18 Burst results for "negro Improvement Association"
"negro improvement association" Discussed on The Know Show
"When you look at decolonization or you look at anti imperialism. I think it's very easy for you to gravitate towards africa. As opposed to to the caribbean because so many african independence happened roughly around the same time. But that doesn't dismiss the the impact of the work of people in the caribbean and they went through and i'm so give of a more of a snapshot of what what those movements looked like in the caribbean. So the caribbean we've already to things that are essential to understanding the decolonization in the caribbean. Have already come up first. Garvey ism so the the way that garvaghy in galvanized so you scholars have worked on the us Civil rights movement. And what you argued the. What you can see is that a lot of people got their training for civil rights through the un. A and i think in some cases you can say the same thing that if we look at the movements. That are having caribbean. A lot of people were involved in in the universal. Negro improvement association influenced inspired by garvey In the nineteen thirties. And that gives them kind of training ground to set up their own associations that are going to fundamental And then the second thing is the labor revolt so caribbean. Decolonization happens an When i say decolonization i think here. I'm referring to political independence. sovereignty self government in the nineteen fifty s and early nineteen sixties. And that if you look at the political leaders a lot of them were trade union got their start in being trade union leaders Being involved in either being involved in or on the outskirts of labor of the labour revolts in the late nineteen thirties And so one of the aspects of caribbean decolonization is understanding that carribean political parties and associations share a very close connection with trade union parties and associations and workers associations that data is a trajectory from workers associations into political parties and that that then leads into The political organization of movements. But what's what's specific about the caribbean as well is that.
"negro improvement association" Discussed on This Day In Esoteric Political History
"My name is jody african this day. August third nineteen twenty. The universal negro improvement association is having its first international convention. You parades are being held in harlem with the fires and contingents of delegates from canada. The caribbean central. America west africa and of course officers and leaders of the un organization based here in the united states. This was in large part. The work of marcus garvey. Who is someone. We haven't really discussed on this show There are other notable facts about marcus. Garvey before purposes that suffices. This is the first time we're talking about marcus. Garvey on the show Add that to his wikipedia entry on this day political until like two hundred and fifty episodes in but this is our chance to talk about garvey back to africa..
"negro improvement association" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Were just so fierce. Now there were several black liberation organizations taking shape at that time, including the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Are you and I, a founded by Marcus Garvey. The African Blood Brotherhood was founded by Cyril Breaks and African Caribbean American writer and self proclaimed Communist based in Harlem. A BB was small but influential. In part thanks to its magazine, the Crusader, they spoke unapologetically about their blackness about armed self defense. I admired the fact that the Crusader They refused to take ad money for, um, basically skin bleaching. They refused to take ad money for that, and I thought that was so progressive. That was definitely impressed. The Crusader also featured ads and images of dark skin women. With the frequency that was uncommon at the time. And in it, there were these recipes for making the most of your stale bread and also dress patterns for fuller figure women. It's hard to know exactly how many active members the abbey be had by 1920, probably around 1 to 2000 and as many as two thirds of them were women. University of Texas professor make a Mark Alani elsewhere within the Crusader. They're actually talking about the problem of and for mortality. The problem of child sickness, the problem of sanitation in tenements in Harlem. They are addressing these concerns that speak to those daily preoccupations that timid to fall on women.
"negro improvement association" Discussed on WBEZ Chicago
"Were just so fierce. Now there were several black liberation organizations taking shape at that time, including then you Universal Negro Improvement Association, are you and I, A founded by Marcus Garvey, The African Blood Brotherhood was founded by Cyril Breaks and African Caribbean American writer and self proclaimed Communist based in Harlem. The A B B was small but influential, in part thanks to its magazine, the Crusader. They spoke unapologetically about their blackness about armed self defense. I admired the fact that the Crusader, they refused to take ad money for, um Basically skin bleaching. They refused to take ad money for that, and I thought that was so progressive. I was definitely impressed. The Crusader also featured ads and images of dark skinned women. With the frequency that was uncommon at the time. And in it, there were these recipes for making the most of your stale bread and also dress patterns for fuller figure women. It's hard to know exactly how many active members the abbey be had by 1920, probably around 1 to 2000 and as many as two thirds of them were women. University of Texas professor make a Mark Alani elsewhere within the Crusader. They're actually talking about the problem of and for mortality. The problem of child sickness, the problem of sanitation in tenements in Harlem. They are addressing these concerns that speak to those daily preoccupations that tended to fall on women in the household..
"negro improvement association" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"They were just so fierce. Now there were several black liberation organizations taking shape at that time. Including the Universal Negro Improvement Association, are you and I, a founded by Marcus Garvey. The African Blood Brotherhood was founded by Cyril Breaks and African Caribbean American writer and self proclaimed Communist based in Harlem. A BB was small but influential. In part thanks to its magazine, the Crusader, they spoke unapologetically about their blackness about armed self defense. I admired the fact that the Crusader They refused to take ad money for, um, basically skin bleaching. They refused to take ad money for that, and I thought that was so progressive. That was definitely impressed. The Crusader also featured ads and images of dark skin women. With the frequency that was uncommon at the time. And in it, there were these recipes for making the most of your stale bread and also dress patterns for fuller figure women. It's hard to know exactly how many active members that a BB had by 1920, probably around 1 to 2000 and as many as two thirds of them were women. University of Texas professor make a Mark Alani elsewhere within the Crusader. They're actually talking about the problem of and for mortality. The problem of child sickness, the problem of sanitation in tenements in Harlem. They are addressing these concerns that speak to those daily preoccupations that tended to fall on women in the household..
"negro improvement association" Discussed on WORT 89.9 FM
"There's 1600 pages and you're very meticulously, flip noted, and I It's my sincere hope that they'll be around for the next 50 or 100 years and people utilizing them. And grow, and they can take it in various ways. They want to talk about Harrison, the political activist Harrison, the book reviewer, Harrison the order. You can go in so many ways with Harrison And so Yep. Credit the first the first reference I ever saw of him to, uh, nothing about him at the time. Uh, but Mark Nations book on, uh, Communists and Harlem. Hey, has one sentence about you, Bert Harrison, where he says he was. He was the greatest street order. Yes. That Harlem had ever seen started a tradition. That, of course, goes all the way to Malcolm X on and beyond. That was it. That's what I do about you, Bert Harrison. He was a street order again. We have no but 10 12 minutes left in the our little more baby. But give us a call. If you want to join that 6 to 8 to 56 2000 and one Extension. Nine. Jeffrey Perry We've touched on you touched on Marcus Garvey in talk about Harrison's association with him a little bit. Uh, Harrison, of course, developed a social program. Uh, that was part of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, Garvey's organization, But then they part ways talk about that. A little. Okay. Very briefly, Um Harrison introduces Garvey to his faith. First Major. Harlem audience at one of his outdoor rallies and then shortly thereafter, when Harrison's holding regular meetings of his Liberty League in in Harlem, you know Garvey, which Garvey joins Harrison's organization, as I mentioned before, he's not one to join anyone else's organization for people familiar with Garvey, and he starts holding meetings down the hall. And after about a year two is Harrison's organization runs into difficulties and garbage is having great difficulties, too, until late 1919 for a host of reasons, which I go into, which include On a possible said it wasn't possible an assassination attempt on Garvey's life and also Carvey's decision to bring in funds by all these financial schemes. If you will, liberty construction loans, Blackstar line, you know things which never paid back what they were supposed to pay back looking great sums of money, and Harrison had to take off in late 1919. And then into early 20. So Harrison approaches Garvey in the last in December, 1919 and asked him if he would lead. Ah college. Garbey wanted to set up in Africa. In, Harrison said. Well, let me think about that because Harrison didn't have citizenship, so not gonna be an easy thing at all. And But when he meets with Garvey, he goes up to the offices and, he says it's in total disarray. Garvey offers him deep position at the Negro world and in house is considered the best journalist in Harlem at this time, and Harrison quickly assumes the functioning duty of managing editor. Of the Negro World. That's Garvey's newspaper in 1920 when it's sweeps the globe. And and you're gone. No, no good. I unfortunately we're gonna run run. Sure the time here, but in that That history. That particular history of Harrison and in Garvey is something but been a bit. Of course, we're running short here because I do want to get to one. We have one more question caller that wants to get in with the question. Actually, I think we're shells going to read the question. And then I want to head toward a rep. So, Rochelle, what do we have? Well, Alan Listener, Michael on Facebook asks. Was there actually slavery when Denmark controlled the Virgin Islands for how long? Yes, there was slavery, and there was ah emancipation victory. It wasn't the slavery like set up in the U. S. And I go into this in some detail. In Chapter one of volume one because it's important, understand the difference between how slavery get set up in Anglo America, the Southern U. S. And in the Anglo Caribbean and ST Croix below Danish owned Was very similar to Jamaica, Barbados and Anglo Caribbean and Slavery lasted until 18 48 when there was an enslaved lead Emancipation victory on was followed by some major island wide struggled. Labor struggles three decades later. On. I believe that ST Croix was the second place in the Caribbean that had successful anti slavery. Protests, you know? Movement Order Red appear, Jeffrey period. You But Harrison dies prematurely. What is in his early forties 42. Was it 44 44. He dies prematurely in 1927 and the movement for Black emancipation and left takes it. It's a huge loss. Um Within three rapidly, he becomes neglected. He's neglected afterwards. It's like he like he's disappeared from the historical record. Don't you understand that? Um, in a sense, his disappearance from the historical record in memory of, of all, but a few, um How do you How do you explain that? It's just He's gone. He you've you, just a small number of others have excavated him from the from the memory hole. Well, do your mission you talk about is commented on by several of his contemporaries shortly after his death, How magazines like the crisis and opportunity and some of these don't even say a word about his death, right? But when I When I look back, I'm often asked. Why is harassing that better known and the reasons in in general of the following, but I go into some of them in great depth. He's poor. He's collect. He's working class. He's an immigrant. He's from the Caribbean. And if you were a woman, I would add that all groups that have been, you know Made it often times from the historical record. He is a radical on race, class and religion right black churches, most powerful institution in the African American community. He has no long lasting organizational ties. You know, as two boys later on get picked up by the Communist Party. Garvey has his father was in the garbage movements, etcetera. He dies a young And so he doesn't get to live out a full life. Another factor. Um He's a forthright critic. And in the books I list the people heads of Socialist Party Communist Party U. S presidents, leading black activist etcetera who at one point or another Openly criticizes no one caress and justice. He's not mean spirited. He's trying to push towards a better direction. So but he in the courts, but many people are offended by that they take issue with it. But then the last thing is and I really should write a much longer piece on this later on is how history gets written in this country. Because in broad strokes, if you're I've had this explained to me a little bit, too by some people. But if you are a young historian coming up And you're studying under a professor and the professor has never said much other than that one sentence you talked about before or I can think of somebody else Who said all you've been harassing the black socialist or you But Harrison Black National have a sense, and that was it if they've never mentioned Harrison as being important. It's very difficulty for them now. Days to come and say, G. This is a giant of black history. This person is really important because they gotta have some explaining to do, And unfortunately that get You know their influence gets passed on to their students. That's why part of the appeal and the outrage outreach with the two volume Harrison biography is what I call Harrison style from the bottom up. We're trying to reach out to the masses to the people in the community bookstore, the community this and that the HBC news The left publications. Um, and because he's too important and sometimes people I know people, young academics. I said, We'll launch it right on this because, Jeff, I got a career to think about, you know, because it would threaten Prominent is, you know, not even historian but prominent professors..
"negro improvement association" Discussed on Problematic Premium Feed
"Randolph's near racist rhetoric reflected his assertion that garvey was an alien west indian and not a true american negro national speaking toes. The end of lacey pe- for garvey must go campaign failed in telling move randolph. The supposed socialist and his allies turned to the us empire for help. They openly encouraged repression of the un. I in early january nineteen twenty-three this grouping became alarmed when the chief government witness against gavi and his coming mail fraud. Trial was killed this trader. Ervin j w east of new orleans had been formerly a leader in the way but had been ousted for embezzlement the dying eastern had allegedly identified his assailants as to workers along showman and a painter. Who were you an aa security qadri. The anti gov grouping was seized with fair for themselves will be corrected for their treasonous. Collaboration with the state on january fifteenth nineteen twenty-three constituted themselves as a committee of eight. They wrote to. Us attorney general daugherty begging him to strike down to african nationalists without any delay. This horse this historic. Linda is informative. Dare sir as the chief law enforcement officer of the nation. We wish to call your attention. Heretofore unconsidered menace to harmonious race relations. There are in our midst certain negro criminals and potential murderers both foreign and american born who moved and actuated by intense hatred of the white race. These undesirables continually procreate proclaimed that all white people enemies to the negro. They have become so fanatical that the threatened and attempted to death of their opponents. The movement known as the universal negro improvement association has done much to stimulate the violent temper of this dangerous movement as president and moving. Spirit is one marcus. Garvey an unscrupulous demagogue who has ceaselessly assiduously sought to spread among negroes distrust and hatred of all white people during a is chiefly composed of the most primitive and ignorant element of west indian and american negroes for the above reasons. We advocate the attorney. General uses full influence completely to disband extirpate this vicious movement and that he vigorously and speedily pushed the government's case against marcus. Garvey for using the mails to defraud is future. Meetings should be carefully watch by officers that law and fractures promptly and severely punished the eight who sadly slavish appeal randolph. This honestly professional. Nothing about it were chandler..
"negro improvement association" Discussed on Problematic Premium Feed
"In capitalism the form of social organization of the colonizer the instruments that africans could use to free themselves so that the essence of nation building was expressing forms precisely paralleling those of european society businesses churches black cross etc cetera. Guidance garvey's predilection for western. Tyler's nobility the duke of nigeria and full dress european quote uniforms with but a symptom of this while this made the concept of independent african. Nationhood instantly understandable. It was also contradiction in a blind alley. Millions of africans responded to the colo gavi the united negro improvement association the a reddish newspaper the negro world but stuck in his african business ventures came out to his meetings rallies in one thousand nine hundred twenty. Some fifty thousand africans marched in a mass. You and i are rally in harlem. Garvey claimed four point five million members of the way. His critics charged that an examination of the un is public financial reports. Reveal that the gavi movement only had ninety thousand members of whom only twenty thousand paid up at the time and dues. The i was so overwhelming that his critics could try to bid by saying that it had only ninety thousand members. Do you is international. Effect was very profound. Could mckay reminds us that in the interior of west africa. New legends arose of an african who had been lost in america but would return to save his people. Other nigerian coast. Africans would like great bonfires sleeping on. The beach is waiting to guide in ships of most garvey coming crew of ghana and hokey minh of vietnam. Both said that gov had been an important inspiration for them. Clements could eilly. Who's two hundred and fifty thousand member industrial and commercial workers union. I see you was the first african working class political organization in his so that he had been much influenced by the un. I am british kenya. The separatist kikuyu christians boy ministers from the us to train an ordained their own first ministers and it was from these congregations that much of the kenya land and freedom army called mao by the british would come generation later the coffee movement. In crewman's words..
"negro improvement association" Discussed on Problematic Premium Feed
"Support movement took many forms. Clearly the leading group in the mass mobilization was the gaza movements united negro improvement association. Un this was. We should recall the same nationalist organization that prominent historians now assurance was abandoned. An end unimportant at that time. Captain ale king head of the u. n. i n. New york was the chairman of the united african support committee. J. raja's deleting intellectual of the garvey movement in the us was the main propaganda educator for the support movement the african united committee involved the only the a and other nationals but the cps say church nita's african cars groupings and salon within several months after the invasion of the friends of ethiopia had one hundred six local branches both north and south through a mask church meetings rallies marches of thousands and picket lines. Outside italian government offices. The national character. The movement was underlined by the fact that virtually to the last person africa's boycotted the well funded and.
"negro improvement association" Discussed on Black History in Two Minutes
"Over a hundred years ago the black nationalist movement in America reached an unprecedented level of popularity because of the efforts of the charismatic leader of the universal negro Improvement Association Marcus Garvey born in Jamaica Garvey grew up in poverty. He came to understand race relations through the lens of birth colonialism throughout the Caribbean and Latin America as his thinking matured. He began to formulate a revolutionary social movement in nineteen fourteen years. He founded the universal negro Improvement Association dedicated to uniting all the black people throughout the world. Two years later. He immigrated to the United States or his powerful message quickly gained traction you walk you like we weren't able to go to work for one coming up this second building and they should all his own on the great continent of Africa for the purpose of generating our industrial commercial educational Council and for the vehicle collision be arrives in an error where blacks are still being lynched regularly in the South around the same time that movies like Birth of a Nation are showing extra ordinarily Rage depictions of African Americans as monsters. You have this really charismatic and dynamic individual and he's talking about look our place is never going to be here in the United States were going to be in Europe. It's going to be in Africa. We need to reclaim Africa. So Garvey is going to be preaching a philosophy of black pride. He's going to come up with a scheme to repatriate to Africa and he provides a huge sense of hope for millions of African-Americans a centerpiece of garvey's program was the creation of the Black Star Line a steamship line launched a transport. African Americans who wish to emigrate to Africa the Black Star Line is this idea that Garvey can buy ships through the support of local African American people sending in money so you can have a share in the Black Star Line and these ships were going to take thousands of people back to Africa to the Colony that Garvey was going to establish but his advocacy for black Americans to move back to Africa drew the attention of the United States government and especially J Edgar Hoover Federal Bureau of Investigation, which monitored garvey's movement seeking grounds for his arrest and deportation Garvey was growing too powerful J. Edgar Hoover is going to hire their first negro agents to subvert Marcus Garvey and eventually they're going to say that he's been committing mail fraud with the Black Star Line scheme. He's eventually tried arrested placed in jail 19-25. He's deported in nineteen twenty-seven and he's never go out to return to the United States. He dies in London in 1943. Garvey's Legacy as the father of the modern back to Africa movement cannot be underestimated. He created the largest popular political movement in the history of Black America and would be an inspiration both to the anti-colonial movement and black nationalist leaders throughout the remainder of the century..
Marcus Garvey: Leader of a Revolutionary Global Movement
"Over one hundred years ago. The Black Nationalist Movement in America reached an unprecedented level of popularity because of the efforts of the charismatic leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Marcus Garvey. Born in Jamaica Garvey grew up in poverty. He came to understand race relations through the lens of British colonialism throughout the Caribbean and Latin America. As his thinking matured. He began to formulate a revolutionary social. Movement. In, nineteen fourteen he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Dedicated to uniting all the black people throughout the world. Two years later. He emigrated to the United. States. For his powerful message quickly gained traction. We walk you'd believe. This country we weren't ever get to work for walk up. By building. On the Great President of Africa for the public of pickering our industrial cocoa educational. At what it could go configure me arrives in an error where blacks are still being lynched regularly in the south around the same time that movies like birth of the nation are showing extra ordinarily racist depictions of African Americans as monsters. You have really charismatic dynamic individual and he's talking about look all places never going to be here in the states is never going to be in. Europe it's going to be in Africa we need to reclaim Africa. So Garvey is going to be preaching a philosophy of black pride. He's GonNa come up with a scheme to repatriate to Africa and he provides a huge sense of hope for millions of African Americans. A centerpiece of Garvey's program was the creation of the black star line a steamship. LAUNCHED TO TRANSPORT AFRICAN AMERICANS WHO WISHED TO EMIGRATE TO AFRICAN? The Black Star Line. Is this idea that Garvey can buy ships through the support of local African American people sending in money? So you can have a share in the Black Star Line. Any ships were GONNA take thousands of people back to Africa to the colony that Garvey was gonNA. Stab wish. But his advocacy for black Americans to move back to Africa drew the attention of the United States government and especially J Hoover's Federal Bureau of Investigation. Which Monitored Garvey's movement seeking grounds for his arrest and deportation. Garvey was growing too powerful Jagger Hoover is going hired their first. Negro. To Subvert Marcus Garvey and eventually they're going to say that he's been committing mail fraud with the Black Star Line Scheme. He's eventually tried arrested placed in jail nineteen, twenty five. He's deported in nineteen twenty seven and he's never allowed to return to the United States, he dies in London in Nineteen. Forty. Garvey's legacy as the father of the modern back to Africa movement cannot be underestimated. He created the largest popular political movement in the history of black America and would be an inspiration both to the anti colonial movement and black nationalist leaders throughout the remainder of the century.
"negro improvement association" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"In the book, The migration of Negroes. The city was the largest on the Great Plains. At the time with 10,003 15 such residents. Omaha was second only to L, A and cities west, the Missouri River in terms of black population. What was life like for black Americans in Omaha at the time, the Littles live there. Um, it was growing. This growing black population there and they had their, um You know they had their lives. They have the Christian churches and they had their clubs. But Um, the the Littles, particularly in Louise. They were Garvey ites. So they were organizing. Really? To have people organized to set up their own. Um Businesses have them set up and organized against racism and racism was rampant. I mean, they were Um It was, you know, racing was rapid. And if you think about Omaha, Nebraska, that was 1919 was the Omaha incident. Where Wilbur was lynched, and this was during the violent red summer, which was when, after the That black veterans coming back in World War one We're fighting for American freedoms coming back and they wanted to improve their lives. They were fighting for freedoms for everybody else. They should have these freedoms. Also, this man counted to what They were facing in segregated towns and and awesome. This is in the middle of of the great migration advance. Same time. Um, this man counted to that. And Ron kept running counter, meaning that White immigrants were not happy with that. They did not. They believe that they should have the jobs and that black should not be holding these jobs, and they Really? Um, they they had a violent backlash to that. So there was this violence is undercurrent of violence going on. But, um, as blacks do they survive and we build our town. We continue educating ourselves, and we continued building our lives. But the thing is, is that Is always this undercurrent of violence going on. That's against us for the for our race. Malcolm's parents met through the Universal Negro Improvement Association, which was led by Marcus Garvey. As you mentioned they were Garvey I'ts, just in the quick history lesson for people who don't remember. Marcus Garvey is a black nationalist who saw independent black states around the world specifically in the West coast of Africa. He believes strongly in black independence. What brought both Louise and Earl To you and I I think you have to kind of look at their backgrounds in their own families. We grew up in Grenada. She was educated and had the opportunity to travel and she went To, um Canada with an uncle and that and he had introduced her to the U. N I A and she really identified with the politics and what they were saying with the philosophies of of the U N. I am Marcus Garvey, Earl. He was what he was enjoyed her. And segregated south, and he had a very independent mind. And he did not, um He did not do well with Jim Crow south. I mean, his family was begging him to. You know, you're causing trouble for us. His family were landowners of Georgia. They were farmers as father was a preacher. Christian preacher, but, um Hey, you know if you're not going, Bye bye, Jim Crow south laws that you're going to have problems as it is defective throughout this book. So he stood up to that in his in his spot basically advised him. Maybe you should not be here and maybe you need to find a better place to be. And so Earl went traveling and he came across the He also came across in the universal universe and even improved association in Canada and went to a meeting and you also met. Louise and they, you know Connected and started their family. He used to take Malcolm with him on trips promoting Marcus Garvey in the U. N I When Malcolm was just a little guy and in the book, you know it's written that other chroniclers of Malcolm's life don't really give enough weight to him Having grown up in a Garvey I households. How did it reveal itself in Malcolm's later years? It is the through line through everything. It is the through line through. Is growing up the family life in Omaha and where they end up in Lansing. Um, it is the through line through when Malcolm is in the nation. When you read this book, you also learn that The nation of Islam uses Garvey ites Prince guard Marcus Garvey's principles, um in addict when they now they install their own businesses. Them their own schools, educating themselves, um and very similar in that, you know, Garvey, who was talking about going backto going back after or creating That the nature different has a separate state ideology. Right? That's one of their own. And so these are you know, these are parallel and similar. And so that was also the attraction for the little family. To join the nation was Thie Garvey. I principles. And mountain never left. Those never left that he was pretty. He was talking about Garvey. To his oldest brother, You know, to the end of to the end of his life, you know, just the idea of being able to, you know, stand up and be black and be proud and Have you on business That's so important and having your own freedoms and having that respect and not Cal telling to the you know, two races believes and stealing bad that you're black, but being proud. My guess is to marry pain we're talking about the dead are arising the life of Malcolm X. So let's talk about you. Chronicle how the Littles moved from brass ca to Wisconsin and into Lansing. As you mentioned earlier, and in each place, Earl Little would find a home in the white section of town and he'd buy the land. Why was that so important to him? Ownership. Is the most basic form of building wealth. And having landed, you know in your name is most important and and that's you know, they were aspiration in that sense. In a line from the book, it says among a sea of compliant Negroes in the region, Young Malcolm's family stood out in bold relief. How so?.
"negro improvement association" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Gross. There is no way to understand the history struggle and debate over race and democracy in contemporary America without understanding Malcolm X and Martin Luther King's relationship to each other, their own era and most critically, to our time. That's what my guest Pernille Joseph Rights. He's the author of the recently published book, The Sword and The Shield, the Revolutionary lives of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. Joseph says that the mythology surrounding their legacies typically portrays King as the nonviolent insider, while Malcolm is characterized as a by any means necessary political renegade. It's King's. I have a dream versus Malcolm's the ballot or the bullet. Joseph's book braids their lives together, looking at how the past they took in their fights against white supremacy and for racial justice, diverged and converged. Malcolm X, was assassinated in 1965. King was assassinated three years later. O'Neill. Joseph is the founding director of the LBJ School's Center for the Study of Race and Democracy at the University of Texas Austin. Before that, he founded the Tufts University Center for the Study of Race and Democracy. His previous books include Stokely, a biography of Stokely Carmichael, who became qualm a tour and popularized the term black power and was a leader of that movement. And the book Dark days Bright nights from black power to Barack Obama. O'Neill, Joseph, Welcome to fresh air. Why did you want to braid together the lives of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King. Well, I've always been fascinated by Malcolm X and Dr King and the more I did research into the black power movement, and I wrote several books about black power and civil rights. The more I was both interested in them and and dissatisfied in how they're usually portrayed both in books and in popular culture. You both fought for racial equality, But they have different visions of the world They wanted to see. Well, I think they have convergent visions, but they have different strategies on how to get there. So Malcolm X is really scarred by racial trauma at a very early age. King, in contrast, has a very gilded childhood, and he's the son of upper middle class African American family, prosperous family. That runs one of the most important churches in black Atlanta Ebeneezer Baptist Church, So Malcolm and Martin are shaped by both the historical circumstances. That that Presented to them but also by their own personal histories. So they both want these goals of human rights and human freedom and human dignity. But they're goingto have different strategies and tactics, especially initially on how to achieve that goal. Compare their initial tactics. When we think about Malcolm X, But Malcolm X is the most important black working class hero and leader, an activist of the 20th century and by that I mean that Malcolm is coming from the lower frequencies of the black community. He's born in Omaha, Nebraska in 1925. His mother and father, political activist followers of Marcus Garvey, the Universal Negro Improvement Association. They're black nationalists and Pan Africanist who believe in radical political self determination. And Malcolm's father is going to be killed by white supremacists in 1931 in Lansing, Michigan. His mother is going to be placed in a psychiatric facility for most of his adult life. He's a foster child for several years, and then he lives with his older sister, starting at the age of 15 in Roxbury, Massachusetts. And really over the next 56 years, he's going to be engaged in both working menial jobs and participating in the underground economy, which means extra legal or criminal activity. And in prison. He sentenced to 11 years in prison. He's going to serve 76 months between 1946 in 1952 Hey, has an epiphany. He comes to believe in the Muslim religion as articulated by the nation of Islam, which is really a religious Slash black nationalist group That's coming out of the Garvey tradition of the 19 teens in 19 twenties, and he comes to believe that Elijah Mohammed who's the former Elijah Poole from Georgia. Is actually the honorable Elijah Mohammed, who's the messenger of Allah himself. So Malcolm is goingto transform himself in prison by 1948 49 50 And really become somebody who imbibes black history. He imbibes religious history. But he comes to have his own critique of both structural racism but white supremacy, and he's going to argue that what black people need Is political liberation that they craft themselves. So he comes to believe that the reason why black people are marginalized in the United States is because they have imbibed Western traditions. Christianity, and they refused to look for the last place that they would ever look for their own liberation is within that black people don't understand their identity. They think of themselves as Negro and not his black. They don't have a love or appreciation of African history. And so what Malcolm is going to do has become really this political leader who critiques white supremacy and also argues that black people should pursue dignity in their own history, their own culture, their own values. And that leads to a pretty separatist vision. Yeah, And you know what's interesting? This idea of separatism is really interesting. The deeper I investigated Malcolm X, the more I understood what he meant and with the nation of Islam that bi racial separatism It wasn't segregation. It wasn't segregation. It was separatism, they argued. And Malcolm does this in a Siri's of debates against fired Rustin against Jim Farmer against James Baldwin. Lewis Lomax. He says that racial separatism Is required because White people do not want black people to be citizens and have dignity. And if they did, you wouldn't have to protest and experience police violence and police brutality. Small Children trying to integrate little rock high school. Young people trying to integrate lunch counters and they're arrested and brutalized. Sometimes people were killed, of course. So what's interesting about this idea? Separatism? Malcolm argues. Separatism is black people having enough self love. And enough confidence in themselves to organize and build parallel institutions because America was so infected with the disease of racism they could never racially integrated into American democracy. Marley, The King and Malcolm X initially disagreed on the role of violence and Nonviolence. King, of course, was him America's leading advocate of nonviolent civil disobedience. How would you describe Malcolm X is vision when he says, by any means necessary. Well, Malcolm is making the argument that one black people have the right to self defense. On DH to defend themselves against police brutality. It's really striking when you follow Malcolm X in the 19 fifties and sixties, the number of quarter parents is he's making. Whether it's in Buffalo, New York or Los Angeles or Rochester, New York were members of the nation of Islam have been brutalized at times killed by police violence, So Malcolm is arguing that one black people have a right to defend themselves..
"negro improvement association" Discussed on The Takeaway
"That was David Latte founding editor of above the law illegal news website and a managing director in the new. York. Office of lateral link, a nationwide legal recruiting firm, and we wanna hear your experiences about living with and recovering from covid nineteen. How're you doing weeks or months after contracting the virus eight, seven, seven, eight my take is our Colin Line and you can tweet US also I'm at Tenzin Vega and the show is at the takeaway. I'm Tansy Vega and you're listening to the takeaway. This week marked the start of black August a month long observance of black resistance that's been around since the nineteen seventies this year following weeks of nationwide protests against police brutality, systemic racism, black August is finding renewed popularity. It's a time of reaffirmation rededication to the Movement for Black Liberation with a special emphasis on political prisoners and prisoners of war. My name is Sunday to cater to charge your m. a associate professor at the University of Illinois in the Departments of African American Studies in. History. According to soon, Diatta historically, there have been certain rituals associated with black. August and that includes things like physical exercise and fasting. It's a moment where people do fast from Sunup to sundown its time, which there is intense study particularly in the fields of black history and revolutionary and writings with a special emphasis on the work of George Jackson. Jackson was a revolutionary author Field Marshall of the black. Panther Party and also the CO founder of the black guerrilla family a political group in California prisons. At the time Jackson spent more than a decade at San Quentin State prison on charges of armed robbery until his death in August nineteen seventy-one Jackson and other politicized prisoners found themselves constantly at odds with guards in the guards which supply members of white supremacist groups with weapons such as knives to attack and kill a highly political prisoners in one such incident there's a struggle on the yard and Aaron Brothers attacking people. George Jackson makes a decision to use it as an effort to try and escape. And in the midst of that, he shot and killed in the prison Yar Jackson Dan is He's he you know he's a martyr for the movement, the Black Panther Party EP Newton, eulogize Jackson, and black guerrilla family. In the wake of having lost Jackson and his younger brother Jonathan a year before she was security. For Angela Davis, they make a decision to memorialize Jackson and his teachings in that's birth of black blackhawks cindy many Americans have heard of black history month but very few including myself as I mentioned had not. Heard about the tradition of black August why do you think that is? One I think it's because it's recent. Ready. Begins in the early Seventies Nineteen, seventy one after the assassination of George Jackson. To. It comes out of penal system specifically in California and it doesn't really begin to. Hit the broader population of people outside of prison until nine, hundred, seventy, nine, or so. And unless one. Had A connection to a black liberation. Organization that was concerned about political prisoners and prisoners of war is likely that one wouldn't have heard about it until we get to the late nineties. Early, two thousand s when Demarco Mex- grassroots movement. Came up with a project is buyer by Sasha core. To US hip hop as a way of publicising. The plight of African, American. Political Prisoners beginning in nineteen, ninety eight there was a concert of Malcolm x grassroots took a series of artists common Dave Banner. Yes. In Bay, the former most deaf black star artists like that took them to Cuba and subsequently Dan began to take these orders around the world South Africa Tanzania Brazil INS Walea, and of course, concerts in United States. So that gave Black August and bit of publicity. Blake August is similar to Kwanza, not just inform, but also ineffective quasi was a celebration that was only in the black community for several decades. And then it began to slowly spread into much broader segment of the black community and into mainstream America and we see Black August as beginning to move in that same direction Cindy Outta the month of August is also full of other major moments in the history of black resistance. It's not just about the death of George Jackson and others at Saint Quentin but it's also a month where many black revolutionaries were born right either they were born or most important activities occurred in the month of August. So if we think really big pitcher The major event that associates August with black resistance, and that's why we referred to it as black August resistance month would be the Haitian revolution of seventeen ninety. One that outbreak begins in August also Gabriel prosser his conspiracy of eighteen hundred. The area Richmond Virginia that also begins in August as does net Turner's eighteen, thirty, one rebellion and a rebellion in new in eighteen, forty three. But it is also the month in which the NAG wbz boys and William Monroe Trotter form the Niagara Movement is also the month in which Marcus Garvey he was born in. August. But more importantly, he created the Universal, Negro? Improvement Association also month of August so August is replete with billions slave revolts and formation of organizations that sought to liberate black people either US and or worldwide. Are we seeing this black August. More in recent years given particularly the racial justice uprising that we're seeing around the country after the death of George Floyd. Guess precisely, what we're seeing I think that it's because. Of the emphasis over the last six years since death of Michael Brown is emphasis on the injustice of the criminal justice system. This emphasis on police use of excessive and deadly force has also raised the question around black political prisoners, and so one of.
"negro improvement association" Discussed on C-SPAN Radio
"The color of your skin you reach like the white the shape of your nose in the shape of your lips your the race to show that you don't want to be around each other before you come asking Mister mom does he teach he you should ask yourself who taught you his parents Earl and Louise little what were both suffered tragedies and their lives so what happened to him and his reviews that that gave him the leadership and the communication skills that we just saw on display there yeah Malcolm has it traumatic childhood experiences racial trauma early age is born in Omaha Nebraska in nineteen twenty five on may nineteenth his father a little his mother Louise Norton little are political activists they are followers of Marcus Garvey and garbage in making pan Africanist who found an organization called the work the universal Negro improvement association which really becomes the largest black mass movement making history in the early nineteen twenties and be between three and five million Gharbi I went several times in the carribean United States Africa Latin America and we think about army is in this is this idea of black nationalism cultural pride political solidarity political self determination racial solidarity political self determination so Malcolm's parents moved to Lansing Michigan and Malcolm's father is going to be killed in nineteen thirty one the little family is going to argue that his father was killed by white supremacists the white supremacist group called the black legion the official police report says that Malcolm's father died in a street car accident where a car on a street car a street car basically sliced him into the family never believed that and so when we when we look at that's one tragedy also by the age of six he even loses father Earl who we never forget and his mother is going to be institutionalized in a psychiatric institution because she doesn't really have a great way to make a living his his his his siblings are going to be scattered and foster care Malcolm is in the stand several years in foster care and finally at the age of fifteen he's going to move in with his half sister your father previously married and had three children he's gonna move in with his half sister Ella Mae Collins in Roxbury Boston and from nineteen forty to nineteen forty six Malcolm becomes what he describes as a hockey player he's in Roxbury he's in Harlem he works odd jobs but he also sells marijuana to jazz musicians he lives on a life of actual crime I he's going to be arrested and charged with being part of a being a burglary ring in Boston he's gonna spend almost seven years in prison and it's really while he's in prison you really reconnects with the side of himself that had really been traumatized and that's the side that was looking both her father figure which she finds an honorable life on it and the nation of Islam it was also looking to be politically active Malcolm wanted to be a lawyer but at his predominately white school in Mason Michigan and they told him because he was black he couldn't be a lawyer I think it's important ever that MalcolmX with light skin with red hair and freckles because we heard in that clip he was talking about anti black racism in a way which white supremacy really are coming toward the way in which so many black people and black communities start themselves because they weren't thought of as they weren't thought of as an intelligent they weren't fully three dimensional deeply empathetic human beings and Malcolm pushes back against that Malcolm's mother Louise Norton little was from Grenada and was so light that she had passed away which is something that Malcolm always talks about and thought that he was treated better by his dark skin father because he was the life of their children so it's very interesting the way in which race plays a role in Malcolm's conception of politics but he's he's a great debater he's a prison activists while he's in prison for Muslim right he's he's a voracious reader and he goes to one of those prisons Norfolk in Massachusetts is an experimental prison that provides college level education in a way I argue that Malcolm X. really he gets a college degree and war while he's in prison and by the time he leaves prison he's paroled on August seventh nineteen fifty two he really becomes this political activist it becomes this organizer but he's also an intellectual he's constantly reading the great quotes and you know he could spend all day in a library in his autobiography because he's a voracious polyglot of a reader speaker thinker and writer so he's not just an organizer and educator he's an intellectual and I think Dr king is an intellectual too and this book treats them as activists but also intellectuals because their political continues to resonate all the way so if it is a platform and his mentor ship came through the nation of Islam and Alisa Muhammad that relationship ultimately frayed what was the cause of the dissolution of the relationship you know the dissolution is going to be deeply political and deeply personal and I would start with the political over time Malcolm is trying to transform the nation of Islam which is a sectarian religious national organization it's a very unique interpretation of of Muslims Lasky and that the religion of Islam they are radical parts of it are very conservative and so Malcolm over time try to politicize the nation of Islam make them part of the civil rights movement and for a time the honorable Elijah Muhammad allows this to happen is Malcolm joins the group from prison in the group only has five six hundred hard core members really in large part due to Malcolm's organizing skills the group is going to have you know thirty five forty fifty thousand members by the time the eggs so he really transforms that that group into a group that now is a wealthy group that is making millions of dollars through publishing the nation of.
"negro improvement association" Discussed on Correctly Mistaken
"We? Deal with a problem that we never created in the first place in terms of race of racism that we never we didn't. We weren't racist. We weren't racist against ourselves so how? To fix the problem in ourselves. Do you think this is something that we can really fix? In terms of the core or a has to be white people of influence, influence, power and money to say you know what this can't happen, no more this can't stand to. To be white people. NARA wireless five percent white. When a country that the economy, the educational system and the judicial system is controlled by life I. don't care that there's a black mayor. Is Illegal was a black president? Let's not get it twisted in act like this. Each police stealing were happened under Obama you. Down Yeah. This is not just donald trump yeah. So they control ninety plus percent of the wealth in America is controlled by whites. There is not been a black movement. In America that change things on a practical whether it was the abolitionist movement or to civil rights movement that did not. Involve white people. Abraham Lincoln had to decree the emancipation proclamation. White abolitionists this fall for that in the civil rights movement. Marching with you know blacks, and then you had. Lyndon Johnson and other politicians who changed that certain law. Voting Rights Act and things like that, so you've asked other movies like Marcus are. United Negro Improvement Association or the Nation of Islam by Elijah. Muhammad Malcolm X.. The benefit of those movements. With really psychological. They they they stressed black pride. A if you. If you paid attention studied, embrace certain of the things they were teaching. You felt proud to be black in a society that had always made us ashamed to be black. Malcolm X. in Marcus Garvey moved with that. Increase your pride in being black guess and make you feel good about being black, but that was internal. That was to the black community. As far as those those movements didn't do anything practically. In charge of changing laws and Only inside. Herve Akzo, so movement like that. which is what we're looking for now we need both. Yes, who looking for now need we need why? And White Allies in power national. I think the NFL players. who demanded an apology from the NFL Roger Goodell satelite lives matter and all that that was great, but he didn't go far. No, you need to demand action, yes. Jerry Jones is buddies with Donald Trump is arbor. IS CLOSE WITH DONALD TRUMP? Is He? Is He? Our money talks in America. Yes, but he thought it is. It's not. The politicians are doing what the people with money Taliban. Jess, and so if you can get these why owners of the NFL and other sports franchises to use their wealth, power and influence to get lost chains to get police reform done Pat that what you need to demand result just demand an apology because you say actions speak louder..
"negro improvement association" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"You're listening to all of it on WNYC analysis. We're going to continue our conversation about hip hop in its cultural influence by doing a little bit of a reporter. Debrief WNYC. Chris johnson. Hi, Christopher recently reported a piece called to be young conscious and wrap the sorts WNYC's the stakes new podcast, hosted by our friend KAI. Right. Chris want to take a look at the Genesis of socially and politically conscious rap where been we're going. Let's take a listen to a clip from the beginning of the episode, where Christopher explains what led him to explore this particular moment in hip hop history. Of course, there's definitely political and social consciousness in rap music today. And then when the rapid nipsy hustle was killed his death. It seemed to reignite this ongoing conversation about gun violence, especially in black and Brown communities. But this era the one that we're talking about now. This was the first big wave. Right. It felt like it was from the streets and it was dealing with what our communities were. Really going through. And so what I wanted to know was where did that consciousness in conscious? Rap come from and then where the hell did it go? Chris welcome where did it come from? Where did it go? What did it come from? Where did it go? Well, it's interesting. You know, you just had already on the great and he was talking about how he was his grandfather was part of Marcus garvey's universal negro improvement association, massive black organization. And this influenced him, I think that this is a story for a lot of rappers that they had this kind of lineage in their homes. They had grandparents grandmothers grandfathers aunts uncles who are very much influenced by black nationalism and responsibility for black communities and it was just naturally going to shake their music. Now, as you cited to report this story where did you go? Who did you decide you wanted to talk to you? How did you start? Yes. So first and foremost, I called up. Why didn't call up cool Modiin feed down like that. But I did reach out to Kumo d and every to the folks who made this song called self-destruction, which was sort of unprecedented. It was like a we are the world for those who, remember we are the world, it was like a we are the world, you and I remember it, it was like a we are the world rap music. It was sort of greats of hip hop, and people who would become great in hip hop. Music coming together making a song to try to affect change in black communities. So I start reaching out to the folks who made that like Nelson George and Carly shots. Staying carly. So if we had to pick a time a time when this sort of conscious rap really started when would that be I would put it at, and this is folks are gonna come from me, but I would put it around eighty seven eighty eight ish and put it there, partly because this is when we see, like K one from boogie down productions start to make shift Scotla rock his partner in boogie down, productions, get shot and killed in the Bronx around then and chaos one starts to kind of change his music a little bit. And it starts to become even more political. His second album by any means necessary has a picture of him on the cover posing, Malcolm X. And so this. Is when the music really, really starts to shift and then public enemy second album. It takes a nation of millions is just full force in-your-face pro black music. It's also this time and I think about cares. One about Chuck, d is that they have a certain. It's an overuse, word by the perfect gravitas. There's something about them as performers as men as citizens that I think they were perfect messengers at the time. I don't know if that's just about who they are, or what their life experiences where what do you think what do you think about them, particularly, I mean, do that it was something about who they were also think that it was about a moment. I mean, if we can just close our eyes and flashback to the eighties, not take anything away from their artistry. But I also think this was a moment of like a hardcore anti-apartheid push that was going on across the world. But especially black folks in the US we're taking this up. And also, again, like the eighties, this is Reagan. This is like this. Full-bore assault on black life in this country. And so in some ways, I think that the art couldn't help but take this stuff on and still continue to be relevant. We're talking to Christopher Johnson. He reported piece for the stakes podcast call to young conscious and rap. I wanna play a clip about dope, Jan with dope jam was dope. Jam was this concert that so this is like a right around the time when rap music is just starting to kind of take off their these series of toys that are happening in the eighties and dope, jam was one of these tours with all these big rappers on biz marquee, Dougie fresh Kumo d- was there and goes around the country in the summer in the last show is at Nassau Coliseum. And at that show. So there'd been a series of sort of been a lot of violence at rat shows around that time. And then at dope, jam a kid, actually gets killed at this dope. Jam concert, there guys going around snatching chains ching, purses and a kid. The story goes it he was defending his. Electing his girlfriend. And so he gets killed along the way. And so these artists come together after the Jan killing and say this has to stop and it's on us. We have to change this. Let's take a let's play a little bit of this, and we'll talk about more on the other side. I went looking for a test case I went looking for this time when hip hop artists answered a call to action when they use their art in their voices to push for social change. And I found that moment, so this is nineteen..
"negro improvement association" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"And now it's time to take a trip through the WNYC archives with the station's chief archivist Andy Lancet, this is the municipal broadcasting system. York City's station WNYC city. We're more than seven million people live in peace and enjoy the benefits of democracy. This week. We're going to take a look at the life and legacy of Marcus Garvey, Marcus Garvey, was a political leader writer publisher and entrepreneur he had a vision of economic independence for his people. He was the founder of the universal negro improvement association. U N, I A the single largest black organization ever in the nineteen twenties and thirties, the U N, I A had an estimated six million followers around the world. Andy you made a documentary in the early nineties for NPR series horizons on Marcus Garvey, ran here on WNYC. How did you become interested in him? And why did you make that documentary? Well, at the time, I was actively looking for significant historical stories and events that up to that point had had little airing on public radio. But also wanted to tell a story that still had a good possibility of finding people who were alive who would actually known or seen in this case, Marcus Garvey. And in addition to his sons, I was able to interview oddly more also known as Queen. Mother more Harlem activists than matriarch and pretty amazing person for decades as well as a member Amy Gordon now here, we have a clip of Marcus Garvey, son, Marcus Garvey, junior talking about his father at the time of this recording. He was about sixty and president of a UN a chapter in New York. The aim of Marcus Garvey was to create a great sinful nation in Africa. That would be so strong that it could protect Africans all over the world, but Marcus garvey's great achievement was to make this idea on the stand to the masses of African people Andy who was drawn to Garvey and his mission will garvey's followers were largely from the working class and included formerly enslaved persons as well as World War, One veterans who had been to France, and it had a taste of culture without. Jim crow. There was also at that time a large number of immigrants in the United States from the Caribbean who found the Jamaican-born Garvey, pretty appealing. Can you? Tell me a little more about his his life short. Garvey was a printer a union leader in Jamaica. And he came to this country in one thousand nine hundred sixteen where his efforts to so-called uplift, the race through free enterprise were met with skepticism ridicule and even sabotage in the nineteen twenties. He was a target of the young J. Edgar Hoover and in nineteen twenty seven he was deported from the United States as an undesirable alien. But it actually we we have a recording of Garvey. He made a record in nineteen twenty one. And here he is delivering the powerful slogan that characterized his movement. Cried. You mentioned Amy Gordon included songs from Amy Gordon. Can't tell folks who she was. Sure. Amy, Gordon was a veteran member of the UN and she hailed from Jamaica. And she remembered some of the organizations songs, she was pretty old when I interviewed her in Brooklyn around nineteen ninety so my guess is that she has passed on. But her songs were sung straight from memory. We have a clip of her singing one of those pieces, cappella, let's hear oh shine on eternal light next one. No Shannon in night. Shane too. To to great. Oh. He did. This. News.