13 Burst results for "dunning school"
"dunning school" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class
"He came into office in nineteen thirteen. The first film screening at the white house happened during his presidency. It was the film birth of a nation originally known as the clansman which included quotes from one of wilson's history books. A history of the american people wilson was a proponent of the lost cause and the dunning school named for historian william dunning who interpreted reconstruction as a failure. Birth of a nation embraced the lost cause ideology using racist depictions of black americans to frame reconstruction as deeply damaging to white people. It is also credited with a resurgence in the ku klux klan which is depicted in the film saving the south from the horrors of reconstruction by the time wilson became. President reconstruction was long over and many of the games in civil rights for black americans that had been implemented during that time had already been. Lost wilson was the first southern president elected since reconstruction and then he continued that trend of rolling back civil rights including segregating or allowing his cabinet to segregate a number of federal bureaus and offices as well as the us navy. Wilson ran for a second term as president on a platform that included keeping the united states. Out of world war one but after he was elected he began preparing to go to war including constructing new camps for training newly recruited military personnel. This is when us military bases started to be named after confederate leaders. Even though those leaders fought against the us military during the civil war so after the end of the civil war the us army had occupied eleven southern states with troops being removed after the state had met with requirements to rejoin the union. The last of these troops were removed after the eighteen. Seventy six presidential election and that was one of the disputed elections that we nodded to you at the start of the show. The candidates in this election were democrat. Samuel tilden and republican rutherford b hayes. Tilden had won the popular vote but didn't have enough votes to be declared the winner in the electoral college and then the electoral college votes from three states were disputed. The result was the compromise of eighteen. Seventy seven hayes would become president and in exchange among other concessions he agreed to place a democrat in his cabinet and to withdraw the federal troops. That were still occupying parts of the south. This is generally seen as the end of reconstruction and for decades. There wasn't a large military presence in the south because of the legacy of reconstruction the idea of sending troops to the south had become something of a tabu but less than forty years later. The expansion of the military in preparation for world war one meant that camps had to be built in the south. We needed a lot of camps. We had to put them somewhere. So as part of the effort to make these encampments more palatable in the places where they were being built they were named for former confederate generals and other confederate military figures including camps named for robert e lee. Npr g t beauregard. Which along with others were built in. Nineteen seventeen encampments named for general braxton bragg and general henry louis benning followed in nineteen eighteen. It really became a standard practice for new encampments and forts in the south to be named after confederate military leaders. Even.
"dunning school" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"President or a set of legislators. Truly has become a referendum on what kind of country we aspire to be. At the center of that debate is our history of racism and racial inequality. Some have called this a moment of reckoning with that history tonight. Once again, people are filling the streets to protest a police killing of a black person. After today's announcement in Louisville that no police officers will be charged for killing Briana Taylor. It certainly feels like a moment of reckoning. And if so, Donald Trump and Joe Biden have very different ideas about how to face it. Right, President Trump says the teaching of history in school should have an agenda of fostering patriotism. And he derives things like The New York Times 16 19 project. As quote ideological poison that will quote dissolve the civic bonds unquote of this country rather than as the writer's intend to corrective to help foster a fuller conversation about history, including the legacy of enslavement. Which came to this country in 16, 19 vice president, Biden says systemic racism needs to be a central concern, but he doesn't talk much about history. And has himself at times been on what many racial justice advocates and even his running mate, Comma Harris would consider the wrong side of history. So tonight, Brian and I are inviting all of you into a sort of thought experiment on truth and reconciliation about systemic racism in the United States. If we're ever going to move forward, we will need some kind of shared truth that seems like a necessary step to get any kind of real reconciliation. Reconcile ing of debts. Were wondering with so much water under the proverbial bridge. Is it even possible to get to that kind of shared truth? We certainly hope so. And this is a national Colin. So we want to invite you to say what truce need to be told about American history or about the state of our country today, What do you think needs to be stated out loud? For racial justice and reconciliation to really take place and also, what truth do you need to tell about your own life or family history? What needs to be said out loud to build to try to eventually build some stronger civic bonds. And maximize equality for our future. Call us at 844745 talk. That's 8447458255, right. And you don't have to tackle all of history. Just tell us something a thing. That you think needs to be recognized about the history or president. State of economic justice, Economic justice and injustice. Yes, that's one category criminal justice and injustice. Housing or employment or environmental or any other kind of justice or injustice. That should be part of a shared truth before the country can really reckon successfully with racial justice and get much closer to it. Then we are conveying a policy item, Auras Kai said. It could be something from your own experience or your own family's past. What truth do you think is important to say out loud to help the nation eventually build stronger civic bonds. For the sake of maximizing equality for our Children. 844745 talk 8447458255. We invite your calls. From anywhere in America ate 44745 talk ate for 47458255. As we take your calls, and try to think about all the truth telling that we need to do we're joined by Dr Keisha Blaine. She's a historian of 40th Century America, focusing on black history in particular at the University of Pittsburgh. She's the author of Set The World On Fire. Black Nationalist Women in the Global Struggle for Freedom and co editor with Abram Kinji of an upcoming collection called 400 Souls, a community History of African America. And I should say I'm a contributor to that collection very probably so Dr Blane Welcome. Thank you so much for having me. So, in addition to all those things I just said about you, you're also the president of the AFC American intellectual Historical Society. Which kind of put you in an interesting position. I think to talk about the field broadly, you know. So can we start there? It feels like history itself has become such a battleground in the political conversation right now. President has openly attacked the 16 19 project from The New York Times, for instance. And there is, of course, sort of constant battle over public monuments. But I think maybe what not, historians might not know is that this is all kind of grown out of a movement within academia. It seems to me led by both black history in historians, but also others to tell a different kind of history, a different kind of story about America's past. Where do you think that started in the field? Where would you put the beginning of that and where we're at now? Well, the first thing that I would say is that Having just having this conversation about history and how we tell our history. I'm mindful of the importance of black historians because it certainly matters who tells the story, and it's not a dismissal on any Particular race of people or any group. But it's to say that for such a long time, the way that black history has been taught has been Ah, really framed as as one that I think has really sidelined Ah Black Agency on DH and even black stories and black ideas. I think certainly what? The African American intellectual history. Society is a part of is I think a larger movement Certainly not one that started. Ah, you know, at this moment, I think this is something That we can trace back to individuals like Ah, Lerone Bennett. I've been thinking about him and his remarkable work as as a writer as a historian, we could talk about job boys. Much earlier and show. This is part ofthe. I think a long effort along history, an effort by black historians in particular to resist these kinds of narratives that tend to exclude us and that's exactly why an organization like EJ as exist in the first place is because We felt it was important to make sure that our voices were heard on that our histories were told accurately. And what about where we stand now with that? I mean, there's like I said, there's been so much back now it's and this is something that has been happening in the academic circles. But now in certainly in our political culture, it's such It was like history is such a battleground. How should we understand that? Well, I would argue that it's always been a battleground on I think What is unique about this moment is the fact that a lot of these debates are exactly as you say that these air taking place in a public Setting. Certainly within academia, these air debates we've been having for a while, So even recently, I've been thinking a bit about the Dunning school. And for those who might not be familiar, this is ah particular school of thought. You know the Dunning's will of reconstruction, which essentially You know, it was a group of historians, a group of scholars who decried reconstruction and their attempt was to support what can best be described as conservative elements. Against the radical Republicans. And what they had tried to do was explain, lie black people..
"dunning school" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Reasons to consider the 2020 election to be one of the most consequential of our lifetimes. And it's not just because we're choosing a president or a set of legislators truly has become a referendum on what kind of country we aspire to be. And the center of that debate is our history of racism and racial inequality. Some have called this a moment of reckoning that history tonight. Once again, people are filling the streets to protest police killing of a black person. After today's announcement in Louisville that no police officers will be charged for killing Briana Taylor. It certainly feels like a moment of reckoning. And if so, Donald Trump and Joe Biden have very different ideas about how to face it right, President Trump says the teaching of history in school should have an agenda of fostering patriotism. And he derives things like The New York Times 16 19 project as quote ideological poison that will quote dissolve the civic bonds unquote of this country. Rather than as the writers and tender corrective to help foster a fuller conversation about history, including the legacy of enslavement which came to this country in 16 19. Nice President. Biden says Systemic racism needs to be a central concern. But he doesn't talk much about history and has himself at times been on what many racial justice advocates and even his running mate, Comma Harris would consider the wrong side of history. So tonight, Brian and I are inviting all of you into a sort of thought experiment on truth and reconciliation about systemic racism in the United States. If we're ever going to move forward, we will need some kind of shared truth that seems like a necessary step to get any kind of real reconciliation, reconcile ing of debts. Were wondering with so much water under the proverbial bridge. Is it even possible to get to that kind of shared truth? We certainly hope so. And this is a national Colin. So we want to invite you to say what truce need to be told about American history or about the state of our country today, What do you think needs to be stated out loud for racial justice and reconciliation to really take place? And also what truth do you need to tell about your own life or family history? What needs to be said out loud to build to try to eventually build some stronger civic bonds. And maximize equality for our future. Call us at 844745 talk. That's 8447458255, right. And you don't have to tackle all of history. Just tell us something a thing. That you think needs to be recognized about the history or president. State of economic justice, Economic justice and injustice. Yes, that's one category criminal justice and injustice. Housing or employment or environmental or any other kind of justice or injustice. That should be part of a shared truth before the country can really reckon successfully with racial justice and get much closer to it. Then we are conveying a policy item, Auras Kai said. It could be something from your own experience or your own family's past. What truth do you think is important to say out loud to help the nation eventually build stronger civic bonds. For the sake of maximizing equality for our Children. 844745 talk 8447458255. We invite your calls. From anywhere in America ate 44745 talk ate for 47458255. As we take your calls, and try to think about all the truth telling that we need to do we're joined by Dr Keisha Blaine. She's a historian of 40th Century America, focusing on black history in particular at the University of Pittsburgh. She's the author of Set The World On Fire. Black Nationalist Women in the Global Struggle for Freedom and co editor with Abram Kinji of an upcoming collection called 400 Souls, a community History of African America. And I should Say I'm a contributor Tel. That collection very probably so Dr Blane Welcome. Thank you so much for having me. So, in addition to all those things I just said about you, you're also the president of the AFC American intellectual Historical Society. Which kind of put you in an interesting position. I think to talk about the field broadly, you know. So can we start there? It feels like history itself has become such a battleground in the political conversation right now. President has openly attacked the 16 19 project from a New York Times, for instance. And there is, of course, a sort of constant battle over public monuments. But I think maybe what not, historians might not know is that this is all kind of grown out of a movement within academia. It seems to me led by both black history in historians, but also others to tell a different kind of history, a different kind of story about America's past. Where do you think that started in the field? Where would you put the beginning of that and where we're at now? Well, the first thing that I would say is that Having just having this conversation about history and how we tell our history. I'm mindful of the importance of black historians because it certainly matters who tells the story, and it's not a dismissal on any Particular race of people or any group, but is to say that for such a long time, the way that black history has been taught has been Uh, really framed as as one that I think has really sidelined Ah Black agency on DH and even black stories and black ideas. I think certainly what? The African American intellectual history. Society is a part of is I think a larger movement Certainly not one that started. You know, at this moment. I think this is something That we can trace back to individuals like Lerone Bennett. I've been thinking about him and his remarkable work as as a writer as a historian, we could talk about job boys. Much earlier and show. This is part ofthe. I think a long effort along history, an effort by black historians in particular to resist these kinds of narratives that tent exclude us. And that's exactly why an organization like EJ as exist in the first place is because We felt it was important to make sure that our voices were heard on that our histories were told accurately. And what about where we stand now with that? I mean, there's like I said, there's been so much back now it's and this is something that has been happening in the academic circles. But now in certainly in our political culture, it's such It was like history is such a battleground. How should we understand that? Well, I would argue that it's always been a battleground on I think What is unique about this moment is the fact that a lot of these debates are exactly as you say that these air taking place in a public Setting. Certainly within academia, these air debates we've been having for a while, So even recently, I've been thinking a bit about the Dunning school. And for those who might not be familiar, this is ah particular school of thought. You know the Dunning's will of reconstruction, which essentially You know, it was a group of historians, a group of scholars who decried reconstruction and their attempt was to support what can best be described as conservative elements against a radical Republicans. And what they had tried to do was explain lie black people. You know, they tried to explain and justify the loss of black political rights..
"dunning school" Discussed on Racing Post
"Leading. To West Ambaum. Price offer. Definitely mock you a fan of the The the islands sank maximum headband. Gucci had bad. I'd say I, Lo- I ass golfing I wanted to. The. Side I can't come. Quick enough could get the ball was argument I was at the reverse of fixture when he absolutely route Zabaleta to shreds as was. It was quite embarrassing to watch Zabaleta Trying his best. You know that somebody's really good on down the as premier league, but. Not at the same level anymore he was just given the worst tall ever really in that game I think westbound exposed himself in the same way that they did on that occasion. You know they they all defending court date. A like a like look at midfield, they picked against against Chelsea looked a bit more of energy and quality in Motonobu arguable again a bit of a stool Gives West. Time isn't necessarily what they massively need. anymore you know what gives you hall desire a few go to a big players in. Check and of Declan Royce. I think that this is a game in. New Call so when they have to try to break teams down I think. It's GonNa the next step for them. in in some relation whether that's with the Saudi money on on no and I was looking at the draw. I mean new costs is a pre similar game against US Villa recently finished in a draw. And I think West. Having the surprising free points on Wednesday wouldn't be dismayed if they picked up a point yard, same guy defensive and I. don't see Newcastle breaking down. Cracking wins West time in the week wasn't a and Jack Night. Can I pick up another three point and say? Well! What else do my research last night? Before the Chelsea was okay, man, have this as a new castle victory, but I think drawer as well I think the season starts now for the hammers, really still split only what for June villa at st boost and a fantastic job. New Castle it's almost to the point. Where said we're no longer the underrates the Bruce He's always talking about in book. I think Alan Samak's amounts of good good player, but the way that stem cell. Last night shows that they are improvement defensively. I think it'd be a cagey affair and a draw with a result. Green, a a K now, let's move onto the next round of primate fix must I'm confused at when? We've started finished about. Let's just let's get through the and let's win three days because we've already talked about. The sides inaction. I'm Joanie Liverpool versus Aston, Villa half past four on the Sunday. Scott sports once again. quick show the prices and your value head. At Liverpool free to Fox on the draw, an eight hundred villa. I'M GONNA go Liverpool Winston ill filler. Not Look very good. Lock your activity and I think I touched upon earlier twenty one goals conceded in for matches its super so i. don't think defensive will be here and Yeah. I'm going to Liverpool Winston l from me, mark desperate ties, villers and that. As yeah I mean the. Guy In this one as villa conceded the most goals from set pieces this season fourteen, sorry. Not sure who Liverpool plant sent off, but I just probably backbone for those of the first goals. You Van Dyke over Mattie that. You know that type of character up from the back. Not One policy was in the the nets. And Jack. Yeah Liverpool two, zero, a obviously got fantastic home record Aston. Villa I do like the exuberance which to play with chuck, really very good boy, severe circus at the bucket times, and the easily picked off. Not Good Times, to be a fan at seven o'clock on Sunday, Southampton, taking on Manchester City BBC reading joined. The BBC Premier League matches feels quite wrong. Watching permit full the baby in July now. But. It's happening at joining. Seventeen to Southampton nine hundred of the draw on two months sixty. I'M GOING TO GO WITH MON- Say I'm time here and. I'm Phil Foden anytime and I just think they will take all the dependence. How how much out of them? Tonight's game against poll and how on how much physically it takes out, but I just think the lobbying of class air against Southampton. And I just say city dominant in this morning seminar, the possession shots and everything. And I think fulfilled, and we'll probably find the night. In this one It may well shuffle the pack a little bit after Liverpool. The Liverpool exploits on Thursday evening, so yes, I'm going to go. Time fulltime on. A full. Stop Mock. Things can only get better way. Get something better. You'll be playing. We'll be back at Liverpool apply. Bring them are for the dunning school I After dozy moments and Maybe come early in the game on the back of what looks ahead is a difficult one on the first day Southampton, very capable team in short bursts. Fancy I'm over the ninety minutes to sixty two off them. The wings is playing on. I'm just going to stick with him. Skull I about. You haven't given away. You will Sunday headline now have we often? We've used that twenty dollars already developing. He fills us every us every week. On made me Giggle at job. I was thinking about avenue a little flustered Southampton, without delusional. potentially yeah I see when both teams score saints who got the worst record in the League? The not good at home cost nine nil to lester earlier in the season I'm kind of with everybody else on this one city of in the last seven meetings between the two sides as well. To have to look past villa's. Okay Fair enough Monday eight o'clock spurs taking on Everton's skysports joining Patty Powell's process and you bet for this. to draw forthing into five other I'M GONNA go up and draw nor bat here. Think I'm chill. altis finally found a way in terms of making it. To be. In stifling teams quite a bit on I think the said Yeah. You know it showed. Last night again less the out all the possession. All the shops didn't convert. Mepham all clinical when the other jumps is. To me, though be difficult debate, a difficult to break down on I can just see evidence not seeing on the break. Count Louis Michelle as soon as well and I just think if Maria, it depends how Marini also does. It tactically Boffin country in my outweigh I'm. Out and draw nor bad the prices and you backing you boys among Nano really I'm massive opinion on the game. But talking. A little bit to shore so Evanston drool double, chance you. Know away from Home Everton. Always convincing these big matches, but it doesn't feel quite as big at the moment a trip to Tottenham and so Everton Draw Double Jones and Jack. Yeah True Spurs at the moment after. Say Sorry Mark Him Book. He's doing really good job with Everton answer as Johnny said, they will really clinically of night, and if you do get the chances of funds to than to take them so evident. ME, really just one game on the Monday. Which means we move into cheers, six o'clock Crystal College taking Chelsea all the Games on Tuesday. Live on sky, Sports Johnny take through this web. Policy nine to eleven fault, draw fall to seven Chelsea and I'm actually going to go. Pilots drawn all back here. I was just looking back on Chelsea price against villa overweight. The went off. Won't fifty now ray in? A At certainly polished back to the. Villa in my opinion and just appear depends. What Chelsea things turns off as well and Find find the ship in boats in terms as And I think potentially at the price is the Polish draw all about all policy drawn John's markets. I think the price will look back for mayor. Mount you agree. Not Ma I'm really negative. I'll say this now. is not presenting it.
"dunning school" Discussed on Houston Matters
"Right now heading out on the north, northbound, forty five and the six ten north loop, according to Trans Store all, but the left lane is blocked should say all, but the right lane is blocked there also a wreck in lanes slowing you down on the West loop, not far from the gallery northbound six ten at sixty-nine, the southwest freeway. This is USA matter. Special Edition I'm earning news. Our phone lines are open, seven, one, three, four, zero, eight seventy. I am talking with Dr Maddocks from Texas Southern University and Dr, price from prairie view am we're talking about the power of symbols in today's community and we have three on the phone, so we'll go right to dry d-r-y. What's on your mind today? just kinda wondering. If you folks get comment about the reason why the confederacy with son in the first place you know, it's often said that it's really for states rights, but you know I think what's it's really the state's rights to You know keeping on sleep I. think that part is often not stated out loud this kind of wondering if you could talk about that a little bit, thank you. Thank you great question and what I like so much about that question. It brings up another point we wanted to talk about was how we were educated and taught about that period in our history, and who crafted those lessons, so we'll start with trees drew dreeze question about what was the reasoning for the founding of the confederacy. Who would like to take that doctor? WHO's? Dr Price Okay. Sure they'll states rights is What what? We call a political dog whistle? It's a way it's a sanitize way of saying the thing that is much less Noble to stay, and so states rights often is used as a follow the constitution, and that is everything that is not enumerated that goes to the federal government everything that is not clearly stated as a right of the federal government then becomes state state, right, and so states then get to choose what happens inside their borders, everything outside of what the constitution says. That's generally what it is, but largely what has come to mean particularly in the southern context is that states have a right to decide how black people will be managed how they will be oppressed how they will be legislated up on in the spaces where they live, and so often when you hear states rights, it's about the ability of southern state to continue to oppress black people. That's why they use it at the during. During the civil war, it's what it was the claim that they used by the way during the civil rights movement to maintain segregation, and it was the claim Ronald Reagan made when he went to Philadelphia Mississippi, in Nineteen eighty-four to give a speech on states' rights to tell southern states that he supports them doing whatever they want to do about the rights and undermining civil rights and continues now to be a claim that states. And often is about faith, being unwilling to edit here to what we believe to be just right for African Americans and other oppressed groups. Dr Matic's well and I think the other thing to remember is this? This is basically one of those historical anachronisms that took a took on a lot more important after the civil war than it did run up to the civil war very much at the time in the eighteen fifty cents sexual division why he issue what Swipe. And if you actually look at. For example, the very famously the declaration of secession, the Texas convention pass. You know it's quite explicit. This is about defending the right tone flakes, and certainly Alexander, Stevens, also the famous presidency of the confederacy, awesome very famously about this being the cause war. And so, what happens after? The war is as Dr Price, says you know. This, this sort of was developed as a way of talking about what the civil war was! In a way that allowed. Both white more governors and white southerners to come to some sort of. Peace over the war you know. It was something that develops over the late nineteenth century, and really comes into You know the way history was taught. No MICHI schools secondary schools even into academic history with the The dunning school of his southern history, which emphasized You know the the quote. Unquote depravity of radical reconstructions you know in the face so forth of what the actual Levitt said. Okay I. Think what people don't realize here. Is that the way that people talk about the confederacy? The way that people talk about the noble confederacy. The way that people talk about southern history was actually a real academic project. Right where they were, there were groups of people at the University of North Carolina, and other kinds of stay flagship institutions who got together and And decided to make sure that there was a frame around how we understand what happened to the south, and they want us to believe that the south was really trying to engage in this kind of noble idea about being able to to to govern itself, and it really wasn't. It's a project that they want you to believe, but it's not actually true. Okay now we're going to jump back to the phones. Seven, three, four, four, zero, eight, eight, seven zero. We have a caller who identified themselves as professor J professor. Welcome to the show. Hello other professors well. I I think that one of the things that I don't share as we discussed the southern heritage and I'm glad you. Went into that, but one of the things that we don't discuss. That I. Think Really characterizes it for what it actually is and. That if you take the leadership and the top officers of the of of the US military at the time of the civil war, they were all predominantly from the south. They deserted so if we talking about that flag, and that heritage that it's a flag heritage of the. From the US military it's also been a flag of treason and betrayal because and domestic terrorism. DISA- flag of domestic terrorism because not only. Did they become traders and betray the nation, and the and the the constitution and tried to destroy the government. They attacked the United States of America George Washington and Thomas Jefferson yet. They were in Slavers, but they did not. They were not domestic terrorists at least not from our perspective maybe from English was. But they were not domestic terrorists and they commit treason. And betrayal you did not desert and so I think we have to put in addition to widen white supremacy. And Enslavement. That that flag, and that those men whom we honor, they represent hate. And War, and that's the heritage desertion treason. Betrayal. The Second Jefferson Davis was our secretary of war. And a senator in the United States and he turns and commits domestic terrorism. So that's my comment and I think that's hard for people to refute and argue with if we put. Out in a second I gotTa pull you down professor j running on time, so let me jump over to Dr Maddox on that your reaction to professional. Absolutely, right it was you know. The confederacy did represent treason for those that broke their allegiance to United States. Military officers who would scorned uphold the constitution and this is. To getting back to the way, memory works the way we think about the past for a long time after the civil war.
"dunning school" Discussed on Larry Wilmore: Black on the Air
"Kinda. Odd secured funding from Congress and we will ship you. Serious? Three and probably the thing that bothers me most about that speech wives. He blamed black people for the civil war. He, said. If you weren't here, we wouldn't be fighting. This war as a black label chose to come here and be enslaved. And now we need you to go from the country that you built which is basically kind of bend. The theme our entire time. We've been here I'm sure you've gotten a few letters occasionally people if you don't like it here, go back to Africa. It's more than letters. I've had death. Threats Yeah, so it's like that that common theme that we're not fully American. We're not citizens bad we can be. Put out of our own country. I mean that that's Lincoln was was arguing is that you will never be able to live freely here? white Americans have too much animosity towards you and you have too many hurt feelings towards us, so we'll for you, and then we need to go and horseback. People say Hell no like we're not leaving. and. Like we do so many times fighting the willingness of blacks fighting in a in the civil war, an the that they said you know because people that'll be disaster better wasn't. Really kind of change Lincoln's thinking as you. You're pointing out to you know. and now we get into a period postwar. Another period that a lot of people don't know about and all the gains that made you had a civil rights act of eighteen, sixty six. I think six. Eighteen sixty six followed by. Thirteenth by the Fourteenth Amendment followed by the Fifteenth Amendment. Like a lot of progress is made with blacks in this country that I think. A lot of people don't know about two. Let's talk about that. Person is get into the resistance. So the period of reconstruction, was completely erased from national memory, except to say that it was a complete failure, and that was a intentional work of a group of historians are known as the dunning school that after the end of slavery, these were Princeton. One of denning was Princeton. Historians of these are not southerners. Who for this sense of national reunification,.
"dunning school" Discussed on Scene On Radio
"Hey Chenjerai John I mean I figured I couldn't wait to call you man. So what do you think you know what I keep? Noticing is The more details learn about. Us history the more painful. The reality is right. It's sort of become a recurring theme in my mind. Almost a slogan. It's always worse than you thought. Yeah man when? I first started digging into this several years ago. It was D- For me to write. I mean first of all reconstruction is so important but so neglected and then the backlash was like so heavy that icon. I was like Worcester. Was the inspiring. Take away you know just in terms of trying to go forward right when I was learning about this from from certain older scholars and just black people who knew some of this history. It kind of felt like the moral. The story was we all. We had this glimpse of real democracy. But why folks always mess things up. You know like. That's the moral. Yeah like. Yeah like hip hop dreadlocks black neighborhoods in reconstruction. That's the point. White folks messed it. Up Right Well Yeah I mean but the thing is yeah. I mean when you really confront how viciously white supremacy attacked real emerging democracy after the civil war. Yeah and I think it's really important for us white folks to understand this in some basic way to to understand this history for one thing because there's still this lingering racist idea out there in the culture you know and and white folks who grew up in the south maybe kind of imbibed with their mother's milk but it goes way beyond the south this idea that reconstruction failed because it was a misguided project imposed by northern do-gooders carpetbaggers and black folks. Just weren't ready to govern Blah Blah Blah. Right that story so we just really need to be clear about the real story and I think we also need to take in the reality of this history so we can get over more broadly the glossy really propagandistic version of American history. That most of us have been fed. A FRIEND OF MINE. Who's a southern historian? White Guy he likes to say we need to be clear about who we were so we can see more clearly who we are and right and it's not like I knew better growing up right what I was just no real story a reflection on reconstruction at all like it didn't happen. Yeah so I really didn't realize how enduring that particular narrative has been. It's like it just doesn't go away. Yeah and and I'm the same way. Reconstruction was just not a thing for me until far far into my Al`thood But that narrative was the dominant one also among professional historians for many decades The it was called the dunning school named after a Professor History Professor at Columbia by the way in New York not at the University of Alabama or someplace historians all over the country held to this consensus of the You know the sort of almost the birth of Nation Story of reconstruction until people like Eric Fellner and others really picking up on the work of w e B. Two boys Corrected THE RECORD. Just really in the last few decades so you have like a sort of you know both the narrative of the civil war in the lost cause and then. Kinda as part that you have this dunning school thing and and I had heard and read folks like Devos phone or talk about the dunning school and really lay wasted. An version of Reconstruction Biden realized that. Like outside of the Cabbie Betty kind of that idea so settled in to culture as common sense about reconstruction. Yeah so it's partially for that reason that among the many lessons from reconstruction there too. I think a really important okay The first one is sometimes history creates conditions for people to push radical ideas of justice. Forward right I mean like enslaved. People and abolitionist really pushed the civil war torture massive patient. It wasn't about that when when started right and the end of the civil war is actually the beginning of this whole new phase of radical project reconstruction was this opportunity to God created for folks to govern really differently so black people including some former slaves get elected legislatures. Things start to change in major ways. I mean really when you look at it. The real founding document of the United States Constitution gets fundamentally altered. It does and those were huge achievements getting those reconstruction amendments written into the constitution briefly. Some black folks getting Lan. Some universities get integrated. I mean there were glimpses of what could be and it took a coalition of folks with different positions in society to do that right that unlikely alliance that phone discussed. But then there's the backlash. Yeah so I think the second big lesson that I'm thinking about based on this episode is something that is might feel a little bit abstract. But it's it's what is government really. Do you know we talk a lot about. Who's in government you know or just what specific laws are but I think that what I what I think this episode makes us think about is how people at the top of the social order even understand the purpose of government to begin with okay which is bringing some echoes of earlier episodes in this series so extensively we've got this government of by and for the people but what we keep seeing it seems as that the US government's primary function on the ground turns out to be more often than not something else. Yeah I'm so I mean just to say it right. I mean wealthy white folks and a lot of poor white folks who didn't like the changes that were happening reconstruction when they saw the government really is something that existed to enrich and protect them and when it stopped functioning network for this brief period of time. They did whatever they had to do to bring it back to what they thought it was supposed to do. Yeah and then there's almost kind of a broader conspiracy to do that because you have the US Supreme Court and the state's managing to find ways to squash the effectiveness of the fourteenth fifteenth amendments. Right for a long time they just went back to disenfranchising and disempowering black people far into the middle of the twentieth century. Right I mean already even with the thirteenth amendment. You saw that there. Was this loophole in there from the start. You Bali's slavery except for the punishment of a crime right so that exception allows people and things in the south to go essentially to continue and slaven folks right you can arrest them for something using like a boast law vagrancy which could be walking down the street minding your business not having a job not having a place to live get arrested then you get rented out to a plant on plantation owner to work for nothing in chains and up your family right and all of that just continued the practice of using black people as a source of free labor and profit and you can draw lines from that all the way to this day with mass incarceration the prison industrial complex as people like Michelle Alexander and Eva Duvernois have done so powerfully. Yes and you know. And then you have new forms of oppression arising each subsequent era in addition to that right but again thinking about the purpose of government. The reason why all of that is allowed to stand after reconstruction is that reconstruction was like this radical experiment in political democracy but then the economic priorities were still running the show. I mean still economic priorities that drive the reunion between the North and south right so you have the civil war right and it's kind of like okay. Well we had this spat. Six hundred thousand people lost their lives. But now it's time to get back to business right. Reconciliation for why Folks Lynching and Jim Crow of black folks. And we don't we haven't really dealt with it man this listeners. Like you know it's funny. I once heard Reverend William Barbara Talking about forgiveness and grace after the the Merck tragic murders in Charleston at the Ami Church. Yeah because as soon as something like that happens. There's microphones in front of People's faces asking us if we forgive right. Yeah and he basically said Yeah. You know forgiveness is important right this whole idea of grace. And he said but before you have grace you have to have acknowledgment. He also said incidentally that forgiveness should be about not allowing the evils of system to be displaced onto one particular killer. Either that was another thing so that in that way. Forgiveness could be profound because it can be about you know moving the indictment back onto the system while still we gotta hold the Person Accountable of course right. But you know this idea of grace right before you have grace. You have to have acknowledgment. Yeah and we are so far from any kind of adequate acknowledgement as a culture as a country. And you know white folks writ large And that really brings us back to where we started with David Walker and Lincoln and their words about moral debt and at least a strongly. Implied need for reparations. Yet I feel like you know when we talk about reparations. Sometimes people act like the conversation started with. Hr forty or with tiny see coats but no people were talking about that at that time right like way back then you know these ideas of redistribution and repair. They were And this was new to me. Quite recently there was a major proposal by a few of the radical Republicans in the eighteen sixties during the height of their power which would have shifted not just political power but also economic power. Remember at the end of the Civil War. Sherman's order which would have taken a slice of land seized from slaveholders the Atlantic coast And granted that land to some free people forty acres per family and that order was rescinded. Right well a couple of years later in eighteen sixty seven thaddeus Stevens the leader of the radical Republicans in the House of Representatives. He proposed a much more massive program to do essentially the same thing he wanted to confiscate. All the land owned by slaveholders all across the south and give that land to the four million freed black people in forty Acre allotments..
"dunning school" Discussed on C-SPAN Radio
"A great job in answering questions yeah that's all to the it different countries I guess have different ways of trying to get rid of people who are either presidents prime ministers whatever I mean we were just talking to resa may in Ireland has been kind of booted out in a coup d'etat or something by the Conservative Party nobody no no voter has anything to say about that in in England here we have a different process but the people wrote the original constitution did put it in the process of impeachment for a rather ambiguous phrase right high crimes and misdemeanors treason we are in an even treason there's some discussion now about what to reason is rising on treason bribery or high crimes and misdemeanors and even if you assume you know what treasonous and you know bribery when you see it what are high crimes and misdemeanors I mean that really is the fuzzy terminology because theoretically is and I think it was that a student said you know a misdemeanor could be stealing a check and right would you be in peace for that probably not you know in that case but is Eric says that that the idea of impeachment and the process for it the conditions which you just names and then what happens afterwards that there's a trial if the if the if the officer namely the president and his cases in page than as a trial goes to the Senate and and I find too and you probably all had this experience more recently the people didn't really entirely sort of understand it's a two prong process that's why he's running is the accusation ride that's like an indictment right is to be an age does not mean you're convicted now or removed from office right now so that's itself interesting but that's what's outlined in the constitution and what's interesting there too is that there isn't really a procedure on there there were no procedures his and he should be tried the person will be tried in the Senate the Chief Justice shop preside and to be removed from office you need two thirds vote in the Senate that's it right doesn't tell you very much about how to conduct that particular trials it's really up for grabs and it was in eighteen sixty eight as it would be so currently do you do you think the people who wrote the constitution so impeachment more as a kind of criminal kind of process or a political process you know the it do you have to have committed a indictable crime to the impeached order is impeachment just whatever a majority of the house of representatives says it is if they want to get rid of the president that way they have the right to impeach him and then have a trial of some time before the Senate well that is still debated now I I read you know there couple books that came out on impeachment by constitutional lawyers in the seventies and you know around the time of Nixon and writer because of Clinton and and they were they were arguing that it actually had to be legal action I'm not sure I entirely agree it depends on the day you speak to me really and I think that there was that ambiguity built in to the constitution because in the federalist papers you see that Alexander Hamilton actually says that an impeachable offense can be an abuse of power right so in that particular sense that's not a narrow definition that that's not a legalistic definition that really does have an abuse of power significance that isn't technical difference you know in the interesting thing about we want to talk about the past but just to make a point Clinton was impeached on a narrow perjury nine he perjured himself nobody was going to deny that but he was acquitted because of a broader interpretation of an agent which is to say whatever he did didn't interfere with the way he conducted affairs of state you know we don't have to buy the flares of state with one yeah yeah you save so this is a biography center the book is not a biography per se although Andrew Johnson is very central to it his entire life and career and up but it does have a very broad cast of characters with a very helpful little you know summaries of them they are there but what about Andrew Johnson I mean as you said he's not exactly a household name but now we will let his reputation I guess like many figures of our history has gone up and down over the years the original scholars on reconstruction the Dunning school electric in like him very much story was inept he didn't understand what the country needed after the civil war then in the nineteen twenties he becomes like the rolling as the radical Republicans decline in the reputation he becomes a hero a defender of the constitution today is it's like a stock market ticker is back down again thanks to your book in other books he's widely seen as the worst or possibly next to the worst president there are in American history.
"dunning school" Discussed on Factually! with Adam Conover
"Hello and welcome to factually? I'm Adam conover. And what do you really remember about reconstruction. You know the period right after the civil war. If anything like me not much all I really got out of the brief unit we spent on it in history. Class was the idea that reconstruction was a time when northern carpetbaggers ruled over the south and that it quote failed. I can also remember like a political cartoon with like an evil looking guy carrying a literal carpet full of his stuff now from New York to Georgia I mean what can you say. It's an evocative word and that's it. That's all I can remember. It was a pivotal period in American history but my textbook spent two pages on on it less time than I spent learning how to diagram a sentence which I still don't remember how to do by the way the truth about history is that it's not a fixed recording. We just the play back. It's a story we have to actively tell ourselves to keep alive in our memory so what happens when we do a poor job of telling that story accurately accurately or when we failed to tell it at all the answer is that we forget the truth and our culture Russia's in to fill the gaps history changes from something that we'd learned from historians to something we just received from pop culture movies and fiction and that means that our cultural memory can become dangerously skewed skewed and that's the case with reconstruction our entire image of it is completely off base the most enduring image reconstruction that people have the one you might have started picturing picturing as soon as I said the word is from the nineteen forty movie gone with the wind it started as a hyper successful Pulitzer Prize winning novel and then a blockbuster movie which won one ten Oscars in one thousand nine forty and it wasn't just any blockbuster adjusting for inflation. It's still the highest grossing movie of All Time More than doubling what avengers ventures endgame made this thing made the Russo brothers look like the do plus brothers Okay and accordingly it had an enormous impact on how people thought about reconstruction the movie depicts a Genteel nearly magical world of southern aristocracy full of rich sexy slave owning southern protagonists and it represents reconstruction as a disaster for those heroes a tragedy in which something beautiful and pure was lost that image put so vividly onscreen onscreen stuck and it influences how we think about reconstruction to this day and gone with the wind wasn't turn influenced by an even earlier film that literally literally changed the course of cinema in America forever imagine sitting down to watch the first star wars in the theater. You know you're about to witness a spectacle unlike anything before it a bold new chapter in the history of movies the State of the art in cinematography and editing not to mention a pop cultural event the likes of which had never been seen before now also imagine that this massive Star Wars type movie was being presented as a true and real history and also that that history history is made up of over three hours of vile racist propaganda that would approximate the experience of seeing d w Griffith birth of a nation in Nineteen Nineteen fifteen the movie depicted free black Americans as evil lascivious and obsessed with finding ways to prey on white women and portrayed the Ku Klux this clan as the triumphant heroes of the South and again it was a smash Woodrow Wilson played it at the Goddamn White House and the clan use the film to recruit for decades. The movie presented itself as a faithful history of reconstruction and Americans took it as that many white white viewers came away convinced that reconstruction was a disastrous failure and the ideas embedded in these films didn't appear out of thin air dig deeper and you'll find that birth of a racist and disgusting idea of reconstruction was influenced in part by the ideas of a group of scholars known as the dunning school named after they're wide whiskered avowedly racist leader William Dunning the dunning school viewed black people as childlike and incapable of governing themselves and it saw the north Earth's attempt to govern the south and expand rights to recently freed African Americans as the low point of American history according to dunning and his ilk order in the south restored only when the Ku Klux Klan begin a campaign of violent terror that caused the north to retreat in instituted a regime of white supremacy known as home rule now the idea of reconstruction as a calamity that befell white southerners didn't just take hold because a one historian with bad facial player in a couple of movies. This story lasted because if you were a white person living in Jim Crow America this story made sense to tell you know if your goal is to uphold all the racist system it's helpful to have a false and racist history to tell but sadly this is the version of the story of reconstruction that dominated for over half half a century but we now know it wasn't true contemporary historians have spent decades doing the hard scholarly work of putting together a more accurate history of what happened at that time and what they've learned is that reconstruction was actually an unprecedented effort by the federal government to affirm and expand the rights. It's of African Americans in a way that had never been done before and it worked for the first time African Americans were able to participate in American democracy accuracy they actually went from being slaves to being voters and they were soon elected to state houses and even Congress for the first time schools were built for white and Dan Black students and citizenship was guaranteed for anyone born in America as a result of these reforms. If you WANNA talk about failure the true failure of reconstruction construction is that when the Ku Klux Klan and its allies began their campaign of white supremacist terror the north retreated and all those gains were lost southern whites quickly imposed the Jim crow system of apartheid and it would take over half a century for those rights to return with the civil rights movement so the truth truth is that reconstruction made America just as much as the civil war or even the revolutionary war before it so if all we can devote to it is two pages is in a political cartoon we have to wonder. What else are we missing again? History isn't a recording or a fossil record that we can just read and observe. It's it's a story that we as a culture have to tell ourselves and win. That story is wrong or missing chapters it distorts our understanding of the present and no one understands understands that better than my guest today. Her name is Christie Coleman. She is historian and C._E._O.. Of the American Civil War Museum in Richmond Virginia and previously she led Detroit's Charles H. Right Museum of African American history and it was a director of the African American programs at Colonial Williamsburg. I think you're really going to enjoy this interview. Let's get right to it Kristie. Thank you so much for being on the show. Thank you for having me so we'll start by asking as a entertainer who attempts to teach history history through comedy. <hes> I want to know from an actual educator. How did you come to history as a subject and what about your approach is different from the way it's commonly taught in America Erica well? I came to the American Civil War <hes> as a topic of study through the job. Frankly <hes> I am a what what people refer to as there's a public historian in that I work in museums and my job is to for lack of a better term interpret what academic historians do you and make it <hes> something that a general public digest and hopefully do that in a way that's exciting and engaging and Dan challenging and all of those things that people can make immediate connections to so the American civil war though is really fraught topic Nick Yeah <hes> really fraud and so I think <hes> I will say this coming into the role having worked in <hes> other museums uh-huh. I found that <hes> this is a history that is very much alive in a lot of iterations men. Regrettably it's <hes> something that people have managed to Cherry pick how they want to remember it. So there are people who for example they only want to talk about what happened on the battlefields right they they only want to do that. Then there are people who want to venerate and then there are people who just want to deal with the political realities of the day in the constitutional questions the this and the that <hes> and then there are people who really love people stories <hes> and I have to say that I'm more aligned with that <hes> but I also understand that <hes> when you just look at particular individuals or particular stories one of the challenges there is you can very quickly lose context context and so my job ultimately is about bringing all of this context to bear bringing in all together <hes> <hes> frankly the way that people lived it. That sounds like such an enormous job because what you're describing is you know the blind men and the elephants <hes> and everyone having their own a little piece of it that they're examining and you're gonna make sense because I mean the civil war just as one historical event is so massive <hes> that I mean any of the things that you just laid out the military history the personal history the political history. That's something someone get spent a lifetime studying just that aspect of it. That's exactly right and the people who do that so how do you. How do you synthesize those things together to get that context? Well <hes> the first thing we have to do. Is You know we really have to just look at the historical record because the reality is people didn't live their lives that way right <hes> just as as we don't today what happens politically will have an impact in our communities and our families <hes> things that we do as communities and families can impact our politics and ultimately commonly impact military action vice versa <hes> and so people of the civil war era also are living their lives that way they are inundated with <hes> <hes> newspapers that all of them have a particular bias in our very unapologetic about that and <hes> there is <hes> there there are various social movements that are taking place at the time <hes> and so the easiest way again for us to do what we've done. <hes> in our new museum and galleries is that we just went back to the record okay so what's happening. Who are the people that help us best illustrate this fluidity <hes> what battles help us eliminate a particular theme and so forth so when when you when you break it down that way then it's much easier to figure out what's the best way to deliver that information so in some cases it might be through a really dynamic <hes> video visual presentation right? You can convey so much more in a picture than you can with words <hes> another instance it may just be the artifact itself can speak power to an idea <hes> and then you use words and other types of of images you know more more two dimensional imagery so that's the advantage. I think that we have to be able to again. We've the story back together..
"dunning school" Discussed on We The People
"Set of my father on my mother's side. There's my father's mother said refree in eighteen twenty three they live thirty miles from where I was born. I have a tremendous amount of stability in by family. It's now in West Virginia. But it was in Virginia at that time. So and my fourth grade grandfather John Redman actually fought in the American revolution. Because of him. He was a free group because of him my brother, Dr Paul gates and are members of the sons of the American revolution. Go figure, you know. Not exactly a predominantly black organization. You know what I'm talking about? So hold this in mind, West Virginia becomes state enjoying the union in the middle of the civil war. It becomes a state June. Twentieth. Eighteen sixty three my and they had my free negro ancestors had cousins just across the border around Winchester Virginia. Those cousins who had been in slaved got the right to vote three years before my free ancestors got the right to vote because the north men could only vote in the five New England states and in the state of New York if you satisfied a two hundred and fifty dollar property requirement. Isn't that amazing? That is so shocking. But it is true. And even when West Virginia became a state. They refused to give black men in West Virginia. They may black people West Virginia today. So, you know, we're only talking about a handful of people, but they refuse to give them the right to vote. So it was those four reconstruction acts that really laid the groundwork for citizenship and for the right to vote. Now, I I studied reconstruction. I didn't study all in in high school and Peabody West Virginia. But I studied at Yale myself on year. I took a two semester. Survey course introduction to afro American history. Oliver wary we were afro Americans at that time you remember that right? And the professor will you being feeling you went on to get a Pulitzer prize for his biography of Liz grant, had us read W E D voices book black reconstruction published in nineteen thirty five and it was radical because it challenged the dunning school of historians at Columbia University. And they were part and parcel of the mythology of reconstruction being a dismal failure and embarrassment to the history of American democracy and do voice took on the dunning school, and Eric phonier the chief consultant to our series is ironic that he is our leading reconstruction historian at Columbia University. It's almost as if I think he's about to publish his tenth book on reconstruction on the thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth amendments which would be out in in September. I think it's a personal mission. For him to refute the terribly racist claims made by the dunning school his own predecessors in the history department at Columbia and set the record straight so mcfeely had this redo voices. Book black reconstruction, and then a book by raeford Logan now most of you haven't heard of raeford Logan, but Rafer Logan was the third or the fourth black man to get a PHD in history from Harvard and at one time he was engaged to Letitia gates who happens to be my great aunt. So I'm very biased about Rafer Logan, but he wrote a book called the betrayal of the dingo. And it's about the period immediately following reconstruction. Reconstruction people argue about it, but generally accepted dates eighteen sixty five to eight hundred seventy seven so voices. Book ends eighteen seventy seven Logan's book begins in eighteen seventy seven and that is the period of the. Rollback to reconstruction. And it takes a while to roll it back because black men had an enormous amount of power black people were in the majority, South Carolina, Mississippi, Louisiana, almost a majority Florida Alabama. And and Georgia Florida, Alabama in Georgia. So there were sixteen black men elected to congress between eighteen seventy and eighteen seventy seven including two United States senators in South Carolina, speaker of the house secretary of state, the one of the great moments of the film, I go to Jim mclay boards office. And he has all the reconstruction congressman on on his wall, and he can do a whole black history a blanket Lesin, but systematically, step by step, the redemption, est, the former confederates wrote the south indeed rose again, and they disapproved disenfranchises black men, and they did it in such a clever way..
"dunning school" Discussed on The Book Review
"Of the embrace of citizenship. Among the black community was a harsh right wing outright, rollback it. If you want the the the most that. Harrison between reconstruction today reconstruction was twelve years of maximum black freedom followed by an outright rolled back. And what is that remind you of eight years of the presence of brilliant black president and a beautiful black family in the White House, followed by and all right rollback. So reconstruction inspired a violent racist reaction, which led with the approval of the supreme court of the United States to the imposition of Jim crow, which we know is separate but equal and that was only overturned in the civil rights era with the Civil Rights Act of nineteen sixty four and nineteen sixty five. So that the issues central to reconstruction who's a citizen who gets to be an American who has the right to vote. What is the role of care terrorist violence in a democracy, and what's the relationship between economic and political democracy? Those continue to Royal. Our society and politics today making an understanding of reconstruction, and it's rolled back both timely and even more vital. I want to ask you a question specifically about the political changes, and the legal changes that happened on the state level subsequent to that peak in eighteen seventy two where you had those sixteen members African American members of congress, and that South Carolina state majority of African Americans to what essentially was a complete disenfranchisement of black people until the nineteen fifties and nineteen sixties. I'm curious if at that time if there was an awareness of that vote count fertilised grant among African Americans because it seems that not until the nineteen fifties did the Republican and democratic parties sort of both become aware ohi. These northern blacks are a significant voting block, and we need to. To take them into account. In other words, did at the time the south recognize that grant had one due to African American having the vote. It was the apple cart turned upside down. And the former confederates were alarmed because essentially they were powerless in certain states, and in certain districts to outvote the black again, it was such a surprise that these former slaves were who couldn't read right would nevertheless vote and think themselves with oh my God the audacity of being equal participants as citizens in the great Republic of the United States. And so there were all sorts of machinations that began right away to intimidate black people, you know, to beat them up to threaten to Lynch them to Lynch to keep them from boating. And then after eighteen ninety. That's when the real rollback happened starting in eighteen ninety the right wing figured out that you can't get rid of the thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth amendment. Remember the thirteenth amendment abolishing slavery the fourteenth amendment established citizenship birthright citizenship for the first time in the United States and equal protection of the laws regardless of race. And then the fifteenth amendment, which is passing eighteen seventy gave all black people the right to vote. Now, you might say, we if you you just told me that black people could vote because of the reconstruction act in eighteen sixty seven right, but that only applied to Friedman in ten of the eleven confederate states. So here's here's the irony. Such a shock. Black men who are free could only vote in the north in the five New England states and in New York, if you had two hundred fifty dollars for the property in every other state in the north black men could not vote until the ratification of the fifteenth amendment in eighteen seventy now I happen to descend from three sets of fourth break grandparents who were free. So my family on two sides has been free were all black people and they were free on two sides since the American revolution. And on the third side they were freed since eighteen twenty three and they live thirty miles from where I was born in. What is now the state of West Virginia, I grew up in Piedmont, West Virginia, it's about halfway between Pittsburgh and Washington, and it's very near to the region your border. In fact, we firecrackers. By cracks, we're legal in West Virginia. So on July third we've zip across the board Virginia by firecrackers. So we could set them off on the fourth of July. The irony is that my free black ancestors could not vote until three years after their enslaved cousins, thirty miles away in the former confederate state of Virginia could vote because of the reconstruction acts stunning to people, you know, we think of the north as his haven for black people. But there was a lot of discrimination in the north against the free black community. It was tiny only ten percent even as late as nineteen ten only. Ten percent of all black Americans lived in the north ninety percent lived in the south. And as you know, from your former colleague is about Wilkinson's brilliant book about the great migration in nineteen ten really black p. In the south got on the move and they headed north. So the last reconstruction congressman is basically kicked out of congress in nineteen zero one, and he makes this beautiful speech, but the negro rise again like the Phoenix from the ashes the next black man elected to congress offered a priest in Chicago in nineteen twenty nine he was only able to be elected because black people particularly from Mississippi. Those were former Friedman and women had their descendants have migrated north to places like Chicago and Detroit and Pittsburgh Milwaukee etcetera. They had migrated to Sikado and comprise the majority in a district. So they could elect a black man back to the congress and they were allowed to vote and they were able to vote because the fifteenth amendment had been ratified. It is such an irony of American history. But that's true all of these black people elected to congress between eighteen sixty eight hundred seventy seven we're from the south from the north. And there wouldn't be northern member of the house until nineteen twenty nine. I want to ask you one. Final question. You've brought up a number of books and also parallels between this period of the period of redemption and our current time. And some of the authors of these recent books have been. In previous guests here on the podcast, David blade, who's new Bogner fee of Frederick Douglass deals largely with this period. Steve Luxembourg who spoke separate the story of plus versus Ferguson is a Bill Wilkerson her book, the warmth of other sons. And then there are others the new negro a life of Alain lock by Geoffrey Stewart, Eric phone or has a forthcoming book on those thirteenth fourteenth and fifteen amendments. Some of these books were worked on for years in predated, the twenty sixteen election and others either were directly after or sort of shifted the authors, kind of shifted gears a bit after that election. I'm curious why? Now, why all of these books now, by the way, when make the film on the great migration Isabel Wilkerson will be a major consultant Geoffrey Stewart in I where Yale together the book that he published which won the national book award was his PHD thesis in nineteen seventy nine the same year. I got my. From the university of game bridge. We we had the same mentors. David blight is an old friend, and I'm making a documentary about Frederick Douglass based on we acquired the rights to to David blight. But the what I decided to reconstruction. There was one person whom I had to enlist and that was very phone Erin phone or I can't say enough about him. He's the dean of reconstruction studies. Now, Eric has been a lone voice at night alone voice in the wilderness. But it's been his mission to retell the story reconstruction for years, I think he's this'll be ten the book to which you alluded on the reconstruction amendments that their teams the fourteenth fifteenth amendments, I think is his tenth book on reconstruction. And you know, why because the school of history that he is refuting with centered at Columbia under prof. Pestered building it's called the dunning school. And it was as racist as races could be and so Eric it's like a personal mission for the center of reconstruction studies to be at Columbia. So that he's showing that his predecessors at the turn the century were not only wrong, but we're complicit in this raises superstructure designed to denigrate black people, I think that the to give you the short answer. It's because we realize that when we look up and seek voter suppression. I remember when I woke up one day turned on the news and people in North Carolina. I think we're talking about that you needed to have voter ID's that you need to have a driver's license or they were creating barriers to make it more difficult for people to register the vote, and I'll go my God, you know. This reminds me of the Mississippi plan in. Eighteen ninety and all those southern state constitutional conventions and by extension. Other factors are recurring a conservative supreme court. One of the reasons reconstruction died is because of spring port was so conservative and in eighteen eighty three it said that the Civil Rights Act of eighteen seventy five which gave black people the right to ride on trains in first class cars. Stay in hotels eat in restaurants. It said that Civil Rights Act passed by congress in eighteen seventy was unconstitutional. And now, we have a conservative court, and we're all fighting to keep affirmative action legal the same affirmative action that led that made it possible to go to Yale. Why would I say that because I went to Yale nineteen sixty nine and with ninety five other black men and women including Sheila jackson-lee congresswoman from Houston. Kirch MO the first black mayor Baltimore. Dr Ben Carson was in my class. There were ninety six of us. What's the big deal about that the class of sixty six at Yale had six black men affirmative action? The use of diversity is a value for the consideration of admission. That's the only reason you have this conversation. You only reason I'm standing in the kitchen of a house in Harvard square thinking about my class. Next week, and and not teaching a historically black college is or having attended and assertively black colleague is because of affirmative action, and because of a liberal court struck down separate but equally nineteen fifty four in the Brown v board case, so they've nineteen fifty six I could start at the white school as we called it in first grade. And so voter suppression, a conservative court that is you know, I hope not going to overturn affirmative action. But could very well do that the rise of terrorism be shockingly open manner in which white supremacy is voicing itself in particularly even during the Obama administration, but in reaction to a black president, but because they feel a certain license under the present administration to voice those heinous opinions. All this. We've come full circle. And that's why so many scholars writing about reconstruction. They're doing it one to reclaim and recover, the achievements that that regular black people and elected black officials made during reconstruction to counter the lies and propaganda about how incompetent they were. But also as warning signs of the society that our rights are fragile the things that we think returnable can be rolled back boom just like that just like the thirteenth fourteenth. Fifteenth amendments were qualified by the actions of the southern democratic state, constitutional conventions. There are definite parallels. There. I could talk to you about this for a very long time. And I'm sure our listeners could could keep listening, but I should let you go. I'm so glad that you were here to talk about both of these books dark sky rising reconstruction and the dawn of Jim crow. Written together with Tonya, Bolden and Stony the road, reconstruction white supremacy and the rise of Jim crow skip thank you again fun. Fun. Juliette
"dunning school" Discussed on We The People
"Could trust state officials with your privileges your immunity ch you could trust them to equally protect all persons in their lives and their property the republicans simply pointed to new orleans and what had been in even even bet as to whether or not republicans we're going to be elected in eighteen sixty six instead the country in a landslide reelected republicans and defeated democrats voting and what actually became a referendum on the fourteenth amendment that in fact we could no longer trust state officials with our most important rights are most important privileges or immunities and the idea that we would be equally protected in our lives and property that was the vision that the country decided to make a part of their constitution in eighteen sixty six and the republicans got it done it then becomes a judgement onto later generations as to whether or not we lived up to that initial vision but there was a point when the country knew it and the country embraced it and made it a rock doc that maybe it took too long to get to but eventually courts did and it was that rock of equal protection that the most important decisions of the supreme court of the twentieth century based thank you for that they're the last word is to you and the question from the audience is about the role of african americans in reconstruction how does w e b boys at scholarship in black reconstruction stand up today how much we owed it his research and tell us about other african american unsung heroes of reconstruction who helped make the reconstruction amendments reality great question so i think it's rare to say that what happens in the reconstruction period and afterward is that there is a revision of history it's sometimes called the dunning school of scholarship about the south which reconstructionist portrayed as a wildly misguided mistake that it was all kinds of unqualified individuals ruling the the states and the and going to congress it was all kinds of graft and corruption and that's all that can be said of reconstruction and in fact it was a redemption were recalled redeemers where the southerners who ended up taking over in the south and redeeming it from the sort of corrupt corrupt period of time and what do boys did was question that dunning school of thought said no this is in an effort to portray a constituent of point in our past as something that is less something that is a mistake and we shouldn't accept it it's taking generations for the dunning school of scholarship about reconstruction to to finally be laid to rest in and occasionally you'll see versions of it pop up but in sort of trying to lay that school of of scholarship about reconstruction to bed the the the participation of african americans in their own power centers in their own making constituent of of the nation has has really been an important part of that story whether you're talking about some of the first lawyers african american lawyers to ever attain the bar or you're talking about you know individuals who risk their lives to run for office and become the first african american officeholders and recapturing that story has been important and i think it's also important to realize this is one thing that i want to leave you with that there's a through line it's a through line not only from the fourteenth amendment but one hundred years forward into the sometimes notice the second reconstruction which is the civil rights era the same type of arguments that african americans are citizens that they deserve protection they deserve respect is the same kind of arguments that are made one hundred years before and are made on the steps of washington and on the edmund pettus bridge one hundred years later are this has been a superb introduction to are important day of discussion to keep on schedule i'm gonna ask you to stay in your seats and sherline will come out in a moment to begin our next panel please join me and thanking are wonderful today shows engineered by greg check learn and produced by madison poulter scott bombo special thanks.
"dunning school" Discussed on Radio Atlantic
"Fairer to both whites and blacks in the south and the old slovak rasyid had been and then you've got a push back against that you got redemption and by the turn of the 20th century he gets in called the dunning school historian sitting around and romanticising the the old south in and reading about the loss 'cause you tend to get those moments in the wake of pushes for racial equality and i think it's probably not coincidence that we're getting a moment like this just after america uh spent eight years with his first black president i want to ask you that this this the sunnier version of of of questions we've been grappling with the sunny version of the question is is donald trump's lasting legacy going to be the acceleration of the demise of confederate symbolism across the south i mean it seems like uh ina this reverse midas thing going on here the maury talks about this the quicker cities seemed to be taking down nasdaq years and the quicker more americans seem to be getting educated about the non romantic qualities of the antebellum south yeah this is the glass half full interpretation of the trump presidency that he is the least effective president of the modern era while expression on malevolence tempered by incompetence here were never let a good crisis got away thinking here if you is pretty much every crisis he gets he he but their own self inflicted crises foreign exacerbates them if what he was trying to do was defang the left the effective way to do that is to convince the left that the government is there and that they don't have to take to the streets in violence.