18 Burst results for "sean carroll"
Ice Like Stone
"Welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick and we're going to be talking about materials today but this is a really fun materials episode that will shatter like glass in our hands or will it I? Guess. It's a big question mark. Yeah we'RE GONNA be talking a lot about ice, but a lot of exciting stuff about is you're gonNA learn some new things about ice I think and you're also going to think A bit more deeply about what can be done and also. Perhaps cannot or should not be done with ice. So if you've read any of George are Martin's a song of ice and fire. If you've read that saga or if you've viewed the TV adaptation, a game of thrones, you're well acquainted with the wall but to reacquaint everybody, this is a fantasy world that's day stunt sort of a medieval European model, and in the far north, you have this massive three, hundred mile long seven, hundred foot tall wall of ice that we're told has stood there for eight thousand years is a barrier against the peoples and the supernatural horrors of the far north. Yeah. It's basically. HADRIAN's wall except much bigger and made of magic. Yes. Yeah. We're told it was built by brandon the builder with the aid of giants and the magical children of the forest were definitely to understand that there is actual magic in its construction. But also there's this idea that brandon was a master engineer that he's in the vein of these various engineering cultural heroes that you see in various cultures. But of course, the the real up feature that makes this while unique is that it is built out of ice not out of stone but out of frozen water. Yes it is a wall of ice so. Ignoring the magic for a second here. It sounds like a great plan, right? I. Mean Humans have been known to make shelters out of ice glaciers and snow has served as natural barriers to travel. So why wouldn't a it'd be ideal to construct this far northern barrier which is going to be dealing with you know with far northern climate why not build it out of ice good. Question is a block of ice not just as good as stone brick. Yeah. So I, I was looking around about this and Fortunately. There is already a great book out there that dives into this very question it sidled fire ice and physics the science of game of thrones by Rebecca Thompson, PhD A physicist, and author of the popular of Spectra Series of Comic Books About Physics and I should also note that Sean Carroll wrote the Intro Cool. So she first of all, this is just a really fun book. If you if if you're interested in game of thrones and science I encourage you to pick it up I love books like this. One about Dune. I I've been eyeing one about star wars. But she goes through various aspects of the books and the world of West rose in breaks about scientifically Indus-. So in a very engaging humorous but also West rose loving style. So, there's there's one section there where she tackles the wall and she points out that ultimately this question would an ice while work is a lot more complex than you might think. So for starters, there's not just one type of Ice Crystal. There are seventeen types of crystalline is that we know of plus there are three different types of amorphous ice and three hundred. Theoretically she says there might be as many as three hundred different phases of ice. Depending on some of the the research out there
"sean carroll" Discussed on Dr. Drew Podcast
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"sean carroll" Discussed on Dr. Drew Podcast
"Important but you're not forced to do that. We had better theories than you can believe in if you choose to. In those, there is not needed ever ready in world. Well ever it would be an example of such beer. So worlds is a theory that is just equations all the way down, but there are alternatives. There are hidden variable theories, their objective wave function, collapse theories, a whole panoply of theories and -opoly. I always pronounce that Word Wrong Hannity of of theories that have nothing to do with consciousness or people yet matched known experimental results of quantum mechanics you get into some of this stuff on the new videos. A little bit you the video that just came out on entanglement talk about I one video before this on quantum mechanics in general where I give the Party line, the usual conventional story, and then my most recent video on entanglement I talk about many worlds in hidden variables as. Rigorous. Versions of this kind of sloppy party line. Yeah, Tang, it used to completely flipped me out and until until I accepted the. The wave nature of the quantum mechanical wave nature of. Everything. That angelman into your life I'm glad. Well. No, it was just as possible as apostles. Oh, it's all just one thing. Accents and and it also makes sense in terms of how my brain works. Our brain is what separates things out i. mean things have some separation, but our brain is built on that I mean, look the retina works the retina whenever there is a, you know a crossover of any movement or texture or color that's where I goes up at an important So we we are built to look at differences in separate things in space that may not actually be separate. To Undo any understanding that you may have achieved but just to. Is not the same as a classical correlation between Entanglement is not the same as the classical ocean of correlation or relationship between two things entanglement. They specifically quantum mechanical phenomenon that has to do with when you observe one thing you can then predict the outcome of other things that you have not yet observed. I get the care with which you provide that definition I don't. Understand the difference I'm guessing there's a math in there. There's a math. Yeah. Yeah. See my video i. GotTa. Watch the video so that that'll further further clarify Mike My. Understanding this phenomenon. I mean, let's you let people in on where this came from. You know as I said, the nineteen twenties quantum mechanics gets put in its modern formulation people like Einstein and for that matter Schrodinger of sugars campaign, they never were happy with it and they weren't anti quantum mechanics. How could shredding anti quantum mechanics invented the swagger equation? Okay. But they were they were. Convinced that the theory wasn't done yet or. Complete and Einstein in nineteen thirty five put made. Put his finger on what About quantum mechanics and it's not that it's random. You can. You could deal with that. If there were like that. It's that there's this spooky action at a distance that you can measure something here. That implies something instantly about what goes on far away. That's. On the other side of the universe. Yeah exactly or. To, but if the same YEP YEP and. Shinzo, before then even though we had quantum mechanics, we hadn't really appreciated the phenomenon of entanglement. It was Einstein who really taught us to do that. In the existence of entanglement like you just said is not a mystery it's not like Oh will we ever understand entanglement? We get that what we don't get is sort of how to fit in to the world that we think is right I mean spooky action at a distance spooky is not a scientific. Art of it I mean we have A. Limited capacity. To perceive the world, but we have potentially infinite capacity to understand the world. You know our brains have reached the point where it might be difficult. We can abstractly manipulate the symbols for any logical statement you want as a matter of can we accept it and can we do the hard work of mapping electrical structure onto the world of experience what I to that and I think the way we proceed is when it does bother our intuitions. We keep looking for better alternative ways to explain things right and that's perfectly fine right? I mean. This is one of the things I talked about in my book something deeply hidden about quantum mechanics is that the dividing line between people who like many worlds and people who don't can in some sense be traced to, which is more important to you a theory that is sort of intrinsically elegant and beautiful and austere and compelling or a theory that. Matches what we see. Those are two different criteria in their intention in the world of quantum mechanics. Yeah I. Don't see how you could averaging for things that have a direct reflection of what we see 'cause we're we're way beyond. People try very hard and they made some successes but to me, this looks like an ugly attempt to avoid the reality that staring us in the face. Is there a? Sort of a rush of questions One is. Does any of your theories do I guess this must be true that the the quantum wave function of the universe. The first and second laws of thermodynamics fall out about somehow is that mass you have that mask now is that that can be shown I mean these are all things that There's sort of a rigorous perfect proof and then there's a pretty good working understanding right?.
"sean carroll" Discussed on Dr. Drew Podcast
"It's just too big. You know I don't like it. You know where's it GonNa go these are not reasonable objections to have long as you can mathematically described them and they fit the experience that we have of the world. That's what counts Andrew be fair somebody way in this dimension Dry Cross and that's freaking out a little bit. So be careful don't worry. Maybe, the other dimension you don't have covert, but in this one, I'm worried so so The just talking all the time doing pop. Videos and things like that. I assume ability, we're going to get into probabilities. But but in to be fair though you know proofs do evolve and my come along with a new proof that somehow enhanced elucidates changes in some way. Everette kinds of interpretations, right Mafia no absolutely I mean. So. So this is the current knowledge based on current proofs. So so before we get the probability, the other thing I had to a question about. Is Well. I wanted to get the free will to you're GONNA. Love this I don't understand Filbert's space. Help me understand that. Yep. Well, you start new try to invent quantum mechanics back the nineteen twenties you say like, okay, I haven't electron everyone starts been electron. It's the most you know tangible elementary particle can get our hands on and you say, okay the quantum mechanical wave describing the electron is very different than the classical in classical physics you would say it has a location. And it has a Balazs ity or a momentum either one doesn't really matter and so. Six numbers you have to give meat is three coordinates in space and the three components of the velocity in direction left right board back by the way quick aside I, I practice medicine alongside of Dr. Milkins. Grandson was. Very good physicist. So, there's a speech based not only the space we live in the three dimensional space we live in, but there's also this six dimensional space of which we call phase space, which is the space of all classical particle states, which is the position and the momentum. Okay. Six numbers you need three position three for momentum. White three. Yeah. Three plus three sex. Rewi. Three. A this it's a, it's a, it's a each one. Yes, or or. A client the. Both for location and for Valetta got it But now you say quantum mechanics comes along and the electron is now a wave function. Right? He can think of it as a cloud relates to the probability that you'll measure in different places. So at every point point in space, there's a number complex number which we call the amplitude, but who cares, but it's a number because that's what Function is function is a number of signed to every point in space. So if you say well, how what is the space of all possible wave functions right just like what does this face of all possible states of classical electron is six dimensional space of all possible wave functions is infinite dimensional because at every point in space, you give me a number that's an infinite amount of information. Hilbert space is the space of all possible wave functions. So even for one electron, Hilbert space seems to be infinite dimensional for two electrons. Happily, it's also embiid dementia. It doesn't get any worse than that two times. Infinity is still infinity. And so it's just an infinite space of well. Man My head is an infinite space or a array lumping of infinite probabilities. Well, this is the wonderful thing about math and science is that we we reuse recycle with abandoned and including the meanings of words. Okay. So the word space to you might mean, you know the final frontier out there you know in the sky. Okay. That's one meaning of the word space. Another meaning of the words face is the three dimensional. World in which we live. Right Annette left right forward backward. But with METICIAS NHS US space, just to mean any collection of objects of mathematical things with some structure on. So they'll talk about the space of the real numbers or the space of the images or a circle is a space or a set of vectors space. So Hilbert space has nothing to do with space the freedom, the world in which we live it's. Pathetic land has every possible wave function in it. And and let's dig a little further on wave function case people understand what that means. Yeah well, you know the wave function is just the slightly fancy way of saying the Quantum Mechanical State of the particle. So you spread out the electron from being appoint classically to being cloud to being the function of all locations in space, and the wave function is the way you answer the question if I were to observe the electron byword have look at it what its position is, what is the probability I would get different answers where the wave function is large the probability is large or the wave function is small probability is small. So that's how I was sort of taught physics as it pertained to electron clouds. Yeah, and does. That this is why Kinda WanNa go next which is. I don't know how to ask this. Any other way than this? Does it mean something that probability exists or does it just mean we can't properly defined something yet? The. Asking that right you're asking it very right. If I knew the answer I'd be super. duper famous. We so probability exists would that be accurate to say probability exists well, probably certainly exists. Or? Clear. What is yeah. Probably. So we can distinguish, let us just like liquor lives simple and distinguish between two different notions of probability. One is you know when you flip a coin, you say the probability that I. When I flip it next, it'll be fifty percent heads, fifty percent tails, and you can say what that means.
"sean carroll" Discussed on Dr. Drew Podcast
"Wins in the sale the girl, a pirate ship we get right to my guess is that I think you know he's one of my favorite he is John. Carroll. He is a research professor of physics at Caltech is something deeply hidden quantum morals and the emergence of space. Time, and because now this is the third or fourth time I have coerced Dr Carol to head our way I'm asking all of you to go watched and listened to mindscape listened to mindscape. It is one of the best podcasts out there and if you have any. Curiosity about the physical universe and more by the way he goes well beyond that download subscribe strong Carols Mindscape I command you to do. So now you'll not be disappointed China welcome back. Thank you very much drew. Thanks for sending your your minions, my way onto your might. Well, that's my goal right now now that you have made the tremendous strategic error of telling me you would come back you become my own private theater with its. and I hope your coaching up my audience at the same time, which is really the goal here. And you know as I listened to your pods, I started accumulating questions I start thinking, and that's always dangerous. For me and for non physicists. And you have this uncanny ability to make physics accessible. In and I'm going to. Do I feel like I need a little more mass today. Here here for you. Okay. and I'm not a mathematician. My son literally is An and I just marvel at some of the stuff he does and the proofs and whatnot but I kind of understand the world that you live in with Ed and I always wonder when I start thinking about things that. I've tried to make sense of things. I always wonder it's just 'cause I'm not looking at the mass that that I can have these sort of extraneous thoughts. For instance, I'll let you open with people didn't hear our previous conversations the many worlds hypothesis that's an which is your favorite, and it's becoming known for that now. So explain to people where that came from. Well, actually let me first before I. Forget I will forget Let me plug that something because. Quarantine Mike Martine project is I'm doing videos called the biggest ideas in the universe right talk about physics with like a little tiny bit of math. So it's kind of exactly what you're asking for. UNAFRAID dimension things like. We don't do calculations or anything like that. I, think it's actually you know a wonderful thing for people to want a little bit more math than they get in you know most of my popular books or Brian Greene's Neil degrasse Tyson's Lisa Randall's for or whatever and I think it does help because the world is the world is exists Sorta mathematically we can talk about it using metaphors. All we want. But sometimes, the math is just the only way to really get the point across and ninety worlds is sort of an example of that. In some sense because people here the world, the word many worlds are the phrase many worlds It's a version of quantum mechanics. It's a way of thinking about what quantum mechanics is teaching us and they say, well, that sounds like. A fantasy science fiction, landlady telling me all these parallel realities are pumping into existence and we can explain why you think that. But the one lesson I wanna get across is we didn't just make up a bunch of world's. while. We made up with quantum mechanics trying to fit the data, and if you just look at the mathematics of quantum mechanics, this was the brilliant insight of Hugh Everett who is a graduate student in nineteen fifties. He said look if you just take with quantum mechanics telling you at face value, it says something like an electron in elementary particle that is very quantum mechanical can exist in a superposition of spinning clockwise and spinning counterclockwise. It's neither one nor the other thought that you don't know it's really doing but. That's true than you should believe that you can exist in a superposition of having seen the electrons spinning up and seem the electrons spinning down, and that means that the universe should be able to exist in the super position and indeed it does and that's the many worlds interpretation and that falls out of the mathematics. Yeah. The many worlds everyone knows everyone who understands whether they agree with many worlds or not when you get right down to the definition of it it's just the most stripped down bare bones. way of thinking about what quantum mechanics says, there are quantum states. There's an equation, the Schrodinger equation that tells you how quantum state evolves and the possibility for many worlds is there in the quantum state and the only question is, does that possibility become real? And so I was always preoccupied with entanglements in and you you explain that to me in a way that I've got my head around and as a result of that. I am now convinced that everything is just a giant quantum wave equation and we are just emerged properties is that accurate lane Dr Nation is working? Yes. Exactly. Right. And but of course, there's a lot of work hidden in those phrases that you just uttered That's the challenge, and that's why you know I don't blame people who don't like the many worlds interpretation if they don't like it in a principled way, you know there's plenty of reasons to worry about it. But the reasons are not that you know it's too heavy or too weird or you know I don't it rubs me the wrong way. The reasons are that the formalism is beautiful and elegant as it is is so very different from the world of our experience from the world of our eyeballs in our fingertips. Maybe. A theory like that could account for the world I see but you're gonNA have to do some work proving it to me, and that's the work of in showing that many worlds gives rise to the emerging reality real experience. Some somehow, that's a feature of the emergence. Yeah we would like I mean, and this is why it sits at the. Intersection of physics and philosophy because we need not only understand how wave functions work. The quantum states were talking about me not only to understand the evolution equation and so forth. But we also have to understand what emergence is how you relate the fundamental ingredients of reality to the world of.
"sean carroll" Discussed on Dr. Drew Podcast
"So that's the kind of idea that I think they should be elevated because it is actually you know when you say it that way. It's very easy right about the. Non Linear interactions between different kinds of systematic bias. And discrimination in the world. Yeah it's not fuzzy and you know personal it's just an objective fact. You how people behave with and the other thing is the bias exists we we all have by us a whole `nother thing right a whole `nother thing is the very first episode of my podcast with social psychologist. Carol Taveres who works on how we convince ourselves that we're right no matter what decisions we make so she is really wonderful about cognitive dissonance and justifying ourselves Dell's after the fact it's weird to me how we are so overcome by that phenomenon today yet in my lifetime. I've never seen anyone with this. Well there's also yet this current political issues we don't understand that it's all amplified by everything I get it but it's uncanny goes it doesn't just both sides have these. I do think that I I suspect that. The the general impression we have that this kind of tribalism irrationality is worse now than it used to be as always always very difficult for me to know because we have our bias of being recent right. Let me think what the time we're in now is always special very obvious bias that we all have still. I think it's true. I think I think that we are seems an part of it. A big part of it is the Internet. I did a really fascinating interview on mindscape with Will Wilkinson Wilkinson. I don't know if you've listened to that one. But he's a sort of a political policy analyst who who analyzed the urban rural divide and how that cross cuts with things like personality type idyllic brazelle types of intervene cities and and. Yeah certain WANNA be in the country and how does that affect our politics. Tech's and historical view historical view. And you know the psychological view and everything. And it's all things social scientific like that is way messier and Should be critiqued by others. So I'm looking for other people to bring in different views on that but Yeah this issue of how irrational how irrational what our biases are like. Look if you look one hundred years ago. Two years ago three hundred years ago these people were idiots but they say things and they justify things that now now we find horrible clearly. We're doing things one hundred years from. Now they linhart. How do we figure out what those are? I would really like to know. Well not about how you within the context of then and now what's real well with what is fruit like David Hume is one of my favorite philosophers but some like many people Some really terrible views on race and some people say well of course you know he was talking the seventeen hundreds of course he had terrible views on race but you can actually go back even in the seventeen. Hundreds among his circle of friends. People were like David. That's really racist and so how much latitude you give to people. It's a tricky question. It's hard well. I think if we focus too much on the AD hominem conversations of historical stoorikhel figures. WE'RE GONNA lose a lot of thought. Yeah it's very. Just hold it up as a slogan or around cry. It's very hard to be rash about those things. I agree. So that's where again. I'm totally sympathetic to the intellectual dark web about the need to be able to have rational conversations about all sorts of touchy topic. But the other thing. That's Kinda disturbing disturbing to me is We're having a freewheeling tuna theoretical conversation and we really haven't done anything scientistic in this conversation really How poorly and how few people are trained to have that kind of objective thought process? Yeah an even among scientists and clinicians and things. I'm shocked shocked if you ask them. What's the basic principle of scientific method? They would tell you let alone how to really carefully objectively analyze. What that you're thinking through? It's rare you know. I say I tell people you would think that being a professional cosmologists studying the universe would make you humble because the universe is really big and you really Tiny empirically. That's just not true. Just as many self-important jerks among the cosmologists sweet very nice people. I very quickly say the recent Nobel Prize that was just giving this year. One of them was given the gym people's who's for. It was the first Nobel prize given for theoretical cosmology and happily. Jim People's is one of the nicest people in the world. And so that was a really nice thing to see and I got to speak briefly to Shoot on Bram breaking. His name is famous to it. Helped me Who called in one Sunday indeed the cosmologists that's does all the TV and stuff? You'll digress and we were talking about co two scrubbing technologies allergies. He gave me hope that we would have that right. And so that was that was but but still the ability to think carefully and objectively is something I i. I'm wondering if educational system has sort of gotten so focused on the facts and accumulating information that the ability to think carefully is lost. Yeah and I think it's multifaceted ability because part of it is just quantitative right like having how attached to things and updating dating them but a lot of it is sort of psychological. You know knowing when you're putting your thumb on the scales a little bit but you may have always some people always have that kind of objective objective mechanism in their brain. You may have always been that kind of it's just not true I I'd I'd grind myself into it until it became taunus until started working. I'm a poker player and I know perfectly well that I am just as a subject to wishful thinking anyone right but I'm a male and the numbers are I I understand. And that's that's the human brain. Yeah that's how we're still imagining your ability to be objective. Careful trust me is different than the average offers persons and I'm wondering if it was already because some people's minds just work that way but you guys rain. I driving insane. I know what what my mind was like before he did that. And I know what it's like after I was well trained and it was like That's different I feel very fortunate but I'm looking around going. I'm seeing lots of my pre. Morbid itself is still out there but and that's either good nor bad. I wouldn't judge anybody on that. It's just you know but my point is that the idea being rational looking world. Rationally is a very multifaceted idea. Yes they had ability to judge. Evidence objectively is part of it. The thing that I think is the crucial. Oh part that is. The least emphasized is what I think of as the attention filter. Like there's a billion things going on in the world anyone time you can't pay attention attention to everything and there's a huge biased just given to us by the fact that we tend to focus on something and not others. It's inevitable you can't help it. You can't literally pay attention to everything so you need a filter but choosing where your filter is as an enormously powerful impact on how you view the world and what do you think is the important issues and what you can ignore. And and and I haven't seen a lot of work on training That filter that's interesting. He'll give that some thought because that that could be affecting a lot of what's going on right now I think in the current political thing caused a certain kind of attentional mechanism to emerge. That's not serving us that great. Yeah we all know about you. Know the filter bubble on the Internet and so forth and I think a little all sub feature of that is if you just go on social media or whatever not only is there polarization but social media sort of trains us to be snarky right like we disagree with someone. We don't engage in some careful critique like yeah and that feeds on itself when it becomes the norm and it just becomes impossible to think of people who disagree with you as human just today released a podcast Whereas interviewing a professional philosopher whose opinion cyclist so he thinks about consciousness and he thinks that everything is a little bit conscious electrons conscious? That's right exactly exactly and I am not a Pan psychics by any measure and so we had a very productive fruitful discussion. Where I told him I didn't believe him? He told me you. I knew believe me. It became clear from the comments That there are people who believe me and people who believe him and very few people who are interested in the debate back and forth forth. They'd chosen the side and they were like. Why did you talk to this complete nonsense person or why did you not understand that this person is telling you the truth and it's just real people people say hey they wanna hear an honest debate between two sides? It's rare that they really do. Did you have a real talk about conscious on the heart absolutely right. I really believe believe that. Just let me just throw this out there that that trying to understand consciousness as a single scull phenomenon wrong. It's a it's a at least two skull phenomenon it's a it's an embedded experience absolutely but this is my our bodies are in space together and they relating each other ways that are bringing only partially consciously inform us about And you know. Where's the self emerge in an interpersonal context? And you know I always do the thought experiment if you had a feral child leave at age. One Comeback Age fourteen and that can be conscious in the way that we think of consciousness not not functioning on its up and look at social mammals is they become more and more social you see more and more self recognition things like. We would consider sort of conscious that we feel like. It's conscious only social mammals. Well the role of language is very interesting and consciousness consciousness. I don't claim to understand but acting exchange phenomena you wouldn't invent language the only person in the world all right. I've I've exhausted things I've I've worked you over. Good I appreciate you being I I told you I bring you back and I really truly appreciate it in there and do to let me know. Support your podcast. Or this is great. And they're just having we'll talk. It's a very good CI- silence please. Everybody help help John Out. Help me out by making good on going to see mindscape. You won't be sorry.
"sean carroll" Discussed on Dr. Drew Podcast
"You're said if if we were to go into a black hole Serve with no it. Yeah that's right if the black holes big enough. It's very gentle. There's there's no signpost when you hit the event is and you pass right through eventually you know it but we I go to two dimensions though right or something no. That's a little bit tricky. Let me finish the ANDROID android. It turns out that this story about interview black holes in the number of quantum states that it could possibly have works for the universe as a whole say that say again so this story about black holes that they have an entropy in the you can use that to say how many quantum states are included in the black hole also works for the universe as a whole transfer. Sure I should say the observable universe. It's very much like we are inside a horizon. You know the the black hole. The edge of the black holes called the event horizon. Have you ever read heidegger flower a little bit. He uses remarkably similar language to quantum physics remarkably in time or The second book of being in time where he's he's talking about Horizons Ecstasy's and he just has this sense about. I thought he was going out of eastern and sort of you know holistic but when you really the the in quantum physics kind of properties to it while he was writing in Germany in the early twenty S. I wonder if he was influenced by all. He didn't seem like that but had that kind of qua anyway. So go ahead. I don't know we're in the black. Oh so well we're not we're not in a black hole but it's like that and so we now avoiding the math but there is a horizon so there's a horizon around a black hole in the sense that if something goes in it can come back out right. Can't comeback cannot come back out it's a black hole is there's also a horizon around us in the a universe because it's something goes very very far away. Space Expands so fast we live in an expanding universe that that thing can never come back so there's a horizon around us point of no return we'll directors like there's a horizons of spreading and there's a horizon of concentrating event that's exactly right and Our horizon has an entropy and you can calculate related and it's something like ten to the one hundred twenty two and so that implies a certain number of quantum states that our universe can have and that gives the lower limit Mitt on how many possible worlds there could be the upper limit is infinity. So that's the range the you know it's it's ten to the ten to one hundred twenty two between that number and infinity. So it's a one with ten to one hundred twenty. Two zero zero zero eight hundred zero. I was trying to figure out how. Zero's that was. That's right. I mean just for for just for scale. The number of particles in the observable universe is tend to the eighty eight. Oh is that true. Yes doesn't sound so big once. Use numbers wait ended number of the particle in the universe. In the observable universe particles photons electrons quarks neutrinos that seems like an awfully small number for the the. It's interesting we'll see now. The many world seems closer to one again. Yeah exactly even even worse. The Universe is only about ten of the eighteen seconds old so Ten eighteen in ordinary terms is a big number but in these he's terms. It's nothing that's very interesting. Yeah and and if you so this is why by the way even though the universe is branching into multiple worlds ruled all the time. There's plenty of room all these branches of the wave function if there can be ten to the ten to one hundred twenty two of them. We're not going to run out of world anytime soon. That's interesting how how is. How is this because I have a dilettante when it comes to your field? How is this all going? These days. The conversation about this I I linked up. You're getting a extra anxious about it or anxious. There's a lot of things going on. I think that you know People like me are trying to get our physics colleagues league's interested in the foundations of quantum mechanics once again and I'm certainly not the only one or the most important one and maybe it's working. I think you know maybe people are catching on that. We do have contention to this stuff. The other side of the coin is when we try to understand space time and quantum gravity and so forth. It's becoming more clear that this perspective on foundations namely many worlds is very useful. That just like Hugh Everett predicted in the nineteen fifties understanding the universe as a whole requires us to look beyond the Copenhagen interpretation to be fair many things in physics as the theories of evolved required people accepting weird things that seemed in sounded weird until they had the deeper explanation or mathematical describing it. Or something absolutely gotta go. That's just what the President says for now as value and your intuition and you're feeling for what's natural changes over time as you learn more and more it might have been just absolutely abhorrent to you at one polydor on you realize. Oh yeah come on obviously right. We'll but but now that you you it's because incorporate more more ideas into your Like for instance entanglement to me was the most like forget it. That's not can't be yet. Then it's overall just emergent. Properties of a giant wave function got. It makes perfect sense so well listen. I really appreciate you coming here and sharing this stuff with my audience gets into this. I'm I I'm fascinated. I think you do a better job than anybody making this accessible to the to the world. I feel like that's your commitment right. You want you want it is and also on the podcast. So people are shocked when they see the episodes. It's mostly not about physics. I love love talking. Winds smart people about all sorts of things you know music movies wind. But also there's a lot of philosophy neuroscience biology. Yes I have some fun episodes so it's coming up origin of life entropy things like that the multi verse. Yes but but you bring this to that you know. Yeah no absolutely and so me doing the interviewing yeah and so which I again I find unique and fascinating kind of way of approaching these things and can't recommend a strong enough mindscape is again the name of the podcast before we wrap things up. I I WANNA get kind of stuck with me and I'm trying to get my head. Squared is the idea of your because I search deep respect for you your disdain. For the dark web and intellectual argument you wanted people brought into the conversation there and I'd like to know more about that and what what because I always thought that the dark web was a place where people can say anything and you said No. They're leaving. They're leaving points of view out. I thought Oh that's not good. I like it. Well I think that yeah I mean. My my main criticism is not that they are leading points. UNALLOYED think that that's true. I think that you know there is a certain particular slant they they have about what they consider worth complaining about right. There's certain kinds of attitudes that it's not just they want anything. Said they want certain things is being able to be well the the things that they felt they couldn't talk about for the last part so right I mean yeah. That's right so the things that they wanted to talk about one hundred four talk judged or something and those things sort of systematically have the flavor of you know people like me are getting a bum bum rap. It's usually stuff that has it's usually science that has been used to do social harm. It's legitimately been used to harm people and as a result it's highly eddie charged when people want to talk about these things because they can still do harm with it. It's still if people take these things and use it as a mallet. It it doesn't it shouldn't be you know we're saying think don't discuss that some of the dark where people are saying. No it's just science we gotta dispassionately talk about stuff no matter what it is and so that's sort of always my view. It was just like I just want to know what the science says enough to again. Just having this conversation I think is important because you realize how difficult reality is to come to figure out. I mean we gotta really be objective and careful and thoughtful constantly. Change your point of view and constantly take new ideas whatever they might be right now. That's that's right so I'm completely in favor of talking about all sorts of yeah. Yeah so that's why I say you know in my episode of the podcast about this. That's where I agree. I'm all in favor of talking about things. So here's a coordinator bringing with my question. So here's a critique that you might imagine people in the intellectual dark web would offer we live in a society Eh. Where what can be setting cannot be said are governed by power structures that are influenced by history and by money and buy hierarchy and by I breeding and race and things like that and so there are all these voices that are not heard because they are of minority groups or people who didn't can have money or power or anything like that? We need to hear from them. Yeah but I don't actually hear that critique from intellectual dark web I don't hear them trying to raise the voices of Queer Gay people because they don't usually get hurt that's not that's not the priority I would say it's mostly an ad Hominem thing about me and what I he's not able to say that's right and that we should be able to talk about and so so as if you're gonNA use the word intellectual in yourself description my point in my podcast here buddy. That's an incredibly high barley. Do it by all means good for you for aiming for that but what that means is the first person you better be skeptical of his yourself. Right the person you have to be harshest harshest on agree snapped. You better check that you're not being biased. Is Yourself Yeah. I think that they could do better. and Are you going to bring some of these people onto your podcast Yeah I have no specific plan. Never no more than and not knowing where the people that have not been heard from. Oh yeah I hope so L. Drager or who was on my first podcast. Guests was meant to be in that first New York Times article about the intellectual dark web until she said. I don't even know these people. Don't include you phony okay to that. Yeah anybody else. We should be looking forward to bring into the car. I tried to keep it sacred secret. Who's going to be? I don't know who do you recommend for the bring. Bring into the conversation that are. Yeah no that's a great question you'll like The whole set of conversations about. Let's say intersection your sexuality. Because Gary I'm GONNA be bugging you to get to get these people. Yeah so the idea of intersection. originated with Kimberly Crenshaw who who is a law professor at Ucla but she had a really narrow idea about it. I'm understanding is. Yeah no look this is. This is a wonderful rhetorical oracle trick that amount accusing you of people get accused of. You can always find bad examples of anything. Any idea. Corn misused yes so let's put aside the worst uses of idea like identity politics intersection alad. Eli All this stuff can be used badly so I agree with that but that that doesn't mean that it's not also used well so this idea that there are ways of being discriminated against that don't apply to African Americans this don't apply to women but do apply to African American women. That's what intersection is all about. So I think that's just a fascinating idea I'm sure that there are limits to it and I would love to explore those limits..
"sean carroll" Discussed on Dr. Drew Podcast
"There's one fun. The story where bore bore was really strange interesting character because he was hugely influential people loved him. People like worshiped meals. Forget some weird charisma but he was a terrible writer. He was good. Yeah that's right Copenhagen. But he right. He'd write English Rush Valley yet he would write in English. I think he was writing in English. Yeah we're talking with a thousand translation. Turned out to be his. That's right yeah. He wrote it in English and it was reprinted. One time with the pages out of order and nobody notice and yet and yet this was an incredibly influential paper right. This is a paper about spooky action at a distance so it speaks to the fact that there was this weird. If I were to live with that Taylor who would I be able to understand it or do I have to have the math. I think this is one of the papers that it's not clear anyone so it's not just you because I thought I was thinking I'd love to read that paper but I'm not gonNA try. You know the I think the spirit of the paper is to say that what exists and what is real depends not only on what the measurement outcome is but the very fact that we choose to measure it in certain ways that sounds like many world again. It does sound like that but This is this is part of a debate within Stein. The famous bohr Einstein debates where Einstein Stein was trying his best to put his finger on something that would everyone would agree counts as real in quantum mechanics and bore would have none of that he was very slippery. He didn't WanNa down anything. That was actually the.
"sean carroll" Discussed on Dr. Drew Podcast
"Podcast welcomed. Back my latest Obsession Sean. Carroll Research Professor of physics at Caltech. He's a podcast who which is true. Then put my obsession has not just you but your podcast which is shontae the mindscape. You're okay with the PODCAST IS I get my son's turned onto my wife gaffed on board and But I recommend it most most most highly forthcoming book. It's already out something. Deeply Hidden Quantum worlds emergence of space time which will kind of talk about Shawna's theoretical physicist specializing in quantum mechanics. Gravity and cosmology. And thanks to you. I've learned a little more about quantum mechanics sort of the general sweeping ideas. How have you been at Caltech now? Oh this is my thirteenth year. Their longtime Palestinian everything. Good I love it was just in Chicago for a couple of days and it was snowing. Incoming good good so all right. I am We did a little bit of a run through some with these topics last time. It was not cohesive terms of my questioning. It was not like linear sort of a conversation was just sort of things that I I caught listening to your podcasts. More than anything in having you you know a collegiate education in physics sort of kept an eye on this since then couple things I want to get at this time. Let me ask just one sort of. I guess it's a technical question. How much are we missing about these topics by not discussing the mathematics? Because some of this really is about math. Yeah no that's actually great question Shen and the answer is it depends on what we're talking about so let me give you an example where you're missing a lot We talk about quantum mechanics. My Book something deeply hidden hidden is mostly about particular version of quantum mechanics called the many worlds interpretation. Yes where when you measure a quantum system. We know experimentally that you get certain indefinite outcomes but you can't predict which I wanNA talk about entanglement. We'll get to that But so many world says that in fact all the different experimental outcomes become real. Nope just in separate worlds so the world duplicates and he literally means what he's saying. I really I really means when you observe an electron to of you emerge. That's right and I think like like that fact can be understood without the math but then people say well where does the energy come from an are you doubling the energy of the universe when you create a new one one and that you know if you know the math the answer is crystal clear that no you're not violating energy conservation. It's really hard to accelerate. So this is Samat. There's energy conservation which you can't violate one of the things I was ruminating about on this. We'll we'll get a little deeper into the many worlds theory here but that it's tend attended the ten to the twenty third or something worlds right. They're predicting the bunch or more load and isn't there a and this is were the math got into my thinking. Isn't there because you also talked about how probability emerges from these things new and all these things are phenomenon that converge on on one. Isn't it possible that there are so many that they just converge. They don't go to infinity. They go to one side of the the the worlds of the world. So so. It's just an amalgamation now of all the world's in one you know what literally this afternoon I was having having lunch with a friend of mine philosopher physics and he mentioned exactly that interpretation of possible because probabilities Converge John One yet many worlds converge on One. Maybe really is just one but we don't experience that right so I don't many worlds. Let spirits entangled entangled. That's right that you experience experimental outcomes you know you. Measure the spin or the location of a particle the energy. Whatever he discovered? The Higgs bows on. You do all these things involving quantum mechanics in every once experience in the history of the world. You seem to see a definite outcome. There's the particle at at some location. Yeah and the the fundamental equation of quantum mechanics. The SCHRODINGER equation says otherwise. It says that you should not see a particle indefinite location. And so many world is one way to come to grips with that. So you're welcome to invent spinoffs of many worlds are alternatives to it or different versions of it but many worlds worlds even though it seems wild is just taking the Schrodinger equation at face value literally no not causing any any exceptions the textbook version Asian of quantum mechanics says that the sugar equation is usually correct except when you look at a quantum system then it's not correct right if you measure it you make everything right. Wave wave functions collapsed. Yeah no equation for that. But I'm wondering if that collapsing idea is really what happens to the many worlds well. That's not what the short anger equation. Says you're proposing a different interpretation so heading heading towards the asked him todd of one yet not a collapsing. Well the Schrodinger equation Asian. Doesn't have collapses in it. The wave functions don't collapse. They just always spread out so the fact that they seemed to collapse to US demands. Some better explanation ever it. The whoever the many many world says it's because the world branched Niels Bohr who invented the Copenhagen interpretation. Says it's because the wave function collapse collapse. And that's what we're trying to figure out which one is right and deals board was just a more Enigmatic Kerr's matic dude that got a one persuaded his team. It's a fascinating story. You know like how the history of quantum mechanics came to be the twisted mess that it really is but Niels Bohr more than anyone else's responsible for shepherding our current version of quantum mechanics understanding of it and yet he's the one who convinced the rest of the physics community that all was fine and yeah they didn't have to think too hard about about what it means to look at something measurement or measure it or observe it just use the shortage regime well when you measure it. And that's what people like Einstein Stein just couldn't do like wise quesion true sometimes and not true other times. That's that's no good. Yeah something's wrong so now we're still stuck with this. You know eighty ninety years later ter- trying to deal with the fallout like what is the right version of quantum mechanics and this is the this is the scandal. You're not allowed to talk about it. That's right Certainly early especially in physics departments. You'd expect that this will be the highest priority on our list. If you take that seriously your your thoughts would not be real physicist. When when I hear you say that I was thinking? Maybe that's again the math piece because it's it's divorcing everything from the math and trying to try to be rational channel. Will I think that This is part of the self justification on the part of physicists. They say that's philosophical questions. Question really really going to formulate an of what they mean is that you can't see the differences you can't test experimentally the different possibilities. We have multiple multiple really honestly different theories of physics all of which looked like quantum mechanics at the end of the day but they seem to be different and some of them are experimentally distinguishable. No but it's hard and so if you can't do an experiment to tell which one is right. Physicists get nervous right but isn't the very papers that Einstein wrote evidence that physics physicists. Do their thing without experiments you do like to think that their theory should make sense. And that's that sounds obvious but the demand that everything makes sense. That's too strict. Do Yeah you know and so this evolutionary instrument that we have in our cranium will well. It's not it's not really that you know that they're compatible with your so for example go we all know it. Always physicists. Know that there's this huge looming problem with gravity. Einstein did a really good job. It inventing a good theory of gravity called general relativity gravity's curvature of space time and you have a very very good podcast on this topic going to great talk about you want to remember the title of it Will I have a solo. My podcasts many different things by did do a solo episode on how Space Time can emerge from quantum mechanics. That's ravaged will yes. facetime one space time is curved. Valentine says his gravitate but here but the conventional way of doing things gravity and quantum mechanics are simply incompatible with each other. And we all know. That's the problem. And even though there's no experiment and we can do. That violates either quantum mechanics or general relativity because they're both mutually incompatible. One is going to have to change and is the reason you can't do experiment on grab grabbed the the the scale. It's just too weak of a force. You know quantum mechanics shows up when you look at individual particles or very very small subatomic systems for gravity. The individual particles would be gravitons but gravitons. Just move right through you. Almost never interacting very hard to make a grant on in the lab so we we are making it particles like turtleneck light. Yeah we make particles all the time. Hey Bozo and so forth but gravitons are just very very hard to make one by one you can make them in big bunches gravitational waves which we discovered a few years ago but that just is a big enough that everything classical again to isolate a single graviton rather talent is beyond our capability so so the idea would be if you could study on the level of a particle. You learn something. Then you'd see the quantum behavior up close and maybe that will give you a clue as to how to build a better theory or maybe not but at least it would be a step. And why can't we make a grab a ton they're just too hard to make they're just too weakly interacting. You know the way that I always put it as you can use your arm to lift a bottle of water off of the desk right. So what is your arm a bunch of electrochemical reactions is basically electrity electricity magnetism. It work in your arm and that is able to beat the combined gravitational field of all the atoms in the earth trying to hold the bottle down right your your puny. That alarm is able to beat the entire earth. And why is that. It's because gravity is a really weak force. Where would you? How would you make graviton? Well well you could do it the same way you make a photon right. You make a Photon by taking an electron just over particle and moving in the right and so the electron has an electric field stretching in all directions directions. So when you move the electron the electric field shifts. If you move electron up and down repeatedly the electric field around it waves and we see that as light right and therefore photons detected one by one exactly. The same thing is true for gravity. The Electron has a gravitational field. If you move the electron the gravitational tation field shifts etc but the number of gravitons. You're producing that way is way way smaller than the number of photons. Couldn't you move a bigger particle. Yeah yeah like the Sun or a black hole yeah right. That's the that's the problem. It's a very weak force. If you move a single electron good luck with that. You're never gonNA make it detectable graviton. It begs the issue. Why you can't take a large object and move it though and something emerged exactly how we do? Detect gravitational national ways by the Nobel Prize was one year ago by the Lego Observatory. Because what you needed to do was to have two black holes..
"sean carroll" Discussed on Talk Nerdy
"LHC They leave a track like particle would right so so late nineteen twenties people saying all right. There's a way of talking about electrons that they're Wade's CBS and we have an equation for the shredder equation. Make predictions fits the data but when you look at them they look like particles and so they settled on the compromise called the Copenhagen interpretation which is that there are two sets of rules. There's one set of rules for what electrons do when you're not looking at them their ways they'll be schrodinger equation. There's another set of rules roles and if you take quantum mechanics caltech or anywhere else they'll teach you the set of rules like when you observe something it's wave function collapses. There's a probability of observing in different places and if you say what do you mean look at. What do you mean observe what he needed. Measure those kin. We can't answer that that that's not what you're supposed to talk about. The don't ask those questions. FAIRMONT's like the slit experiment like there's a legal way to measure well you can measure o but when you say what happens what count now that could one atom do the measurement or like this is where it gets into your question or the big small so there's literally something called the Heisenberg cut which is the cut between if something is small enough and microscopic you can treated quantum mechanically and if it's big in macroscopic treated classically really oh okay so it's only on the small side that it's okay all right and so you ever it in the nineteen fifties was a graduate student. He said come. I'm on the Dick euless like you're made of atoms. Why in the world would not be treated. Quantum mechanically. Just like you're looking at is and long story I sure would he realizes when when you look at that electron. It's not that it's wave function. Does something different because you're looking at it is that you are a quantum system also and you become entangled with the electron and so rather than the electron is seen here. Were seen there. It's there's different copies of the world. In each copy you saw the electron is slightly different place and this is unambiguously the prediction of quantum mechanics if you remove all those dumb rules about measurements and wave functions collapsing and things like that so that's the you know but people don't people in like that people still don't like it. That's the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. Everett never called the data but the other people did gooding. Do they all exist simultaneously all simultaneously so it's not a function of kind of lake you know when we think of a film the film is is actually just a series of still frames and depending on the film speed it looks jittery or it looks really smooth. It's not it really a function of these waves are just like when you when you look at them or you observe them. You're just catching a moment in time and that's why it has particle like feature nope. There's there's nothing special about observation thing wave functions. Don't change dramatically. They're always there and it's it's very much as ever ever it tussled with. This is where the history becomes interesting adviser because his. PhD Advisor was John Wheeler who is brilliant physicist also advised you know Richard Feynman and Kip Thorne and a bunch of other people but wheelers mentor was Niels bohr invented the Copenhagen interpretation and said shut up stop talking about and reeler idolized titleist Niels Bohr and I had all my podcast. I had a conversation with David Albert who one of these philosophers of physics got a PhD in physics and then moved over and he said Yeah I would love to go back in time and have dinner with Niels Bohr because if you read his writings is impossible here to understand what he's saying like. He's just not that clear. Is it like us really dense like Esoteric Dagan in are dependent on but but over and over again as as David. We put in the podcast people. Would you know talk to Niels Bohr and come away spouting nonsense about the foundations quantum mechanics intelligent people in the world and wheeler said things he's like you know I never knew what people meant when they talked about people like Jesus or Buddha or socrates until I met Niels Bohr so people idolize Niels Bohr. It's completely really unclear why from his writings okay he was obviously very charismatic person exactly was and so wheeler is literally caught between bore and Everett so Everett wrote in his PhD thesis he says you know these worlds branching when you make a quantum measurement is like an Amoeba splitting right like there's one of me Uh and it splits into you can't say which one is the Amoeba came from. They're both identical lives. They memories of America's have memories etc the only difference being that when the world branches in quantum mechanics the two branches can't talk to each other anymore. They can't see each other. They're totally separate but they're both slightly different copies of where you started and wheeler was like no no no you. I can't say say that we don't believe that that's just to a little bit going too far and whenever finally got his PhD thesis published in. You you know you get you get to like edited one last time when it's in the proof stage and he sneaked back and you're like it's kind of like splitting you know it's funny. I actually when I was in eighth. Grade did a science experiment when we won regionals at science fair where we took Pleseira flat worms and we train them on a mazer yeah we cut them in half and they regenerated and both halves new the maze but of course we know that it's not just flat worms all the way down. This is where the analogy breaks down because there's are a DNA within these things that are themselves dividing and replicating and so that's kind of one of the things that's always been really confusing to me. Even just about fundamental physics is that you can just keep going can't you you can just keep breaking it down. No we don't know to be perfectly fair. Okay people ask if you think that when I measure a quantum system the world branches will how many branches are there. How many could there be in principle the book. We don't know there's a it's a large number but we don't know if it's a big but finite number or whether it's an actually infinite number and are these things things is that you believe are actually happening or do you think that their potentialities nope there actually happening. They're actually really downloaded APP for your iphone called Universe splitter glitter. If you WANNA make sure there's universal which do one thing in the universe which you do something else so this is. Is this the many worlds but we've often heard the term multi-diverse how do those there's relate to one another well. multi-diverse is look. The English language was invented long before quantum mechanics right so borrowing words that don't really fit the multi-diverse usually when used by scientists means cosmological multi-diverse which is just an idea that very far away conditions are very different different than almost like another universe. Okay idea that there is another universe kind of existing in the same place that has different your here. If you here like Stephen Hawking or Alan guth talk about the cosmological multi-diverse they mean really like little bubbles of locations of space very very far away but I feel like when Brian Brian Green talks about the multi verse talking about something kind of different no wrong in the string theorists multi-diverse they really are talking about different place okay all right our pocket universes so it's not the kind of eventual result of taking the many world series and make no very a big little cosmological multi-diverse many worlds totally separate. Gotcha okay and you know in some sense. The many worlds theory quantum mechanics is way a more dramatic profound because it's like you said is happening here in the room every time a nucleus in your body decays which is five thousand times a second universe branches. Che's right but it's also more likely to be true like I think that I would put a much more than ninety percent chance that many worlds correct whereas for the COSMO multi verse Fifty Fifty is the best you could possibly say so my non physics braid my neuroscience psychology brain obviously trying trying to wrap my head around this in a short amount of time and the thing I just keep coming back to is like isn't that just time like when you talk about the you know the universe branch isn't and that just like the movie run Lola run where they just showed that like if you make decision a everything that follows different than if you make decision be like that's it's just how time works but it's not because classically if it weren't for quantum mechanics you can always say while there were different possibilities and this is the one that became real who in many worlds everything quantum mechanics. They all really do become real all the ones that are compatible. The Laws of physics really actually happened inside yourself well. That's the prediction of the equation so that we say is we haven't equation the Schrodinger equation. for quantum mechanics plays the role in quantum theory that Newton's laws at equals. I may place in classical mechanics right in classical mechanics you give me some particles with some positions and velocities can predict what's going to happen in quantum mechanics you'd be a wave function and the Schrodinger equation predicts what's going to happen and the sugar equation unambiguously says the universe branches into many different copies copies now you can say. I don't like that and the responses fine change the Schrodinger equation or alter the theory in some. I'm way and asked if it still compatible with what we see. This simple view like this is why in the book I call every quantum mechanics austere quantum mechanics. It's it's not that it adds a bunch of stuff to quantum mechanics. It takes a bunch of stuff away and the world's are either there because that's what the equation says or you can come up with a new during which they're not. They're number one. Why would you do that like the theory. We have fits perfectly well. It's just that you're upset by it a a number two when people try it turns out to be really hard jeans the theory in a way that fits the data so where you're going for here and other theorists who are interested in the same things you are is like a more parsimonious elegant equation. You don't want to make it more complicated well. Would you always want to be correct right. Describe the data Ada. You WANNA fit the data so it's attributed Einstein. I'm not sure if it's true but you want your theory to be as simple as possible but no simpler yeah right and so it's almost impossible to imagine a theory that simpler than everybody in quantum mechanics in terms of the fundamental ingredients. It's predictions are mind-bending. There's all these worlds out there right so all of the alternatives ever and they do exist in there. Some of them were experimentally testable and we're trying to do the experiments they're more complicated. You know they're messier and that usually makes things worse. If the data insist that we need to complicate things to explain what we see then we will complicate things but until then I'm not really motivated waited. You know it's one of those interesting things where physicists often will say like humble physicists often will say I've never met any but I'm a AH physicists with a with a measure of humility will often say things like you know we don't agree or we don't really know or that's why this is theoretical radical as apoe or we don't have experiments to ultimately Testino. Some of these things that were developing would need a collider. That's the size of the universe universe or we would need. You know there's all these things that you hear and so one of the frustrating things I think for non physicists even academics who are non physicist physicist who actually care about these fundamental questions is that ultimately it gets to a point where we say but why and answers because math and then and then we say I don't speak speak math and then it's like well. That's where we are and so you know it is really important right that the like you said that the the equations equations sort of spell that out because that's really fundamental to the theory but sort of do you feel like within your book or within in these conversations that that's the place you finally get where it's like an because math. I don't think he's ever because math I think it's because the theory says so I mean the the point. I do try to drive home. In the book is the world's that come into existence are not put into the theory. They are a prediction of the theory and it's true that you can't nc them. You can't test that particular prediction but there are other predictions you contest. It's a very testable theory right and if you don't like that prediction then changed change the theory by all means and you don't need a lot of math you know we all have heard of short angers hat right there. There's a box. There's a cat you do nasty things to the cat hat to put in a quantum state whereas a superposition of alive in debt okay or in the book. I do awaken asleep. There's no reason to kill that's the sweet sleeping gas it doesn't but okay but the cat is in this macroscopic quantum superposition and you open the box and in the Copenhagen view suddenly the cat changes. It's either awake or asleep. It's not both what else was awake or asleep the whole time right. Oh No that's the whole point fingers cat is is that until you open the box it was a superposition of both it's not that you didn't know not that for all intents and purposes it was a super position of both now nothing they do with what you know but in..
"sean carroll" Discussed on Talk Nerdy
"Maybe it doesn't right or maybe you know when you're a student so there's some randomness business and who gets the jobs and so forth but then when they've had their success they that's what they wanna do like this far too many professors who just keep writing their PhD thesis over over and over again for their whole lives and it's it's horrible Yeah No. That's that's that's there. You know ringing changes on that little thing and there there was a poignant moment actually in the movie particle fever. This is a documentary about particle physics these days and it came out at the right time because the large Hadron collider had just turned on we found the higgs bows on but physicists were really hoping and expecting to find more than just the higgs boats on when the large Hadron collider turn on and they have not and the fact that even now they have not is pretty begins to make us question what we're doing but five have years ago still like well when we we haven't found yet but there was this moment in the movie where two senior physicists are talking to each other and they were both people who had worked on super symmetry their whole lives super symmetry the idea that came along in the early nineteen seventies and it's now the two thousand teens okay no evidence for it has been found but still very very popular and one of them said like if we don't find super symmetry like how will you feel and the guy said now just work on something else was like no my career will have been waste my whole life life as a physicist will have been entirely wasted enterprise. How sad to view it that way. You know that like yes. Sometimes we have have a hypothesis that seems tenable and we spend a lot of time on it. I mean this is the case for people in their daily lives even if they're not scientists ientist you know you have a relationship for example and your hypothesis is that the two of you are going to really make it work and stick it out and in my view is that a successful relationship is one that begins is full of love is full of you know memories whether it ends or not has has nothing to do with the success of the relationship. If anything I think the very successful relationships end when they should end as opposed to like keeping ongoing wait but it's so sad to me when people have that perspective that because something didn't come to fruition in whatever standard that they've arbitrarily Charlie set to be like success that everything was a waste. It's like they just have to throw it all away. It's a tough one because we're in a realm of physics physics where the time scales our law right you know takes decades in between new particle accelerators takes decades for theories to be developed. Human human careers are measured in decades. That's it right so it's very very possible to spend your entire life doing an idea that doesn't work out and so it's a very good question. You know should you you. Try diversify your portfolio. She worked on a little bit of this little bit of that thinking. Something's GonNa work out or should you say like no. I think this is the most likely thing I'm going to bet all the chips. I'M GONNA push all in yeah because that's the thing that you know that guy who spent his whole life or I guess they both did on super symmetry. They may go down in history as the guy who worked on that one thing that didn't and ended up working out but still there in the history books. Do you guys take when you like. have an undergraduate. Physics Department is there a history and systems of physics certainly not physicist physicist. Don't WanNa hear about their own history. That's such an important right history because it's way easier to make up a fake history where everything is logical in in perfect rather than the messy reality of it all. That's so sad to do so much research for this book on the history on mechanics. Oh my gosh can we like can can we start some sort of petition to learn about history programs for you know history and philosophy of science sometimes right yeah but that goes back to that silo the problem it wasn't the physicists are taking those classes yeah yeah. That's a bummer like it. Just one required course where it's like. I want to learn how I know. The things as I now know you know this is a massive part of psychology. Everybody has to study Freud even if they think Freud is a total crock of shit because they know that in in the time when Freud did what he did it was a reaction to act and it led to why this is how we started to change the way that we view things. It's it's so important to understand that yeah and philosophy also you study Plato Aristotle Rate Even today but physics the opposite like we tell ourselves the story Einstein just just didn't understand quantum mechanics and that's completely false Einsteinian stood quantum mechanics better than anybody else right but he had objections to it which just never quite fulfilled and there's a lot Komo stories in the real history that are fascinating but visit you know to be fair. There's a lot to get into little young. People's brains the physics right so I would love it if they knew more about the history but I get why they don't carve out time for yeah. I mean and you know I'm again looking back at kind. If the curriculum for me at my undergraduate I was a psych major but as a philosophy minor so that helps those able to take like philosophy of Natural Sciences Philosophy Vive psychology but even in my history and systems of psychology course basically it was a basic rundown. These are the behaviorists. These are the analysts. These are the whatever like therapy was a tiny portion because that's only clinical like there's so much other stuff and then in graduate school. I was my history and systems class was much more drilled down into a applied history and systems and I could definitely see there being just one fundamental you know these are the basics you know this was Newtonian Indian or pre Newtonian and then we've got Newtonian and now we're moving into you know relativity moving into quantum late just a basic because also one of the things that I've talked to a lot of physicists about about is that they feel like kids. Don't get excited about physics early enough because they're stuck on like the basic mechanics early in their training and if you took a class that surveyed all the cool stuff early you might go okay. I know I have to get through this stuff. Some people are like I love of Newtonian physics and I want to focus my career on it but other people are like and then they lose interest in they might even leave the program which is a bummer right so kind of giving a little taste of the of the weird that it's a little bit difficult to do because there's no prerequisites you feeling wondering it down but I you know I I think at the very least I think Caltech actually does this. You know have a have a course where all the first year students are required to take it and every week a new faculty member comes in talks about the research coach the lease ideal okay there is a little carrot pulling me for like you don't have to write some thirty page paper about the outcomes as of you know. Blah Blah if you don't understand it yet but just listen to somebody talking about what they do something cool at the end of it yeah. I think it's actually much more important at the high school level right now at the college level. If someone is an undergraduate physics major then okay teaching Newtonian mechanics work your way up through e n and quantum mechanics etc but if you're a high school student WHO's taking physics most of those people knocked to become professional physicist linked the what you teach high school students in physics or even what you teach non non physics majors in college doesn't need to be a watered down version of what he teaches physics majors. They're skip right to relativity and quantum mechanics and the big bang like you know. Let them have the good stuff why not it's just as true justice real more contemporary and as always. I agree. I think that the contextualized that you know for the non majors for example like guy used to teach a non majors anatomy and physiology class like nursing and kinesiology students and we would contextual is it in terms of injury and in terms of functional mechanics canucks instead of just like building block stuff and they liked that because there's like news you could use. I actually have an ex boyfriend who is much older and he went to to Cornell and told me that he took physics for poets from Carl Sagan very very good yeah so like the he he wasn't a physics major classics major but being able to take a course like that and at least get a taste of it. What a cool idea. I would love to see anymore multidisciplinary stuff like that idea that the way that we teach history major's physics is by having them do simple inclined planes in pendulum just makes makes me crazy like they've they'll go through forget about the Big Bang. They will never have never heard of entropy right because it just didn't. They don't get that far because you just take the physics curriculum in your water down. It's it's insane. It's a yeah it's absolutely you have to kind of match the mechanics with the with the application. I loved the idea you telling the human side of the story even physicists able we don't have time to delve into history but in a in physics for historians than the perfectly good reason and to have a lot of history in there well take a note from like the successful science writers out there right. We know that if you don't tell a story if there are no characters people are going to tune out and so what a smart way to just S- matter that in literally just to keep Interest Chris tells me this yeah very like I like I said I like writing hundred thousand word books that we've never had the name of a person in there could get away with it apparently in fact in this book Chapter Eight like right in the middle of the book there is I wrote in the form of a platonic dialogue between two characters like there's the the daughter who was a philosopher who has been studying the foundations of quantum mechanics and her father who is a grumpy old physicist. She's like why are you doing this. Why why are we bothering all these philosophical questions and it was a way for me a to put the objections to the many worlds interpretation which is what I pushing in the book into the mouth of someone who is respectable person who knows their stuff so I I love that okay so hold onto the many worlds repetition because we're gonNA come back to that. I want to take a really quick break to thank the sponsor of this week's episode. We'll be right back with Sean Carroll girl this week. I WanNa thank calm for their continued support of talk nerdy. Now I WANNA talk to you a little bit about sleep and how the Calm Hall Map helps me.
"sean carroll" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly
"Twentieth Century was a Golden Age for physics from Einstein. We had not one but two theories of relativity day defined mass and energy is two sides of the same coin under radically reshaped on notions of Space Time and gravity we'll cycle quantum mechanics and with it the way of predicting often baffling and counter intuitive behavior of the world at the subatomic level but what quantum mechanics really tells us about the nature of reality. It's still hotly contested one possible. Answer is known as the many worlds interpretation when you interact with an electron wave function becomes up superposition of different universes and the Nice thing is that those different parts of the superposition the individual universes don't interact with each other other. There's no way you can talk to the versions of you in other branches of the wave function so for all intents and purposes they become separate worlds where each you shouldn't be this week. We've got physicist Sean Carroll to talk us through it all and despite what you might think. Sean believes that quantum isn't the terrifying mysterious Chris Beast. It's often made out to be quantum. Mechanics and general in many worlds in particular do deviate quite severely from our everyday intuitions nations and therefore it requires some work and some open mindedness and some patience to really think through what these implications are I mean sample welcome to science weekly.
"sean carroll" Discussed on Opening Arguments
"Certainly certainly historically recognized that there's plenty of times when societies have talked themselves into the idea that they were the virtuous ones back they were just imposing their own yep views ah we've had crusades all and the whole bit <hes> did you get pushback from that episode of by people who have interest one way or the other in gender reassignment or are gender identity we we didn't we know certainly not from the company i mean it was interesting about fox's is for all of their conservatism on the new you side. I've never once been censored in any way when anything that i've done i i will. I will say that for them and <hes> you know when the episode aired there was there were mixed reactions and and there was a lot of passionate things written about the story and again. There are some things that i read that educated me a little little bit and some things that i thought were were a little bit. Maybe not so correct in their analysis of the of the show but <hes> it. It's overall the the reaction that i found to that show and it was gratifying was that hey at least somebody's talking about this on a on a network. Hello everyone this is sean. Carroll hosted the mindscape podcast and you've been listening to a little excerpt from interview with seth macfarlane about science fiction themes in his t._v. Showed the orville the here the rest of the interview or any mindscape discussions about science philosophy culture and any big idea you might think of you can subscribe to sean carroll's mindscape deep on apple podcasts or wherever you're listening right now thanks..
"sean carroll" Discussed on American Innovations
"Here at american innovations were fascinated by the question of how people become innovative in their work and how they become creative and what they do and that ultimately revolves evolves around that extraordinary faculty that all of us have inside of our minds but they're so much more to the human brain than most of us ever realize and that's why i want to tell you about a show that dives deep into the inner workings of the human brain. It's called sean carroll's mindscape. I've i've been following the work of sean carroll for many years. He's bringing thinker and a wonderful writer. Miss podcast is really exciting. You can join sean carroll as he sits down with some of the the most interesting thinkers in the world to science philosophy culture and much more past guests have included neuroscientists game designers and a story and that's so if you've ever wanted to know how music affects your brain or the origin of human drives or how black holes work then you've come to the right place ace in just a moment you'll get to hear a preview of sean carroll's mindscape featuring filmmakers seth macfarlane shawn and steph chat about the orville and writing for science fiction while you're listening you should go subscribe to sean carroll's mindscape on apple podcast spotify or wherever you're listening to american innovations nations right now there's also a link in the episode notes so boorda's <hes> for those who have nothing to show boorda's implied in her members of this race the mock lynn and we're told there are only men only male monklands but they manage to give birth somehow <hes> which makes me think that they're really only female marlins besides amok which are the definition of. I think we've we've. We've struggled that a little bit. The the storytelling value that species gives you as opposed to the logic of the biology. What we've kinda landed on their definitions are a little different than what ours are very masculine presenting right they pretty much <hes> because it you know it is it is is <hes> at the end of the day. You can always fall back on it while they're aliens is different. That's right but <hes> but yeah. I mean it's it's. It's a it's an interesting. It was a dynamic that i hadn't seen before these these two very stoic. You know kinda classically science fiction aliens who were who were repair there were mates and and and how this kind of domestic life going on and it's i mean those two actors are just gold chad at chad coleman. I think eagles who does the expanse. He's cutting on the wire now and <hes> and peter making obviously boorda's are there. I mean they're my favorite favorite couple on t._v. I i can endorse that. I can do a lot worse but then so. I'm gonna mentioned in the introduction that were spoiling everything so that's okay but they have a child. It is female. This is a scandal and the cultural expectation is that there will be a sex change to turn it into a boy yeah and i mean that is heavy stuff to tackling right there in season one yeah well. It's what always fascinated me was and again. The the specifics of that episode assode in that conflict are are arguably less pertinent than the <hes> than the more general conflict. That's that's a play in there and that's you have another culture that does things their own way that doesn't doesn't stack up with your morals and your code of ethics but it's still their culture at what point do you at. What point do you respect their ways and at what point does that get so insane that you can't justify it in your own mind or or live with yourself and it becomes time to be galaxy police and claire. I guess is the doctor and yeah journal solicit so her question was she is also one of the treasures of the show grad anderson mesa she wanted to know she worked through the ethical dilemma here you you know who's benefiting from this. Is it medically necessary or is this just a cultural thing and i don't think there's obvious answers to these questions. Those are my favorite kinds of stories. I i look as much as much as i love as much as i think there is a there is an absence in television of noble. People who just wanna do the right thing. Everyone's an anti hero in. I i do miss the simplicity of gary cooper saying dammit. I just got married but i gotta turn around and go fight this bad guy. I do think that that's that's that's not a good thing that that doesn't exist on on television that i was a kid i had it was fiction but there were people like you know picard was was you know people who were people who were just out to do you know the superheroes super france for god's sakes they were so wholesome but these these are people who are just out to do the right thing and i think at the end of the day to see people struggling with what the right thing is but yet coming coming from a noble place and coming from virtuous place but not being able to find a clear answer those to me are the most interesting stories that i can latch onto. I get a little weary of oh. This guy's a murderer and drug addicts and all this and i'm supposed to sympathise with them. It's at a certain point. It's just i'm just watching terrible. People do terrible things. He does wear you down a little bit. You know it's it's it's i love the handmaid's tale but at a certain point i start to get tired. This girl getting kicked around. It's like i couldn't bring myself to have you seen fleabag ugh. I haven't seen fleabag <hes>. It's really really good but in the beginning is just hard because they're just <hes> so many bad things yeah yeah yeah but but it is it is i mean that's the most fun stuff to write is the stories that don't have a clear cut and that's what we're always looking for on the oracle. Those stories don't have a clear cut. What's right and what's wrong and you know things that you know where you have to weigh the rights of the individual against the needs of the society. It's all interesting stuff often. It's all stuff that science fiction is is arguably more equipped than any genre to to address and i i have a blast ryan those kinds of stores these but these are the real dilemmas and played infant number of different ways yeah i. It's it's. It's fun to leave that stuff. I mean there are certain stories is where you it's it is clearly this this is right and this is wrong. You may disagree with me but i'm pretty confident in my ethics. I find a lot of what we do on. The orrville is we. We struggle along with the characters. It's a tough thing to that. Story is a good example this this is this is their society and i mean look it's saudi. Arabia is a perfect example. It's it's their culture but you know look how they treat. Women wendy walk in there and say hey. You're gonna stop. Doing this and you're gonna start doing things this way. You know people have different opinions. I i happen to believe that in in that scenario there there is an argument to be made for being a little bit of a hero and <hes> helping out the the oppressed but not everyone agrees with that some people would say it's their culture. It's not your business yeah. I'm on your side in the sense that you think sometimes you're gonna try to intervene <hes> but i certainly historically recognized that there's plenty of times when societies have taught themselves into the idea that they were the virtuous ones in fact. They were just imposing their own views right. We've had crusades bruce aids and and the whole bit <hes> did you get pushback from that episode by people who have interest one way or the other in gender reassignment or gender identity we we we didn't we know certainly not from the company i mean it was interesting about fox's is for all of their conservatism on the news side. I've never once been censored in any way when anything that i've done i i will. I will say that for them. And when the episode aired there was there were mixed reactions and and there was a lot of passionate things written about the story and again. There are some things that i read that educated me a little bit and some things that i thought were were a little bit. Maybe not so correct in their analysis of the show but <hes> it it's overall the the reaction russian that i found to that show and it was gratifying was that hey at least somebody's talking about this on on a network. Hello everyone this is sean. Carroll darrelle hosted the mindscape podcast and you've been listening to a little excerpt from interview with seth macfarlane about science fiction themes in his t._v. Show the orrville to hear the rest of the interview or or any mindscape discussions about science philosophy culture and any big idea you might think of you can subscribe to sean carroll's mindscape on apple podcasts or wherever every you're listening right now thanks..
"sean carroll" Discussed on American History Tellers
"Sean and seth talk about seth show the oral and writing for science fiction shen while you're listening go subscribe to sean carroll's mindscape on apple podcasts bonafide or wherever you're listening to american history tellers right now so boorda's <hes> <hes> for those who have not seen this show boorda's and clyde members of this race the macklin and we're hold their only men only male monklands but they managed to give birth somehow how <hes> which makes me think that they're really only female monklands beside like what you're the definition of. I think we've we've. We've struggled that a little bit. The storytelling value that that species gives you as opposed to the logic of the biology. What we've kinda landed on their definitions are a little different than what ours are very masculine presenting tonight. They're pretty much <hes> because it you know it is it is <hes> at the end of the day. You can always fall back on their weather. Aliens is different. That's right but <hes> but yeah. I mean it's it's a it's an interesting dynamic that i hadn't seen before these two very stoic. You know kinda classically science fiction aliens who were who were a pair were mates and and how this kind of domestic life going on and it's it's i mean those two who actors are just gold. I mean chad chad coleman. I think also does the expanse now and <hes> and peter making obviously obviously boorda's are are there. I mean there are my favorite couple on t._v. I can i can endorse that you could do a lot worse but then so a you mentioned in the introduction that were spoiling everything so that's okay but <hes> they have a child. It is female. This is a scandal <hes> and the a cultural expectation is that there will be exchange to turn it into a boy and i mean that is heavy stuff to be tackling right there in season one. It's what what always fascinated. The enemy was again. The specifics of that episode in that conflict are are arguably less pertinent than the <hes> than than the more general conflict. That's play in there and that's if you have another culture that does things they're on way that doesn't doesn't stack up with your morals morals and your code of ethics but it still their culture at what point do you at. What point do you respect their ways and at what point does that get so insane that you can't justify it in your own mind or or live with yourself and it becomes time to be galaxy. Police and claire is the doctor and yeah gentle so her question was she is also one of the treasures of the shows. She's grad anderson as she she wanted to know. She worked the ethical dilemma here. You know who's benefiting from this. Is it medically necessary or is this just a cultural thing and i don't think there's obvious obvious answers to these questions. Those are my favorite kinds of stories like i am looking as much as i love as much as i think there is. There is an absence in television of of noble people who just want to do the right thing. Everyone's an anti hero in i do miss the simplicity of gary cooper saying damage just got married but i gotta got to turn around and go fight this bad guy..
"sean carroll" Discussed on Dr. Drew Podcast
"A significant medical center right down the street no relation with Caltech the that should be going on all the time time. It's just insanity yeah well. You know I'm not the boss of the world so I can't fix all these things but there's a self perpetuating thing where you if you are interested in these things I'll maybe it's changing a little bit but if you're interested in not only doing science research but also doing outreach talking to the general public thing so the responsibility necessary necessary. It's not everyone's responsibility is really bad at it feels responsibility at the scene them in these be called itunes you where they put up lectures and somehow you used to just devour that and they started going on. There's a liability here and they'd be bub-bubba whenever you you have a series don't you in <hes> on the great courses I had a couple of courses in the great courses three of them one dark matter one on the Higgs Bozon and one on the Arrow of time going up time I guess the time fascinating well that was my first book which was from eternity to here on the Arrow of time yeah Gimme Gimme a sketch. What am I gonNA learn what is entropy? Why does it increase ace? What does that mean about the future of the universe time about entropy the fact that the past is different from the future is all about entropy and the fact that time has an Arrow at the time because the time is eight dimension a dimension so just like space is it dimension time didn't need to have an aero space doesn't have an Arrow right but if you're here in this room space does have a narrow jumping up and down but you don't think that's a fundamental part of the laws of physics you know it's because the earth is right beneath you yeah so the the major realization is the fact that time has a direction isn't part of the fundamental laws of physics? It's because the Big Bang is before you Kinda give that some thought this friend thank you so much for being here. Appreciate Zhang all this time with this Sean Carroll transcribe mindscape go to it now download it also the book something deeply Hidden Quantum and emergence of space time and talk to connects for times and topics follow the show on twitter at Dr Drew podcast that's D._r.. D._R. W PODCAST for music through.
"sean carroll" Discussed on Dr. Drew Podcast
"And there's some other characteristic where even if you took another electron on a distant planet what would happen to that electronics you measure the first one so this is yeah this. This is the phenomenon of entanglement. This is weird usually again. This is what Bug Einstein Two's very good company given one electron. I don't know whether it's GonNa be clockwise or counterclockwise given two electrons on which either one of them are going to be for a random wave function but there can be certain specialty functions return tangled filled with the property that I don't know what any electron is going to be spin clockwise or counterclockwise but I know that when I measure that electron the other electron led the same spin wherever that electronic they're both clockwise or they're both counter even if I go measure that electron on Mercury and you can prepare this system I'm right here in the lab and you can send one to Alpha Centauri four light years away and then do your measurement and still right away the other one is what is that and that's what Einstein called Spooky Spooky action at a distance. Yes worried about it. It's very concerning yeah. You got a bunch world's attached to it. Yeah exactly so what I I would say is here when you measure your spin the world's splits into and the electron very very far away also splits into with different. There's two different worldwide all right like why is it random which one I then encounter well this. It's it's not that it's raining. which when you encounter it's that there are two copies of you each one of them encounters one but what determined that encounter white? Why couldn't it be also be that next encounter be a little more well? That's the entanglement. That's what that's just a feature of quantum mechanics then you know the world's are not individually individually random piece by piece they can be correlated with each other so that when something happens here it affects the whole world instant Ho Universal Universe that's the world in the broadest cents yeah and the Heisenberg principle in all this which is the measurement part or is there more that the Heisenberg principle remember. I said you know you could imagine wave function where you knew the electron was exactly as spinning clockwise but you can't have any way function where you know what the electron spin is with respect to vertical vertical axis and what it is we expect to the horizontal axis at the same time and that's likewise you could have electron which was perfectly localized position but it cannot be localized in both position and velocity. Doesn't that was the original classical heisenberg principle yeah. I'm hoping you guys are all keeping up with this. 'cause this is <hes> the foundation physics so I have my podcast mindscape and I've had already couple of episodes on quantum mechanics and two more coming up in a good way like I'm getting people excited so you guys got over there here. The details tell me about your sense of interest conscious was here and I spent the whole time talking about neuroscience. I didn't I know until I heard your podcast..
"sean carroll" Discussed on Dr. Drew Podcast
"Basically the well. It's not just like that because the earth has an access an electron before you look at it and you don't signing what it is. You're measuring it along an axis okay you're pushing it through magnetic field and the electron rather than sort of being sprayed all over in different directions depending on what the spin is it only either gets deflected upward down and that means it's either spinning clockwise with respect to the magnetic field or counterclockwise determining those Detroit's determines the direction the direction the magnetic field determines which direction it goes and so that's that's weird like the earth you could imagine tilting its access. You could imagine slowing it down spending speeding it up all sorts of different things. The Electron only seems to be spinning in clockwise or counterclockwise and always by exactly the same rate okay so you say well what if I just rotated my magnetic field and measured along different axes well then the electron is is only bounced left or right with respect to that axis. It's still only either clockwise or counterclockwise and say well. What was it doing before I measured it and then the wave function yeah? It wasn't doing any of those things that's on your measurement. Outcome is clockwise or counterclockwise not what the electron was really doing and once you measure one on you know what the next one's going to be. Isn't it yeah so once you've measured it. You know the wave function gives probabilities to every possible measurement outcome if you didn't know what it was and you measured okay. It's been clockwise now. You know it's been in clockwise now. That's the way some election tell Malek some you measured and if you keep measuring over and over again along the same direction it's going to be clockwise. Clockwise clockwise is but then if you measured along a different direction have clockwise counter like most show you're gonNA love Momma said Ed but Jamie's Sigler and Paris on the New Lady Gang Network on podcast one join actress Jamie Lynn Sigler and musician Jenna Paris as they used their experience and motherhood to help you confess us your.