32 Burst results for "penicillin"
"penicillin" Discussed on iForumRx.org
"Oral provocation. Challenge the PENICILLINS. This study used practical criteria for risk, stratification and seven of the fourteen sites were non allergist practices. One item of note was that this study allowed various testing protocols between the sites, so there still is not a cookie cutter recipe for a protocol for clinics that maybe seeking to start penicillin allergy testing at their site. When, we look at the current joint guidelines regarding penicillin allergy testing from the American Academy of Allergy. Asthma and immunology and other national associations, the low risk definition is a history of an isolated reaction. That was unlikely allergic. Itching without a rash that occurred at least ten years ago had an unknown reaction without I g e mediated features like hives or NFL axes and a family history of penicillin allergy. There are some sites in the United States such just Kaiser Permanente in San Diego that has expanded their low risk. Criteria also include patients with benign cinematic symptoms and unknown reactions to the last penicillin exposure so I do feel there is data to support direct oral provocation challenges to penicillin in non allergist practice even are notoriously litigious, American society. Well Frank. I'm curious what you do in your practice. How is a penicillin allergy testing done? And what is your role? How many referrals to get in your practice in a week or a month? And what are some of the practical tips that you'd give to our I former ex members who might wish to start a similar service? This service started about a year ago. Your health and it was designed to be pharmacists lead, so we're the ones actually performing the test ourselves. So when a patient referred to our service will contact them by phone to complete it that penicillin algebra. To See, if they have a true allergy, and to determine if they are appropriate to undergo testing. Up until recently we have only offered the penicillin allergy skin testing followed by the oral challenge, so when a patient comes into the office, we I perform a test followed by an international test, and for these we use the major and minor penicillin determines for each test. We will wait fifteen minutes to monitor for any side effects or reactions. If the patient develops reaction, we will stop and say that they are allergic to penicillin. If they have a negative test, then we will proceed to the next. After the scratch test and injure dermal tests. If the patient is negative to both, we will then move on to an oral challenge, in which the patient is given it two hundred and fifty milligram capsule Amoxicillin..
"penicillin" Discussed on iForumRx.org
"Can you tell us about some of the things going through your mind in a case like this? What additional information would you want to collect necess- during this encounter, and are there any additional? Additional treatment options. You'd be considering wealthier patients like this all the time, and like you mentioned earlier. How Penicillin allergies are over reported is made roughly ten percent of patients report penicillin allergy, however less than one percent are truly allergic. This definitely be problematic as many infections like strep throat can be effectively treated with penicillin like pencil on vk or Amoxicillin. When patients penicillin allergies, they can result in suboptimal treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics, especially with strep throat where you might see patients receive Cephalosporin or Either my sin, which can increase the risk of antimicrobial resistance, possible seat, if infections as well as adverse events. When thinking about this patient, my I thought would be to try and get a more thorough history on the patients report dependent cell allergy. When meeting with patients in our clinic to review allergies in detail and make sure each algae is appropriately documented with a reason for it. When the reason for the allergies unknown or Arash I like to investigate further if the patient and provide some more detail, especially finding out there's any Aegean associated reaction along with a rash such as Yukari A-. Also we WANNA know you remember the reaction herself or in. Can She describe it? Sometimes, we'll have patience Elyssa. A family member told them in the past. They had a reaction, so it might not be clear also if she was taking any other medications at the time. That could be associated with that reaction. She experienced. And also what penicillin did she react to? If you're accident, one type of penicillin, we would want to avoid other types also WanNa know what penicillin did she react to? Of course if she reacted to one type of penicillin, avoid others. However, this may help determine which Cephalosporin to avoid as cross reactivity can increase with Beta lack times with similar side chains investigating the reason for allergy, the first to help d label a penicillin allergy..
"We eat a seriously astounding amount of pizza. Americans collectively eat three hundred fifty slices a second and one hundred acres a day more than five billion pizzas are sold around the world each year. It's a lot so we all eat it but are we all eating the same thing to get back to where we started with the donut. Pizza that is going to be haunting my dreams. Is there actually a standard definition of pizza? Oh No okay. The reason on laughing about that is because anytime I am asked i. I've become somewhat of an expert or authority on the history of pizza and anytime I mask. There's always someone who disagrees. With my definition Carol how Starsky is a history professor at the University of Denver and author of pizza a global history. So I WANNA be really careful about what I say here that this is my opinion as a food historian that I believe pizza is a yeast. It flat bread that has ingredients baked onto the crust dat is sort of the most basic definition of pizza. I don't get that specific Rice A-ok it has to be round or it has to be square or it has to be thin or thick or it has to have tomatoes and cheese on it. But here's the thing you ask to beat the experts definition of pizza you get two different definitions and I think that we need to kind of establish effect that pizza pizza until you put tomato sauce on it right because before that. It's a flat bread. I mean if not then you could argue that the Egyptians had pizza because had flat breads and that'd be absurd to say Francisco. Maguire is the head chef at modernist cuisine. They've already put out a five. Thome series called bread and now they're working on an equally exhaustive pizza book or books for which they have been doing a lot of research which sounds delicious although Francisco says. It's actually very exhausting to the tally. As of December. It's been two hundred pizzerias and it's just a number. That boggles the mind. Because I mean if we've been two hundred pizzeria fixture does at least five pizzas per pizzeria. And I don't want you to think that we eat the entire pizza. You have to pace yourself. It is a marathon of any pizza by the end of the day. You just want to like carrot or something vegetables something that feels a little bit better to your body to eat because there is such a thing as too much pizza. I'm convinced but I agree with Francisco that the definition of pizza is kind of a slippery thing. I call just any flat bread pizza. It's thirty year pizza. I'm from Mexico. I would say no but I thought about it because has sauce and it has cheese and it's a flat bread and cooked. You know an Camman which is very high heat so strictly defining it you could. You can see how. How some of these lines crossover each other. I think we can all agree that a Tortilla is not a pizza for starters. A TORTILLA is platte. But it's not really a flat bread. It doesn't have yeast but there are a lot of delicious Houston. Flat breads around the world. There's lava and pita and Lavazza non and those are just off the top of my head. Carol says there's archaeological evidence going back ten thousand years little instant pizza things. They were cakes of mashed grains baked on a hot stone and then topped with whatever was handy oil honey herbs or even more complex sources so a flat breads go back to the Neolithic the Dawn of agriculture and if they're yeast did flat breads in so many different cultures than pizza. Can't possibly be an Italian invention right. These are the kind of fighting words that will land you in court. Cynthia specifically the Court of Historical Review in San Francisco which is a fake court stopped by real judges. They've made some landmark rulings in their time on where the Martini was invented. And whether or not chicken soup is the Jewish Penicillin and in nineteen ninety one. The court gathered to debate. A serious question is pizza. Originally Italian or Chinese. The Chinese case was surprisingly strong prosecuted claim that pizzas descended from pink to which are rice flour cakes filled with sausage and spices. That were brought to at LE- by our old friend Marco Polo back in the twelve hundreds and then transformed with the use of local ingredients. Let the judge wasn't buying it even before Marco Polo made his way to the eastern back the attractions in what is now Italy around about one thousand BC. We're making little cakes at looked much more like pizza. The Italians won their day in
"penicillin" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Twelfth Nineteen, forty, one, a forty three year, old policeman Albert Alexander became the first recipient of the Oxford Penicillin he'd scratched the side of his mouth while pruning roses, and developed a life threatening infection with huge abscesses affecting. Affecting his is facing lungs, penicillin was injected and within days he made a remarkable recovery while, but unfortunately despite this recovery, which lasted for a few days they ran out of the drug and Alexander, eventually got worse again, and he died and I was reading that they were so desperate to cure him that after Alexander urinated while on his antibiotic course, they would. Would collect the urine and try to extract the penicillin. He excreted again so that it could be re administered to him. and I should mention also that the the process that the Oxford team relied on to extract and purify the penicillin. The mold juice was led by another important biochemist, a guy named Norman Heatley but this case of Albert Alexander shows. Shows an obvious early problem they had which was the problem of scale. They simply lacked the ability to make penicillin scale it that would be needed to even one person. Let alone. The whole world the strain of mold that they were using didn't make enough of it, and this led to the search for other species of the same fungal genus concilium. concilium, which would maybe they thought produce higher concentrations of the Penicillin Phil Trait, and I was reading an interesting article by the University of Michigan Physician and medical historian Howard Markel. That tells a really interesting story I'd never heard about this The so the story goes like this. Apparently, one of the assistance at the Oxford lab showed up for work one day. Day In nineteen, forty, one with a cantaloupe that she'd bought at the market because it was covered in a weird looking golden mold, which is great, because this would be the one case where somebody is picking over the fresh produce to like find the moldy one but the mold on this cantaloupe turned out to be a strain of penicillin called penicillin. Chris. Chris O. GM with Markle says naturally produced at least about two hundred times as much penicillin as the original strain that they've been studying and then later, markel writes the same strain was subjected to mutagenic processes in the lab, so like bombarding it with x rays and stuff to produce a mutated strain that would make up to a thousand times as much. Much insulin as the old school fleming mold so by nineteen forty one penicillin is on its way to becoming a viable medicine. All right on that note. We're GONNA take a quick break. When we come back, we're going to look at the impact of penicillin and we're going to look at it.
"penicillin" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Their employees am for our communities. All right. We're back now. We'll get to Alexander Fleming in a minute with the discovery of penicillin, but. AL exander Fleming was not the first. To notice that there might be some anti microbial properties of certain fungi. That's right. There was there was work going on in this area of prior to fling was was picking up on some of it and and really just overall understanding of a fun Guy in general was was advancing as we mentioned psychedelics, episodes you know there was a time where we did not recognize guys being separate from the realm of plants right before we realized that it was a kingdom unto itself in all ultimately kingdom that has a little more in common with the Animal Kingdom. It does with the plant kingdom. And little a lot of talented folks working in this area, but one of them. MIGHT COME A- surprise to a lot of people in. That's because her name was Beatrix Potter. Who the the Bunny Rabbit Bunny rabbits, yes, okay off the Bunny Rabbit fame. It was kind of a curious coincidence because I was reading about all this, and then just randomly on the stuff to remind mind discussion module, which is the facebook group for people listen to the show to discuss episodes. Someone brought up the trix. Potter in regards to something to do with squirrels because there's a lot of squirrel. Squirrel content in the discussion module and they brought up Beatrix Potter and Beatrix Potter actually ties in to this episode a little bit, because in addition to being the author and illustrator of the the tale of Peter Rabbit and associated British animal tales, she was also a naturalist with a great deal of interest in astronomy, and most importantly of all my call Aji, so she produced a lot of beautiful scientific watercolor illustrations of various fungi in her neck of the British, woods. And you know as part of her studies, and if you studied a lot of local molds as well and did illustrations of them. She's ultimately very interesting character that was. You know unfortunately she lives in a time in which you know? The sexism of the day prevented her from I..
"penicillin" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Or to leukemia, or even syphilis and tetracycline works primarily by binding to the ribes, oems of bacterial cells, ribes, oems or sort of the cellular factories they build proteins that are needed in order for organisms to live and grow, and by binding to the Ri- Zome, tetracycline makes it difficult for the bacterium to create new proteins. It was patented in the nineteen fifties became widely used in the second half of the Twentieth Century so what? What was it doing in the bones of Nubian people who live like seventeen hundred years ago, well Arm Lago sin colleagues followed archaeological clues to identify the source of the tetracycline was beer of course beer is another one of ultimately it falls under zagged noise domain Oh. Yeah, though this is different. Because tetracyclene is not made from a fungus, it is actually an antibacterial. That is a byproduct of some bacteria. Okay, so it's a bacterial byproduct, but essentially so technically it's duplex, okay? Point to jubilee? This is looks versus jubilee. That's going to happen with your demon. Lord introducing warfare. So beer is made from fermented grain of course and the fermented grain in this ancient Nubian beer apparently contained the bacteria streptomyces, which creates tetracycline as a byproduct, but question of course were these traces of tetracycline in Nubian mummy bones. Of like a bad batch of beer, the got contaminated by accident, or were these people deliberately culturing their beer with antibiotic, producing bacteria, and so to look at a study from the American Journal of Physical Anthropology from twenty, ten of which are was one of the authors the authors examined tetracycline in skeletal remains from throughout this period, and the evidence indicates that the ancient Nubians were consuming these antibiotics on a regular basis in the authors suggest that these ancient people were intentionally producing this medicine and this links up with some evidence from other ancient. Ancient peoples nearby such as the Egyptians that sometimes apparently used beer as a treatment for conditions like gum, disease, and other types of infections in the authors even found evidence of a four year old child, whose skull contained lots of tetracycline from this beer, suggesting that the child had been fed high doses of this like antibiotic beer, perhaps in an attempt to cure illness, maybe the illness that killed him, and so the levels of tetracycline residue found in the bones of these mummies is only explicable if they were repeatedly consuming this antibiotic in their diet. And there are actually other archaeological remains that show evidence of antibiotic use in the ancient world for example samples taken from the era of skeletons from the Dock Leo ACIS in Egypt from people who live sometime in the late Roman period, also showed evidence of the same thing of tetracycline in the Diet and this consumption of tetracyclene is consistent with other evidence, showing a relatively low rate of infectious disease in Sudanese Nubia during that time period. And a lack of bone infections apparent in these remains from the basis in Egypt so. It really does look like people in ancient Africa discovered a somewhat effective form of antibiotics centuries before the discovery of penicillin and the isolation and mass production of focused anti microbial medicines now to be clear I think like a beer that had tetracycline content from from being cultured with bacteria, like this probably would not be as potent and focused ineffective as like the isolated compounds in the drugs take orally or through injection would be today right, but it would have some effect, and it appeared that it probably was somewhat effective in fighting infectious disease right, and of course they. They wouldn't know exactly what they had here, but they knew they had some sort of beer. Beer that seemed to some sort of holy liquid that that that had some sort of curative property to it exactly I mean if a fascinating discovery from the ancient world, an interesting fact tetracycline is relatively unique in that leaves clear signatures in the bones that can be discovered long after the person has died so other antibiotics don't leave these clear markers like this that make it easy for archaeologists to detect, so you have to wonder like are. Were there other cases of ancient peoples in various places in times using some kind of antibiotics, bacterial or fungal cultures to treat diseases like these ancient Nubian. People were but that we don't have evidence of. It doesn't show up in the bones like tetracycline does. Yeah, it could've just been lost to history I was reading an interesting paper from frontiers in microbiology in two thousand and ten by Reuss Domino, called a brief history of the antibiotic Era Lessons Learned and challenges for the future and Aminov points out this unique quality of tetracycline notes. Just what I was basically just saying like how easy it would be for evidence of other uses of antibiotics in the ancient world to be lost to us, though he he also mentioned that there are other anecdotes from history about cultural traditions. Traditions that show Proto antibiotic technologies in these other examples would include red soils found in Jordan that are used for treating skin infections. It's been discovered that these soils contain some antibiotic producing organisms I'd guess there are probably also some major risks in applying soil to wounds, and then also plants used in traditional Chinese medicine that actually do have some antimicrobial properties. Yeah, because one thing we have to remember the modern antibiotic effort is ultimately based in going out into the natural world in finding these weapons that already exist, and then you re using them in adapting them. For Human Madison and you know this is essentially what is going on in traditional medicines as well, and it also means that there are weapons out there that either have not been discovered at all, especially in particularly vibrant ecosystem, some of which of course, the for are threatened all the more reason to. For us to not decimate say the rain, forest, deep ocean, right but then there are also things that may have been discovered to some degree in the past, but have been forgotten well. Yeah, that that does seem possible, because despite all all this evidence of ancient sort of Proto antibiotic technologies, the worldwide rates of death from infectious disease in the periods for which we. We have data right before the invention of modern antibiotics shows that humans generally did not have effective antimicrobials in that period, so maybe some of this knowledge was lost over time all right well on that note, we're gonNA. Take our first break, but when we come back, we're going to return to the mold research, the nineteenth.
"penicillin" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey Welcome to invention. My name is Robert Lamb. And I'm Joe McCormack and Robert I know you WanNa talk about. Dnd before we get to the real subject. Well I don't know I I was thinking about doing it last. We can go ahead and talk about it. Upfront dragons. These various demon lords and they rule over various portions of the of the fiend population in the game and their two demon lords in particular that I was thinking about in regards. Today's episode And that that would be a boy and jubilee so zagged. Moi is the the Demon Lord of fungi the Queen Fungi Master of decay and then opposing her ever at odds with her is jubilant the faceless Lord which is God of uses and slimes and blobs losing nasty creatures of Dungeons and dragons and yeah they oppose each other. They're a constant war with each other and in some campaigns like their forces and even their their embodied forms do battle with one another and it it actually ties in a bit with the subject. We're talking about today of Penicillin Penicillin. The fungus that fights. I don't know would you call diseases slimes? Well I feel like jubilee being the Demon Lord of uses and slimes kind of makes it the the demon Lord of of microbiology as well and microbes and And microbial illnesses so okay. We'll so today we're going to be talking about penicillin. I guess maybe one of the the great real weapons of Zog to Moi yes But this this came up I think because we'd been talking about fungus on our other podcasts. On stuff to blow your mind where we just finished recording a five part series on psychedelics. Yea Looking at Fungal psychedelics ongoing research into how these substances could enhance our mental wellbeing and help in the treatment of psychological issues and one of our big take homes. Was these fungi could help save lives and improve the quality of human life. But it would not be the first or only fungi to do so because we can certainly look to various interactions between human hell's the different fungal species and their use in traditional medicine. We can point to various products including products of fermentation for instance including alcohol. But there's an even better example of better living through fungi in that's penicillin right so today. We're going to briefly. Explore the invention of penicillin which is often cited as the first true antibiotic technology. Of course antibiotics are medications that treat infections by killing injuring or slowing the growth of bacteria in the body and antibiotics are a class of what you would call antimicrobial drugs. Medicines that kill microbes present a threat to the body? Of course antibiotics generally fight bacterial infections. Whereas you could have others like Antifungal 's that Fungal infections or antivirals that fight viral infections. No antimicrobials and antibiotics are gigantic subject area. That we're of course not going to be able to get into every nook and cranny of the subjects but we hope we could have An interesting introductory introductory discussion. Maybe come back to antibiotics sometime again in the future because it's It's a broad invention that has lots of little invention tributaries throughout history. Yeah but it is such a fascinating case to look at and I think should make for a great episode of invention here because for starters. It's it's the twentieth century invention slash discovery off and of course the line between invention and discovery is a little bit gray but we we can pinpoint it to nineteen twenty eight and ultimately like rolled out by nineteen forty or so that we can. We can look to it. We can look at the world before and we can look at the world after with with clarity that we don't always have with certainly the older or more ancient inventions exactly because we always like to ask the question on the show. What came before the invention what what changed when this invention came on the scene And what came? Before widespread. Modern antibiotics was stupendous amounts of death and misery from infectious disease. In blood poisoning. I I was wondering like is it even possible to to get stats on what the world of infectious disease look like before we had antibiotics around the mid twentieth century. Yeah I mean to a certain extent of the suffering is just incalculable. Especially if you go back and sort of consider all of human history up to that point in the various factors that that influenced Infectious Disease Injury. You know the eventually the rise of germ theory but also this things like the rise of cities and so forth but but luckily yes. It was such a reason invention. We have some pretty incredible stats on the matter. Suddenly thanks to this new miracle drug diseases that simply ravaged the global population like syphilis could be cured. The shadow of lethal infection. No longer hung at least as heavily over every scrape injury and war wound and with wounds were often talking about sepsis which is a term that was used a by hippocrates back in the fourth century BC meaning blood rod or blood poisoning and he was referring more in generally I think to decay but the term came to be applied to blood poisoning which arises when the body's response to infection causes because injury to its own tissue and organs but just prior to the twentieth century infectious diseases accounted for high morbidity and mortality rates around the world even in the industrialized world according to w. a Adedeji in the treasure called antibiotics from two thousand sixteen. The average life expectancy at birth was forty seven years forty six and forty eight years for men and women respectively and this was due to the dangers of smallpox cholera diphtheria pneumonia typhoid fever plague tuberculosis typhus syphilis and a host of other ailments that could afflictions and enduring the antibiotic era That follow again. A rising in the middle of the twentieth century the leading cause of death in the United States change from communicable diseases. Noncommunicable diseases like carpet cardiovascular disease cancer and stroke and the average life expectancy at birth rose to seventy eight point eight years so the elderly were no longer a mere four percent of the population grow to become a whopping thirteen percent of the population. So we're talking about. You know profound changes demographics based on this new this new invention. Yeah the changes huge. I mean we live in a world now where if you have access to high quality modern medicine and a lot of people. Don't I mean insure mind but if you have access to high quality. Modern Science based medicine and you can get antibiotics and And can get to a hospital or see a doctor. You very likely have good chance to beat most of the common infectious diseases that that people get unless you have some kind of you know like another condition that exacerbates ed or something. Before antibiotics. This was just not the people just died from diseases that you catch like diseases that are common for people to catch all the time. Yeah or you had certain diseases like syphilis that were virtually uncurable and and some of the the cures that were attempted were pretty horrendous and had an generally did not work you know talking about using mercury and so forth and you mentioned before contamination of wounds. I mean this is just a huge thing just like a you know you might. You might cut yourself while gardening and you die from it. Yeah Heaven Forbid you undergo say Medieval Gallstone surgery or something like that. Yeah by the way I think. Tuberculosis has a you know is a good example to look at for some of these stats as well according to the CDC TB was a leading cause of death in the US in nineteen forty prior to the rollout of antibiotic therapy in one thousand nine hundred one hundred ninety four of every one hundred thousand. Us residents died. From deep tb most were residents of urban areas in one thousand nine hundred three leading causes of death in the US word pneumonia tuberculosis and diarrhea and interruptus which together with diptheria caused one third of all deaths and of these deaths. Forty percent were among children aged less than five years old. Now to your point in not everybody has access to Antibiotics that say people enjoy in say Europe and the United States Yeah TB remains a the leading cause of death from an infectious disease in many parts of the world? Particularly the developing world and some antibiotic treatments are in about assisted. Treatments are more complicated. More difficult than others. I mean I know the treatment for TB is not as say easy is the round of just orally administered antibiotics that you might get for a standard bacterial infection right but it suddenly was just Heralded is a as a miracle invention when it came about you buy. I saw an image of a of sign on a garbage can or mailbox. I'm from the Mid Twentieth Century Advertising. That now you can get gonorrhea cured in like four hours. Thanks to the these new developments in antibiotics it could be difficult to put ourselves in that mindset having grown up in the wake of antibiotics or at least most of us. Most people listening to this show. I was just thinking about how many like. Us presidents died of infections of various kinds. That seems like that would be a very unusual thing to happen now. But in the eighteen hundreds James Garfield got shot but it wasn't the initial gunshot that killed him live for like I think weeks afterwards He got an infection in the wound. Think because they were digging around with dirty hands to try to get the bullet out of him and he and they didn't have antibiotics of course when he got an infection so he died. I think another. Us was William Henry Harrison who I think down died from probably drinking fecal contaminated water and the White House. Yeah so many different Injuries and infections were just far more likely to be lethal with you. Know without modern antibiotics to step in and And aid in the fight. Now there were some things that were kind of like versions of antibiotics or antimicrobials from before the discovery of Penicillin in nineteen twenty eight. The best example from the period just immediate immediately prior to penicillin would be the Fontham is or the sulfur drugs. And these were the first antibacterial to be used Systematically and they were synthesized in one thousand nine hundred thirty two in the German laboratories of bear a G. Now you might be thinking about the time line like wait a minute. Didn't we just say that penicillin was discovered in twenty eight? But it took a long time. After the discovery of penicillins antibacterial properties for it to be made a useful medical dry like it was nineteen forty generally. That's the day you see for when penicillin actually became an actionable thing in medicine so before that we had The the SOFA drugs and it had they had a rocky start but they did prove very effective in preventing wound infections during the Second World War. They were used on both sides in the in the form of sulfur pills and also Sulfur powders that would be sprinkled over a wound. So if you've ever watched a lot know the Some sort of a period piece so especially a war piece of the twentieth century. And you see somebody sprinkling powder mover injury. That is what that's supposed to be sulfur drugs. They're not as effective is true. Antibiotics like penicillin in. There are a number of possible side effects that one that can take place and it also can't be used to treat syphilis and also can't treat SOFA resistant infections. Now of course. This is also a twentieth century invention so I was wondering. Did anybody come up with any version of antibiotics or proto? Antibiotics before the twentieth century we know penicillin hadn't been discovered and isolated and made stable as a useful medicine. But were there any things like antibiotics are sort of precursors of antibiotic? Because in game of thrones right. They have penicillin don't they? Or they have some sort of fantasy version. I've never heard of that. Don't they have something that that the the the old naysayers would mention having to do with Brad and mold or something? I don't remember that I just remember. People get cuts and then they get infected and die. Give him milk the poppy. I mean they have milk in the poppy. Maybe you're at. Our game of thrones Our George Martin readers left to right in on that but I vaguely remember there being like allusion to something like Some sort of mole based medicine that they were using. I could be wrong on that. Well I can't see that being something that's thrown in there as a little aside but the like isn't widely recognized her us and it's interesting how that kind of parallels some interesting pieces of evidence for pro antibiotic technology in the real world even going back to ancient times. So I WANNA look at the work of the emory university bio archaeologists. George J R Mela goes who is now deceased. I think he died in twenty fourteen But he's interesting interesting scholar and he discovered something very curious back in nineteen eighty so the subject he was looking at was a set of human bones from ancient Nubia dating from between three fifty and five fifty c e and so the bones came from Nubia which is a region of Africa along the Nile River but south of Egypt in what would be modern day Sudan and what these bones showed was evidence that the people they belong to had been taking tetracycline now. Tetracyclene is not the same as penicillin but it is an antibiotic. It can be used to treat all kinds of infections for minor. Problems like acne. I think in concert with some other drugs Two major diseases like plague or to leukemia.
If we can mobilise around a pandemic, what next? Meet two revolutionaries already flouting the rules
"You've said at one point that you think. Weist is beautiful. This zero philosophy is in a sense in practice for you. Isn't it one thing really like my life is just one big experiment you know. We had all sorts of experience. Guy On knock Ou- out offcuts of Broccoli with given to a Guy. Campbell had crickets growing. And he's and he's building and and there was a transaction. We paid him for the crickets. And what did the cricket stay ate the Broccoli yes. I'm quite obsessed with a nutrient density as well so fat soluble vitamins. How do you get all your vitamins? And crickets are a great source of that. And then you know. There's a lot of food that can be composted what about intercepting it. Before it gets composted and getting the most out of out of them and yeah we had them on the menu and we roast them and look like really a little bit like prawns in a sense. It's whatever you garnish them with. So we had salt Bush dehydrated and then mixed with salt and pepper and then some kelp dehydrated. People loved it. Okay so almost no waste zero. Yeah I can honestly say that we had zero waste and even the table was made from reconstituted plastic that came from Adelaide which company that makes bump recycled bumper bars. And we Lebron's I love the fact that out rubbish bins because there wasn't a rubbish bin in the place that's right. Yeah was any of these economically viable. I mean when I think about the restaurant and food industry. It's all about cost cutting isn't it? Food costs a very low but me because very hard. Because you're making butter from scratch making your grinding your own flour to make bread. You were making money yet. We were and then headed the council respond to you. How did regulate is and the Health Department released on? Ta The interesting thing we saw was counseled loved it and support it but it was relying on an invisible imposter. A Korean investment compost machine which took one hundred kilos plus of waste a day and would through bacteria and hate. Turn that into ten percent of volume pretty much overnight so this is like a loop yes. I would take it back and put it on my phone and grow more food. That was that was the idea. Originally four really beans and my goal was to get all the surrounding cafes to supply as well. I wanted to get that whole line way. Basically organic waste free and at just over one hundred twenty miles. It went on for years and Indian I just had a full and then it just got to a point where the threaten the V. Cat and my lease was up and decided enough's enough is enough. I it needs to be on wheels because it's crown land so wheels on it but then you've got it on wheels but it's plugged into the wall so it's technically building just went on and on and on and people at the city will argue that. It's not the case but I went to so many meetings own it went on for so long the Iraqis at the best year yet so it was just a wonder two. We've got a very different men now. I wonder if I would open it today. I think sally would be very different. And make sure that the people down and it wasn't their fault. Either this is like a law. That's one hundred years old. You go at bureaucrats but food safety is a wonderful thing. I'm mighty glad that I don't risk my life. Well I probably do. But you know the bugs extensively. Don't get me and don't kill me thank penicillin for that or thank medicine for that. All thank food safety laws and regulations that so these things are set up to Cape as well and healthy as well. The for the right reasons. I mean the reason why faces in European killed people in the during the gold rush. The contaminated water was killed people. There's a reason why these laws exist. Yes if you want to go carbon and look out of your lovely hotel room that you're staying in at at the river flowing underneath and the kids playing in it and then guide hospital. You'll find out that about half the hospital. Bids are filled with children. Who have drunk the water and the system doesn't work what we call the great centralized system of taking water from well outside the city using it and getting the pathogens as far away from the people as possible has worked for a very long time. So it's a good system but it. It's not a sustainable system anymore. It was a great system when it was invented. It's no longer a great system. The laws about keeping the pathogens and the chemicals away from the people still great laws. Yeah we just have to reinvent here we do it so you want a radical rethink of how we think about waste about how we think about water. How we think about sewerage. What would you like to see done differently? And why I believe we could have enough water in the city for twenty five million people currently when we get to eight million. We're going to have to build a new diesel nation plant. We have taking salt water and making it. Fresh is very expensive way to do it and it. It perpetuates the model that we will go and find new water rather than fix up the water that we pollute every day and throw away. The problem is that we would need to exploit that. We would need to move to a distributed model. Not Unlike a an energy model an engine model would say we'll generate half my electricity in my house and it might not be the most efficient thing to do might do it at a precinct scale and dealing with wastewater is not something I would recommend the public does however at a precinct scale. We could create a new suburb was sustainable. In terms of its water us so we have a wastewater treatment plant and WOULDA treatment plant. That are the same thing so it would just be a water treatment plant. It would take at polluted. Water would take watering from sources. That may or may not be polluted and in Australia. We spent a lot of time protecting those sources but around the world on average we still use that model in the sources on predicted working Sarabhai or any new Asia with river that supplies the water for the city is twenty times more concentrated in wastewater than what we dispose of this wastewater. Wow here and yet die. Beehive as though it's a clean water source in terms of the purification process if they just accepted that distributed model it said it is polluted wastewater with clean it up as though it was wastewater. Let's do it properly. Let's produce gripe water in in actual fact. That city could change very radically if they try it as the centralized piece. It's very difficult. You've got to build huge sewage. You've got to build reservoirs you've got to build a whole range of things if you do it. As a distributed system you could actually stop tomorrow and so this model in a Harvard sense for a Melbourne. Where new suburbs could be like that but for other CDs with his saying. We're GONNA put in sewage system. I say why would we do that? I mean th th thinking about that Indonesian example. You climb that we can process. We produce water that is cleaner more pure in a sense than tap water if I look at the waters of the world and we do that for a living and I look at what we can produce out of recycled plant currently in Antarctica by any test chemical biological any taste. You WanNa do. We are far cleaner than any tap water in the world
The Medical World Of The Flu Epidemic of 1918
"We start though we should talk a little bit about what the world of medicine and what public health were like in nineteen eighteen. So in many parts of the world nations hadn't really standardized or regulated what was required for persons who call themselves a doctor so people practice medicine with all kinds of different credentials or with no credentials and patent medicines. Which really didn't have any medical value and were mostly alcohol and laudanum. Most of the time. We're still pretty prevalent. There was a lot of stuff floating around that was just not legitimate for treating anything and at this point. Alexander Fleming had not yet discovered penicillin. That was still a decade away in its use as a drug was even further out than land so penicillin wouldn't have helped the flu since influenza is a virus and penicillin kills bacteria but it might have helped some of the people who wound up with bacterial pneumonia after contracting the flu. And this is more just to sort of point out a milestone of where we were in medicine when this flu epidemic was happening. Yep So in spite of some of these things that we think of as basics today like requiring people to be trained to call themselves doctors and antibiotics and things like that things had really advanced a lot in the world of medicine over the past century before the epidemic started most parts of the industrialized world at this point had understood and accepted the germ theory of disease. So at this point pretty much everyone was on the same page in most places that germs cause disease and doctors had also figured out exactly which germs caused a number of diseases including Turkey losses. Malaria and cholera the idea of a reportable disease or one. So dangerous that all cases of it needed to be reported to government authorities also existed but even though there had been another serious flu epidemic a couple of decades before influenza wasn't really reportable in most places until this particular epidemic had gotten dyer and at that point it was too late for warning the government to do really any good. Yeah what they already knew. There was a big problem by the time people were able to start saying. Hey there is a big problem. Vaccines also existed. There was a vaccine for smallpox. There is a vaccine for rabies vaccines. Were also in the works and people really thought as the as the epidemic going a vaccine for the flu was just around the corner as we talked about in the encephalitis lethargic episode. Though figuring out how to make a vaccine for a disease when you don't know what's causing the disease is really hard and not only. The doctors not know what was causing the flu. They also had it pinned on a completely different germ. They thought it had a totally different. 'cause than it really did. Have so at the start of the epidemic the purported culprit for the flu was a bacterium that had been named Pfeiffer SPEC syllabus after its discoverer who was a German scientist named Robert Friedrich Pfeiffer and he made the connection between his back Sylla's and the flu but he hadn't really proved this connection and as the epidemic wore on it became abundantly clear that pfeiffer was wrong the back Sylla's he discovered was not present insect patient's and deliberately exposing people to it didn't give them the flu so even though an international team was dedicated to trying to create a vaccine none of their work proved effective and it I They were after the wrong germ and then they didn't have a good starting point. So all of this together combines to mean that when the flu turn really deadly in nineteen eighteen. There was not much that legitimate doctors could do for their patients besides to keep them in bed and keep them as sped hydrated and comfortable as possible the most most of the things that have any efficacy at all where about prevention which basically involved keeping the sick people quarantined and trying to educate people about how to keep themselves from being exposed and doctors knew that the flu has spread by coughing and sneezing so they gave the common sense advice about covering your nose and mouth and staying away from people who were coughing and sneezing. Oh and also telling people not to spit on the ground. So don't spit on the ground. Please you know their debates over whether that's a civil way to behave in general but Sick people don't know spitting it's gross and spreads illness so they're also a lot of public health campaigns that we're trying to get people who were sick to stay at home which probably sounds kind of familiar to win. There's a big flu outbreak today. They especially. We're trying to educate people who were sick to get them to stay away from crowds and businesses. Got It on the deal to try and to warn people who were ill to go home so assigned at one theater in Chicago. Red Influenza frequently complicated with pneumonia is prevalent at this time throughout America. This theater is cooperating with the Department of Health. You must do the same if you have a cold and are coughing and sneezing. Do not enter this theater and then in all capital letters go home and go to bed until you are well. That seems wise. Not all of the advice on prevention with sound though many people in public health recommended that people wear masks and some places even required that mask be worn by law. But this was in fact not effective. Your masks are kind of effective when there's bacteria involved but when it's a virus the viruses are just too
Coronavirus Spurs U.S. Efforts to End China’s Chokehold on Drugs
"Chinese state media have raised the specter of using Beijing's pharmaceutical leverage to block critical components and supplies for dependent US drug companies and sent America into a quote the hell of a novel coronavirus epidemic unquote well in the in several European nations play critical roles in the global medical supply chain China is among the top providers of active pharmaceutical ingredients they calm API's the basic components for antibiotics and other prescription drugs consumed by Americans with the coronavirus crisis threatening to strain the US government's largest stockpile of such drugs health experts warn China's own outbreak and related societal shut down could mean major shortages I had his Chinese factories struggle to keep up production of the API the trump administration lawmakers from both parties are now calling for a dramatic revamping a domestic US drug manufacturing operations I have been outsourced to China and a handful of other nations over the past twenty years the formal letter an online news site covering the pharmaceutical and biotech industries all right some stock numbers on US dependence on Chinese producers China cord accounted for ninety five percent of US imports of ibuprofen ninety one percent of US imports of hydro chorus that's a big deal seventy percent of US imports of let's see ascertainment from forty percent to forty five percent of US imports the penicillin forty percent of US imports of hopper as heparin I can read the one I really I can according to commerce department data and all eighty percent of the U. S. supply of antibiotics are made in China ladies and gentlemen China as an enemy it is a communist regime it is doing everything it can to harm our country without straight out war
Farts Can Be Silent, But Can They Be Deadly?
"Cash in capital one. What's in your wallet? Terms apply. Welcome to brain stuff. Production of IHEARTMEDIA. Hey brain stuff lauren. Bogilov here look. No one really wants to think about it and yet you can't help but think about it when you smell or emit a particularly difference Fart. Can that fart spread disease? We found two studies done decades apart the come to different conclusions in August of nineteen sixty eight. An outbreak of infections of a particular strain of streptococcus occurred at Vanderbilt University Hospital in Nashville Tennessee. The nine patients infected were housed in different wards with different problems and they were visited by many medical staff during their stays. But seven of them shared an anesthesiologist. The staff took oral swabs of the anesthesiologist skin and throat but they came back negative. No trace of the STREPTOCOCCI since this was the mid twentieth century. When Penicillin was handed out like candy. The anesthesiologist was given a short course of antibiotic because not but a few months later in November and December. Another outbreak of the same strain of strap infected eight different patients. The same anesthesiologist attended five of these new cases. Heap still wasn't showing any symptoms. But this time the staff took an anal swab of the doctor and that turned up the exact strain of strep affecting these new patients. The doctor was given a full round of antibiotics and taken off duty for ten days afterwards. His cultures were clear of STREPTOCOCCI. And there were no further wound infections related to his patience researchers said at the time in the New England Journal of Medicine that while the quote Amos to hand patient route of transmission was a possibility airborne. Transmission was more likely in this case the authors of the paper concluded then that it was probably the doctors farts infecting the patient's wounds not him failing to wash his hands properly fast forward to two thousand one. A woman called into Dr Karl Nikki's Radio Show in Australia asking if she was contaminating the operating room when she quietly farted during procedures. Dr Carl thought that was a fair question. So he enlisted. Microbiologist friend Luke tenant to help find out tenant asked a colleague to Fart into to Petri dishes one with his pants on and one with his pants down never forget. Science is very elegant. Tenant checked the dishes the next morning beano pants. Dish had lumps of bacteria similar to those found on our skin and in our gut. The pants dish had no bacteria. Dr Karl noted that the bacteria and the no pants dish wasn't harmful though. Just the normal everyday microbes that live within and around us and can even be helpful. They're part of the microbiome that helps US digest our food. Well Okay but what about Pinkai? You may have heard as a kid that you can get. Pinkai somebody farts on your pillow. First of all if someone starts on your pillow they are not your friend. You shouldn't let them anywhere near your pillows second though. The Myth just isn't true. It's called passing gas because it's gas. Any bacteria in the FART would die pretty quickly outside the body. You can't however get pink eye from actual poop if you touch poop and then touch your eye you can get pink guy as with bacterial infection any viruses that might be present in your intestines aren't likely to spread through farts. This is even true of Corona viruses. Like the one that leads to cove in nineteen viruses fall out of the air pretty quickly meaning these surfaces. They land on our more contagious than any smell. Wafting pasture unfortunate knows more than anything to do with farts. Good hand washing techniques will make the most difference for keeping bacteria and viruses outside your body
A Brief History of Staphylococcus Aureus
"Years ago. I acquired an infection in my left eye socket caused by the bacteria. Staphylococcus Aureus my vision clouded and then. My eye socket swelled shut and I ended up hospitalized for over a week how I experienced the same infection anytime in history before nineteen forty. I would've likely lost. Not just my I but my life then again I wouldn't have ever lived to acquire orbital so you lights because I would have died of the staph infections I had in childhood. Stella Aureus is not a normal part of the human microbiome but many people perhaps around a third are like me. Nonetheless hosts two colonies of it on our skin or in our nasal passages or in our digestive systems. These colonies are usually harmless but while anyone can get sick with staff those of us who live omitted. Every day are more likely to suffer infections. When I was in the hospital the infectious disease. Doctors made me feel very special. One told me you are colonized by some fascinating Lee. Aggressive Staff He told me I wouldn't believe the petri dishes if I saw them and went on to call my continued existence. A real testament to modern medicine. Which I suppose it is for. People like myself colonized by fascinating. The aggressive bacteria there can be no harkening back wistfully to pass Golden Ages. Because in all those pasts I would be dead in. Nineteen forty one. Boston city hospital reported in eighty two percent fatality rate. For staph infections. I remember as a child hearing phrases like only the strong survive and survival of the fittest and feeling terrified by them. Because I knew I was not fit or strong. I didn't yet know that when humanity protects the frail among us and works to ensure their survival the human project as a whole get stronger failing to understand that has held our species back for Millennia and in fact still does because staff often infects open wounds. It has been especially deadly during war near the beginning of world. War One. The English poet Rupert Brooke Famously wrote if I should die. Think only this of me that there's some corner of a foreign field that is forever. England Brookwood indeed die in the war in the winter of nineteen fifteen but not in some corner of a foreign field but instead on a hospital ship of a bacterial infection by then there were of course. Thousands of doctors treating the war's wounded and ill among them was a seventy one year old. Scottish surgeon Alexander Ogden who decades earlier had discovered and named Staphylococcus Ogden who sported a magnificent moustache throughout his adult. Life was a huge fan of Joseph. Lister WHO's observations about post surgical infection led to the use of carbolic acid and other sterilization techniques these dramatically increased surgical survival rates. In fact after visiting lister and learning from Him Ogden returned to his hospital in Aberdeen and tore down the sign above the operating room that read prepare to meet the God. No would surgery. Be a desperate last ditch effort. It could be safe and clean and survivable. Ogden was so obsessed with listers carbolic acid spray that his students wrote a poem about it. The spray the spray the antiseptic spray. A would shower it morning night and day for every sort of scratch where others would attach a sticking plaster patch. He gave the spray. It's all right but it's no Rupert Brooke. At any rate Ogden had good reason to give the spray. His first wife Mary. Jane had died after childbirth a few years earlier at the age of twenty five. There's no record her cause death but most maternal deaths at the time were caused by postpartum infection often due to staphylococcus aureus and dogs had hundreds of his patients die of post surgical infection so no wonder he was obsessed with antiseptic protocols. Still he wanted to understand not just how to prevent infection but also what precisely was causing it by the late. Eighteen seventies many discoveries were being made by surgeons and researchers about various bacteria and their role in infection but staphylococcus was not identified until Austin lanced a pus filled abscessed leg wound belonging to one James Davidson. Under the microscope. Davidson's abscess was brimming with life. Ogden wrote my delight may be conceived when there were revealed to me beautiful tangles tufts and chains of round organisms in great numbers. Ogden named these tufts and chains staphylococcus from the Greek word for bunches of grapes and they do often look like grape bunches plump and just a little bit oblong and also quite yellowish green. A few years later a German scientist noted that there were in fact several species of staphylococcus and named the one Ogden had found Staphylococcus Aureus or the golden staff but Ogden wasn't content with just seeing the bacteria. Obviously he wrote the first step to be taken was to make sure the organisms found. In Mr Davidson's pus were not there by chance. So he set up a laboratory in the shed behind his house and began trying to grow colonies of staff eventually succeeding by growing them. In the medium of a chicken egg he then injected the bacteria into guinea pigs and wild mice which became violently ill. Ogden also noted that staphylococcus seemed to be quote harmless on the surface despite being quote so deleterious when injected I have also observed this in so far as I am not much bothered by having my skin colonized by Staphylococcus Aureus but find it. Dilatot serious indeed when it starts replicating inside my eye socket. James Davidson by the way went on to live another forty years after his staph infection. Thanks to a thorough deriding and Ogden's liberal use of the spray the spray the antiseptic spray but staphylococcus aureus remained an exceptionally dangerous infection until another Scottish scientist Alexander. Fleming discovered penicillin by accident. Actually one Monday morning in nineteen twenty eight Fleming notice that one of his cultures of Staphylococcus aureus had been contaminated by a fungus penicillin them which seemed to have killed all the STAPH BACTERIA. He remarked allowed. That's funny Fleming. Then used what? He called his mould juice. I wish I were making that up to treat. Couple patients including during his assistance. Sinus infection but mass production of the antibiotic substance secreted by. Penicillin proved very challenging. It wasn't until the late nineteen thirties. That a group of scientists at Oxford began testing their penicillin stocks. I on mice and then in nineteen forty one on a human subject. A policeman named Albert Alexander who'd been cut by shrapnel during a German bombing raid and who was dying of bacterial infections in his case both staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus. The penicillin caused a dramatic improvement in Alexander's condition but the researchers didn't have enough of the drug to save him. The infections returned and Alexander died in April of nineteen forty one. His seven-year-old daughter Sheila ended up in a local orphanage. Scientists began to seek out more productive strains of the mold and eventually found one on a cantaloupe in a Peoria Illinois grocery store that strain eventually became even more productive after being exposed to x rays and ultraviolet radiation. But essentially all penicillin. In the world descends from that mold on that one cantaloupe in Peoria. That's not the astounding thing about the story though the astounding thing is that after scraping off the mold that became the world's supply of penicillin the scientists in question eight the rest of the cantaloupe
Sushi, salads and spring rolls recalled on listeria fears
"You just bought a tray of Sushi from a drugstore or a gas station and you're about to put one of those pieces in your mouth mouth weights. Something you need to watch. I ready to eat Sushi. Salad and spring rolls are being voluntarily recalled over fears of Listeria contamination contamination. The Fuji Food Products are sold in thirty one states in Washington. DC they worship several different retailers including trader Joe's seven eleven and walgreens products sir packed in plastic with most having sell by dates of November twenty second to December. Six Fuji Says Consumers should throw out any of the food in their possession. And Okay now you can put it in your mouth. No because I mean. Let's be honest if you bought Sushi at a drugstore. You don't care it's poison. Health warnings for people. People like you my friends like I'm not surprised that seven eleven Sushi is not top quality. They sell in a forty. Two Ounce Cup. What did you expect? Risk my health on this like my roof. Sushi is simple. If you can't see the person making it you should not be eating the Sushi. It's the same reason I don't adopt kids. I if I wasn't there to see you being born how do I know you're not just the raccoon in a baby costume getting tricked again. I've been fooled once. I also feel bad for the health department officials who have to enforce this rule. Because they're going to go into the convenience store like I'm afraid you're seventy eleven. Sushi has gone bad and the close going to be like the the Sushi here could be making people sick Newport news although I do get. Y Drugstores Sell Sushi. It makes sense because they have a pharmacy they just trying to so more penicillin. Yeah plus it's good in case laxatives out of stock. Yeah you'd be like sorry we out of ex lax but have you tried out spicy crab. Ral Yeah and honestly I admire people who go to drugstores to buy Sushi. Yeah because forget bungee jumping you guys are the real thrill seekers. Yeah I've got a business meeting at forty minutes. I don't know where the nearest bathroom is. Let's do this
Surface Duo first look: Microsoft's foldable Android phone
"Big surprise surface duo a phone. It's a phone and you can you can fold it all the way around screens and the outside and just use the phone running android two displays right now. There's a snapdragon eight fifty five in there. We all suspect the by the time this thing launches called a twenty twenty. They'll they'll go to the next generation rationing of stamps Reagan's but right now it's fifty five. We've seen companies screw that up or they like they announce it way ahead of time with a relatively processor like oh the they'll fix that by the time at launches is and they don't so. I'm not one hundred percent confident that this won't be running a stab eight eight fifty in holiday two thousand twenty more than a year from now. It's it's back and forth because penicillin us on the show yesterday the hardwares lock. This is the third generation it's locked. We're announcing it early. Developers have it in a couple of months because we want them to build absence still Sri and stuff off and then sort of like whispers around the edges the event were when it wants like we'll see that's a real question yeah but we Panos said on the show on the record Australia astray hardware slot. This is what's as like the form factor of the design and everything yeah. I said well the hardware said notices it will the chip inside change. I think openair it's beautiful. I say I held one yesterday. I actually held Panos if you listen to the show you like hands it to me and you can hear me almost like runaway links except how scroll through Android on it opened the notifications shade like I used the thing it is. I love it. I love it and I know no. It's not it's got a big team. In the middle. passes like we're leaning into the seem. The interface does cool things with the seem like window snap to it. It's like that's that part of. It's neat right. He's like the same help structure windows on the interface structure displays. If you have a window that spans across it the wind even the content inside of the window. Oh he showed me a calendar up so even like calendar events and you like drag to create a calendar event snapped the wind. It's neat. I'll try to think as someone who has done some some bad. CSS In my time what sort of CSS would accommodate that well. I guess there's not there are they're invisible pixels under the seve or the displays no it's it's just two different displays and a hinge android ten specifically is designed for multi screen devices races when they announced it had a whatever they announced it back in March and it's Q. and then I got an early look at it every time I went to talk to Google about android ten. They're like an IT works better with multi screen devices and I was like cool. You know the galaxy fold is a dumpster fire right and they're like yeah but it works. Multi screen devices work really hard and I'm like why hey there's. LG Yeah we'll we'll get to that but Google has worked not just Samsung but with Microsoft to build support for multi-screen into the logic of android itself and you can actually see a hint of that right now on the fold where you can have a thing on the outside screen open it up and the whole APP appears on the inside screen just re sized The you can also see hints of this and all the work they did to make android apps work better on chrome or you can recite them and they can have arbitrary arbitrary window sizes without having to reload All of that stuff works like folds right into full. It's right into the surface duo because you can apps are now aware that different screens exists and they should do different things depending on what screen they're on and what screen they're being sent to and so it makes perfect sense that it. Mike just figure out how to have a calendar you hit a thing on one screen and then something within the same APP happens on the other screen or another APP knows to open on the screen because they basically basically told Google and Google said cool. Let's let's try and minimize fragmentation here. Use these tools to do it and so it's a mix of custom. Microsoft stuff but also stuff that's built into android enjoyed other people might be able to take advantage of now that acts on the GTE thing you're talking about. was a dual screen phone. It folded the other way. and you know it was like it didn't it wasn't aware of the the the gap it wasn't aware of the hinge and so everything new split across it like kind of bad ways. I think the hope is that the dual avoid a lot of those problems so this is. Maybe a little weedy but okay. I've got my email on one side and my calendar on the other side right classic to APP scenario. Now I want to send an email on the left side and I clicked new email. Let's let's say opens on the left side right but a counter still open on the right side but now I turn it and I've got this big wide keyboard which looks pretty like a nice situation. Then right is all going to work automatically. Is it GonNa know which apple I want to be on the top of which one I want to become a keyboard. DVD does it remember that kind of stuff unclear unclear there are million things they could get wrong here and apple by the way got a bunch of these things wrong and IPAD so at least. I'll be interested to see if Microsoft doesn't Yeah I've been given how much to talk about about flow and putting people in their productivity flow flow just conceptually. I hope their thing in this stuff through. I mean one of the justifications does he gave us for dual screen is important was like we hooked people up to brain activity sensors and measured. How much more brain activity is when. There's two screens which which is cool. I don't want to take away from the fact that's cool. It is very Microsoft right like why does Microsoft. No this is good because they generated a bunch of data that it says it is and then at the very end of it. It's like this is crazy. Sifi right like how many screens should you have as many as the brain scans. Tell us you should have and I wonder if like more more is better like you're GonNa get a four screen device four times activity and that brain thing is I mean like I have different modes of productivity. I have like my sitting with one big window. Open concentrating on one thing and then I have my my duel window setup and like you know like a dealer. You're saying I think this last week about the IP operate system. They're sort of a mix of spatial and time. Kinda hurts you so like if if having multiple screens or multiple pains or multiple sections is inconsistent inconsistent that is more work for your brain yeah and I love the thing about we're using the two displays and we're going to structure that that implies. There's like there's spatial metaphors. He's here not chronology metaphors but having held the thing for you know the brief moments. We got to hold it and swipe through it one. It's real it works. It doesn't it's it's hot fake. It's not just like a little piece of paper. Yup which is like companies do that to us. The version of android on it appears three lightly designed so that the icons under square the navigation shape looks with different. They're they say they're working with Google closely. They would not answer our questions about Ah Google letting you do stop and Panos was like letting conversations partnering conversation which is definitely some corporate executive talk. There's a lot to unpack there. I looked at he showed me on the screen. Google searches the default on this side but a bunch of Microsoft stuff is on the home screen of the interface on this side being searches there but Google APPs get to be the default in some cases. You know what the default browser is edge
The Future of Healthcare with Voice Technology
"Turned the tables a little bit and in fact i was recently asked to appear on another podcasts the data talk podcast which is hosted by mike delgado and we talked about all types of scenarios scenarios and implications of the intersection of voice technology and healthcare we actually even get a little bit futuristic and i paint some of my own pictures as well as some pictures of some colleagues and people that i've interviewed on my own pod podcast about where we're going with this technology so mike was really generous chris and allowed me to share the content of his podcast episode here with you the listeners of my podcast so i hope you will enjoy it and with without any further i do. Let's get right to it. This is the data talk podcast with mike delgado and myself enjoy. Hey friends welcome to talk a show where we talk with against science leaders from around the world today. We're talking to dr terry fisher. He's a physician. He's a professor at the university of british columbia. He's also the host and founder of voice always first health podcast as well as alexa in canada. He is super busy doing tons of things and have not gary fisher. You're with us how you doing terry. I'm doing great. Thank you so much. Thanks so much inviting me. It's a real pleasure to be here and if there's one thing that's the most accurate of anything that you said there. Is that a busy so i like okay your doctor like you're busy enough being a doctor and then like to add to that you're teaching courses which which is awesome that you're doing how to help the next generation of doctors and then you're like as a hobby. You're leading these tech podcasts. <music> around boys and healthcare is is curious like how do you do it all which had an easy answer for that. I don't know it's i. I guess the biggest thing that i can say that is simply. It's i love it right. It's a passion and it's a hobby so all the stuff outside of my professional practice my medical practice. I got involved this voice technology thing the more learn about it. The more i love it the more i become enthralled with this technology and i guess that makes it easier to spend a lot of time and i do spend a lot of time on it. I've got a young families well. So of course you know wow so your dad to dad yeah so i thought that my my wife and my two kids and so obviously within all of this there the priority to so i wanted to spend time with them so but but really to be honest you know when not focused on my family. I'm working on my hobby which is voice technology and podcast that sorta stuff so tell me about. How did you get interested in invoice technology. That's a great question so i would say first of all that my my three base passions. I've talked about this a little bit already but is israeli technology healthcare and education <hes> before i did medical school. I did an education degree. So i became a teacher then it went into medical school but it was about a two to three years ago when i started i hearing a little bit about voice technology in being a podcast sort of a techie at heart that sort of got me intrigued and i started looking into a little bit and and actually that time <hes> for example wasn't even available candidate and i am i am in canada <hes> <hes> in vancouver and so i thought oh that's interesting but yet i'm still very interested in what amazon's doing this technology so i started to look into a little bit more and and i realized that there were hints that was going to be starting to come to candidates soon. I thought this might be a really interesting way to put my passion together of technology. <hes> <hes> education and also health started thinking about the healthcare implications of this and that's when i decided to launch my websites started with alexa in canada <hes> which is more of a a consumer base but also <unk> voice professional based website where talks about generally what alexis all about what it can do. It's also very applicable to people in united states by the way even those called lexin in canada. If there are any concerns i do try to highlight those and then as that developed i am. I launched what's flash briefing which is like a mini podcast you subscribe to on alexa and then with my medical background. I thought this is start to learn more about it. I thought this is really going to change healthcare and that's what i thought okay. Now i need started podcasts called voice. I health and that's how that started in. It's really highlighting anything that has to do with the intersection between healthcare and voice technology <hes> <hes> and ultimately it was a way to combine the three passions right healthcare technology in education because that's kind of what i see as as what to do with these with these bathrooms you mentioned before we get into this. You mentioned that you were a teacher first and then you went to medical school. Tell me about that. That's interesting yeah i. I was in school for a long time to throw it to make things even seen little more crazy. If you want to put this is not gonna surprise me with you. You know i actually actually hold four degrees so i did. I did a bachelor of science in anatomy and cell biology and experimental medicine and and then i did a masters of science in <hes> sorry i said that wrong batter science in anatomy cell biology biotechnology than i did a masters of science science in experimental medicine then i did my education degree and then i did <hes> medical school followed by family practice residency and my sports medicine fellowship so i've been i literally in school for for our wasn't school for decades. Yeah your whole life pretty much so yeah yeah but it's not which is one of the really interesting thinks everybody's got different life experiences and i've been able to now to bring these together into this this field which is just a click together and what can i say. It's a it's a lot of fun so when you first started looking at alexa voice technology what were your initial reactions to type of skills that were available double or things that you could do with it. Yeah i think the first thing that sort of struck me and again it goes back to the education. Idea is that when it comes to the medicine because he is every knows you can do you can listen to music you can set timers you can set alarms and all that kind of stuff but i started thinking about it in terms of being a tool for education education and how somebody can ask the device whatever it is it's on their mind to learn from the device and so whether that is is like what are the symptoms of strep throat right <hes> that's a very basic basic skill and that sort of thing that i was starting to think about another a skill that sort of took a little bit to the next level was a skit out that can provide you with. I eight advice so you're chopping up a carrot. You cut your finger and rather than having to foot flip through first aid guide. If you don't know how to take care of it you can simply ask the device. How do i do i do with a cut finger and so those sorts of educational and informational skills i think we're the first level where really got me started started thinking about it but as i sort of delve into this a little bit more i realize that it's is not just about education because we're we're now having conversations with these devices and that brings the the <hes> the available all applications to a whole new level particularly now recently in the last couple of months at amazon announced that the devices are hip compliant and so now they can store to store personal health information. So what does that mean. It means that you can now start to to use these devices as surrogates for care providers mean give example <hes> is a skill out there that can can give you medication reminders based on your medication schedule so one area or one population one segment of the population that is really finding finding he's beneficial are people that are aging and there's this whole movement called aging in place where people want to maintain their independence than want to stay home but sometimes that's difficult because for example eh forget to take their medication that may forget when they have appointments they can become forgetful but various things and they need people to remind them about these things and also remind them of what they should be checking as far as health well now. You don't need to rely on your doctor a carried us put a device in your home and it does that for you and so these devices i think and i believe the way we're going. We're going to gradually take on more and more of a rule of care ada care provider <hes> somebody who can somebody see that's the way i use the term now somebody who can who can help take care of you. I think that those are some beautiful examples and i mean i can certainly see myself or something like that in the future i wanna get a reminder on something something but i also love the example you gave around getting some information on how to diagnose something like is this something i need to go to a doctor about in trying to like go through some sort of conversation with the ball around my symptoms right right. Well let me i'm going to paint a picture for you. I think we're going to kind kind of this. Is this is not here yet but i truly do not think that we're too far off so here's this here's the scenario magin you wake up and you have a sore ortho. You don't feel well. You know something's wrong. Something is not right and so the way it is now. You know what would we do. We would think okay well now. I'm going to have to make a call. Dr make an appointment go on in need not to call into work sick. They make arrangements for my kids. Get in the car drive to the doctor. Bla-bla-bla get history. Maybe the doctor does a throat swab. Says yeah looks like like you might have strep throat. I'm going to send you know the pharmacy. Get your drugs. Go home and check in. If things go bad whatever it's quite an ordeal when you're feeling probably all that stuff is the last thing you wanna do so. Let's imagine though you were just a little bit further in the future and what happens is you wake up and your voice system says good morning to you you say good morning and just by the tone of your voice it can tell the something's not right because it knows your voice and thinking back to that. It's a very fascinating area called vocal biomarkers will come back to that but i ask you questions like how are you feeling and you say you know what i'm actually not feeling. That great got a sore throat doc shivering and start to ask you about symptoms just like your physician does so you go through that and using some algorithms some a._i. The natural language understanding it gives you sort of a probability and says you know what based on what you've told me. There's a high probability that you have strep throat. How would you like it. If i were to order a strep test to your home had delivered right now -sego sure to what does this word ties into amazon amazon's brilliant here quite frankly so this amazon amazon so it automatically orders a strep test drone on. You've got it a drone lance at your home. You pick up the strep test now. The strep test west is wi fi enabled the smart old so it automatically taps into your home wifi network and you do the test and your voice assistant talks to you. It tells you how to do it. You do the strep test it then analyzes it it gives you the results and it says yes. You have strep throat. You need some antibiotics. What is now. I know from our previous interactions that you're allergic to penicillin. I already know that 'cause i know your personal health record and so i'm not going to bother to ask him questions about that 'cause we. We will be efficient but i'm going to if it's okay with you. I'm going to order some antibiotics for you. We're gonna have those delivered to your home fantastic so little while later another drone drops drops off your antibiotics. You go to your front door. You pick them up. You start taking them and your voices starts talking you through
London Crawling with Drug-Resistant Microbes
"This is scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Christopher Dodd Yata. If you're a Germaphobe navigating the city there are certain certain mandatory rules of engagement use a paper towel to shield your hand as you touch the bathroom door handle lift toilet seat covers with your shoe touch buttons at A._T._M.'s and crosswalks awesome walks in elevators with a knuckle. The back of your hand never a fingertip. I know this because I am that person and a new study in the journal scientific reports somewhat justifies is my behavior because when researchers in London sampled all those kinds of surfaces in public shopping centers and train stations and common areas in hospitals what they found was a whole a lot of antibiotic resistant bacteria lurking there scientists swab sites all over London and ended up with six hundred samples of staphylococcus bacteria of those nearly half were resistant to two or more commonly used antibiotics like penicillin and Erythromycin and the hospital samples had significantly more drug doug resistant microbes which makes sense because hospitals are a place where they use a lot of antibiotics but if there is a silver lining here it might be how few staph bacteria were multi-drug-resistant drug-resistant in public places a mere forty seven percent because a few years back one in the same scientists swabbed London hotel rooms in found that eighty six percent percent of the staph bacteria. There were multi-drug-resistant which may not help you sleep easy. Thanks for listening for scientific American sixty seconds science. I'm Christopher Don Yata.
"penicillin" Discussed on Invention
"There is a legitimate question to be asked might the allies not have won the Second World War without penicillin <hes>. I think there are a lot of factors to consider there. I don't think it's quite a Gotcha question but it's it's worth thinking about the authors argue that without flemming's discovery would have had to depend on the SOFA drugs an imperfect alternative negative to <hes> true antibiotics and these these were described in the nineteen thirties and Fleming worked with him prior to his discovery but without penicillin in play the authors argue that Sofa drugs might have become the standard and even push rush the discovery of true antibiotics well beyond the nineteen sixties and this is also true of the Axis powers had risen in victorious in World War Two because they're the access powers depended on sulfur drugs and their their key treatment <hes> point out that you know quote despite the fact that the Germans and their allies where at a considerable disadvantage the soft drugs did a relatively good job at reducing battle casualties so not to just completely <hes> you know cast aside the effectiveness of soft drugs but they were not as effective as true antibiotics. It's weird to think about the political implications of specific medical technologies yeah and then when you get down to the curious cases of individuals yeah it also gets interesting where he touched on presidents who died died <hes> that would have lived potentially if there had been penicillin around right and so they point out that <hes> that sofa drugs saved Churchill's life in nineteen forty three when he was suffering from pneumonia I as well as F._D._R.'s life a but there's also evidence by the way <hes> that actual penicillin may have saved Hitler's life following the Stauffenberg assassination attempt of July twentieth nineteen forty four this was the plot that tried to kill Hitler with a briefcase I bom right like where the some of the officers conspired against him and they put up briefcase bomb in the room with him and it did explode but he was protected by a heavy table that prevented it from killing him. He was obviously injured and I think he had like nerve damage after I'd so so the idea here is that perhaps his injuries were treated by by penicillin yeah that's at least an argument has been made that they had access to penicillin <hes>. I'm unclear on how they would have obtained it. You know through. Maybe there's a spy story there I I don't know but the the idea being well if he had if he didn access to penicillin then perhaps he would have died and that would have arguably ended the war in a different manner forcing us to re imagine an entirely different postwar world so again again. We're playing with with what ifs here and in also we my understanding is we don't know for sure that Hitler had access to penicillin following that assassination attempt but there is the overall scenario of the allies having penicillin and having this ramped up penicillin production leading into d day yeah that is really interesting. I never contemplated that before. <hes> now something that we do often have to think about and we should probably acknowledge at the end here before we move on. Maybe this'll be something to come back and do in the future with a recent invention episode is the idea of <hes> a possible end of the antibiotics edge. I mean this is a kind of scary thing to imagine like what if the antibiotics age is essentially a period in history that has a beginning winning in an end because as we you've you've probably heard about this many disease causing bacteria and other disease causing microbes are overtime evolving. <hes> antibiotic resistance are evolving to to to be powerful enough to survive are antimicrobial drugs and I think specifically one thing that's exacerbating this overuse of antibiotics and people not taking the entire course of antibiotics when they're giving them yeah because again to come back to the Doug Moi jubilee war scenario you know it is an ongoing battle and the the forces evolve to better deal with the threats on each side yeah and so we're we're we're seeing this occur. We're seeing the the overuse of antibiotics producing strains that are that are resistant and it's reversing some of the therapeutic miracles of the last fifty years and underscores the importance of disease prevention in addition to treatment and that means not not abandoning some of our other.
"penicillin" Discussed on Invention
"All right we're back so we often don't don't do a lot of what ifs on Invention don't I thought we to certain extent but I mean a lot of times. It's harder case to be made like what if this had not been invention united right bill bill or discovered because in most cases you can you can you can look at the data you can look at other individuals where like if the Wright brothers had not invented the airplane had not created that <hes> that first prototype that really showed what was possible <hes> like clearly there were there were other individuals in the world working on this someone would have cracked it. If Roentgen had not discovered x-rays in eighteen ninety whatever year it was somebody else would have discovered them pretty soon right but <hes> when he comes to penicillin <hes> potentially it's a little more complicated than that I ran across a cool article on the topic titled What He Fleming had not discovered penicillin and this was published in the Saudi Journal. <hes> of biological sciences is by Al Harbi at all the authors admit that that certainly Fleming had made the discovery someone else might have in the years to follow. Probably you know in the early nineteen forties they estimate so we could still well have have arrived saved antibacterial age however they also explore the possibility that we might have simply not made the discovery at all well and it's an interesting argument so I wanna I wanna read a quote from the paper here. Quote of course penicillin could have been discovered the day after Fleming missed the opportunity but in reality there was no parallel discovery that took place as a result anyone taking an interest in penicillin during the nineteen thirties did so in the knowledge of Fleming's work in particular the seems no no reason to believe that flory chain would have discovered penicillin since their work depended on Fleming's famous paper and their access to one of his penicillin producing cultures okay so that's referring to the thing I mentioned about how <hes> how so <hes> Fleming in his assistance were just like sharing the penicillin strain out with everybody like hey. Can you figure out what's going on with this. Can you isolate secretion the compound in the secretion yeah so think about it there was there was so far as these researchers could determine you know no other effort out there that would have in struck paydirt in the absence of Fleming's research. The Oxford Group wouldn't have been looking for it. Someone walks men. The father of modern antibiotics sometimes called who made several key discoveries discoveries later was also inspired by Fleming <hes> so it's it's one of these cases where like he seems to be the epicenter not not only him but just then the the the seemingly chance encounter in his lab that day that that <hes> we're suddenly this halo appears in the Petri dish and that gives birth to a to a whole class of other discoveries right because not all <hes> antibiotics are derived from penicillin the penicillin class of antibiotics. Antibiotics become sort of like one sort of grandfather class but then there are all these other classes that are discovered during this golden age of antibiotics that takes place over the next few decades yeah and there are various just additional medical breakthroughs that would not not have occurred without penicillin such as organ transplant but then there's also the question like what would what would have happened in the wider world because again penicillin comes online during the Second World War and so you can easily really ask well what would have happened if allied troops had not benefited from access to antibiotics at D Day. I've never thought about that. In fact I before looking at this episode I probably would not have known the answer to whether or not they had access to antibiotics well. Penicillin film production was actually swiftly scaled up just to make sure that allied soldiers had access to it at d day so.
"penicillin" Discussed on Invention
"Fleming finally abandoned his quest but fortunately it was right about that time that a capable team at Oxford University including the researchers Howard Florey and Ernst chain or Chine they <hes> picked up on this research and they they kicked off the research project that would eventually break through on this <hes> and they're all these interesting story. So of course this is while World War Two is going on right so research conditions are not ideal and <hes> they're they're all all these stories about how they turned their lab at Oxford into this giant incubation center or sort of factory for mold like they employed all these lab assistants who were these women who had been referred to in some sources as the penicillin girls half and they would work too like they would work to grow the penicillin and buckets and tubs and basically every container that they could <hes> and eventually they did they were able to isolate and stabilize allies this compound so to quote from an Article <hes> from the American Chemical Society in Nineteen Forty Flory and that would be Howard Florey carried out vital experiments showing that penicillin could protect mice against infection from deadly STREPTOCOCCI then on February twelfth nineteen forty one a forty three year old policeman Albert Alexander became the first recipient of the Oxford penicillin he'd scratched the side of his mouth while pruning roses and developed a life <unk> threatening infection with huge abscesses affecting his is facing lungs penicillin was injected and within days he made a remarkable recovery well but unfortunately despite this recovery which lasted for a few days they ran out of the drug and Alexander eventually got worse again and he died and I was reading that they were so desperate to cure him that after Alexander urinated while on his antibiotic course they would collect the urine and try to extract the penicillin he he excreted again so that it could be re administered to him <hes> and I should mention also that the process that the Oxford team relied on to extract and purify the penicillin and the mold juice was led by another important biochemist a guy named Norman Heatley ugly but this case of Albert Alexander shows an obvious early problem they had which was the problem of scale they simply lacked the ability to make penicillin at the scale it that would be needed to treat even one person let alone the whole world <hes> the strain of mold that they were using didn't make enough of it and this led to the search for other species of the same fungal genus penicillin which would maybe they thought produced higher concentrations of the penicillin filter eight and I was reading an interesting article by the University of Michigan physician and Medical Historian Howard Markel that tells a really interesting story. I'd never heard about this. <hes> so the story goes like this apparently one of the assistance at the Oxford lab showed up for work one day in nineteen forty one with a cantaloupe that she'd bought at the market because it was covered in a weird looking golden mold which is great because this would be the one case where somebody is picking over the fresh produce to like find the moldy one <hes> the mold on this cantaloupe turned out to be a strain of penicillin called Penicillin Chris O._G._S._M.. Which markle says naturally produced at least about two hundred times as much penicillin as the original strain that they've been studying and <hes> then later markel writes the the same strain was subjected to mutagenic processes in the lab so like bombarding it with x rays and stuff to produce a mutated strain that would make up to a thousand times as much penicillin as the old school fleming mold so by nineteen forty one penicillin is on its way to becoming a viable medicine all right on that note? We're GONNA take a quick break. When we come back? We're going to look at the impact of penicillin and we're GONNA look at it <hes> in and I think a fun way by considering really interesting arresting. What if.
"penicillin" Discussed on Invention
"He was exactly the right person to make discovery and then deserves all the credit he was given the key moment comes down really to pure luck and we simply don't know if anyone else would have made the discovery if he had not been there to observe it okay so what happened with this discovery so around nineteen twenty seven or so he had engaged himself in studying <hes> STAPHYLOCOCCI the or staff and he had stacks of Petri dishes dish specimens ends in his lab which I've seen described as being kind of untidy lab so you're imagining all these like Petri dishes full staff all over the place notes and so forth and so the key moment comes in September of Nineteen Twenty eight right right so we ha- has these staff Petri dishes out any leaves them for the weekend to go on holiday with his family any when he comes back he expects you just see how they've progressed see how they've grown but he finds that they haven't grown in fact they have died. Something has ravaged his specimens specimens yeah now. This is one of those stories where he gets very narrative is so you do have to wonder if some details of it or embellish how the story may have changed over time but this is the way the story has been passed down and and I think it seems to be largely largely basically true <hes> the way that I've seen the story often told us that he comes in. There's a blob of mold growing in one of the plates and all around the mold. There's this halo of nothingness. Where normally what you would see is that if you got a plate for culturing bacteria there would be these little dots in blobs on the on the plate but instead? There's this halo where there's no bacteria bacterial dead zone now of course we know staphylococcus is is a bacterium group linked linked to all kinds of human disease and misery staph infections right if this mold could kill staff that seems medically relevant so what happened here well he he. He realized that he was dealing with some sort of a fun guy so he luckily there was a microbiologist with lab. Just below Fleming on the floor below his lab a man by the name of C._J.. La Touche and in fact it's also been suspected that the mold and question that killed flemings the staff might have drifted up from Latouche as lab adding an extra element of weird chance to this whole situation okay so perhaps his samples were contaminated by stuff from the lab next door or down a floor. You're right that's not that's not a theory. That's presented in every source does pop up fairly frequently so specifically this mold was what would later be identified as a strain of penicillin no tottenham and it was obvious it's the it's secreted something that prevented staph bacteria from growing and so fleming followed up in studying the secretion this this mold juice says I've seen it called he found that it didn't only prevent the growth of staphylococcus it worked against common bacteria like streptococcus or meningococcus and and the back also against the bacterium that Causes Diptheria interestingly while Fleming did see applications for penicillin in curing disease and he mentioned them briefly briefly in the paper he published in nineteen twenty nine about this discovery about the antibacterial properties of concilium <hes> he primarily thought of this secretion of penicillin as a tool for bacteriologist logist to sort strains of bacteria basically into penicillin sensitive versus non penicillin sensitive species and that that could be useful in the lab yes so he sometimes criticised as is really not understanding completely what he had adhere not having the vision to see where it could go well. I don't think he completely understood but he did indicate that this could possibly have uses in medicine right <hes> so Fleming and his assistance Stewart craddock in.
"penicillin" Discussed on Invention
"Superficial wound you could clean it off pretty good Gordon and that might help protect you from <hes> from bacterial infection but if you have a deep wound and say like dirty stuff bits of soil and other you know just crud gets lodged deep in there you might not be able to clean the wound out very well right and that's exactly the kind of stuff that's going to get lodged in there especially with your war wounds where there is a stab or or deep cut or a bullet entering the body. We'll makes me think about <hes> the when we were reading about the idea of Stegosaurus US perhaps weapon I mean not consciously stegosaurus perhaps <hes> having an adaptation to weaponize infection against its enemies oh by dragging its <hes> Dagga misers spikes through the Dung right exactly yeah having dirty Bagga miser spikes aches and then when it wax the T. rex in the crotch with them that <hes> that gets infected later and eliminates a Predator from the area and <hes> the the the predators of the day would not have had access to antibiotics certainly not or even that beer from the we mentioned earlier so a full Fleming devoted himself to research and he <hes> prior to penicillin he discovered a license. I'm a naturally occurring enzyme in mucus and other parts of the body than inhibits bacteria so you know he was already you know in this area you know looking for for new <hes> new breakthroughs new discoveries but then his biggest breakthrough of all is this discovery of penicillin and it's truly one of the more amazing invention slash discovery moments moments from history because while.
"penicillin" Discussed on Invention
"I think like a beer that had tetracycline content from from being cultured with bacteria like this probably would not be the as potent and focused ineffective as like the isolated compounds in the drugs you take orally or through injection would be today right but it would have some effect and it appeared that it probably was somewhat effective in fighting infectious disease right and of course they they wouldn't know exactly what they had here but they knew they had some sort of beer that seemed to <hes> some sort of holy liquid that that that had some sort of curative property to it exactly I mean if fascinating discovery from the ancient world <hes> another interesting in fact tetracycline is relatively unique in that it leaves clear signatures in the bones that can be discovered long after the person has died so other antibiotics. Don't leave these clear markers like this that make it easy for archaeologists us to detect so you have to wonder like are they were there other cases of ancient peoples in various places in times using some kind of antibiotics or bacterial or fungal cultures <hes> to treat diseases like these ancient Nubian people were <hes> but that we don't have evidence of because it doesn't show up in the bones like tetracycline does yeah it could've just been lost to history. <hes> I was reading an interesting paper from frontiers in microbiology in two thousand intend by Rustam Domino called a brief history of the antibiotic Era Lessons Learned and challenges for the future and Aminov points out this unique quality of tetracycline and notes just what I was basically just saying how easy it would be for evidence in other uses of antibiotics in the ancient world to be lost to us though he he also mentioned that there are other anecdotes from history about cultural traditions that show Proto antibiotic technologies in these other examples would include red soils els found in Jordan that are used for treating skin infections. It's been discovered these soils contain some antibiotic producing organisms though I guess they're probably also some major risks.
"penicillin" Discussed on Invention
"Or to leukemia or even syphilis and tetracycline works primarily by binding to the ribe `ISMs of bacterial cells ribes oems or sort of the cellular factories stories they build proteins that are needed in order for organisms to live and grow and by binding to the Ri- Zome tetracycline makes it difficult for the bacterium to create new proteins it was patented in the nineteen fifties and became widely used in in the second half of the Twentieth Century <hes> so what was it doing in the bones of Nubian people who live like seventeen hundred years ago well <hes> Armagh Logos and colleagues followed archaeological clues to identify the source of the tetracycline which was Bashir. <hes> of course beer is another one of <hes> ultimately it falls under Doug Moi's domain. Oh yeah though this is different because tetracycline is not made from fungus it is actually an antibacterial that is a byproduct of some bacteria arterial. Oh okay so it's a bacterial byproduct but essentially okay so technically it's duplex okay point to jubilee this jubilee versus Jubilee Right. I mean that's going to happen with your demon. Lords introducing warfare so so beer is made from fermented grain of course and the fermented grain in this ancient Nubian beer apparently contained the bacteria streptomycetes which creates tetracycline as a byproduct but a question of course. So like were these traces of tetracycline in Nubian mummy bones a sign of like a bad batch of beer. The got contaminated by accident or were these people deliberately culturing their beer with antibiotic producing bacteria and so to look at a study from the American Journal of Physical Anthropology from twenty ten of which <hes> Armagh Logos was one of the authors <hes> the authors examined tetracycline in skeletal remains from throughout this period and the evidence indicates that the ancient Nubians were consuming these antibiotics on a regular basis and the authors suggest that these ancient people were intentionally producing this medicine and this links up with some evidence from other ancient peoples nearby such as the Egyptians that sometimes apparently apparently used beer as a treatment for conditions like gum disease and other types of infections in the authors even found evidence of a four year old child whose skull contained lots of tetracycline from this beer suggesting that the child had been fed high doses of of this like antibiotic beer. Perhaps in an attempt to cure an illness. Maybe the illness that killed him and so the levels of tetracycline residue found in the bones of these mummies is only explicable if they were repeatedly consuming assuming this antibiotic in their Diet and there are actually other archaeological remains that show evidence of antibiotic use in the ancient world for example samples taken from the era of skeletons from the Dock Co.. ACIS in Egypt <hes> from people bull who lives sometime in the late Roman period also showed evidence of the same thing of tetracycline and the Diet and this consumption of tetracyclene is consistent with other evidence showing a relatively low rate of infectious disease in Sudanese. He's Nubia during that time period and a lack of bone infections apparent in these remains from the this oasis in Egypt so it really does look like people in ancient Africa discovered a somewhat effective form of antibiotics attics centuries before the discovery of penicillin and the isolation and mass production of focused anti microbial medicines now to be clear..
"penicillin" Discussed on Invention
"Right. They have penicillin don't they they have some sort of fantasy version. I've never heard of that. Don't they have something that the the old naysayers would mention having to do with with Brad and mold or something didn't they. I don't remember that I just remember people get cuts and then they get infected and die. Give give him milk. They have milk poppy our game of thrones <hes> our our George Martin readers left or right in on that but I vaguely remember there being illusion to something like <hes> some sort of mole based <hes> medicine that they were using <hes> could be wrong well. I can't see that being something that's thrown in there as a little aside but like isn't widely recognized or used to be and it's interesting how that kind of parallels goals some interesting pieces of evidence for Proto Antibiotic Technology in the real world even going back to ancient times so <hes> I want to look at the work of the emory university bio archaeologist George J._R. Mela goes who is now deceased. I think he died in two thousand fourteen <hes> but he's interest- interesting scholar and he discovered something very curious back in nineteen eighty so the subject he was looking at was a set of human bones from ancient Nubia dating from between three fifty and five fifty c e and so the bones came from Nubia which is a region of Africa along the Nile River but south of Egypt in what would be modern day Sudan and what these bones orlands showed was evidence that the people they belong to had been taking tetracycline. Now tetracyclene is not the same as penicillin but it is an antibiotic it can be used to treat all kinds of infections for minor problems like acne. I think in concert with some other drugs <hes> two major diseases like plague or.
"penicillin" Discussed on Invention
"We live in a world now. Where if you have have access to high quality modern medicine and a lot of people don't necessarily mind but if you have access to high quality modern science based medicine and you can get antibiotics and <hes> and get to a hospital or or see a doctor you very likely likely have a good chance to beat most of the common infectious diseases that that people get unless you have some kind of you know like another condition that exacerbates it or something before antibiotics? This was just not the people just died from diseases that. You catch like diseases that are common for people to catch all the time yeah or you had certain diseases like syphilis that were virtually uncurable yeah you know and and some of the the cures that were attempted were were pretty horrendous in in and had an generally did not work you know talking about using mercury and so forth and you mentioned before contamination of wounds. I mean just a huge thing just like a you know you might <hes> you might cut yourself while gardening and you die from it it yeah heaven forbid you undergo say Medieval Gallstone surgery or something like that yeah by the way I think <hes> tuberculosis has you know is a good example to look at for some of these stats as well according to the C._D._C.. It's <hes> was a leading cause of death in the U._S.. In one thousand nine hundred forty prior to the roll out of antibiotic therapy in nineteen hundred one hundred ninety four of every one hundred thousand U._S.. Residents died from deep T._B...
"penicillin" Discussed on Invention
"The question on the show what came before the invention what what changed when this invention mentioned came on the scene <hes> and what became before widespread modern antibiotics was stupendous amounts of death and misery from infectious disease in blood poisoning. I I was wondering like is it even possible to to get stats on what the world of infectious disease looked like before we had antibiotics around the Mid Twentieth Century Yeah I mean to a certain extent. A lot of the suffering is just incalculable. <hes> you know especially if you go back and sort of consider all of human history up to that point in the various factors that that influenced infectious disease and injury you know the the eventually the rise of germ theory but also this things like that the rise of cities and so forth but but luckily yeah since it was such a reason invention we have some pretty incredible stats on the matter. Suddenly thanks to this new miracle drug diseases that simply ravaged the global population like syphilis could be cured the shadow of lethal lethem infection no longer hung at least as heavily over every scrape injury and war wound and with wounds were often talking about sepsis which is a term that was used a by hippocrates back in the fourth century B._C.. Meaning blood rod or blood poisoning and he was referring more in generally. I think to decay but the term came to be applied to blood poisoning which arises when the body's response to infection causes causes injury to its own tissue and organs but just prior to the twentieth century infectious diseases accounted for high morbidity and mortality rates around the world even in the industrialized world according to w. a. g. in the treasure called antibiotics from two thousand sixteen. The average life life expectancy at birth was forty seven years forty six forty eight years for men and women respectively and this was due to the dangers of smallpox cholera diptheria pneumonia typhoid fever plague tuberculosis closest typhus syphilis and host of other ailments that could afflict you and then during the antibiotic era <hes> they follow again a rising in the middle of the twentieth century. The leading cause of death in the United States change from communicable diseases uses to noncommunicable diseases like cardio cardiovascular disease cancer and stroke and the average life expectancy at birth rose to seventy eight point eight years so the elderly were no longer a mere four percent of the population violation but grow to become a whopping thirteen percent of the population so we're talking about profound changes demographics based on this new this new invention yeah the change is huge..
"penicillin" Discussed on Invention
"Hey Welcome to invention. My name is Robert Lamb and I'm Joe McCormack and Robert. I know you WanNa Talk About D._N._D.. Indeed before we get to the real subject well. I don't know I was thinking about doing it last but we can go ahead and talk about it up front yeah we'll in dungeons and dragons these various Demon Lords and uh they they rule over various portions of the of the fiend population in the game and their two demon lords in particular that I was thinking about in regards to today's episode <hes> and that that would be boy and Jubilee Eulex so zagged Moi is the demon Lord of fungi the Queen of fungi the master of decay and then opposing her ever at odds with their is jubilee the faceless as Lord which is a god of loses and slimes and blobs you know all the losing nasty creatures of Dungeons and dragons and yeah there they oppose each other their constant war with each other and in some campaigns like their forces and even they're they're in embodied forms do battle with one another and it it actually ties in a bit with this subject. We're talking about today of penicillin okay so penicillin the fungus that fights I don't know would you call diseases diseases slimes well I feel like jubilee being the Demon Lord of Oozes and slimes kind of makes it the the Demon Lord of of microbiology as well and <hes> you know microbes and <hes> and microbial illnesses so okay well so today we're going to be talking about penicillin. I guess maybe one of the the great real weapons of spoke to Moi yes <hes> but this this came up I think because we'd been talking about fungus on our other podcasts on stuff to blow your mind where we just finished recording a five part series on psychedelics yeah yeah looking at <hes> Fungal psychedelics and ongoing research into how these substances could enhance our mental wellbeing and helping the treatment of psychological issues and one of our big take home was these fungi could help save lives improve the quality of human life but it would not be the first or only fungi to do so because we can certainly look to various interactions between human. Hell's the different fungi species and their use in traditional medicine. We can point to various various products including <hes> products of fermentation for instance including alcohol but there's an even better example of better living through fungi in that's penicillin right so today we're going to briefly explore the invention of penicillin which is often cited as the first true antibiotic technology of course antibiotics are medications that treat infections by killing injuring or slowing the growth of bacteria in the body and antibiotics are a class of what you would generally call whole antimicrobial drugs medicines that kill microbes that presents a threat to the body of course antibiotics generally fight bacterial infections whereas you could have others like Antifungal that fight Fungal infections or antivirals that fight viral infections and now antimicrobials antibiotics are a gigantic subject area that we're of course not going to be able to get into every nook and cranny of the subjects but we hope we could have an interesting introductory introductory discussion may become back to antibiotics sometime sometime again in the future because it's it's a broad invention that has lots of little invention tributaries throughout history yeah but it is such a fascinating case to look at and I think should make for a great episode of invention here because for starters it's it's a twentieth century century invention slash discovery off and of course the line between invasion of discovery is a little bit gray but we we can pinpoint it to nineteen twenty eight and ultimately like rolled out by nineteen forty or so <hes> but we can we can look to it we can look at the world before we can look at the world after with with the sort of clarity that we don't always have with <hes> certainly <hes> older or more ancient inventions exactly because we always like to ask.
The Inactive Ingredients in Pills Can Cause Side Effects, Too
"If you have a bad reaction to medicine, it might not be to the drug itself, but to other ingredients in the pill or capsule, an article in science translational medicine examined the issue, and finds that the average oral medication contains eight inactive ingredients NPR science correspondent Richard Harris reports a few years ago. Harvard gastroenterologist Giovanni Traverso came across a patient with a severe gluten intolerance called seal EAC disease. The person was having trouble with a medication that apparently contained gluten as an inactive ingredient potentially making the person's condition worse. Not better traverse, oh got intrigued and found that the typical pill is more inactive ingredient than actual drug somewhere around seventy five percents of the actual, you know, pillar capsule has actually taken up by these inactive ingredients and drug companies have more than a thousand to choose from. They can include materials like gluten and lactose and dies that can trigger allergies in some. Instances there can be up to thirty five of them in a single pill. He says these inactive ingredients are essential to stabilize medications and sometimes to help the body absorb the actual drug people taking multiple medicines can end up getting the same inactive ingredient from several pills and get an unexpectedly large dose say, you are lactose intolerant. And take a pill that uses lactose sugar as an inactive ingredient, that's probably not going to manifest in any significance at those. But as the number of pills that you're taking than certainly you might cross that threshold one challenge and understanding the scope of this problem is often not clear how much of a particular substance. It takes to trigger an allergy or other reaction. It's something that might vary from one person to another. But you know, for a lot of these sugars and other ingredients, we don't really know today in San Diego. John Kelso, an allergist at the scripts clinic says he occasionally comes across patients who have had an allergic reaction to something in their medications. It's actually we think quite uncommon. In fact, most of the time it's a false alarm, for example, after many years worrying about the traces of egg protein in flu vaccines. Health officials now say that people with effigies are not at risk from the shot overreaction to this worry can actually backfire. And oftentimes the medications are being withheld from patients who say, they're allergic to eggs, or soy. And or something else that maybe in the medication, but it's actually not a problem. In fact, one of the most common allergies to an actual drug penicillin. Is it so overstated Kelso says we realized lately that approximately ninety five percent of patients who are labeled as being penicillin allergic are not either because they never were or because they had an allergy that Wayne with the passage of time for people who are concerned about the inactive ingredients. Traverso at Harvard says it is possible to track down that information in the fine print that comes with pills. One can look in the inserts. Of medications, and then you can look through all the taxing. Eventually you'll find it the national library of medicine also has an online database called pillbox for versa and his colleagues have a patent pending on an algorithm that can help make this sleuthing easier. They're thinking about developing consumer app or some software to help doctors and pharmacists alert their patients to potentially troublesome. Inactive
A Woman Had a Dangerous Allergic Reaction After Sex. Here's Why
"Being reported by science alert. A woman has an NFL lactic reaction to seamen. Now. This is pretty scary. And this could happen to a lot of people. Probably not me. Married. Twenty years not route not going to happen me. But apparently there was a thirty year old woman in Spain. And she showed up to the emergency room at the general university hospital valley Kante, she was vomiting profusely shortness of breath entire body covered in high. So an Anna flack reaction not technically shock, but in NFL access for your whole body reacts to an allergy. So it a moderate and of lactic reaction now. This is this is a case report published they believe what happened. Is he performed oral sex on somebody who had just had an antibiotic that she ended up being allergic to. They say the patient's reaction started after having unprotected sex to male partner, which involved oral ejaculation. According to the case reports. Now, there is seminal plasma hypersensitivity. It's a rare allergic reaction that could affect females. And there could be something within the semen that they could react to now. You know, there's plasma that's the liquid that carry sperm, and it has a lot of proteins and some people may be allergic to the specific protein. But they think maybe it wasn't the protein, but it was because the gentleman had been taking ibuprofen and augmented in the five days leading up to the incident. That's a type of prescription antibiotic medication. He had a middle ear infection. And apparently his last dose was four hours before the couple had sex say you're not supposed to be doing kissing, and you're not supposed to be doing lovey-dovey side stuff. If you're saying if you're on antibiotics, I remember when I'd be saying botox, you know, I had to like stay in my room. I couldn't hug or kiss anybody in the house people have sex when they're sick when they have the flu. I I was I did one of my shows in Arizona, and it was on a Christmas and somebody had the flu and he asked and his girlfriend. So yes, the people to wear a mask while having sex. So he want to give her the flu. Mike, how do you want to have sex when you have the flu? The arch is supposed to be bedridden. I mean, I have a good sex drive. But if I have the flu I'm in bed and stay away from me. But I guess people are trying to figure out how to still have sex the flu worry masks. So anyway, this gentleman the thirty two year old man was on augmented and Augmentin is amoxicillin moccasins on the penicillin family. And the doctors think that maybe that's what happened. Where she might have had a penicillin allergy. Now, they say the woman was actually diagnosed with her allergy as a child, but the doctors think they've never seen an instance of an allergy like this. This is the first reported case of a possible amoxicillin and just NFL axis and a woman after oral sexual contact with a man who was taking the drug. The doctor's note that few studies have investigated whether drugs might be concentrated in semen. But they note that a fear radically plausible in this case due to the chemical composition of seminal plasma antioxidant and amoxicillin readily dissolves in fats, and there are fats and lipids within the semen to I guess, you know, allow a more hospitable environment for the sperm. So the patient was treated that flexes medication made a full recovery. Her doctors decide to write up the case report when they realized that they might have unique event on their hands internet searches revealed that other people drug allergies have written about something like this happening. But there was nothing in the medical literature. So the recommendation is to use condoms if you're taking any medications to which your partner could be allergic. We think that as clinicians it is important to be aware of this phenomenon to inform and prevent potentially serious reactions in sensitized patients, and this was published in the case report now. Okay. Wow. Wow. Wow. Makes sense though, make sense. I mean, you know, we take a lot of things for granted. And you know, our bodies are designed to do certain things, and they're not designed for other certain things. And so, you know, to be honest. Oral sex is not something that was evolutionary planned. In our animals DNA. Okay. As animals, and we are animals we're supposed to have sex. Maybe a couple of different ways. That's how we're built. Now, we as humans have decided to fanciful things we do a lot of different things. Now. Some including the chandelier some including a quick moment. You know, and you know, certain positions that I don't think we're ever you know, that a person is designed to do. And then of course, also. Or sort of sex. And so. It's not shocking. That somebody could possibly have some sort of a reaction. I mean because we're supposed to be able to have sex relatively safe. You're not really supposed to die from as long as you. Do it the right way. You're not supposed to die from sex. Nobody's supposed to die from sex. That's the way we built some of you guys are like, wow. You know, what about STD's? Well, no think about you know, in the animal kingdom, many animal kingdom just supposed to be a monogamous partner. So, you know, you have a monogamous partner they've never had sex before you you've never had sex. You guys decide to have sex have babies stay together. Nobody has an SSD because they get it from anything else. So technically. Having sex the old biblical way should be probably one of the safest. Yes, you can't die from child birth. Yes. But in terms of Saxon should be fairly safe. But when we started to add other components to it. And choreograph other things and I'm not saying it's wrong. It's just that's what people do it does open up a little bit of risk. And so if you have any allergies. That could be an issue. Now, I had been asked years ago. If somebody was deadly allergic to shrimp, should they avoid oral sex if their partner h strength, and I told them it wouldn't hurt to avoid it just in case. But also kissing you could also give it from kissing to. But since we don't exactly know, what ends up happening in terms of being concentrated down there. I would play it safe. Now chairpeople pretty pretty bad at that whole segment going. No, no, no, you're anti or I'm not saying, I'm anti anything. It's just from a medical standpoint, you know, people like, well, gosh, you know, we just can't live a normal life will actually use you can't live normal life gave this was a rare occurrence. But just keep in mind. We do things that we might not technically be built for the whole purpose of sex is for procreation not recreation, even though yes, I'm a big fan of recreational sex. I think it's a great recreation or exercise, I think. You know, people in monogamous relationship should do it be safe. But we do at a lot of other things that you know, we weren't designed for. So let's just kind of leave it at that and move on as quickly as possible. One eight seven seven one eight hundred seventy oh C D A L. So Mississippi woman is claiming that she has breast implant illness. She even contemplated suicide. Apparently, she says her breast implants were poisoning her she paid thirty eight hundred dollars for breast implants back in two thousand twelve symptoms worsen through two thousand seventeen she dropped forty pounds of one year. She was fatigue could concentrate. Had boot swings. Dr Senator to a psychiatrist diagnosed with bipolar. She had brain fog, insomnia,
Millions may be misdiagnosed with penicillin allergy
"Risk of serious infections, taking those alternative antibiotics not taking the penicillin here to tell us all about it. Dr Frank McGeorge. Good morning. Hey. Good morning, Paul. Yeah. This comes from jam article that was recently published and you know, roughly thirty two million American have noted in their medical records somewhere that they are allergic dependent. Dylan. But in fact, research has shown that somewhere between ninety and ninety five percent of those that have been labelled as penicillin allergic can actually tolerate the drug just fine. So, you know, it's a really important problem. Because penicillin is a great drug. So why did the case that so many people think that they're allergic when you're not really, well, I many people who get an antibiotic might really have a viral infection and viruses often produce rashes, especially when they're children. So if you were given penicillin the same time that a viral rash appeared standby often gets blamed labeled allergy, and that's often the case with children who are told that they're penicillin allergic. And then they're labeled that for the rest of their life. And also antibiotics can force side effects are not allergic like nausea vomiting or something else. And while it might be a sensitivity. It's not true allergy and people often misconstrued that. So those are some of the reasons that people who are not really penicillin allergic might think that they are. It's incredible. Dr Frank McGeorge should discovering and telling us that researchers estimating now up to ninety percent of patients who've been told they're allergic to penicillin actually, aren't that significant. Well, exactly, you know, if you think that you might have a penicillin allergy. It's a good idea to talk to your doctor about a simple allergy tests to find out for sure, and it's also possible, by the way that you might have grown out of your allergy in fact in one recent paper when a small group of people who were once positive on skin testing for penicillin were retested often about six years later. None of them were still positive roller GIC. So they hit actually changed their allergy over time and correctly identifying a penicillin allergy is really important for a bunch of reasons. First of all penicillins are great medications like they said earlier that can be used to target very specific infections with a more precise focus rather than using an overly broad. Non penicillin alternative. It's more likely to breed resistance. Sometimes a penicillin is actually the only or the very most effective antibiotic for a particular infection, so incorrectly assumed allergy could actually deny someone in the best treatments. And also when someone reports a penicillin allergy we often rule out using all of the silicon plight amoxicillin or die clocks and also a lot of doctors avoid using other antibiotics like, yes, lex, although that practices well-supported. It's just what Dr sometimes do because of the potential for a frost reactivity. So it does have a lot of downstream consequences if you are allergic in your record dependent schilling, but it has never really been proven. And people's perceptions of allergy are very different. And so it's important really characterize the reaction, there's some sensitivities. And then there's true allergy dock it occurs to me in this presentation in the morning, which we so greatly. Appreciate you taking time off from your. Henry Ford medical group duties duties, and all the things that you do to be with us. And we appreciate it. We don't very often give absolutes. But it sounds to me this morning. We are establishing that it is an absolute that if you have been told you're allergic to penicillin for your own good. You really absolutely should go. Get retested to find out for sure. Yeah. Definitely there's you know, there's a there's a ton of people out there who basically say, they're penicillin allergic. And frankly, you know, in the emergency department setting, for example, we don't have the time to prove that you are not allergic. So we just avoid penicillin, which in many cases can actually be to your detriment because of penicillin may in fact, be the best choice. So if you, you know, art shore, or maybe your mother told you this years ago, but she doesn't really remember why they were told that or something like that. It would be a good idea to actually just get tested. It's not a really complicated process. It's really simple process, and you can basically find out for sure one way or another. If you are in fact, sensitive penicillins or to what degree you might be allergic. It's there is a high probability that you are not really allergic to penicillin, and that can be life changing rather than having to go to the broad-based antibiotics as alternatives to penicillin that oftentimes kill off more good. Actinium and leave you in a bad way. Doc, always a pleasure. Very helpful useful information and and life changing this morning. Thank you, sir. All righty. Take care. Have a good day. Dr Frank McGeorge, Henry Ford medical group physician at six. Hi, I'm Jan, fingerling. With fingerling, number Kathleen. After eight years, we've decided to retire and
Dr Pritish Tosh, Penicillin and Pope Francis discussed on Philip Teresi
"Pope Francis is telling newly ordained bishops they have to reject all forms of abuse and come together to fight a culture that has fueled a sex abuse and cover up scandal Francis meeting was seventy four new bishops from thirty four countries today.
Elon Musk says Tesla will not go private after all
"Washington. Area physician Dr Charleston have been tells us more the pedestals were the first class of antibiotic drugs developed despite bacterial ability. To develop resistance the Palestinians are still very effective in treating many common bacterial diseases. Since troop penicillin allergy can lead to fatal. Reaction of repeated use adverse reactions to penicillins are often assumed to be allergy until proven otherwise is important to confirm allergy. By skin test their blood tests does Dr Charleston reporting from Washington, Fox, News host Tucker. Carlson said fraud he shocked at segments this week at a South African lab reform policy should be considered an appeal,