5 Burst results for "mycotoxin Mycotoxin"

"mycotoxin mycotoxin" Discussed on News Radio 920 AM

News Radio 920 AM

09:57 min | 7 months ago

"mycotoxin mycotoxin" Discussed on News Radio 920 AM

"Four five five a lot of people don't want me talking about some of this stuff that I'm talking about and I'm talking about the big insurance companies the big pharmaceutical companies and the big food company but nothing is gonna stop me but I can't do it alone so I can see on the site right now that we have someone from Cranston Rhode Island someone from north Grafton Massachusetts from new Kensington Pennsylvania and we have someone from Warwick Rhode Island and I'm going to go on and on here for just a little bit guys because we have a lot of people signing on to the site we have someone from maple Bill rode island we have some from Providence Rhode Island from new Bedford mass from Brookline mass from new in Vail NASA and even know where that is Warwick Rhode Island Warwick Rhode Island potok it Providence and a Lincoln Rhode Island fall river mass fall river mass Wakefield Rhode Island Hawaii kai he Hawaii and soon India so again go over to the side harmony with food dot com you can also go to the site if you don't want to call in and tap and put in your question on the chat bot that's in the right hand corner of the city of the child the bottom right hand corner you can go ahead and chat with me on there you can also email me at harmony with food at G. mail dot com again harmony with food just remember H. W. F. harmony with food at G. mail dot com and we are taking your calls at eight six six nine two zero nine four five five so let's start the conversation rolling we are talking about mycotoxins mycotoxins are structurally diverse group of compounds produced mainly by fun guy or mold under suitable temperature and humidity humidity conditions so remember just earlier talking about the schools and then not have any air conditioning and it being damp as the perfect environment to grow mold mycotoxins may develop on various foods and agricultural crops causing serious respiratory ailments and animal health currently more than three hundred mycotoxins are known but scientific attention is focused mainly on those that are proving to be carcinogenic or toxic human experiments Boettcher to mycotoxins occurs through ingestion of contaminated foods and dirt through skin contact with contaminated surface says and breathing and air and dust containing mycotoxins food sources of mycotoxins include plant derived foods that are contaminated with mycotoxins in mycotoxins and their metabolites in animal products such as meat and eggs unfortunately mycotoxins are read this sent to most food processing methods including heat and a dish and water damage to buildings like here in New England like we're just talking about our common root of mycotoxin exposure and often goes unrecognized as mold can grow on almost any wet and warm place including inner walls of buildings fiberglass insulation and wall paper among other things mycotoxins produced by molds may differ based on the species of mold and how talks a Janick this species is a single malt species may produce several different mycotoxins toxic effects can be acute chronic mutagenic or tear it to genic harmful effects of mycotoxins can be causing illnesses such as micro ties so says my co says can range from mild and reversible irreversible organ damage and life threatening and basis aspergillosis depending on the specific type of mycotoxin the health of the individual and the exposure levers levels of course in the time course of the mycotoxin insurrections in other circumstances we'll take a fact in each individual case so again you know no one size fits all we're looking at each individual person we're seeing what they're high in what they've been exposed to and then what we do is actually talk about what they can do to improve the air quality whether it's you know in your home or where you work and that what foods we can eat to eliminate some of this and what supplements we can take so when you get a mycotoxin tests done it's looking at you and your is your analysis and it's drop shipped to your home and your what we're looking at to see okay I have I been exposed to this I think I have maybe I'm a teacher who works in Providence I'm pretty sure I've been exposed to something okay so then what we would do is drop ship the product to your home on the tip the kit and then actually determine what you have been exposed to and with that we then look at foods and supplements we can do to to get that out of your system so it's not like we find out you have it it's the day is done no I actually talked to a natural Pathak Dr and California we go over your results and then I sit and figure out what supplements and foods and things to be should be consuming to help eliminate this from your system mycotoxins pathogenic a fax are multifactorial and complex and could target all organ systems including the nervous system cardiovascular system respiratory system thank you stiff system urinary system I'm using system endocrine system reproductive system X. Sattar on so basically every system in your body that this can be affecting you on a multi level way so I want you guys to understand that molds that because it might what is called mycosis that spelled M. Y. C. O. S. C. ask can be divided into two categories primary pathogens that affect healthy people or opportunistic pathogens that can affect people who are chronically ill or maybe they have suppressed immune system that's more often in children and the elderly or people that are chronically sick oxidative stress and inflammation are mechanisms that contribute to mycotoxin induced toxicity mycotoxins have been shown to induce intracellular glutathione depletion and study suggests that anti oxidants may mitigate the toxic effect of mycotoxins associated with this oxidative stress so again mycotoxins activate an inflammatory response in human macrophages intestinal inflammatory diseases airway inflammation and atopic dermatitis mycotoxins have been shown to impact micronutrient as arson distribution metabolism and excretion and livestock with mycotoxin kos says so I want you guys to realize that another status that's up on my site it's called the micronutrient testing I'm going to click on that myself here and you can go ahead and lock and scroll down and see all the different vitamins and minerals that we are checking in this task so we're looking at the extracellular and intracellular AT and all the roles that these different vitamins and minerals can affect how they can affect us what they can do from vitamin a all the B. vitamins C. D. three D. the twenty five oh eight usually a doctor only tax that we also check the D. three vitamin E. vitamin K. one K. two folate sodium potassium co enzyme Q. ten Sistine selenium glutathione as far gene glutamine serene all I'm going to go on and on here so I'll just keep saying that magnesium manganese zinc all of these different and the branch chain amino acids and they take omega fatty acids you do to make sure that you have the right amount of baby you're a vegan maybe you don't eat enough tests on maybe don't eat anything that's right if you're vegan so maybe that's something that you need to look at and decide you know is this something that I want to do for my health because what magazine as I Meg spent around for over fifteen years now at least more than that believe me but talking and in being an expert in nutrition for over fifteen years that we need to be more proactive about our health and our conventional doctors are going to task for this stuff they're not going to test for mold they're not going to test you know what maybe you know somebody that works in a building that's you think may be a toxic building are dirty building or whatever sick building whatever you wanna call it's all semantics you know maybe this is something you want to get for them because you're like you know what I want you to live a long healthy life maybe you're set someone in your family or your best friend or you know I mean let's let's just a minute teachers get the short end of the stack my father was a teacher I know you know they they they don't make a lot of money they work very very hard a lot of times people think oh they get the whole summer awful actually they only got about eight weeks off and in that eight weeks they have to go set up there for their classrooms so there there early they had meetings they have to go to so it you know when you when people think of when I hear people make comments about teachers and how what easy position as I would tell you that you probably don't have someone in your family that's a teacher at and you can see how hard that that actually can be not only dealing with all kinds of children with different kinds of problems but also dealing with parents of these children that could be a whole nother topic and I probably have to have a social worker and on this side conversation at some point if I wanted to talk about that some more but you guys are listening to the harmony of food show go over to harmony with food dot com remember you get free information or you can go on to the paid tab and get the forty nine ninety nine information that I add to all.

"mycotoxin mycotoxin" Discussed on The Wellness Mama Podcast

The Wellness Mama Podcast

08:30 min | 8 months ago

"mycotoxin mycotoxin" Discussed on The Wellness Mama Podcast

"Excited to talk to today's guest because I really respect her work. I'm here with doctor and chippy. Who is a powerhouse on a very powerful mission to help people across the world live their healthiest lives? Using cutting edge science really specific the big research and genetic information to treat the root causes of disease she specializes in environmental texts toxicity preconception and reproductive health and mold exposure exposure and. She's designed life altering treatments and protocols for her patients using EPA genetic information which is the study of DNA expression and the bodies incredible ability to express or repress helpful or detrimental genes as well as prevent he'll and even reverse certain illnesses. She's a fascinating background. She was an IBM engineer for a decade decade and then her challenging experience traditional medicine motivated her to search for her own health answers. She left engineering to attend the University of Texas Medical School in his now board. Certified in internal medicine and a certified functional medicine physician with a practice in Austin Texas. If you live there I cannot recommend her highly enough. Gosh she's the author of two books in his currently working on her third. And I know that you're GonNa love this episode we go really deep on mold exposure micro-toxins and what you need to know to make sure that you don't have any underlying problems in your home that you're not aware of doctorship you welcome. Thanks for being here so excited to be here. I am so excited to chat with you. Because as you are an expert on many many things but I know that you both have personal experience and expertise in an area. I get a lot of questions about and I want to jump into today. which is mold mycotoxin mycotoxin exposure? And I know that you have a story a personal story and I would love to start there because I think this is a growing awareness about this and people are realizing they might have a problem. But but there's also probably a lot of us who don't even realize we have a problem but we might so. Can you start with a personal story. Yes I was Already practicing sync functional medicine. You know where you're where I'm looking for the root cause of illness and I had gone to a conference on micro-toxins about a year before but I didn't know what was happening to me so I was getting sicker and sicker. I had gotten to the point where I would draw a glass. If it was full of water is a a bright arm was so weak. I couldn't even grasp it fully. My hair was falling out all over the bathroom. I had so much pain in my body that I didn't want my kids to hug me hurt so badly and I I couldn't wear my heels anymore because my right foot hurt so much and and I was really getting scared I I was starting to wonder if I was going to be able to take care of my patients kids myself and and I had sought out experts. I've been to a neurologist. Immunologist Hands Specialists Internists. Ed reached out to my friends in the actual medicine community and was really getting stumped and then one day when a my patience was that I was treating for environmental toxicity issues during great but she just looked across the table at me and I thought I had it all kinda covered. But she's like doctorship he. I think you're really sick. I think I I know my intuition is telling me it's something that I had gone. Through which is toxic mold exposure to a specific mold called to him and she left me so much shave as insisting on coming to my house at the end of the day to go walk through and see if she got her mold symptoms and so sure enough that day she came to my a house walk through it and within in five to ten minutes she was really not feeling well and had to leave. And the this is what happens to me concerto medium. You should take very few of your belongings and leave and not ever spend another night here and I was so scared that I did exactly what she suggested justed. I went and took my kids and started staying at my parents house and really amped up my detoxification support and started to feel better and finally any Like a month later after doing several of the wrong kinds of mold tested the right one in the right place in the house and found that she you tell me well. That's amazing especially because I know like you as a functional medicine naturally like you already know all the stuff to do and I'm sure you were living very clean lifestyles also the fact that you're still sick. That's really like like points to some other kind of issue. Are there kind of walk us through. What some of the comments are when it comes to motor and I know that there's probably all the arranged but like both the ones you experienced other people might experience cats so a lot of times people will just feel like they're more tired? They don't have the energy to do the things that they need need to do. Or their brain will fill a little foggy or they'll be getting skin rashes or little bit digestive upset and then on the more severe side when we go looking for the root causes zip illnesses it can be things like what's triggering your autoimmune disorder. What caused cancer? What triggered the diabetes? So it often is the root caused illness but the early symptoms are just maybe feeling a little bit more tired or here might be falling out more readily as digestive zip symptoms headaches or even more like the allergy symptoms so I had to go through mold again a few years later and actually it was a brand new home that I I was living in. I just started developing worsening allergies and asthma. Gotch and I know that those are relatively common now as well so you mentioned. It took several rounds of testing before you were able to actually locate it and I have heard this experience from others as well who even a neighbor of ours got really sick. They did multiple tests and then finally were able to tight like find and identify the mold and then it was a long process to remediate What kind of testing did you finally worked? Are there different kinds of tests for different things. That's such a great question and I think it's a little overwhelming for for people to be listening and taking notes so we do have a mauled handout. That we can have you put in your. Yeah no it's. It's just an chippy. MD DOT com slash mold so A lot at even inspectors that are out there are still not up upon the latest technology so a negative mall test means nothing the a Lotta. The inspectors are doing air testing and a lot of these. He's really toxic. Mold don't put enough mold spores into the air. They're big heavy and they just kinda dropped down to where they're close to where they're growing. So Ah it misses him so if you do an air sampling Dustin. It's positive for any of the the more toxic molds really pay attention to that so like ecstatic bosterous and she told me him Things like Whoa Alenia Okra toxin penicillin if those show up. Pay Attention But what I really like to do or samples on the dust so getting as much dust from the building. Whether it's an officer home or a school get as much dust and then do the DNA testing rather than just doing the visual inspections or the culture said the Sometimes they're called an army Task but the army is just really a calculation of what DNA was there of the mold and then find somebody. That's really good. It being the house. Detectives I think about myself as being the good body. Detective like figuring out. What's going on find somebody? Who's who takes mold seriously that they ed protect themselves with the Respirator and the Clothing that will protect them so they really know that mold can be a problem and then have them. You know pull out the the refrigerator and sometimes even have to go into the wall. Cavities and with a Camera to look to see what's going on. They climb up in the attic and they look to see if things are sealed properly to not leave any stone unturned. Because because you don't want to have had the wrong result and have a hidden problem. which is what often happens? The inspectors come in and say oh no everything everything looks good and then you've really miss the big problem to explain a little bit more on why to test the dust because I know from research but you know does can be a source of the home of many things but why are test the dust versus test the home itself.

Austin Texas EPA University of Texas Medical Sc IBM autoimmune disorder engineer Immunologist Hands Specialists diabetes Ed penicillin Gotch cancer Dustin officer army
"mycotoxin mycotoxin" Discussed on The Healthy Moms Podcast

The Healthy Moms Podcast

02:10 min | 8 months ago

"mycotoxin mycotoxin" Discussed on The Healthy Moms Podcast

"EPA genetic information which is the study of DNA expression and the bodies incredible ability to express or repress helpful or detrimental genes as well as prevent he'll and even reverse certain illnesses. She's a fascinating background. She was an IBM engineer for a decade decade and then her challenging experience traditional medicine motivated her to search for her own health answers. She left engineering to attend the University of Texas Medical School in his now board. Certified in internal medicine and a certified functional medicine physician with a practice in Austin Texas. If you live there I cannot recommend her highly enough. Gosh she's the author of two books in his currently working on her third. And I know that you're GonNa love this episode we go really deep on mold exposure micro-toxins and what you need to know to make sure that you don't have any underlying problems in your home that you're not aware of doctorship you welcome. Thanks for being here so excited to be here. I am so excited to chat with you. Because as you are an expert on many many things but I know that you both have personal experience and expertise in an area. I get a lot of questions about and I want to jump into today. which is mold mycotoxin mycotoxin exposure? And I know that you have a story a personal story and I would love to start there because I think this is a growing awareness about this and people are realizing they might have a problem. But but there's also probably a lot of us who don't even realize we have a problem but we might so. Can you start with a personal story. Yes I was Already practicing sync functional medicine. You know where you're where I'm looking for the root cause of illness and I had gone to a conference on micro-toxins about a year before but I didn't know what was happening to me so I was getting sicker and sicker. I had gotten to the point where I would draw a glass. If it was full of water is a a bright arm was so weak. I couldn't even grasp it fully. My hair was falling out all over the bathroom. I had so much pain in my body that I didn't want my kids to hug me hurt so badly and I I couldn't wear my heels anymore because my right foot hurt so much and and I was really getting scared I I was starting to wonder if.

engineer Austin Texas EPA IBM University of Texas Medical Sc
"mycotoxin mycotoxin" Discussed on The Curious About Cannabis Podcast

The Curious About Cannabis Podcast

10:42 min | 11 months ago

"mycotoxin mycotoxin" Discussed on The Curious About Cannabis Podcast

"So far everything we've explored about about the health risks of cannabis civic ignored a really critical element in that's contaminants so far. We've been assuming that if you're using cannabis that cannabis abyss must be clean. But unfortunately that's not always the case the cannabis contaminants that were looking at Anthony. Smith is a biochemist. Oh chemist that has spent the last five years analyzing cannabis products for potency purity in labs all across the United States and Canada. Ten minutes we're looking for are pesticides hides solvents heavy metals micro-toxins and then also microbiological contaminants eat holy and or s attack which is a Shiga Toxin E. Coli Salmonella Djilas a total mold or total. Aerobic plate counts Katrina nonspecific bacteria the most common contaminants that we find are definitely pesticides. I I would say four or five years ago. It was like a rampant rampant thing Where you know at times in Oregon's some times of of the year we were seeing pesticide-product failure rates at twenty percent or more I think the industry got a little bit of a black guy but honestly flee those rates today in Oregon Also in California for pesticide fails or in the two to four percent. Wow range it's fairly low and I mean back again back in the day I mean. A lot of those pesticide fails were products. That were consciously sprayed on the material. Either they didn't know that those materials were persist into the product or didn't care or didn't consult the list of things I don't know but today mostly when we talk to clients that have pesticide fails it it. Now it it's It's either a mistake or something that it was overlooked or sometimes unlisted unlisted product or just kind of a lack of control You Know An- An- not properly trained wind. Farm technician found something maybe in the farmhouse garage instead of in the sort of validated growing area and used it by accident or yeah whatever Sometimes agricultural over spray from Either neighboring cannabis farms or Gosh in Florida. A lot of products is coming up with Malathion. But there's parts of Florida where helicopters appears fly over neighborhoods spraying malathion swampy areas. So you're not paying attention to that and your greenhouses. He's just sucking it in and blowing it before we continue. Let's talk a little bit more about pesticides now. Many pesticides are designed to disrupt corrupt the nervous systems or hormone signaling in insects. The effect this has is basically excites the insect so much that it becomes paralyzed and eventually dies now. The problem is that the same effect can happen in humans. If someone is exposed to enough of a certain pesticide for long enough periods of time and you might be thinking what's the big deal about pesticides and cannabis specifically are we already exposed. Pesticides are food. Well technically that's true unfortunately but the problem relates to the way in which cannabis is consumed. You see when you eat something if if it has pesticides in it your liver goes to work to try to metabolize those products and get them excreted out of the body. It helps keep you safe and helps limit the amount of pesticides that actually reach your bloodstream. And get distributed throughout your entire body. Ever when you smoke something. You're bypassing that metabolic process. You're not allowing things to go through the normal route and get Go through what's called First Pass metabolism and allow the liver to break down some of these do things before it reaches your blood in your lungs. You've got these little sex called Alveoli that are basically the sites of gas and blood exchange so when you breathe in oxygen this is where the oxygen passes through the lungs and into the blood. Well when you he smoked cannabis in you inhale that cannabis smoke if it has pesticides in it. Those pesticides will actually pass through that barrier and reach your blood and then get distributed throughout your body without your liver ever having a chance to help you out. So that's really the main difference why smoking things with pesticides in them is such a bigger. Your problem than eating things have pesticides in them. Additionally some pesticides like Michael Butte nil which is a common fund aside often often used by cannabis cultivators can actually degrade into toxic compounds. Like hydrogen cyanide when they're heated. It's also really important point out that many pesticides as well as micro-toxins can become concentrated in cannabis extracts the whole process of making a cannabis concentrate concentrate can elevate contaminants like pesticides as much as five to ten times. The concentration that they were found in the cannabis flower. That was used to make them. This means if you're consuming cannabis concentrate your potentially being exposed to much greater doses of contaminants than if you're consuming the cannabis flower that was used to produce. That concentrate. Concentrate also WANNA point out that it's not enough to simply test or cannabis flower contaminants prior to making a concentrate. It's totally possible for there to be very trace amounts of pesticides or other contaminants present on that cannabis flower. That are not gonNA show up on any testing but once once you make that cannabis concentrate in those contaminants get concentrated. All of a sudden. You'll start to see them on tests at dangerous levels now. Let's go back to our conversation with Dr Smith Microbial contaminants At least on the Salmonella E-coli N.. Honestly we don't really see any significant it failure rates With modern shelf cannabis. That stuff is all pretty clean. Those are contaminants generally come from manure or UH At hand washing and so In California occasionally. We do see some problems with that in manufactured or infused products Because they're you know I didn't wash their hands making the cakes or whatever again that's though. Yeah and not not really a cannabis thing We do detect ASPERGILLUS We use PCR polymerase chain reaction Shen as a as a screening tool So this is a way to look for the genetic signature of a bunch of different microbes rapidly in a reaction and then if when we do get positive hits Those are always confirmed by direct culture. Plates So aspergillus is still still kind of a thing. this is why a lot of states require moisture moisture content measurement and or water activity measurements. What is this is a means of benchmarking? How dry your materials are in that? They're you're cured to a certain level so you don't have to worry about moulder a Growing out yeah absolutely Also you know while we're talking about mold and Fudgy ASPERGILLUS and other dark-colored molds produce their own sort of form of pesticides called mycotoxin. There are a number of micro-toxins is that are required to be tested for again. Not yet in Oregon I would. I would imagine that to the chemists. They look much like pesticides with respect to their chemistry and analyze them. SPEC in California Rupe has a specific requirement for mycotoxin testing. And so I would say the failure rate for those of you know about similar to the mold failure. Those are really the signature of mold down but they are persistent where you probably would only find mold in cannabis flower. Our time just like pesticides do occasionally be taxed micro-toxins in more finished products in raisins infused is products micro-toxins once produced or super super stable. They're very heat tolerant. Even under high pressure they seem to be able to survive those processes and unlike most pesticides like we know mycotoxin Mycotoxin hypoxia and and persistently or cumulatively they cause cumulative liver damage like your lifetime dose if you will matters a lot of pesticides e certainly. Don't want a lot of them in your bloodstream. They actually do from food but a lot of those are very well. Broken down by the liver and they're generally not that toxic pick below a certain level. That sounds funny to say but still yeah X.. The poison right. Yeah exactly mycotoxin is not so much. YEAH THEY THEY A. They do. Cause liver damage cumulatively. And so it's definitely not something that you want in your food. Yeah and they're They're pretty carcinogenic to from what I understand and It's something that When Oregon was developing the rules of surprised That might be toxins. Assume there was discussion about it early on and then it kind of fell out. But it's something that we you know some work trying to look at that and you know we were able to confirm like it's around for sure. Yeah it's it's fly around you know not super common but you know just in the context of public health and safety especially with how popular extracts are getting getting More and more in vape pens and dabbing and all this thing You know I have some pretty serious concerns about exposure to micro-toxins sins as.

"mycotoxin mycotoxin" Discussed on Ben Greenfield Fitness

Ben Greenfield Fitness

03:50 min | 1 year ago

"mycotoxin mycotoxin" Discussed on Ben Greenfield Fitness

"Just use discount code Ben g at checkout. So they have it. Now, another another question here kind of steering back away from from the deep science of Seoul for and back to some of the practicalities of this wild, Terry diet Hauer how are your clients and your patience, you know, especially those living in urban areas getting their hands on on a lot of these foods that are that are wild. That are not farmed that are non chemically altered. You know, that would be considered in many cases, just you know, game meat or wild plants. Yes. So we have were lucky that we have a lot of resources that provide us for that d'artagnan foods, which I use personally they shipped to fifty states overnight con. Con d'artagnan, and we get your listeners a link of after the show with like it. But really they have phenomenal bison wild boar venison, elk of lamb New Zealand lamb of dish that and then we have living in the metro DC area. There's a outlet called your Ganic pitcher. But also, you know, you'd be surprised the major grocers or carrying New Zealand lamb, they're carrying a bison a Harris teeter here in the in the mid Atlantic carries elk ground, elk. So it's becoming more and more available. Now in my book. We talk about that ever everybody goes wild. We start, you know, feed lot type farming methodologies for these wild game. They will no longer be wild. So part of the wild -tarian movement truly is that that we opt for sustainably raised approach to our animals of. But what I'm finding is. We've had who've. Animals on our planet for millennia. Why is it now that the methane is finally becoming an issue in what one of my considerations that I'm talking about in terms of why methane is such a problem? Now as it were feeding our feed lock cows in our our our hooved animals foods that they cannot digest. And so just like us if we can't digest the food we're gonna produce methane gas. If these animals can't digest the corn. They're gonna produce methane gas Erba wars what about vegetables, how are your clients giving their wild vegetables. So vegetables the vegetables, I call them wild -tarian, grains that sort of air quote while Tyrian. So we looked to as we look for small and medium chain farmer of medium size. Farmers local farmers that aren't necessarily organic we have to look at what our Ganic standards are because you are Ganic standards have been diluted, but the FDA has diluted the definition of whether Ganic is but what I. Call A while -tarian grain is or vegetable is those vegetables that are are suited to your wild type. Like, for example, you may do very well on on a spinach. I can't because I also have oxalate issue. But instead I'll look to a spiritual look to my my Japanese sweet potatoes were all look to my on artichoke of my my wonderful bib in Boston lettuce. So those are what I talk about. They don't necessarily have to be wild is just that they fall under the wild Tyrian umbrella because the big definition of wild Tyrian in that category is low mycotoxin mycotoxin is a fungal metabolite. That fire starts again, the biofilm biofilm amyloid in the virus on it's like this ping pong effect. So what we're looking to do as relooking to minimize those in the intake of those foods that are deemed to be air quote healthy, but are no longer being able to metabolize d- in our system.

Terry diet Hauer Con d'artagnan lamb New Zealand Tyrian Seoul Ganic Ben g New Zealand Boston Atlantic FDA