt with it. I don't think it's over for him yet. and there's been a story percolating for a couple of days. Looted to it yesterday. About the time his apology came out about some comments that he made when he was a player. Some people have brought these comments out I. Don't know if that's really the way to address this or not, but. He rightly or wrongly has become a mark, man and He'll have a difficult time in the future. I can assure you that Jonathan is in Arkansas. You are on the air. Hi Pal. Hey their. Loved the show just WanNa respond a little bit too An earlier caller actually. Coincidentally Jonathan from Atlanta. So one of the issues. You know, remember the caller from Georgia. That's bad. The boat came by and had the confederate flag. Yes, you know it was offensive. Well here, here's the problem. Paul is the double standard. If. That offended someone. Then! Okay, take it down. I have no issue with that. But the problem is what if the boat came by with a black lives matter flag, which extremely offensive. It's culturally insensitive. Well hold on, let me let me let me a lot of people. Are Probably doing what I just got through doing. Can you explain? What you just got through saying that black lives matter is is culturally insensitive. your NFL saying that. Hispanic. Asian Caucasian. Whatever other formalize there is. Is Not important. No I'm not really. An expert on on on black lives matter but I've spent a lot of time recently. Talking to people about it and I don't think that's really what they're trying to say. I just think they're trying to say that they matter to. And, they're not. In no way Do I. is it my interpretation that anybody? WHO believes in subscribes and quite a few people do right now to black lives matter including myself that. Any other ethnicity creed, religion or color are being offended. And I completely respect your rebuttal except. Whenever I tell you the same thing about the confederate flag. You try to tell me what it stands for. No, I have never tried to tell you what it stands for it, so I'm from the. South I'm I would be the last person that could stand up and tell you that. I know. We've all heard plenty of people on this program tonight. Who have explained it been far better than I could. Why not say all is matter fall? Why not let's all get? Why why does it bother you that that that some people? Don't want to say that and they want to say black lives matter because they don't feel like you or many other people have respected what they stood for for a long time. Because I feel like what what have I done to you? It's real simple. If you have a two year old, why would you know Jonathan hold on a second? Apologize for slavery I like. Are. Two Year Old Asian children to Apollo I. Hear you're you're? You're really trying to confuse the conversation I'm interested in your background. If you don't mind sharing or are you, where are you from? I'm from Arkansas okay. And? I have a brother who is African, American. Okay. Have you have you spoken to your brother about this issue? Absolutely and does he agree with you? Sure, he says. Why would you say that? Any race color religion is above another? Brother I don't know I wouldn't. Say All lives matter I love black people I love white people. No, I. Don't think anyone really is doubting that but I just think I if to me. It's a way of attention though. The elephant in the room. Though is this okay? If I or you, you're a very white man, we everyone can see that. Sure, if you wear a white lives, matter shirt, you will be beatdown, pummeled fired from ESPN shunned ridiculed stopped out. Why can't your white last matter? Well because my wife, the cougars, my life has always mattered. I've never been persecuted because of the color of my skin. Are you sure? I'm pretty sure yeah. Whenever I. Go to places where it's. Mostly Black Communities I made to feel uncomfortable because I'm a white dude with a bald head. Why can tell you this? Johnson went out and now is a teenager. Oblige Gentleman. Who Work at a store that my mother and I went into. We became friends he was a bartender on the side. And he invited me to his house for Christmas party and I was the only black person there, and I was made feel I couldn't have felt anymore comfortable in knighted. By Queen Elizabeth so I've been other black. neighborhoods. Many Times. Black neighborhoods as well and I I mean I always been made to feel comfortable because because I really. Don't go into it with a particular edge I hate I hate to cut this off because I know we're. We don't we don't stop this. They're GONNA go ahead. Finish your thought. Come at. You. Know How we fix all this. I'm in I'm interested in, hearing. If you're black or white or whatever ethnic antipathy? Just stop and ask me. Hey Johnson from Arkansas. I'm a man of color. How do you feel about me and I'll say let me hug your neck and I'll show you I love. You fix it. Don't do it in okay. I really do have to go now because the. In my ear and We're going to run out of time here. Thank you for the call Jonathan We will talk again. You gotTA. Listening to Paul Finebaum show podcast. Okay? We're back final few minutes of what has been another fascinating program. Let's check out Eric in Florida. Erica I. Think we have you now? Hey probably yeah, we got cut off earlier. I'm sorry about that. That's okay. Listen Let me say this I. I want to talk about. Roger Goodell and time to be able to get to that though let me say something real quick to Jonathan. I know for sure. Being a former military soldier that isis wants to kill you. I wouldn't let them because of your life matters. Black lives matter when the KKK see it, they didn't. Okay, try to understand it, please. And anybody with like minds as yourself. Please try to understand it. Now a power mascot about A. Barrister meal don't Miss His name right yesterday. yeah, good the writer from Oklahoma, who was on yesterday. Yeah yeah he stole my thunder, but they're so. Do you know it wasn't not? He's related to patch or male Alabama so. I don't think he. I think it's I think it's spelled differently but. Varies from Oklahoma. Okay okay okay followed. Anyway. Let me say this to I I stand corrected if I did notice some annoyance in some of your responses to these talks of the constructor it's. And all that stuff but Paul. That's why thank God for giving us the Internet. When it's used for good and talk TV and radio shows Mike goes after our that does make things happened mysteriously, and realizing that I know your shoulders respect the spectacle. Respectful talk show sports talk show. But we also taking consideration that there are many black athletes whose homes were visited by coaches during recruiting times and these families in house. Every one of them have a nexus to anything relating on the civil war to civil rights, and you will be hard pressed to fan any parents of these athletes who don't respect the facts first and foremost full. They allow their kids to get involved in sports so. Eric I! I Apologize I agree with you on that. Sadly, because we went so long with our previous caller, we were at the end of the show. Thank you for being part of the show. Thanks! All of you will see you tomorrow. Have a good night. Thank you for listening to the Paul Finebaum show podcast. The Paul Finebaum show airs weekdays on the SEC network beginning at three eastern.
Detained motor tycoon cites 'deception' by rivals
"This. Marketplace podcast is brought to you by the university of Florida Warrington college of business transform your future with an MBA from one of America's top ten universities. Learn more at Warrington dot ufl dot EDU slash NBA. And by send pro from Pitney Bowes, send pro online software makes it easy to save time and money print shipping, labels and stamps, right? From your desk and access discounted rates. Try it free for thirty days and get a free ten pounds scale when you visit PBA dot com slash morning. That's PB dot com slash morning. Former Nissan boss Carlos Goan breaks his silence. More than two months after being arrested in Tokyo live from London. This is the marketplace morning report from the BBC World Service. I'm Victoria, Craig filling in for new on it. Good morning in his first interview since being detained in November on financial misconduct charges. Mr. Jones said quote plot and treason by executives at the Japanese automaker led to his arrest. The BBC's Celia Hatton has more speaking from Tokyo detention center to Japan. Pens Nikkei newspaper the man who once headed three car companies Carlos Goan hit back against a mounting number of financial misconduct charges. Mr. Jones said that some in Nissan opposed his plan to integrate Reynaud the French car company, he headed with its Japanese alliance partners Nissan and Mitsubishi. They wanted to get rid of him. He said the former alliance head denied any wrongdoing including underreporting his salary and using Nissan's money to cover personal investment losses. He said those decisions had been signed off by colleagues at Nissan Celia Hatton there. Let's do the numbers, but will shares are mixed ahead of a key rate decision in the US today. The British pound meanwhile is rising after a fall last night against the euro. That's after Prime Minister Theresa may want backing from parliament to renegotiate the UK's Brexit agreement with the EU. Meanwhile, Francis benchmark stock index is higher after fresh figures there show the economy grew more than expected in the fourth quarter. Brazilian mining company. Volley has announced it will shut down. Ten damn similar to the one that collapsed last week. The company's boss said the decommissioning process will cost more than a billion dollars. The BBC's Natalia pass arena has more. The impact of the accident has already been significant in values. Stop rises which fell by over twenty four percent and meant the loss of nine thousand nine billion in market value for Brazil's biggest mining company. There has also been a class action lawsuit filed in the United States on behalf of those who purchased or acquired the securities of Ali now valets CEO said the accident, quote radically changed our approach and that he wants to leave no doubt that the company's operations are absolutely safe. So what is the company doing to ensure that this doesn't happen again? Well, the fact that remain is that this accident is happening only three years after a huge accident that occurred. Word in Marian a- and involved a dam that was administrated by some coal, which is a company owned by valley. So in very little time. We saw in Brazil, two major accidents not much has been done to improve security in the operations. So the town of Mariana. They still are very dependent on the mining industry. And even after a terrible disaster has occurred. They're not interested in seeing the industry completely go away. Exactly. The whole state of Muniz. It is is very much dependent on mining. It is the most important industry much of the city near where the damn accord was destroyed. But even after this tragic accident the population there once the mining company that was responsible for the accident to comeback and operate again. That's not about ending the mining industry. But Brazil's the second exporter in the world of steel. It's. All about making it safer. That's the BBC's Natalia Pastorino. Now, the US and China will restart trade talks today in Washington. The two sides called a truce late last year in Argentina on the sidelines of the g twenty summit but time for a resolution is running out if they can't come to a compromise by March first the US has vowed to increase tariffs on two hundred billion dollars worth of Chinese goods. There's already pain in China's auto industry, though, which saw demand fall for the first time in twenty years as the BBC's, Robin. Brent reports if you'll selling cut elects in China, it helps that America's president is driven. You may want. He took me gently around the roads and his dealership south Chen. Ye told me his customers know that they like the prestige and the quality the price is good too for them. But no for him anymore. Last year was a bad year for his cO business since since she's she's is also a CEOs on every new vehicle is causing us to lose money. Basically, the more we sell the more. We lose loss leaders are painful for any business that pain comes after demand this dealership plunged thirty percent last year, just over twenty two million new cars were sold in China last year. But that's the six percent drop on the previous year. In a tiny has Ceylon in the heart of Shanghai. I sat down for a few hours retail sales have slowed to a pace not seen over a decade. So my head basic. This professor. Okay. Okay. Now, the other problem for China as it faces. This economic slowdown is people like me heck concert in chief. Soon Chang talks about the mounting healthcare costs that he's worried about its policy of the reason that he like many here, traditionally still big safest, the Sanjaya, there's a typo show you. Ios young. I think some cloudiness they want to boost their sales. So the need such consumers who love pay by loans, but as a traditional Chinese I think we should only buy stuff, but we came forward. China wants to move towards more of this stuff domestic consumption more call roading, of course, as well. But at the moment, not model has gone off the rails imports and exports last year down on the previous year, and of course, demand for 'cause is down for the first time in two decades. There's no doubt the slowdown in China is here this country's consumers. It's coal dealers. Its head coaches know it and so two China's leaders Robin Brandt reporting there from Shanghai and finally got any Beatles memorabilia sitting around a new project is looking for never before seen photos of the Fab Four it's all for a biography and picture archive to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the group's last live performance today in nineteen sixty nine. What's your best? Beatles memory. Share it with us at the hashtag BBC marketplace in London, I'm Victoria, Craig with the marketplace morning report from the BBC World Service. This marketplace podcast is brought to you by Sunpro by Pitney Bowes, Sunpro online software makes it easy to save time and money, no matter what you ship or mail print shipping, labels and stamps, right? From your desk and access discounted rates. Try it for free for thirty days and get a free ten pound scale when you visit PB dot com slash morning. That's PB dot com slash morning.