17 Burst results for "justice Oliver"

"justice oliver" Discussed on The Ben Shapiro Show

The Ben Shapiro Show

02:40 min | 2 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on The Ben Shapiro Show

"Yourself. All of that is nonsense famous story about Justice Oliver. Wendell Holmes very famous Justice in the early twentieth century in the United States on the supreme court, and there's some case came up before the supreme court and Oliver Wendell Holmes was on the court at the time he was at some dinner party, and as he's leaving the dinner party he gets into. He gets into a carriage to drive away and some men runs up to him knocking on his window and homes rolls down the window. The men's has Mr Justice, Mr Holmes do Justice or do Justice and homes looks at him. And says, it's not my job to digest. It's, it's my job to interpret the law. This is correct. So William bars asked. Why didn't you? Why didn't you do the fair thing on CBS this morning says listen that's not my job. My job is to do the legal thing. And if that means that my legacy is not to be sung about, in odes, then I guess, that's my legacy into your career at the end of my career, I've, you know, but the reputation that you've worked your whole life on. Now, you have everyone dies, and I'm not, you know, you know, I don't believe in the whole America idea that, you know, immortality comes by, you know, having owed some the shoe over the centuries. So you don't regret taking the job? No, okay. So good for bar rather than a bar has done the right thing here. I think all of the talk about how William bar is some sort of corrupt official like Eric Holder acting as the president's wingman. I do not see the evidence of that. I think that the left is trying to swing it that way to make it look, as, though the Trump administration would have been indicted in the absence of William bar that, if the process had gone the way it was supposed to go the Trump would be in jail now. And thus impeachment is on the table. What, what people on the left are going to read this the way they want to read it, and they are reading it exactly that way. So Robert deniro, who it wouldn't matter. I mean Robertson euro would. Indict a ham sandwich. If the ham sandwich, had an are stamped on, it Robert de Niro, legal expert because he wants played a lawyer on TV, I think, maybe in, you know, when he wasn't playing with a gangster, or something Robert deniro cut, a PSA about the state of the law on obstruction of Justice. Now, I challenge Robert deniro to read me, the obstruction of Justice statute and explain it to me. I do not think the Robertson euro has ever read the obstruction of Justice statutes, there, several of them, I do not think that he has a law degree last I checked. I don't think he's legal expert in any way. But here's Robert deniro leading former prosecutors in a public service announcement that there is clear evidence that president from committed obstruction of Justice, and therefore, he is impeachable. This is where the heart and soul of the Democratic Party base is not only with impeachment, but also in Hollywood, Robert deniro the, the man who gets up on stage and bravely says to a crowd of fellow Hollywood, I to hate President Trump F Trump and gets a standing ovation. His bravery has extended to new heights with this public service announcement. Recently over.

Robert deniro Mr Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Trump F Trump Justice Oliver William bars president Robertson CBS United States Democratic Party Eric Holder America Hollywood official
"justice oliver" Discussed on KTOK

KTOK

01:47 min | 2 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on KTOK

"And now a look back at this week in history this week in nineteen fifteen ask cap is founded the American society of composers authors and publishers among the founding members of as cap with the musical giants of the time Irving Berlin, James Weldon Johnson Jerome Kern. And John Phillips Sousa in those days songwriters made their living primarily from the fees burn through the sale of sheet music. If music did not pay. It would be given up wrote chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes in a landmark supreme court decision in nineteen seventy this week in one thousand nine hundred ninety nine in Chicago four men dressed as police officers entered the headquarters of George bugs Moran, Chicago and killed seven of his henchmen. The four-man actually worked for rival crime boss, Al Capone, and the act is now known as the Saint Valentine's day massacre. Also this week in one thousand nine hundred eighty nine sir. Alexander Fleming discovers one of the greatest modern medicine developments by accident. Fleming was a young bacteriologist having left a plate of staphylococcus bacteria. Uncovered Fleming notice that the mold that had fallen on the culture had killed many of the bacteria. He identified the mold as penicillin new Tottenham similar to the kind found on bread on February fourteenth nineteen twenty nine Fleming introduced his mold by. Product called penicillin to cure bacterial infections and this week in one thousand nine hundred sixty five Canada, officially changes. It's flag to the maple leaf since flying Britain's Union Jack flags since sixteen ten today. Canada's red maple leaf flag is one of the most recognizable flags in the world. That's your look back at this week in history. Well, you're here you may as well. Stick around and get your news, weather and traffic at the top end the bottom of the hour on NewsRadio one.

Alexander Fleming John Phillips Sousa Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes penicillin Irving Berlin Al Capone George bugs Moran Jerome Kern James Weldon Johnson Chicago Canada staphylococcus Saint Valentine Tottenham Britain
"justice oliver" Discussed on KTOK

KTOK

02:04 min | 2 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on KTOK

"Seven six one one. And now a look back at this week in history this week in nineteen fifteen ask cap is founded the American society of composers authors and publishers among the founding members of as cap with the musical giants of the time Irving Berlin, James Weldon Johnson, Jerome Kern and John Phillips Sousa in those days songwriters made their living primarily from the fees burn through the sale of sheet music. If music did not pay. It would be given up wrote chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes in a landmark supreme court decision in nineteen seventy this week in one thousand nine hundred eighty nine. In Chicago, four men dressed as police officers entered the headquarters of George bugs Moran and Chicago and killed seven of his henchmen. The men actually worked for rival crime boss, Al Capone, and the act is now known as the Saint Valentine's day massacre. Also this week in one thousand nine hundred eighty nine sir. Alexander Fleming discovers one of the greatest modern medicine developments by accident. Fleming was a young bacteriologist having lift a plate of staphylococcus bacteria. Uncovered Fleming notice that the mold that had fallen on the culture had killed many of the bacteria. He identified the mold as penicillin Notadze similar to the kind found on bread on February fourteenth, nineteen twenty nine Fleming introduced his mold byproduct called penicillin to cure bacterial infections and this week in one thousand nine hundred sixty five Canada officially changes its flag to the maple leaf since flying Britain's Union Jack flags since sixteen ten today. Canada's red maple leaf flag is one of the most recognizable flags in the world. That's your look back at. This week in history. My son Aiden has asthma. Secondhand smoke has triggered his asthma so badly he ended up in the emergency room spent multiple nights in intensive care. Now, he's on a whole bunch of medications. My tip to you is don't be shy about sunny people not to smoke around your kids. Half of US kids are exposed to secondhand smoke. If you or someone, you know wants help call one eight hundred quit now a message from the US department of health and human services and CDC when the.

Alexander Fleming Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes penicillin Chicago Irving Berlin Aiden John Phillips Sousa George bugs Moran Al Capone James Weldon Johnson US Jerome Kern Canada staphylococcus US department of health Saint Valentine CDC
"justice oliver" Discussed on KOA 850 AM

KOA 850 AM

12:53 min | 2 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on KOA 850 AM

"Now. Hackler show with Michael Brown. You're on the radio on KOA NewsRadio. Maybe a hundred years ago. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote what is perhaps the most well known yet most misquoted and misused phrase in supreme court history. What he actually wrote is this though, I before I tell you what he actually wrote. Let me tell you what I think you actually know. You can't yell fire in a crowded theatre. That's what most people think and believe that is not at all what Justice Holmes wrote. What Justice over Wendell Holmes actually wrote? Is this? The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in the theater and causing a panic. Every time free speech comes up. People say, you can't yell fire in a crowded theatre as an argument that there are limits to free speech. Well, I get the quote, right? The quote is the most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in the theater and causing a panic. What was just as homes reasoning? You should not be able to go into the crowded theater. And if there is not a fire, not a fire stand up in the middle of the theater and yell fire. Fire and cause a panic caused people to start crawling over each other scrambling for the exits hurting if not killing each other as they try to get out of a place where someone has yelled fire with indeed there is not a fire. My argument has always been that. I believe you actually have a moral obligation that if you're in a crowded theatre, and there is a fire. You should stand up and yell fire. Not to do. So. Oh, honey. Look, there's a fire in the theater, let's sneak out before anybody else notice. I think that is morally corrupt. But the problem with all of that is. It's first important to note that the case in which Justice Holmes wrote that the case called US versus shink had nothing to do with fires or theaters had nothing to do with false statements in the case where Justice Holmes made that statement the court. The supreme court was trying to decide whether or not a guy by the name of Charles shake who was the secretary of the socialist party of America could be convicted under the espionage act for writing and distributing a pamphlet that expressed his opposition to the draft during World War One. It didn't call for violence. It didn't even call for civil disobedience. In fact, the court's description of the pamphlet. That's in question is actually milder than almost any of the dozen protests that are going on around the country today, the pamphlet said this. Do not submit to intimidation. But in four at least confined itself to peaceful measures such as a petition for the repeal of the act, the other and later printed side of the sheet was headed assert your rights. Wow. That's real inflammatory. Isn't it? Assert your rights and do not submit to intimidation. If that's treasonous if that's a violation of the espionage act, if that's a violation of freedom of speech. We would be in big doodoo. Two other cases were decided that same year Deb's versus US in fro work versus US. Also, regarding peaceful, antiwar activists there were sent to jail under the espionage act, but in nineteen sixty nine. Decades later, the supreme court decision in Brandenburg versus Ohio overturned the case in which Justice Holmes made that statement and any thority the case carried was gone. The court held in Brandenburg that inflammatory speech, even speech advocating violence by members of the KKK is protected under the first amendment unless here's the caveat. Unless the speech is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action and is likely to incite or produce such action. So if the KKK wants to go out and say. In a really repugnant way. Yeah. You know, what we ought to do? We ought to go. Burn crosses on a bunch of black families front yards. Or we ought to. We ought to go out and find a bunch of black people in hang them. That's inflammatory. It certainly would morally repugnant. It's certainly offensive. But it's not actually directing or inciting imminent action. And it's not producing imminent action. It's merely an opinion. We ought to burn crosses. We ought to kill black people morally repugnant offensive disgusting. Yep. Protected. Protected speech. Let's go back to professor to refer to professor the school back to Justice over Wendell Holmes for a second. Because if if you learn anything over the course of the next years that I do this program where I talk a lot about constitutional law. Just remember that the phrase is not that you can't yell fire in a crowded theater. In fact, the next time you're in a conversation at a cocktail party or work, or where real she might be somebody says, well, yeah. But you can't fire in a crowded theatre. You can go where we'll we'll wait a minute. That's not what Justice Holmes said Justice Holmes said that you can't falsely yell fire in a crowded theater. And by the way, the case in which he said that has been overturned. And the ruling case his Brandenburg versus Ohio. Where the court held that inflammatory speech, even speech advocating violence is protected by the first amendment. Let's put that in context of what's going on today. Go back to my cocoon example. I think because we. We live in a world where? Taking a risk is almost frowned upon. We put them pedestal entrepreneurs who take risks and then come up with the next big thing. And then they make a bazillion dollars over whatever they've invented or created will they took a risk. But in almost every other aspect of our lives. We try I try my life. I try to mitigate my risk. I try to mitigate my risk financially. I try to mitigate my risk against thugs. Who would you know? Rob me mug me steal from me. I try to mitigate mitigate my risks in business. When I moved over to KOA, I sat down and have some really good contract negotiations and came out with a with an except with a really good contract acceptable to both the company and to me. We both mitigated our risks. We both recognize what risks we were willing to accept and what risks we weren't willing to accept and wear those clashed. We came to an agreement. Think of all of the other ways that throughout our society. We try to avoid risk at all cost. We don't want. Near secondhand smoke. We don't want to eat too, many cheeseburgers. I heard on the evening news before I came into work tonight that there are certain blood pressure medicines. The contained trace trace amounts of some sort of element that might a trace element that might be a carcinogen a trace element that might cause cancer. Not that it does not then it will. But that it might. So what's the FDA doing? They're recalling all these blood pressure medicines. Because nobody wants to take a risk. What do we do at airports? We we go to airports we bend over and we grabbed her ankles. We allowed the Transportation Security Administration to act as amateur proctology. It's all what ostensibly to minimize risk when indeed what they do doesn't anywhere near the minimize risk. Nearly as much as what we do when we secure the cockpit doors on an airplane. Or how much more can we mitigate risk at an airport? If we used drug sniffing or bomb sniffing dogs. Instead of actually machines. Do you know what x Ray machines detect middle? They don't detect c four explosives. So you could still get an explosive material through an x-ray machine. What a magnetometers detect? Metal. So you can't get a large enough knife or a gun or something well unless you're going through TSA and they fail about ninety five percent of the time. But studying those we're we're always trying to mitigate risk, and I don't have a problem with mitigating risk. But there's also a cost benefit analysis that you have to make how much risk are you willing to accept versus the cost of doing? So. We all know that it's safer to fly than it is to drive an air. I mean safer to fly than it is to drive a car. Yet. Most of us. Don't get our pilot's license. Most of us recognize that it's impractical to fly to work and less you're flying from Denver to Chicago for work every day. And then you're doing them a commercial airliner unless you happen to be a bazillionaire. And then you're doing it on your own private jet. So what do we do to mitigate risk and our car? We put our seat belt, then we try to use our turn signals as much as possible. And we we try to merge properly. And we tried to not to drive in the passing lane. Well, I take that back. Everybody in Colorado drives on the passing lane. Nobody knows nobody's ever seen the sign. That says slower traffic keep right or keep right except to pass. Nobody's ever seen those signs. I think they're just a figment of my imagination. I'm getting off the tension. My point being this. We try way too much to mitigate risk and in. So doing we develop a mindset that says we must avoid risk at all cost. And I think that infects our attitude about.

Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Wendell Holmes panic Brandenburg Ohio KOA Michael Brown US TSA socialist party of America FDA Transportation Security Admini Deb Colorado
"justice oliver" Discussed on WDRC

WDRC

05:22 min | 2 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on WDRC

"Party system appears on the two parties are the federalist party the party of president Washington, President Adams and Alexander Hamilton, and the other party is the Republican party of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, the ancestor of of today's Democratic Party and the federalists believe in a financial system, which will encourage the growth and diversification of the American economy, they also believe in a strong armed neutrality. There is a World War going on between Britain and revolutionary France. This will last for twenty five years until the battle of Waterloo. And the federalist want us to stay out of it. But, but they know that in order to do that we have to be. Strong in a world of these these battling superpower brutes the Republican party of of Thomas. Jefferson wants the government to do much less in terms of encouraging economic growth. They also want to keep out of this World War, but but they are inclined to support France which had been our ally during the revolution and ask you about that because we owed the French quite a bit. Then we. Yeah. We owed them our our independence. But we we owe the France of Louis sixteenth. But that in in seventeen Eighty-nine the best deal falls on the French revolution begins, and it looks at first as if it's going to be a constitutional monarchy. Lafayette, who who who had common fought on our 'cause he's leading a a new popular French militia, call the national guard. He seems to be directing things, but it soon gets out of his control and anybody's control. It becomes a very radical and destructive force even so the Republican party in America Jefferson, and his friends they support the French revolution right through the reign of terror. They they don't back off until Napoleon takes control at the beginning of the nineteenth century. And then finally they see him as a man on horseback. And they don't like him, but they will partisans of the French revolution right up to that point. So this is the issue in American politics, and it makes Marshall federalist he believes Alexander Hamilton financial program. He certainly diplo. The French revolution. And he he thinks that Jefferson and are French patriots as much as they are American patriots. So he begins to take role in national politics. A diplomatic mission to France by president Adams. He's urged an seventeen ninety eight to run for congress by George Washington in retirement, Washington, summons him to mount Vernon and tells him he's got to do this to buck up party in Virginia Marshall doesn't want to because he's making money as a lawyer. And he's he's got a family. He's buying land. He says, no, no, no, the story is that Marshall decided I just have to get up at the crack at dawn and leave. I can't keep saying no to George Washington. But Washington got up before he didn't put on his uniform. So. Had to say yes to that. So he gets elected to the house. And then from the house Adams makes him a secretary of state when he cleans cleans out his cabinet, and there's a vacancy there, and then he has secretary of state. In the lame duck and the Adams administration Adams has lost the election of eighteen hundred to Thomas Jefferson. This was the rematch Adams had beat Jefferson in seventeen ninety six narrowly. But then he lost to him in eighteen hundred and Adams gets a letter after the defeat from the chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth whose health is bad. He has gout Ellsworth says I'm not going to do this anymore. So Adams nominates John Jay the man who'd been the first chief Justice he served from seventeen eighty nine to ninety five he'd left the court to become governor New York so Adams decides to give him the job. Again. The Senate confirms J that Adams gets a letter from j saying I'm not gonna do it. He has the federal judiciary lacks weight, energy and dignity. Wait, really, energy and dignity. This is the opinion of the first sheep Justice. We had just said. That's not worth doing a gap. It's been there done that. And I'm not going back. So you picture president Adams sitting in his office in the still not quite completed Whitehouse. They've they've just put up the exterior shell. But the inside is still kind of a construction rebuilding it.

President Adams Thomas Jefferson Republican party George Washington Marshall France president Democratic Party Adams administration Alexander Hamilton Justice Oliver Ellsworth Waterloo Washington Napoleon Thomas Britain Lafayette
"justice oliver" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

11:37 min | 2 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on KQED Radio

"On the first amendment. He's the editor was lead Bal of a forthcoming collection of essays called the free speech century. We thought given all the attacks on the press and on all sorts of speech. This is a prime time to take a deeper than usual dive into the first amendment. Jeff, welcome back to the media. Always a pleasure leading to bigger because the first amendment comes first in our Bill of rights, we think of it as being part of our national identity, and we assume that it always was, but actually the founding fathers didn't write much about it. Right. There's not a lot of clarity about what it is. No. I mean, basically saying the congress shall make no law bridging the freedom of speech. The press is make the framers should never lived in a world in which there was a legal. Guarantee of freedom of speech press. Oh, they didn't have a clear sense of what that actually meant what the limitations were what the reach of the provision would actually be. They were revolutionaries. They also put in the first amendment the right to peaceably assemble and to petition the government for redress of grievances. Correct stuff that they would have wanted to do when they were subject to the crown and yet. It was what maybe a dozen years before you couldn't assemble and you couldn't petition the government for redress of grievances. And then you couldn't even make fun of the president right in seventeen ninety eight congress enacted the Sedition Act signed by John Adams, and that legislation essentially made it a crime for any person to make any statement or publish any material. The denigrated the president the congress or the government of the United States and its purpose was pretty clear it was designed to suppress the Republican party the Jeffersonians who are critics of the Adams administration. Now, this was at a time in which there was some fear that the United States could wind up going to war with France. But the legislation is Sedition Act was used only against critics of the Adams administration. John Adams himself people at Jefferson and Madison were harsh critics on the constitutionality of the legislation. Never got to the supreme court of the United States. But lower courts that reviewed it found that it was consistent with the first amendment because their argument was that while yes, it's a freedom of speech and freedom repressed, but it doesn't include the freedom to engage in seditious utterances that bring the government of the United States or its officials into disrepute because in a self-governing society. There's a need for people to hold those individuals who are in charge with the degree of respect and to trust. And if somebody speech undermines that trust and respect then that itself undermines democracy, and so to preserve that we need you essentially silence. Critics of the government that's about as circular as a gets. Yes. It is the Sedition Act was basically condemned in the court of history it expired of its own force with the agent one election when Jefferson defeated Adams, and finds that people had to pay were repaid to them and people who are in jail were released. It gives us a sense of how much they didn't really have a clear. Sense of what that promise it would actually mean. So from the very beginning. We have a government that is confused about how to apply the first amendment, and you wrote that the supreme court gradually came to acknowledge three phenomena one of them was the chilling effect. So basically when individuals speak someone signed to petition or they March in a parade or they going public part, and they give a talk they know when they do these things that whether they do them or not individually is not likely to change the world. And therefore if they know there is a risk that they will go to jail because they do these things then each individual herself. I don't know if it's worth it. Right. Is it really worth it to me to sign this petition if I could wind up going to jail for three years for doing it? And so with the court came to realize that individuals are easily deterred. From exercising their free speech rights. But if everybody is deterred then you wind up completely distorting public discourse. And the second insight that they came to was what I've called the pretext effect. That government will never say we want to restrict speech because we don't like the idea is being put forth or because the speakers are criticizing us. Government officials know, those are not acceptable justifications for restricting speech. So one of the things the court figured out is that the justification to government offers are often dishonest and therefore the courts needs to be skeptical about the arguments that the government could fourth as a reason for extracting speech on the pretext. The fact leads directly to the crisis effect. I think you wrote in times of crisis real or imagined citizens and government officials tend to panic to grow desperately in. Tolerant to rush headlong to suppress speech that they can demonize as dangerous subversive disloyal or unpatriotic and that brings us to shank versus US and the espionage act of nineteen seventeen. So shake was the first supreme court decision on the meaning of the first amendment shank was prosecuted under the espionage act of nineteen seventeen which was interpreted to make it criminal to especially criticized the war or the draft because such speech might cause others to refuse induction into military or to desert or to engage in espionage, or sabotage of they turned against the war shank was prosecuted for distributing leaflets that criticized the war and the draft the case came to supreme court of the United States and the court in an opinion Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes unanimously upheld the conviction. And concludes that is speech has the tendency to cause others to engage in unlawful or undesirable conduct. Then they can be punished for doing so unlawful and undesirable. Right. So it's a very broad open ended notion and homes in his opinion recognized that this was in time of war that that was a relevant factor in deciding that the speech could be restricted so the court in this spring of nineteen nineteen unanimously upholds convictions of individuals who were prosecuted for violating the espionage act cases, basically like shank, and then the following fall supreme court. Here's some additional cases and suddenly homes writes, this brilliant dissenting opinion in the Abrahams case and says that speech cannot be restricted unless it creates a clear and present danger of serious harm, certainly not the case here with a bunch of what he calls in. Puny anonymity. He's throwing the bunch of leafless some English from a rooftop in tenements and low recite of New York. Daddy, says not create a clear and present danger to the ability of the government to fight the worst, successfully and Louis Brandeis joins homes in that opinion. And at that point, the free speech tradition divide sharply. The majority of the court continues to here to the sank approach, which basically says speech can be punished if it might have negative consequences and Holmes and Brandeis continue to file a series of separate dissenting opinions in which they in ever more powerful and articulate ways explain why free speech is critical to a democracy why it's important to the individual citizen. And why it must be protected unless it creates and is intended to create a clear and present danger of grave harm in one thousand nine hundred ninety nine the Warren court decided the Brandenburg versus Ohio case, finally fully embracing the. Holmes? Brandeis approach Brandenburg involved is speech. Ironically, by a member of the ku-klux-klan in which he called for violence directed against those who were attempting to desegregate his conviction was affirmed by all the lower courts the court, and the supreme court unanimously says no speech, even that expressly calls for unlawful conduct cannot be punished. Unless it creates a clear and present danger of grave har-. Basically that's been the approach. The supreme court is taken for the past fifty years. Reading from the bench Justice Elena kagan's said that the five conservative justices were quote, turning the first amendment into a sword and using it against workaday economic and regulatory policy. How do you explain the switch in the court of liberal and conservative justices seeming to trade places on the first amendment? I wouldn't overstate that across the board. The more conservative justices have tended to be more aggressive in their production of free speech on certain issues. Like campaign finance being the most dramatic of the issues. But also in the Janice case where it's always been the case that public sector unions were allowed to collect dues from individuals, not members of the union because the unions were engaging collective bargaining which benefited all of the employee's. And suddenly if I four decision last term, the five more conservative justices, hold that's on constitutional. They claim to be either advocates of judicial restraint or advocates of something called originalism. But when they vote the way they do in cases like citizens United, for example, those votes cannot possibly be squared with either anything related to judicial restraint or anything related to. Originalism, that's judicial activism Runamuck. If Brad Kavanagh is confirmed, what does an entirely right leaning court mean for the first amendment. Nothing. Good. But I think they've accomplished much of what they would want to accomplish already. I would hope they would go so far as to start upholding laws that restricted liberal points of view. I don't think this five do that. But basically, they will continue to unleash campaign finance expenditures. I think in the realm of commercial advertising, and commercial speech and corporate speech, they'll continue to give that greater power. But I think they've actually been pretty expansive in their protection in the first amendment with a few exceptions. So I don't think that's going to be the big problem. Now, what they'll do if you find that Trump administration or others beginning to restrict free speech by liberals. I don't know what they'll do. I have no idea. What do but I don't trust them, frankly. And I think they've earned the lack of trust not just on campaign, finance, but on guns and under affirmative action and a whole series of other issues where they've just allowed the political. Views to dominate their judicial philosophies. Jeff. Thank you very much. Thanks for having me. It's always a pleasure. That.

government United States John Adams congress Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jeff president Jefferson Adams administration editor Brandeis Justice Elena kagan shank Louis Brandeis Brad Kavanagh Originalism Ohio Abrahams Brandenburg
"justice oliver" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

11:37 min | 2 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"On the first amendment. He's the editor was lead singer of a forthcoming collection of essays called the free speech century. We thought given all the attacks on the press and on all sorts of speech. This is a prime time to take a deeper than usual dive into the first amendment. Jeff, welcome back to the media. Always a pleasure to be here. Because the first amendment comes first in our Bill of rights, we think of it is being part of our national identity. And we assume that it always was, but actually the founding fathers didn't write much about it. Right. There's not a lot of clarity about what it is. No. I mean, basically saying the congress make no law abridging, the freedom of speech or of the press is pretty vague. The framers had never lived in a world in which there was a legal Gary. Your freedom of speech press. So they didn't have a clear sense of what that actually meant what the limitations were what the reach of the provision would actually be. They were revolutionaries. They also put in the first amendment the right to peaceably assemble and to petition the government for redress of grievances. Correct stuff that they would have wanted to do when they were subject to the crown and yet. It was what maybe a dozen years before you couldn't assemble and you couldn't petition the government for a redress of grievances. And then you couldn't even make fun of the president right in seventeen ninety eight congress enacted the Sedition Act signed by John Adams, and that legislation essentially crime for any person to make any statements or publish any material. The denigrated the president the congress or the government of the United States and its purpose was pretty clear it was designed to suppress the Republican party the Jeffersonians who are critics of the Adams administration. And this was at a time in which there was some fear that the United States would wind up going to war with France. But the legislation is Sedition Act was used only against critics of the Adams administration. John Adams himself people at Jefferson and Madison were harsh critics on it the constitutionality of the legislation. Never got the supreme court of the United States. But lower courts that reviewed it found that it was consistent with the first amendment because their argument was that. Well, yes, there's a freedom of speech and freedom repressed, but it doesn't include the freedom to engage in seditious utterances that Brennan the government of the United States or its officials into disrepute because in a self-governing society. There's a need for people to hold those individuals who are in charge with a degree of respect and to trust them. And if somebody speech undermines that trust and respect then that itself undermines democracy, and so to preserve that we need to essentially silence. Critics of the government that's about as circular is a cat's. Yes. It is insisting that was basically condemned in the court of history it expired of its own force with the election when Jefferson defeated Adams, and finds that people had to pay repaid to them and people who are in jail were released. It gives us a sense of how much they didn't really have a clear. What that promise it would actually mean. So from the very beginning. We have a government that is confused about how to apply the first amendment, and you wrote that the supreme court gradually came to acknowledge three phenomena one of them was the chilling effect. So basically when individuals speak someone signs a petition or they March in a parade or they going public part, and they give a talk they know when they do these things that whether they do them or not individually is not likely to change the world. And therefore if they know there is a risk that they will go to jail because they do these things then each individual herself. I don't know if it's worth it. Right. Is it really worth it to me to sign this petition if you'd wind up going to jail for three years for doing it? And so with the court came to realize that individuals are easily deterred. From exercising their free speech rights. But if everybody is deterred then you wind up completely distorting public discourse. And the second insight that they came to was what I've called the pretext effect. That government will never say we want to restrict speech because we don't like the idea is being put forth or because the speakers are criticizing us. Government officials know, those are not acceptable justifications for restricting speech. So one of the things the court figured out is that the justification to government offers are often dishonest and therefore the courts needs to be skeptical about the arguments that the government could fourth is a reason for striking speech on the pretext. The fact leads directly to the crisis effect. I think you wrote in times of crisis real or imagined citizens and government officials tend to panic to grow desperately entire. Tolerant to rush headlong to suppress speech that they can demonize as dangerous subversive disloyal or unpatriotic and that brings us to shake versus US and the espionage act of nineteen seventeen. So shake was the first supreme court decision on the meaning of the first amendment shank was prosecuted under the espionage act of nineteen seventeen which was interpreted to make it criminal to essentially, criticized the war or the draft because such speech might cause others to refuse indoctrinates military or to desert or to engage in espionage, and sabotage, and they turned against the war sank, we've prosecuted for distributing leaflets that criticized the war the draft case came to supreme court of the United States and the court in an opinion Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes unanimously upheld the conviction. And concludes that speech has the tendency to cause others to engage in unlawful or undesirable conduct. Then they can be punished for unlawful and undesirable. Right. So it's a very broad open ended notion and homes in his opinion recognized that this was in time of war that that was a relevant factor in deciding that the speech could be restricted so the court in this spring of nineteen nineteen unanimously uphold convictions of individuals who were prosecuted for violating the espionage act cases, basically like shank, and then the following fall supreme court. Here's some additional cases and suddenly homes writes, this brilliant dissenting opinion in the Abrahams case and says that speech cannot be restricted unless it creates a clear and present danger of serious harm, certainly not the case here with a bunch of what he calls in. Puny ended. Entities fueling the budget. Leaflets some in English from a rooftop in the tenements and low recite of New York that he says does not create a clear and present danger to the ability of the government to fight the worst, successfully and Louis Brandeis joins homes in that opinion. And at that point, the free speech tradition divide sharply. The majority of the court continues to here to the sank approach, which basically says speech can be punished if it might have negative consequences and Holmes and Brandeis continue to file a series of separate dissenting opinions in which they in ever more powerful inarticulate ways. Explain why free speech is critical to democracy why it's important to the individual citizen. And why it must be protected unless it creates and is intended to create a clear and present danger of grave harm in nine sixty nine. The Warren court decided the Brandenburg versus Ohio case finally fully embracing the. Holmes Brandeis approach Brandenburg involved speech. Ironically, by a member of the Ku Klux Klan in which he called for violence directed against those who were attempting to desegregate is conviction was affirmed by the lower courts, the guests to the supreme court, and the supreme court unanimously says no speech, even that expressly calls for unlawful conduct cannot be punished. Unless it creates a clear and present danger of grave har-. Basically that's been the approach. The supreme court has taken for the past fifty years. Reading from the bench Justice Allen Kagan said that the five conservative justices were quote, turning the first amendment into a sword and using it against workaday economic and regulatory policy. How do you explain the switch in the court of liberal and conservative justices seeming to trade places on the first amendment? I wouldn't overstate that across the board. The more conservative justices have tended to be more aggressive in their production of free speech on certain issues. Like campaign finance being the most dramatic of the issues. But also in the Janice case where it's always been the case that a public sector unions were allowed to collect dues from individuals, not members of the union because the unions were engaging in collective bargaining which benefited all of the employee's and suddenly in a five four decision last term, the five more conservative justices, hold that's on constitutional. They claim to be either advocates of judicial restraint or advocates have something called originalism. But when they vote the way they do in cases like citizens United, for example, those votes cannot possibly be squared with either anything related to judicial restraint or anything related to. Originalism, that's judicial activism Runamuck. If Brad Kavanagh is confirmed, what does an entirely right leaning court mean for the first amendment. Nothing. Good. But I think they've accomplished much of what they would want to accomplish already. I would hope they would go far to start upholding laws that restricted liberal points of view. I don't think this five will do that. But basically, they will continue to unleash campaign finance expenditures. I think in the realm of commercial advertising, commercials beach and corporate speech will continue to give that greater power. But I think they've actually been pretty expansive in their protection in the first amendment with a few exceptions. So I don't think that's going to be the big problem. Now, what they'll do if you find the Trump administration or others beginning to restrict free speech by liberals. I don't know what they'll do. I have no idea. What the, but I don't trust them, frankly. And I think they earned the lack of trust not just on campaign, finance, but on guns and under affirmative action than a whole series of other issues where they've just allowed their political. Views to dominate their judicial philosophies. Jeff. Thank you very much. Thanks for having me. It's always a pleasure. That was.

government supreme court United States John Adams congress Jeff Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jefferson Adams administration editor Ku Klux Klan president Ohio Gary Louis Brandeis Brad Kavanagh Brennan Originalism Holmes Brandeis
"justice oliver" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

WBZ NewsRadio 1030

02:46 min | 2 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

"And four other. Unarmed teenage boys were in that Chevy Malibu told, investigators the car was in danger of hitting, partner Fired, five rounds from his rifle into the car During the trial police body camera footage showed the car was driving away. From officers and Oliver's, partner said he never felt he was endanger, prosecutor Michael snipe said police are to be respected but are not above the law We will At night since two thousand. Five thirty one officers have been convicted of manslaughter or lesser charges in. Police shootings Oliver is only the second officer to be convicted of murder in more than a. Decade there Washington is the Edwards. Family attorney. This case it's not just. By George it's about every every. African American I know I'm African American who had been killed and who have not. Gotten Justice Oliver was found not. Guilty onto aggravated assault charges the. Sentencing phase is underway right now John Oliver faces five years to life in prison Omar Villafranca, for us in Dallas thanks Mark Hurricane Maria will go down as one of the deadliest natural disasters in US history because the official toll went up dramatically today from sixty. Four to two thousand nine hundred seventy five that's more than. The eighteen hundred who died in. Hurricane Katrina Many of the deaths in Puerto Rico came in the days weeks and months after the hurricane struck last September raising new questions. About the federal and local response David Begg no is there It is official hurricane Maria caused an estimated two thousand nine hundred seventy five deaths in Puerto Rico after the storm slammed into the. Island last September Puerto Rico Governor Ricardo Rossello it's always painful to see that it's such a large number researchers at George Washington University estimate nearly three. Thousand people died during the six months after the hurricane hit the study looked at historical death. Patterns from two, thousand ten to two thousand seventeen to predict. How many people would have died had Maria not hit the island that figure was then compared to the actual number of deaths the government said the death toll initially was only sixty four the action. Or the focus. Should be Hey let's play these folks the focus should. Be who's going, to be accountable and who's gonna take the. Action so that this doesn't happen again The mayor of San Juan Carmen you lean crews says the, governor should take responsibility.

Justice Oliver Mark Hurricane Maria Puerto Rico hurricane Maria partner Hurricane Katrina Governor Ricardo Rossello John Oliver Island Michael snipe official George Washington University San Juan Carmen David Begg Fired US George
"justice oliver" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

WBZ NewsRadio 1030

02:38 min | 2 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

"Were in that Chevy Malibu told, investigators the car was in danger of hitting, partner He's fired, five rounds from his rifle into the car During the trial police body camera footage showed the car was driving. Away from officers and Oliver's. Partner said he never felt he was in, danger prosecutor Michael snipe said police. Are to be respected but are not above the law Since two, thousand five thirty one officers. Have been convicted of manslaughter or lesser charges in police shootings Oliver is only the second officer to. Be convicted of murder in more than a decade Darah Washington is the Edwards family attorney this case it's not just by. George it's about every every, African American African American who has been killed, in who has not gotten Justice Oliver. Was found, not guilty to aggravated assault. Charges the sentencing phase is underway right now in John Oliver faces five years to life in prison Omar Villafranca for us in Dallas thanks so mar hurricane Maria will go down as one. Of the deadliest natural disasters in US history because the official. Toll went up dramatically today from sixty four to two thousand nine hundred seventy five that's more than the eighteen hundred who died in Hurricane Katrina many of the. Deaths in Puerto. Rico came in the days weeks and months after the hurricane? Struck last September raising new questions about the federal and local, response David Begg no is there It is a fish oil hurricane. Maria caused an estimated two thousand nine hundred seventy five deaths. In Puerto Rico, after the storm slammed into the island last, September Puerto. Rico Governor Ricardo Rossello it's always painful to see that. It's such a large, number researchers at George Washington University estimate nearly three thousand people died during the six months after the hurricane hit the study looked at historical death patterns from two thousand ten to. Two thousand seventeen to predict how many people would have died. Had Maria not hit the island that figure was then compared to the actual number of deaths the government said the death toll initially was only sixty four the. Action the. Focus. Should be Hey let's blame obese folks who the focus should be. Who's going to, be accountable and who's gonna take the action, so that. This doesn't happen again The.

Justice Oliver Puerto hurricane Maria Hurricane Katrina Rico Governor Ricardo Rossello partner Maria Puerto Rico John Oliver George Washington University David Begg Michael snipe US Omar Villafranca prosecutor George assault murder officer
"justice oliver" Discussed on Newsradio 700 WLW

Newsradio 700 WLW

01:58 min | 3 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on Newsradio 700 WLW

"The sales of sheet music if music did not pay he would be given up route chief justice oliver wendell holmes in a landmark supreme court decision in 1917 this week in chicago in 1929 four men dressed as police officers entered the headquarters of george bugs moran and killed seven of his henchman the men actually worked for the rival crime boss alkap own and the act is now known as the st valentine's day massacre also this week in 1929 sir alexander fleming discovers one of the greatest modern medicine developments by accident fleming was a young bacteriology just having left the plate of staphylococcus bacteria uncovered fleming noticed that a mould that had fallen on the culture had killed many of the bacteria identified the mold as penicillin him new tatum similar to the kinds found on bread on february fourteen 1929 fleming introduced his mold byproduct called penicillin to cure bacterial infections and this week weekend nineteen 65 canada officially changes its flag to the maple leaf it had been flying britain's union jack flag since sixteen ten today canada's red maple leaf flag is one of the most recognizable flags in the world that's your look back at this week in history now this week that zeevi's dream here's what you've been watching on tv this week lisa wren only gals have no shortage of issues on the petty mess episode of the real housewives of beverly hills it's a number five next the number four their gladiators in suits in the latest episode of cuffs scandal rupaul drag race was in its third season in their latest as your third most streamed episodes and number two they're recounting the assassination of giovanni were saadi unamerican crime story and finally abc's medical drama gray's anatomy is your number one cd stream this week this me top tv stream ord here's bill clinton's.

gray beverly hills lisa wren zeevi sir alexander fleming moran george bill clinton justice oliver wendell holmes abc giovanni canada britain tatum penicillin st valentine chicago
"justice oliver" Discussed on WTVN

WTVN

01:36 min | 3 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on WTVN

"The soundtrack to black history month all february and now a look back at this week in history this week and 1915 as caplis found in he american society of composers authors and publishers among the founding members of as cap where the musical giants of the time irving berlin james wealth in johnston jerome current and jump phillips uso in those days songwriters made their living primarily from fees earned through the sales of sheep music if music did not pay it would be given up route chief justice oliver wendell holmes in a landmark supreme court decision in 1917 this week in chicago in 1929 four men dressed as police officers entered the headquarters of george bugs moran and killed seven of his henchmen the four men actually worked for the rival crime boss alkap loans and the act is now known as the st valentine's day massacre also this we can 1929 sir alexander fleming discovers one of the greatest modern medicine developments by accident fleming was a young bacteriology just having left the plate of staphylococcus bacteria uncovered fleming noticed that a mould that had fallen on the culture had killed many of the bacteria identified the mold as penicillin him new tatum similar to the kind found on bread on february fourteen nineteen twenty nine fleming introduced his mold by product called penicillin to cure bacterial infections and this week and nineteen 65 canada officially changes its flag to the maple leaf it had been flying britain's union jack flag since sixteen ten today canada's red maple leaf flag.

justice oliver wendell holmes chicago st valentine penicillin tatum britain canada berlin george moran sir alexander fleming
"justice oliver" Discussed on KOA 850 AM

KOA 850 AM

02:44 min | 3 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on KOA 850 AM

"1915 as caplis founded the american society of composers authors and publishers among the founding members of ask cap where the musical giants of the time irving berlin james wealth in johnston jerome current and jump philip susa in those days songwriters made their living primarily from fees earn through the sales of sheep music it music did not pay it would be given up route chief justice oliver wendell holmes in a landmark supreme court decision in 1917 this week in chicago in 1929 four men dressed as police officers entered the headquarters of george bugs moran and killed seven of his henchmen the four men actually worked for the rival crime boss alto poem and the act is now known as the st valentine's day day massacre also this week in 1929 sir alexander fleming discovers one of the greatest modern medicine developments by accident fleming was a young bacteriology sd having left a plate of staphylococcus bacteria uncovered fleming noticed that a mould that had fallen on the culture had killed many of the bacteria identified the mold as penicilliums new tatum similar to the kind found on bread on february 14th 1929 fleming introduced his mold byproduct called penicillin to cure bacterial infections and this weekend nineteen 65 canada officially changes its flag to the maple leaf it had been flying britain's union jack flag since sixteen ten today canada's red maple leaf flag is one of the most recognizable flags in the world that's your look back at this week in history this afternoon pablos battle the huskies in seattle coverage begins advive thirty on koa newsradio the named me on the goods some things this thing here this may be no a he is jio dear jo stones all the way two.

caplis philip susa justice oliver wendell holmes chicago st valentine penicillin britain canada berlin george moran sir alexander fleming seattle
"justice oliver" Discussed on 710 WOR

710 WOR

01:31 min | 3 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on 710 WOR

"Now a look back at this weekend history this week 1915 as caplis found in the american society of composers authors and publishers among the founding members of ask cap where the musical giants of the time irving berlin that change wealth in johnston jerome current and jump philip susa in those days songwriters made their living primarily from fees earned through the sales of sheet music it music did not pay it would be given up route chief justice oliver wendell holmes in a landmark supreme court decision in 1917 this week in chicago in 1929 four men dressed as police officers entered the headquarters of george bugs moran and killed seven of his henchmen the four men actually worked for the rival crime boss alkap own and the act is now known as the st valentine's day massacre also this week in 1929 sir alexander fleming discovers one of the greatest modern medicine developments by accident fleming was a young bacteriology having left the plate of staphylococcus bacteria uncovered fleming noticed that a mould that had fallen on the culture had killed many of the bacteria identified the mold as penicillin new tatum similar to the kind found on bread on february fourteen 1929 fleming introduced his mold byproduct called penicillin to cure bacterial infections and this weekend nineteen 65 canada officially changes its flag to the maple leaf it had been fined britain's union jack flags and sixteen ten today canada's red maple leaf flag is one of.

philip susa justice oliver wendell holmes chicago st valentine penicillin britain canada berlin george moran sir alexander fleming
"justice oliver" Discussed on 710 WOR

710 WOR

01:31 min | 3 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on 710 WOR

"Now a look back at this weekend history this week 1915 as caplis found in the american society of composers authors and publishers among the founding members of ask cap where the musical giants of the time irving berlin that change wealth in johnston jerome current and jump philip susa in those days songwriters made their living primarily from fees earned through the sales of sheet music it music did not pay it would be given up route chief justice oliver wendell holmes in a landmark supreme court decision in 1917 this week in chicago in 1929 four men dressed as police officers entered the headquarters of george bugs moran and killed seven of his henchmen the four men actually worked for the rival crime boss alkap own and the act is now known as the st valentine's day massacre also this week in 1929 sir alexander fleming discovers one of the greatest modern medicine developments by accident fleming was a young bacteriology having left the plate of staphylococcus bacteria uncovered fleming noticed that a mould that had fallen on the culture had killed many of the bacteria identified the mold as penicillin new tatum similar to the kind found on bread on february fourteen 1929 fleming introduced his mold byproduct called penicillin to cure bacterial infections and this weekend nineteen 65 canada officially changes its flag to the maple leaf it had been fined britain's union jack flags and sixteen ten today canada's red maple leaf flag is one of.

philip susa justice oliver wendell holmes chicago st valentine penicillin britain canada berlin george moran sir alexander fleming
"justice oliver" Discussed on 710 WOR

710 WOR

01:31 min | 3 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on 710 WOR

"Now a look back at this weekend history this week 1915 as caplis found in the american society of composers authors and publishers among the founding members of ask cap where the musical giants of the time irving berlin that change wealth in johnston jerome current and jump philip susa in those days songwriters made their living primarily from fees earned through the sales of sheet music it music did not pay it would be given up route chief justice oliver wendell holmes in a landmark supreme court decision in 1917 this week in chicago in 1929 four men dressed as police officers entered the headquarters of george bugs moran and killed seven of his henchmen the four men actually worked for the rival crime boss alkap own and the act is now known as the st valentine's day massacre also this week in 1929 sir alexander fleming discovers one of the greatest modern medicine developments by accident fleming was a young bacteriology having left the plate of staphylococcus bacteria uncovered fleming noticed that a mould that had fallen on the culture had killed many of the bacteria identified the mold as penicillin new tatum similar to the kind found on bread on february fourteen 1929 fleming introduced his mold byproduct called penicillin to cure bacterial infections and this weekend nineteen 65 canada officially changes its flag to the maple leaf it had been fined britain's union jack flags and sixteen ten today canada's red maple leaf flag is one of.

philip susa justice oliver wendell holmes chicago st valentine penicillin britain canada berlin george moran sir alexander fleming
"justice oliver" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

02:09 min | 3 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"And he's rooms meld with mao they went had blown and drifted the snow up against the side of my house blocking the exhaust from my furnace i heard the smoke alarm going off and i fringe apartment without the kid a smoke alarm my son would not be here today had it not bad for that carbon monoxide to tundra they would come to score and not have their teacher there i grabbed my fire extinguisher and put out the fire kinna makes technology that saves lives get these essential products with go home depot the now look bracket this region history this week a 1915 as is founded he american society of composers authors and publishers among the founding members of ascafi were the musical giants of the time irving berlin that james wealth and johnson jerome kern and jump philip susa in those days songwriters made their living primarily from fees earn through the sales of sheet music it music did not pay it would be given up route chief justice oliver wendell holmes in a landmark supreme court decision in 1917 this week in chicago in 1929 four men dressed as police officers entered the headquarters of george bugs moran and killed seven of his henchman the four men actually worked for the rival crime boss alkap own and the act is now known as the st valentine's day massacre also this week in 1929 sir alexander fleming discovers one of the greatest modern medicine developments by accident fleming was a young bacteriology just having left a plate of staphylococcus bacteria uncovered fleming noticed that a mould that had fallen on the culture had killed many of the bacteria he identified the mold as penicillin new tatum similar to the kind found on bread on february fourteen 1929 fleming introduced his mold byproduct called penicillin to cure bacterial infections and this week and 19 65 canada officially changes its flag to the maple leaf it had been flying britain's union jack flags and sixteen ten today canada's red maple leaf flag is one of the most recognizable flags in the world rats your look back at this week in history the.

philip susa justice oliver wendell holmes chicago st valentine penicillin canada britain irving berlin jerome kern george moran sir alexander fleming
"justice oliver" Discussed on WTVN

WTVN

02:17 min | 3 years ago

"justice oliver" Discussed on WTVN

"Musical giants of the time irving berlin james weldon johnson jerome current and jump philip susa in those days songwriters made their living primarily from fees earned through the sales of sheet music if music did not pay it would be given up route chief justice oliver wendell holmes in a landmark supreme court decision in 1917 this week in chicago in 1929 four men dressed as police officers entered the headquarters of george bugs moran and killed seven of his henchman the format actually worked for the rival crime boss out capone and the act is now known as the st valentine's day massacre also this week in 1929 sir alexander fleming discovers one of the greatest modern medicine developments by accident fleming was a young bacteriology just having left the plate of staff kok is bacteria uncovered fleming noticed that a mould that had fallen on the culture had killed many of the bacteria he identified the mold as penicilliums new tatum similar to the kind found on bread on february fourteen 1929 fleming introduced his mold by product called penicillin to cure bacterial infections and this week and 19 65 canada officially changes its flag to the maple leaf it had been flying britain's union jack flag since sixteen ten today canada's red maple leaf flag is one of the most recognizable flags in the world that's your look back if this week in history when you talk radio 610 wtvn columbus is news traffic and weather station are you doing sterling hanging out on a college hariri it's it's kinda like a spring day warmer a little foggy and lorraine rainy and more rain again tomorrow news radio 610 wtvn glad you're a long we'll keep you on top of the school shooting apparently the shooter is still at large in broward county florida north of miami and it's a huge high school and i went to five in little schools big schools and the biggest cool everyone who was like two thousand students this is upwards of three thousand students at this particular school facility and are there are fire trucks and ambulances everywhere that there have been conflicting reports of anywhere from twenty to forty fifty people that have been.

berlin florida broward county sir alexander fleming moran george philip susa james weldon johnson justice oliver wendell holmes miami lorraine rainy britain canada penicillin st valentine capone chicago