1 Episode results for "border institute"
Fourth Of July Grilling; Charlayne Hunter-Gault On 'Summer Of Soul'
"From npr and wbz. I'm robin young. I'm peter o'dowd this is here now. In surf side florida authorities are calling on the federal government to send another search and rescue team to help look for survivors in the rubble of the collapsed condo tower today. The death toll rose to sixteen and one hundred forty. Seven people are still missing. Meanwhile ahead of president biden scheduled visit to the site tomorrow more questions or surfacing about how this disaster could have happened. Sarah laskey is an investigative reporter with the miami. Herald sarah welcome. Thanks for having me before we get into the condition of this building before it fell. Why don't we start with the news. That the miami dade state attorney said. She's now going to ask a grand jury to look into safety issues raised by this tower collapse which suggests that eventually there could be criminal charges. What more do we know about that. We don't know much about the investigation itself yet but as you can imagine. News reports have have documented over the last couple of days a building inspector for the city of surf side where the collapse happen who had reviewed a forty year recertification plan and said everything looked fine. Despite the fact that that report noted serious structural damage due to failure of waterproofing in the patio. And then there's also evidence that that has gotten worse over time in the form of a letter sent by the condo association. So who knew what and who was supposed to act but didn't are certainly questions that investigators will look into as they try to determine. What was the cause of this. This truly unprecedented collapse of a luxury. Residential building will in fact every shred of evidence will help piece together this investigation. You reported earlier this week that two days before the collapse pool contractor had photographed damage in the building's basement level garage. Can you describe what he saw. In those pictures. Set the pool contractor when he first arrived on scene he thought the building looked fine normal. Nothing stood out to him and then he went to the basement and that basement level garage. He saw lots of standing water and what he told me. He's been in scary buildings before his words but this stood out to him still. The amount of water was shocking. Even brought it up to one of the buildings staff who he was walking with at the time and the staffer said you know. I think it's due to a failure of the waterproofing up above on on the pool deck. And that's why we have so much water. We're trying to fix it. They move on into the pool equipment room which is on the south side of the building and in there the contractor looks up and sees huge cracks in the concrete beam above him. Those cracks appeared to be caused by highly corroded rebar so weakened that he took a picture of it and sent it to his boss and those are the photos that we published a days ago with the miami herald cooed. The damage have been enough to cause the collapse or is it more of a hint or a sign of the condition that the entire building may have been in. We don't know the answer to that question. But here's what experts are telling me. First of all if that kind of corrosion and damage had been in a structural column or slab underneath the weight of the building itself that certainly could have contributed to a collapse but even where it was located which was actually not in the collapsed part of the building. It still could have caused problems if it have failed. It could cost twisting in the asymmetrical layout of that building putting pressure on other columns beams. And what have you. This type of construction is called flat slab. Construction it's a very common type of concrete construction and it's prone to one particular type of failure called punching shear failure which is where think of a pencil and a piece of paper if you put that pencil up through a piece of paper the paper sinks down on top of it. That's punching shear when when a call them pokes through a weakened slab of concrete so experts are wondering if that may be what happened or if indeed a column failed. Was it a lack of reinforcing rebar in the slab that then caused a cascading series of failures. These are the things that experts are talking to me about given the type of construction which again is common and doesn't usually collapse. I know you were at the scene of the collapsed earlier today for the rest of us. We just see pictures. What is it like to be there. It is something i could never have imagined. Seeing an entire building looks like it was cut in half like a giant knife came down and sheared off apartments exposing their insides. Kind of like a twisted. Dollhouse my colleagues and i in miami are hoping along with the rest of our community that they still find someone alive in that. There's a miracle that happens. And i think more broadly all of us are wondering about the safety of our own buildings. A lot of us live in high-rise older buildings. And i think all of us are really looking forward to the conclusion of an investigation into what happened so that we can make sure a tragedy like this never happens again. Clusky is an investigative with the miami herald. Thank you very much for your work. I appreciate it. Thank you well former president. Donald trump is heading to the. Us mexico border today. Traveling with texas governor. Greg abbott to an unfinished section of the border wall trump has been criticizing president biden for halting construction of that wall but meanwhile on the other side mexico continues to deploy its national guard at the border to try to cut back on migrant crossings. Angela couture of member station k. T. e. p. in el paso texas examines the impact. The figures in pale camouflage uniforms are posted along the border from the fence jutting high above the desert on the outskirts of el paso to the muddy banks of the rio grande near downtown. What is these are. Strategic points says a mexican national guard member and what is who did not want his name used because he's not authorized to do interviews. He and a partner stood in the shade of a small tree to escape the blazing sun long gun slung over their shoulders without fever. Federal ownership of his. He says the flow of migrants is reduced because of their presence as a neighborhood dog napping nearby woke up and started barking. Mexico's national guard arrived. In what is two years ago this month. President on the desmond where lopez overshadowed deployed more than twenty five thousand troops to both of the country's borders in the summer of twenty nineteen at that time president donald trump was threatening to impose high tariffs on all mexican goods. Has his administration struggled with a surge in migration from central america. It's legitimate for countries to control their borders In the national guard has legal authority to participate in this andrew. Sealy is president of the washington. Dc based migration policy institute. Mexico's national guard has both been touted as effective for border enforcement and criticized for not being trained for civilian duty. Two years later there are lingering questions about the guards. Mission says sealy supports that was created primarily to deal with organized crime End to deal with with criminal elements in society And heavily armed groups it. The intention is to keep the national bird. Involved with migration issues there needs to be an effort to create a part of the national guard that is specifically trained to work with civilian populations. There was a sharp decline in border crossings. After mexico's national guard arrived at the border in two thousand nineteen according to us and border protection apprehensions fell from more than one hundred and forty four thousand in may of that year to about eighty one thousand in july. The first full month mexico's national guard was on the border. During the current spike in migration the lopez oba thought administration has agreed to keep about ten thousand troops on the border. He's lemon is deputy director of the nonprofit hope border institute have a bargaining chip or. It's just unfortunate that it's it's come to the militarization militarized response the national guard and tune the policing of migrants than making things more difficult as a way for political gain human rights concerns and allegations of excessive force persist in parts of mexico. A soldier shot and killed a guatemalan man in a car at a border checkpoint in the southern state she abbas in march and last september troops fired on a car killing a woman and injuring her husband in the northern border state. She wow up on the border. And what is the guardsmen say. Their role is about more than enforcement. They also help. Migrants in distress are injured or ill view on if they would ask. The guardsmen says migrants put their lives at risk with the sun snakes scorpions in bentham than on mcconnell. The muto but they try he says because many believe in the american dream half a dozen central american women most with children interviewed one afternoon. A few weeks ago said they are not deterred. By mexico's national guard would find a way to cross the border. A thirty eight year old mother from honduras who does not want her name. You says national guard or not but emit are the show reached. The us god willing. I'm angela gone el paso in this last week of pride month. We pause to note in historic first. Cataluna says became nevada's first openly transgender. Miss nevada on a las vegas stage this past sunday in november. She'll be the first trans woman to compete for the miss usa title and rica's is twenty-seven she's filipino american with a degree in fashion design. She makes her own outfits including a rainbow sequin gown. She wore sunday night in honor of pride month. Speaking to fox. Five in las vegas and rica's took a moment to reflect on victory. I've become a voice for many people an icon for sun. So don't let your differences determine what you are capable of your differences anything. What makes you unique. And you're capable of anything as long as you even many pageants still bar transgender contestants but cataluna and sees her shot at the mets usa crown as an opportunity to make a difference. She told the washington post that she always hoped to one day. See someone like me representative miss usa. But she said. I never thought it would be me well. Speaking of change makers the new film summer of soul unearths fifty year old footage of the nineteen sixty nine harlem cultural festival acts like gladys knight and the pips stevie wonder mahalia jackson nina simone. They all took the stage in a park in harlem years later one festival go remembered the magic or remember being with my family walking around the park and as far as i could see it was just black people. This is the first time i've ever seen so many of us. It wasn't credible and notice. He said black people common now but a relatively new phrase then and the defiant one and this festival is also a defiant protest jesse jackson and sex player. Ben branch the last people to speak with martin. Luther king's seconds. Before he was gunned down took the stage. There were calls to be black and brown and as we hear from journalists charlene hunter-gault author special correspondent for the pbs newshour. And one of many voices in the film summer of soul. This was a time of change in language. She joins us now. Charlene welcome well. Thank you so much. It's nice to be in touch. Thank you for for being in touch and you are such a pivotal person in history in more ways than i knew. Let's start with what many people do know in nineteen sixty one years before this festival along with health and homes. You integrated the two of you. The university of georgia as you're watching this film that recounts that story again. I watched you passing through crowds of sneering white male students at the university of georgia. The were spit on a rock was thrown through your window. It seems so long ago. But what's that like for you to be remembering that again. I lived with that all these years and so. That's not what. I wake up thinking about bursting in the morning but think it's the part of my ongoing memory that i never forget it and even though the things you just mentioned were horrific there were other people involved including whites who were not a part of that then you pop up later in the late sixties. With a changing of the notion of language there was the n. word which many whites wouldn't be caught dead using but was very common the word colored which many whites also considered a pejorative talk about an evolution that you were right in the middle of. What was the word. That was considered the polite word. Well i think that you know negro had been used for a very long time. That was a word that everybody thought was fine but as time went on i think a younger generation fell that it carried too much and almost uncle. Tom kind of attitude and so there was this. Move to it to black. And you know. I had this Continent with the new york times. Because i was writing about quote unquote negroes in those days and then the movement promoted the use of the term black and so i was coming from a meeting in chicago of black women and i use black everywhere i referred to black people and we should be clear your at this point of very young but you are at this point a reporter for the new york times. The vaunted near time so continue using the word black what happened well. In those days you had to call in your story on the phone and it went to eleven different editors so i phoned in my story and then i took a flight from chicago back to new york and by the time i got back the paper was out so i grabbed it wanting. See my i love seeing my violent. And i have to say and i grabbed the story and everywhere almost every other place. I hit us black a wide editor. Because all of the editors will white head changed to negro. And i sat in the airport and dictated turned out to be an eleven page memo about the presumptiousness of a white editor. Who would change the words that i use to refer to black people and i called it in just as i called in my story and it went automatically like all the stories did to eleven editors and when i got back to the paper the editor who had sent me to chicago who was a wonderful great guy. Gene roberts was so upset he said i understand your point. But why didn't you come to me. I said because gene is not about you. I said i want systemic change in this newspaper. And so he just sort of herenton walked off and shortly after that a rosenthal who was executive editor. Came by my desk. Hold on charlie. Abe rosenthal the larger than life. Top guy at the new york times. Continue right i mean. He's still a standout. Executive editor guided the paper as he did that day because he came to me and he said well i've read your memo. He said and you're right. We're making a change today. And that was the end of that and you know it wasn't that i was happy it was at i was gratified. Charlene hunter gold. You book end that decade with extraordinary change that you helped create and i just want to remind people that in this moment that word was taking on so much power we will the phrase black power. The chance. Say it loud. I'm black and proud. We see in the film. Summer of soul nina simone to be young gifted and black young gifted and black. That's where it's at. Her songs helped me get through some of the things you cited earlier. You know like the rock combing through my window with that only happen once but you know the isolation continued for quite a long time. And i lived on the floor by myself and i kept myself occupied and positive by listening to nina simone and that was one of the stories i also told In summer of soul how our artists resonate with us in such amazing ways especially those who helped contribute to our way forward you know. What does that mean to you. What does that mean to you. Black not negro to me. It was a part of the progression of our history. You know every generation has come into its own and fortunately there is history that gives them a platform and a foundation. I'm wondering if the word black was also a way of saying as the phrase was black is beautiful. You know black. Isn't the bad guy black. The black hat you know. It was a way of flipping it around and embracing it absolutely. That's right on point. Black is the color of my true. Love's hair i'm black and i'm proud. Yeah sure and also helping our own. People feel empowered and whole is just quick. Thought because we know that african american became a phrase of choice. I'm reading that. Jesse jackson in the one thousand nine hundred was one of those who began. Popularizing that phrase as an alternative to black and then recently black has come back again because it's more inclusive of all people who are black people not just those who are born in america. Well i actually think that either one if you wanna be called lack mine. If you want to be called african-american fine. What i don't wanna be called. Is that other word that starts with an end with two gs in the middle charlene hunter galled. She appears in the new documentary summer of soul and in pivotal places in history. Charlene always so great to talk to you. Thank you so much. We'll i'm honored to be with you. Summer of soul opens in some theaters and will be available on hulu friday. You're listening to here now. Three years ago. A man with a grudge murdered five people at the capital gazette newspaper in maryland. And now finally his trial has started. What we wanted to know was how did the staff who survived the shooting. Keep going find out in our capital gazette series from npr's embedded podcast gas stations in some parts of the country. Don't have gas in colorado. The florida keys. Ohio iowa washington and oregon drivers are finding bagged pumps at some stations. But unlike what happened in may with the colonial pipeline attack this is not because of a gas shortage. it is a truck driver shortage. Let's bring in robyn farzad. He's hosted public radio. Full disclosure robin. Welcome back. Hi peter so First off twice in two months. We're here talking about problems at gas stations. What's going on. How widespread is this issue. Surprise surprise the feared post kovic bottleneck rears. Its ugly head again. This time you're seeing delivery delays as you mentioned that stations up in colorado down in the florida keys which is bombing brown out in the pacific northwest more and more motorists and there's certainly more them on the road right now than in two years reporting bagged pumps so while it's not the early nineteen seventies. I mean gasoline is still free flowing across the country. It is a growing inconvenience on the margin and just to be clear again. This is different than the shortage we saw back in may when the colonial pipeline got hacked and it shut down. This has to do with truck drivers. Can you explain why indeed about a quarter of all tank trucks across. The country are sitting idle. Thanks to a shortage of qualified drivers. That's up from ten percent two years ago. You're always seeing help. Wanted ads for for these eighteen wheelers. And these these tank trucks but you can understand why the disparity is so big right now at the outset of the pandemic you remember. It was also an overnight energy crisis. There was too much supply for global economy that was shutting down in just like forty eight to seventy two hours so you would call those stranded. Oil tankers out in the ocean. You couldn't give the stuff away. So the entire industry cut capacity and drivers who found themselves out of work turns out. They didn't all want to come back. And so that last fifty miles of an otherwise oakley okay supply chain. That's in question right now. That the economy's reopening there are labor shortages all across this economy. How companies trying to get these drivers back in the seat big bonuses driving jobs in general they're up about fifty percent versus February of two thousand twenty according to the site indeed. You're seeing prospective employers offering incentives with about fifteen to twenty percent sign on bonuses Their online jobs for for oil truck drivers their bonuses between ten and fifteen grand Other perks they're throwing in gift. Cards restaurant gift cards I've seen I was out on the highway. I've seen ads for cookouts for job. Fairs in parking lots It's getting enticing. You wisely said this is not the nineteen seventies. this is not a crisis at this point. People should not repeat. Should not go out and start hoarding gasoline. We're not at that point yet. No it's but as toilet paper and chicken breasts you know. There's no need to show up and siphoned away. All the inventory. That's there. I mean you hear stories of people asking. I fill up my bathtub or swimming pool. Don't that's dangerous but if people start to witness that kind of behavior at the pump as they did some weeks ago. you're liable to see more of that foam. Oh behavior where you know. Maybe i should hold to and on and on you know tesla owners are loving this peter. Yeah in to that point and we just have thirty seconds here. I gas prices are really going up lately and millions of people around to hit the roads for the fourth of july weekend. What can we expect. Yeah this is an irritant and there's more drivers hit the road. You're increasingly gonna learn of pump. Headaches in tourist hotspots like the florida keys and out in colorado. If it keeps up you're going to see wages. Go up to clear the market and Let's see what the clearing prices for gasoline at the end of the summer at a one robin farzad. Public radio's full disclosure. Thanks so much. Thank you the fourth of july upon us in advanced we set out for grilling primer with here. Now resident chef. Kathy guns she and we are fully vaccinated so up. We went to her home in maine. Kathy let us out to her patio overlooking her abundant garden. Where two girls were waiting. Won a silver weber. Gas girl the other small black kettle. Charcoal grill like a scientist in her lab. She churned out three recipes with skewers for the chicken. A grilling pan for fruit foil for clams pictures. Recipes are at here now dot org kathy. Start your engines. I have the weber. Charcoal grill going with all natural chunk. Charcoal to me the flavor of charcoal add so much food but people seem to love gas. Because it's quick you push a button you turn a knob bingo you're guerrillas on. We'll cook on both and we'll see if we tasted difference is a big silver webber grill with big knobs and things. I don't understand it. You are turning right now. This is a nice gas grill because it's got a built in thermometer but most of them don't it's worth the five or ten bucks to buy a thermometer so that you can keep track of the temperature you have to get the grill hot to start with and the most important thing is that you have to clean it. Let's say you grilled last night. Let's say you grilled last weekend all that stuff that stuck to the grill grades needs to come off and the easiest way is to get the grill. Nice and hot have a really stiff brush. Yeah it's like really strong person and is the cleaning off is a tasting like a carcinogen thing or no. It's actually not either of those things it has to do with the food sticking to the grill so look at this girl. This hasn't been cleaned in a while. There's all kinds of things. I don't remember what the last thing is that we grilled might have been lobster. So what i'm doing is i'm just using this wirebrush and getting any little bit better stuck to the grill off and this way you don't need to oil it because there's nothing that it's going to stick to. Let's do the other one. Okay so this look nice and clean. I'm gonna let it. Preheat to about four hundred degrees. Okay prep some chicken here. Yeah so this is indian spice chicken. I borrowed spices. That are really popular in indian cuisine. So i took boneless chicken thighs and boneless chicken breasts cut them into two inch cubes. And i- marinated them overnight in coconut milk plain yogurt tumorous ginger salt pepper. Kumon the tumor of course gives it. That gorgeous are angie gold glow and then the yogurt and coconut milk make a sort of thick paste around it. What the yogurt also does it. Tender is the chicken. So let's do. Our little experiments do one on our gas grill and one on our charcoal grill in in addition to the chicken and that incredible sauce on marinade You've got Looks like asparagus. Actually yellow squash and zucchini The first cherry tomatoes of the season. And then i had Beautiful local pea pods so my first thought would be well. Don't chicken and zucchini grill at different temperatures or different speeds. Now actually a brilliant questions seriously. You'll notice that. I slice zucchini very very thinly chickens gonna take about fifteen sixteen minutes. The zucchini will be completely tender. The cherry tomato will have cooked down. the peace. don't need to cook it all. But they will so you do want to be careful that you don't add big chunks of raw vegetable that are going to take longer to cook no dumb questions here. All right chicken okay. If you're using a wooden skewer you always want to soak the skewer in water. I so it doesn't go on fire. You'll notice that. I'm not opening and closing the grill. I'm not fiddling with it. The trick is put it on. Let it cook and leave it alone. And you'll get a more solid even cooking and then you can flip it over once and you won't release the juices. You won't mess with it so we're leaving be. We're going to let it cook for about six seven. Possibly eight minutes per side and the chicken will be done but we can get started with with our clam dish while the chicken is cooking. Can't just go right over here. So i have little neck clams and what we're gonna do is make a foil packet and clams and tomatoes and garlic and scallions are going to be drizzled with olive. Oil closed up tight in the foil. Thrown right on the fire and it's almost like an instant clamps do so it takes a piece of foil we put our an also you can add thereto sausages or not if you don't eat meat Either way that will add a little bit of smokiness and meeting your aromatic. Go on the bottom. I have garlic escapes. You do not need to run out and buy one. But i'm going to add. That guard skates her. They look like a little which they look like. Yeah like a circular the top of the garlic plant and they're delicious gonna throw a few tomatoes on there and then we throw our clams on top. You don't open them because the will open them and in each packet. I do about eight. Oh i forgot a little drizzle of olive oil and grinding of black pepper. maybe about tablespoon. We obviously don't need salt because clams are very salt. I never thought that they're so brian. E that's the fresh ocean water. Okay we're gonna put these packets directly on the hot heat. All right seven minutes is actually good for the clams. The clams are done when they're open and we don't want them wide open. We want them just open so that they're still really tender and sort of in that state between raw and cooked and then the tomatoes and the clam juice and you just eat in a bowl with crusty brad. You could throw it on top of pasta. It's such a treat now. I see another like a stone of an across the yard. Is that a pizza oven pizza ago. We did a piece of using the pizza oven and these peaches would be amazing the oven but today we grill. David grow okay now. Most people don't tend to use the grill for dessert but in fact grilling fruit ads. This wonderful smokiness and sort of takes just a beautiful raw summer fruit and transforms it within minutes. So what i've done. Is i got the first peaches that i found that. Look real beautiful. And i'm just going to take a knife and go around the edge and cut it in half and remove the pet and then i have a little bit of sugar here because i'm gonna sprinkle the peach with a little bit of sugar. Put sugar side down so that it caramelized on the hot grill. All that ship is gonna carmeli golden down. Okay so the peaches have cooled down. And i have here about half a cup of creme fresh and i'm just going to sweeten it ever so slightly. Since this is a desert the legal sugar you could add maple syrup you could add honey. You don't have to sweeten it at all. And i'm just going to place a dollop inside the middle of each of these peaches and now that they're cool. It's not going to melt the dairy the cream. Fritz does put this just a beautiful. Bit of white against that gorgeous earned peach and then we'll throw some edible flowers on it to be all fancy into the allman brothers. We're gonna eat a peach. we're gonna eat. A peach is a right. Let's open up one of these foil packets. Here's quite a bit of beautiful juice between the tomatoes clams broths came out of this regard. That is so authentic. Well it's so simple and really it just says summer to me because to me summer is just a few fresh ingredients done really quickly and simply an you get such a wildfire excessive as you said. I'm having a stew here you are. I'm going to give the chicken to try. It's got a gorgeous color. Because of the tumor on the spices. Okay compare and contrast i. I've tried the chicken from the gas grill and it's delicious. The chicken that was on the charcoal grill has a bit more smokey flavor. It really depends what you like and obviously what piece of equipment you have but we do know that it's delicious no matter what type of barbecue. Use peach cuts beautifully. But it doesn't fall apart you've done it again. Young lady happy fourth of july here now resident chef kathy guns resident of maine for all of her recipes. Go to here now. People sometimes say that out of a crisis comes opportunity. Well the united states certainly proved that when a new age of science and technology emerged from the dark days of world war. Two and from that there are lessons to draw on as we emerge from this pandemic. Derek thompson joins us now. He's a staff writer at the atlantic. And he's been writing about this derrick. Welcome back great to be here. thank you sure. The central question here is what makes a crisis so fertile for innovation. Yeah i think this is a great question and you really see it over and over again. world war two bequeathed all sorts of technologies not just military technology but also Early computing technology and medical technology. Obviously sputnik in the fear of the soviet union inspired the us and only to go to the moon but also create something called arpaio or darpa which was a government funded agency that came up with essentially the the bare bones of the internet. And just over and over again you see it all the way up to the pandemic which clearly inspired a host of new vaccine therapies based on 'em are a technology so i do think it is fair to say that certainly over the last one hundred years crisis has been an incredible impetus for technological acceleration. You write about a new paper from duke in columbia. That in part explains how exactly world war two lead to some of the big breakthroughs we've seen in science and technology. Tell me more about that. This is story. I had never heard of before. I felt kind of embarrassed coming across his paper and realizing how important the story was considering. I had never heard of it. So in nineteen forty the in fact on june fourteenth nineteen forty the same day. The german army occupied paris this group of scientists and techies march to the white house and they told president. Fdr that us technology was not where it needed to be to win. World war two so in response. Roosevelt assembled the kind of dream team of scientists and techies That were united under this agency. Called the office of scientific research and development o or o s r d and this organization. This agency of the next four years would create all sorts of military technologies the proximity fuze radar sonar. One of its programs spun off to come in manhattan project which obviously gave us the atomic bomb. But it's breakthroughs went far beyond that. It supported the first mass production of penicillin ever invested in microwave. Communications built the foundations of the early computer. All of this was housed at this agency s d. Which in many ways was this kind of avengers team of techies. That helped the us win. World war two and set us up for the technological advances and the innovation system of the next fifty years. It was dissolved not long after the war in nineteen forty seven. Which is surprising. Because you're saying it had such an impact on scientific legacies here in the united states but if you wanna fast forward eighty years to twenty twenty how does the. Us government's response to the pandemic compared to what you say it did in this postwar era. Well in many ways response to the pandemic pales in comparison with what we did in world war two obviously operation warp speed was very successful at accelerating the production of vaccines but outside of operation warp speed. There was very little that was managed top down by the federal government in fact as opposed to the nineteen forties when we all agreed on what the nemesis was and the need to defeat the nazis and to win world war two. There was no such similar agreement as to what the novel coronavirus was what we should do to defeat it or even if it was that serious in the first place so i think there was a there was a real lack of focus in washington. Dc in two thousand twenty compared to to nine hundred four. That's probably the biggest difference over those eighty years. Well what could have been done better. Because i am thinking about those vaccines you mentioned. The fact that madonna and pfizer turned their products around so quickly is a feet of science. There's no doubt about that. no doubt about it. And it's extraordinary thing. Adviser and medina did biotech organization. The german company that pfizer with but my question is. Why couldn't we have done that for things outside of vaccines. We need a better antiviral drugs. Whereas the operation warp speed for antiviral drugs we needed more mass testing and even contact tracing to help keep the economy open. Figure out who is sick and who wasn't. Where was the operation warp speed for for testing and contact tracing. There were so many aspects. I think of this crisis beyond the silver bullets so to speak of the vaccines that we could have accelerated the same way that we accelerated across the board for technologies in world war two again. It wasn't just the military stuff it wasn't just the bombs and the missiles we accelerated on antibiotics accelerated on early computing. The really was this sense. Top down that was structured under our. That said we are going to invent the tools the future that can help the. Us win this war soon as possible. I don't think that we did exactly that. In twenty twenty to fight the war against cove in nineteen in just briefly. Where should we go from here then so that we don't miss this opportunity another time. I think you can think very briefly. You've been thinking of sciences having sort of three stages there's basic research university labs there's commercial development that's like apple making an iphone and there's a middle stage applied research right now. I think the middle stage is a valley of death. We need to fill in that valley the same way. That os are filled in the valley of death when you to invest more in applied research and connect basic science to products. Just like we did with the vaccines. We need to do that. For other technologies we can get the basic bench research out into the market faster. There thompson is a staff writer at the atlantic. Thanks as always thank you. Here now is a production of npr and wbz warm in association with the bbc world service. I'm peter odell and robin young. This is here now.