35 Burst results for "proton"
What is the Metabolism?
"What is the metabolism. Because it isn't just what we in. How it goes out is it. No it's it's the utilization of the energy substrates so from food we break these weak chemical bonds down and we utilize these on an atomic level of the electrons and protons and neutrons and they facilitate the energy in the cell for basic function for reading the dna. For translating this transcribing nece from enzymatic reactions For making neurotransmitters for building the cell membrane for cholesterol for everything basically so visit huge demont and that is where metabolism is the utilization of energy and the import of that is aw basil. Metro rates is the basic principle of thermodynamics. And it's about instead of shifting. And i really encouraged with clients is basically shift the mindset of it's just energies entity in an energy out is more to it than that. It's like what happens with the energy that comes in. This is where i see health. This is where. I see where the magic really happens in. The is all in the mitochondria which is aka the powerhouse of the cell but it does a little bit more than that simple belief But this is where the magic happens. And the output of that is eighty and that facilitates all the ongoing things that sony's to do to repair to replenish to even sillier death. We need entity to drive this Sebastian
Rodón Dominates Through 7, White Sox Blank Astros 4-0
"The white Sox won for the seventh time in eight games is Carlos Roshan allowed one hit over seven innings of a four nothing shut out of the Astros Abraham Toro is thirty single was the only hit our proton and accounted for Houston's only baserunner they're very good team you know TV will probably stay in the playoffs yeah we talked about they're tough they're tough top to bottom and you know just builds confidence when you have start like that the one Moncada and Tim Anderson hit solo homers for the white Sox who took the last two games of the series after dropping their first five meetings with the Astros Danny mendicant Adam Engel added RBI singles as Chicago improved to an American League best fifty six and thirty six I'm Dave Ferrie
Astronomers Find 2 Black Holes Gulping City-Size Neutron Stars
"Eating another. For the first time ever. They've seen a black hole, gobbling a neutron star. NPR's Nell Greenfield Boys reports on how scientists were able to spy on this cosmic snack. Black holes are famous for their gravitational pull, which nothing not even light can escape. And then there's neutron stars. Neutron stars are very weird. Maya Fishback is an astronomer at Northwestern University. She says Neutron stars are made of protons and neutrons, the stuff you find inside atoms. But they're crushed together into a shockingly dense fear that's heavier than our sun and can comfortably fit within the city of Chicago. Now, scientists say they've caught a black hole, eating a neutron star in one giant gulp. And then 10. Days later, they saw another black hole. Do the same thing for these particular systems. The neutron star would have just plunged into the black hole without Admitting any light. If all this gnashing didn't put out detectable light, then how did researchers spotted by sensing gravitational waves? Those are the ripples in spacetime created by powerful violent events out in the universe. Gravitational waves were predicted to exist by Albert Einstein over a century ago, but not detected until 2015 Chase. Kimball is a graduate student at Northwestern, he says, the ability to register gravitational waves has been a game changer for astronomy. So it's like, you know, flipping the sound on on a silent movie or something like that. Where we previously just been watching the universe, and now we can listen to it through this gravitational waves. In this case, the black holes gobbling neutron stars generated gravitational waves that took about a billion years to reach Earth. In January of 2020. The waves triggered three giant
How the Sun Could Spoil NASA's Trip Back to the Moon
"Nasa is supposed to go back to the moon in twenty four as part of its program but recently seemed like they may need to push that deadline back a few years and while it's never good to rush something as serious as catapulting human beings into space. The mit technology review points out. There's one reason it might be better if they stuck to the original timeline. And it's the sons faults. According to a new study published today in the journal solar physics were going to be seen some extreme space weather. Roughly around twenty twenty six through twenty twenty-nine exactly when nasa might go to the moon if the current twenty twenty four time line is pushed back. Now what do they mean. By extreme space weather mostly solar storms quoting the mit tech review. The surface of the sun erupts with gas and plasma ejecting charged particles protons electrons and heavy ions into the rest of the solar system at millions of miles per hour. These particles can strike earth and the moon in just a matter of minutes. Earth's magnetic field protects us from them but the particles can still fry electronics in power grids on the surface and damage critical that manage. Gps until the communication services space weather could be extremely dangerous for any astronauts flying to the moon or trying to live and work on lunar outpost at the surface life support systems and power could shut down and solar activity could produce life-threatening levels of radiation between apollo sixteen and seventeen says matthew owens lead author of the study and a space physicist at the university of reading. There was a huge space weather event. That would have likely been fatal. If astronauts had been on the moon the time and quotes and this is something that i learned from that apple tv plus show for all mankind which showed a solar storm occurred that disrupted radio communication on earth and created a dire situation for the astronauts on the lunar base. But how do we know that this is going to be worse in the latter half of the decade as opposed to in twenty twenty four. Because that's when the sun will be ending. Its eleven year cycle cycle twenty five which began at the end of twenty nineteen.
What Is Antimatter?
"What is it? Not antifa, not Antigua. But anti matter That's right. These are own good anti jokes actually typed in anti into Google earlier to see what the completions were. And anti matter was like the sixth one. Yeah. Oh, no, no matter keep our case about her. Antigua and Antifa and another set of anti stuff. Yes. So what is it? Um, what does it have against regular matter and more important? Where is it? And what can I do for you? Yeah, besides blowing you up, So apparently, If you touch anti matter, you're going to explode in a ball of light. That's right, folks out there listening to this If you're sitting next to a blob of anti matter don't touch it. Run, label it safely for other people, and then run away really fast. We are very pro safety on this podcast. Yes. One explain the universe, explode the universe or kill everybody in the universe. All right, But before we begin talking about anti matter, we went out on the street. We asked people what do you know about anti matter? What is anti matter. Here's what they had to say. Guess matters matter. So no matter what, Okay. It's like the black home. I mean, I've heard it in relation like space, but I couldn't define it at all. It's like the opposite. It's like a Proton has more mass in electron, but it's the opposite charge. Electron has a positive charge, but it's like the letter. All right, so most people seem to have heard of the term anti matter that that said, That's pretty cool. Yeah, it's really cool that people have heard of anti matter though. Almost nobody seems to know what it is. Yeah. Everyone seems to have the idea that it's like regular matter but kind of like the opposite like that. It's like A weird kind of matter. Yeah,
Artists on the loose at the Large Hadron Collider
"At the beginning of the universe minutes after the big bang as temperature cooled the most fundamental particles of matter came into existence so neutrons protons photons electrons and others the basic building blocks of everything we know and see and much way died and to study these teeny tiny particles tucked inside every atom in the universe. invisibly are physicists. Nate this vast instrument one that occupies an entire vast landscape two hundred hectares of farmland. The contrast between big and small here cyber czar. We're about eighty eight meters underground. That the moment kilda. I'm jacob new-zealand. It's great we have people from all walks of life and all over provision who got physicists engineers computer scientists edmund people like me and they're all from different parts of the world i think from the star of the these filled like a mini country so i'm asking schroeder and i'm a experimental particle physicists. In i don't know somehow. When i leave sern i realized that i'm still honing in the normal world. I don't know some kind of refuge from everything else that is going on outside in the world and here science is what really matters. I feel like Since great that it's a kind of a political place you know. The relationship with russia never changed during the cold war with. We're about science purely about saying well not just science. I'm here for art to people as you'll hear science friction with natasha mitchell. Many meters underground this week and easter special from our archive inside the heart of soon. Just outside of geneva in switzerland home to the world's largest most powerful particle accelerator. The large hadron collider the hcc. Now this of course is the place where the elusive higgs. Boson particle was discovered. And where last week scientists hinted they just might have discovered a brand new force of nature or put it another way a violation in the standard model of
Prof. Cecilia Lunardini, Professor of Physics at Arizona State University. - burst 01
"Welcome to the site of accents. Podcast where we explore emerging ideas from signs policy economics and technology. My name is gill. Eappen we talk with woods leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest scientific senses unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation. Be color a wide variety of domains. Rare new discoveries are made and new technologies are developed on a daily basis the most interested in how new ideas affect society and help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation v seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide unaided content of conversations. Bit researchers leaders. Who low what they do. A companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense. Dot com and displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense dot net. If you have suggestions for topics guests at other ideas please send up to info at scientific sense dot com and i can be reached at gil at eappen dot info. Yesterday's dini whose professional physics at amazon is taking versity. One of the primary of usage focus is new leaders. Welcome to see you thank you. Yeah thanks for doing this. So i know that you have done a lot of work on neutrinos. You have a few papers. That came out recently. And i want to talk to a twenty eighteen paper dalogue and my own neutrino signatures of primordial black holes. invite you say. These studied primordial black holes ph is as sources of massive neutrinos by hawking radiation under the hypothesis that black holes emit nuclear no bass item states be described quantitatively called the pbs evolution and lifetime is affected by the mass and flew munich dialect my own nature of neutrinos before we get the details celia I wanted to get some definitions of folks would know what black court saw a few episodes of black holes Here we're talking about. The pride won't imprac codes owes The these black holes are fall close to the big bang And then as caulking radiation Sort of The black hole evaporating So to speak and that That lady Imitating these particles called neutrinos. Right is that. Do i understand that correctly. Yes so so pry bhutia blackhaws before we get the neutrinos what is sort of the mechanism of formation their ho- exactly what they have formed sure We believe that Primordial hose could form in the early universe from density fluctuations so We know that any object could can possibly become a black hole if you compress it into a very very small volume so this same process could happen in the universe with Density fluctuations that could be a regional space where there is an over density compared to the surrounding and each of over the east coast past Then then it could get to the point of becoming a black hole This this The details of this process are beyond my expertise But this is fairly reasonable thing to expect and The diesel really small rate in the scheme of things. Yes so when i started to Learn about time or their black holes. I was amazed by how different in mass can be. They can be may be the massive wouldn't but they can also be The mass of Being or they can be Even even smaller so they can really be very very tiny. Yes oh so. That's really really small so this is sort of quantum fluctuations only universe Kind of getting Getting concentrated in vide- small areas But we believe those. Those primordial black holes emit nucleus. we Have to go back to stephen hawking for that stephen hawking wrote this seminal paper Which is about what we nowadays. Nowadays call hawking radiation so he demonstrated that any black hole regardless of what it is could be primordial black hole or a stellar. Nicole doesn't matter any black hole isn't really black because it meets radiations so radiation particles And the the process that we call evaporation so Because a black holes fundamentally gravity objects they would meet any particle that couples to raggedy including trees so It's the moment you have a black hole you do. Have hawking radiation and neutrinos are just that are expected. Part of hawking radiation. You're so caulking radiation so that that happens to every black hole even the even the supermassive ones right so i it said gentle phenomenon And so going to neutrinos now Don't typically thing neutrino site Caltrans and electrons are really well known. neutrinos are particles. Dad don't interact with The matter Espionage don't interact much with matters. We don't really see them. They don't really see them. And and so it's difficult to measure that's right and so so this could you give a. What does the history of neutrino vendor we. I understand such things existed. Let's see We go back to the twentieth century and the story goes That the father of neutrino sees Warfare he. He made the hypotheses of a new particle existing as a way to explain Some strange behavior of neutrinos produced by by nuclear decay so It's it's a long story but Let me just say that For a long time. Neutrinos who just the hypotheses and then around the mead of this twentieth century They would actually officer so we started to Know that this particles existed and But that was pretty much heat. So we didn't know much about the properties And one of these properties the mass which we still don't know i'm easy after all these decades but we still don't know if neutrinos have something like a magnetic went for example And something that we didn't learn until much later on is the fact. That neutrinos oscillate. That's that that sounds. That's something that we that were somehow established Turn of the sanctuary around the around the year. Two thousand really after after decades of of testing with the solar neutrino selling trainers. So there are still there are still a number of no on your trainers. One of them is the mass one and the other one is the The nature of the neutrinos being the iraq particles or miranda particles we She's kind of a fundamental cost. So there are that. That's that's that's related to the fundamental nature of the neutrino as particle break. So so they do. They have a mass but masses small. Do they have a chunk. Neutrinos don't have charge so they are electrically neutral and that's Comedy the biggest reason for for them to be a so allusive as you were mentioning earlier on especially in the in early. Nineteen hundreds all the particle detectors so basically a electro-magnetic detectors they were looking for charge or Magnetic behavioral some sort. So neutrinos don't have that and so they They only have the weak interaction At that that we know wolf and gravity of course and so that's why they They escape detection so so easily because their interaction is very weak. Yeah so so. That's sort of the beauty of neutrinos right so because they don't interact V can go back digits of years. Simple hats Perhaps become pickup one on earth and it would have travelled that distance through all sorts of things but would not have affected wider rate right. Yes and so so the other phenomenon of neutrino is that you mentioned that they also late so are they're failures of tinos they go back and forth. Yes it's It's actually a fairly Easy to this cried kwan to sonam on We know that In quantum mechanics there is this Particles described by these function which is called the wave function. And so the neutrinos could be on. Neutrino could be born as a say an extra and then it's quanta way function would evolve over time in a way that after sometime. The wave function is no longer a purely electron neutrino way function. But the has a little bit or even law actually of a different flavor. It could be a new one or tau. So what we observe in the actors. Is this change of flavor and perhaps the most striking demonstration of this phenomenon is solemn. Neutrinos because we know that the sun produces an extra treatments and It doesn't produce a new on and talion trainers so But here on earth we do Have evidence that the solar neutrino flags that we receive has some You wanna talion. Trina in it and that can only be explained by sedation and Actually after this other neutrino data showed this phenomenon. This was also confirmed by a saint men made experiments so it's a fairly established phenomenon it and so that the flavors are Electron new on tall. Yes that's right and so. Did you understand the vendor made in the sun for example there they are made as electron Neutrinos and by the time they reached the earth day the Immunes dot. Yes yes Impart young. that's that's what happens so ease. It always the case that they get a manufactured so to speak as as electoral neutrinos always. It depends on where they are born. There are places where neutrino sutter born in or flavors. A so it's it's it really varies with With the type of environment We are talking about okay. Okay and so in the people you say ph is this primordial black holes. We talked about radiates right. Handed and left handed dutra knows in equal amounts so anybody right-handed unless the cleaners. Okay let me see so Yes you say. Indicates of dirac neutrinos. pba Left neutrinos in equal amounts possibly increasing deceptive number noon pheno species nest. Yes is that explainable. Yes so right handed than left handed. Neutrinos that may take why to explain what that exactly means me. Just say that It's related to the neutrino mass. So if you're truly knows didn't have a mass which we know they do but if they didn't have a mouse They would only exist as left handed particles which means that basically their spin is Is anti aligned with the momentum and but if they have mass and the iraq particles There could be another type of neutrino which is right handed. Which where the This being ease aligned with a mentor other than anti line and so If you are iraq these these two different species could exist and so instead of having one species of neutrino emitted left-handed one Indicators of a massless trina if we have not suv nutrients than you would have to species and so. The black hole radiate war energy compared to The case when neutrinos don't amass so when we started working on this paper i was interested in this phenomenon that A lot of the literature having to do with a developer. Evaporation of primordial black couls. Consider the neutrinos as massless about. Now we know that they are massive. And so i thought well Sixty speaking at primordial black hole could radiate more energy than previously thought. So i found that aspect interesting and then sees you mention the possibility to increase the effective number of species. That's related to what it was talking about. So then you the black hole would ra- gate more neutrino States or more neutrino Species to spe pseudo speak and then Would increase the number of neutrinos per cubic centimeter Data we observe today so I'm kind of glossing over a lot of these days. But basically cosmology gives us a measurement of this and effective which is called the effective number two species. And if you have this right. Handed neutrinos coming from the primordial black holes. This number could be higher than than expected. And so that would be may be a i way to tell that maybe there are more black holes in the universe yet. So so the hawking radiation essentially creation coming out of black holes Expected defined Expected that over a long period of time. Black holes radiate away lap. Later ray out the mass or information that didn't do it And so this. Radiation is hockey. Radio station is it is a new park. Or is it. Fundamentally composed of neutrinos hawking radiation is made of every particle that no of so A black hole. A camera gate Pretty much everything. Photons neutrinos throngs You loans It said cetera but There is the catch here. The fact that a black hole has a temperature which is another Big achievement of stephen hawking to end and others To that the black hole is thermo dynamical object and so Basically the bigger the black hole the lower the temperature so if the temperature is really low The black hole wouldn't be able to immed- Very massive particles because they are thermal energy would be sufficient for that so because masses energy Mc squared right so because massey's energy If a black hole has too low of a temperature It wouldn't have its quantum energy It's it's Wouldn't be enough to produce the mass off a particular particle for example a proton may be too heavy to be produced by a really low tanto black home so so the beaker. The black called the lower the temperature. Yes ed so. So then can expect the bigger black holes to have more of a neutrino content in radiation. Yes because The bigger black holes would as i said be able to radiate the heavy particles and so they would only be able to radiate away the low mass particles and so there could be black holes that only emit photons gravitons and Neutrinos do a of sort of the distribution of this primordial black holes Isn't you know sort of everywhere. What is what do we know about you. Know some of the distribution of bbc's you mean spatial distribution like where they are now. I'm wondering just like the easy would do sort of look at the early universe will find them everywhere Probably at the beginning they would be a more or less uniformly distributed Bug in the universe. Today they would probably be Behaving like the dark matter. Does they would Be part of galactic halos In other words they would be they would class gravitationally on large structures like a like a galaxy placido galaxy so these call still around They would they would behave like like the dark matter down. So they would be in in halo. Galaxies would have by. Now have april would would they not have disappear because it far it depends on the mass That they have when they are born so their if their mass is less than a certain value that trying to remember Basically yes they would have to By now they would have completely evaporate did their masters larger than they will take longer to evaporate and they could still be around So they roughly speaking the dividing line between a black hole. Steve being around today or not. I think it's something like ten to fifteen grams fiery recall correctly into fifteen clams though So this paper. Eusebio obtained the diffuse flux of right hill. Neutrinos from his idea and so so. So so the nikkei actually act to build these neutrinos. They'd be flying here do pbs specifically In principle that's a possibility we Considered that for certain Masses of these black holes and certain density of this black holes the flux of neutrinos that they generate over time could be fairly large and so we could Detect these neutrinos If we had a very Power who attacked so Now life is never ideally in the sense that a real Ut detector have substantive issues like ground And so on. So at the end of the people we conclude that impact is giving given the limitations that current nutrient doctors have It may not really be possible to detect neutrinos trump mortgage black holes but people. That's a possibility and that alone is interesting. Yeah because they suggestion that this primordial black holes could be as as you mentioned could be part of the dark matter that yes to seeking. Is that still About us that has been. There has been a debate on these Kind of going back and forth in the scientific community The latest i heard is that Black whose could be part of the dark matter. Maybe even a large part but probably not they entire dark matter so a one hundred percent primordial Battery is a bit difficult to justify the day. experimental bowels that we already have constrained so various types but there could be scenarios where maybe a fraction of the dark matter. He's made of primordial black holes. I wanted to go into a ended up paper in twenty twenty supernova neutrinos directional sensitivity and prospects for dissertation here the export potential of current and future liquid cinta league neutrino detectors. I decade old town. Mass a localize a super a supernova neutrino signal into sky in douglas was feeding the core collapse nearby star tens to hundreds of english Coated and don't be constructed policy in the detector can be used to estimate a direction to the star so so this is now neutrinos from supernova and You so so we. We have Idea here that before this opened on what happens. If please open over a time period it is creating neutrinos that could pick up and and potentially get ready to see the super bowl. Yes that's what excites me The fact that Think about bitter jews. Beetlejuice is the most famous nearby star. That could go supernova anytime and we don't know when that's going to happen and If it wasn't for these neutrinos that our paper is about we will know until the style literally Collapses and and then soon after becomes superman but in this paper we we Show that before the star collapses which is the beginning of the supernova process We can detect these. These neutrinos That are used at that at that stage and so increase the pool we could know that You know tomorrow. These days beetlejuice exploding and that that would be quite exciting. Yeah it's beetlejuice is is red joy and reasonably close to was really big star. I can remember Cecilia there was some suggestion that It could go supernova within something one hundred fifty thousand years which is obliquely in cosmic time so it is getting ready to go to Supernova right yes. I am not you formed about exactly the number of years give or take but it's it's ready it's ready. It could be any time and any time any time for an astronomer muse anytime the next thousand soviet so we should. We should hold their breath. But it's ready could be tomorrow. It could be in a hundred years could supernova. I know that this is not part of the paper but could the beetlejuice supernova avenue adverse effect on north really know a supernova is very very spectacular event. it's it's a star that collapses so it implodes i and that explodes and then when he explodes It's very bright. In the case of bitter jews we could. We could see by naked-eye shore but in terms of A fact of each radiation and neutrinos in light on on us and on our daily activities. It wouldn't it. Wouldn't affect them in any way so it's a save Show to just enjoy without any worry. Great answer so you talking about supernova neutrinos so so can be actually detect neutrinos from supernova. What different from what we talked about in the previous people Different from pbs I'm not sure. Can you repeat yes. So the new teen emanating from a supernova different from the Neutrinos of expectancy from a primordial black hole. Yes the the different In many ways disney trails have higher energies. So it's much much easier to attack them and indicates will beat the jews. We would detect thousands or even more of dan millions. Probably of them Indiana so different in the way they are born because in our primordial black hole ordinary black hole The processes volcanoes the asian. Which which is a gravity phenomenon in a supernova. You're born out of the very hot and dense environment That the that that the star as after it has collapsed so star collapsing on its own way to become very dense and so In this very dense in hot environment nuclear processes take place that produce these nutrients. So i guess the main difference is that indicates supernova it's most nuclear phenomenon and in the call is really fundamentally a gravitational sonam. Okay you discover technique in this paper and you saved sin principle possible unique the identify the progenitor star so So the existing technology and ideas discussed in the paper viki see teacup a neutrino decode. Identify valid came from or what direction thing from embed you can go back and look at the in that direction if he find to supernova then you could say that the supernova that created in-principle Yes let me. Just say that There are situations and this is not one of them but there are situations where if you have one neutrino you can point to the pointing the sky. What came from in these case. It's a little more complicated. Because what really gives us. The information is the statistical distribution of these nutrients so we are talking about may be the tax in hundred a hundred Gable take from say be for example and What did detector really observe is not the neutrino is kind of a vector which is related to the products of these neutrinos so this neutrino sues interacts with the interact with the detector. And then out of this interaction you have a positive on the new thrown and those can be observed and you can you can create a factory using these two and then and then these rector will have a certain orientation but each each neutrino coming will give you a differently oriented vector but statistically if you look at the distribution of these factors you you can tell you can you can do for with a certain of course The direction of the neutrinos because these vectors are not uniformly distributed they are they have a non uniform distribution of the direction. And so using this information we can we can define a regional the sky where The new three could come from so we can. We cannot now down to a point but we can now down to maybe a cone of a few tens of degrees Width and then we look in that cone and see what stars that com and maybe be juicy one of them. Yeah so As you say you if you see a few Neutrinos Statistics bution of those will give us some some probability That it is in in some region of the sky. And then you say the paper You can then that if it is happening please open nola. You learnt other observational. Modalities multi messagero rations Invisible in radio and other other types of observations Do actually pick up more data so this is almost like a early alert system If it is in place right yes i would call it a very early I learned to because it's we're talking about maybe our worse or insert very fortunate cases. We are even talking about maybe day Before the assad goes supernova and. so that's enough time to plan for for it so a something that fascinated me When i heard about this from a from a an experimentalist is that there is a human factor which was not aware of but The factories so if you have come up with thirty minutes to plan for watching supernova this may not be enough because it just takes stein to make phone calls and get a hold of people and and decide what to do. Come to a consensus in that. I saw in addition to technical things. Like okay have to maybe turn your telescope Direction which takes time. But i i was really fascinated by the human factor. Those things that if you had style we'd be you can kind of gathered. Relevant people decide something but if you have thirty minutes or or or minutes maybe not so. Yeah yeah i wondered. If such a earlier system is in place Perhaps could be something programmatic. Crises is picking up And you have some you know. Maybe some ai techniques or something like that that identifies the region and it goes. Programmatic returned the telescopes look. Yes yes exactly so. There could be a protocol in place For that so e if a telescope was suitable for observing a nearby supernova which which is not always the case than than now that we showed that it's possible to know beforehand if a star is going to go supernova then there could be some sort of protocol in place already so that when the alert comes which is we can just activated the protocol and oriented telescope. maybe automatically will in some sort of Organized way yeah as you say if you remove humans from the process it becomes not better there is actually already working this direction It's called this new two point. Oh a network which has to do with Exactly these using neutrinos as alert for the astronomy community and That has to do with exactly a creating alerts and also creating protocols for how to react to an alert rate. I want to end the people that just came out. it concordant scenario for the observation of neutrino from the tidal disruption. Even eight hundred twenty nine hundred ninety s t You say be induced at phenomenology concordance canadia with the logistic jet of for the title disruption event Between ninety s jesmyn proposes a source of the astrophysical neutrino event. Ice cube So the title disruption even this is star getting cooler into a black hole getting Getting sucked in rate is that the is that even up to the match yes This is something that we We had about be in in popular science stalks What what happens if you get too close to black hole and It's kind of scary. So the answer is you would be ripped apart because your feet will be pulled in with a strong force than your head and these. This is what happens to two statehouse. Use the star gas to close than by guests Ripped the park. Which is what the tied is option means and so instead of a star Rotating around a black hole we just have a stellar stellar That dr intially. I created by the black hole and so This is something that The happy neighbor cops serve did so so we have. This does happen this particularly Eighty twenty nine hundred ninety s and Bequeath actually see a new cleaners from that particular even so tightness. Deduction events are fairly well established phenomenon in astronomy. We have many of them served They they are Fairly a common plays events But what's special about this particular one. Eighty two thousand nineteen years. G is that We could let's say It could have Produced on neutrino that was detected a ice cube so eighty twenty nine hundred ninety s. She is the first either direction event. For which is coincident. Neutrinos detected a dice. Cube in queens. This coincidence is likely to be accidental. So on approachability estimate tells us that these coins. This is pretty causal not accident so eighty twenty nine hundred ninety. The g could be the parent of this neutrino. And that's that's that's a i. That's very interesting. Yes i skew. is a is a big ice cube in the in. The south is I'm not sure it's exactly cuba. But it's it's the biggest block of is which has been Eastern With values Small detectors So it's it's an array of swarner detectors but yeah it's basically a big block of ice which has been transformed into a detective and so so the idea that this high energy neutrinos from what they were System montemar even that happened Out there this high energy neutrinos passing through that ice q. believe some telltale signs All of that happening and yuxi picked up Then began back Just like you were talking about the previous creeper begin. Please back to a region so this is one of those cases where you can tell from a single neutrino of course the with with a narrower where you can tell the point in the sky where three neutrino kate from. It's doable with one single neutrino because this high energy neutrinos when they enter the is They produce ca a shower so they kind of illuminate. They you me nate. The is but the do it in a way which is very much Beat so and then and then the direction of the the direction of bigotry knows. We have a pretty good accuracy often. How often could be a pickup something like that. Do we have an estimate of how often that would happen. Meaning ice cube detects something like this. Every year ice cube the tax Of the order of ten high-energy neutrinos froth outside our galaxy. Tadesse the number for the entire crop of neutrinos that ice cube has It went we talk about tidal disruption events in the specific these are fairly rare phenomena and so they estimated that maybe a few times so percent of the entire neutrino flux the thais cubeys of serving could be from tidal disruption events. Not much more than that. So we are talking about less than half of the total flats being to tell this option events okay and so the tug disruption burned as as you mentioned It starts getting clipped applaud and pulled back into a into a a black hole but this ten percent. Do they have to be these braces as they call it. The things that have a jet that is sort of lying towards us. Is that it necessarily condition for these types of high energy neutrinos. It's it's a plausible scenario Let me just say that. There is an important difference between blazers in tidal disruption events. In the fact that the ablaze is something that has a jet. She's always on so the jets kinda kerman feature of of these particular galaxy but the title is adoption. Event is transient events. Saw dotcoms creates the accretion. This accretion of the star of the black hole produces flair is flair can last year or two but then it would just fade away so There could be jet and in fact in our paper we present where there is a jet so they partisans the user chat But if there is a jet in tiger disruption event. That's a transient suggested. That's born when This starts to create the stellar debris. And then it's on for months or years and then and then shuts off and it has two point in our direction as you as you mentioned because otherwise we would. We would see the trains your so this high energy neutrinos sillier how. How many orders of magnitude are we talking about coming to the one set you pick up. Let's say from the sun I'm not sure about the question. Can you maybe rephrase yet. So when you say this high energy neutrinos that is coming from let's say a tidal disruption events or something like that How much comedy orders of magnitude more energy Outdoors come to you. Know the ones that might be created the sun a lot menu of this magnitude so It is a big difference. So the sun produces new three meals. over a wide range of energies Higher energy neutrinos from the sun reach energies of the order of ten am pt and mega awards and for the ice cream. Neutrinos we are talking about one hundred of the older one hundred t. v. or even thousand teams. Which would be p so. Let's say maybe eighty tortoise magnitude finding the mass rife or okay and so this e. v. measure it is actually measuring the mass of the neutrino of newfield. Now these these neutrinos are have such a Such high energy that basically It's impossible to know their mass Because because as i said massey's energy so they talk energy of neutrino Detected is to be so high that that percentage view to its mass east so tiny that this practice mutual so i was wondering if we know the energy couldn't be sort of back computer to save the mass is or it doesn't follow The reasoning is a bit different and The way to sink about this is perhaps they let me see the formula for energy particle Which used the rest energy Applause the kinetic energy and So connecticut is so high that he thought the overwhelms direct energy. So it's it's and of course every time you measure the energy when three no. There is a narrow associated with the measurement so You we can't really we can't really tell what What led the boss of the detroit news but both roughtly this. This appears to be sort of an early warning system for many many things right topped the supernova the in the title disruption events producing heightened plano's So this could be sort of inundated with a monkey message. Observations protocols as you mentioned that gives us a higher success. Wait suspect. I would think certainly nominated be one right That's the power of multi messenger astronomy the integration of different signals coming from Photos tree knows navigation waves Causing me craze and Danger plays very powerful emmanuel cases and maybe supernova case is the most striking Xenos come first. But that's not always the case So in the indicates of tidal disruption events Did you know that was observed. Came about five months later than the initial dhammika looser version of the tidal disruption events so It's if it can go both ways. neutrinos can be early alert or they only alert could be for example a radio salvation or or an x-ray use ovation and then and then the neutrino attacked or could Focus a surge in that direction as see what they find which which has actually been done ice cube sometimes. Does these these archival. Search this on the basis of others from From for example x ray or gamma ray surveys interested. Exciting eighty that said a lot to be owned It seems It seems like these till don't know all the production mechanisms for neutrinos but if we have robust with to pick them up on than we can place them back and and talk asking questions What might be there definitely So yes so. People celia the next five years Wanted the aid is that you believe Be will make a significant crocus in this Innovative neutrinos then two different areas. That a very promising One is Broadly speaking Manmade nutrients so there is. There is a big push especially hitting the united states to build Create very powerful beams of trainings and then these beams are manmade. So we know that very well. We know that energy we know the composition and we can use them to learn about The properties of treatments and then That other men bead neutrino experiments where Scientists look for the between months so that's also very promising In something i really. I really excited about that. That may be a furious novel with noble the neutrino mass us from these very high position laboratory experience. Then there is the whole Topic of neutrinos as part of the mouth of mike messenger astronomy and in that area. I think what was was to look forward. To among other scenes is the interplay gravitational waves shock waves. You still Somehow a science of its own into a large extent but there are so many possible connections. We've neutrinos tidal disruption adoption events should produce reputation ways so baranov shoot us gradation ways So so there is. There is a a lot of potential there which is still unexplored in and that's where i see myself Working on in the next few years you adjust very quickly The do gravitational waves travel bid closest and new ashtrays and so if If they both are produced in In uneven they're expected to arrive on earth close to simultaneously. It depends on the timing of the production if the answer is yes the waves ending a knows are born at the same time which may not be exactly true because the physics that governs tation waves is different from the one that that governs neutrinos. So but the difference in timing would be the difference Accumulated that birth But but the two were were generated genetically the same time. They should arrive the same time. Just thinking this a systematic difference in the production time than guan lorries given early warning for the other. But that doesn't seem to do a case right. There could be cases where significant lag in the production of rotation way with respect to the production of the tree nose and one example is. We haven't touched on this before but let me just nation mergers so if we have if we have a merger for example we have maybe a merger of a neutron stars or black hole neutral star before the merger happens so when the two objects that kind of still approaching each other we should start observe serving ways and this is what this is what has been seen so Delight experiment observes these these nominal But if we have a merger After the merger has occurred and the two objects have become one than a. Dan could be the formation of of over an accretion disk and he secretion Trainers which we can which we can back so the neutrino We come After they initially asian waves and so relation as would be the alert for the neutrino. That does excellent. your this has been great as celia. thanks so much complaining pleasure. Okay thank you bye. This is a scientific sense. Podcast providing unscripted conversations with leading academics and researchers on variety of topics. If you like to sponsor this podcast please reach out to info. At scientific sense dot com.
Quantum Physics And Global Consciousness In Relation To Trauma
"Welcome everybody to the hill in place podcast. I'm your host terry while rocking very excited. Have with me today. Dr william t. Kenny and he is a radiologist but also author of the conscious whole which is an award winning book a novel. And we're going to dive into that and talk about What it's about and other wonderful subjects Quantum physics and the conscious whole global consciousness Yeah so welcome. Thank you very much for having me. I really appreciate it apso Summer radiologists the area. Tending william t. Kenny a real name is william t. randazzo and So as radiologist. What i'd do his i Some adopted to medical school and did six years of basically advanced training after medical school and will be radiologist lee read xrays. See ts. mri's ultrasounds we also do minimally invasive procedures with x ray guidance and training I learned about physics. Also had an interest in physics before pursuing radiology and when i was in medical school Learning about dna and the nucleotides in dna is they'll tie small molecules and with mike and of interest in physics. I was thinking about how physicists study. The small particles the the subatomic particles atoms in protons and electrons and the laws of physics. Those following Generally speaking kind of you know. Put those into the category of following quantum physics and a lot of people probably heard about quantum physics in. it's essentially the study and the science of the very small things in nature. So you're talking adams. Small molecules protons in the parts of those Adams as well in the laws of physics day obeyed are very strange when you put them in the context of our everyday lives and they don't really make sense and their couple reasons might not make sense. They might not make sense. Because we don't understand that world completely which is probably the most state and you can make. We don't really understand it. We don't know what it's doing but those particles do very strange things and so when i'm sitting my medical school class was than ten years ago learning about dna and they're talking about the nuclear tides. Dna is little tiny parts of dna that basically determined the code and that code determines what our bodies look like and how they function disease in health and everything that we kind of know about the body and describe the medicine as being permanent pieces of matter that inside of our dna in but when you read the quantum physics literature they described little tiny particles as being not fixed as being a potential and being things that could be both. They're not they're things can exist many states
Peloton CEO Says Child Died in Treadmill Accident
"Town after a child was killed in an accident involving the company's tread plus treadmill correspondent Diane King Hall. Saletan is urging users to keep Children away from its treadmills after AH child died in an accident. The company CEO says the death involved bulletins shred plus Proton told us it could not share additional information on what happened. Quote out of respect for the family. The company is reminding people to remove this safety key when not in use is the
Creating Antimatter: Matter's "Evil Twin"
"Jeff. i have a lot of questions about antimatter. But can you just start with regular mater. What is that. Yeah so a refresher for who don't remember regular matters abroad category for everything. So you're matter i'm matter. The studios matter the microphones. Yeah i get it matter and we matter. It's a nice thought. Yeah and as matter were all made of atoms. So you're bunch of adamson the shape of an emily corn. And i'm tabatha the shape of a jeff brumfield now for antimatter. I'm actually going to let another jeffrey. Who knows a lot more. Physics denied to answer this one. His name is jeffrey hengst. And he's a researcher at our house university in denmark. And to i. I think of it as kind of an evil twin of the stuff that makes up our everyday world intriguing. Go on it is it is. It's just this kind of opposite matter. It's like this muir to everything that's around us so antimatter. It's here right now yet. I mean it's a little more complicated than that but anti matters real stuff and it exists in our universe and actually before anyone ever even detected it. They predicted it because math. The equations of physics demanded in fact it was discovered that way by coming up with an equation that predicted his existence. Nobody was really looking for it. And i am not going to attempt to describe the fundamental equations of physics on this podcast. Because i don't really understand them But hank says the closest analogy. He's got for us mortals to think about. Is this math problem. What's the square root of four two very but there's a second solution negative to allocate right because negative negative to is four so the way you just went straight to two. That's exactly kind of what happened in physics like there were these equations and there was a positive set of solutions for particles and negative said and everyone was like the negative set. What does that even mean. That's nonsense but it turned out there. Worthies negative particles. They did exist in. They're called antimatter. Oh okay so there's this theoretical idea of antimatter kicking around for awhile. Which kind of explains what it is. But what is it exactly. Here's the thing it really is like opposite matter. Protons remember protons. Yeah their positively charged subatomic particles. They are anti. Protons are negatively charged electrons their negatively charged and their anti particles are positively charged. This is kind of amazing. It is kind of amazing. And here's the best part. It actually lives up to the sci-fi analogy so just go with your sifi brain and i get it emily. You're more of like colin firth. Pride and prejudice bbc. You know no shame in it. There isn't there isn't i've seen it probably more times than you have in my life. But what do you think happens when matter and antimatter Get together when they actually meet okay. If anti matters the evil twin the fight they do will. They do like in a jane austen novel. They do. Well you're not too far off. I'm going to let the actual experts explain it to you. And i have a tendency to cancel each other out a minute. Where's this under. Certain conditions when to identify articles of matter. Antimatter meet these. Are your experts. Jeff captain kirk and is that leonard nimoy as relationship. Yes total complete absolute annihilation. Spock it is. That's right and you're right. That's star trek season. One episode twenty-seven original track the best track. But here's the thing eveline. It's actually a hundred percent accurate or pretty close so the universe won't end if antimatter and matter meat. But the two particles do disappear in a flash of light. The anti-matter can't exist in the presence of matter. The science fiction stuff comes in these things really do annihilate each other if you get together okay. So i've covered a lot of physics over the years and this is pretty much the only case where the sci-fi and the reality match although i will say annihilation is actually a lot less sexy in real life it's really Just annoying to have to deal with something that you have to make that the universe is trying to destroy and every every every turning point be an antimatter physicist it it is. I mean he's literally been doing this since the ninety s and like he does get a little frustrated. All right you said earlier that antimatter. It's here in this universe but this universe is full of matter and i don't see any antimatter lurking around. So where is it if it's existing theory but it's hard to find in reality. I don't get this you know who else doesn't get it. Every physicist on earth this is one of the fundamental questions the equation say there should be as much antimatter matter but in practice. Antimatter is actually super hard. To find and hank says nobody knows why there aren't any good ideas about this. I mean physicists. Do see little bits of antimatter here. and there. In fact anti electrons for i discovered in cosmic rays coming from deep space way back in the nineteen thirties. And actually i've got another natural source of antimatter right here in the studio emily in this room. Yes ready yes this banana. What are you talking about this real episode. This is an episode about nothing and tomfoolery. Hold the banana to make sure it's real. I'll explain yes okay so obviously. The banana is not anti matter. But here's the thing about bananas. Bananas are full of potassium. Which is really good for you. But there's also a radioactive isotope potassium into banana called potassium forty. This is a naturally occurring. isotope So some porsche. The potassium in the banana is potassium. Forty now here's the thing. Potassium forty when it decays releases an electron but very very very very rarely it releases an anti electron. So if we just hold this banana and wait for for. How long are we waiting. Okay we'd have to seventy five minutes. We're at ten minute podcast. Geoff just sit here for seventy five minute. What i'm hearing is seven part series on antimatter. Emily kwan and a meditation silence. That's right no so. On average this entire banana will spit out. One anti-electron every seventy five minutes. I think this really makes the point. Well right like antimatter exists. It's not some parallel universe but one tiny anti trump for trillions of banana adams is like even. That's a pretty rare thing to have. Happened and jeffrey wants a lot more than that. That's why he's at this giant particle accelerator cernan switzerland. Okay so tell me what. He's up to their well. Hanks wants lots of anti electrons. And in this is key anti protons. Hey so it turns out the anti electrons are kind of easy. You can find other radioactive sources Besides bananas that can make a lot more of them and then the elevator makes anti protons. And here's the thing so you have to very carefully hang us to bring the anti protons in the anti electrons together we call it s- merge it's a smooz merge merge but even after that merge they still end up with a lot of antimatter just disappearing. Thirty million anti protons. That's converted two hundred thousand or so trapped. Anti protons of those will get twenty or thirty that actually make anti hyphen that we can use well. Willow anti-hydrogen is that what i just heard. Jeff what is that. Anti-hydrogen is just one anti electron orbiting one anti protons and it's the antimatter. Equivalent of the lightest element on earth. So that's regular hydrogen willing to go to all this trouble just to get a few atoms of anti-hydrogen but why go through all the trouble you know of making andy hydrogen okay. So here's the thing. He's hoping to get some clues from anti-hydrogen about matter antimatter and the thinking goes like this. Hydrogen is the lightest element in the universe and hydrogen is probably the thing we know best. We've been studying it forever. We really understand it. So by looking very very carefully at anti-hydrogen. He's hoping that they can learn more about what's going on with antimatter. And that's basically what he's doing he's using lasers all kinds of stuff to probe this anti-hydrogen to see how it behaves. Well has shed any light on where the rest of the antimatter is. Not yet not yet. And so far. Anti-hydrogen is behaving exactly as predicted by all those fundamental physics equations. And so far with the places that we've looked and to the precision with which we've looked they're the same and that's kind of a problem because they also say there should be much matters antimatter unless they can find some sort of deviation it may not be possible to figure out you know where the antimatter went. So we don't have any clues but that's okay because he's just
"Framing a Different World" Week
"This week's theme comes to us from Liam Dodd and is called framing a different world. Here's why Liam chose this theme. He says. My Name's Leeann Dodd. Theme Cherries is framing a different world. A chose this theme because I think all of us can benefit for hearing from those of unique expertise or experience is able to provide a new ones new perspective on the way we drive society with each other or just very peaceful. And here are the episodes chosen by Liam for the team along with short descriptions of each episode. The first episode of the week comes to us from the Ezra Klein show and it's called Contra points on taking the trolls. Seriously it's eighty one minutes long. Here's the description. Youtube is weird. Tomorrow's politics are happening today. Next episode comes from it could happen here and is called the second American civil war. It's forty eight minutes long. Are you worried about the possibility of the second American civil war in episode one of it could happen here Robert Explains why 2016 was the first time he started to seriously worry about. The next episode comes to us from Length Uzi Azam and is called sounds. You can't hear babies, accents and phonemes. It's nine minutes long. Why does it always sound slightly off when someone tries to imitate your accent why do tiny children learning your second language already sound better than you even though you've been learning at longer than they've been alive what does it mean for there to be sounds you can't hear. The next episode comes to us from the dream podcast and his called magnets. How do they work? It's forty one minutes long. Here's the description. The road to wellness is paved with particles and protons. And the last episode of the week comes to us from Fox mulder is a maniac and his called synergy. It's forty nine minutes long. Oh boy it's the one where a cosmic planetary alignment turns agent moulder into a crazed sex offender. Don't miss this episode. Those are the episodes chosen by Liam. For this week's theme framing a different world.
Epic, Spotify Form Group to Push for App Store Changes
"It looks like an official rebel alliance is forming headed by epic and spotify. Alliance that is officially being called the. For APP fairness which claims quote apple taxes, consumers and crushes innovation and that this new coalition will advocate quote for freedom of choice and fair competition across the APP ecosystem and quote epic and spotify are the leaders as I said, but they're joined by match group. Base. camp. deesor prepare Proton Mail and tile among several others. So basically anyone who we've ever talked about having an official beef with apple is in there, but the coalition is not just. Going against apple of course, their guns are trained on the Google play store as well, and broadly just the group wants to push for new regulations around how APP stores in general are run quoting gadget. The coalition will allow those companies to pool resources and lobby as a group while giving clout to smaller developers who could never tackle giants like apple or Google alone it's open to companies of any size and any industry who are committed to protecting. Consumer choice fostering competition and creating a level playing field for all APP. An game developers locally according to the coalition. The group has proposed a code of conduct. It wants apple and other APP store owners to adopt it. Requests that developers should not pay quote unfair unreasonable or discriminatory fees that developers should have access to the platforms technical details and that they shouldn't be forced to use an exclusive. APP store quote including payment obligations and quote the gatekeeper. Platforms that these APP stores must not abuse the control they enjoy and must adhere to oversight to ensure their behaviors promote a competitive market and provide consumers with equitable choice. The self-funded group said in a statement, the basic freedoms of developers are under attack said Tim, Sweeney, chief, executive, and founder of epic. In a statement, we are an advocate for any company that's ready to reclaim its rights and challenge the anticompetitive behaviors that exist on APP store today and.
Light flare spotted in black hole merger
"Scientists using Celtics Vicky transient facility may have sputtered a light-flare it's associated with a black hole merger. Now, if confirmed, it will be most surprising is black holes and emerges and only dot to the electromagnetic spectrum. So where did the lively come from? One theory is that the system may be orbiting a supermassive black hole nearly form black Oh may have received a cake from the merger shooting off in a new direction and surging through a disc of guests surrounding the CBA massive black hole causing it to light up while it's unlikely that the Gw Nineteen Zero Five, twenty, one detection originated from the same event is the light flay researchers admit the possibility that it might have is intriguing. There are a number of different environments in which the system to black holes could formed and the disc of guests around supermassive black hole is one of them. The discovery of this mammoth black hole merger was only possible. Thanks to the work of gravitational wave laser interferometer observatories. They work by sending lasers into a beam splitter, which they en- shoots the beams along to perpendicular Mati kilometer-long tubes equipped with mirror test messes it the reins, the refracted laser lights the sent back to the detector where eventually they should theoretically recombine however gravitational wave generated by. something. Like a large moving masol to merging black holes for example, it causes the very fabric of space time stretch and compress emphasis slightly by just a fraction that I am a Proton and when the gravitational wave passes the Observatory Look space-time including the to bean lines and the text messages I stretched and compressed ever-so-slightly. So slightly leaving them out of phase the signature of the gravitational wave event. Using multiple gravitational wave detectors around the globe allow scientists to determine the direction of the gravitational wave source. Lago Lazy The from the Gravitational Wave Observatory comprises two identical detectors wanting in Livingston Louisiana and the Second Hanford Washington state. A third detector could virga was also used in this experiment it's located in the Northern Italy a fourth detected Japan's KAMIOKA gravitational wave detector. The first to be built underground is expected to come online. Later, this year and fifth gravitational wave detector originally offered to. Australia. But. Rejected by the Gillard, Labor government is now under construction in India.
"proton" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"Thanks for listening and remember that Daniel Jorges explain the universe is a production Iheart, really more podcasts from iheartradio visit the iheartradio. Apple podcasts or work. In Tuesday. Richard..
"proton" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
Kendrick Perkins rips Joel Embiid over coronavirus concerns
"Joel embiid. That's where we started was. Addressing the media. This week and this is what he said about Cova and going into the bubble amount of big fan of the idea, but then again. You know going to my job. I'm not GonNa let the city down. Oh, I'm GONNA go on. A city. That's what I've always. my family. My teammates. So. He's gotTa The monster doesn't change on. ME. Doesn't matter the fact that I. Don't like that idea and I stood all the new the new bed. I don't think he's GonNa. Be Safer now because I know I'm GonNa do the white things on no I. Don't i. don't ever do anything I'll it to video games. I'm always all I don't do anything, but then again I don't trust. Does OUGHTA GOS-. Do to save saw but like I said I do my job. Yet for lot of these guys. Thank God for Video Games. they not everybody even goes out anymore. A lot of guys just stay in the room and play games so Kendrick Perkins. I think this was on the jump. Address, say say one more time I take I. Take on, I take. This is what he said about Joel. embiid look, do you. WanNa Hoop or not? I don't none of the other contenders complain. Lebron James Lineker Plane I. Don't hear Jason Tatum. Janas complaining and they. Is How they go to defending champion soup. I don't see them complain there by the way they got a tournament. That's going on right now. In Cleveland, Ohio and I'm pretty sure those guys are not gonna be the bubble or they in great situation. They not complaining. They don't know who I don't WanNa yell to me. This is just the do. Get knocked out. This is going to be excused because they're super. Saw was halfway in his mill, wasn't there? I don't know I don't like the ideal. Loop. Here, they're madison billion dollar. Ball. Beverly say. Unfair criticism I love Kendrick Perkins, but that's completely unfair printed. Criticism you're allowed to be. In and we're seeing this throughout sports. You're allowed to be tentative about what's going on, but we all are at this point right, but what's constructive about saying I, don't really WANNA play, but I'll do it. What type of message does that? Send to your teammates to your fans, but he's. Is he not concerned about safety? Isn't that what he's going for? Isn't that what he's talking about? I, don't know. What he said Yeah isn't everyone concerned about safety like him, saying that just kind of like a bad look I feel like. How do you think his teammates? But what should've stream that and what might crop set? Kendrick Perkins Point is if you feel strongly about it, then do it. Avery Bradley. Do what Dover's protons is doing. Do whatever reasons don't you think a lot of these guys are going to try it out? See how it goes, and if it's not going well, they're going to drop out. I don't know I think guys are gonNA drop out of the bubble potentially
Finding New Antibiotics with Machine Learning
"Don't you break down for me? What the machine learning approach that they used here. And what kind of advanced does this represent took this machine learning model that they made and they traded on about twenty five hundred molecules and use that to train binary classification models to predict probability of whether it new compound would inhibit the growth of e coli or not and then turn to the truck library Library of six thousand compounds. That are ready in human clinical development for wide variety of indications and at this point the compared several different models and after narrowing down there's molecules and actually predicting toxicity using different neural networks. They've came up with this particular molecule and Howson and then thirdly lastly in the process they went on to apply machine learning motto after iteration and optimization too much broader set zinc fifteen data set with over a billion a half structures and under machine learning side. What's key here's the deep learning network that the US didn't really rely on any information about the chemical structures of molecules. It actually really built new representations called for years. A lot of people represented molecules with these fingerprint factors reflected things like presence or absence of functional. Groups are descriptors and comparable properties but relying on known fingerprints. Didn't really work that well. And that's why you know. A lot of the old antibiotic screening process gives you a lot of the same classes of molecules over and over again and what they did here they actually have these fingerprint descriptors that were built from. Scratch well you know. What you're describing is still a fingerprint. Right into dimensional vector to describe molecules. I think perhaps what's different is at deep learning approach. You can try to infer what the right descriptors should be. That's the hallmark of all of the deep. Learning approaches for drug design is at the end deep learning in general that recall even when we're just talking about conventional neural nets for image recognition the ideas that CNN's for image. Recognition versus classical computational vision. Is that in the classical approach? That person's defines what the right features are and so similarly. You know it's interesting that you can feed any representation of molecule into computer which parts of the interesting ones. You can have just like old school computer version. You could have a human being say all these in the important ones but a a beauty of DNA approach which is Ucla but also in many precursor works. That helps understand. What are the key aspects? And what are the interesting ones? And that is really. I think the big difference between what you can get in modern deep learning with machine learning versus classical machine learning with like random forest or something like that right so deep learning helps us figure out what we don't know versus focusing only on what we already know or what we think we know what makes Alison an attractive candidate for further research and development. What are some of the properties that they discovered without a doubt certainly a really potent inhibitor of e? Coli and you know. Further investigation showed that Halston has strong growth. Inhibitory effects on a wide following spectrum of pathogens. They tried it on. C. Money and which is one of the highest priority pathogens that is urgently required for in terms of antibiotics and then more. Interestingly it was even able to eradicate equal I persist yourselves that remained after episode and treatment so pretty strong efficacy and pretty low talked based on their screen. It also checks the box of something that is really structurally divergent from conventional antibiotics. And so certainly a very powerful new class of antibiotics that could potentially be strong candidate for further development. Yeah the fact that they found the antibiotic they showed it worked in vitro they showed. It worked in Vivo. And then they also did some experiments together this mechanism of action suggesting that Howson selectively disrupts the Ph potential across the bacterial membrane this saps the Proton motive force which is like the battery of the cell so all antibiotics. It's disrupting an essential cellular function but this appears to be a distinct and new function. That's being targeted super elegant work such a complete well rounded story. Yeah well I mean I think one of the things that really stands out here. Is that full stack of experiments. That they've done where it goes. All the way from looking at they might see in a dish to going through mice and one of the appealing things about studying antibiotics. And this often even pertain. Santa Viral that the animal models are pretty good with something like alzheimers. On the far extreme where animals are generally not very good. And so it's appealing that one could go. Do all of this. You know. Probably not requiring huge budget and therefore get something on the other side of that. Looks kind of intriguing beyond initial discovery? Can this kind of machine? Learning based approach be applied to other aspects of either earlier late stage drug development. Yeah it's it's brought Tommy with the fun thing about it. There's a reason why it's a broad topic because there's a broad range of things you can do. I mean you could talk about identifying targets and there's a lot of work to do there an extra shooting novel targets. It's really interesting. Time to go after novel targets. You could talk about identifying leads. Basically what's been done here that identification leads and then the testing of them. These compounds are leads but presumably. They're not drug like so they have to be optimized so there's these methods helping lead optimization and then along the way hopefully you'd want to also be screening for talks and so there's a ton of methods that are getting really surprisingly accurate basically the beautiful thing about a machine learning approach like this is at the approach for the most part is pretty agnostic to what you're predicting and that the processes you're building up can be useful one last thing and this is maybe the holy grail dream is that if you're predicting a lot of properties for a lot of different systems with a whole bunch of molecules in some multitask like framework where one model is predicting all of it. You can learn from all of it and that you develop even though you might not have a lot of data in any single project or any single area here. The sum of all this data now is huge and helps to regularise your predictions to make them less over fit and more
Creating Antimatter: Matter's "Evil Twin"
"Antimatter. I'm so excited to talk to you about antimatter and emily. I know exactly what you're thinking. Anti-matter pods are rigged to blow up the moment we star Trek Right. I mean antivirus. A huge part of Star Trek. All right I know. The Vulcan Salute. Live long and prosper. That's about the extent of my knowledge of Star Trek. But I get your point. Antimatter does kind of sound like science fiction. But it's Real. That's the cool thing. Yes antimatter particles. Are these strange mirror particles to the stuff we see all around us and scientists have made it using a giant particle accelerator in Europe. They're studying it because they hope it can answer some fundamental questions about the universe. Okay not entirely sure I get it but by the end of the episode I assume we all will so today on the show anti-battery what it is how it works and why one scientist has spent decades trying to trap it. Jeff. I have a lot of questions about antimatter. But can you just start with regular matter? What is that? Yeah so a Refresher Viseu. Don't remember regular matter. It's a broad category for everything. So you're madder I matter the studios matter the I I get it matter matter matter. It's a nice thought. Yeah and as matter. We're all made of atoms. So you're a bunch of Adamson the shape of an emily corn on the shape of a Jeff Brumfield now for antimatter. I'm actually going to let another Jeffrey. Who knows a lot more physics? Naidoo answer this one. His name is Jeffrey Angst. And he's a researcher at our House University in Denmark and to Madeira. I think it is kind of an evil twin of the stuff that makes up our everyday world intriguing. Go on it is it is. It's just this kind of opposite matter. It's like this mirror to everything that's around us so antimatter. It's here right now. Yeah I mean it's a little more complicated than that but anti matters real stuff and it exists in our universe and actually before anyone ever even detected it. They predicted it because math. The equations of physics demanded in fact was discovered that way. You know by coming up with a an equation that predicted existence. But nobody was really looking forward and I am not going to attempt to describe the fundamental equations physics on this podcast because I don't really understand them But Hank says the closest analogy. He's got for US mortals to think about. Is this math problem. What's the square root of four two very good? But there's a second solution negative to Aoki because negative negative to four so the way you just went straight to. That's exactly kind of what happened in physics like there were these equations and there was a positive set of solutions for particles and negative side and everyone was like the negative set. What does that even mean? That's nonsense but it turned out there. Were these negative particles. They did exist and they're called antimatter. Oh okay so there's this theoretical idea of antimatter kicking around for awhile. Which kind of explains what it is. But what is it exactly? Here's the thing. It really is opposite matters. So protons do you remember protons. Yeah their positively charged subatomic particles. They are anti. Protons are negatively charged electrons their charged and their anti particles are positively charged. Hey this is kind of amazing. It is kind of amazing. And here's the best part actually lives up to the SCIFI analogy. So just go with your vestigial Sifi brain and I get it emily. You're more of like Colin Firth. Pride and prejudice. Bbc D. You know no shame in it. There isn't there isn't I've seen it probably more times than you have in my life but what do you think happens when matter? Antimatter get when they actually meet okay. If antimatter is the evil twin they fight they dual. They do lake in Jane austen novel. They do well. You're not too far off. I'm going to let the actual experts explain it to you. My her Antimatter tendency to. Cancel each other out. Where's this under certain conditions when to identify articles of matter? Antimatter meet these experts. Jeff Captain Kirk and is that Leonard Nimoy as relationship. Yes total complete absolute annihilation as stock. It is that's right and you're right that Star Trek season one episode twenty seven original track the best track. But here's the thing heavily. It's actually a hundred percent accurate or close. The Universe won't end if antimatter and matter meat. But the two particles disappear in a flash of light. The anti-matter can't exist in the presence of matter. That's where the science fiction stuff comes in. These things really do annihilate each other if you get them together okay. So I've covered a lot of physics over the years and this is pretty much the only case where the sci-fi and the reality match although I will say annihilation is actually a lot less sexy in real life. It's really just annoying to have to deal with something that you have to make and that the universe is trying to destroy and every every every turning point that's hard to be an antimatter physicist I it is. I mean he's literally been doing this since the ninety s and like he does get a little frustrated. All right you said earlier that antimatter. It's here in this universe but this universe is full of matter. I don't see any antimatter lurking around. So where is it if it's exists in theory but it's hard to find in reality. I don't get this you know who else doesn't get it. Every physicist on earth like this is one of the fundamental questions the equation say there should be as much anti matters. There's matter but in practice. Antimatter is actually super hard to find and Hank says nobody knows why there aren't any good ideas about this. I mean physicist. Ducey little. Bits of antimatter here and there. In fact anti electrons I discovered in cosmic rays coming from deep space way back in the nineteen thirties. And actually I've got another natural source of antimatter. Right here in the studio emily in this room. Yes ready yes. Data this banana. What are you talking about? Is this a real episode? This is an episode. About nothing and Tomfoolery. Mom Can I hold the banana to make sure it's real Alex Lane? Yes okay so obviously. The banana is not anti. It's it's matter but here's the thing about bananas. Bananas are full of Potassium. Which is really good for you. But there's also a radioactive isotope of potassium into banana. Call Potassium forty. This is a naturally occurring isotope So some Porsche. The potassium in the banana is potassium. Forty now here's the thing. Potassium forty when it decays eight usually releases an electron but very very very very rarely it releases and anti-electron so if we just hold this banana
The need to focus on de-prescribing
"Americans take more drugs than any other people on earth and many of these drugs are prescribed by doctors. Healthcare providers are great at prescribing drugs. But we're not very good at deep. Prescribing them a case in point Americans seem to be plagued by stomach pains that are often the result of the stomach producing too much acid and that begins to chew away at the lining of the stomach. Doctors have a happy to prescribing a group of drugs called Proton pump inhibitors or PPI's drugs like Mapra zoll marketed. Under the trade name of Perla Soccer Essombe appraisal nexium or Lancer proposal. Prentice said they. Effectively block gastric acid. Secretion these very same drugs are also effective at treating ulcers that form when people take too many pain relievers things like Ibuprofen. Naproxen will these. Ppi drugs are very effective when they're used for a short period of time but longer term use months and months are associated with increased risk of Intestinal Infections Mal. Absorption of nutrients like Magnesium Iron B twelve and chloride Americans spend nearly ten billion dollars a year just on these types of drugs and it turns out that more than half of the people taking the drugs. Don't need them well. Drug companies are pros at getting doctors to start using drugs often by giving them free samples or free gifts or invitations to free dinners. They have no interest or even negative interest in helping us to stop inappropriate overuse. In fact the drug companies profit from overuse and that revenue helps them generate corporate profit. There is little argument that there is a need to improve the science of deep prescribing closely. Dangerous or unnecessary medications now. With regard to these Proton pump inhibitors is often hard to halt these drugs. Because a sudden stop causes more stomach acid produced which results in worsening symptoms and then the feeling that the person needs to return to using the drugs to control the symptoms but there are effective ways to taper off. The drug. Many classes of drugs are overused. Some are started for good reasons and they're good for short periods of time but they should be stopped after weeks or months as we age the drugs and the doses of medicines. We need change. It's ironic that older. People are prescribe more medicines but age increases side effects and drug drug interactions and doctors often forget to re evaluate long-term drugs to see if they're still needed proton pump. Inhibitors are the poster child for D. Prescribing. But so too are antidepressants. Muscle relaxants which incidentally have no effect on mussels diabetes drugs and much more after all. The goal of deep prescribing is to reduce medication. Use both for safety and for
New green technology generates electricity 'out of thin air'
"Engineers and microbiologists have collaborated to invent a device that generates electricity out of literally thin air. They call this incredible bit of Tech. The Air Jen relies on tiny strands of protein. Farmed from bacteria these so-called Protein Nana wires absorb trace amounts of humidity in the air. I'm produced Electricity of the moment. The Air Jen compiler only small electronic devices. But it's inventors from the University of Massachusetts Amherst have big plans to scale it up Phil. Sansom spoke to one of them. Dirt lovely to find out how it works. We've developed a new type of sustainable. Electricity Production. Don't require sunlight. We don't require wind. We can make power twenty four seven from the humidity in air. I gotta be honest. It sounds like science fiction. I know and that's was our initial two. We spent many months trying to discredit the idea. But it all checks out an remarkably. We can make electricity literally from thin air. So how does it work? It's very simple device with two electrodes and in a new type of electric material called Protein Anna wires and those wires absorb moisture from the air and generate a voltage and current. What am I picturing here? Are there to bits of metal and then something in between them. That's correct basically a sandwich with the protein and wires in between two electrodes. What is a protein nano? Wire it is a filament. Three nanometers diameter ten to twenty microns. Long comprised of protein that we produce with a microorganism called Gio b-actor Ju- backers a common constituent of soils and sediments. It produces those wires to make electrical connections with its environment. So it's little molecules that are around the edge of this bacteria little molecules produced inside the bacteria. It assembles them into the wireless. The wire is produced. It pushes it out of the cell so the cell looks hairy. Basically there has hairs extending all from it. Those are the protein in wires are you. Are you farming these bacteria and then shaving them like sheep absolutely? That's exactly what we're doing. How physically do you deal with them? Because they must be too small to tweezers off right absolutely. But it's quite a simple process. We throw them into a blender which will share the wires off of the cell and then we collect the wires. Ana filter and so. How many do you get at once? Billions and billions. Of course they're so small it's only micrograms from a relatively large number of microbes. Wow and then you attach them to the metal actually We just suspend them in water. Put trump that water on the electrode and let the water trail once you've done that. What's the point of all this? What are they doing once? They're actually on the electrode they start making electrcity ity. I mean this was very surprising result to us. We were actually working with the protein and wires to make wearable electric sensors and then even without applying any electricity to this system generating electricity itself. This was almost an accidental discovery. Absolutely serendipitous so do. Do you know how it works. Then we think we know which is long as it works okay. Of course we certainly are trying to uncover more of the basic mechanisms and what we do know so far. Is that film of the protein? Wires absorbs moisture from the atmosphere in creates a gradient of water because only the top is exposed to the atmosphere. And then how does that water then translate into electric charge? The protean wires have charges associated with them and are exchanging protons. So it's basically setting up a gradient of protons within that film. So is the cool part. How tiny these wires are or is it the way that the charges work on the wires themselves. I think it's both you need to have tiny wires with tiny pores in between the wires but they also have to have this charge in order to get the voltage gradient. And how much electricity can you actually get out right now? We're making small amounts of power and the reason for that is the initial devices. Were quite small. This was because we could not produce a large quantity of wires with Chey b-actor. We've now constructed a new microbe. A strain of e-coli which is very easy to grow can be grown in large quantities so we can mass produce the wires and once. They're mass produce. What's the potential? How power can you get out of this? Everything did I'm going to say next is theoretical because we've only made the small devices but with continued scaling that device say the size of a refrigerator could in theory generate enough electrical power to power say small home and doesn't matter if you're in a really really humid. Do you have to be in the rainforest for example? No that is another fantastic part of this process. It can work over wide range of humidity say even as low as you would find in the Sahara desert energy from thin air. Just sounds touchdown. Believable doesn't it. That was lovely from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. And you can read about their Jen. If you're so inclined it's published this week in the journal Nature
"proton" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"Astronomers have discovered that a type of Moshen Aurora I identified by Nashes Maven even spacecraft in two thousand sixteen is actually the most common type of Aurora occurring on the Red Planet a report in the Journal. Geophysical Research Space Physics says this type type of event known as a Proton Aurora may be able to help scientists track water loss from the Martian atmosphere on Earth Aurora a commonly seen as colorful fool displays of light at night skies in the polar regions within known as the northern and southern lights the Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis however the Proton Aurora on mass happened during the day and they give off an ultraviolet light which is invisible to the human eye but detectable by the imaging ultraviolet spectograph geographic instrument aboard. NASA's Maven spacecraft. Mavens mission is to investigate how the Red Planet lost so much of that is fair in water transforming it from a warm warm wet world with a thick atmosphere that could have supported life to the cold inhospitable freeze dried desert. It is today now. Since President Aurora A- generated indirectly by the hydrogen derived from Mash and water. That's in the process of being lost into space. These Aurora could be used to help track ongoing mosh and water loss. The study's lead author Andrew Hughes from the embry riddle `Aeronautics University in Daytona Beach says the Maven Day together of multiple years is found that periods of increased raced atmospheric escape corresponding increases in Proton Aurora occurrence and intensity different phenomena produced different kinds of Aurora. However Ole Arroyo on earth and Mars a powered by solar activity whether it be explosions of high speed particles in the solar storms eruptions of gas magnetic fields tonight it's coronal mass ejections all gusts of the solar wind a stream of electrically charged plasma that blows continuously space at around one point six million kilometers aspera for example northern and southern lights? Here on earth happened to in violence. Solar activity disrupts Earth's magnetosphere causing hype philosophy electrons slamming into gas particles not side upper atmosphere making them glow and similar processes generate the Red Planet's discreet and diffuse aurorae two types Kuraray that were previously observed on the Mash nightside however proton row right Cohen Solar Wind Protons hydrogen atoms stripped of their electrons by intense eight interact with the upper atmosphere on the day side of miles as they approach mass. The protons coming in with the solar wind transformed into neutral atoms by stealing Ling electrons from hydrogen atoms in the Outer Ridge of the Martian hydrogen corona a huge cloud of hydrogen surrounding the planet. And Win those high speeding coming at him. Sit the atmosphere that's fair. Some of their energy is emitted as ultraviolet light. When the Maven team I observed these Proton Aurora? They thought they were a relatively unusual occurrence. But that's because they weren't looking at the right time.
"proton" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Proton and neutron and electron the way you describe what what quantum physics sees is that an electron is a set of jumps from one interaction to another and infect only electrons only exist when they're interacting with something else yes this is at the core of quantum mechanics which is one of the parts of modern physics which is totally central and at the same time we understand less quarterback is work spectacularly well we have computers based on quantum mechanics fifth sorts of technology based on quantum mechanics and still they something mysterious about it something's leap about it is not the clean transparent theory which means that we have to suppose struggle more to to understand it behind all that is the fact that we we understand so much about the world but we're not so smart after this conflict is rensselaer complicated and so we understand bits and pieces of it which allow us to do all sorts of things i mean to go to the moon to understand that the black holes to all sorts of things but at the same time we know that both at the core of all this and an impact we haven't explored yet there's so much we still to do to to better understand the world yeah go on there's a little gap here so sometimes when you're speaking i can't so just i forgive me for interrupting and we can keep going talion so we interrupt one another older times okay good well you wrote you wrote this it's as if god had designed reality with a line that was not heavily scored but just dotted it with a faint outline yes one of the key aspect to of quantum mechanics is as you were saying we we cannot think as an electoral nestle little stone that moves in space and is here and then here and then here and then here it has a different modes of of happenings on one way one alternative way just to think that it's sort of materialize they materialize here is there that's one of way of thinking of quantum mechanics it goes back to the beginnings heisenberg is one of the scientists that i entered into this magic of quantum mechanics and i.
"proton" Discussed on In Our Time
"Oh hit home it was a great one it's trouble the i would be remiss being a physicist in not mentioning trading cat having talked about about quantum mechanics of italy wouldn't and on that note it's this story than schrodinger said that if you take a cat and you put it in a sealed box and then you have some radioactive source which has a fifty fifty chance of decaying and if it decays and the the the cat will die you don't know whether the cat is alive or dead until you open the box and because it's an isolated system then the cat is in the super position of states as we say in quantum mechanics for me the the reason why he was talking about it was the ridiculousness of quantum mechanics when you apply it to the macroscopic sale so if you take a person of person has consciousness we have this collection of atoms which gives us a sense of self and awareness so what point does the cat knew that it's alive or dead at the same time it's this extrapolation from the quantum world which works perfectly on those scales to our daytoday experience that's that's the rub as it were between the two i think whereabouts being drafted which unquestionably is the producer copies in our time with melvyn bragg is produced by simon tillotson hello i'm may martin from grownup land the podcast where each week bishopsgate alley and ned cedric and i am tengo the adult world's most complex issues with the help appro grams that you can hear on bbc radio four.
"proton" Discussed on In Our Time
"Sheer number of collisions that you have to have in order to see something new because most of those collisions are through the very low energy parts of the proton and they're really not very interesting from point of view bronco other any circumstances which protons might decay well there are if protons are trapped inside a nucleus be individual protons as in hydrogen do not decay that's really i think the background your question but to clear things out there are circumstances when protons decay in a form of radio activity that if you've got a lot of protons together in a heavy nucleus as simon alluded very in the program there electrical charges make them very reluctant to to be there that trying to forty two other apart she threw too many protons there there's too much energy contained in electrostatic field and it pays for one of those protons to change into a neutral in that nucleus and bounce the charity to miss a positron which is an anti particle version of electronic school of positron limiter because by doing that the proton is got rid of some electrical energy and turn into a neutron and change the nucleus so publish limiters exists protons candidate in certain circumstances but protons on their own as in hydrogen to the best experience we have our stable and there is a number we know that if the proton dusty kay on the average is only once in about ten with thirty three zero of years that's i think a billion billion billion times longer than the universe you asked me next i can see you coming how do we know that well it put it on this quantum and swap jobs.
"proton" Discussed on In Our Time
"Okay if the sun comes up tomorrow is it going to be sunny or rainy we need some information on the model that we don't yet have the problem with quantum mechanics is it does one of those extraordinarily well l and the other one is terrible so the predictions that you get from an experiments based on quantum mechanics are some of the most accurate known to man so the particle physics theories of interaction so the electromagnetic interaction the quantum theory of that interaction sko quantum electrodynamics that is founded on quantum mechanics those are the most accurate scientific measurements that we had evan we have ever made and then you have a quantum theory of the strong interaction which is called quantum criminal amex the problem with quantum mechanics is the picture that it gives you is absolutely awful it tells you that at some fundamental level a particle is not really a particle it's a wave it's both here and there it's mostly over there it's somewhere over here a now you have to try and conceptualize that image and go from predictions that match that picture perfectly to the solidity that we have in our daytoday exist silence the problem being that then if you want to make a further prediction and add further insight to the picture how'd you do when you have no idea what's going on i know what's going on mathematically because i can make these wonderfully accurate predictions but the picture is awful and that really is one of our fundamental limitations of understanding helen the proton as none of under mental particles of smaller parts how does that affect what happens in the accelerator as well what happens is that you've got as a said you've got collisions just between parts of the proton rather than the whole proton see you never have all the energy of the proton available and the technical implication for that is that we can't control the energy exactly if the collision so we actually have to throw an awful lot of protons as each other before we get the energies that we want so that's a big technical challenge in itself just this.
"proton" Discussed on In Our Time
"Pronounce k yes right so where were we when we call so this gives us a clue that somehow electrons and quarks are not completely independent at some deep level and whether deep level means no further constituents we have yet defined i mean in a more profound sense there is a theory out there waiting to be discovered which unites these different forms of matter salmon's arm enjoy it how are the properties of the protons applied to the treatment of some cancers which is developing field the way that we treat cancer is largely a mixture of three modalities so surgery chemotherapy and radiotherapy with radiotherapy what you're trying to do is use x ray photons to irradiate the tumor the way that you actually kill the cancer is your trying to attack the dna strands within the nucleus of a cell as it divides so as a cell undergoes division and the dna strands unwrap themselves if you can break those dna strands at that point then the cell will fall apart and the cell division stops if you can preferentially do that to cancer cells then you can eradicate the cancer cells and leave the healthy tissue spent with the way that you do that with with xrays is that the x ray will will come into the body and occasionally will crash into one of the electrons surrounding all of the atoms on either in the dna strand it self which means you lose an electron which means the bond then breaks and that dna strand just pops up heart or you create free radicals so you end up with each charged ions which bit like pacman we'll go through and then bite and collect electrons in the nearby dna strands the difficulty with xrays is that as most people know xrays parcel the way through the body so if they didn't then you wouldn't be able to take an x ray of someone but what that means is that the damage you are doing to the body happens all the way along the xrays path from the entry to the exit the key parts about protons is frank said is fundamentally they are heavy summer topic goes compared to electrons so if you take a proton and you accelerate it up and fired into the body rather than just undergoing a single interaction where it will crash into one electron in that election pop sound the.
"proton" Discussed on In Our Time
"That's not actually helium helium deeds to protons and neutrons the energy of the gravitational compression in a star gives a proton enough energy via the weak nuclear forced to convert into a neutral which normally wouldn't do because it's completely stable and that gives you the strong nuclear force from the neutrons to bind those two protons into a helium atom and the very small mass difference then gives you the heat that comes out in a store that is the weak force silent alludes to that is at work in that first stage in the suns process with protons turn into helium an example of how weak it is it's that five thousand million years after the sun i started burning if you're a proton in there the still today only a fifty fifty john's that you've taken that first step in turning into helium because the force that does it is so feeble we know come to new ones and clowns it's wonderful i like we was very much indeed could you tell me what they do these words well glenn's essentially glue the quarks together inside the proton or indeed inside the neutrons how do they do well all forces at the fundamental level arise because you have particles being exchanged you think of these objects quarks that as far as we know they've got no extensive than all they're not touching it's not like you can they push each other by content so they have to interact somehow on the interact via fields people be familiar with fields because you can feel the a magnet magnetic fields that you don't need magazines detach for them to move each other so are quarks are exchanging these glue owns all the time and that's responsible for the attractive force that pulls together.
"proton" Discussed on In Our Time
"Difference by einstein's famous e m c squared says oh that mass can give you energy so the energy that the sun is radiating as as light and other forms ultimately comes from the protons and his heart going to this cooking process and turn into helium son of whom you only are some fundamental forces in physics which i read about from we from your owners some of the some particular play with protons can you tell us about that the most important one that we've talked about so far is electromagnetism so electric charge so we know that the proton has a positive electric charge and the electron has a negative electric charge and it's the attraction between the two of those that holds the atom together and then allows atoms to bond but there are other forces at play that allow the atom itself to remain bound together so as franken looted too when you cluster protons together in a star to try and convert hygiene into helium you need to overcome this electrostatic repulsion between all these equally charge protons as much stronger falls which fortunately we call the strong force so the strong nuclear force is what binds the nucleus together now the third force is almost completely relevance to particle physicist which is gravity so protons have a mass and that means that they experienced gravity in a star it is the battle between the gravitational pressure that squeezing all of these hydrogen atoms together that gives you the energy to fuse them into helium the full force is kind of a funny one it's something that we call the weak nuclear force unlike the other forces it doesn't act at a distance is what we call a contact interaction so the weak nuclear force we only see evidence of it on a daytoday basis in certain types of radioactive decay where a neutron will decay into a proton and then emit an electron particle that we don't see very easily called a neutrino that interaction is governed by the weak nuclear force the reason why it's important to this story is if you have four protons.
"proton" Discussed on In Our Time
"Well but the sun came on came along john after the big bang but that that's true connection but but prado's came quite soon after the big bang better second also so protons were the first of the now existing particles if you like that the merged out of the big bang and they are the best of our experiments stable and so protons have been around ever since then you mean when you say stab do you mean not moving what you mean always been the same perverted and our billion years i they they move around with an individual proton does not spontaneously decay and convert into something else it is as head and said he's the bottom of that particular family other more unstable barry owns can decay and come down the ladder if you like but nature likes to find the the lowest energy state and the proton is the lowest energy state of three quarks and so the proton to the best of our experiments is absolutely stable so the protons that were created in a second of the big bang if you like they're all around and they gravitationally attracted another until this big huge clumps protons which we call stars like the some now our son is an example of a star which is dominantly made of protons and electrons but the the nuclear particles are protons and in the heart of the sun the protons of course being positively charged light to keep away from one another but in the heart of the sun the temperature is the order of ten million degrees and those temperatures the protons sufficiently agitated they can occasionally bump into one another and when that happens a series of processes takes place called fusion the protons turn eventually into four protons by sousa prices come together and turn into a nucleus of helium the next element in the periodic table now an nucleus of helium is slightly lighter in mass than the full protons that made it and that mask.
"proton" Discussed on In Our Time
"Looking properties of the proton for example so so it say like hundred yards from libya jones one on my run weather that's encouraging so but being one of the interesting things about the proton is if you start to look into it you find it's actually a lot more complicated than that so first of all was the party was the whole those quarks together which are called glue ones and then those glue on some selves can split to make crawl county quote paths which appear and disappear and we can actually start to see those so the first experiments really seeing the objects inside the proton win the nineteen sixties in stanford in california if you scatter electrons from protons bit like rutherford scattering francs talking about a few scattered electrons from protons then you start to see not just a whole big object with done proton is big on of physics cows but you start to see individual tiny scattering centers inside pointlike things inside the proton so we can actually confirm that the all objects inside the proton do think you reach a century well that's a very big question have we got the have what is what we think of now is fundamental truly fundamental i i think i'd like to think not but so we have to keep looking i suppose the best you can say is that the present state of knowledge we know of nothing smaller than the quark scale and we know nothing smaller than the electron scale they are in an analogy the fundamental letters of nature's alphabet that doesn't mean to say in the future we might have more powerful microscopes that can resolve internal structure in them and allergies to the way that rutherford discovered until such in the atoms century ago but for the moment that's where we are then go back to the beginning back to a non a second after the big bang and then back to the sun come on frank you'll amount of this what's the role of the proton in the sun.
"proton" Discussed on In Our Time
"Yes so these the zoo of particles rushing different combinations of smaller particles called quarks and the cox had some unusual properties or they would have had to have some unusual properties one of which is that they would have a charge that was a fraction of either proton the electrons charge and we've never seen a particle with fraction of the practice electrons charging elaborate experiment we've never been able to measure something with the fractional charge moving through online we've never seen a quirk we've let's not quite true we've never we've never seen a quark out on its own they they like to go they like to go round together and they like to go round in particular combinations and the combination there are a number of combinations that we've seen now but until quite recently the combinations that we'd seen with three quarks together which is it's called a barone over three anti together which is an anti burian and a combination of a cork in an anti quark which we call amazed on the proton is the lightest mass barry on and it consisted of two types of cork that give its external properties such as his charge on those the up quark which is a challenge of plus twothirds of the electron torch anna the down quark which is charge of minus thirds we've got plus i plus twothirds minus the third which makes plus one and that's all proton so you're back to would doesn't make a view of the proto now so i'll you the proton now is that we've got these these three quarks to ups and down which is what we call the valence quarks so sensually those it's an analogy with chemistry and chemistry the valence electrons with ones on the outside that give it its the atom it's chemical properties and the valence quarks the proton give us the alto would.
"proton" Discussed on In Our Time
"Within the atoms so the lowest energy level within an atom you have to electrons naff you think of something like hydrogen hydrogen is now only got one protein in the center and one electron orbiting which means there's a gap so that means hydrogen actually likes to form a single bond and then co vaillant bonding is the exchange of that election with another chemical and so the number of bonds that each chemical conform is defined by the number of protons that you have in the nucleus i'm star i think i'm still onboard helen he it was once thought that protons were fundamental particles how and when did that change while the lots of pieces of evidence that the proton isn't fundamental initially worked on with cosmic rays causing grazer naturally accelerated particles that come into the upper atmosphere and was a lot of early work done studying their interactions with matter feel obliged to mention people accessible powell who's at bristol university who did a lot of the early work on this and in those collisions they found lots of lots of particles essentially a zoo of different politics calls and in trying to understand those they started grouping them together particles that had similar properties for example similar masses and lead people to try and think about why these patterns in these this zoo of particles that you could see and murray gell mann george vica came up with this idea of aquatic model that the quark.
"proton" Discussed on In Our Time
"Simple way of picturing it is the rutherford model of the atom with a solid nucleus with protons and neutrons and then an orbiting cloud of electrons around it so it's inside the autumn the you you you have these two plots so the the cole the nucleus is made up all of positively charged protons and an neutral neutrons and they they're they're bound together extremely tightly and then this this cloud all electrons which which overhaul around the nucleus off held there by the attraction the electric attraction between the negative charge on the electrons and the postive challenge from from the protons the nucleus itself is not actually bound together by the electromagnetic force there's another force called the strong nuclear force which helps to bind positively charged protons together because otherwise if there wasn't another force they would simply force each other apart by electrostatic repulsion so the the the nucleus is bound extremely tightly with the the strong force and then the electrons in their orbital held by the electrical attraction so little world isn't it little universe down in or around us that's correct yes billions and billions and billions of little universities in the studio more than you can imagine the psychot imagine even billions and billions what's the link between the proton and differences between chemical elements the proton is really the particle that defines the chemical adamant so what sets one chemical element apart for another is not just the mass the fact that hydrogen is the lightest helium is heavier and then to lithium and so on it's also how they form bonds and the way that one atom bonds weena with another most commonly is through the sharing of electrons now the number of electrons that each atom has has to match exactly the number of protons in a stable atom it's possible to add or remove electrons and then the atom becomes charge and that's what we call an on but in the most common type of atomic bonding cooled covenant bonding it depends on the number of electrons that you have in the outta part of the atom now electrons actually liked to cluster together into groups.
"proton" Discussed on In Our Time
"Kicked the proton out and rutherford call these things h particles h the hydrogen and then the next discovered if he find things like alpha particles oxygen and nitrogen which also light these h particles got chipped out of there as well so his final insight walls these things which he then called proton are the fundamental carriers of the positive charge you cluster more and more of them together and you get more and more positive see to attract electrons to make heavy in heavy elements thank you very much indeed for that much your eight now we're on our simon can you tell us how you would describe an atom it depends on how sophisticated you want your picture to be prior to rutherford's discovery it was thought that the there was this plum pudding model this this uniform collection of positive and negative charges rather discovery led us down the route to the model of the atom where you have this cluster of positive charges the call and this orbiting halo of electrons around that that positively charged call so the simple way to imagine it is like a tiny you panic planetary system with the sun is the nucleus and then the planets are the orbiting electrons the complexity starts to come in when quantum mechanics falls into the picture because you start to describe some of us only particles not as little hard objects but is actually tiny wave packet so then not localized in space they start have a distribution so the electron cloud around nucleus is exactly that it's not discrete objects as they orbit the atom it actually forms this halo around the atom so the point at which our macroscopic picture of the world of imagining solid objects orbiting other solid objects starts to break down a little is with the electrons as they orbit the nucleus but as.
"proton" Discussed on In Our Time
"There's this is the bbc thanks don learning this episode of in our time there's a reading list to go with it on our website and you can get news about our programs if you follow us on twitter at bbc in our time i hope you enjoyed the programs hullo there enough protons in the sun for it to last a thousand billion years attorney about halfway through them so that's relief the properties of protons there as on earth throughout the universe are those that may chemistry biology and life itself possible they've existed she's a split second after the big bang undefined in nuclei of all elements hydrogen by far the most abundant in universe is a single proteome with one electron strip electrons those protons can be accelerated to smush other nuclei to reveal more of the secrets of particle physics and they can be used in the treatment of some cancers among much known about protons much remains to be discovered with me to discuss the proton frank close professor emeritus of physics at the end diversity of oxford simon jolly lecturer in high energy physics at university college london and helen heath rita in physics at the university of bristol frank class what's the proton well proton is one of the seeds of atoms probably the story really begins around the end of the nineteenth century a time when the idea that matter is made of atoms established but the belief that atoms the smallest pieces was beginning to fall apart from you almost literally because in cambridge jj thompson discovered the inside atoms a little particles called electrons mel electrons probably most familiar as the carriers of electric current because electrons are electrically charged an exit charges come in two varieties plus and minus and electrons by convention in negatively charged so inside all atoms there's a lot of negatively charged particles and yet atoms overall matter overall isn't electorally charged so by the start of the twentieth century people realized there must be something positively charged inside atoms to counterbalance this negative stuff and these positively charged carry.