36 Burst results for "professor"
Fresh update on "professor" discussed on What's On Your Mind - Encore
"To have a lot of family who have been in the military and not just family but also friends. I currently have a friend who's in the Marines right now. Um so being able to see what they sacrificed and what they did for us, Um it just really humbles me. And I feel great pride to know that I can honor that through music. Yeah, I just can't imagine what a great opportunity that is for high schools. It's your future after school after school, I want to start my own educational based ranch. So essentially, I want to allow kids who may be do not have the opportunity to be a part of forage or FAA through their high school to come out to my farm and Learn about animal agriculture. Don't take it for granted. Folks. And Emma Schmidt, perfect example. Thinks I'm a great to meet you. Thank you. Great to meet you as well. Whose tales be gentle Stay firm. Locker, but politics, American culture, even the entertainment history time here, you're not covered all in the q u it show on Am 1100 the flag. Thanks for making me and am 1100 the flag part of your day. Faith, family Freedom and free enterprise is what we stand for long. We've been a talk show host. I'm also a lawyer and author of Professor in My program frequently kicks around everything that matters in politics, The media and everything else in this country joined me for all the newsmakers opinionated and entertaining my program that.
More Than 700 Civilians Killed By Myanmar Junta Since Coup
"Civilian leader on San Souci was hit with another criminal charge by the military this time for allegedly breaching covert 19 restrictions under the country's natural disaster management law. Souci, who has been detained since the February 1st coup now faces six criminal charges altogether, as well as lengthy prison sentences. Meanwhile, more than 80 people were killed by security forces on Friday. It's the largest single death toll in weeks, Yet protesters are still trying to reverse the military coup. Some say it has left me and more on the brink of collapse. Reporter Michael Sullivan spoke with a woman who has lived through several crackdowns in Myanmar and a warning this story contains graphic descriptions of violence. University of Washington professor Mary Callahan has had a front row seat watching me and Mar descend into chaos. Her neighborhood in the commercial capital Yangon. Ah, hot spot for protests and the crackdowns that follow seeing from my condo balcony. People fleeing Into the spider web of streets in the neighborhood and soldiers chasing them in then random shootings and the terrorizing Of the people on the streets every night. Her routine the past few months has included a nightly walk around the neighborhood just before sundown and nightly chats with some of the young people. They all know me and they all know I speak for my knees. And it's like they wait for me to show me Grisly pictures and videos of things. They took or they pulled off Somehow, social media even though they no longer have no bio data. Mobile data was cut
Interview With Paul Craig, Author of "The Killing Zone"
"What's up wally. Hey bobby how are you. I'm good this week. we have a what. I'll call a powerhouse guests with us. We've talked about the killing zone many times on the show this week. We have paul craig joining us. He is currently professor of aeronautics and has written many more books than the killing zone. Welcome to the show. Well great to have you. Thanks thanks for having me bobby. And paul sitting in his home in i believe nashville tennessee. He's covered and behind the proper gear which we love and appreciate what. Post a picture that Paul you've been in this business for a long time and have tons of experiences. We can't wait out of the conversation but give the listeners a little bit of background on really what you're doing today and kind of how you got the right and books and really when you became a cf. I well first of all. I'm i'm a big fan of the of the podcast. I listened to it almost every week. i always get something out of it always learn something new. I mean This this job of being in aviation as flying instructor pilots a lifelong learning experience. And this is part of that. So i really appreciate what you guys have been doing. You're doing aviation a really great service and so just I keep doing what you're doing because it's so important. But the and i really appreciate you know mitch. Them the one of the books you know. I i kinda got into writing aviation book sort of by accident I can promise you that all of my past english teachers are flabbergasted that i could write anything that would be published writes When i was a young flight instructor became applying for the first time in nineteen eighty three and went to work as a freelance right away and i was riding a few articles that got published in some of the magazines back then. I had this idea that means like teased them all together. It can be like a book manuscript. And so i did that and a senate off to all of the publishers that had books on my own bookshelf right all the publishers.
Amazon beats back union push
"As you've probably heard by now. The effort to unionize an amazon warehouse in bessemer alabama was unsuccessful. Though the union says it will challenge the vote it would have affected just a fraction of amazon's workforce but it captured the attention of the country at a time when e commerce has become a lifeline and the welfare of essential. Workers has come under threat. Janice fine is a professor of labor studies and employment relations at rutgers university. She says the union push at amazon and its defeat highlight the growing role of technology in the workplace. Especially amazon's they use surveillance technology including scanners that workers use to track the rate at which they sort and pack items. Mandatory daily workers surveys a powered camera systems to detect social distancing violations. They use navigation. Software item scanners wristbands thermal cameras. Security cameras recorded footage to survival. The workforce so you have this combination of surveillance for productivity targets and that same surveillance lends itself to being able to monitor workers social activities without a union in place. Then ken workers push back against this kind of stuff. How what kind of tools do they have. Workers are pushing back all over the country. And that's the thing that i think is really important to bear in. Mind that workers in new jersey workers in inland empire in In california workers in chicago these are organizations that have for years. You've been working with amazon. Workers in warehouses and fulfillment centers and just by kind of getting the story out there. They've drawn the country's attention to the problems with amazon's business model. You know by organizing and getting this far getting to an election and so they see this as kind of a long haul fight.
New Research Finds Daydreaming Is Good for Our Health
"Just published in the journal Emotions. Suggests that directed daydreaming can really be good for us as compared with the standard daydreaming, which usually has a lot of anxious or negative thoughts. The study was conducted by Aaron West Gate, a psychology professor at the University of Florida. Along with colleagues at Harvard and the University of Virginia. They want us to turn our idle moments to daydreaming about pleasant thoughts, which will boost our well being. What they mean by pleasant thoughts. They suggest things like happy Memories. Future accomplishments are maybe an event you're looking forward to. Participants in the study say they enjoyed directed daydreaming 50% more than when they simply thought about whatever came into their minds. The goal is to direct your daydreaming along a positive path, Tioga yourself a sense of relief and happiness. The result could be a longer life. That's a good result. One study found that over 30 years happy people had a 14% lower risk of dying early compared to unhappy people. That doesn't surprise me really. And in fact, researchers even have AH, happiness exercise to suggest Step One is making a list of five meaningful and pleasant things in your life. Step two is is sitting in a quiet spot and breathing slowly and letting your mind wander over those topics for maybe about five minutes, And the result, scientists say, is that you'll have more optimism and resilience in your day. Sounds like meditation like to me. And it's Dobson another way to get that done. And by the way, if you can do your daydreaming outside in nature, the benefits are even bigger. Remember that story we did a while ago on the so called nature pill. Researchers at the University of Michigan have determined that taking 20 minutes to stroll or sit in a place that makes you feel connected with nature can efficiently lower the stress hormone cortisol in your system. Researchers did the study to give healthcare practitioners evidence based guidelines on how to help their patients deal with the stress of urban life.
Sevilla April Fair - Pre-Covid
"The week. Surrounding the easter holiday are traditionally a big time to celebrate with the family and spain even while spain has to prevent the crowds of pre. Covid times a little longer. By cancelling the big april fair again this year. Let's anticipate how celebrate vs biggest social event of the again next year local guide. Concepcion delgado joined us a few years ago to describe how they normally like to pull out all the stops in her hometown. Concepcion thanks for being here thank you. What does april fair into who've grown up in severe well april her age like the explosion of life. No he's like the explosion of colour c k. Everybody happy and having party. What are you celebrating life. I mean is it a spring thing and there was no. There was a reason why the fibia was started. But it has nothing to do with that anymore. It was a livestock market to improve. The economy of the people were gathering there not clear whores on cows and old that but Because people had to spend a few days while they were selling out older animals they were taking some food and wine along on. Does the only thing that's a revised now actual industrial horse market that had affair with it and now the horse businesses nuts so important in the in the party survives. That's good and lucienne style for a way that all the warring stuff anti-subversion correct now an end lucia do different cities have a professor or is it always the same date in the in the big city. All of them have a fair. But it doesn't need to me in an spring fair anymore. seventy starts severe. Sat which has been celebrating a fairy for longer but the rest of an alluvia adopted that idea of having party in spring or fall and they do a federal. So you can come to on the luthier. From april winds heaviest starts to september up to get to a town. Where a ferry as going on.
YouTube pulls Florida governor's video, citing misinformation
"Youtube has deleted a video in which Florida governor rhonda's santa's and by the way a bunch of medical experts so actual doctors Questioned the effectiveness of having children wear masks to stop the spread of covid so the video was removed wednesday and there was so scientists was joined by oxford geologist Harvard professor Dr scott lists and another doctor from stanford and because they were contributing to covid. Nineteen medical misinformation. They had the they had the the whole video removed. So by the way to santa's at one point in the video asked if it was necessary for kids to wear masks in school and dr one of the doctors in response said children should not wear face masks. They don't need it for their own production and they don't need it for protecting other people either. Another doctor said it is developmentally in appropriate. It doesn't help on disease spread. And of course doctor said there's no scientific rationale or logic to have children wear masks in
Biden executive order to create Supreme Court commission
"President biden sets up a commission to consider changes to the us. Supreme court executive order creates a presidential commission on the supreme court fulfils a campaign pledge by president biden. The study controversial reforms like expanding the number of justices are setting term limits. A bipartisan panel chaired by a former white house counsel and a former deputy assistant attorney general and made up of law professors and former justice department officials will hold public meetings in complete. Its report within six months of its first meeting jared
Fairness Aware Outlier Detection
"I might mention prime. And i'm a student in much lending in public policy at carnegie mellon university. I might've said basically focuses on baton minding on this action and this isn't support systems. I think a lot of people have a vague conception of what anomaly detection is. You're welcome to give a formal definition or an informal one but to you. What is anomaly detection. A nominee addiction is typically. I'll give you a former left. Nation or infamous sense of what an effective is an omni is defined as anything which dates from the normal. So as against the definition of normal is again dependent on the application or the domain better. You are applying tim. Bontemps insolence example. If you're meeting at a classroom right. So it's you're looking under classroom. And if you're dusted regarding ages of the people present in the classroom on the students typically would have age range between say eighteen and twenty one and maybe professor has in asia injured in party fight. Bless or something. I'm just making this up right. So in that sense. The normal is defined because we are under guarding h defined by maybe the ages Drain so in that sense. The deter would be an anomaly in that sense because teachers age his on her age is like different from the nominal. It's in that sense. That would be anomaly in this case. Essentially a number is a field with strives to unusual activity or unusual observations in a given domain. And that's not a nominalization with and since it's about finding unusual things you typically find applications of anomaly detection intrusion detection save. Fraud detection are even in medical domains. Light say epileptic seizure detection on salon.
Professor Tom Eisman: The Real Reason Why Startups Fail Now
"One of the eternal questions in entrepreneurship is why do so many startups fail here with some answers. Is tom eisman. Who's the howard h stevenson professor of business administration the harvard business school and faculty co chair of the arthur rock center for entrepreneurship thomas. Authored more than one hundred s case studies and his writing has appeared in the wall street journal. Harvard business review in forbes. He's the author of a new book called. Why startups failed tom. Welcome to the show area. Thanks for having me well. How have you been surviving through the pandemic. just great it's A great time to write a book and it turns out. I know i'm ready to yeah plenty of quiet time. So why do startups fail. That's the first question we gotta start with sure Startups fail because they run out of money and they can't raise more Which i guess isn't very helpful. It's like the coroner saying This this person died from loss of blood and so it is because i always say that every business fails because they run out of money and i think that's important because so many entrepreneurs don't value cash flow. They keep looking at sales. So i think it is instructive especially protect startups. Where where there's a tolerance for For losing money under the expectation that if you can big enough you're to make some money but but boy If you get in trouble along the way and you can't raise the next round when you when you're burning through cash you you're on the way failure or you don't listen to customers actually help fund your business in those smaller things that perhaps just a service oriented company exactly so do starts fail also because not. Everyone is meant to be an entrepreneur. I think that over the last. I guess since the internet bubble of the early two thousands. We've kind of romanticized. Starting a business as a get rich. Quick scheme i mean we know we think of mark zuckerberg and elon. Musk is it because sometimes the wrong people start businesses yeah. I don't think there's there's no doubt about that. I think some some sizable fraction of of new businesses fail. Because people aren't cut out for it.
The Real Reason Why Startups Fail
"Well one of the eternal questions in entrepreneurship is why do so many startups fail here with some answers. Is tom eisman. Who's the howard h stevenson professor of business administration the harvard business school and faculty co chair of the arthur rock center for entrepreneurship thomas. Authored more than one hundred s case studies and his writing has appeared in the wall street journal. Harvard business review in forbes. He's the author of a new book called. Why startups failed tom. Welcome to the show area. Thanks for having me well. How have you been surviving through the pandemic. just great it's A great time to write a book and it turns out. I know i'm ready to yeah plenty of quiet time. So why do startups fail. That's the first question we gotta start with sure Startups fail because they run out of money and they can't raise more Which i guess isn't very helpful. It's like the coroner saying This this person died from loss of blood and so it is because i always say that every business fails because they run out of money and i think that's important because so many entrepreneurs don't value cash flow. They keep looking at sales. So i think it is instructive especially protect startups. Where where there's a tolerance for For losing money under the expectation that if you can big enough you're to make some money but but boy If you get in trouble along the way and you can't raise the next round when you when you're burning through cash you you're on the way failure or you don't listen to customers actually help fund your business in those smaller things that perhaps just a service oriented company exactly
Northern Ireland Leaders Call for Calm After Night of Rioting
"The recent violence largely in loyalist Protestant areas displayed amid rising tensions over post brexit trade rules phenomenon and found worsening relations between the parties in the Protestant Catholic powersharing bill false government wouldn't split from the EU has renewed tensions over no on and status and disturb the political balance in the region with some people identify as British I want to stay part of the U. K. while others see themselves as Irish and seek unity with the neighboring Republic of Ireland an E. U. member Katie Haigh wood a politics professor at queen's university Belfast says unionists may feel the normal mom's place is under threat in the union on this week's violence she adds it's really easy to see how it could escalate Charles Taylor this month London
DoorDash Drivers Game Algorithm to Increase Pay
"For the delivery app. Door dash may have found a way to trick the algorithm that serves them jobs into offering better pave bloomberg profile their effort which is called hashtag declined now they encourage other drivers to decline all the lowest paid jobs to get the app to offer more money but to make it work. They need lots of drivers on board and that can be tricky with gig workers. They don't share a break room after all instead they're getting together online and facebook groups and on reddit. Lindsay cameron is a professor of management at the wharton school. Who studies gig. Workers and work doesn't uber driver herself for awhile. So there's no way for workers to have worker to worker communication via the app itself. There's no slack line or anything like that. So the few times workers are able to connect. It can be in person you know. I met other ride hailing drivers when i was at a parking lot or at the expect inspections station and beyond that. It's usually just these online forms. Which only a minority of drivers are active on the forms but for the people that are on the forms. These are really you know. They're like the virtual water cooler where people can share tips. How the platform has changed things like that now. Also gig workers instead of having a traditional boss or supervisor direct their work they are dictated by algorithms. That aren't always the most transparent. So to what extent or or gig workers able to sort of tease out. How these algorithms work as workers. You're just sort of doing these best guesses about you know based on your lived experience what you think the surge prices were gonna be or what do you think is a fair amount to except for delivery and then you're sort of guiding you're sort of making your own rules about what feels right to you or what's the best way to respond to the algorithm based on what you yourself you know are experiencing through your everyday work and
The History of Sound Art
"On the show were talking about sound art. Our guest judy. Dunaway is an artist and adjunct professor in the history of art department at massachusetts college of art and design. She recently published a fascinating article about the history of sound art which highlights important contributions by female artists. Thanks so much for joining us today. Judy thanks for having me. So i thought we would start with the basics and i was hoping you could explain to us what sound art is. Well i find definitions of sound art online. Reputable sources like oh the tate britain's website or oxford music online and things like that. I've been so interested in defining it as i have been interested in looking at the etymology of the term. How the term involved. I mean like what is a hamburger. Is it a beef patty or is it beef and pork. I mean it does say ham right does it doesn't require a bun to be called a hamburger so this time this type of thinking is is kind of circular and boring to me so because you know gaining control of a term has a certain exclusionary hierarchical power like a restaurant claiming to serve the original hamburger recipe. Are you know The original ray's pizza. If you ever been to new york there's like hundreds of restaurants that claimed to have the original. Ray's pizza i would rather look at how the term evolved into me that says more about it. So the history of the term makes these kind of power structures of all the out of people co-opting the term more
The President Of Brazil Is Facing His Biggest Political Crisis
"The virus is killing more people each day in Brazil than it is anywhere else. And now this week political battle erupted pitting the president gyre Belson Aro against his closest ally, the military. NPR's Philip Reeves has more It was shy. ABORTION. AUTOS BIRTHDAY The other day, he turned 66 Boston out to mark the occasion by coming out of the presidential palace. Lambasting mayors and governors who trying to keep Brazilians off the streets by imposing pandemic restrictions. Thies tyrants are hindering your freedom. Also, now don't tells his supporters you can count on the army to defend your rights. Both tomorrow has a habit of talking about bristles army like this, says Eagle Gill of editor at large at Foley, a newspaper All the terms of all so I was really, really weak. He resorted to the military guys. Sometimes Paulson Arrow even uses the term my army says Kill. Off my army. Come on. It's not the Army's Brazilian army's. Most of that is irony. So it is very, very annoying to them. On Monday, both scenarios suddenly fired his defense minister, apparently because the minister believed Brazil's armed forces should stay out of politics. The next day, the Chiefs of all three services, Army, Navy and Air Force decided to quit in protest that sent a message to the president, says Octavio Amalie, Netto. Professor of political science that they should Tullio Vargas Foundation in Real ish Nero. They made it clear that he is not gonna further politicize the institutional Armored forces. Both tomorrow is NAMI captain from the far right. He was elected with huge support from Brazil's military. Generals hold key government positions. Nettle thinks they've become too close to the Boston Auto Administration. They made a big mistake. They let themselves be associate it with the government. And they benefited
MLB All-Star Game yanked from Atlanta over voting law
"This is all things considered. I'm Audie Cornish and I'm Elsa Chang in Los Angeles. Totally unnecessary. That is what a top lieutenant in the Minneapolis Police Department said today about the way that former police officer Derrick Show Vin Pressed his knee into the neck of George Floyd, he testified on the fifth day of Sheldon's murder trial. NPR's Adrian Florido has been covering the proceedings and joins us again from Minneapolis. Hey, Adrian. Hi, Elsa. All right. So today wrapped up the trial's first week, which, as you know, I've been talking about has been packed with so much emotional testimony, like from bystanders who watched Floyd died to first responders who couldn't revive him. But today the trial seemed to shift a little right. Tell us a little bit about that. Yeah. Today, the prosecution worked to build its case that Derrick show Vin used excessive force on George Floyd. And to do that they called Lieutenant Richard Zimmerman to the stand. He is the longest serving police officer in the Minneapolis PD. He's been on the force since 1985. He's the head of the homicide division. And importantly, after George Floyd's death, he was one of the department employees who publicly condemned what show Vin did. Prosecutor Matthew Frank spent time today asking him about the dangers of restraining a suspect by laying them face down. Have you ever in all the years you've been working for the Minneapolis Police department. On been trained. To kneel on the neck of someone who is handcuffed behind their back in a prone position. No, I haven't. Is that if that were done with that be considered force absolutely. What level of force might that be? That would be the top tier the deadly force. Why? Because of The fact that if you need is on a person's neck That can kill him. Not not mincing words. They're obviously right. Well, what exactly did Lieutenant Zimmerman's say about the way show Vin handle George Floyd. So here is the same prosecutor asking Zimmerman a question about what he saw in the body cam footage of George Boyd's arrest. What is your? You know, your View of that use of force during that time period. Totally unnecessary. What do you mean? Well, first of all. Pulling him down to the ground face down. And putting your knee on the neck. For that amount of time. Is just Uncalled for. I saw no reason why The officers felt they were in danger if that's what they felt. And he said, the danger is what show then I would've had to field to justify keeping his his knee on Floyd's neck for that, Monk. E mean it's not every day that you hear. A police officer, especially a senior police officer criticized Another officer, even a former one, right, right? Yeah. But on cross examination, eyes show, Vin's attorney, Eric Nelson, worked to poke holes in his testimony, his main focus being the latitude that police officers are allowed during under the police department's use of force policy when they're responding to incidents, So here's Nelson asking that the same witness a question. You would agree, however, that in the fight for your life generally speaking in a fight for your life, you is an officer are allowed to use whatever force is reasonable and necessary. Correct? Yes. And that could even involve improvisation, agreed. Yes. Minneapolis Police department policy allows a police officer to use whatever means there never are available to him to protect himself and others, right? Yes. The defense attorney there, obviously giving clues about the kind of arguments he's going to make when it's his turn to present his case that show been feared for his life that he was dealing with the dynamic situation. Struggling suspect an angry crowd. And real quick. When do we expect the defense to start calling their own witnesses? Well. The prosecution is expected to wrap up their case by the end of next week. And then it'll be the defense's turn. We expect starting the following week that is NPR's Adrian Florido in Minneapolis. Thank you, Adrian. Thank you, Elsa. Critics say that George is controversial New election law restricts voter access and disproportionately effects people of color and in protest Major League Baseball announced today It will relocate the summer's All Star game and draft out of Georgia and under pressure from voting rights advocates. Major companies like Delta and Coca Cola have issued critical statements. Now. Stetson University law professor Ciara Tourist Spellissy studies the influence of corporations and lawmaking earlier today, I spoke to her about what she found striking about this wave of corporate criticism. One of the things that's remarkable about the new statements from Delta and Coca Cola is that they have changed positions a few days ago. They put out pretty Tepid criticisms and or support for the Georgia legislation, and now that the legislation has become law, and they've been under pressure from voting rights advocates They have changed their tune on. That doesn't happen that often. Let's dig into that a little more, because obviously corporate America lobbies. Statehouses Congress for all kinds of things, right? Can you talk about how aggressive they can be in this area or how reluctant they have been in this area in the past? So corporations have two main ways that they influence policy. One is through corporate donations to particular candidates. They then spend even more money lobbying lawmakers to get the policies that they want. Now, most of the policies that a corporation wants are for its own benefit. No, this is a little bit different because voting rights advocates in Georgia put pressure on corporations not just because they were located in Georgia, but also because they had given money to Some of the politicians who created this regressive Election law in Georgia. Can you talk about a moment in recent history where we've seen corporate activism lead to significant legislative change? I think the biggest Example of this was the 2017 tax cut. And the tax cut was literally for corporations. So you had political donors putting enormous pressure on Members of Congress and the corporate tax rate was cut significantly. Another example is bathroom bills and so by bathroom bills. These are Laws at the state level that direct individuals to only use the bathroom of the gender of their birth. And one of these bathroom bills was passed in North Carolina. The end see double a pulled championship games from North North Carolina. And that got AH lot of attention and and North Carolina. Rolled back that bathroom, Phil. We've been hearing a lot, especially in the last year about corporate responsibility, so to speak. What you going to be looking for going forward to see whether this is Real or not, well, one of the things that we saw after the riots at the Capitol on January 6th. Woz corporations deciding to pull back corporate PAC money from the Republicans who objected to The electoral college votes for Joe Biden. But now there is pressure from the U. S Chamber of Commerce, which is one of the largest trade associations in America. It's also one of the largest Dark money, political spenders in America, and they're urging their members to get back in the political spending game. So one of the things that I will look at After Georgia and after the riots on January, 6th is Do any of these corporations actually changed their political spending behavior. Ciara Torres Spellissy is a professor of law at Stetson University in Gulf Port Florida. Thank you so much for your time. Thank you. There is a new attempt to bring the U. S and Iran back to the 2015 nuclear deal with one The Trump administration left in direct talks are set to begin in Vienna next Tuesday.
Why mRNA Vaccine Technology is Totally Safe
"Dr deborah fuller. I'm a professor in the department of microbiology. At the university of washington. School of medicine. Dr fuller has spent decades studying the kinds of vaccines were now using to fight. Cove it one of the things that a lot of people don't realize is i think that Amarna vaccines just suddenly appeared as a brand new vaccine when covid nineteen started but there has been research going on in this field for over thirty years and i was one of those people thirty years ago who i started working on the idea of a code into your cells and express a protein that was stimulated immune response. So you're basically the perfect person to tackle a wide range of questions about all these different vaccines are you gain. I am totally game absolutely. Let's give it a shot okay. My buddy was too shy to call our voicemail line and admit that he's scared of 'em are a but this listener was not. Hey sean looking. For the science face evidence that suggests that lab created. Mr rene is not gonna trigger some sort of long-term averse affecting my body and say five twenty forty or sixty years. I feel like. I'm being asked to trust something that does not have published long-term medical research behind it. What school leaves my future. Something unknown risk. What would you say to people like. Dude let's start out with general with vaccines idea that they're gonna cause some sort of issue five ten years from now that's just doesn't happen back us to how vaccines work. They get in. They do their job. They go away. Vaccine does stimulate an immune response. And then when you get exposed to a pathogen that immune response is going to act on it and get rid of that pathogens so they do a very focused directed immune response and once they get inside your cell and they instruct yourself to do that. They disintegrate our body deals with 'em are a all the time we'll eat it were exposed to it were. It's in our environment and knows what to do with marina.
Prof. Cecilia Lunardini, Professor of Physics at Arizona State University. - burst 01
"Welcome to the site of accents. Podcast where we explore emerging ideas from signs policy economics and technology. My name is gill. Eappen we talk with woods leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest scientific senses unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation. Be color a wide variety of domains. Rare new discoveries are made and new technologies are developed on a daily basis the most interested in how new ideas affect society and help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation v seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide unaided content of conversations. Bit researchers leaders. Who low what they do. A companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense. Dot com and displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense dot net. If you have suggestions for topics guests at other ideas please send up to info at scientific sense dot com and i can be reached at gil at eappen dot info. Yesterday's dini whose professional physics at amazon is taking versity. One of the primary of usage focus is new leaders. Welcome to see you thank you. Yeah thanks for doing this. So i know that you have done a lot of work on neutrinos. You have a few papers. That came out recently. And i want to talk to a twenty eighteen paper dalogue and my own neutrino signatures of primordial black holes. invite you say. These studied primordial black holes ph is as sources of massive neutrinos by hawking radiation under the hypothesis that black holes emit nuclear no bass item states be described quantitatively called the pbs evolution and lifetime is affected by the mass and flew munich dialect my own nature of neutrinos before we get the details celia I wanted to get some definitions of folks would know what black court saw a few episodes of black holes Here we're talking about. The pride won't imprac codes owes The these black holes are fall close to the big bang And then as caulking radiation Sort of The black hole evaporating So to speak and that That lady Imitating these particles called neutrinos. Right is that. Do i understand that correctly. Yes so so pry bhutia blackhaws before we get the neutrinos what is sort of the mechanism of formation their ho- exactly what they have formed sure We believe that Primordial hose could form in the early universe from density fluctuations so We know that any object could can possibly become a black hole if you compress it into a very very small volume so this same process could happen in the universe with Density fluctuations that could be a regional space where there is an over density compared to the surrounding and each of over the east coast past Then then it could get to the point of becoming a black hole This this The details of this process are beyond my expertise But this is fairly reasonable thing to expect and The diesel really small rate in the scheme of things. Yes so when i started to Learn about time or their black holes. I was amazed by how different in mass can be. They can be may be the massive wouldn't but they can also be The mass of Being or they can be Even even smaller so they can really be very very tiny. Yes oh so. That's really really small so this is sort of quantum fluctuations only universe Kind of getting Getting concentrated in vide- small areas But we believe those. Those primordial black holes emit nucleus. we Have to go back to stephen hawking for that stephen hawking wrote this seminal paper Which is about what we nowadays. Nowadays call hawking radiation so he demonstrated that any black hole regardless of what it is could be primordial black hole or a stellar. Nicole doesn't matter any black hole isn't really black because it meets radiations so radiation particles And the the process that we call evaporation so Because a black holes fundamentally gravity objects they would meet any particle that couples to raggedy including trees so It's the moment you have a black hole you do. Have hawking radiation and neutrinos are just that are expected. Part of hawking radiation. You're so caulking radiation so that that happens to every black hole even the even the supermassive ones right so i it said gentle phenomenon And so going to neutrinos now Don't typically thing neutrino site Caltrans and electrons are really well known. neutrinos are particles. Dad don't interact with The matter Espionage don't interact much with matters. We don't really see them. They don't really see them. And and so it's difficult to measure that's right and so so this could you give a. What does the history of neutrino vendor we. I understand such things existed. Let's see We go back to the twentieth century and the story goes That the father of neutrino sees Warfare he. He made the hypotheses of a new particle existing as a way to explain Some strange behavior of neutrinos produced by by nuclear decay so It's it's a long story but Let me just say that For a long time. Neutrinos who just the hypotheses and then around the mead of this twentieth century They would actually officer so we started to Know that this particles existed and But that was pretty much heat. So we didn't know much about the properties And one of these properties the mass which we still don't know i'm easy after all these decades but we still don't know if neutrinos have something like a magnetic went for example And something that we didn't learn until much later on is the fact. That neutrinos oscillate. That's that that sounds. That's something that we that were somehow established Turn of the sanctuary around the around the year. Two thousand really after after decades of of testing with the solar neutrino selling trainers. So there are still there are still a number of no on your trainers. One of them is the mass one and the other one is the The nature of the neutrinos being the iraq particles or miranda particles we She's kind of a fundamental cost. So there are that. That's that's that's related to the fundamental nature of the neutrino as particle break. So so they do. They have a mass but masses small. Do they have a chunk. Neutrinos don't have charge so they are electrically neutral and that's Comedy the biggest reason for for them to be a so allusive as you were mentioning earlier on especially in the in early. Nineteen hundreds all the particle detectors so basically a electro-magnetic detectors they were looking for charge or Magnetic behavioral some sort. So neutrinos don't have that and so they They only have the weak interaction At that that we know wolf and gravity of course and so that's why they They escape detection so so easily because their interaction is very weak. Yeah so so. That's sort of the beauty of neutrinos right so because they don't interact V can go back digits of years. Simple hats Perhaps become pickup one on earth and it would have travelled that distance through all sorts of things but would not have affected wider rate right. Yes and so so the other phenomenon of neutrino is that you mentioned that they also late so are they're failures of tinos they go back and forth. Yes it's It's actually a fairly Easy to this cried kwan to sonam on We know that In quantum mechanics there is this Particles described by these function which is called the wave function. And so the neutrinos could be on. Neutrino could be born as a say an extra and then it's quanta way function would evolve over time in a way that after sometime. The wave function is no longer a purely electron neutrino way function. But the has a little bit or even law actually of a different flavor. It could be a new one or tau. So what we observe in the actors. Is this change of flavor and perhaps the most striking demonstration of this phenomenon is solemn. Neutrinos because we know that the sun produces an extra treatments and It doesn't produce a new on and talion trainers so But here on earth we do Have evidence that the solar neutrino flags that we receive has some You wanna talion. Trina in it and that can only be explained by sedation and Actually after this other neutrino data showed this phenomenon. This was also confirmed by a saint men made experiments so it's a fairly established phenomenon it and so that the flavors are Electron new on tall. Yes that's right and so. Did you understand the vendor made in the sun for example there they are made as electron Neutrinos and by the time they reached the earth day the Immunes dot. Yes yes Impart young. that's that's what happens so ease. It always the case that they get a manufactured so to speak as as electoral neutrinos always. It depends on where they are born. There are places where neutrino sutter born in or flavors. A so it's it's it really varies with With the type of environment We are talking about okay. Okay and so in the people you say ph is this primordial black holes. We talked about radiates right. Handed and left handed dutra knows in equal amounts so anybody right-handed unless the cleaners. Okay let me see so Yes you say. Indicates of dirac neutrinos. pba Left neutrinos in equal amounts possibly increasing deceptive number noon pheno species nest. Yes is that explainable. Yes so right handed than left handed. Neutrinos that may take why to explain what that exactly means me. Just say that It's related to the neutrino mass. So if you're truly knows didn't have a mass which we know they do but if they didn't have a mouse They would only exist as left handed particles which means that basically their spin is Is anti aligned with the momentum and but if they have mass and the iraq particles There could be another type of neutrino which is right handed. Which where the This being ease aligned with a mentor other than anti line and so If you are iraq these these two different species could exist and so instead of having one species of neutrino emitted left-handed one Indicators of a massless trina if we have not suv nutrients than you would have to species and so. The black hole radiate war energy compared to The case when neutrinos don't amass so when we started working on this paper i was interested in this phenomenon that A lot of the literature having to do with a developer. Evaporation of primordial black couls. Consider the neutrinos as massless about. Now we know that they are massive. And so i thought well Sixty speaking at primordial black hole could radiate more energy than previously thought. So i found that aspect interesting and then sees you mention the possibility to increase the effective number of species. That's related to what it was talking about. So then you the black hole would ra- gate more neutrino States or more neutrino Species to spe pseudo speak and then Would increase the number of neutrinos per cubic centimeter Data we observe today so I'm kind of glossing over a lot of these days. But basically cosmology gives us a measurement of this and effective which is called the effective number two species. And if you have this right. Handed neutrinos coming from the primordial black holes. This number could be higher than than expected. And so that would be may be a i way to tell that maybe there are more black holes in the universe yet. So so the hawking radiation essentially creation coming out of black holes Expected defined Expected that over a long period of time. Black holes radiate away lap. Later ray out the mass or information that didn't do it And so this. Radiation is hockey. Radio station is it is a new park. Or is it. Fundamentally composed of neutrinos hawking radiation is made of every particle that no of so A black hole. A camera gate Pretty much everything. Photons neutrinos throngs You loans It said cetera but There is the catch here. The fact that a black hole has a temperature which is another Big achievement of stephen hawking to end and others To that the black hole is thermo dynamical object and so Basically the bigger the black hole the lower the temperature so if the temperature is really low The black hole wouldn't be able to immed- Very massive particles because they are thermal energy would be sufficient for that so because masses energy Mc squared right so because massey's energy If a black hole has too low of a temperature It wouldn't have its quantum energy It's it's Wouldn't be enough to produce the mass off a particular particle for example a proton may be too heavy to be produced by a really low tanto black home so so the beaker. The black called the lower the temperature. Yes ed so. So then can expect the bigger black holes to have more of a neutrino content in radiation. Yes because The bigger black holes would as i said be able to radiate the heavy particles and so they would only be able to radiate away the low mass particles and so there could be black holes that only emit photons gravitons and Neutrinos do a of sort of the distribution of this primordial black holes Isn't you know sort of everywhere. What is what do we know about you. Know some of the distribution of bbc's you mean spatial distribution like where they are now. I'm wondering just like the easy would do sort of look at the early universe will find them everywhere Probably at the beginning they would be a more or less uniformly distributed Bug in the universe. Today they would probably be Behaving like the dark matter. Does they would Be part of galactic halos In other words they would be they would class gravitationally on large structures like a like a galaxy placido galaxy so these call still around They would they would behave like like the dark matter down. So they would be in in halo. Galaxies would have by. Now have april would would they not have disappear because it far it depends on the mass That they have when they are born so their if their mass is less than a certain value that trying to remember Basically yes they would have to By now they would have completely evaporate did their masters larger than they will take longer to evaporate and they could still be around So they roughly speaking the dividing line between a black hole. Steve being around today or not. I think it's something like ten to fifteen grams fiery recall correctly into fifteen clams though So this paper. Eusebio obtained the diffuse flux of right hill. Neutrinos from his idea and so so. So so the nikkei actually act to build these neutrinos. They'd be flying here do pbs specifically In principle that's a possibility we Considered that for certain Masses of these black holes and certain density of this black holes the flux of neutrinos that they generate over time could be fairly large and so we could Detect these neutrinos If we had a very Power who attacked so Now life is never ideally in the sense that a real Ut detector have substantive issues like ground And so on. So at the end of the people we conclude that impact is giving given the limitations that current nutrient doctors have It may not really be possible to detect neutrinos trump mortgage black holes but people. That's a possibility and that alone is interesting. Yeah because they suggestion that this primordial black holes could be as as you mentioned could be part of the dark matter that yes to seeking. Is that still About us that has been. There has been a debate on these Kind of going back and forth in the scientific community The latest i heard is that Black whose could be part of the dark matter. Maybe even a large part but probably not they entire dark matter so a one hundred percent primordial Battery is a bit difficult to justify the day. experimental bowels that we already have constrained so various types but there could be scenarios where maybe a fraction of the dark matter. He's made of primordial black holes. I wanted to go into a ended up paper in twenty twenty supernova neutrinos directional sensitivity and prospects for dissertation here the export potential of current and future liquid cinta league neutrino detectors. I decade old town. Mass a localize a super a supernova neutrino signal into sky in douglas was feeding the core collapse nearby star tens to hundreds of english Coated and don't be constructed policy in the detector can be used to estimate a direction to the star so so this is now neutrinos from supernova and You so so we. We have Idea here that before this opened on what happens. If please open over a time period it is creating neutrinos that could pick up and and potentially get ready to see the super bowl. Yes that's what excites me The fact that Think about bitter jews. Beetlejuice is the most famous nearby star. That could go supernova anytime and we don't know when that's going to happen and If it wasn't for these neutrinos that our paper is about we will know until the style literally Collapses and and then soon after becomes superman but in this paper we we Show that before the star collapses which is the beginning of the supernova process We can detect these. These neutrinos That are used at that at that stage and so increase the pool we could know that You know tomorrow. These days beetlejuice exploding and that that would be quite exciting. Yeah it's beetlejuice is is red joy and reasonably close to was really big star. I can remember Cecilia there was some suggestion that It could go supernova within something one hundred fifty thousand years which is obliquely in cosmic time so it is getting ready to go to Supernova right yes. I am not you formed about exactly the number of years give or take but it's it's ready it's ready. It could be any time and any time any time for an astronomer muse anytime the next thousand soviet so we should. We should hold their breath. But it's ready could be tomorrow. It could be in a hundred years could supernova. I know that this is not part of the paper but could the beetlejuice supernova avenue adverse effect on north really know a supernova is very very spectacular event. it's it's a star that collapses so it implodes i and that explodes and then when he explodes It's very bright. In the case of bitter jews we could. We could see by naked-eye shore but in terms of A fact of each radiation and neutrinos in light on on us and on our daily activities. It wouldn't it. Wouldn't affect them in any way so it's a save Show to just enjoy without any worry. Great answer so you talking about supernova neutrinos so so can be actually detect neutrinos from supernova. What different from what we talked about in the previous people Different from pbs I'm not sure. Can you repeat yes. So the new teen emanating from a supernova different from the Neutrinos of expectancy from a primordial black hole. Yes the the different In many ways disney trails have higher energies. So it's much much easier to attack them and indicates will beat the jews. We would detect thousands or even more of dan millions. Probably of them Indiana so different in the way they are born because in our primordial black hole ordinary black hole The processes volcanoes the asian. Which which is a gravity phenomenon in a supernova. You're born out of the very hot and dense environment That the that that the star as after it has collapsed so star collapsing on its own way to become very dense and so In this very dense in hot environment nuclear processes take place that produce these nutrients. So i guess the main difference is that indicates supernova it's most nuclear phenomenon and in the call is really fundamentally a gravitational sonam. Okay you discover technique in this paper and you saved sin principle possible unique the identify the progenitor star so So the existing technology and ideas discussed in the paper viki see teacup a neutrino decode. Identify valid came from or what direction thing from embed you can go back and look at the in that direction if he find to supernova then you could say that the supernova that created in-principle Yes let me. Just say that There are situations and this is not one of them but there are situations where if you have one neutrino you can point to the pointing the sky. What came from in these case. It's a little more complicated. Because what really gives us. The information is the statistical distribution of these nutrients so we are talking about may be the tax in hundred a hundred Gable take from say be for example and What did detector really observe is not the neutrino is kind of a vector which is related to the products of these neutrinos so this neutrino sues interacts with the interact with the detector. And then out of this interaction you have a positive on the new thrown and those can be observed and you can you can create a factory using these two and then and then these rector will have a certain orientation but each each neutrino coming will give you a differently oriented vector but statistically if you look at the distribution of these factors you you can tell you can you can do for with a certain of course The direction of the neutrinos because these vectors are not uniformly distributed they are they have a non uniform distribution of the direction. And so using this information we can we can define a regional the sky where The new three could come from so we can. We cannot now down to a point but we can now down to maybe a cone of a few tens of degrees Width and then we look in that cone and see what stars that com and maybe be juicy one of them. Yeah so As you say you if you see a few Neutrinos Statistics bution of those will give us some some probability That it is in in some region of the sky. And then you say the paper You can then that if it is happening please open nola. You learnt other observational. Modalities multi messagero rations Invisible in radio and other other types of observations Do actually pick up more data so this is almost like a early alert system If it is in place right yes i would call it a very early I learned to because it's we're talking about maybe our worse or insert very fortunate cases. We are even talking about maybe day Before the assad goes supernova and. so that's enough time to plan for for it so a something that fascinated me When i heard about this from a from a an experimentalist is that there is a human factor which was not aware of but The factories so if you have come up with thirty minutes to plan for watching supernova this may not be enough because it just takes stein to make phone calls and get a hold of people and and decide what to do. Come to a consensus in that. I saw in addition to technical things. Like okay have to maybe turn your telescope Direction which takes time. But i i was really fascinated by the human factor. Those things that if you had style we'd be you can kind of gathered. Relevant people decide something but if you have thirty minutes or or or minutes maybe not so. Yeah yeah i wondered. If such a earlier system is in place Perhaps could be something programmatic. Crises is picking up And you have some you know. Maybe some ai techniques or something like that that identifies the region and it goes. Programmatic returned the telescopes look. Yes yes exactly so. There could be a protocol in place For that so e if a telescope was suitable for observing a nearby supernova which which is not always the case than than now that we showed that it's possible to know beforehand if a star is going to go supernova then there could be some sort of protocol in place already so that when the alert comes which is we can just activated the protocol and oriented telescope. maybe automatically will in some sort of Organized way yeah as you say if you remove humans from the process it becomes not better there is actually already working this direction It's called this new two point. Oh a network which has to do with Exactly these using neutrinos as alert for the astronomy community and That has to do with exactly a creating alerts and also creating protocols for how to react to an alert rate. I want to end the people that just came out. it concordant scenario for the observation of neutrino from the tidal disruption. Even eight hundred twenty nine hundred ninety s t You say be induced at phenomenology concordance canadia with the logistic jet of for the title disruption event Between ninety s jesmyn proposes a source of the astrophysical neutrino event. Ice cube So the title disruption even this is star getting cooler into a black hole getting Getting sucked in rate is that the is that even up to the match yes This is something that we We had about be in in popular science stalks What what happens if you get too close to black hole and It's kind of scary. So the answer is you would be ripped apart because your feet will be pulled in with a strong force than your head and these. This is what happens to two statehouse. Use the star gas to close than by guests Ripped the park. Which is what the tied is option means and so instead of a star Rotating around a black hole we just have a stellar stellar That dr intially. I created by the black hole and so This is something that The happy neighbor cops serve did so so we have. This does happen this particularly Eighty twenty nine hundred ninety s and Bequeath actually see a new cleaners from that particular even so tightness. Deduction events are fairly well established phenomenon in astronomy. We have many of them served They they are Fairly a common plays events But what's special about this particular one. Eighty two thousand nineteen years. G is that We could let's say It could have Produced on neutrino that was detected a ice cube so eighty twenty nine hundred ninety s. She is the first either direction event. For which is coincident. Neutrinos detected a dice. Cube in queens. This coincidence is likely to be accidental. So on approachability estimate tells us that these coins. This is pretty causal not accident so eighty twenty nine hundred ninety. The g could be the parent of this neutrino. And that's that's that's a i. That's very interesting. Yes i skew. is a is a big ice cube in the in. The south is I'm not sure it's exactly cuba. But it's it's the biggest block of is which has been Eastern With values Small detectors So it's it's an array of swarner detectors but yeah it's basically a big block of ice which has been transformed into a detective and so so the idea that this high energy neutrinos from what they were System montemar even that happened Out there this high energy neutrinos passing through that ice q. believe some telltale signs All of that happening and yuxi picked up Then began back Just like you were talking about the previous creeper begin. Please back to a region so this is one of those cases where you can tell from a single neutrino of course the with with a narrower where you can tell the point in the sky where three neutrino kate from. It's doable with one single neutrino because this high energy neutrinos when they enter the is They produce ca a shower so they kind of illuminate. They you me nate. The is but the do it in a way which is very much Beat so and then and then the direction of the the direction of bigotry knows. We have a pretty good accuracy often. How often could be a pickup something like that. Do we have an estimate of how often that would happen. Meaning ice cube detects something like this. Every year ice cube the tax Of the order of ten high-energy neutrinos froth outside our galaxy. Tadesse the number for the entire crop of neutrinos that ice cube has It went we talk about tidal disruption events in the specific these are fairly rare phenomena and so they estimated that maybe a few times so percent of the entire neutrino flux the thais cubeys of serving could be from tidal disruption events. Not much more than that. So we are talking about less than half of the total flats being to tell this option events okay and so the tug disruption burned as as you mentioned It starts getting clipped applaud and pulled back into a into a a black hole but this ten percent. Do they have to be these braces as they call it. The things that have a jet that is sort of lying towards us. Is that it necessarily condition for these types of high energy neutrinos. It's it's a plausible scenario Let me just say that. There is an important difference between blazers in tidal disruption events. In the fact that the ablaze is something that has a jet. She's always on so the jets kinda kerman feature of of these particular galaxy but the title is adoption. Event is transient events. Saw dotcoms creates the accretion. This accretion of the star of the black hole produces flair is flair can last year or two but then it would just fade away so There could be jet and in fact in our paper we present where there is a jet so they partisans the user chat But if there is a jet in tiger disruption event. That's a transient suggested. That's born when This starts to create the stellar debris. And then it's on for months or years and then and then shuts off and it has two point in our direction as you as you mentioned because otherwise we would. We would see the trains your so this high energy neutrinos sillier how. How many orders of magnitude are we talking about coming to the one set you pick up. Let's say from the sun I'm not sure about the question. Can you maybe rephrase yet. So when you say this high energy neutrinos that is coming from let's say a tidal disruption events or something like that How much comedy orders of magnitude more energy Outdoors come to you. Know the ones that might be created the sun a lot menu of this magnitude so It is a big difference. So the sun produces new three meals. over a wide range of energies Higher energy neutrinos from the sun reach energies of the order of ten am pt and mega awards and for the ice cream. Neutrinos we are talking about one hundred of the older one hundred t. v. or even thousand teams. Which would be p so. Let's say maybe eighty tortoise magnitude finding the mass rife or okay and so this e. v. measure it is actually measuring the mass of the neutrino of newfield. Now these these neutrinos are have such a Such high energy that basically It's impossible to know their mass Because because as i said massey's energy so they talk energy of neutrino Detected is to be so high that that percentage view to its mass east so tiny that this practice mutual so i was wondering if we know the energy couldn't be sort of back computer to save the mass is or it doesn't follow The reasoning is a bit different and The way to sink about this is perhaps they let me see the formula for energy particle Which used the rest energy Applause the kinetic energy and So connecticut is so high that he thought the overwhelms direct energy. So it's it's and of course every time you measure the energy when three no. There is a narrow associated with the measurement so You we can't really we can't really tell what What led the boss of the detroit news but both roughtly this. This appears to be sort of an early warning system for many many things right topped the supernova the in the title disruption events producing heightened plano's So this could be sort of inundated with a monkey message. Observations protocols as you mentioned that gives us a higher success. Wait suspect. I would think certainly nominated be one right That's the power of multi messenger astronomy the integration of different signals coming from Photos tree knows navigation waves Causing me craze and Danger plays very powerful emmanuel cases and maybe supernova case is the most striking Xenos come first. But that's not always the case So in the indicates of tidal disruption events Did you know that was observed. Came about five months later than the initial dhammika looser version of the tidal disruption events so It's if it can go both ways. neutrinos can be early alert or they only alert could be for example a radio salvation or or an x-ray use ovation and then and then the neutrino attacked or could Focus a surge in that direction as see what they find which which has actually been done ice cube sometimes. Does these these archival. Search this on the basis of others from From for example x ray or gamma ray surveys interested. Exciting eighty that said a lot to be owned It seems It seems like these till don't know all the production mechanisms for neutrinos but if we have robust with to pick them up on than we can place them back and and talk asking questions What might be there definitely So yes so. People celia the next five years Wanted the aid is that you believe Be will make a significant crocus in this Innovative neutrinos then two different areas. That a very promising One is Broadly speaking Manmade nutrients so there is. There is a big push especially hitting the united states to build Create very powerful beams of trainings and then these beams are manmade. So we know that very well. We know that energy we know the composition and we can use them to learn about The properties of treatments and then That other men bead neutrino experiments where Scientists look for the between months so that's also very promising In something i really. I really excited about that. That may be a furious novel with noble the neutrino mass us from these very high position laboratory experience. Then there is the whole Topic of neutrinos as part of the mouth of mike messenger astronomy and in that area. I think what was was to look forward. To among other scenes is the interplay gravitational waves shock waves. You still Somehow a science of its own into a large extent but there are so many possible connections. We've neutrinos tidal disruption adoption events should produce reputation ways so baranov shoot us gradation ways So so there is. There is a a lot of potential there which is still unexplored in and that's where i see myself Working on in the next few years you adjust very quickly The do gravitational waves travel bid closest and new ashtrays and so if If they both are produced in In uneven they're expected to arrive on earth close to simultaneously. It depends on the timing of the production if the answer is yes the waves ending a knows are born at the same time which may not be exactly true because the physics that governs tation waves is different from the one that that governs neutrinos. So but the difference in timing would be the difference Accumulated that birth But but the two were were generated genetically the same time. They should arrive the same time. Just thinking this a systematic difference in the production time than guan lorries given early warning for the other. But that doesn't seem to do a case right. There could be cases where significant lag in the production of rotation way with respect to the production of the tree nose and one example is. We haven't touched on this before but let me just nation mergers so if we have if we have a merger for example we have maybe a merger of a neutron stars or black hole neutral star before the merger happens so when the two objects that kind of still approaching each other we should start observe serving ways and this is what this is what has been seen so Delight experiment observes these these nominal But if we have a merger After the merger has occurred and the two objects have become one than a. Dan could be the formation of of over an accretion disk and he secretion Trainers which we can which we can back so the neutrino We come After they initially asian waves and so relation as would be the alert for the neutrino. That does excellent. your this has been great as celia. thanks so much complaining pleasure. Okay thank you bye. This is a scientific sense. Podcast providing unscripted conversations with leading academics and researchers on variety of topics. If you like to sponsor this podcast please reach out to info. At scientific sense dot com.
What good soft skills look like with Kristen Palana
"Is joining us. Thanks for having us. I think for having us for some added context leon is also my wife and has been with our company almost since the beginning circus and you have a long impressive resume of all the things you do. Tell us a little bit about your background. Sure i'm actually coming to you from malawi in southern africa where have been living since twenty. Nineteen i'm actually Doing are in communication for two. Un organizations unfpa in unison have background is a university professor. And i'm scared to say that. It's been since two thousand but i was in my twenties when it started so i'm not that old i've been working with people on four continents students and other artists and workers. And what have you and soft skills. Actually a huge difference between someone doing really well and sort of fizzling out enough they're quote unquote really talented. Some looking forward to talking about it more. We actually found you through a highly rated you to meet horse titled soft skills clear success how to be excellent at work. How did you start teaching these skills. It's funny because your professors when you're in university probably one of their least favourite things they have to do. but we'll do is be an academic advisor. They tell you what classes you're supposed to take and if you get a good one the lawsuit can help you get into the career that you want and give you advice and i actually. Even though i wasn't looking forward to doing these meetings all day long. I found that i was actually quite good at it. And so alongside teaching our digital media illustration and animation. I found that my students were coming to me quite a lot for advising and i was teaching in new york city in new jersey and then for ten years in rome italy and then three years ago we moved to men mar and they're actually wasn't my field in the universities there so i started teaching for organizations and ad agencies. They're junior staff helping them. Be more confident at work. Be more able to ask questions able to give presentations basically not be so timid. So that's sort of how. I started with the soft skills class i. It was an online resource to a live training. I did in men mar and then once that was over i put it online and opened it up to a more international audience and now i'm helping also students here in malawi with that as well
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"Episode. That is episode eighty seven features a segment about using micro credentials such as badges and certificates and the whole notion of gamification as a teaching and learning strategy. That game ificationbut in a course is a lot like the board game. Monopoly are like almost any video game with a seemingly endless hierarchy of levels and that is it seems to go on and on and on but the thing is we do play such games that go on and on right. Why because we're motivated. We're having fun. Achieving rewards are brain's reward centers are being paying again and again and that keeps us going. And isn't that what we want for our students to make it through to blonde grueling semesters of amp so game vacation can be one of those magical ingredients that we add to our course design. I'm coming back to this topic of gamification because there's a bit more want to say about it. But before. I do that i wanna ask. Have you listened to the previous episode and earned your badge for it. All you have to do is click the link in the show notes on your device or at the episode page at the ap professor dot org slash podcast and then click link. That says claim your credential. I think if you start doing that for these podcast episodes or the books that you read from the amputee professor book club. You'll start to see things from the student perspective and you'll start to see that it's not just me being silly again and proposing yet another non traditional harebrained idea. Well yeah okay. It's partly that but also is because it works it really is magical ingredient and the only way to believe in that magic is to experience it one of the things i want to add to the game of vacation story now has to do. With my example of using badges from the micro credential platform at badger dot com the to be a d. g. r. dot com..
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"For listening to that episode or reading. That book are participating in that seminar. Then it's simply a matter of filling out a brief form to verify your work and la. You've earned your credential later this year going to have an episode on micro credentials. Not just how they work in the amp professor arena. But also how they can be used by any of us to demonstrate our continued professional development and also how we can offer micro denzel's within our own ambi courses to both motivate students and give them something more specific than a single course grade to demonstrate mastery of specific concepts within our course. I've been doing that for years. And i think it works really well if you have questions that you want to ask about micro credentials or experiences with micro credentials that you wanna share on this podcast. Now's a great time to send those to me. Preferably in the form of a brief audio file remember the link is the ap professor dot org slash education to find out more.
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"In the radio series hitchhikers guide to the future serreze. Douglas adams said this about digital books. Lovers of print are simply confusing the plate for the food. Welcome to the professor. A few minutes to focus on teaching human anatomy physiology with a veteran educator and teaching mentor. Your host heaven episode. I discuss arm length digital textbooks and a new book club pack. We've been in the age for quite some time. Now and aibo have been around quite a while including the textbooks notice that i just used the terms book and digital textbook. I haven't even had the chance yet. To drop in e textbook electronic book online textbook e taxed nor have i had the chance yet to address the variations of spelling involved in each of those is the book lower case upper case is that e hyphenated or just added onto booker taxed or whatever were pre pending to. You're anticipating that. I'm headed into.
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"We want to hear from you so take a few notes and call the podcast hotline at one. Eight hundred three lion dan. That's one eight three three five four six six three three six or send an audio file or written message to podcast at the professor dot.
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"Elizabeth F Barkley once wrote student. Engagement is the product of motivation and active learning is a product rather than a some because it will not occur if either element is missing. Welcome to the. Anp professor a few minutes to focus on teaching human anatomy and physiology with a veteran educator and teaching mentor. Your host Heaven Pat in this episode. I talk about a seminar on running concepts and KRISTA Polski joins us for a journal Club about content delivery style a.
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"I've talked about this retrieval practice thing in past episodes so you may want go back and listen to the back catalogue you know as you walk your dog around your neighborhood at a safe distance from others but right now. I do want to summarize the essential way my implementation of retrieval practice works in case you WanNa try something like it or in case it sparks an idea for some little tweak that you can make to what you're already doing or are already planning for the next semester. I it's based on online open book tests. That open book thing seems heretical. I know all but really this is real life so I just needed to get over that and I'm glad I did because it turns out that this is the way that students achieve mastery by getting help when they need it. Just like in soccer or trout fishing and you know what isn't looking things up and consulting with peers. Something that the truly competent health professionals do all the time. Hey if they're taking care of me I'd rather they double check the proper dosage of that script. They're about to write for me or ask a colleague. Check my medical imaging before making a diagnosis. Why wouldn't I want my students to use those options in amp? The next thing is that I set my learning management system to serve the questions one at a time just like they do in the online board exams that most health professionals have to take to get licensed or to proceed from one stage of professional training to the next. I heard so many of my former students told me that this one time format raised their stress levels even higher than they already were walking into that board exam meaning maximum stress. Right after I'd been doing that for a while in my class I started hearing from former students that think. We're so glad that they've gotten used to doing that in my class. And then unlike some of their classmates who didn't have me for amp. My students didn't freak out when they had to do test items one at a time on their board tests. But you know what that's just gravy. The main reason I do the one in a time thing is that I'd found out that during in class testing some students had difficulty focusing when they were faced with many items on one page. Now I know you and I are used to. That are more likely. Our brains are just wired a certain way to allow us to focus on just one item on a page of many items but for some students probably each with their own unique set of neural pathways and connections the ability to see just one test item at a time helps them focus which means that it helps them to succeed next. I don't strictly time mine tests. There's usually a start date and an end date but not a limit of a certain number of minutes way back in two thousand and two when I first started doing you miss. I didn't plan on giving untying tests them up in my first one with a one hour time limit and it had to be on a certain date and within a certain limited window of time like ninety minutes guess what because I had at one of the highest number of students per semester at our college and because I was apparently the first professor in history of our college to give students one test item at a time there were too many hits on our server per hour and the learning management system started weasing and coffee in will. It simply stopped working for a while. Not what you'd want to happen. When two hundred and fifty students have a limited time to take a test right especially in amp test because those are always scary and even more so when it's an online test because remember this was almost twenty years ago when not very many students had ever taken an online test or at least. We're very comfortable with them then. Matt at our college certainly so I went to our staff and they advised me to stretch out the day to my test taking window and make my tests on timed of course that sticky frozen stay in my comfort zone. Part of my brain rebelled. What an untying tasks that they could take over the course of several hours or days but the alternative was the shutdown our server for my students and all students that are so. Yeah okay I relented and I think I kinda did pout. A little bit at least in my head I was pouting. You know what though it turned out to be a breakthrough on time? Testing is so freeing to the learning process and in so helpful to students with almost any kind of learning challenge. Which is everyone in my opinion. Sure eventually medical professionals will need to be able to answer things quickly on the spot but we should not expect them to start their should we? So okay maybe closed. The books notebooks and have some kind of time limit on a midterm or final exam. Maybe but really. I'm thinking of the closed. Books and timing should come at or near the end of their degree program. Not In my course at all and AIM P. They're still beginners even at the end of my course marketing support for this podcast is provided by. Half's the human anatomy and physiology society promoting excellence in the teaching of human anatomy and physiology for over thirty years. As I've mentioned in the last.
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"Hey I have some exciting news. We have a new kind of segment plan for the next episode. Or maybe the one after that these days. I've learned that one must not make plans based on the world staying on. Anyone assumed trajectory but soon I hope what is it I can tell you. It's not a book club we already have one of those and won't be getting a new book club recommendation soon. So now it's not a book club. It's a journal. Club the ADP Professor Journal Club. And we have a new voice joining in for that one. It's a voice that we've heard before on this podcast and a voice that you may have heard before if you've been active in town hall meetings or in Triple A. Or any of a number of other venues including her own journal articles on teaching and learning. It's my friend. Krista Room Polski who is an associate professor at Moravian College in Bethlehem Pennsylvania and part of the ANC authoring team over at McGraw Hill? Every other month or so she'll be bringing us a journal Article She's found. That helps enlighten us about evidence based approaches to teaching amp. I have a link to the first journal. Article in the show notes in the episode. Page if you WANNA read ahead and perhaps send in your recorded reaction but you don't have to read ahead. Don't worry about that. Crystal will be summarizing. The article in the Journal Club segment. And then she and I will be discussing it a bit as always if you have any ideas to share about that or any other feature of this podcast or perhaps a new feature. You'd like to suggest. Please let us know so that we can better meet your needs. Hey let's have a peer review. Wait we already have that. It's called the listener survey. I don't have nearly as many of those in is. I'd like to have so why not go to the? Ap Professor Dot Org Slash Survey Right now and tell me what you think anonymously. Of course this is professional peer review or after all right searchable transcript and a captioned audio Graham. This episode are funded by AAA the American Association for Anatomy at Anatomy Dot Org. Did you know that if you're looking microscopic images to use remote teaching triple a? Has You covered? They have something called the virtual microscopy database or Vm. De.
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"A in the upcoming full episode. That is episode number sixty six. We're going to continue the conversation about how to quickly and effectively move our on campus amp course to remote learning. And as part of that discussion. I'm going to talk about what author and Professor Bruneta Brown Calls F F ts Now. I translate. Ft's as fumbling first tries. She has another fray she uses. And I'll talk to you about what that phrase is and why it's important for amp teaching in the full episode. Something else I'm going to talk about is a phenomenon called Zoom bombing and it's something that I put some links in the show notes for the previous episode but run across it in time to get it into the audio part so I'm going to be doing that in the full episodes sixty six something else. I'll be talking about briefly. Is the online protein folding game called folded and how we can use that in teaching and learning and how that relates to the current pandemic and the featured topic is going to be about our teaching slides how we can keep them simple and keep them connected to the story. We're going to tell in. These are skills that I've learned in continuing to learn over a period of time. And it can help us now at this time when we're scrambling to deliver our story and our slides in a different way than we're used to but these are principles and techniques that can also be used once we get back on campus too so all of that and more coming up in full episode number.
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"Hit yet another episode focusing on strategies to cope with teaching amp e during the cove in Nineteen Upright. This one is the third one. The first one was bonus episode sixty three which I titled Mid Winter Winterizing of our AP course in which came out a few weeks ago just before things officially hit the fan with this outbreak in the United States. We better get ready for a pandemics of planning tips and strategies. And that's still helpful even now that we're in the thick of things. The second one was bonus episode sixty four B which came out a little over a week ago enlisted nineteen additional specific tips for quickly moving from an on campus course to a remote environment. I called that episode quickly. Moving to remote delivery the musical and we did have music. Amp teacher and stem music composer. Greg crowder graciously sang three songs to sing along with so yeah really was a musical and now this third episode which probably won't be the last before. I jump into my list of additional tips. I WanNA clarify few things. I you may be listening to this episode way later than when I'm recording this. Which means that you are a survivor of the cove in nineteen outbreak of twenty twenty. That's great congratulations. You made it through but you might be thinking and there's nothing in these episodes for me but you'd be wrong. Most if not all of these tips really can help us in the cove in nineteen scenario but they are also useful for any course anytime anyplace second if you find even one thing in any episode that sparks. An idea for your teaching or is helpful any way. That's a win. Remember Kevin's law a professional development that I mentioned in the bonus APPS conference episode way back in twenty eighteen. It states that if I learned just one useful thing in a professional development experience. It's worth it. I've been reading and listening to a lot of advice often from colleagues who have never even taught online before that. Well just isn't the best advice in my opinion so I'm thinking there will be one thing in this episode that will spark a different way of thinking for you. If in fact you do learn just one thing in this episode or in any episode. Will you do me a favor and share it with a colleague? Email social media singing it off of your balcony would ever gets it out there to folks that could use the help. They're not flying those advertising glimpse anymore so this is the only way to spread the word third. You probably noticed that. I've not been providing my usual update on scientific discoveries in human biology for the last few episodes part of the reason. Is that the big story now. At least that set of stories keeping our attention right now are about the cove in nineteen outbreak could discuss these stories in this podcast but given the rapidly evolving nature of what we know and what we think. We know what we thought we know. But now we know we didn't know and and given the time between planning and episode recording an episode and then getting it all set up for release. Well whatever I say. We'll be out of date by the time you hear it. So what I'm doing instead is putting the top stories in my nosal newsletter which is a daily update of up to ten headlines. I've chosen for that day. Just go to nonsol- dot com slash. The professor nozzle is also nuzzle dot com slash the ABC professor. And take a look at some of the past issues if you think. It's helpful vent subscribe. It's free by the way you just need to put in your email address and share that newsletter. To if you know someone who may be interested fourth wow fourth. This is giving a longer than I intended. Oh men wait a minute. Don't tell me you're surprised by okay..
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"Immune. I guess one of the things I would need to keep in mind if I'm teaching. This technique are offering this technique to my students is that I need to emphasize with them. That lets him sitting down with a handful of students in my office and in there asking me you know. How can we deal with this fire? Hose of information and I'm giving them different techniques and they might say well concept. I just can't get the hang of that or flash cards. Just don't do it for me or you have something else you know and and also what about these memory palaces and kind of walk them through the idea of it but I guess something? I need to emphasize with them. Is that when they walk out of my office? They're not going to be fully prepared to that. It's something that they have to just keep coming back to until they get more and more comfortable with it. Would you say that's fair? I definitely think that's fair Personally I actually I heard about some of these demonic techniques before med school unfortunately I just watch a few videos online and tried to learn from that. I think I could remember a couple of numbers better because I made a visuals seen one time but after about a week or two hit a roadblock and I didn't know where to go so I completely cut off the practice without actually developing satisfactory technique. Can I didn't use it all through Mexico only revisiting it later on towards the end because it's not something that you're going to be able to teach in one session. It's something that requires a little bit of practice every day or a couple of times a week or something along those lines so when someone is actually taking this seriously we often recommend they spend ten fifteen minutes a day maybe in the morning first thing before they get out of bed using these demonic going over their old ones trying to create a new one or two at already have Flash Card deck for instance they can go through the flash cards probably on their phone or IPAD and then make a demonic or while. They're sitting there in bed. Write it down or store I would suggest writing it down on your flash card deck or drawing it out or having some reference point for later on because you might not remember it the first time. So there's still space retrieval required in it but it tends to be much less retrieval and much better organized when you can implement these techniques but this technique sounds great. I'm glad to have it now in my little toolbox that I can open up for my students in show. Hey look there's lots of different tools here and it. Kinda you know this this idea of taking a lot of practice kind of brings to mind something that I learned late in life and that I give up too easy you know. I'd need the channel that when I'm talking to my students who likewise you know You give technique like let's say the Memory Palace and and really give along with that. Not just the technique but the encouragement that it's don't give up too easy like I would unites when you're a little kid and you're learning to write for the first time you're learning to read or you're learning to ride a bike or catch a baseball. You keep working out. I mean just think about you know little kids learning to walk. They don't follow over and then give up. They get right back up when they try it again and fall over and get up and fall over and then eventually they get the hang of it and I need to to do that. You know I need to learn to do that as an adult when something is difficult for me. A new learning management system is thrown in my lap. Oh my gosh. I'll never learn. But if I stick with I do and the same thing with these memory palaces if I can encourage my students to stick with it then it can be a very useful technique and and there are a lot of resources out there. That students can to kind of get that. Hang of it and and learn what to do. And that includes some of those At your website and show notes in the episode page so you can learn these memory techniques and you can also point to them off for your students. And they're they seem to be geared toward medical students but I've listened to a lot of them and you know why they applied. Amp students to. I mean everything that they're talking about in their a fits with what our students are going through so I highly recommend it and once again thank you very much chase. No thank you and yes. There's a lot of examples on on the podcast and on our youtube page. They can go and check and feel free to email me or contact me on social media and give a little more instruction possibly a regular listeners. Know this but if you're new or just need reminding don't forget that I always put links and the show notes and at the episode page at the AP Professor Dot Org Slash Sixty Four. In case you WANNA further explore any ideas much in this podcast or if you want to visit our sponsors for this episode chased DeMarco gave me a link for an example of how to build your own memory palace in a video tutorial called memory palaces for medicine they're also links to his podcast episodes on Memory Palaces. The story method pneumonic and a blog. Post on evidence based study strategies. You can reach chase directly by way of email or any of the social media accounts listed in the show notes or you can even set up on one on one session with him. And you're always encouraged to call in with your questions comments and ideas that the podcast hotline. That's one eight three three Lion Dan or one eight three three five four six six three three six or send a recording a written message to podcast at the Professor Dot. Org I'll see you down the road. The professor is hosted by Dr. Kevin Pat An award-winning Professor and textbook author in human.
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"Greg crowder is a dedicated and creative. Ap teacher besides being a rockstar literally Rockstar in creating in using music and stem education if you haven't explored his many many songs that relate to m. p. education. You really need to do that. When go to that? Link in the show notes or episode page also find a link to the page for another of Greg's pieces. That's great for a sing along that one students learn some basic ideas about spinal nerve plexus when you go there check out the fact that Greg provides many different ways to experience his songs for this one about nerve flexes. One of the options is a carioca screen. That you and your students can follow as you saying really you need to check these out a tip number fourteen read the book you know that unreasonably large and expensive tax book students bought for your course. Now is the perfect opportunity to get them to actually read it. They'll be socially distance anyway. One hopes and looking for something to read more students raid their textbook rather than actually reading it. Now's a good time to turn the reading of the book into a bigger element of the course. If You keep your instructor provided explanations at a minimum as I advised in an earlier segment then students have no choice but to get a lot of the needed information from their textbook tip number fifteen just in case and center substituting Your Plan Lecture Class activity with a case study. There are plenty of these case studies available online but I found it to be fun making up my own. It's much easier than you think. If you've never done it I often use medical images and make up a story around it and then ask questions. About this. Scenario the tease out important concepts of anatomy physiology one option would be to post that maybe divide the class up into groups in your learning management system and give each one a different case to workout and then posted in a discussion forum of just for that group. And they're easy ways to do that. Your folks at your institution will help you figure out how to do that. And then have them more the case and then have each group present their case to the other groups and what their conclusion was and why tip number sixteen learning is art and art is learning. Drawing drawing is a powerful learning strategy. Nearly everyone can draw. Sure some folks are regular Davinci's when they draw many of us most of us are not and that's okay making stick and ball. Figures can work just as well as the more realistic kind of art. This can really help with lab activities. When the lab's not available consider drawing in labeling exercises drawing out concept maps making organs from household items like paper or doe or scraps of fabric bake a cake in the shape of an Oregon in heaven share picture of it online things like that. Tip number seventeen simulate reality even if we've never used computer simulations of anatomical structures or physiological functions. We know they've been around for a while. Your institution may already provide access to some of these and there are some available online at no cost. I provided links to a few of them but go out searching. Send your students out searching and play around with them and see how that might fit into your remote learning scenario tip number eighteen embrace reality if things go well any temporary move of your face to face class to the online environment is well temporary probably a few weeks then the emergency past and we're back to our usual mode so yeah it may be nerve wracking but normalcy will return soon right tip number nineteen no side trips. Somebody in your course. Maybe you might suggest that you're suspended on. Campus class should meet somewhere off campus. Maybe a cafe or restaurant after all these venues are likely to be virtually deserted and would welcome even a little bit of business. Do not do it do not that would defeat the whole purpose of suspending face to face class meetings which to slow or even break the cycle of the viral outbreak. We're not doing this just for us. We're doing it as part of our social obligation to support and protect each other. So let's keep that our priority. Yeah there are a lot of other things that we can do quickly and easily once we put our minds to it and hopefully this short list has already stimulated some IDs. One final thought. Let's look at this at the adventure it is. The universe has thrown in unexpected challenge at us but tries to the occasion and tap our creativity in our experience to make some awesome. Lemonade or those lemons. Our positive can do attitude can go a long way to reassure our students and to motivate them to do some strong self powered learning a as. I mentioned several times earlier. I put links in the show notes and at the episode page at the AP Professor Dot Org Slash Sixty Four B. In case you WANNA further explore any ideas mentioned in this podcast or if you want to visit our sponsors tell us what's going on with you your tips and suggestions and your questions at the broadcast hotline. That's one eight three three line Dan or one eight three three five or six six three three six or senator recording a written message to podcast at the AP professor dot work. I'll see you down the road. The professor is hosted by Dr. Kevin Pat An award-winning Professor Textbook. Author in human anatomy.
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"Hi there this is Kevin Patent. With a brief audio introduction to episode number sixty four of the amp professor podcast also known as top radio and audio salon for teachers of human anatomy and physiology in the upcoming full episode. That is episode sixty four. I'm going to have a conversation with chase DEMARCO. Now Chase. The Marco is widely known is a numbness. That is a memory expert. He's also a consultant entrepreneur more and believe it or not initiative that he's an MD PhD candidate who has a passion for helping medical students succeed in their studies and in their professional exams. Now I got a lot of support from my recent discussions of Flash Card techniques and episode fifty eight fifty nine and sixty and this conversation will complement those with an explanation of a study techniques sometimes called a memory palace which is based on something very old and very effective called the method of Loci. But wait for the full episodes. Sixty four where you'll get to know chase and learn a lot more about this memory technique. The free distribution of this podcast is sponsored by the master of science and Human Anatomy and physiology instruction the happy degree. I'm on the Faculty of this program so I know the incredible value it is for an MP teachers check out this online graduate program at NYC DOT EDU slash. Happy or click. The Lincoln the show notes episode page. And you gus that it's time once again for were where we practice what we all do in teaching and take apart words and translate their parts to deepen our understanding. Sometimes they're old and familiar terms and sometimes terms that are new to us or maybe they're so new that nobody knows him yet because they just got made up by somebody today. We have a few related to our main topic in that. Is this memory technique that we're going to be discussing with chase the Marco and the first term is come up before actually more than once and passed up assode and we did dissect at once back in episode number fifty nine and that is the word mnemonic so just to refresh our memories a little bit that word part non means memory literally. It means mindful but we use it in terms of memory and then the icy ending needs relating to so pneumonic when you put it all together means relating to memory and usually refers to something that aides memory it can be a mnemonic sentence or phrase where the first letter of each word and sentence has the same first letter of items in a list that we wanna remember but there are other mnemonic techniques. And we're going to be discussing one of those techniques in the full episode regarding pronunciation. I find myself going back and forth between me monarch and pneumonic and that usually depends on the context words around it and my brain just goes there with when to or not. Just come out of my mouth. And maybe they're things like that you do two now. The latter pronunciation MNEMONIC is preferred by most of the sources. I looked at so I'm going to try and stick with that as much candy or we'll see how that goes. The next word on the list is a related term. It's actually just another version of the word pneumonic. And that is numbness. And it's the same as demonic. But we're going to swap out that IC- ending in demonic input in ast ending which means an agent or performer of something and so an honest literally van is a person in agent performer. Someone who performs memory most often the term in the English language is used to describe someone who's adapt out or skilled in feats of memory. Like I dunno remembering the order of cards and a shuffled deck or Memorizing as much as they can from a page from a phone book or maybe trying to learn all the bones of the skeleton. Yeah that's a feat of memory and that takes some work and maybe there are some techniques that we can use to make that. Go more simpler for students at still going to be hard. But maybe there's a way to help them organize that and and get done quickly and effectively really be able to retrieve that information when it needs to be retrieved and yeah I sometimes find myself pronouncing it sometimes which actually that does show up occasionally dictionaries but it's most often pronounced nemesis are honest. I sometimes mistakenly US methodist instead anonymous. I don't know where that comes from. But anyway I swap out the end for a t go figure. I promise to work on that. If you promise to overlook my mistake okay the next term on our were dissection list is Loci L. O. C. I it's a word that's GONNA come up related to demonic technique that we're going to be discussing in the full episode. It can be pronounced. Loci as I just did but other common pronunciations are low cy or Loki but when I hear pronouncing that way Loki High. I think of that trickster. From Norse Mythology Loki L. O. K. I. So loci it is from me but you get to pick your favorite LOCI. Is the plural form of the Latin word locus LLC US which we also use as is an English meaning place or location? In fact the word location is derived from the word locus. We sometimes use locus in genetics. To describe the physical location of a gene within a chromosome. So you may have run across that use already. Loci is the plural form of locus. So it simply means places. We're going to be talking about a technique sometimes called the method of loci which we can now more easily see simply means method of places. This podcast is sponsored by hats. The human anatomy and Physiology Society promoting excellence in the teaching of human anatomy and physiology for over thirty years. Go visit HAP- s- at the professor dot org slash hats that's h? Aps only hey but step into the bookshop and see what we may want to add to our personal professional bookshelf. I'M GONNA go straight over to the medical shelf this time because I know exactly which book I'm looking for. It's called read this before medical school out of study smarter and live better while excelling in class and on your use a complex board exams. It's by chase DeMarco Theodore McConnell and Grodin recognized that name chase DeMarco. He's the guy I'm chatting with in the upcoming full episodes sixty four as you can tell from the title. This book is for students in medical school and you may teach. Medical students are students in some other health profession program. Or maybe you're teaching. Amp TO PRE MED or pre nursing or any of the many other students in the typical amd p course. This book could be helpful to any of them really why because all the students had just mentioned are being hit with what's surely feels like a fire hose of information if feels that way because it really is a lot of information and ideas to learn in a very short period of time and most of them will eventually be facing licensing or other professional exams of some sort right whether it's complex or in class or even try outs for jeopardy advice and strategies offered in. The book could be a game changer for some students. This book covers all the important things to consider when trying to figure out how to succeed in. Aim for example. Why STUDY SKILLS ARE IMPORTANT? Y? Class participation is essential how to use the teacher's time and resources effectively using the school's resources how to study at home making a study plan in managing time effectively. A lot of my students could use. I could use the value of study groups and how to organize and run a study group and even how to optimize work life balance. There's also a big section on test prep which strategies for both course exams and those big professional exams. I just mentioned a moment ago and because there's a lot of memorization required in amp. Yeah you know there is right. There's a big section on memory strategies. This is a great book to have on your teaching show to offer to students as a place to start learning how to study. And how to handle that? Fire Hose of ideas. Amp or perhaps. Add to your list of recommended resources for your students. Just go to the show notes or episode page or the AP Professor Dot Org Slash Book Club to take a look at this book and be sure to listen to the full episodes sixty four featuring a chat with the author chase DEMARCO. Hey you probably forgot about that survey that I've been taking. That's part of my end of season. Debriefing I'm asking you now. Please take just a few minutes of your time to respond to that anonymous survey because it's your experience as an individual listener. That's important to me. Just go to the AP professor dot Org Slash Survey and as always. Thanks for your support. Searchable transcript and a captioned audio gram of this preview episode are funded by AAA the American Association for Anatomy. Check out there many resources and events on their newly redesigned website at Anatomy Dot Org. Well this is Kevin Patent signing off for now and reminding you to keep your questions and comments coming. Why not call the podcast hotline right now at one eight three three? That's one eight three three five four six six three three six or visit us at the AP Professor Dot Org. I'll see you down the.
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"It's discouraging to make a mistake but it's humiliating when you find out your so unimportant that nobody noticed it. Welcome to the amp professor. A few minutes to focus on teaching human anatomy and physiology with a veteran educator and teaching mentor. Your host Kevin passed in this episode. I talk about how stress turns. Our hair. Grey the discovery of a new type of immune cell and making mistakes. When we're teaching a if.
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"Don't forget that initial the I found out just a couple of weeks ago. Somebody was trying to do that. And if you just put amp professor is not going to show up afterward the amp professor and then you just download it for free and put it in your vice. So what are they. What are the bonus content items that are in there? One is a little video showing you how to make flash flash cards flip in the air so that one was a silly one but the rest of them were a much more to the point in terms of actual teaching and learning one was the list of syllabus warnings that I include in my syllabus and we talked about him one of the episodes so that gives you a copy of what I am so you can use that is sort of a launching point for perhaps including your own warnings in your syllabus and along similar lines I also had a page a handout type thing that have my safety information. uh-huh called safety first. So that gives you the kind of safety addendum that I give in my syllabus. I have another resource there. That's called terms terms that are often misspelled or confused. Name P and I think that's a good one to revisit every once in a while just Ha- just print it out or save it on your disc or something somewhere and go through it every once in a while in that is useful for students because they can go through and see where they're likely to make mistakes but it's also good for us because we make mistakes stew but it's also good in helping counsel students and then another resource was regional spelling differences. So it I was GONNA say it spells out but maybe that's the the WHO said it walks you through how spelling is different between. US spelling and non you you asked spelling so it gives you some of the patterns and then gives you examples of each of those within anatomy and physiology so that you're aware of some of these different spellings so those are the regional spelling differences. And then the next resource was actually was published. Are Put out there before that one. I'm going in can reverse order. Here is a handout on the fishbowl model of homies stasis which I talked about in one of the episodes so it kind of spells it all out and you can use that handout with your students or just use it as kind of a starting point if you WanNa tell the fishbowl story or stories similar to it. I also had a video which was a seminar that I did at one of the half's meetings on running concept lists so you can go look at that and then. I had a little video showing when you a sorting folder that I use when I'm doing tests and exams in class and this is especially useful for a large class even a smaller moderate size class. What it does does? Is it Kinda automatically alphabetize student papers as they turn them in in a very simple straightforward way and the video shows you how it works and then I have a diagram that you can use in your course if you want. The chose the location of the FABELLA which is a bone of that more and more of us are showing up there showing up on our knees. It's increasing its frequency in the population. It was considered to be relatively rare anomaly announced becoming more common that was discussed and one of the episodes and then we have another table that you can use as a hand off of your students or just for your own years and it's a muscle name cable where a translates each of the major muscle named it translates them literally and we can use. That is the Monica device to help us remember characteristics risks of that muscle so shoe. Lots of stuff this year. And that's not the end of it. I'M GONNA actually dive into some of those groupings that I just talked about in later.
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"Cartoonist and film producer Walt Disney once we keep moving forward opening new doors and doing new things. Because we're curious and curiosity keeps leaving us down new paths welcome to the amp professor a few minutes to focus on teaching human anatomy the and physiology with a veteran educator and teaching mentor. Your host Kevin Past this episode is review of the past year of this podcast. Just mentioned in the intro and also talked about out in the preview episode that preceded this full episode. What I'm going to be doing is debriefing? What went on in our podcast cast over the last year and I did something similar last year at the end of the first full year of the P. Professor podcast and I called that episode sowed a big year and so this episode of calling another big year? I should've called it an even bigger year because I was actually Kinda surprised as I. I went through my process of debriefing and Look what went on holy smoke. We covered a lot of stop. And I'm beginning to that in a minute but before I do I just want to remind you that. Debriefing is something that I've mentioned a lot. And that's because I really believe in it. I think that at regular intervals throughout the academic year and maybe even separate debriefings. You know at the end of multiple years like every five years or something like that. We should step back and really take some time and effort and really mindfully debrief and decide and review and reflect on what we've been doing because I think this can be really affirming. I mean it is for me that I can go back in especially in a year or a semester or even a half a semester. When I'm thinking that all I've been doing is putting one foot in front of the other and that really accomplishing publishing? Anything much. Not Anything useful. I often find that when I go back and actually like tally it up and look at it and think about it. I'm really happy about the fact that there were some things in there that I really did accomplish some things. So that's one of the main reasons so I I liked the briefing is because it makes me feel good but it also gives me some great ideas on things that I can leverage and maybe do better next time for or extend in and do more or gives me an idea to do something completely different and so I just WanNa spend a few minutes talking about the advantages of debriefing. It's a good reminder for ourselves what worked well and what didn't work well over the past period of time. It's also also a good time to bring our C. V. up-to-date our resume or publication lists. However it is that we're recording our life's work and we can do anything anything related to that so Chaz it some schools You need to submit a timeline of things that you've done committees you've been on projects you've done and how often you did pet sitting for your deans pats and that goes into your promotion package or it goes into your evaluation file or something like that so you you can really make that debriefing time you can roll a bunch of different tasks into it and make it a really useful thing it in many different ways and and it's also a form of spaced retrieval practice because it gives us an opportunity to identify in reinforce or concepts concepts because we're going over them again in recalling them again and pulling them back out of our brains so as I go through this episode and I mentioned past topics things things are going to get pulled onto your brain. You'RE GONNA go in there and start pulling things out again and that's going to help keep them in your long term memory when we do this in our courses. We could ask students to do that. Students always want in class reviews right for them. I think they see that sometimes as a substitute for actually really studying like let's review the test. Meaning I don't want to spend my own time reviewing for the test. I want you to review for me but might not be a bad idea if you have have class time to do that. Yeah they're looking for specific. Can't on exactly what's going to be on the test. They'd they'd probably preferred if you just gave them a list of the correct panthers or something thank by what you can do is just spark them a little bit and get them thinking about all of the different things that they have been learning all along long and that will help them with their retrieval practice. There are other ways to do it to The way I usually do tonight in class but in the form of online practice exams Right before the midterm exam and final exams so that gives them the way to do their greet debriefing and relearning stop. Because it's Kinda showing them wear wear and their study materials in their textbook. They need to dive back in and refresh themselves. So let's do it. Let's.
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"Sixty two of the ANC professor podcast also known as tap radio. You an audio laboratory for teachers of human anatomy and physiology well. This is a preview of the upcoming full episode which is episode number sixty two and it's titled Another Big Year in Teaching Anatomy and physiology and that parallels the title from an episode. We did about a year ago called a big year and that was a debriefing. A review a look back back of the first year of the professor podcast. And so we're going to do that again in episode number sixty two. And so. It's all about debriefing. It's all about reflecting flocking. It's all about looking back and reviewing what we did so we're going to take a moment to think about to remind ourselves about how we as teachers can in deep grief in a way that is constructive and helpful and affirming and then we're going to dive right in and summarize a whole year of this podcast. Okay non exactly summarize everything but at least sit at the scenic overlook and take in the broad view of everything finger pointing out a few of the most interesting things that happened along the way.
"professor" Discussed on The A&P Professor
"A common and perennial conversation among amp. Faculty is what prerequisites If any should be required for the amp course that is should students have to pass a biology course or some other course maybe chemistry or maybe even some flavor of English or Algebra before they can be expected to succeed in our anatomy and physiology. Of course heck I've thought about requiring a solid study skills course before student gets into my AP class. I think I'd rather they be able to make a news flash cards and make concept maps then to be able to solve quadra equations for example the AP Course skied lines from the human anatomy and physiology society half's suggest a whole list of required and recommended courses with a minimum among grade of C hats. Members can access the course guidelines at the AP professor dot Org Slash perhaps that's Ha ps ps but perhaps guidelines are well intended as recommendations for programs that want to align in well with the learning outcomes which I've mentioned before in this podcast specifically in episode fifty and for courses that one have a high level of rigor in their program in my mind at least these recommendations are not absolute requirement. And that's that's helpful but when things are not strictly definitive are when we have obstacles at our school for implementing anyone's list of recommended prerequisites requisites. Then we meaning. I tend to still fried about things a bit or sometimes fred a lot. Sure sure any answer to the prerequisite question is going to depend on factors unique to that institution or to that program or department. Our course Actually they're even more considerations than those I just listed but I'll circle back to some of those a little later even after we account for all all those factors. The answer never seems to satisfy Est.. Does it at least not over the long term. We we seemed always WANNA come back to it because no matter what our prerequisites aw or our previous decision not to have required Requisites it's we never seem to be fully satisfied that things are just right. Why because not all our students students seem to transition easily Dr Course and not all of them succeed at least not at first so a solution that always seems obvious? Assayas maybe we should reconsider our prerequisite requirements and it seems to me that this is a wheel that is continuously elite. Reinvented over generations. And remember. I'm as old as an oak tree. I've actually been around for generations all that time paying attention to what we're doing with prerequisites because that's what we aim peaches do right we ask teach other about prerequisites and we theorize about what's ideal and it seems that no matter how much or how often we fiddle with our course prerequisites that prerequisites situation. We have just well never really works. I've come to the conclusion that it's not that prerequisite courses don't work it's just the prerequisites never truly fulfill fill the expectations that we have for them so that begs the question. How much should we expect students to remember from their prerequisite? It's my answer to what we should expect from prerequisites. Is this nothing really. We should not expect anything. I know I know that. Seems like a negative cynical answer but but I don't see it that way. I think it's realistic. And it's well kind of freeing in a way if I'm not really expecting expecting my students to really own concept of ions protein synthesis or chemical equilibria or what. ATP is what it does then. I'm free of expectations and because of that I won't front about it really now. I smile the smile of a Buddha when I hear my colleagues fretting about the prerequisite requirements or at least. I like to think I'm doing that not only that now. I'm far less likely to be tempted to judge. Judge my colleagues teaching those prerequisite courses badly and I'm less likely to be tempted to judge my students. Badly to by not having Any expectations of prior learning were all starting with a clean fresh slate. What a great feeling man you might ask ask? Why don't I expect students to remember anything useful from what they may have been exposed to in their prerequisite course or courses well first off? I don't mean to imply that none of them know anything. I'm just saying that I've come to believe leave that. It's just not realistic to assume that most of them remember everything and that's kind of what we do right. Expect them to know everything from their prerequisite courses. Why don't I expect that partly because we don't typically teach for the long term think about it the classic way of teaching and approach that I used myself for many years is to prepare students for the next test best and hope they all pass for those that pass? They've learned at least sixty percent of what I wanted them to learn. Now think about that for for minute. That's just a little over half of what they ought to have mastered and that's just for those who actually passed for those who didn't pass pass that test all is not lost. They can learn about two thirds or so of what they ought to on the next test and it might average out to a passing course grade right. But let's say they're learning a solid. Seventy percent are so on average a C grade that means means they've mastered or at least become familiar with a bit over two thirds of the material for their unit test. But because they're not asked about again until the end of the semester it's going to disappear until the week before the exam one. It's going to be relearned at least in part for another week or a two and then lost again. That is unless we excuse them for the exam. Because they've been doing well on the unit tests that measure short-term learning even those with solid long-term learning need refreshing but let's say they were and of course that really did promote long-term learning. Let's say they had to master eighty five to ninety percent of the concepts and that they were continually expected did to retrieve that knowledge and demonstrate mastery on a test. Okay they're still gonNA forget some of it even if they mastered a hundred hundred percent of the concepts and then taught the prerequisite course or the or maybe they taught all the prerequisite courses. There's still gonNA forget some of it maybe not all of it but some of it but of course the more typical case is they're not that competent when they reach us so again. Isn't it more practical. That is more useful to just assume that.