35 Burst results for "billion years"

Algenist: Skincare that Guarantees Results in 10 Days!

Art Beauty

01:57 min | Last week

Algenist: Skincare that Guarantees Results in 10 Days!

"Have not tried everything in alginates line back. We used to do press events. I would come to a lot of the events that you had that are wonderfully done and so informative. But i did fall in love with the sleeping collagen. That a few girlfriends. That i've turned onto and i thought it'd be nice to talk about you. Have an entire brand. That's really built upon the benefits of algae. Can you tell us about that well. We are a brands that has been born from. Algae research and the reason is algae plant it has survived and thrived for well over one point. Five billion years there are hundreds upon hundreds of thousands of different kinds of algae. And what's great about. It is because it has been so successful in nature it has adapted to have these compounds that naturally found in nature that are really beneficial and really important and we have made it our mission to study algae and look at those exciting compounds and help bring them to skin care because they show incredible results so algae is like this perfect little system. The other incredible thing about it is that it's natural. It is a regenerative ingredient. It is a clean ingredient and what we have shown in the rigor of our science which is core and fundamental to what we do as well. Is that these compounds. Show incredible results on the skin and they happen really quickly. And we set the bar high for ourselves and aimed to deliver meaningful visible results in the skin in just ten days with with our technologies ingredients

"billion years" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

03:43 min | 3 weeks ago

"billion years" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

"Come on. Space time.

Global Shortage in Semiconductors Increases

Latest In Tech News

03:55 min | 3 weeks ago

Global Shortage in Semiconductors Increases

"Global shortage in computer chips reaches crisis point. And i really wish that they would just break more into what's actually going on behind the scenes. I get it maybe to some extent. We might not actually know what's going on. But let's hop on into the articles. He what's up. Consumers are facing price rises and shortages of products from. Tv's mobile phones to cars and game consoles as a global shortage in. Semiconductors grows shortage in chips. The brain with an electronic device in the world has been steadily worsening since last year now. Initially the problem was only temporarily in supplies. Factories shut down when the pandemic i hit however although production is back to normal a new surge in demand driven by changing habits fueled by the pandemic means that now is reaching a crisis point car manufacturers investing in tech heavy electric vehicles. Which is okay. I'm just going to make a point to some extent stupid. Gopher hybrid the boom in sales of tv's in home computers launch new game consoles five g. Mobile phones have all driven demand. So we know that demand has been going on an increase to like crazy stupid level that we haven't seen before even a mighty apple a two trillion dollar company in the world's biggest buyer of semiconductors spending fifty eight billion annually was forced to delay the launch of much hyped iphone twelve by two months last year due to the shortage in one of the reasons. Chips are everything says neal camping media in tech analyst at mehrabad. There's a perfect storm of supply and demand factors going on here but basically there is a new level of demand that can't be kept up with everyone is in crisis and it's getting worse for recently canceled shift at two car. Plants and said profits could be hit by up to two point. Five billion year due to chip shortages while nissan is idling output at plants in mexico. Us general motors said they could face a two billion dollar profit hit as well. Meanwhile sony last month along with other console makers has struggled with stock shortages over the last year that it might not hit sales targets for new playstation five this year because of the semiconductor supply issue microsoft's xbox said if forecasts supply issues continuing at least until the second half of the year and then they go on to talk about samsung itself selling fifty six billion dollars of semi conductors to other an consuming thirty. Six billion dollars of them itself finds. It may have to delay the launch of one of its own products as well. They're co chief executive. Who had its mobile business. Unit highlighted a significant issue. Saying there is a serious imbalance in the pecking order of who has Giving the limited supplies of chips so what exactly is going on. While chip shortage looks set to persist for some time yet. It up the two years to get complex semiconductor production factories up and running and manufacturers are in process of significantly raising prices for the second time in less than a year is no sign of supply catching upper demand decreasing while prices are rising across the chain so economically. What does this mean means. Less supply obviously unable to meet demand and prices. Go up because of it. Because that's kind of the only counterbalance that you have to be able to balance everything taken an economics course at the basic level. How things work. So what exactly is going on. It could be that. There aren't enough factories able to produce enough of a supply of semiconductors. One thing i'm wondering though is are there enough materials to be able to construct it. I mean semiconductors aren't really the easiest to make their actually quite complex quite exact in its production of it not to mention you also need to have trained individuals who know how to do it. Do it well Which is a limited supply of as

Mehrabad Neal General Motors Nissan Apple Sony Mexico Samsung Microsoft United States
"billion years" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

02:59 min | Last month

"billion years" Discussed on Short Wave

"Mystery. So there's this very long standing question in earth science of how the earth seems to have had water surface for released last four billion years. Rogers says at that time. The son was probably about thirty percent fainter compared to today so the earth shoud have been completely frozen. But he says there's geological evidence liquid water was on the earth surface. Then you know one of the key ingredients that life to evolve on this planet so what could have made the planet warm enough for liquid water. You know where. I'm going with this. So one of the leading hypotheses for why. The earth managed to maintain equilibrium in temperature managed to have this thermostat. Is that plate. Tectonics causes the recycling of carbon into the earth and then also puts out carbon into the atmosphere and it does in such a way that the surface temperature is kept within the within a certain range. So are you telling me that. The movement of the plates that were living on is partially responsible for the development of our atmosphere and the temperature of our planet. Yeah that's exactly right. So this is a question that geologists have been pondering for like a really long time. How how cool it to add this piece to it to defined this out. Yeah yeah it. Felt very gratified to know that we have contributed to resolving this very old question. If feels like it feels like the effort was well worth it was worth the duct tape boots is. What you're telling me that's right. Yeah it was worth the the pokes foot every day every. Step all right roger. Will i really appreciate you. This super fun. Yeah yeah this is really roger. Fu is an assistant professor of earth and planetary sciences at harvard university. Today's episode was produced by emily von with help from rebecca ramirez. It was edited by viet lay. In fact checked by emily vaughn. I'm matt safai. You've been listening to shortwave from npr on npr's. Consider this podcast. We don't just help you keep up with the news. We help you make sense of what's happening. Like with the case about george floyd killing means for the ongoing fight for racial justice or how to navigate a pandemic. that's changed life for all of us all of that in fifteen minutes every weekday. Listen now to consider this from npr. This message comes from. npr sponsor. Ibm a smarter. Hybrid cloud approach with ibm helps telcos rollout innovations with watson. Ai without losing speed the world is going hybrid with ibm visit ibm dot com slash hybrid cloud..

emily vaughn rebecca ramirez emily von matt safai Rogers fifteen minutes today Today roger george floyd one harvard university about thirty percent earth telcos viet lay Fu last four billion years key ingredients ibm
"billion years" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

08:23 min | Last month

"billion years" Discussed on Short Wave

"We get into it quick very general refresher on plate tectonics the outer layer of our planet. The stuff we're sitting on is made up of a system of hard plates rigid blocks of rock that move relative to each other and they glide around on top of a layer of softer rock that makes up part of the earth's mantle these rafic plates drift around colliding causing each other to crumple or slide over top of one another. It's why we have most of our mountains and earthquakes in roger wants to know in earth's long history when those plates started moving answering that question was a bit of an adventure. Okay so roger to figure out when these plates started shaking and bacon moving around you had to go on a hunt for some very specific rocks. Where did that take you. Yes so we follow the old rocks. We go to the parts of the world Where rocks from three billion years ago are actually preserved And this is hard because actually of plate tectonics so play tectonics life recycles the surface of the earth over and over again only about five percent of the earth's surface represents the first half of our history. Oh that's really interesting in other words if you're a piece of continent three and a half billion years ago there's very little chance. He survived to the present day so specifically we went to an area. north australia. Called the pilbara so this is an area where there isn't a ton of turnover due to plate tectonics so you can find some really old rocks there. That's right yes. Just by the luck of the draw these rocks have been knocked around on the surface of the earth. It probably wandered all the way from the poll to the equator many times but Over the course of these three billion years it was never pushed down into the interior of the earth in which case it would have been heated melted. What is it look like roger. Yeah it's a really beautiful place and most of the terrains. Condie's green rolling hills with these kind of spiky kind of drought resistant. Grasses is better look then. Walk through sense yeah. It's prettier than it. Feels as what you're telling me exactly the same field season. We took these samples. I I made the grave mistake. Taking light-duty hiking shoes that also had some holes in it ended up duct taping my feet every day just armor at a little bit more against the the spiky grass so okay so you're you're hiking along you find iraq they are looking for you. Collect your samples. And then you take them back to your lab and try to determine their magnetic history. What is what is that me. Yeah that's exactly right. So we'd take the rocks from the field We keep track of how the rocks are are oriented so in other words wish science up and then we take it back to our lab and we measured that direction of of the magnetic field in the so turns out all naturally form rocks contain magnetic components. So i mean i mean. I knew that i knew that. Keep going on your then. Totally knew that. Yeah yeah so so. All natural rocks contain these Minerals so these little grains of material that actually are magnetic and they're actually behave like little compass needles. And if you take a take a rock any old rock and you measure in the instruments that we have You can detect the direction that these little magnetic grains are pointing. Wow so you you can literally take rock and say okay. We know this rock was pointing in this direction. That's exactly right. Yeah and The reason this is useful in our in our case is that the magnetic field of the earth exists at different angles in different directions depending on where you are on earth and specifically changing latitude if you go from one latitude to different latitude on on. The earth dangled a maniac field changes. So if you can measure the angle to make field in these rocks you can figure out what latitude through the form that. Wow okay okay so you you you figure that out and then let me know if i have this right then you compare them to nearby rocks that you know the magnetic history of you know which way they were pointing and that helps you understand like when they started moving By looking at our data of where this rock was relative to the equator and comparing to other studies We showed that this rock actually moved from position. Closer to the equator so in in the tropics of the earth to position that's farther from the equator so in kind of the mid-latitudes and and we can quantify how quick this drift was how quick this motion was and from that. We know that this does and was moving at the same rate at the same kinds of velocities that the modern continents move. Oh that's cool and so into you know when that happened because you know the age of the rocks as well. That's right so other people Other workers that have visited rocks before us. have looked at particular parts of these particular mineral grains in these rocks. Tie actually preserve information about how old they are So for each of these measurements of how close the rock was to decatur We can also put an age on that on that position so roger and his team by collecting and analyzing these very very old rocks and australia came up with an estimate. Their research suggests earth's tectonic plates were in motion at least three point two billion years ago. Several hundred million years earlier than we thought and another cool thing about rogers research. It weighs in on a peculiar geoscience mystery. So there's this very long standing question in earth science of how the earth seems to have had water surface for released last four billion years. Rogers says at that time. The son was probably about thirty percent fainter compared to today so the earth shoud have been completely frozen. But he says there's geological evidence liquid water was on the earth surface. Then you know one of the key ingredients that life to evolve on this planet so what could have made the planet warm enough for liquid water. You know where. I'm going with this. So one of the leading hypotheses for why. The earth managed to maintain equilibrium in temperature managed to have this thermostat. Is that plate. Tectonics causes the recycling of carbon into the earth and then also puts out carbon into the atmosphere and it does in such a way that the surface temperature is kept within the within a certain range. So are you telling me that. The movement of the plates that were living on is partially responsible for the development of our atmosphere and the temperature of our planet. Yeah that's exactly right. So this is a question that geologists have been pondering for like a really long time. How how cool it to add this piece to it to defined this out. Yeah yeah it. Felt very gratified to know that we have contributed to resolving this very old question. If feels like it feels like the effort was well worth it was worth the duct tape boots is. What you're telling me that's right. Yeah it was worth the the pokes foot every day every. Step all right roger. Will i really appreciate you. This super fun. Yeah yeah this is really

earth Earth Mike harvard university couple billion years ago roger today roger slam mike hundreds of millions of roger fhu four early rogers years
What Earth Looked Like 3.2 Billion Years Ago

Short Wave

08:23 min | Last month

What Earth Looked Like 3.2 Billion Years Ago

"We get into it quick very general refresher on plate tectonics the outer layer of our planet. The stuff we're sitting on is made up of a system of hard plates rigid blocks of rock that move relative to each other and they glide around on top of a layer of softer rock that makes up part of the earth's mantle these rafic plates drift around colliding causing each other to crumple or slide over top of one another. It's why we have most of our mountains and earthquakes in roger wants to know in earth's long history when those plates started moving answering that question was a bit of an adventure. Okay so roger to figure out when these plates started shaking and bacon moving around you had to go on a hunt for some very specific rocks. Where did that take you. Yes so we follow the old rocks. We go to the parts of the world Where rocks from three billion years ago are actually preserved And this is hard because actually of plate tectonics so play tectonics life recycles the surface of the earth over and over again only about five percent of the earth's surface represents the first half of our history. Oh that's really interesting in other words if you're a piece of continent three and a half billion years ago there's very little chance. He survived to the present day so specifically we went to an area. north australia. Called the pilbara so this is an area where there isn't a ton of turnover due to plate tectonics so you can find some really old rocks there. That's right yes. Just by the luck of the draw these rocks have been knocked around on the surface of the earth. It probably wandered all the way from the poll to the equator many times but Over the course of these three billion years it was never pushed down into the interior of the earth in which case it would have been heated melted. What is it look like roger. Yeah it's a really beautiful place and most of the terrains. Condie's green rolling hills with these kind of spiky kind of drought resistant. Grasses is better look then. Walk through sense yeah. It's prettier than it. Feels as what you're telling me exactly the same field season. We took these samples. I I made the grave mistake. Taking light-duty hiking shoes that also had some holes in it ended up duct taping my feet every day just armor at a little bit more against the the spiky grass so okay so you're you're hiking along you find iraq they are looking for you. Collect your samples. And then you take them back to your lab and try to determine their magnetic history. What is what is that me. Yeah that's exactly right. So we'd take the rocks from the field We keep track of how the rocks are are oriented so in other words wish science up and then we take it back to our lab and we measured that direction of of the magnetic field in the so turns out all naturally form rocks contain magnetic components. So i mean i mean. I knew that i knew that. Keep going on your then. Totally knew that. Yeah yeah so so. All natural rocks contain these Minerals so these little grains of material that actually are magnetic and they're actually behave like little compass needles. And if you take a take a rock any old rock and you measure in the instruments that we have You can detect the direction that these little magnetic grains are pointing. Wow so you you can literally take rock and say okay. We know this rock was pointing in this direction. That's exactly right. Yeah and The reason this is useful in our in our case is that the magnetic field of the earth exists at different angles in different directions depending on where you are on earth and specifically changing latitude if you go from one latitude to different latitude on on. The earth dangled a maniac field changes. So if you can measure the angle to make field in these rocks you can figure out what latitude through the form that. Wow okay okay so you you you figure that out and then let me know if i have this right then you compare them to nearby rocks that you know the magnetic history of you know which way they were pointing and that helps you understand like when they started moving By looking at our data of where this rock was relative to the equator and comparing to other studies We showed that this rock actually moved from position. Closer to the equator so in in the tropics of the earth to position that's farther from the equator so in kind of the mid-latitudes and and we can quantify how quick this drift was how quick this motion was and from that. We know that this does and was moving at the same rate at the same kinds of velocities that the modern continents move. Oh that's cool and so into you know when that happened because you know the age of the rocks as well. That's right so other people Other workers that have visited rocks before us. have looked at particular parts of these particular mineral grains in these rocks. Tie actually preserve information about how old they are So for each of these measurements of how close the rock was to decatur We can also put an age on that on that position so roger and his team by collecting and analyzing these very very old rocks and australia came up with an estimate. Their research suggests earth's tectonic plates were in motion at least three point two billion years ago. Several hundred million years earlier than we thought and another cool thing about rogers research. It weighs in on a peculiar geoscience mystery. So there's this very long standing question in earth science of how the earth seems to have had water surface for released last four billion years. Rogers says at that time. The son was probably about thirty percent fainter compared to today so the earth shoud have been completely frozen. But he says there's geological evidence liquid water was on the earth surface. Then you know one of the key ingredients that life to evolve on this planet so what could have made the planet warm enough for liquid water. You know where. I'm going with this. So one of the leading hypotheses for why. The earth managed to maintain equilibrium in temperature managed to have this thermostat. Is that plate. Tectonics causes the recycling of carbon into the earth and then also puts out carbon into the atmosphere and it does in such a way that the surface temperature is kept within the within a certain range. So are you telling me that. The movement of the plates that were living on is partially responsible for the development of our atmosphere and the temperature of our planet. Yeah that's exactly right. So this is a question that geologists have been pondering for like a really long time. How how cool it to add this piece to it to defined this out. Yeah yeah it. Felt very gratified to know that we have contributed to resolving this very old question. If feels like it feels like the effort was well worth it was worth the duct tape boots is. What you're telling me that's right. Yeah it was worth the the pokes foot every day every. Step all right roger. Will i really appreciate you. This super fun. Yeah yeah this is really

Roger North Australia Condie Rogers Research Iraq Decatur Rogers Australia
"billion years" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

06:23 min | Last month

"billion years" Discussed on Short Wave

"Before we get into it quick very general refresher on plate tectonics the outer layer of our planet. The stuff we're sitting on is made up of a system of hard plates rigid blocks of rock that move relative to each other and they glide around on top of a layer of softer rock that makes up part of the earth's mantle these rafic plates drift around colliding causing each other to crumple or slide over top of one another. It's why we have most of our mountains and earthquakes in roger wants to know in earth's long history when those plates started moving answering that question was a bit of an adventure. Okay so roger to figure out when these plates started shaking and bacon moving around you had to go on a hunt for some very specific rocks. Where did that take you. Yes so we follow the old rocks. We go to the parts of the world Where rocks from three billion years ago are actually preserved And this is hard because actually of plate tectonics so play tectonics life recycles the surface of the earth over and over again only about five percent of the earth's surface represents the first half of our history. Oh that's really interesting in other words if you're a piece of continent three and a half billion years ago there's very little chance. He survived to the present day so specifically we went to an area. north australia. Called the pilbara so this is an area where there isn't a ton of turnover due to plate tectonics so you can find some really old rocks there. That's right yes. Just by the luck of the draw these rocks have been knocked around on the surface of the earth. It probably wandered all the way from the poll to the equator many times but Over the course of these three billion years it was never pushed down into the interior of the earth in which case it would have been heated melted. What is it look like roger. Yeah it's a really beautiful place and most of the terrains. Condie's green rolling hills with these kind of spiky kind of drought resistant. Grasses is better look then. Walk through sense yeah. It's prettier than it. Feels as what you're telling me exactly the same field season. We took these samples. I I made the grave mistake. Taking light-duty hiking shoes that also had some holes in it ended up duct taping my feet every day just armor at a little bit more against the the spiky grass so okay so you're you're hiking along you find iraq they are looking for you. Collect your samples. And then you take them back to your lab and try to determine their magnetic history. What is what is that me. Yeah that's exactly right. So we'd take the rocks from the field We keep track of how the rocks are are oriented so in other words wish science up and then we take it back to our lab and we measured that direction of of the magnetic field in the so turns out all naturally form rocks contain magnetic components. So i mean i mean. I knew that i knew that. Keep going on your then. Totally knew that. Yeah yeah so so. All natural rocks contain these Minerals so these little grains of material that actually are magnetic and they're actually behave like little compass needles. And if you take a take a rock any old rock and you measure in the instruments that we have You can detect the direction that these little magnetic grains are pointing. Wow so you you can literally take rock and say okay. We know this rock was pointing in this direction. That's exactly right. Yeah and The reason this is useful in our in our case is that the magnetic field of the earth exists at different angles in different directions depending on where you are on earth and specifically changing latitude if you go from one latitude to different latitude on on. The earth dangled a maniac field changes. So if you can measure the angle to make field in these rocks you can figure out what latitude through the form that. Wow okay okay so you you you figure that out and then let me know if i have this right then you compare them to nearby rocks that you know the magnetic history of you know which way they were pointing and that helps you understand like when they started moving By looking at our data of where this rock was relative to the equator and comparing to other studies We showed that this rock actually moved from position. Closer to the equator so in in the tropics of the earth to position that's farther from the equator so in kind of the mid-latitudes and and we can quantify how quick this drift was how quick this motion was and from that. We know that this does and was moving at the same rate at the same kinds of velocities that the modern continents move. Oh that's cool and so into you know when that happened because you know the age of the rocks as well. That's right so other people Other workers that have visited rocks before us. have looked at particular parts of these particular mineral grains in these rocks. Tie actually preserve information about how old they are So for each of these measurements of how close the rock was to decatur We can also put an age on that on that position so roger and his team by collecting and analyzing these very very old rocks and australia came up with an estimate. Their research suggests earth's tectonic plates were in motion at least three point two billion years ago. Several hundred million years earlier than we thought and another cool thing about rogers research. It weighs in on a peculiar geoscience.

north australia two billion years ago three billion years ago first half earth and a half billion years ago three billion years iraq each about five percent one equator australia rogers three point Several hundred million years roger decatur continent three
Meteorite recovered in the UK after spectacular fireball in the sky

The Naked Scientists

05:12 min | Last month

Meteorite recovered in the UK after spectacular fireball in the sky

"On the final day of february people in some parts of the uk were treated to a celestial light show as a meteor streaked in from space hundreds of videos viable have since been posted online by amateur photographers. We'll see even more special by analyzing the footage multiple networks of cameras for the first time in three decades in the uk the coporate and as it turns out very rare space rock the caused all this was successfully tracked down and recovered from someone's driveway. Phil sansom spoke to the uk meteo observation networks. Mary mcintyre to hear how it happened. There was a really bright fireball picked up across multiple networks. A week ago on sunday and later in the week we found out the in meteorite fight being recovered and this is an incredibly thing to happen in the uk actually even in the world to recover meteorite that's been seen as a fireball quite ready then we found out that it's one of an extremely rag kind of meteorite just so many special things and we just haven't been able to sleep because we're just so excited such a huge win for citizen science. It really was. Wow and you didn't even know what was coming. Did you just sort of appeared as a flash right. Yeah these things. You can't predict them. They're entirely random pieces of space debris and this one was really unusual because it was captured by so many cameras across the because we had a clear sky across the country. What does it look like. Is it just a bright. The whole sky lynx up or is there like an angle you can see and that's how you figure out where he's going. It depends way you see it from our camera so it was heading straight for us so actually on our camera was just an enormous flash and it was really difficult. Get any data from it. Because she couldn't see a flight path but there's a guy called rigid fleet down in wiltshire. Who caught it side on is the most phenomenal bright thing. Streaking across the sky just resulted in this enormous kind of explosion and it fragmented. We could see that there were multiple fragments there and won't she kind of do the calculations behind the scenes. They can figure out the speed. It was moving the angle through the atmosphere. It's exact path before it been up and once you do all that they can also figure out the mass. And once she know the mashed you can then calculate whether something may have survived and landed the normally something like that would be kind of kept quiet for fear of contamination but because of covid and the fact that the area that they think it landed was basically lots of farmland in the cox worlds. None of us are thought for a second that this would get recovered and if it was recovered not for many days when it been rained on all that stuff so it was. It was just incredible. It could have gone in a stream. I'm guessing it could have gone a sheep's trough and cheap eight it. Many fables in the k. Are thought to survive but the end up in the sea because the small island so who actually found dead and how one of the homeowners at actually heard third on their drives the previous your house and they just didn't think anything of it but once the natural history museum per hour video to local saint. If you see anything please have a look and they went out and there was a fragment some dust and kind of black raise on driveway. And i think a fragment bounced over the the walter. Next door's garden wants. People arrived on the scene from wednesday onwards. There was like a fingertip search of the area remote fragments being found in. We've now found about hundred grams of this. Which is just extraordinary. You said that not only was it. Amazing space rock. It's also a very special kind of space rock. It is it's it's a type of meteorite called a carbonaceous conned right and they're really important because most of them originate from the asteroid belt asteroids themselves the old because that leftover material from when the solar system formed four point five billion years ago. But what's amazing about carbonaceous conroy's they have these tiny little of material that actually predates our solar system some of them have organic materials amino acids in them and to get a sample that is really pristine like this is incredibly rare and so important for scientists to kind of analyze the material and find out the origins of our solar system and before also system. It's just being one of the most amazing stories of the decade and the hasn't been a full that's been found for thirty s in the uk. So it's amazing and what's funny as well as aren't their missions. Going on right now. Sending probes up to asteroids way out in space desperate to try and get any sort of sample from them. And we've just had one line right at our doorstep. It is well. There was actually a mission to the asteroid a writer and the quality of the some police comparible without sample return mission from right and they brought by lake tiny amounts of asteroids. And we've got four hundred grams of this. I mean you can't rely on them landing as a way of analyzing them because it just doesn't happen very often. I take me found all the time. But they've been led on the ground. Who knows how long. And still quite believe israel i just honestly when i found out i just cried because such an amazing

UK Phil Sansom Mary Mcintyre Wiltshire Conroy Israel
"billion years" Discussed on The Bugle

The Bugle

05:12 min | Last month

"billion years" Discussed on The Bugle

"American culture wars now and just no side of a of a ceasefire in in the culture. War of the you know the woke and the asleep meeting for christmas day foot will match the this war. Yeah it's like It's like the civil war between people who are glad. The civil war was won by the north and people who think it was won by the south here yet. So they're six. Dr seuss books. The doctor seuss's Foundation is not going to continue printing because of racist imagery within the books. And i there's like kind of conservative outcry over that and it's true if you take all the racism out of children's books and you take the racist children's books off the shelves. How are republicans going to teach their kids to be a. You know what i mean. It's just like how. How are the racists supposed to instruct their children. They can't do that with multicultural books today. Republican the republican party at this point exists like eighty percent to financially prop up anything. That's publicly accused of being racist because the doctor seuss's now at the top of the amazon charts and he's not releasing new singles. It's just people who are like we gotta whore dr seuss in our doomsday bunker So we can have dubious imagery of asian people in our inner child in our children's books and like it's just so wild that that's like the republicans reason for being right now like if they were around in the nineteen thirties. They would be clamoring to support the crude amateurish paintings. In hitler's at see store. You say something that that that conservatives conservatives all about taking personal responsibility nor along with other people to do stuff for you and you know if they're worried about lack of access to some of these more marginal dr seuss startled. They you know take responsibility for their own books with to inculcate racial bias. Isn't that children you know. It's about time leaving personal responsibility for passing on their prejudice instead of outsourcing it to a dead author. Yeah seriously it's right there bartholomew and the you black come on guys. I feel like you're not even trying feeling. No one is really trying at this point. This is such a confected outraged in the usual suspects. Usual suspects all over themselves in a real. Whose who've the new don't these people aren't pretending that they care about talk to suits. They didn't know that none of the has even thought about anarchistic. Ten traveler in the last twenty or thirty years. They don't give a shit they're not happy. Tha now the constantly running around and claiming that people can rewrite dr seuss and change it all and it'll be it'll be today the great years will that marvelous. He is king of the mud. That is all he can see and by mud. I mean mud. I don't mean to imply that yet. It'll does black face. He isn't that guy historical homes he. You'll never endorse us. He's okay with modern leftist discourses. It's then it's not going to happen. Was trying to take away your childhood. And even if they did even if they became the cat in the culturally sensitive non appropriate of hat gives a shit. It's for kids. You read them a cereal box in a sing song voice. You just destroying the children's book publishing industry without cohen. Donald trump julia the The son of the former president Complained to fox news. Of course he sent left winners up. He said that left wing as our counseling doctors. Us there is no place that they won't go which is a little rhonette given that there's only one place that donald trump junior is going long-term at least and talked about very halted titling on That bolsters even more of a dick than donald juniors current overlord ab. i mean. it's yeah. I guess we you know we. We need to reexamine you know these. These children's books. I'm tom thomas. The tank engine very over here radical anti bus agenda Peter rabbit will extra say the original. Peter rabbi was a very very different book i in two different unwelcome. Cbs's settled producers of green eggs in the hab was patently Anti environment Anti feminist and anti semitic if you read it absolutely hammered and the lower access oversee about jewish lawyer in a guardian article about dr seuss's first published book was called the pocket book of bonus bonus had a different meaning of those terms. That was a term for mistakes. Essentially just kind of appropriate. I guess but that's now after. Yes if you want to. If you're like you can't raise history by stopping publication doctor seuss's books read that one. Your kids reduction seuss's boehner competitive children because everything that happened in the past has the keep happening around the world ends.

Donald trump donald donald trump Republican eighty percent six amazon Ten traveler tom thomas Peter rabbi bartholomew seuss first published book republican party jewish republicans American dr seuss Dr christmas day
The Most Distant Black Hole Ever Seen

SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

03:19 min | Last month

The Most Distant Black Hole Ever Seen

"Astronomers of sudden you record for the most distant quasar ever found the quasar dating back some thirty point one. Three billion years is a thousand times more luminous than the milky way galaxy and is powered by the earliest known supermassive black hole a true monster more than one point six billion times. The mass of the sun the newly discovered quasar jazeera three one three minus eighteen o six and reported in the physical journal letters and on the pre press physics website archive dot. Org doesn't just provide new insights into the evolution of massive galaxies in the universe. It also raises profound questions. About how such massive black holes could have existed just six hundred thirty million years after the big bang. And that's a point underlined by the study's lead author for enjoying from the university of arizona. Who says black holes created by the very first massive stars simply could not have grown that large in only a few hundred million years the most distant quasars a crucial for understanding how the earliest black holes formed and for understanding cosmic realization the last major phase transition of the universe from the cosmic dark ages before the first stars quasars a powerful jets of mass and energy generated by black holes feeding on surrounding material as matter falls into a black hole it forms an accretion disc around the black hole event horizon a point of no return beyond which material falls forever into the singularity a place of infinite density and zero volume scientists understanding of the laws of physics breaks down material on the creation disc is ripped apart of the subatomic level by friction and gravitational forces releasing huge amounts of energy radiating out across the electromagnetic spectrum. The amount of energy emitted by quasars is enormous with massive examples such as this one being visible right across the entire universe. J zero three one three minus eighteen. O six was first spotted in data from the pan stars new kurt hemisphere survey with follow up specter from the keg in north telescopes to measure the size of its central supermassive black hole measurements from spectral lines that originate from the guests around the quasars. Accretion disk allowed astronomers to determine the black mass and study its rapid growth influences. Its environment for such distant. Quasars important spiritual lines are red shifted to knee infrared wavelength by the physical expansion of the universe over the past thirteen point eight billion years. The and jim nine north observations and covered an extremely fast emitting from the quasar in the form of high-velocity winds travelling at twenty percent the speed of light the energy released by such an extreme. I city flow easily. Large enough to impact star formation in the entire quasars galaxy as for the galaxy itself. Well it's undergoing a spirit of star formation producing you stars two hundred times faster than the milky way the combination of this intense star formation a luminous quasar and the high velocity outflow makes jazeera three one three minus eighteen. O six antos galaxy a promising natural barberie for understanding the growth of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies in the early universe.

Quasar Jazeera Physical Journal University Of Arizona JIM Barberie
Zoltan Pozsar on What Just Happened with the Treasury Market

Odd Lots

05:46 min | Last month

Zoltan Pozsar on What Just Happened with the Treasury Market

"So joe. it's well. There's been a bit of drama in the treasury market once again. Yeah i noticed. you've got to do one of your tracy. Loa signature things. Were you talk about a move. That happened that's supposed to happen. Like once. every three billion years yes I love talking about those because it really gives everyone the opportunity to show that they've read to books by saying that the world isn't normally distributed but of course out we did see some pretty big moves in the treasury market so first of all the ten year yield jumped up to one point six percent. This was in the last week of february but the really big move came in the five year. And i think that one had something like a seven or eight standard deviation. Move one of those things. That's supposed to happen in like ten million years kind of things and really i know people make fun of standard deviations in sigma events. But really we're talking about the world's most liquid market and stuff like this keeps this. Is i think the fourth big bout of treasury market chaos that we've had in just a couple years so i'm thinking back. We had one in What was it. september twenty nineteen. We had repo madness. Then we had the march joss in twenty twentieth delivered. Us t trades boeing up and then we had a mini rates blowout in october twenty twenty. And now we just had the most recent incident so something is going on and clearly. There is a persistent issue in the us treasury market. There's a lot of things going on at once these days because there seems to be ongoing structural issues questions about liquidity which is weird in a the world's most deep and liquid market and be a market in which the fed is actively supplying a lot of liquidity or very active in the market. And then of course it's interacting with the economic situation nine policy situation because we have this fed that said we're not going to raise rates until the economy hits these benchmarks. Everyone's watching to see the fed's credibility we also have a very rapidly improving economy. We have people warning about inflation for the first time so all kinds of things happening once but yes to your point the big action we've seen we've seen rates at the long end year. Thirty year yields have been rising for awhile since the middle of last year. But it's really the action at the shorter end at striking here. Yeah and of course one of the weird things about last week as you mentioned the economy but we had this big tantrum in bond year yields without a corresponding taper. I guess so. We kind of had a temper tantrum because not that much changed last week. We didn't have fed speakers talking about rates rising or anything like that but we have this huge move in the bond market so a lot of focus on micro structure at the moment a lot of focus on liquidity ease of trading and the overall or of the treasury market. And we have a perfect person to talk about all those things. We're going to be speaking with zoltin. Pose are from credit suisse. I care wait. Let's do it yeah So zoltin i should say in addition to being a strategist over credit. Suisse has also been on the thoughts podcast multiple times. So we will be getting you that tote bag Any day now zoltin. Thank you so much for coming on. Gotten thank you very much for having. I should say one more thing. Which is that every time. There's any volatility in the rates market. Someone ibiza. it says you guys gotta get zoltan on get. It happens every time. Anything takes higher on screen of like overnight funding rates. Whatever like when you have exultant back on the episode so this is a lot of requests for this one. Sorry go on okay. Well on that. No i mean why. Don't we start out with the big question. So every time. There's some sort of chaos in the rates market. Joe gets an ib asking for you to come on the show. There have been a lot of those over the past couple of years and as we were discussing that something you wouldn't necessarily expect for the world's must liquid market so what's going on here. And why do we keep getting these sort of Mini blow ups in rates. I think people get taken out of their positions all the time I mean just to just set the set the stage for the conversation. I think there's there's a number of things that are happening That has happened last week for a number of east now and really since the The democratic when and the blue sweep the treasury curve has been steepening quite remarkable. I mean relative to The slope of curves in germany and france and japan. You know the. Us treasury kirk has gotten quiet. Steve per a number of reasons you had you had The blue sweep. You have the vaccine rollouts. Which is you know happening in the us More rapidly perhaps in other parts of the world you have The market starting to price in recovery The market trying to price in the inpatient and the market is getting Excited about the idea. That book surely comes some fed action and that that is going to try to chase down version of keep it in check and to all of these things. I think have driven the steepening of the curb. But you know the the interesting thing. Is that the steepening of the curve. Has been fairly ordered. Okay and so what happened. Last week was a little bit plumbing related but again the the underlying structural driver of rising yields has been more fundamental.

Treasury Us Treasury FED Zoltin Boeing JOE Suisse Zoltan United States Kirk Germany France Japan Steve
NASA Is Lending A 3.9-billion-year-old Moon Rock To The Biden White House

Innovation Now

01:13 min | Last month

NASA Is Lending A 3.9-billion-year-old Moon Rock To The Biden White House

"The request of president. Joe biden the lunar sample laboratory facility at nasa's johnson space center some monroe to the white house. This is innovation now bringing you stories behind the ideas that shaped our future. Triangular glass display case boasts photo glass sides than aluminum top and bottom and holds three hundred thirty two gram piece of the moon. The sample was returned to earth. And nineteen seventy two by the apollo. Seventeen astronauts ronald evans and moon walkers harrison schmitt. An eugene cernan. The last humans to set foot on the moon chipped from a large boulder located almost two miles from the lunar module. The sample surfaces contain tiny craters created as micrometeorites impacts that sandblasted the rock over millions of years the flat sides were created in the jc lab when slices of the rock were cut for scientific research. Now the moon rock has a place of honor in the oval office of the white house on loan to the current administration. It represents the accomplishments of an earlier generation and is a unique symbol of support for america's plans to return to lunar orbit and beyond

Johnson Space Center Ronald Evans Harrison Schmitt Eugene Cernan Joe Biden White House Monroe Nasa America
Accepting Our Needs

Being Well with Dr. Rick Hanson

06:48 min | Last month

Accepting Our Needs

"Every one of us has needs. There's no avoiding them when our needs aren't met it's natural for us to feel stressed and worried frustrated and hurt but equally. Sometimes it can be really uncomfortable to accept that we have needs in the first place. And it's common for many people to enter a cycle consciously or otherwise where. They're both frustrated that their needs aren't being met and frustrated at themselves for having needs at all. Today we're gonna talk about needs including importantly how we can identifier core needs get better at accepting those needs and maybe even find some healthy ways to meet the needs of other people. Tell us. do that enjoyed today. As usual by dr cancelled so dad. How are you doing today. I'm actually really good for us. Thanks for asking and some adult children. Stop asking their parents how they're doing so regular opportunity. That's very welcome. If you're a got adult kids you know you'll maybe get a chuckle out of this part and also. Yeah that's pretty real very real and also the subject is enormously interesting in part because it is grounded fundamentally he and three and a half billion years of evolution of life on this planet nets as real as it gets the life and death struggles of all of our ancestors reaching back in an unbroken line of descent of course to the very earliest creatures who somehow managed to live to see the sunrise to pass on genes that passed on. Jane's that became eventually the blueprint for us. Today that's the framework fundamentally for addressing our needs and soda nest. That discussion of needs. That can seem very psychological. A little woo may be in superficial in that. Had profound life and death forging of our capabilities to meet needs. Survival and passing on. Jeans is wonderfully interesting. Yeah so let's kind of talk about that and let's just start there in our book that we wrote together. Resilient we talked about there being three core needs safety satisfaction and connection. You've kind of already done that and your little deduction there but would you mind kind of explaining these briefly including sort of where they come from. We've covered some of this material in the past so we might do this kind of quickly. Great well this notion of the three major needs having to do with safety satisfaction and connection as umbrella terms is fundamental model really in biology and also in psychology and boil down. If you think about yourself maybe. Twenty thousand years ago excluding around the south of france during an ice age trying to avoid sabertooth tigers. You're a hunter gatherer. You're trying to get a meal or yourself. A million years ago in a small hamad band who were able to make fire and manufactured tools with brains roughly half to two thirds of the size of you today even further back about yourself starting to crawl out of the primordial sees three pro izzo well three hundred and fifty million years ago. Your early lizard like creature. It had i- hop scotched a little bit rock. Anyway what are you gonna do. What are you gotta do. What do you need will number one. Don't get don't die today strata. That's a big one number to get a meal. Get fed each some today. Okay so now. We're we're moving the satisfaction satisfaction the then third if you can procreate pass on your genes or fast forward it to stone age humans or us today. Basically don't die today get fed today. Get a hug today That kind of summarizes our needs. And if we don't meet our needs fundamentally especially biologically for a protracted period of time you know what happens for us. i. I have some guesses. You die yeah okay. Yeah so it can get very very real. Yeah for sure. So maybe bringing it into people's experience these days one of the reasons that the pandemic and all of its associated challenges has been so tough for so many people is that in a manner to attacked each of those core needs. It's attacked her. Need for safety because while it's a pandemic it's a deadly virus. It's attack our need for satisfaction because we can't get as many of the things that we used to get and certainly attacked our need for connection where we're more disconnected from people. Were more isolated. We feel more separated. Were doing this through zoom rather than doing it in person you know whatever. Your personal example is the ultimate anchor for meeting needs is raw physical survival so at the ultimate point where potentially dealing with hazards or situations could be in terms of physical body continuing think of that is the most route challenge to the need for safety and we can also be in situations where we starve to death. We cannot access food a lot of hunter gatherers and even agrarians even fairly recently face starvation and even in america today there are millions of people who day to day live with what's called food insecurity and it's estimated loosely that about a billion people worldwide. Go to bed hungry every night. And so this is a real to okay. That's an example in which the lack of satisfaction in a sounds as anchored physically. And we can even say it as well. Socially there's research that shows that certainly in early childhood if infants toddlers who are put into really situations because they're given up for adoption and then they're just languishing and some hospital and nobody touches them for long periods of time or prematurely born infants. Who were not touched. That too can pose a lethal threat but much of the time especially in modern developing countries challenges to the sense of safety tend to be more psychological indicated by feelings of anxiety where anger or helplessness. Those are three big flags challenges to the need for satisfaction that could have to do with accomplishing things or feeling successful or making more money. Being able to access pleasure of different kinds well impediments to the meeting of these for satisfaction are marked by feelings of disappointment loss frustration or immobilization or marked by driven us too extreme and addictions

Hamad Izzo Jane France America
NASA’s Perseverance rover lands on Mars

Morning Edition

03:34 min | 2 months ago

NASA’s Perseverance rover lands on Mars

"Good morning, Scientists from Planet Earth will land another mission on Mars today. NASA calls the rover perseverance. NPR's science correspondent Joe Palka has been following this one. Good morning, Joe. Morning, Noel, Can we talk about the logistics of this? They have to get a hurtling projectile toe land safely on Mars. How is this done? Yeah. What's the big trick? It's going 12,000 MPH, and they have two landed it two MPH. No problem. Well, what happens is they're overs packed up into something called the Aero Shell, which hits the top of the atmosphere on Mars and Atmosphere slows the craft down and it's friction heats up. That's why there's a heat shield, but that does slow it down quite a bit. But then there's a giant. Parachute that slows it down further and then finally, there's something called the Sky Crane, which is a jet pack that flies over the landing site to the landing site, then lowers the rover down on a tether and then cuts the cord and flies away. But the interesting thing is, this is the same landing system that the last rover used called curiosity. But it's been made more up to date by the fact that it's got this smart landing system so that you can actually look for Ah, good place to land. If it doesn't like the first place it picks the confide to the next one. What is modern is all the computers and navigation systems are on this new rover. The design of the rocket engines on the sky Crane is actually 50 years old. Believe it or not, those engines all trace their way back to the Viking Landers. That's Joe Cassidy, He's executive director for space at Arrow Jet Rocket die in the company that makes the rocket engine. The Viking missions landed on Mars in the mid seventies, and Cassidy says the rocket designed depended on a special valve that made it possible to vary the Rockets thrust. Funny part is back in the seventies, We had a supplier that actually developed that forest with J. P L came back to us in the latter part of the first decade of the 21st century and said, We want you to do that again. That supplier was no longer in business. But luckily they were able to find an alternate supplier who would make the valve for them. Very luckily, what is perseverance looking for on Mars? Well, it's landing in a place called Jez zero Crater, which was they think a lake bed 3.5 or Lake 3.5 billion years ago, And the idea is there might might might have been microbes in the lake. So there'll be cameras on the rover that will study the appearance of rocks looking for things like stromatolites, which are structures left behind by mats of bacteria. They're also instruments on the rover that will measure the chemical and mineral composition of the rocks at the landing site, and Nina Lanza is a geologist at Los Alamos National Lab and the scientists on one of those instruments called super Camp. See, this is the kind of thing that a geologist needs right. We need both chemistry. What's in Iraq and mineralogy how it's arranged. So knowing those things tells a lot about the conditions under which the rock form then whether or not those conditions were conducive to life. I asked this excitedly. Could we be getting news soon, saying that there was life on Mars? Well, it's one of those news stories where people get very excited, but they will also say I'm from Missouri proof show me so that's actually the idea of this. They may see things that look like there might have been life there. But they say to confirm that they have to bring the rocks back to Earth. And in fact, that's what this mission is going to do. It's going to collect samples that a future mission will return to Earth. Okay. NPR Mars correspondent Joe Palka.

Joe Palka Joe Cassidy Arrow Jet Rocket NPR Noel Nasa JOE Cassidy Nina Lanza Los Alamos National Lab Rockets Iraq Missouri Npr Mars
Let's Go Back To Venus!

Short Wave

04:57 min | 3 months ago

Let's Go Back To Venus!

"Ra jeff. So in this episode. We are making the case for exploring venus. Where do you wanna start. Why not start with the history. Venus exploration august twenty six the mariners countdown begins so the very first spacecraft humans ever sent to another planet mariner to and they didn't go to mars. It went to venus the first planet. Humans ever landed a program on that was venus to vienna. That was the soviet union's venera seven That landed on venus's surface in nineteen seventy. Got it okay jeff. So why did planetary exploration start with venus like that well because venus's actually pretty good place to visit it's closer the mars and it looks in some ways a lot like earth similar size thicker atmosphere. Yeah but it's not exactly suitable for humans right venus. It's really hot. I know it's filled with poisonous gases that can kill you. That's true that's all true. Fact check through. Its atmosphere is filled with sulfuric acid and the atmosphere so thick at the surface. It's like being under kilometer of water. Also it's so hot that lead melts. So when the russian venera probes touchdown. Martha gilmore planetary scientist at wesleyan university. She told me they didn't last very long. Those were able to operate for at the best an hour and a half before suffering what we call a thermal death I mean yeah. I mean they did not have a happy end but before they died. They did snap a few grainy photos and what they sent back didn't look great either. This desolate inhospitable world. And nobody's really tried seriously to get any closer since those soviet missions. Yeah and i mean mars by contrast even though it's colder and the atmosphere is thin and it's farther away at least the rovers we send their don't melt. Yeah okay sir. All i can see why. Mars is a favorite destination over venus. Yeah yeah okay. There's an argument to be made but the orbiter said have gone to venus and studied it from above. They're starting to build up this really interesting picture at the planet for starters. Scientists think that venus has had a super interesting past. Gilmore told me that a few billion years ago venus actually had oceans. venus should have had a lot of water and new climate model suggests that water may have persisted for billions of years That's pretty cool. I didn't know venus. Had oceans yeah. Yeah and i mean what's equally. Who is the story of what happened to those oceans so just bear with me for a second Basically the theory is that venus earth had volcanoes that we're putting out tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere now the oceans were scrubbing the atmosphere of the carbon dioxide there literally sucking up the co two as it was released but they couldn't keep up so the co two levels kept rising and just like we see here on earth with global warming The temperature got hotter. The ocean started to evaporate the start to shrink. And if you don't have that ocean you lose that mechanism to pull the o two down into rock and so that co two Has no choice but to stay in the atmosphere so venus keeps getting hotter the disappear entirely the co two levels. Go through the roof. It's this runaway. Greenhouse effect that eventually completely dries the planet out and co two and noxious gases. Blanket the surface. And that's how you get from a nice warm ocean. Venus the past of what we see. Today yeah this is kind of scary to hear in a way jeff because it sounds like climate change on earth i mean. Are we on a road. That's headed towards a venus like future. No no the short answer is no and that's because although the processes are similar there are parallels between earth and venus and climate change. Could get serious. It won't get venus bad because basically the earth is farther from the sun. Gotcha okay so that's not exactly what our earth hasn't store jeff wise. It's still worth it to visit and study venus well. There's this really interesting question of life i mean. I think there's an argument to be made. The venus was more likely to have life on it. In the past the mars ever was venus had this warmer thicker atmosphere and it definitely had oceans. Gilmore thinks that you are some extraterrestrial visitor in your swinging by from some other part of the milky way mars venus and earth would have actually looked a lot alike back. Then you know. Three billion years ago you would have seen three terrestrial planets of which have oceans venus earth and mars and at least on one of those planets life had already evolved and you know has led

Ra Jeff Martha Gilmore Mariners Wesleyan University Jeff Soviet Union Vienna Gilmore Venus Jeff Wise
Apple's App Store had gross sales around $64 billion last year

The KFBK Morning News

00:21 sec | 3 months ago

Apple's App Store had gross sales around $64 billion last year

"The APP store had gross sales last year of $64 billion. That's up from 50 billion year before 48 Bill the year before that. And, of course, the graph of the APP store developers, of course, take home a nice chunk of that, But that's a huge number. 64 billion spent in the APP store

App Store
Britain and E.U. strike last-minute post-Brexit trade deal

News and Perspective with Taylor Van Cise

00:27 sec | 4 months ago

Britain and E.U. strike last-minute post-Brexit trade deal

"The UK announcing a post Brexit trade deal, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson very pleased to tell you that this afternoon that we have completed the biggest trade deal yet worth £660 billion year. A comprehensive Canada style free trade deal between the UK and the EU. Johnson, a key architect of the Brexit deal, says this will help protect jobs in the U. K.

British Prime Minister Boris J UK Canada EU Johnson U.
Capsule with asteroid samples arrives in Japan for research

AP News Radio

00:50 sec | 4 months ago

Capsule with asteroid samples arrives in Japan for research

"Japanese space officials the delighted by the return of a small capsule containing asteroids soil samples obtained by the Hubble SO two spacecraft and all and she is the waiting to look inside of the preparations are complete the Japan aerospace exploration agency says the capsule Techni sealed and Kathy stored in a container box because the ride of his research facility near Tokyo for curation and analysis later this month mission officials keen to see if the samples are really inside and how much materials that scientists say the samples especially ones taken from the asteroid's surface contain data from four point six billion years ago unaffected by radiation and other environmental factors I'm Charles the last month

Techni Japan Aerospace Exploration Ag Kathy Tokyo Charles
China lands spacecraft on moon for historic sample collection

Morning Edition

00:41 sec | 4 months ago

China lands spacecraft on moon for historic sample collection

"China says its lunar probe has successfully collected samples of rock from the surface of the moon. The unmanned spacecraft landed on the moon yesterday. NPR's Geoff Brumfield has more China's robotic probe on the surface of the moons in a relatively new region of the moon that's thought to have formed around a billion years ago. It's going to take some samples and then part of the probe is going to blast off back into space for turned to Earth with the samples. If all goes well, they should be in the hands of Chinese scientists by the middle of December. Scientists last obtained samples of lunar rocks in the 19 seventies from a Soviet space mission. This is NPR news.

Geoff Brumfield China NPR
China spacecraft lands on moon to bring rocks back to Earth

BBC World Service

00:39 sec | 4 months ago

China spacecraft lands on moon to bring rocks back to Earth

"The spacecraft had sent to the moon has collected its first sample of lunar rocks China's National Space Administration says a robotic probe successfully touchdown today. NPR's Geoff Brumfield reports on the plant all the samples back to Earth. So China has landed a robotic probe on the surface of the moon and sit in a relatively new region of the moon that's thought to have formed around a billion years ago. It's going to take some samples. And then part of the probe is going to blast off back into space for turned to Earth with the samples. If all goes well, they should be in the hands of Chinese scientists by the middle of December and you're listening to NPR news.

National Space Administration Geoff Brumfield China NPR Npr News
Why Are Whales So Big?

But Why: A Podcast for Curious Kids

06:19 min | 6 months ago

Why Are Whales So Big?

"This is but why a podcast for curious kids from Vermont Public Radio? I'm the host. Jane Lindholm. On this show you tell us what you're interested in and what your questions are about that thing you're interested in. And we use your questions to guide what we talk about on the show. Your curiosity dictates what we explore. When I was young, I really wanted to be a marine biologist that's a scientist who studies things that live in the oceans and lots of you are interested in marine biology to we've done episodes about fish about why the sea is salty and other things related to oceans like our jellyfish really made out of Jelly spoiler alert they're not. But now we're going to focus on one particular type of animal that lives in the oceans that like me a lot of you are fascinated by. Can you guess what animal we might be discussing? Well. That is the sound of a humpback whale singing. And, that sound comes courtesy of the federal government's no of fisheries website. But we're not going to focus on the way whales communicate today that's going to be a future episode. So be sure to listen for that one too. We want today to have a better understanding of what whales are and how they move through the oceans and occasionally through rivers to here's our guide for today's episode. My name is Nick Pinson. I'm a paleontologist at the Smithsonian in Washington DC. Tell me what paleontologist is healing tallest looks for any trace of life that lived a long long time ago, and they tend to look for fossils which can be bones footprints leaves any kind of trace of life that isn't around now, but we know existed millions billions of years ago. One of the challenges and one of the things I like most about being paleontologist is that you don't get all the clues that you'd like to. So we don't get a full skeleton sometimes you do but mostly not see have to make the best you can do with a little bit of information, and that's what makes paleontology for me a lot like a detective story. So neck, some of the kids listening now might be scratching their heads because they know that this episode is about Wales and you just told us you're a paleontologist. So you look for signs of life that doesn't exist anymore, but Wales still exists. I got into science because I really liked looking for fossils and that led me eventually to looking at Wales because Wales are mammals that live notion and some of them live in the rivers but you're probably more familiar with ones that live in the oceans that are really big that have flippers that have flukes They look from the outside a bit more like a fish than. A Mammal, what's really neat about them is that we know that they're mammals and that they're closely related to other hoofed mammals specifically the hoofed mammals that have even toes to toes and those mammals are cows, pigs, deer, camels, sheep. That's who whales are most closely related to, and if you look at the wheel and you look at all of its near cousins that are live today. Realize that whales look really really different and what explains why they're so different has to do with how they volved, how they came to be and going back to fossils were really fortunate and being able to find fossil whales tell us how those changes happened. So I'm lucky enough to be able to work with teams of scientists to go round the world and look for fossils. Of Whales and then try to understand how those fit in with what we know about whales today, and also where they're going because the earth has always changed and it's still changing I want to get to some of the questions that our listeners have sent us. But just before we do I, want to pick up on something that you said, which was that whales are really closely related. Even toed hoofed animals, but they look really different. So if they look really different, how can to animals be very closely related because you'd think they'd be more closely related to something else that they look like like a shark or a fish right just because something lives in the water or looks like a fish doesn't mean they're all related to each other whales, sharks and fish the last time they shared a common ancestor was probably nearly half a billion years ago. Let's get more precise about. Wales as related to other mammals, we have a lot of different ways of knowing how organisms are related to each other. We can look at their DNA which tells us directly about their relationships in a way. That's that doesn't connect to how they look as more to do with their genetics. Right DNA tells us that whales fit in with all these other mammals whales are mammals, and that's something you would know probably from just looking. At the fact that they re there, they have babies drink milk from their MOMS do have hair. If you are ever get the opportunity to close enough to whale, and even if you seem photos of baby, dolphins have little tiny whiskers on their snout they lose them pretty quickly. But those are all telling you about their deeper ancestry and you want to use all the different kinds of evidence available to you whether it's DNA. That might tell you one story or fossils that tell you a story that maybe sometimes is a bit different and that's why I say that fossils tell something that we wouldn't otherwise. No. We can have a a family tree of animals based on DNA and then fossils tell us about this branches of the tree that we wouldn't otherwise know about and for Wales. That's what tells us that the earliest whales lived on land

Wales Scientist Vermont Jane Lindholm Washington Dc Nick Pinson
Eastside company helps NASA in collection of piece of 4 billion-year-old asteroid

KIRO Nights

00:25 sec | 6 months ago

Eastside company helps NASA in collection of piece of 4 billion-year-old asteroid

"Company helps NASA Make history to collect a piece of AH four billion year old asteroid Arrow jet rocket dying Bill 28 engines to make the 200 Miles 200 million mile journey probably had 50 to 100. People involved over the design. Build testing and delivery. Fred Wilson with Arrow Jet Rocket Dying tells Car seven TV four different kinds of engines helped with the spacecraft landing

Fred Wilson Nasa
Crack open a cold one: Monday is National Drink Beer Day!

Charlie Parker

02:53 min | 7 months ago

Crack open a cold one: Monday is National Drink Beer Day!

"In case you were curious about beer on this drink Beer day, According to the ancient Code of Hammurabi, it was decreed that bartender's Who watered down beer would be executed. I think it's still that way in Texas. Yeah, on once again. I'm don't know who, Mama Robbie wasn't but anyway, may even actually be a place. Of clouds and near the constellation Akila. Contains enough ethyl alcohol. To supply 300,000 pints of beer every day to every single person on Earth for the next billion years. Well, then why aren't we fly into one of the stars in Akila and put Mars further down the list of Thebes builders of the Great Pyramid of Jesu. Were paid with a daily ration of beer. Cause it was supposed to be a square. George Washington insisted that is Continental Army be permitted. A quart of beer is a part of their daily rations was old Millwall sounds good. In a paper bag. A Buddhist temple in Thailand was built with over one million recycled beer bottles. And while Americans love our brew What country do you think drinks more beer than any country in the world? Australia? Nope, Ireland? Nope. Scotland No. Well, where are your China, of course, and if the United States had a drinking competition For most beer consumed per person. Who would it be? The person know the state of the state. Um, Texas Neck North. Dakota held that explains it. There's not a lot to do there. Ham Shire is second And Montana came in third. Uh, once again, not very, really popular places. Do you have a go to beer cold? Other than that. Not really, really. You know, I kind of go all over the place right now. In the Mexican beers, Charlie. Okay, Well, you can have mine. OK, I'm a Miller high life guy myself. And I don't think I have. Ah, if I man if I'm forced to, which is a lot, Yeah. Probably going to go, Bud Light. Maybe. Margo, You have a go to beer? Yeah, I love craft beer. So I drank. Okay goes about that. You don't talk to my son in law. My daughter Charity Charity likes him too of it. My favorite brewer is Guadalupe Brewer in New Braunfels. Great place. Okay, if you say so.

Akila Guadalupe Brewer Mama Robbie Charity Charity Texas Millwall Continental Army Texas Neck North George Washington Thailand Bud Light Ham Shire New Braunfels Scotland China Montana United States Margo Ireland Dakota
"billion years" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

08:18 min | 1 year ago

"billion years" Discussed on Short Wave

"Before we get into it quick very general refresher on plate tectonics the outer layer of our planet. The stuff we're sitting on is made up of a system of hard plates rigid blocks of rock that adds move relative to each other and they glide around on top of a layer of softer rock. That makes up part of the Earth's mantle these wrath like plates drift around colliding causing each other to crumple or slide over top of one another. It's why we have most of our mountains and earthquakes in Roger wants to know in Earth's long history when those plates started moving answering. That question was a bit of an adventure. Okay so Roger to figure out when these plates started shaking and Bacon moving around you had to go on a hunt for some very specific rocks. Where did that take you? Yes so we follow the old rocks. we go to the part of the world Where rocks from three billion years ago are actually preserved And this is hard because actually of plate tectonics so platonic slight life recycles the surface of the earth over and over again only about five percent of the earth surface represents the first half of history. Oh that's really interesting. Yeah in other words if you're a piece of continent three and a half billion years ago there's very little chance. He survived to the Present Day. So specifically we went to an area. North West Australia called the PILBARA. So this is an area where there isn't a ton of turnover due to plate tectonics so you can find some really old rocks there. That's right. He has just by the locker to draw These rocks have been knocked around on the surface of the earth. It probably wondered all the way from the pole to equator many times but Over the course of these three billion years it was never pushed down into the interior of the earth in which case it would have been heated and melted. What is it look like Roger? Yeah it's a really beautiful place and Most of the terrains Condie's Green Rolling Hills with these kind of spiky. Kind of drought resistant grasses. It's better to look at it and walk through sense. It's prettier than it feels is what you're telling me. Exactly the same field is in. We took these samples. I I made the mistake of taking light-duty hiking shoes that also had some holes in it ended up duct taping my feet every day just kinda armor at a little bit more against the the spiky grass so okay so you're you're hiking along you find your rock. They are looking for you. Collect your samples. And then you take them back to your lab and and try to determine their magnetic history. What is what is that me. Yeah that's exactly right so we'd take the rocks From the field We keep track of how the rocks are are oriented so in other words which up and then we take it back her alive and we measured that direction of of the magnetic field in these throws so turns out all nationally form rocks contain magnetic components. So I mean. I knew that I knew that. Keep going on you then to do that. Yeah Yeah so so. All natural rocks contain these Minerals so these little grains of material that actually are are magnetic actually behave like little compass needles. And if you take a take a rock any old rock and you measure in the instruments that we have You can detect the direction that these little magnetic grains are pointing in well so you you can literally take Iraq and say okay. We know this rock was pointing in this direction. That's exactly right. Yeah and The reason this is useful in our in our case is that the magnetic field of the earth exists at different angles exists in different directions depending on where you are on earth and specifically if you chain latitude if you go from one latitude to different latitude on on the earth dangled fuel changes so if you can measure the angle magnetic field in these rocks you can figure out what latitude they formed up. Okay Okay so you you you figure that out and then let me know if I have this right then you compare them to other nearby rocks that you know the magnetic history of you know which way they were pointing and that helps you understand like when they started moving By looking at our data of where this rock was relative to the Equator and compared to other studies We showed that this rock actually moved from position. Close to the equator so in tropics of the earth to a position that's farther from the equator so in the kind of in the Midlands and and we can quantify how quick was how quick motion and from that. We know that this this continent was moving the same rate at the same kinds of velocities that the modern continents move. Oh that's cool and so in so you know when that happened because you know the age of the rocks as well. That's right so other people other workers have visited these rocks before us. have looked at particular parties rock so particular mineral grains in these rocks die actually preserve information about how old they are So for each of these measurements of how close rock was to decatur We can also put an age on that on that position so roger and his team by collecting and analyzing these very very old rocks and Australia came up with an estimate. Their research suggests Earth's tectonic plates were in motion at least three point two billion years ago. Several hundred million years earlier than we thought and another cool thing about Rogers Research. It weighs in on a peculiar geoscience mystery. So there's this very long standing question in Earth Science of how the Earth seems to have had water surface for released last four billion years. Rogers says at that time. The son was probably about thirty percent fainter compared to today so the Earth Shoud have been completely frozen. But he says there's geological evidence liquid water was on the Earth's surface that you know one of the key ingredients that allowed life to evolve on this planet so what could have made the planet warm enough for liquid water. You know where I'm going with this. So one of the leading hypotheses for why the Earth managed to maintain an equilibrium temperature managed to have this thermostat. Is that plate? Tectonics causes the recycling of carbon into the interior of the earth and then also puts out carbon into the atmosphere and it does so in such a way that the surface temperature is kept within within a certain range. So are you telling me that? The movement of these plates that were living on is partially responsible for the development of our atmosphere and the temperature of our planet. Yeah that's exactly right. So this is a question that geologists have been pondering for like a really long time. How how cool was it to add this piece to it to define this out. Yeah Yeah it felt very gratified to know that we have contributed to resolving this very old question if feels like it feels like the effort was well worth it was worth the duct tape. Boots is what you're telling me. I was worth the POKES foot every day. Every step really. Yeah all right Roger. Will I really appreciate you? This was Super Fun. Yeah yeah this is really fun..

Roger Earth Science Green Rolling Hills Bacon West Australia Rogers Research Iraq Rogers Australia decatur us.
"billion years" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

02:01 min | 1 year ago

"billion years" Discussed on Short Wave

"Imagine you're floating over the earth. Say a couple billion years ago. What would you recognize large bodies of water? We don't know how much land there was back then but there was definitely some. If you ask Roger Fhu it might look surprisingly familiar. So you'll probably see the same hands. A mountain belts bally's and rift basins. You might see today. Rogers a professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Science at Harvard University. He says you'll also notice. Earth isn't covered in craters by other planets. Are that different stems from an effect. The Earth services constantly recycling itself through action plate tectonics plate tectonics. We all remember learning about it. Kind of Roger. I'm Mike Biologists and a half to be honest with you. I read your paper and I was like. Oh Buddy. You are not in biology anymore. The only reason I know of plate tectonics was because our high school. Did this. Nerdy Ocean Science Competition like Buzzer like jeopardy style. And we all kind of read textbooks in her spare time. That's what spare time is four eventually all that extra reading paid off because Roger Slam recently published a study showing that the earth's tectonic plates started shifting hundreds of millions of years earlier than we thought which is important because by knowing when though shifts happened we can say something more about the environment in which life evolved so today on the show. Roger Food tells us how we know what was happening with. Earth's tectonic plates billions of years ago and how the action of these plates set the stage for evolution of life. As we know it I'm Mattie Safai and this is short wave the daily science podcast from NPR.

Department of Earth and Planet Roger Slam Roger Fhu Roger Food Roger Rogers Mattie Safai Mike Biologists bally professor Harvard University NPR
"billion years" Discussed on NASACast Audio

NASACast Audio

10:28 min | 1 year ago

"billion years" Discussed on NASACast Audio

"You know in storms and things like that in redeposited indicate that there was something there that was doing something there's a whole range of bio signatures and some things may be more. You may be more likely to see them on Mars. Something's you be more likely to see them You know in the in the subsurface ocean or in a plume from a subsurface ocean. Those kinds of things. Will you know we've been talking about You know the building blocks of life for a while and everyone knows about amino acids. But you mentioned one thing lipids and and so what are lipids. And how would we look for a limited as a bio signature? Sure while so. So I like to think about lipids in this way and that is if you are very very very lucky the parts of you that may last for billions of years. That says that you were here. Is actually your cholesterol rate Lipids are the things that make up our cell cell membranes. Right there the things that sort of make up the envelopes around ourselves And unlike DNA you know that would say this. Was Jim Green Right. Who was here These lipids are produced by sort of whole families of organisms. They can tell you. This was a human or this was a mammal who was living here but they last a really really long time. These are basically oils. One reason that we can find oil is that it can be preserved for millions or even billions of years on this planet And these hydrocarbons They last for a really really long time They can be a really good record of the past and different families make different compounds that allow us to say. Hey look something that was making. That compound lived here at this time in the past and you can see Whole groups of Lipids. That's a really great way to understand the history of the microbial life on this planet since they don't always live leave fossils in the way that dinosaurs do. Yeah that's really fascinating. I mean you know. A history of earth in animals didn't Habash skeletal structure. You know they were much more cellular nature so as you say we're going to have to find the right pools of chemicals To be able to see that these are markers of ancient life well what kind of instruments for technology do we really needed developed to be able to make those kind of measurements? Well as I said you know I'm partial to lipids they last for really long periods of time so I'm always interested in things like a spectrometer. What a spectrometer. And how would it work? So there's a couple of different ways spectrometer ultimately is something that is looking for For wavelengths of light right and so we can think about a spectrometer As a way to look at how different compounds or what what what different compounds there are in a in a gas or something like that We also have things like mass spectrometers Help US look at the ranges of mass. That we get out of Out of compounds that we have broken down And these are all things that allow us to sort of Do an inventory of the chemicals that we are looking at in a place you can detect other compounds as well with the spectrometer Like amino acids like you were talking about or make atmospheric measurements depending on sort of how you set it up Some people have argued for camera as a way to detect life. I mean this would be. This could be a very hard thing to do. If we send a camera say to a subsurface ocean you have to do a lot of filtering of seawater to find microbes and stuff like that. And how would you even know what you're looking at but the stuff that I'm most interested in looking at is in the deep subsurface so instruments we have some idea of what kinds of instruments we may want to create but but really the technologies. I think that are important about how to get into that subsurface. How to get below the ice how to get samples of stuff below the ice how to get below the rocky surface of Mars You know you have to think about you have to think about getting sampling systems that are robust member. We have no mechanics outer space. You have to make sure that it's going to be able to do. It's going to be able to do and you can't fix it And you know and also had to keep them very clean We don't want to run the risk of bringing earth's life with us detecting it and saying found life but really what we found ourselves So I think that there are some really interesting technologies that when we combine them with the instrument development that some of our great teams doing can get us to not just being able to measure things but getting the samples that we may measure just occurred to me as you're talking about getting below the surface if you go to Mars. There are some really deep craters that really just below the surface. I mean they can be hundreds of meters below the surface. Maybe that's where we should land and begin our interrogation because it's down already at a low level. The rocks can always tell a story right. We use the rocks on this planet to tell a story about the past The the most interesting thing I think about the history of Myers is that the rocks on the surface of Mars are on the whole even older or significantly older than the rocks on the surface of the earth and so they also tell the history of Mars Right there on the surface in and because they've got craters and because they've got other things like that that's exactly that's your window into those deep subsurface rocks in a really cool way to look for those either those these chemical fossils lipids those kinds of things. I was talking about or microfossils is as as long as you can find. Rocks are sedimentary. Their unaltered They can they they. They have these fossils. If those fossils exist those would be the right places to look for that. Yeah I know the one thing about Mars as you mentioned is the surface rocks or older. And it's because the rocks are on Earth have gone through a whole of illusionary stage being modified by plate tectonics and wind and weather and ocean. And so we don't have any of the old rocks on the surface anymore. It's really kind of turned over. There's a really active question within the habitability community which is do we need plate tectonics for for life to live on the surface and to be abundant on the surface so understanding you know not just local environments for habitability but global environments for habitability plate. Tectonics are great because they keep they sort of keep refreshing your stores of chemical energy. You know they turn it over. They reprocessed they repackage it into new into new pieces. That microbes are or larger organisms. Can eat but at the same time they destroy all of those old signals. Destroy all those old signs and so you know it's a it's a twofold kind of thing. What are you looking for you looking for the rocks in history of the old life or are you looking for something? That's active today so indeed. If life started on Mars at the same time it did earth than the way we could find how life started originally would be on Mars Ga. What kind of study and training does someone have to have to become an Astra biologist? So Astro biology requires that we think about big questions and so to answer big questions you have to get people who have a lot of different kinds of backgrounds so You know the study in training you have to be. You have to be very interested in science. You have to be very interested in engineering that kind of thing But but really you've got to be thinking about how to work with other fields so I trained as it a geologist and a biologist But I also took a lot of chemistry classes. I took some classes on planetary science and understanding how planets form in what makes the planet habitable You know it's really The kind of training that you need is is really focused on teaching people to have an open mind In Astro Biology. You have to know that no matter how good you are in your field the kind of questions we want to answer the big questions and you're going to need to be able to work with other people to figure those out So you know big lots of science but also but also learning how to to work with other people will lindsay. You know. I always love to ask my guests to tell me about what happened in their past. What person or activity that got them so excited about being a scientist that I call that a gravity assist. So what was your gravity assist? Ooh How can I get to? Can I be like some rocket going? The outer solar system needs a couple of swing buys to get me where I am Well the first thing is sort of a quirk of fate. I actually grew up in a little town called Jupiter Florida And Jupiter is is cool. Not just because of course. It's named after the COOLEST PLANET IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM. But because it's it's close enough to Cape Canaveral to the Kennedy Space Center. That you when when I was growing up you could see the space shuttle launches. Now you couldn't see the rocket of course you could just see the trails in the end. The lights from the engines. But you could see them and so you know a couple times a year if you knew when to look and you knew where to look you could see people launching into space on a regular basis and that was just a really cool a thing to grow up in the shadow of the other thing is. I had a fantastic teacher in high school I was not necessarily a great student in elementary school in middle school. Things started to sort of Pique. My interest but My High School Biology Teacher Really really inspired me to get into science. She's an amazing woman very smart. She actually got her. Phd Wild Teaching High School In biology and the material really fascinating in a way that I hadn't been able to engage with before And so you know she's actually now the vice principal of the school. The high went to But without her I probably would have been. I don't know a struggling actor writer somewhere because those are things I was always interested in but was never very good so That was Dr Raeford at Suncoast High School. And so I would. I would list her as my second. Gravity assist Oh. That's fantastic. Teachers are so important to all of us and install about you. Know being receptive. If the time that they're they're teaching us so so. I'm delighted that occurred for you. Well Lindsey. Thanks so much was really enjoyed talking to you about looking for life and your perspective on on finding that out there sure. Thanks so much for having me. Jim will join me next time as we continue our journey to look for life beyond earth. I'm Jim Green and this is your gravity assist..

Jim Green redeposited Phd Wild Teaching High School Cape Canaveral Kennedy Space Center Habash Suncoast High School Astra biologist Ga Lindsey Myers geologist scientist writer Dr Raeford principal
"billion years" Discussed on NASACast Audio

NASACast Audio

12:07 min | 1 year ago

"billion years" Discussed on NASACast Audio

"We go look for life in the universe. What are we looking for? Juno Your Curl asteroid could last for billions of years. It's a really great way to understand the history of the microbial life on this planet since they don't always live Lee fossils in the way that dinosaurs do i. I'm Jim Greene. Chief SCIENTIST AT NASA. And this is gravity assists. This season is all about the search for life beyond earth. I'm here with Dr Lindsay Hayes. And she's the deputy program scientist for the Astro Biology Program at NASA. Welcome Lindsey Jim. I'm really glad to be here. You know one of the things that the Ayrshire biologists do is really look at the history of life here on earth now. Why is that important for us to do that? And instead of just go looking for life beyond earth. It's our one example of life that we know of and so it's really important that we understand not just what life looks like on this planet today because it's our only example But also what life looked like in the past on this planet? How we got to this point Is is a really important way as a really important thing to understand how mass extinction events or mass radiation events where you go from a couple of different families too many many groups of families. How those kinds of things happen on on this planet or on any planet And the other really interesting thing about about looking at the history of life on earth is it past earth's are almost entirely different environments. You know there was a time on this planet where there was almost no oxygen on the surface of the planet and there was. It was still teeming with life. So what does the planet that no ox? That has no oxygen. What does that look like? What is the life on that planet? Look like and by studying the past earth and the history of life on earth. You can get an idea for some other sort of states of habitability That we don't see today that we might be able to see as we're looking to bodies within our solar system or extra solar planets Past Earth can be the clue can be. It can teach us about not just this planet but a lot of other places as well. We'll see about three point. Eight billion years ago we believe Life really started here on earth and it was really simple for long periods of time and then it got to be more complex meaning cells were were of a getting together and forming much. More complex structures. What happened that made that change? Do we know well. I mean one of the things so so one of the interesting things about studying. The history of life is we can only sort of see the winners right. We see today How things worked. And so when you look back when you look back at Earth in new-look Beckett Earth's history you can understand sort of how we got to where we are But but we don't necessarily know all of the different the different things that were acting on those that life all of the different factors but one of the things that we always see as a way to sort of drive new innovations. Dr New a new evolution is competition for resources. You know places where you can get energy understandably the places where energy is easy to get in abundant those replaces that life probably started in probably started inhabiting very quickly and as those those areas. Those Nisha filled out. You would expect evolution to become more complex in in a way to get our energy. That's harder to get at. So you know we think about The abundance of life on this planet today that uses sunlight for energy. But that's actually a relatively difficult thing to evolve. It's much more easy to get chemical energy. And then the ability to evolving the ability to create what we call photo systems. I COMPLEXES PROTEINS AND METALS. And things that you to take energy from sunlight. That's just one stage of complexity as you evolve. The next thing is. Is You know multicellular Jewish alluding to a more complex structures. That sort of thing. It's really hard to try to understand. Exactly what drove those evolutions? But actually there's a recent study that came out that showed that predation Single cells that eat other cells can actually drive those those pray cells to create more complex To create more complex structures to become multicellular as a way to sort of protect themselves from predation think animals living in herds makes it harder for anyone animal to get attacked early on when plants came on this. Or what kind of plants do you think started here? I well so we're definitely talking early on. We're talking a single celled organisms. So cyanobacteria These used to be called blue-green algae but as we as we have understood them better. We recognize that they're not algae there. In fact a single celled organism called Santa Bacteria they live in communities. But you probably know them as chloroplast so at some point in in the couple in the past. Couple billion years A different organism eight a cyanobacteria. It became incorporated the sell. It wasn't digested for some reason or another and became a chloroplast. And that's where we start to see algae and all those kinds of things and then algae evolve into bigger things as life. I water plants and things like that and then plants on land have only been around for the past couple of hundred million years so so early on. We're definitely talking about not even algae but even single cell bacteria that are photosynthetic with the evolution of photosynthesis. We sort of see two stages right. The first stage in the evolution of photosynthesis is just the ability to take in lighted all But then as those photos systems those those complexes became more complicated in started grouping together a group of organisms that are probably like modern day cyanobacteria or you know the ancient historical versions of them. evolved the ability to split water and in the process they started creating oxygen which fundamentally changed the chemical composition of the atmosphere in the surface environments on earth and the really neat thing about oxygen. Is that it allows you. It's really high energy molecule and it allows you to break down more complex compounds when you can consume oxygen and sugars. You can sort of get the full amount of energy out of those sugars and that allowed things to become more complex because they can sort of get more energy out of the food. They're eating so those processes in sort of a whole series of evolutionary steps allowed us to take the take the steps from being sort of simple life to this very multiple complex organisms. We see today all of the different kinds of single celled through through elephants in Wales in these huge enormous things that we see on our planet. Well can you tell us about some of the places in the solar system that you're excited about for looking for life? Ooh Okay Do I have to stay within the solar system? No actually out. Beyond where where would you go? Look for life beyond earth so of course there's a lot of interesting things outside of the solar system rate. Whatever you can imagine. There's some there's probably some really cool planet Outside of the solar system. That's like that but I'd like thinking about our solar system because it's it's a much more approachable environment You know these are places that even even in the farthest reaches of the Solar System we've been to Pluto. It took us a long time to get to Pluto but But but we've been there. We've been able to do that so I'd say that there are a lot of places that I find really interesting in the solar system And most of them are sort of in the subsurface right deep under the surface of Mars in the rocks under the oceans in the moons of the Outer Solar System. You know the things that I'm most excited about in our quest to look for life To understand what makes an environment habitable on a planet or or on some other body in the solar system of moon or something that's potentially less habitable as a whole than the earth where you already mentioned a couple of really great places. You're mentioned bars and you mentioned You know the icy moons If life is in both of those places would they be similar? Or how different would do they would they be? Do you think you'd have to see different evolution? Different Systems That would have evolved to live in those different places when we look at our planet here extreme of files are very different depending on the environments that you look at When you look at things that live in deep sea environments like the kinds of environments that we imagine we would see In some of the subsurface oceans on the outer on the Moon in the outer planets We see organisms that are evolved to live in high pressures and high temperatures You know when we see things that live in rocks on the earth. We see things that are evolved to take advantage of tiny little bits of energy You know over very long lifetimes You know those things on the earth Hydrogen and other things like that that come from radioactive decay but those two those two organisms have evolved into sort of very different types of systems. And so I would imagine that you would. You would expect to see different kinds of lace if you're looking at different environments. We know a lot about Mars and I think we could say there's probably not life on the surface of Mars. At least we haven't found it yet the opportunity to think about life below the surface It would rule out life below the surface on Mars. You know. I think that that's when I rule out life on the surface on this in the subsurface. Palomares you know any time that we look for life Any almost any place that we've looked on this planet for life. We have found it which tells me that life is incredibly robust It it stays wherever there is energy to be had so I think that if there was ever life on Mars It may be somewhere on the surface today. Think ruling out life I'm an astrobiologist so I never want to rule out the potential for there to be live somewhere I think that You know life is clearly not abundant on the surface of Mars today and so I think looking in the subsurface Exactly the kind of thing that we should be doing but do we know enough about Mars to rule it out or is it still a possibility that there may be life on Mars below the surface. I think that there is there enough tantalizing hints that. I think it would be interesting to go and look for life in this sub surface. I definitely don't think there's anything that we've been able to rule out with regards to tomorrow's at this point other than like you said the fact that there is life is clearly not abundant on the surface of Mars today. So so where could it be? And what would it look like? Those are really interesting questions. Or what are some of the signatures of life that we should be looking for them? Well on Mars or your solar system so You know things like chemical fossils. You know the the simplest things really are looking for evidence of disequilibrium. I mean fundamentally life takes advantage of a place where there's energy to be exploited in and takes that energy for itself so something that indicates that that there's been some kind of chemical reaction that's going on there I Emma organic chemists so I always WanNa look for organic fossils things like lipids or amino acids things like that Microfossils you know you might see traces of single cell organisms or sometimes those single celled organisms live in sort of communities And create macro fossils on earth. We see these things as dramatic or evidence of Sticky Microbial Mats. That have gotten broken up..

Life NASA scientist Jim Greene Dr Lindsay Hayes Lindsey Jim Ayrshire Wales Emma
"billion years" Discussed on Science Salon

Science Salon

03:33 min | 1 year ago

"billion years" Discussed on Science Salon

"So I I'm I'm a very big fan of field paleontology. I think we've locked learn. They're still a universe of fossils to discover you know so my feeling is learn them learn geology. Learn the history of life. You know the evolutionary trees that we have because you learn all the tools to do it but I gotta tell you you know the more we understand about development and embryos the more we understand about the You know how evolution happens and I think if if I was to bed I think the more we understand about how DNA unpacked itself and moves three dimensional structure of DNA and the the switches that control the activity of genes the more. We're GONNA understand abolution right so I think strongly that the you know the the the future of evolutionary biology is as a is always. Been even more so multidisciplinary unifying like you'll conciliates. Bolton of multiple different approaches whether it's the dynamism and DNA the fossil record you know ecology and so forth there all important perspectives. They spend a day doing paleontology. Dig With Jack Horner in Montana and the end of that day. I thought crap. This is art. This isn't like Jurassic Park where you're uncovering some teabags in a day. It could be dreadfully. Dull not funding fossil hanging. You gotta like gotTa like camping. You got like being outdoors. So where are you going this summer? If assuming the corona virus doesn't shut down now we have all kinds of ideas I think right now. Everything's on hold to be quite honest with the current of ours. I'd love to get back to the Arctic. That was always a fan. You so but I don't know if that'll happen in south Seattle Plaza. Yeah Yeah and you've done some work with. I think it was. Pbs Nova did a show on your previous book right. Are you doing anything with with the television on this work? There's some discussions about it. We did a three part miniseries on. Pbs about inner fish on doing that. Gosh it was so much fun. Yeah it was a great show a thank. You just had so much fun doing it. And interacting with great people now we were under discussion of this one but no plans yet now. And what's the next book you're GONNA work on? I don't know one of the things I'd like to do is I've worked at the pulse. Both both south-and-north for a long period of time very interested in doing something. I've kind of trying to link that to understanding the planet and life in the Cosmos and so forth because work at the polls is so important concern. Yeah if I do something probably be polar and what really excites me about Martian Paleontology? Marsh said we need a paleontologist Mars? And we're sending robotic ones up there so that's good enough for now right. Yeah I did see something in the news. Parenthetically about The Viking specimens that they were somebody was reconsidering whether there was organic chemistry in those specimens. Oh Yeah I don't I don't know you know these things pop up. Say They would that Martian rock during Clinton's Administration Arctic Meteorite. Yeah remarks that land. No nothing nuts was not never came back to anomalies. Those are like ooh. That's really quirky. Anomaly what does it mean and then you let it play out? It's like nothing that's right. No that's that's the nature science but people make claims then we test those claims right a moral for the night and the press were reading the claim from the nature papers usually claim with evidence supporting it but still a lot of work has to play out before we accept that claim. We communicate science. You know what we are. We in the Fat Chick. Peas right. Well you neil. Thanks for writing this super interesting book. Some assembly required decoding four billion years of life from ancient fossils DNA. It's a great story -gratulations on the book. Thanks for coming on the show. Great to be here thank you..

Jack Horner Jurassic Park Seattle Plaza Bolton Montana Nova Marsh Clinton
"billion years" Discussed on Science Salon

Science Salon

02:01 min | 1 year ago

"billion years" Discussed on Science Salon

"Decoding four billion years of life from ancient fossils to DNA which just came out this week. Dr Shubin is the author of your inner fish which must be will likely be familiar with. It was the best selling book and also made into a three hour. Three part Pbs Nova series. Which was really good His other book before that was the universe. Within he's the Robert R Benz Lee professor of organizational biology and anatomy at the University of Chicago and the provost of the Field Museum of Natural History. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in twenty eleven and he lives in Chicago. Neal is He's one of the giants of the field of paleontology and is organizational biology That he teaches university Chicago in his book. Really Kinda reconstructs. How we know life evolved not only how we know but how it actually did evolve from what we know now. starting with Paleontology and working all the way up through genetics and As a note at the beginning of our conversation my interest in this particular twofold when he does a lot of history of science which is one of my areas and also he inadvertently without even try and he doesn't even mention. Creationism really addresses their particular. Claims of How you explain the rise of complexity the what you do with mutations and genetic changes how that gives rise to new body forms and new body parts and more complex information particularly the increase of information in genomes. This happens a lot and now we can track it historically not paleontology but through DNA and genetic super interesting conversation wide ranging Around all these fields plus all the famous scientists for the last half century that have worked in this field that That Neil knew and worked with south. We all that as well so without further ado I give you Dr Neil Shubin..

Dr Neil Shubin professor university Chicago Field Museum of Natural Histor Chicago Robert R Benz Lee National Academy of Sciences provost Neal
"billion years" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

09:42 min | 1 year ago

"billion years" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

"All that and more still to come on space time. The Great Melvin telescopes gone on public display as part of celebrations marking. Its One hundred fiftieth anniversary. This icon of Australian colonial. Astronomy enemy is now being reassembled into its original form for the first time since nineteen forty five museums Victoria staff. Volunteers have been working to restore the historic instrument instrument at the pumping station at science works in Melbourne. Since two thousand eight the telescope was originally built in eighteen. Sixty nine for use at the Mobile Observatory. Next next to the Royal Botanic Gardens at the time it was the second biggest telescope in the world and the largest in the southern hemisphere and it quickly became an icon symbolizing the city's cities wealth and scientific status but after the moment observatory closed in nineteen forty four. The telescope was sold and relocated to the Mount Strong low observatory neat camera. It was modified by the Australian National University for a role in modern astronomy. In the one thousand nine hundred ninety S it was converted into Australia's first fully robotic and computerized is digital imaging telescope and was used to find the first observational evidence of dark matter. Dark matters of course one of the biggest mysteries in science today put put simply scientists have no idea what it is even though it makes up some eighty five percent of all the matter in the universe it seems to be invisible and interacts only gravitationally tation with normal matter. The stuff stars planets asteroids houses. Cows trees dogs cats and people may that of astronomers only no dark matter exists just because they can see its gravitational effect on normal matter such as preventing galaxies from flying apart as they rotate then in two thousand and three the camera. Bushfires raged through the mouths Romo Observatory destroying match the facility but leaving the original heavy cast. I'd backbone of the telescope relatively unscathed in two two thousand and eight. The remains of the telescope recovered by staff and volunteers from Museums Victoria and brought back to Melbourne for restoration. The Victorian government committed six hundred two thousand dollars towards the two point one indoor project and that allowed the team to complete the first stage the restoration which is now seeing the telescope return to what was its original physical configuration dot nic lomb consultant curator of astronomy with a Powerhouse Museum Sydney Observatory says the eventual aim of the project is to restore the telescope to fool operating condition. So that future generations can pay through its giant eye pieces and be inspired by the Magnificent Wonders of the heavens above. What it's it's one of the most important scientific facts or scientific objects in the country telescope was it was I used was too lax. His his theory pool telescope world. It had mira pointed to Mesa dime better or what caused forty inches in time to not very faint politics. This install develop an observatory which was very unusual thing to do. Most lax to list does for the province defended missile wealthy metro and abyss. Professional is trump observer. Trees did was to make very accurate measurements of positions of SAS The sky and commission eclipses of dissent thanks very accurate observations. So that's very unusual. For a major richer. Professional Observatory restored colonial dishonest Canadian sixties foresaw. Fortunately the telescope. I was a little bit too just missed the body. Many rice wonder six was it had a mirror. Thick Metal Mirror dispose divide. They launched those groups so they could be lied to list. Ability is past the metal mirrors ideas glass mirrors so the credit to the wall lights illuminating. It's just coming into fashion and the media elderly astronomy ability to actually responsible for the design. It so that's that's too new. It's too risky. So I headed to America era and all sorts of problems including me liking those great massive data. Those was wasn't quite suitable. Let's go quickly. The photography because photography was a few years later was coming into the started from sitting this because taking describe because a great improvement of serving the sky is full script. The Great Melbourne telescope was designed. Just look through at two. Drawings of Netflix is the objects in this guy. This they're all that it is staffed. Yeah to be up to take photographs this guy these. It wasn't really fully equipped to take photographs. It did what it to federal graphs to the moon. We actually ver very highly publicized and people were very in Chris despite the graphs of dmed but generally did not take photographs was designed. It just looks rebuy and tell us car was installed Louis C.. Ninety six nine observer send send task from Britain mathematician called L. deadly Sir Ti us to tell us Kirk he'd tried to set up telescopes for vs he had various populism smarter being removing the protective coating of the MIRA. Borough of two mirrors metal Marissa sent after the tone Scott if pins with that talk and setting it out problems lying that he was responsible to the three was responsible to director of Melbourne Observatory. Were delivery or wall wall. Society Beckham Hood Nicely designed to Muskoka employ team so he caught that very upset after all. He didn't feel it was being tight. Enough math had resulted months. Scopus continue to be used for furious at the observatory that have to well. It was really used and Bourbon. Observe triggers closed down forty four telescope the small to the Mountains Observatory in Canberra and the second dementia. This company and it was put into more than telescopes which curfew years ended up. Cavalli were booked into even more Mortenson Cook which is a telescope automated telescope to nachos mattress being messed with estra physical compact. Then then hope kicks. Machos were considered one of the possible candidates for that matter. That's that in the end. They got very well but didn't five five. Many metro is so it is not really Niger. Competitive Stock matter. I should say that it matters but the acronym Akron was named in contrast vamps. W I M P. They've created attractive Nestle particles and these Arrest to a major candidates for that and so the idea was that there because look for much larger of checks which could be out of Meta. Ah Unfortunately there was a fiery train. Three thousand three January two thousand and street and basically all details skirts at take months. Larry Kinda perfectly destroyed the flax including melted telescope and pats destroyed as the mets. Put Five abroad and they is eventually pulled back to Milton on. The museum's Doria had collapsed. They need they'd been times group of volunteers. Volunteers who've been working very hard in feeding domestic top to tell us kind of actually working out into the snow reaching all die kraft craft telescope or she look like they're affected grass but there's not tell drawings so they have to decide the grass and tries to Comiskey. Musk poetry look like missing there quite a few thousand missing designed built and he's got his nappy reassemble assemble for the first time. I've been criminal thoughts entertainment street and apparently looks very imprison people still booking and the plan. China has to finish the three to be automated automatic tellers correct and it will be rehoused where this has originally the grabbed Milton Observatory building the joint slot of been. I've seen it Sometimes spelled decrepit condition but originally grew was still. There was no longer slightly. So that building will have to be stored and then just play. He rebuilt filtered academies that will be has to that building and they'll be valuable for big feelings become make tourist attraction involvement. It's the plate that Stockton glum consultant curator of astronomy with the Powerhouse Museum Sydney Observatory and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary Virgin. Galactic snicks commercial spaceship has reached its weight on wheels milestone in which all the major structural elements in components of the vehicle or assembled and the space.

Powerhouse Museum Sydney Obser Great Melbourne telescope Melbourne Mobile Observatory Mount Strong low observatory Romo Observatory consultant Melbourne Observatory Professional Observatory Milton Observatory Mountains Observatory Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria Australian National University Australia Netflix Museums Victoria mira Stockton Nestle
"billion years" Discussed on Inquiring Minds

Inquiring Minds

03:50 min | 1 year ago

"billion years" Discussed on Inquiring Minds

"You and Betty and the NAM season bills and Joes and Janes will find in the Study of science a richer more rewarding life. Welcome to another episode of enquiring minds. I'm Andrea Visconti. This is a podcast that explores space where science and society collide. We want to find. That was true. What's left to discover and why it matters? One of the great mysteries of human behavior is to what extent do emotions rule us. I mean a lot of us like to think that the the kinds of decisions that we make that would benefit from a careful weighing of pros and cons. Well these are rational decisions and they're they're not swayed by emotional states but there's there's a wealth of literature that suggests that that's not true in fact some people think that our emotions govern all of our behavior but that also doesn't seem true and when you sit down on and think about it what exactly is an emotion. Is it just the subjective feeling of feeling sad or angry is at the behavior hitting someone or freezing or trying to run away is it the physiology so the increase in heart rate or change in respiration rate eight or is it the thought of course neuroscientists who study emotions have to figure out which aspect of emotion they're going to be focusing on and since as we can't really study subjective feelings or even your innermost thoughts most of the work is limited to physiology and behavior but what if that was really kind of misguided. What if we're missing out on some of the most important features of emotions? That's a question that Joseph Liu who is a major ager giant in the neuroscience of emotion poses in his latest book the deep history of ourselves the four billion year story of how we got conscious brains now I remember learning about the law as an undergraduate and realizing what a big role it plays in modulating memory which was my area of study for my PhD ultimately ultimately and the Amiga now has become a relatively famous brain structure. There are lots of media representations of FM Studies for example sample in which the amid seems to be activated by all kinds of different tasks. And so it's an area. That's been ripe for misinterpretation. There's even a law and order episode so from way back. When when one of the characters hilariously mispronounces it causes the amid Dolla? I don't know why that makes still makes me laugh so many years later now I think people actually wouldn't make that mistake because it actually is a relatively frequent word in the English language. In fact if you type Migdal in Google books and Graham viewer you'll you'll see that the term was was was essentially not used until. Oh maybe like one thousand nine hundred fifty five and then it kind of has this massive increase and right around say nineteen ninety-eight. It seems to rise exponentially in books so it's not just in my head that this this word is actually being used more frequently. I mean Google says it is but the idea that if you see macdill activation that means that you feel fear is is really just patently untrue and Josefa do been one of the researchers that has been fighting this misconception. For a long time in fact he's one of the people that has shown that the middle part of many many different emotional states so for trying to figure out what role the migdal plays in our behavior. How might think about emotions and include the conscious as part of them and how these emotional states might influence drive or be independent of our behavior? The best person to talk to would of course be Joseph..

Joseph Liu Google Study of science Josefa Andrea Visconti Betty Janes Dolla Graham
"billion years" Discussed on Future Thinkers Podcast

Future Thinkers Podcast

01:57 min | 2 years ago

"billion years" Discussed on Future Thinkers Podcast

"Four billion years of evolution that you're carrying in you, and there's a lot of wisdom stored in that. So you have a wealth of knowledge inside of you that is acceptable at any time for me. Meditation is definitely a great way. Just finding a space for silence because I I know in family life. We don't even have kids and it's hard to find silence. Just with in a two person. Household it's hard to find just kind of your own space. And so people who have big families that's going to be nearly impossible. So it's becomes more important to do. So to find your own flight gopher walk in a park and find your kind of sanctuary where you can be alone with your thoughts. Breed a lot. That's a big thing. I mean for me that's been critical trying to get through a book a week. It's been a goal of mine for a long time. It's probably closer to a book a month. But. Taking courses. I mean, really not being daunted by a large amount of learning or something that seems to technical or too difficult to learn like for me, I've just been on this kick of automation, and I've just learned like how to program scripts and stuff, so I can do web scraping, and and like basically have everything launched immediately from my computer. So I can like turn on the lights with a key command or turn the air con or do a whole bunch of things in the house and whole bunch of things with the production stuff. And I before I started doing that. I thought okay this if I'm get into this. This is gonna take a lot of my time. It's going to be really difficult and only one of those things was true. It was difficult, but it took like a couple of days to really get through it. And then it was like, wow, I know at a script like and that nothing like anything I've done in the past makes me feel like magician more than than learning to script learning programming because he was like you basically just make shit happen. And all this magic happens with just a key press..

Four billion years
"billion years" Discussed on TEDTalks Science and Medicine

TEDTalks Science and Medicine

05:04 min | 3 years ago

"billion years" Discussed on TEDTalks Science and Medicine

"We evolved from monkeys why are there still monkeys well because we're not monkeys where fish now knowing you're a fish and not a monkey is actually really important to understanding where we came from i teach one of the largest ever legionary biology classes in the us and when my students finally understand why call him fish all the time then i know i'm getting my job done by always have to start my classes by dispelling some hardwired myths because without really knowing it many of us were taught evolution wrong for instance we're taught to say the theory of evolution there are actually many theories and just like the process itself the ones that best fit the data are the ones that survived to this day the one we know best is darwinian natural selection that's the process by which those organisms that best fit environment survive and get to reproduce while those that are less fit slowly die off and that's it evolution is a simple as that and it's a fact evolution is a fact as much as the theory of gravity you could prove it just as easily just need to look at your belly button that you share with other placental mammals or your backbone they share with other vertebrates where your dna they share with all other life on earth those traits didn't pop up in humans they were passed down from different ancestors to all their descendants not just us that's not really how we learn biology early on is it relearn plants and bacteria primitive things and fish give rise tam fabian nhs followed by reptiles mammals and then you get you this perfectly evolved creature at the end of the line the life doesn't evolve in a line and it doesn't end with us but we're always shown evelyn portrayed something like this a monkey and a chimpanzee some extinct humans all on a forward and steady march to becoming us but they don't become us any more than we would become them we're also not the goal of evolution why does it matter why do we need to understand lucien the right way well misunderstanding evolution has led to many problems but you can't ask that question that age old question where are we from without understanding evolution the right way misunderstanding it has led to many convoluted and corrupted views of how we should treat other life on earth and how we should treat each other in terms of race and gender so let's go back four billion years this is the single celled organism we all came from at i gave rise to other single cell life but these are still evolving to this day and some would say the archaic and bacteria that make up most of this group is the most successful on the planet they're certainly going to be here well after us about three billion years ago multicellular already volved this include your fungi and your plants and your animals the first animals to develop a backbone where fishes so technically overt brits are fishes so technically you an i are fish so don't say i didn't warn you one fish lineage came onto land and gave rise to among other things the mammals and reptiles some reptiles become birds some mammals become primates some primates become monkeys with tales and others become the great apes including a variety of human species so you see we didn't evolve from monkeys but we do share a common ancestor with them all the wildlife around us kept evolving more 'bacterial more fungi lots of fish fish fish if you couldn't tell yes they're my favorite group as life volve it also goes extinct most species just lasts for a few million years so you see most life on earth that we see around us today are about the same age as our species so it's hubris itself centered the think oh plants and bacteria primitive and we've been here for an evolutionary minute so we're somehow special think of life as being this book an unfinished book for sure we're just seeing the last few pages of each chapter if you look out on the eight million species that we share this planet with think of them all being four billion years of evolution there all the product of that think of us all as young leaves on this ancient and gigantic tree of life all of us connected by invisible branches not just to each other but two are extinct relatives our ancestors as a biologist i'm still trying to learn with others how how everyone's related to each other.

four billion years three billion years million years
"billion years" Discussed on 1410 WDOV

1410 WDOV

01:56 min | 3 years ago

"billion years" Discussed on 1410 WDOV

"About ten percent of the you know the the poundage of the milky way is still in gas and dust not in stars and gas and dust so you know it will continue to make stars it's not making them nearly as quickly as it did in the beginning but they're still being made the the bad news is actually not for us because you know you could say well we were kind of late to the scene but we're not all that late in another roughly i dunno maybe another hundred billion years you know you won't be able to make new stars anymore because there won't be enough stuff to do that believes the late stephen hawking that the universe will die well i i tell you this is what happens if if if you want to adjust your stock portfolio accordingly as i say roughly you know ten to one hundred billion years the last stars will die there won't be new starts being made the burn out you know some of them take longer to burn out than others the sun's gonna go in another five billion years but we're talking a lot more than that we're talking one hundred billion years the last star has died and then what happens well it gets dark at night and you know maybe nothing very interesting is happening but still there's a little bit of energy left in the universe and stars will kind of have fender better benders with one another which will kick some of them out of the galaxy altogether there probably isn't going to be anybody around to see this but and kick other other stars into the center of our galaxy where giant black hole swallow them up and if you wait long enough when i say long enough i mean really long then the galaxies just become giant black holes and then according to stephen hawking his other giant black holes slowly evaporate and in a google year a google years is a one followed by a hundred zeros the last big black hole will check out and that's the last thing that happened in the.

stephen hawking google one hundred billion years hundred billion years five billion years ten percent
"billion years" Discussed on WCHS

WCHS

02:36 min | 3 years ago

"billion years" Discussed on WCHS

"Science welcome back to science fantastic with professor michio kaku before the break we had a mouthful of questions so let's try to tackle them one at a time because we're not talking about some of the deepest secrets of creation itself the creation of the universe it turns out that yes we had a big bang for thirteen billion years ago and that radiation is still circulating around the earth and the universe it's colder now it's down to the microwave range a we could actually see it using our microwave satellites that's right we can actually photograph the remnants of the fireball which gave birth to the universe is this is amazing baby pictures baby pictures of the infant universe when it was about three hundred thousand years old it's called the w map if you want to see it go to nasa dot gov google w mab w m a and you'll see this photograph a photograph of the night sky and what does it look like a fireball it really does look like a fireball it is the radiation leftover from the instant of the big bang now the caller who called in mentioned a mystery cosmic mystery with regards to this you see the explosion was very uniform it was an explosion you could see a right on your computer screen by going to nasa dot gov typing and w map but and this is a killer now but there's a dark spot there's a dark spot a dimple of sorts in this cosmic background fireball normally when you see a picture for fireball it looks pretty spherical this also should be spiritual except there seems to be a dark spot there and the listener who called in says what is responsible for this dark spot well the short end answer is we don't know this is a great mystery if you could figure this out your name will go down in the history books it should be uniform we think that the original big bang underwent something called inflation which was a turbocharged expansion of the original fireball which expanded the fireball evening it out making sure that the fireball was even in all directions but there is this anomaly there what could cause it dark energy we don't know so this is a.

michio kaku professor three hundred thousand years thirteen billion years