35 Burst results for "aristotle"
'We come from the stars': Indigenous astronomy, astronauts, and star stories
"When you think about the night sky what constellations come to mind. Chances are they're rooted in western astronomy but indigenous. Astronomy and scientific knowledge have been here for millennia. It's just not taught in schools or considered important within universities. My next guest is working to change. That nielsen is mick ma. And he's a professor in the department of astronomy and astrophysics at the university of toronto. Helping welcome thank you for having me. So how would you describe the way. Astronomy is typically taught in university course university of toronto's famous having a an astronomy course fifteen hundred students in it in that course generally starts from the early greek and roman astronomy aristotle type of plato pythagoras and they will channel through european astronomy with newton and cabrera hey and yohannes kepler and galileo of course the modern enshrinement is just one linear path from the romans to essentially neil degrasse tyson and today scientists. It's very very centered in the european model. And how have you been incorporating indigenous knowledge in your courses. I've been trying to do that little bit here. And there are courses tend to be quite full of material so adding new materials always a challenge. But i always want to make sure students come in and the first thing they see is not there. Expect a constellation. I don't him see a bear with the tail lakers major. I want them to see the constellation view. I nor a constellation of the bear or a punish shining relation that please and to recognize that these constellations reflect landover on i for in toronto or in new magi or anywhere and what is indigenous astronomy. And how do you define it. How is it or how old. I define indigenous astronomy. As being the the knowledge of the peoples of the land so and since burnett Nation state of canada would find it as the astronomers of the people that were here before settlers in colonizers so strongly of the astronomy of first nations big cree on astronaut and so on across across rhode island and every nation has their own perspective of the night skydrone interpretation in knowledge of it and so these indigenous astronomers speak to connection to the land and and to the people and that knowledge has been here as long as the people have been here and so is there a star story that comes to mind for you that gives an understanding of indigenous astronomy. Great story was the story of noon on the seven bird hunters which is a story so close your eyes and you're looking morni- guy and you see what we call the less the big dipper. And if you're looking at the big dipper couple of hours before dawn in spring you're gonna see the big dipper pointing downwards so the four stars make up the bear kind of facing downwards detail is climbing higher in the sky the four stars of the big dipper in the bull our immune the bear and then pours. What would be the handle. The big dipper are at the bird hunters and you go on those three stars to another four to get the seven hunters and the story starts by while you have to get up early in the morning a couple of hours before dawn to this constellation when we observe it at that time in the morning and we observed every day we can see the constellation circle around the sky. The constellation circles around sky every night as well. So we see the two different timescales in play but if we start in the spring at that to ask for dumb the bowl. The big dipper the bears pointing downwards. And that's when the bears waking up from tiber nation and decides hungry needs to go gather food as the bear leaves. The cave i robin spies upon the bear grabs it's bone arrow and size to chase it from hunt and the story continues through the summer when muniz running across the land so the constellations kinda flat across the sky and the birger chasing it as we get towards fall newness getting tired and stands likes to fight back so the constellations on one side again. Some of the birds have fallen below the horizon and must track the hunt but immune you and stands back robin fires. It's era a striking the immune in the heart killing it. Blood gets everywhere. All of robinhood flies into the tree shakes off the blood separate one stain on his chest. The leaves are now allred as a result. Chickeny joins robin. And they begin a celebration to cook the cook. The bear and to celebrate the feast harvest as we approach winter the constellation as the bears on his back again and reflecting the spirit of the baron sky and waiting for spring to come as part of the next cycle. So we see lots of different kinds. We have knowledge of the year as a calendar have knowledge of ritual and ceremony and we have connection with nature. So it's not just a shawny story. It's it's part of. It's a story that people in story of how to be.
Former Governor of Jalisco, Mexico, Is Killed in Puerto Vallarta
"Are searching for the gunman who killed a former governor off Jalisco state. Aristotle is Sunday vow to beach resort. A local drug cartel is thought to have carried out The attack. Will grant report the former governor of Jalisco was eating with four other people in the popular beach resort of Puerto Vallarta. He went to the lavatory. He was shot in the back by an unknown assailant. The ex governor of one of Mexico's most violent states. Mister Sandoval had a personal security detail comprised of 15 bodyguards. One of the first questions is over their whereabouts on exactly how the killer managed to escape so easily from the restaurant after the attack, as the two bodyguards that had accompanied Mister Sandoval that day attempted to take him to hospital. They were fired on by other gunmen outside the restaurant. Two more, it appears to be a well planned and coordinated attack.
Interview With Petter Kukkonen
"But so in ancient world we we cannot understand it without mentioning religion but we also cannot understand that without mentioning sophy and you are mentioning that our our hero of the of the story echoes. He lived at the same time as plato and aristotle and and you also have the scenes in your book where where these philosophers appear so would be exciting. You maybe share a little bit about those Those storylines in in the book before olympic games. Cenovate thirty on just Too which was the blaze were. Lotto's gymnasium was located on. They had them exhibition resting much. First alex against the abuse and then what was one of spectators and then he wanted to challenge alex unbuckle. He had a history of of competing in investing in infinite. Nothing olympic games but fee of this highly respected games in increase. So he was in real life also released. Strong restaurant denied. He was already sixty Sixty three years old so they they are they are having frosting matz with Afterwards having some wine. And i'm talking. I didn't bring any new philosophy of some kind of maine lies about his thinking. And then there's so so obvious double in young who'd think there are dates of seventeen or sixteen elected sixty couple of couple of years older than On spending about a pin. Im seven days long. Local mocha pick festival in offense. They're spending like going just the other an underground With wine about philosophy and so roaches or encounters with those two big names. And yeah you mentioned that. You didn't want to go into detail about the philosophy of plato aristotle. But i think it's quite a nice way of kind of tying in those historical figures which brings to the question that i didn't remember to ask yet was that did you have a character. All my historical character dot you draw inspiration from when you are building your your character aliko stories. He like a combination of different stories and sources. Or how how did you. How did he come to be as he is. He's for cirque combination of of different ideas. That are there must be bark of me. Thinking there is part of fiction My biggest hero in Cup all the up. His character person. I would say i have copied a face. He's characters he used in east books. So it's gonna fly combination of these three things. Yeah do we have any any stories that we have available about the athletes of those times. Do we have any sources about we know generally about sports than we know generally about the olympics but do we have any in his threes of those athletes. Who actually doing we do. Have something mostly bow. Stories out you know for some kremlin of millo. lexi's time a little bit cleaner. Howdy highly. it was like the cow in his shoulder and carried it for. I don't know thin stadiums and then drinking litres of wine after up on a leave some some rocks which sweater the weight of seven men at the start being reimbursing the time aura results in that time so interesting to compare results of Weekend we can do it just like fun. Sixers really absolute up spot At the start dates of or eight years something continued to adults for the mandela for fifty years old and For example tennessee. Something about pope sparked story about the guinness. He was a boxer and then also doing bankrupt and bunker weakened call. It's kind of a free fight. Which bills have the time. So he won't doing he sport cab your own or over. The only the big he had was due at one thousand four hundred together so if fast it's If he had liked wendy years don't carrier he had only hit the seventh beat the rockies three year so that was some kind of picture how how much they look a beating so totally professional athletes. Who train and then. They just pat time hopefully folk going for one competition to other. We must remember governor blames. Our cars drives up to use shapes. Our image travel hiked by themselves from from the states to another disincentive.
"aristotle" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime
"And its existence is abundantly recognized by Aristotle. His account of the causes of Revolutions in book V show how far were the existing states of Greece from the ideal with which he starts off his analysis of the facts forces him to look upon them as the scene of struggling factions. The causes of revolutions are not described as primarily changes in the conception of the common good but changes in the military or economic power of them several classes in the state. The aim which he sets before oligarchs or democracies is not the good life, but simple stability or permanence of the existing Constitution. With this Spirit of realism which pervades books for five and six the idealism of books 1 to 7 and 8 a.m. Is never reconciled. Aristotle is content to call existing constitutions perversions of the true form, but we cannot read the politics without recognizing and profiting from the insight into the nature of the state which is revealed throughout. Aristotle's failure does not lie in this that he is both idealist and realist. But that he keeps these two Tendencies too far apart. He thinks too much of his ideal State as something to be reached to once for all by knowledge as a fixed type to which actual States approximate or from which they are perversions. But if we are to think of actual Politics as intelligible in the light of the ideal, we must think of that ideal as progressively revealed in history was not as something to be discovered by turning our back on experience and having recourse to abstract reasoning. If we stretch hor word from what exists to an ideal it is to a better which may be in its turn transcended not to a single bulb mutable best. Aristotle found in the Society of his time men who were not capable of political reflection and who as he thought did their best work under superintendent's he therefore called them natural slaves for according to Aristotle. That is a man's natural condition in which he does his best work. But Aristotle also thinks of nature as something fixed and immutable and therefore sanctions the institution of slavery which assumes that young men are that they will always be and sets up an artificial barrier to their ever becoming anything else. We see in Aristotle's defense of slavery how the conception of nature.
"aristotle" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime
"Government. when there is in the state one man of transcendent virtue at the same time Aristotle always homes that absolute government is not properly political. That government is not like the rule of a Shepherd over his sheep, but the rule of equals over equals. He admits that the Democrats are right in insisting that equality is a necessary element in this state though. He thinks they do not admit the importance of other equally necessary elements. Hence, he comes to say that ruling and being ruled over by turns is an essential feature of constitutional government, which he admits as an alternative to aristocracy. The end of the state which is to be the standard of the distribution of political power is conceived sometimes as a good for the apprehension home entertainment of which virtue is necessary and sufficient and sometimes as a more complex good which needs for its attainment not own a virtue but wealth and equality. This latter conception is the principle on which the mixed Constitution is based. This and its distribution of political power gives some way to Virtue some to wealth and some to Mere number but the principle of rule and being ruled by turns is not really compatible with an unmodified principle of tools to those who can use them. Aristotle is right in seeing that political government demands equality not in the sense that all members of the state should be equal in ability or should have a power but in the sense that none of them can properly be regarded simply as tools with which the legislator works that each has a right to say what will be made of his own life. The analogy between the legislator and the Craftsman on which Plato insists breaks down because the legislator is dealing with men like himself off and who can to some extent conceive their own end in life and cannot be treated merely as means to the end of the legislator. The sense of the value of ruling and being ruled in turn is derived from the experience that the ruler may use his power to subordinate the lives of our citizens of the state not to the common good but to his own private purposes. In modern terms, it is a simple rough-and-ready attempt to solve that constant problem of politics how efficient government is to be combined with popular control. This problem arises from the imperfection of human nature a parent in rulers as well as in ruled and if the principal which attempts to solve it be admitted as a principal of importance in the formation of the best Constitution, then the starting point of politics will be man's actual imperfection not his ideal nature. Instead then of beginning with a state which would Express man's ideal nature and adapting it as well as maybe two mans actual shortcomings from that ideal. We must recognize that the state and all political Machinery are as much the expression of man's weakness as of his ideal possibilities. The state is Possible only because men have common aspirations but government and political power the existence of officials who are given authority to act in the name of the whole state are necessary because men's Community is imperfect because man's sexual nature expresses itself in conflicting ways in The Clash of interests the Rivalry of parties and the struggle of glasses instead of in the united seeking after a common good Plato and Aristotle were familiar with the legislator who was called in by the whole people and they tended therefore to take the general will or common consent of the people for granted. Most political questions are concerned with the construction and expression of the general will and with attempts to ensure that the political Machinery made to express the general will shall not be exploited for private or sectional ends. Aristotle's mixed Constitution Springs from a recognition of sectional interests in the state for the proper relation between the claims of virtue wealth and numbers is to be based not upon their relative importance in the good life, but upon the strength of the parties, which they represent. The mixed Constitution is practicable in a state where the middle class is strong as only the middle class can mediate between the rich and the poor dead. The mixed Constitution will be stable if it represents the actual balance of power between different classes in the state. When we come to Aristotle's analysis of existing constitutions, we find that while he regards them as imperfect approximations to the ideal. He also thinks of them as the result of the struggle between classes. Democracy he explains is the government not of the many but of the poor oligarchy a government not of the few but of the the ridge. And each class is sort of not as trying to express an ideal but a struggling to acquire power or maintain its position. If ever the class existed in unredeemed nakedness it was in the Greek cities of the fourth century.
"aristotle" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime
"Further the belief that the constitution of a state is only the outward expression of the common aspirations and beliefs of its members explains the Paramount wage political importance, which Aristotle assigns to education. It is the great instrument by which the legislator can ensure that the future citizens of his state will share those common beliefs which make the state possible. The Greeks with their small states had a far clear apprehension, then we can have of the dependence of a constitution upon the people who have to work it off. Such as in brief the attitude in which Aristotle approaches political problems, but in working out its application to men and institutions as they are off Aristotle admits certain compromises, which are not really consistent with it. 1 Aristotle thinks of membership of a state as community in pursuit of the good he wishes to confine membership in it to those who are capable of that pursuit in the highest and most explicit manner. His citizens. Therefore must be men of leisure capable of rational thought upon the end of life. He does not recognize the significance of that unless conscious but deep-seated membership of the state which Finds Its expression in loyalty and patriotism. His definition of citizen includes only a small part of the population of any Greek City. He is forced to admit that the state is not possible without the cooperation of men whom he will not admit to membership in it either because they are not capable a sufficient rationale appreciation of political ends. Like The Barbarians who me thought were natural slaves.
"aristotle" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime
"The politics of Aristotle is the second part of A Treatise of which the ethics is the first part. It looks back to the ethics as the ethics looks forward to the politics for Aristotle did not separate as we are inclined to do the Spheres the Statesman and the moralist. In the ethics, he has described the character necessary for the good life. But that life is for him essentially to be lived in society. And when in the last chapters of the ethics, it comes to the practical application of his inquiries that finds expression not in moral exhortation address off the individual but in a description of the legislative opportunities of the Statesman It is the legislators task to frame a society. Which shall make the good life possible. Politics for Aristotle is not a struggle between individuals or classes for power nor device for getting done. Such Elementary tasks long as the maintenance of order and security without too great encroachments on individual liberty. The state is a community of well-being and families and aggregations of families for the sake of a perfect and self sufficing life. The legislator is a Craftsman whose material is society. And whose aim is the good life. In an early dialogue of Plato's the protagoras Socrates asks protagoras why it is not as easy to find teachers of virtue of job. It is to find a teacher's of swordsmanship riding or any other art. Protagoras is answer is that there are no special teachers have hurt you because the virtue is taught by the whole community. Plato and Aristotle, both accept the view of moral education implied in this answer. In a passage of the Republic Plato repudiates the notion that the sophists have a corrupting moral influence upon young men. The public themselves. He says are the real sophists and the most complete and thorough educators. No private education can hold out against the irresistible force of public opinion and the ordinary moral standards of society. But that makes it all the more essential that public opinion and social environment should not be left to grow up at haphazard as they ordinarily do month. But should be made by the wise legislator the expression of the good and be informed in all their details by his knowledge. The legislator is the only possible teacher of virtue such a program for A Treatise on government might lead us to expect in the politics mainly a description of a Utopia or ideal state which might Inspire poets or philosophers, but have a little direct effect upon political institutions. Plato's Republic is obviously impracticable for its author had turned away in despair from existing politics. He has no proposals in that dialogue at least for making the best of things as they are. The first lesson his philosopher has to learn is to turn away from this world of becoming and Decay and to look upon the unchanging Eternal world of ideas. Thus his ideal city is as he says a pattern laid up in heaven by which the just man-made rule his life a pattern therefore in the mean time. I'm for the individual and not for the Statesman. It is a city. He admits in the laws for God's or the children of God's Not to ferment as they are. Aristotle has none of the high enthusiasm or poetic imagination of Plato. He is even unduly impatient of Plato's idealism as is shown by the criticisms in the second book. But he has a power to see the possibilities of good in things that are imperfect and the patience of the true politician who has learned that if he would make men with ought to be he must take them as he finds them. His ideal is constructed not of pure reason or poetry but from careful and sympathetic study of a wide range of facts. His criticism of Plato in the light of history in book two chapter five though as a criticism it is curiously inapt Reveals His Own attitude admirably. Let us remember that we should not disregard the experience of Ages. In the multitude of years these things if they were good would certainly not have been unknown for almost everything has been found out. Although sometimes they are not put together. In other cases men do not use the knowledge which they have. Aristotle and his constitutions had made a study of 158 constitutions of the states of his day and the fruits of that study wage are seen in the continual reference to concrete political experience, which makes the politics in some respects a critical history of the workings of the institutions of the Greek city-state. In books for five and six the ideal State seems far away and we find a dispassionate survey of imperfect States off the best ways of preserving them and an analysis of the causes of their instability. It is as though Aristotle were saying I have shown you the proper and normal type of Constitution. But if you will not have it and insist on living under a perverted form.
Understanding Complicated Female Friendships
"To start, let's break down the purpose of friendship. Now the first person to do this that I'm aware of anyways or perhaps the most famous person to really break down the purpose and meaning of friendships was aristotle. Couple things that we do know that friendships provide I the first of which is affirmation. So we like having friends because it makes us feel affirmed we like to have people around us who make us feel important make our ideas feel like they're normal. It's a relationship and relationships. We use relationships to know that we are significant that we matter there were doing things right? There were normal. This I very basic level of Wyatt is we desire friendships can also give us some indication of why friendships can often become toxic or why friendships are often revered or looked at in such a way like they have more power than what they really should have because I mean before we go much further if we're looking to another person. For affirmation, if we need to know the worst significant because of how we define our relationship with somebody else we're already in big trouble we've moved way too far away from God's Love I mean it's really we don't need affirmation. From anyone else to be worthy to be significant to know that we're lovable and I. Know That's easier said than done. It's hard to feel as though you are lovable. It is hard to feel as though you are worthy if it doesn't feel like other people are giving you that assurance but the bottom line is the more you need that from other people the more. Desperate, and needy. You are going to be in friendships. All right. Let's move on. We also have friendships because they're fun. I mean friends can provide us with. Certain things like your romantic partner cannot of fun. Friend gives you the opportunity to step outside the things that you feel like you have to be in your romantic relationship or the person you have to be on social media or with your children or with your family like it's a way to just kind of let go and have fun and be who you are. Sometimes friendships are the place where we can reconnect with our childhood. You know we can laugh and giggle and be silly and literally have fun. We can step outside of our adult selves for a moment. Friendships can also provide us with clarification guidance. Note some friends actually do that. It's like the place where we check in to know if in fact, our own virtues and beliefs make sense. It's a place for some of us some friendships where we can go to kind of ask questions of ourselves or to hold up a mirror to our own beliefs and our decisions friendships can provide some accountability they are. A way for us to know that we're on the right path, and that is why with some of our friendships, they can from time to time take on almost a mentor ship rule. But when that does happen, the friendship isn't always equal. Now, there are friendships however where the mentorship does go back and forth, and that's what we're GONNA do is we're going to talk about the different levels of friendships. Now. Here's the rub with the different levels of friendships you might define. Insert name of friend. You might define that friendship as being on level one, but that person may define your friendship as being on level three or four, or you may be in flux and you also want to keep in mind that not every friend that you have is going to stay on that level like these levels are pretty organic and that shouldn't say anything about you or them. It just is what it is. So, let's start with the first level of friendship and that is just someone that you know they're not a complete stranger. It's not some was just driving by you their car it's someone you maybe see on a regular basis you wave maybe even know their name new nod at them. When you walk past, you might say, hello, it's the person that you see at the gym. It's the neighbor that you walk past. You know their names you say, hello, how are you today you change pleasantries but you really don't know each other not an intimate level now ps will complicates all of this is freaking social media. I mean, there are people who it's weird I follow them. And I feel like I know them and I actually do know a lot about them and they've written vulnerable posts and they share every part of their life and I know I do this to right and there are people who I follow and I think if I were to see them. They recognize me because I see them all the time. I, follow them on social media. My listen to their podcasts I watched their reality. TV. Show. What have you now if I were to see that person for a split second I think Oh, I, I know that person But. In their mind I'm in the stranger category I'm a complete stranger. I've put them in a different category because I've invested more into knowing that person and they don't know me at all. So there is a perfect example of two people being in two very different categories.
Alexander of Hales
"On this episode of five minutes in Church history, we are talking about Alexander of Hales a medieval theologian. The first question is, where is hails will hails is in the West Midlands of England. The word itself means a Nook or a remote valley in this was a place that was a remote valley at the time of Alexander. The population of this sleepy little Berg was south of five hundred people. So now that we know where hails is who is Alexander. Well, he was born in eleven eighty five actually we're not quite exactly sure when he was born dates range from eleven eighty to eleven eighty six but we seem to settle on the date eleven eighty five. There is very little else known about his childhood we assume that his family was wealthy because he was sent off to the University of Paris to study in that was not something that everyone did. So we assume that his family had some means an off he went to Paris. His time at Paris. He held a number of church positions and titles but largely, he was a teacher at the University of Paris. He did become Franciscan monk in twelve thirty six and he would die in Paris in twelve, forty five. So. What did he do? Well, he was significant and bringing aristotle into the discussion of theology. Now, when we talk about this, we talk about all of the as that are involved and that is the first letter of the names of all of these people seems to begin with an a or there's no himself. Of course. Then there's arrows he was the Muslim scholar who translated aristotle from the Greek into Latin for all these medieval lists to be able to read study. There's Alberta's Magnus Albert the great another Great Faculty member at the University of Paris and he was the teacher of the final a a coyness. Thomas. Aquinas. Well, into that bunch of as we must throw Alexander he actually preceded Albertus magnus and he was the first to. The lectures and the theological lectures in particular around to aristotle and to use aristotle and his method, and even some of Aristotle's Tom's. As an aide and as a help to teach algae was Alexander of Hales that we see as the founder of the father of scholasticism and one of his published works was his own Suma Taylor. Of course, we talk about Thomas Acquaintances Suma but Alexander had one to his sumo was not finished at the time of his death and many others added to it in fact about seven years after he died. His book was still being added to one person said of Alexander's Suma that it was as heavy as a horse. Now, I'm sure there are some hyperbole there, but it was a massive tome. So we have his big book in his use of Aristotle but the other thing that makes him interesting is that he participated in these public university wide debates and he participated in famous one that spanned over three days. Now. Presumably, let's hope that they would take breaks from time to time. But this was a debate that spanned three days and anyone students. Faculty citizens of Paris could ask any question of the master and the master would have to feel it. And Alexander of Hales withstood three long days of this debate. That's how you earned the Latin title Doctor, Irre- FRAG analysis which we translate as the air refutable teacher. So he was unable to be refuted during those three days of debates. He also earned the title Doctor Doc two-room, which translated means the teacher of teachers. So this is Alexander of Hales that small village and mid western England and he made it all the way to the University of Paris as the Medieval, theologian? Alexander of Hales.
"aristotle" Discussed on The Happiness Lab with Dr. Laurie Santos
"Meeting that can be awkward. But with Microsoft surface devices with teams orchestrated by cdw future works better touchscreen voice capabilities teams engaged in productive enabling new always collaborate with confidence wherever noon. Thanks for joining you have spinach in teeth. Thanks for the tip man it orchestration by cdw people who get it find out more at CDW DOT com slash surface. So people who listened to the podcast here a lot about the kinds of things they can do to be happy that are born out by modern science. When Aristotle thought about spiritual wellbeing, this idea of dementia what are the kinds of things he thought we should be paying attention to what are the sorts of actions he wanted us to engage with. So he was really interested in developing character that was what he called moderate in exactly the right ways and he viewed the virtues that help us thrive as being cases of behavior that are intermediate between two extremes. So it's easiest. Case of something like bravery where you have an extreme of being a coward, you have an extreme of being reckless and in between those two things is bravery which aristotle thinks of as the perfect moderate virtue. Or with regard to your character, you could be somber. or You could be. A buffoon or you could be somebody with a good sense of humor. And I love this idea of the middle way because you know it fits with some of the things that we talk about on the podcast, which is this idea that you got to take baby steps towards the sorts of actions you want to engage in to become happier right if I tell you that you know gratitude is really important. For example, you don't WanNa. So double down on gratitude that you're stressing yourself out. So it's engaging in virtue but almost in a in a moderate baby steps sort of way, and the Nice thing about thinking of virtue as the Middle Way is that you always know what the next thing to do is if. You're aiming to be brave and you're cowardly person. You don't have to get all the way over to bravery. You just have to take a small step towards bravery and you're moving to the middle. So by giving us a center to move towards, we can make progress without being overwhelmed at the prospect of what it is that we need to change. We just need to change a little bit and then the next day a little bit more, and as their Assad likes to point out this becomes self reinforcing. He says, abstaining from pleasures makes us become temperate and once we've become temperate were more capable of staining from pleasures. It's similar with bravery, bitch? Standing firm in frightening situations makes us brave and once we've become brave were more capable of standing firm. So if you WANNA be a brave person act the way a brave person acts and you will manifest bravery and you will be reinforced in your experience about how pleasurable and possibilities for you to act bravely. So. Aristotle, talked a lot about different virtues and that's one of the reasons his book was really a book not about happiness or you DEMONIAC, but it was a book about ethics. So so talking about this important book and why it was so powerful in Western thought sure this is a book called the Nicholl mckeon. Ethics and it's a book in which Aristotle tries to spell out what is it to live a virtuous life but his notion of virtuous a really broad one he means not just a life that is a moral life. But a life that for the individual brings them this you die monia thriving and happiness, and that for the society contributes to a society in which there's thriving and happiness. So this is a book about how to live well, morally. How to live well happily and how to live well, in a way that is part of a harmonious society where all are in a position to thrive in. This is where I think the science really backs aristotle up because we know even if you're just shooting for the happy life, the data really suggest that what you want to do is to live a moral life. You WanNa live a life where you're doing nice things for others you want to live a life where you're really feeling connected to other people where you're doing something that is. A job that gives you meaning. So in some sense, even if you were just shooting for the you, Die Moni apart, you'd get these other two parts as well. Right? Ed's exactly right Aristotle thinks that human beings are creatures where it's possible to become someone in whom what gives you pleasure is causing other people to thrive and do well. So for Aristotle healthy thriving virtuous individual is a person who takes pleasure in others also having lives that are filled with meaning who takes pleasure in being a situation where those around them are also doing well. And that's one of the reasons that aristotle devoted to whole chapters in this important book to something that we might not think about when we think about virtue and ethics necessarily right. So so what were those sort of two chapters about? Yeah, it's a great question. So this folk which has ten chapters, there were ten papyrus scrolls on which the book was written devotes chapters eight and nine to the topic of friendship, and he thinks friendship is incredibly important throughout our entire lives. He says the young need friendship to keep them from error the old need friendship to care for them and to support the actions that fail because of. Weakness and those in their prime need friendship to do fine actions four, they are more capable of understanding and acting when to go together and his idea of friendship was impart for kind of you know hedonistic pleasure. You know you get some utility out of it, but he also thought that friends could affect our happiness in a deeper more meaningful way as well. Actually, he distinguishes among three different kinds of friendship. There's a kind of friendship, a relatively shallow kind of friendship, which is friendship based on utility I'm friends with you because I get something out of it in your friends with me 'cause you get something out of it. There's a second kind of friendship which is a little bit richer, which is a friendship based on pleasure where I enjoy your company and you enjoy my company. The. Kind of friendship that aristotle is really interested in is a friendship. It's based on mutual appreciation of one another's deep values, and whereas the first two kinds of friendship are accidental they're limited in depth. They don't last a long time a friendship that's based on a deep appreciation of how my being in your presence makes me a better person and your being in my presence makes you a better person is a kind of friendship that's lasting and it fits with Aristotle's general picture. That what we want to do is to get ourselves into self reinforcing cycles where we're doing something that works and because we're doing it and it works we keep doing. So Aristotle calls a friend a second self. And he thinks that one of the ways in which we can help ourselves cultivate practical wisdom. Is By finding friends who support us in that activity. So far I to be brave. I say to you my virtuous deep friend. Let's work on bravery together. And I reinforce your bravery you reinforce my bravery. I get an extra self to help me remain committed to what I want to do not just theoretically. But practically, not just in my head but also in my actions. And this too fits with a lot of what we know about the science of habits. Right you know when you're trying to stick to a new virtuous habit or even to some habit that will improve your happiness that you want to exercise more, you want to meditate are right in your gratitude journal. One of the things you can do from the habit literature to find social support right? You find a friend who's good at that who you can kind of say am going to do this with you, and then you do that together, which is funny to tell you tomorrow because you are my exercise buddy, my hiking buddy, my yoga buddies. So we. Laurie Laurie is the person. In fact, when Laurie had a broken leg I discovered that my second south had stopped hiking and so my first self stopped hiking. So it was a great relief to me when your leg got strong enough again for us to walk together. But yes, this idea that one of the ways that you can stick to your commitments to surround yourself by others who are also committed to those things is part of really every wisdom tradition. So in the Buddhist wisdom tradition, there's a notion. They Call Right Association that is surround yourself by others were also committed to this path towards spiritual enlightenment, and almost every religious tradition involves communal activity of kind that says, put yourself in a setting where others are also trying to pursue that kind of spiritual transcendence and in fact, that was actually the inspiration for one of the requirements. These sort of happiness practices that I did my class one of the things I ask my students to do is to take what I call a strength state where you. Hang out with a friend and you both tried to pursue some virtue that you want to get better at some strength that you want to enhance. But the idea is to do it with somebody else, and in fact, there's evidence for Mardi selling group at this active can doing a strength date with somebody can be give a nice boost your wellbeing. So you've been a scholar Aristotle for some time. Now have you been following the middle way using his insights to go after your own you die Monja. Pretty much everything that Aristotle instructs us to do is a part of my own attempt at self improvement. The recognition that what I needed to do to change a bad habit was just to move a little bit towards a better version of it was an incredible relief to me as I found myself feeling overwhelmed by changes that I wanted to make and the idea that in order to become somebody who had virtues that I wanted all I had to do was start acting as if I already had those virtues was unbelievably liberating and transformative for me. We're about the front part. And for almost every change that I wanted to make the realization that I had a second self available to help me do that most often in things at home that partner was my spouse or one of my children but for the big changes that I wanted to make in my life, my friendship actually with you Lori was one of the factors that really enabled me to make those changes and I feel like the combination of Aristotle's wisdom from twenty, five, hundred years ago and your. Friendship from one and a half decades has been the key to allowing me to thrive and flourish while that is sweet to hear you say and write back at your because I feel like when I think about the people who are pleasurable friends or friends of utility versus the ones that are real friends of meeting friends that get me towards for you. You are right up there too. So yeah, thank you and I just I mean I hadn't realized it really has been fifteen years. Disturbing but it. makes. The things tomorrow has taught me about aristotle have helped me a ton in my own quest to be happier and more virtuous things like the need.
"aristotle" Discussed on The Happiness Lab with Dr. Laurie Santos
"Two thousand years ago right? What it's really interesting that each era. Uses a particular mode of understanding as its best way of making sense of the world and one of the things I try to teach my course is that there's lots of methodologies to coming to the same insight and so neuroscience gives us one way of looking at what is it for us to be in a state of happiness or harmony and behavioral psychology gives us another way of testing and measuring that and literary representations. Give us another way of identifying this and the kind of work that aristotle did a speculative systematic philosophical exploration of what he observed in those around him. Is a methodology that very often brings us to the same sorts of insights that we might get from literature or neuroscience or behavioral psychology I think those the fact that you need to do that kind of philosophical inquiry for these insights is important right? Because another thing that comes up on this podcast is that we often have incorrect oceans of the kinds of things that make us. Happy Right. When we do a super fast introspection, we can think, oh I just want all the hedonistic pleasures in some good food and Saxon Nice stuff to watch on net flicks but in fact. If you really do a deep dive that seems to be not what works I think. The idea that the surface gives you one kind of information but that assembling a lot of surface phenomena and then looking at what lies more deeply behind them gives you a deeper understanding is an incredibly important insight and a lot of what the philosophical work that happened in ancient Athens twenty five hundred years ago does is to say, don't get diluted by this particular momentary sets looking stead at how these things pattern together, and you will have a deeper understanding of what matters to human beings. And so aerosol using that same approach came up with a different concept that I think is important for modern science and happiness with kind of different thing that we get wrong which is how our knowledge can help us and how we get to know about happiness and this was his idea of for Nisa. So what was this concept of furnaces? So for niece's often translated as practical wisdom. To understand what that means think about the contrast between what we sometimes call the theoretical and what we call the practical or the difference between knowing that something is a taste and knowing how to do something. So if you're trying to figure out how to do something like throw a baseball or play the piano or respond in a calm and temperate fashion. When you're under a situation of agitation, you can have a theoretical understanding of it. You can understand lots of things about the physics of baseball's or about the acoustical properties of a piano or you can read a therapy book and understand what it is when people respond calmly that's theoretical wisdom. But the theoretical wisdom doesn't give you the capacity to engage the action you want to engage in in order to do that you actually need what aristotle would call practical wisdom, a kind of skill, the skill that comes from practicing the activity about which you want to make progress. and. So Aristotle, really thought that you die. Mugniyah. Isn't just kind of something that we're born with or something we can kind of get to theoretically he really thought it was something that you get to a skill based way right? So, Aristotle thought the strategy by which we gain this kind of deeper thriving the spiritual well-being you diamond Nia. Is the strategy of making ourselves into the kind of people who are virtuous and who take pleasure in virtue. So it's a kind of self education project of building up in yourself. The kind of soul you want to have you make yourself into the person that you want to be an aristotle is really aware of the way in which that can be self reinforcing. You want yourself to become a particular kind of person you practice being. That kind of person and doing that kind of activity thereby becomes pleasurable to you, and this is something that's also really nicely borne out in the modern science in one of our podcast episodes. I. Interviewed Scientists Sonia. Lubomirski in her book the how of Happiness? She has this wonderful quote that just as you learn violin by playing it or just as you kind of put a lot of work into raising a child if you WANNA bump up. Your happiness levels, you actually have to put the work in, and that work isn't just kinda theoretical work. It's actually engaging with it in a real way and actually building up your happiness kind of like a skillset like from the ground up. So the quote that you gave from Sonya Lubomirski is actually a direct reference to aristotle who famously says that we become builders by doing and we become harpists by playing the harp and then he goes. On to say that, just as the way you learn to be a builder is by building buildings. In the way you learn to play the harp is by playing the harp. So to says, Aristotle, we become just by doing joust actions temperate by doing temperate actions brave by doing brave actions. That is the way that we come to have practical wisdom is by practicing the skill that we want to cultivate so that it becomes natural to us. And Aristotle also had good ideas about which particular kinds of actions we should want to practice right like what are the kinds of actions that will actually make a virtuous and therefore spiritually happy person. When we get back from the break, we'll dive into that specific ways. The Aristotle thought we could achieve happiness, and what we'll see is he devoted to whole chapters to something.
"aristotle" Discussed on The Happiness Lab with Dr. Laurie Santos
"With me Dr Larry Caesar's. Aristotle. He is absurd. Yeah. It seems fine. This is tomorrow gentler professor philosophy and cognitive science at Yale. University one two, three. Okay and the volume still looks okay on and also one of my oldest and dearest friends does that work all right okay. Tomorrow night talked pretty much every day. So. It's a little bit weird to be recording one of our conversations for you. All and thanks to social distancing. We can't even meet in person right now. So tomorrow getting a crash course on how to use one of my spare recorders. Okay. LemMe give them another five and she's taken to podcasting like a total pro I. am totally ready to go. Hello tomorrow also teaches a super popular class at Yale. It's called philosophy and the science of human nature. Her class looks way back in history to find philosophical solutions to the problems. We all face today. The idea that the most interesting answer to the question that you're trying to ask would be given by somebody who happens to be on earth with you right now is a real mistake. Sometimes, the most interesting answer is something that somebody gave two thousand years ago or on a completely different continent or in a completely different context the story of the chariot and the uncooperative horses is an analogy. I find useful when reason tells me I should be shooting for my happiness goals but my desires, doubts and emotions keep pulling me off course. It's a powerful analogy and it comes from the work of ancient Greek philosophers. One of the areas to Martinez in her course, there was a period about twenty, five hundred years ago in Greece where a whole bunch of really smart people directed their attention to a set of really interesting and important questions and society structured itself in such a way that those individuals were given the freedom and the Leisure and the luxury to think about those questions as a profession what they did for their job was think about what does it mean for human beings to flourish and the community of individuals talking to? One another about that question meant that they made more progress on it. Then other people have at other times and so it's a great luxury to be able to help ourselves to their wisdom Satini. We're going to focus in on one of the ancients in my view is really considered the father of positive psychology, this field of the science of wellbeing and that is heiress bottle. So give us aristotle one. Oh, one who was aristotle and why was he so important? So Aristotle was a guy from the countryside come from Athens and his parents died when he was quite young. So he was an orphan. And when he was seventeen, he was brought to Athens to study in Plato's Academy. And he liked school so much that he stayed there as a student for another twenty years and aristotle was just one of the greatest polymath thinkers in the history of Western civilization. In addition to the work that he did in philosophy, he's the inventor of physics field of biology as a field. He was a great theorist of poetry, a great theorist of drama and theater, and one of the major activities that he undertook was to try to figure out what a well lived human life might look like. and. So he came up with two concepts that I think are super important when we try to think about happiness in the modern day and so one of these concepts was what he called you diamond Lia like what is you diamond? Yes. So you done when NIA has as its middle word, the Word Die Mon- or Spirit, and if you've read the his dark materials folks which are wonderful series of children's books, you'll notice that the spirit animal that people have in those books is called their Die Mon-. So you die more NIA is roughly spiritual flourishing spiritual wellbeing the thriving of what some traditions call the human soul, what you might call the Human Mind or human spirit, and so we think of you diamond. Yeah. We think of Sir spiritual flourishing the way aristotle thought of you die. Mugniyah. Was a little bit different than we often think about happiness these days right? Like it wasn't really happiness in the moment was kind of a bigger deeper almost like moral happiness right? You might think of two distinct notions of happiness there are many but here are two one is what? We might call hedonistic happiness the indulgence of short lived pleasures. So the pleasures of eating or of sex, and that's an important part of what it is to be a human being taking pleasure in the physical world around you but Aristotle was interested in a richer and more robust and more lasting notion of what happiness would be not just short-lived hedonistic pleasure but long lived thrive and he had a picture that there was. A certain function for which human beings were ideally built. So just as the function of a knife is to cut well and the function of a paperweight to hold down papers the function of a human being is to be able to express virtue and reason that is to participate in the things that are the highest form of the good in the world, and so you die Mugniyah is a kind of thriving that involves spending. As. Much of your time and as complete of your activity in a state where you are doing things that are good that are virtuous that are pleasurable to you because you have turned yourself into someone who takes pleasure in virtue, and so you diamond NIA INCON- trust a hedonism is a kind of lasting rather than short-lived pleasure. In. So cool. The aristotle came up with this. So long ago, right? Because this is what's being born out in a lot of the modern science of happiness right on this podcast, we talk a lot about data suggesting that your circumstances don't necessarily make you happy you could be rich and have the opportunities to engage in all kinds of hedonistic pleasure. But a lot of folks self report that that leaves kind of empty that they're kind of missing something and so aristotle kind of on top of this life.
What's In A Scientific Name
"From loon example of a trial by in Hunan China called Hans Solo to a butterfly Pea flour reminiscent of Georgia. Oh painting called Couture Couturier Turn Tia. The naming of species offers almost as much in the way of entertainment as it does scientific classification. The official rules for naming species set down by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature are surprisingly simple. The name must be spelled with the Latin alphabet and must not be overtly offensive and that's pretty much it. My Name's Moxy and this is your brain on facts. Most of US know that the animals we call by single name such as a horse actually had a two part name in that case equis Columbus. In contrast to astronomical bodies like stars, Asteroids and planets which are under strict naming conventions overseen by committees, there's almost unfettered freedom it comes to zoological nomenclature. The name can even be on sense string of arbitrary letters. While there is a wealth of name fascination to report on from plants to drugs to telescopes. Ourselves today to the Animal Kingdom. For as long as we have had records and probably longer mankind has sought to classify the world around us in an effort to begin to understand it. This is called taxonomy the study of the general principles of scientific classification from the Greek words for order or arrangement and science. Three centuries before the common era aristotle grouped animals I by similarities like where they lived and then hierarchically with humans naturally at the top. Not, every animal fit well into this system though ducks posed a particular problem as they had the bothersome habit of living on water on land and spending time in the air. It would be eighteen hundred years before another natural philosopher as scientists were called, then would try their hand such as Andrei sessile, Pino Italian physician, and botanist who sorted plants by the structure of their fruits and seeds. The first scientist to use a binomial or to name system that we would recognize was Swiss botanist guest sparred Boeing. Some six thousand plants by genus and species in sixteen, twenty three. There were several inconsistent and sometimes conflicting systems of classification already in use when Carolina's wrote his. SYSTEMA naturally in seventeen, thirty five. Laying down the system we use to this day. Lena's was first taxonomic east to list humans as a primate, but he also originally classified whales as. All living things were sorted into them, Feilim class order, family, genus, and species. Many of US memorized that in middle school by way of a new monarch like King Philip came over from great Spain. Housecat for example, is kingdom and Amelia filed them cor data meaning it has spinal cord. Class Mammalia order can Adora family feel a day genus fearless and species cactus. A lion diverges at the genus Pan Terra, which awesomely means reaper of all and species. Leo. So the scientific name for Lion Is Penn Tara Leo. This system can be visualized as an enormous branching tree with its trunk, very broad and its branches increasingly specific. We. Still name some animals in accordance with their appearance with a little poetic license thrown in for good measure. The tiniest and most pastelle of the armored mammals was christened the pink fairy armadillo. A. Hand Size Lizard with a gift from a meese camouflage was given the fairly metal moniker satanic leaf tailed Gecko. It's actual religious beliefs remain a mystery. As advertised, the star nosed mole has a burst of delicate sensory tendrils on the tip of its snout. Also, sacks myuka Flores is an unappealing worm who lives off the bones of dead whales which would explain its name bone eating snot flower. A bacterium that was taken to the International Space Station, and exposed to cosmic radiation earned the Latin moniker for traveler of the void. China boasts a salamander species that can grow to a whopping one point. Eight meters were nearly six feet long. It goes by the name. Hell Bender and this reporter for one will not argue with it.
7 Habits of Successful People That Will Make You Feel Unstoppable in 2020 by Brian Tracy
"Seven. Habits of successful people Dow Make You feel unstoppable and twenty twenty by Brian Tracy of Brian. Tracy DOT COM. Many. People wonder how they can become highly successful not realizing that they hold within them everything they need to achieve all of the success they desire. Successful. People are where they are today because of their habits habits determined ninety five percent over prisons behavior everything that you are today and everything that you will ever accomplish is determined by the quality of the habits that you form. By creating good habits and adopting positive behavior, you too can become successful and live a prosperous life. These seven success habits are good predictors of greatness. For thousands of years in human life has been studied by great thinkers and philosophers. I've personally studied the subject for more than thirty years would I found is that the very best people have developed good habits I've identified seven valuable habits you need to develop if you want to perform at your very maximum in everything you do. Number one their goal oriented. The. FIRST HABIT IS BECOME goal oriented. You need to be habitual goal setter and dedicate yourself to working from clear written goals. Every day of your life forming daily habits. All highly successful people are intensely goal oriented. They know exactly what they want to have it written down they have written plans to accomplish it and they both review and work on their plans. As a daily routine. I suggest you learn how to use the eighty twenty rule to officially work toward achieving your goals. Number two their results driven. The second habit of highly successful people is being results driven. This is made up of two practices. The first practice is the practice of continuously learning so that you become better at what you do. The second practice is that of time management, this means setting very clear priorities on what you do and then concentrating single-mindedly on the most valuable use of your time. All. Really successful people are intensely result oriented. Number three, they are action oriented. The third major habit you need to develop is that of continually taking action. This is really the most important habit for material. Success is the ability to get on with the job and get it done fast is your ability to develop and maintain a sense of urgency and a bias for Action Fast Tempo in whatever you do is essential to your success. He need to overcome procrastination push aside your fears and launch one hundred percent toward the achievement of your most important goals. The combination of goal orientation result orientation, and Oriental in. Themselves will virtually assure great success. I highly suggest you learn to use smart goals to list achievable targets that you can measure and track. Number Four. There people oriented. The fourth having you need is people. is where you put relationships in the center of your life. This is your decision to cultivate within yourself the habits of patience, kindness, compassion, and understanding virtually all of your happiness in life will come from your ability to get along well with other people. The good news is that you can become a wonderful human being in your relationships with others when you decide to as Aristotle said, the only way that you can learn any habit is by practicing it on a regular basis. The more you practice being a truly excellent person in your relationships with others the more you will internalize those qualities actually become that person. Focusing on being more pleasant with the people in your life is a great technique to promote a positive thinking lifestyle. Number five, they are health conscious. The Fifth Abbot highly successful people develop is health consciousness. This means that you must studiously watch your diet and always eat the right in the right portions you must exercise on a regular basis, continue using every muscle in joint of your body to keep it limber and fit. Finally only, you must have good habits of rest and recreation though unable you in combination with Diet and exercise to live out your years in a healthy state. Remember your health is the most important single thing you have, and it is completely subject to the habit you developed with regard to the way you live. Number. Six, they are honest. The. Six habit is out of honesty and integrity. In the final analysis that character develop as he goes through life is more important than virtually anything else honesty means that you practice the reality principle in everything you do your completely objective with yourself and with the world around you
Fauci: There is not "a lot of definitive evidence" that coronavirus can transmit through airborne spread, but it should not be ruled out
"CROWBARS cases are increasing and at least thirty six states this week Texas set a new record high for the number of new cases in a single day today, topping ten thousand cases for the first time at ten, thousand and twenty eight Arizona set a new grim record high for the number of coronavirus deaths in a single day today at one hundred seventeen. Some states reversing their policy. On allowing indoor dining in restaurants today, Dr, Anthony Fauci said this. When you talk about heiress, ill or airborne? There have been demonstrations viruses. That can actually stay in the air for much longer enhance. Get caught up in the circulation system of given room. There isn't a lot of definitive evidence about what the impact of the Aristotle Ization is on covert expression. However, we have some good examples back with SARS which is a similar virus where they were clear cut examples of spread by Aerosol. Juror discussion now is Dr. Peter says. He is the dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and the CO director of the Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development Doctor. Thank you very much for joining us tonight, and just in reaction to what Dr Fauci was just saying in the whole question of indoor dining in restaurants, one of the simple messages is being outside is better than being inside. Yeah that's right now. We know that droplet contact is a major out of transmission meaning that somebody has this virus and what we know about this viruses, that's it's president. High amounts in the Upper Airways speaking, or you cough. You released a lot of virus, and then gets on surfaces or land on people's face. We've known about that for a long time, but a lot of us have suspected that it does something more which is lingers in the atmosphere as well. Well and it turns out not allowed to respiratory viruses. Actually do this easels, does it chicken pox? Virus does and this one almost certainly does this as well, and that's one of the reasons why this is so highly transmissible that high amount of virus, the upper airway and the fact that those particles are released, and so many of those people are without symptoms. So this is what makes it so hard to do. The contact tracing into really manage these epidemics. I? WanNa. Get your view of something. We discussed last night on this program. And that is the the possibility that the real range of possible symptoms is almost unlimited because of the fact that the. Although we think of it as a respiratory of problem, there's also a vascular problem because of the way it seems to get into the bloodstream and those New York Times. Reporter indicating that you could walk into a doctor with just symptoms of feeling, generally bad, and and that could be worthy of Corona virus testing. That's right. There's a huge number of different presentations gastrointestinal presentations prison, presenting coughing and early on in this epidemic we were always told about cough and fever, and that certainly does occur, but the big worrisome one now is the fact that we know this virus binds to certain receptors on the cells, lining blood vessels, and this is causing blood clots warm, so you're seeing pulmonary embolism. You're seeing strokes. You're seeing heart attacks, and that's happening because this virus induces blood clots in the coronary artery, and so one of the big concerns now is, we're people with sudden deaths at. At home people maybe in the early stages of this illness, and this is one of the reasons why so terrifying when the President says ninety nine percent of the cases are harmless, is just not true, and we need to step up our game in the US in terms of interrupting community transmission, the number of cases is going up and up and up forty thousand last week than fifty thousand. Now it's going to be over sixty thousand towards the end of this week with no end in sight so with this epidemic tragically a spiraling out of control right now. and Dr, who does the way you described that? Possibility of sudden death at home would also be a one of the reasons why the death count is, so it is understated in our statistical analysis of it so far. Yeah absolutely, and we're trying to tease out exactly. All of the ramifications we know for instance uncertain about a sudden deaths from covid nineteen. The other thing that happens is when covert night team strikes that community. The people don't take care of themselves. They're reluctant to go to the doctor with symptoms because they're worried of our contracting Cova Nineteen, so we think that may be a component of it as well l., but it's a lethal combination in so many undiagnosed cases, so we're. We're going to get her better handle lot in the coming months, but for now this is a serious and deadly infection.
David Hume the Philosopher
"Welcome back to another episode of five minutes in Church history. On this episode. We are continuing conversation. We started last week last week. We were talking about David Hume the skeptical Scottish philosopher from the eighteenth century. We're talking about how one of his books. That was very popular in his own day. Eight volume series of books actually history of Great Britain mentions the Westminster standards, and that's an aspect of David Hume that not everybody knows about David, hume the historian well today. We'll talk about that aspect that people do know about David Hume the philosopher as we mentioned, he is known as the father or the founder of skepticism philosophical skepticism. This idea that we really can't know what we know. We can't have certainty. In what we know in one sense were plagued with doubt. Well, one of the reasons hume arrived at this was because of his understanding. Of how we understand experienced in what we can make of experience. Talking about the law of causality here, and how we know that every effect has an equal or greater than costs. This goes back in the history of philosophy back to Aristotle at David Hume question that he said. How can we know we can observe called customary relationships, but how can we know every time in every place that the law of cause and effect works? He concludes you know what we can't. All we can speak of is customary relationships well. David Hume used that to defeat many of the classical arguments for the existence of God namely the cozma logical argument. He also took on the design argument for the existence of God. This comes from one of his books later in his life dialogues, concerning natural religion, and it's set up as a dialogue with various characters in hume uses it to just walk through the arguments in from his perspective. Dismantle them when he gets to the design argument. This is what hume says. The design that we think we see in the world is not really a design. Hume says instead what we see our quote. The chance permutations of particles falling into a temporary or permanent self, sustaining order, which has the appearance of design. And quote well, let's unpack that think about it just for a moment. the human self you as a person, you are ultimately a result of particles falling by chance, and what happens to be a perfect order to allow you to function. That's what hume's argument would demand. It would be like saying. Let's take a five thousand piece puzzle. And let's just throw all of those five thousand pieces into the air. And what will happen by chance? Is that all five? Thousand of those pieces will fall into a perfect place in relationship with each other and form a completed puzzle just like the picture on the box. Well of that all I can say is I think I'm skeptical of what David who is trying to say about this world in which we live the important thing about David Hume is where he falls in the history of ideas he comes. Right in the eighteenth century. As the sciences or maturing and coming into their own in the university. At the same time theology is getting marginalized and religion is getting marginalized. Much of culture, shifting its eyes off of God at the center, and putting their eyes on man at the center, and along comes David. Hume with his epistemology, and his philosophy had a huge influence. In his day, but it had an even greater influence and the centuries to come well. That's David Hume an essayist and historian philosopher. A skeptic.
"On this episode five minutes in Church history. Let's talk about a scientist Sir. Isaac Newton. He was born in sixteen forty three. He died in seventeen twenty seven he was actually born in the exact same year of the death of Galileo. He was born in originally humble circumstances. His father died three months before he was born in sixteen sixty one he went off to Cambridge. He had a grasp of Latin and a very curious mind. He would pass the time sketching clocks and windmills and other kinds of gadgets. Once he got to Cambridge he studied astronomy. This was the era of Copernicus and Kepler and of course he studied the classic Philosophers Aristotle and Plato. He kept his notebooks and in one of them. He wrote amicus Plato. Amicus Aristotle's Maga's Amici Veritas. Plato is my friend. Aristotle is my friend. Truth is my best friend. And he also let Cambridge embarked on studying mathematics. In fact he would come to the way in this field he is credited for inventing the study of Calculus as he called it the calculus of infant hassles and it was also while he was at Cambridge that he studied the motion of the moon and the planets and he recognized this force. That was acting on these planets orbit. He was discovering what would come to be called the law of gravity. He would go on to publish. His books is famous book in Seventeen. O four the book called optics and in There. He puts forth his theory of colors. A very interesting a young student in the colonies at the College of Connecticut. We know it as Yale. University would get a hold of Isaac Newton's book optics and he devoured it. This of course is Jonathan Edwards. And he wrote his own little scientific paper he called of light rays and this was all from. Reading Isaac Newton and Edwards draws this corollary from just being amazed at how the actual physical human eye processes light rays. This is what Edwards had to write hence the infinite art that was exercised in the formation of the eye that has given it such an exquisite sense that it should perceive the touch of those few rays of the least fixed stars which enter the eye which all put together won't amount to the million million million million million to part of the least moat of such an exquisite sense that it should distinctly perceive an image upon the retina that it is not above the eighty million millionth part of an inch wide. That has so nicely polished the retina that it should receive so small a picture upon it when the least pro Tuba Rinse or an evenness would utterly destroy and confound it here's Edwards amazed at the human eye but far more amazed at the God who created the human eye and the God who created the universe and it was Isaac Newton who unlocked this for Edwards and it was Isaac Newton who unlocked this for so many other people as Alexander Pope. The poet has it that nature and nature's laws lay hidden by night. God said let Newton be and then there was light Newton as the father of modern science. Believed that no way would science give us less room for God or somehow make less space for God and understanding of him? In fact it was the exact opposite for Isaac Newton. The more he studied God's universe the more he was led to acknowledge and worship God. Newton once said gravity may very well explained the motion of the planets for the can't explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and God knows all that is or all that can be known. That's the Great Isaac Newton
New Study Suggests the Virus May Be Airborne
"Very bad news this morning. I just a milestone the US infection rate has officially passed one million people and then this a study has found that the corona virus might exist in tiny airborne droplets. This was found in a Chinese hospital marking the first real world data to suggest that airborne transmission of the disease might be possible. Such aristotle ization has been previously demonstrated in the lab but new droplets with genetic markers of the virus were also detected in hospitals in Wuhan China. This was published in the Journal. Nature quoting from the New York Times. It remains unknown. If the virus in the samples they collected was infectious droplets. That small which are expelled by breathing and talking can remain aloft and be inhaled by others. Those are going to stay in the air floating around for at least two hours said Lindsay Mar a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Virginia. Tech who is not involved with the nature paper quote it strongly suggests that there is potential for airborne transmission and quote Dr Mar and many other scientists say evidence is mounting that the virus is being spread by tiny droplets known as aerosols the World Health Organization has so far downplayed. That possibility saying that the disease is mostly transmitted through larger droplets. That do not remain airborne for long or through the touching contaminated surfaces even with these new findings. The issue is not settled although the corona virus are in a the genetic blueprint of the virus was present in the cells tested scientists. Do Not know yet whether the virus remains infectious or whether the tests just detected harmless virus fragments and quote
How To Lead your Team Through The 4 Stages Of Psychological Safety
"Today's Timothy Clark is the founder and CEO of leader factor a global leadership consulting training and Assessment Organization. He's the author of five books and has helped organizations around the globe he's actually a doctor's got PhD from Oxford in Social Science. Which makes him the perfect guest teacher for. Today's topic making sure. Your team feel psychologically safe to share ideas to improve to challenge. What's going on in your company? Maybe there's a better way to do it. I'M GONNA hand it over to Timothy Clark now but will be back to wrap up today's episode and give my insights but for now. Take it away Timothy. My Name Tim Clark. Thank you for joining me today today. I'll be teaching you how to lead your team through the four stages of psychological safety. Let's get down to business. You may be familiar with Google's project. Aristotle Google studied one hundred eighty of its own teams for two years to try to identify the patterns of their best teams the highest performing teams. What did they find well? They found that the number one factor in defining characteristic of the best teams was psychological safety more than anything else. Having a high level of psychological safety was the one factor that unleashed that team. It was rocket fuel for innovation. So let me begin by explaining psychological safety most people think of it as feeling safe in a social setting. Now that's true on a general sense but let me break it down for you into concrete stages. Psychological safety is a condition in which team members can do four things. I feel included second. Feel SAFE TO LEARN. Third feel safe to contribute and fourth feel safe to challenge the status quo all without fear of being embarrassed marginalized or punished in some way. These four stages represented universal pattern reflecting the natural progression of human needs when teams and organizations progress through the four stages watch out they create deeply inclusive environments accelerate learning increased contribution and stimulate innovation. So let's jump into stage. One inclusion safety inclusion safety satisfies the basic human need to connect and be long. But what happens if you don't connect and don't feel part of the team if you're deprived of that basic acceptance validation as a human being well insured it's debilitating activates the pain centers of the brain on the other hand when others reach out and include. Us. We're happier more confident. More productive human beings want to feel part of the team in fact the need to be accepted precedes. The NEED TO BE HEARD. So you can see that. Inclusion safety is the starting point. It's the foundation that every leader needs to put in place drain your team of fear and exclusion. This is the first order of business for every leader of every team. This is where performance begins inclusion. Safety is more than a nice to have. It's a moral responsibility. Only the threat of harm can excuse us from including someone when we create inclusion safety for others regardless of our differences we acknowledge our common humanity and we reject false theories of superiority and justifications for exclusion okay. Are you ready to assess your own team? Here's the question using a zero to ten scale where one means not at all and ten means completely ask yourself. How included the members of your team feel? Give your team overall score by putting down a number as I said between zero and ten so take a second to do that. Okay so now. Let's go to stage to the second stage of psychological. Safety is Learner Safety Learner. Safety satisfies the basic human. Need to learn grow. It allows us to feel safe as we engage in the learning process asking questions giving and receiving feedback experimenting and even making mistakes. Not If but when we make them think about this we all bring some level of inhibition and anxiety to learning process. No one is completely confident. All the time we all have insecurities who hasn't hesitated to raise their hand to ask a question in a group setting for fear of feeling dumb. We all have learning as intellectual and emotional. It's an interplay of the head and the heart so if the leader creates learner safety it cultivates resilience and independence in that learning process. You're more willing to be vulnerable and take learning risks. You're not worried about feeling stupid on the other hand. A lack of learner safety triggers. What we call the. Self censoring instinct. That means we shut down retrench and manage personal risk. Why because we don't feel safe to learn great leaders create learner safety for every member of the team they giving courage to learn in exchange for a willingness to learn. Okay here's the question using that same zero to ten scale ask yourself how safe the members of your team feel to engage in the learning process. Give your team and overall score. Take a second think about that. Now let's go to stage three stage. Three is contributor safety which satisfies the basic human need to contribute and make a difference when a team has contributor safety. The members of that team feel safe to contribute as full members using their skills and abilities to participate in the value creation process. They don't hold back they lean into what they're doing with full energy and enthusiasm if you think about it. We have a natural desire to apply what we've learned to make a meaningful contribution. Why then do we dislike micro managers because they don't give us a freedom and discretion to reach our potential? Why do we like empowering bosses because they encourage US and drought our best efforts the more we contribute the more confidence and competence we develop and when we create contributor safety for others we empower them with atonomy guidance and encouragement in exchange for full effort and results? Let me repeat that. The leader gives a ton of money guidance and encouragement in exchange for full effort and results. Okay here's your assessment question using the same zero to ten scale. Ask YOURSELF HOW SAFE. The members of your team feel contribute. Give your team an overall score. Take a minute and think about that all right now. It's time to go to the final stage. The final ultimate stage of psychological safety is what we call challenger Safety Challenger safety satisfies the basic human need to make things better. It's the support and confidence. We need to ask questions such as why do we do it this way? What if we tried this or I have an idea about how to do this better? Challenger safety empowers us to challenge the status quo without retaliation or the risk of damaging personal standing or reputation gives us respect and permission that we need to descent and disagree when we think something needs to change and it's time to say so. It allows us to overcome the pressure to conform and gives us a license to innovate and be creative. At the highest level of psychological safety it matches the increased vulnerability and personal risk that are necessary to challenge the status quo when we create challenges safety. We give air cover in exchange for candor. Let me say that again. The leader gives air cover in exchange for candor. Okay here's the last question using the same zero to ten scale. How safe do the members of your team feel to challenge the status quo? Give your team and overall score. You should now have four scores in front of you. One for inclusion safety on for learner safety one for contributor safety and finally one for Challenger Safety I hope this exercise has generated insight about how to take your team to the next level of performance and also some urgency to move
White Nationalism in the White House: Katie McHugh Kept Receipts
"It's no secret that members of the trump administration up to and including trump himself are parroting the views of white nationalist and white extremist groups. These organizations are tied into outright media outlets like Breitbart and others where they spread this propaganda to the masses. We're going to try something a little different today. I'll be joined by a guest. Co Host. Hossan Ahmad is an immigration attorney and anti white nationalist activist from Virginia. Hossan has been deeply involved in obtaining the archived writings of John. Panton one of the men. Behind the current white nationalist movement in America Hossan connected me to Katie McHugh. Katie is a former white nationalist. Who has renounced her views in his working. Hard to undo the damage. She did when she held them. She's a former staffer for Breitbart and other alt-right media where she was in constant correspondence with Stephen Miller at the trump white house. She's exposed those emails and the deep ties of Miller into the white nationalist movement in America voice box he's overlap between trump's message white nationalist ideology he has shown us that the majority of Americans support are sort of message. You know what yeah make. America great again fell the wall. Pick these people out. This is my country. This this all belongs to me. Trump demurred when asked whether he'd condemned supportive comments from former Ku Klux Klan. Leader David Duke. I have to look at the group I mean. I don't know what group you're talking about. You wouldn't want me to condemn a group that I know. The person is dead and nineteen injured after a speeding vehicle drove into a group of protesters. Your leader downtown Charlottesville very fine people on both sides so we just got a new batch of emails from Breitbart reporter Katya Q. The Southern Poverty Law Center has made public excerpts of emails sent by White House. Senior adviser. Stephen Miller was a key figure shaping immigration policy or president trump the email messages for fifty thousand sixteen. Show Miller support white nationalist website and ideologies. My name is Katie mccue. I've exposed eight far-right extremists in the past fifteen months by working with civil rights groups and legendary nonprofits. I'm very excited now. In the stage of my life to help the most vulnerable in society including people of Color immigrants those who practice Islamic faith and those who this car presidential administration opposes the mouse and seeks to punish through use of authoritarian policies. Sorry Not Sorry so katy you spent a bit of time in the alright. What is the difference if you can explain to US between the alright a white supremacy and white nationalism? What are some of the core beliefs that you're aware of as part of this movement? Well I can say I think we should begin with aristotle here. I don't want to sound pretentious but everything is on a trajectory this is also just basic calculus so one of the things. Aristotle spoke about was habit and one thing you witness with the outright because the media treated them as a truly humorous force that's just online and it's backing Donald Trump and it's young people. The fact is everything that they said. Ironically I'm making air quotes eventually became ironic so whenever people thought they were quote unquote trolling about saying the nineteenth amendment should be repealed and you had white supremacist media figure. Richard Spencer eventually meeting. No I don't believe women should have the right to vote all these memes and things you see on twitter and the way that these mobs were organized so much so that they became. It was almost like blunt force trauma when it came to harassment for media figures. They were not joking. And in the case too with someone like Stephen Miller who's one of the most powerful people in the US government especially when it comes to people who are not white. So who is Stephen Miller? And why is it so important that we understand his thinking? Stephen Miller is one of the closest advisers to president trump. He is the architect of trump's immigration policy and also has the president's ear on foreign policy matters. Stephen Miller for his entire career had anti immigrant. Leanings for some people philly with the alright because it's an amorphous group and doesn't have a membership roll with you. Know I mean. They viewed on white people and people who practice the Islamic faith as not only dangerous individuals but an existential threat to the country. And this does tie into eugenics which unfortunately America has a very dark history with eugenics Ray Science and a history which John drew from and help shape the anti immigrant agenda that has sought renewed energy from the emergence of the outright and renewed energy from the trump campaign and which we now see the full force turned against the most desperate vulnerable people in the world for punish purely because of their country of origin their ethnicity in the face that they practice kitty. You seem so articulate and passionate and human and when we paint these pictures are head of the other side we sort of create these villains. I think I WANNA be respectful for your privacy and safety but I was wondering if you could talk a little bit about how you got caught up in the movement so that we can have a better understanding as to how other people get caught up in the movement. Thank you for asking that because I think that everyone's path is different but buying could help explain some of the groundwork for other young people currently trapped in this. Who Don't quite know how to get out. The outright on the far-right are very much like a gang. You know there's a no snitching policy and I think that many many young people especially let's say trump does not win reelection in twenty twenty this year. A lot of young people are going to wonder. How do I get out of this? And how do I reconnect with other people again and have a healthy loving life full of good friendships? Good connections across backgrounds. So I will just say that I'm from Pennsylvania regular conservative town and I was raised like I think the joke is. You're born a lapsed Catholic. So that was my upbringing. Regular childhood must very nerdy was constantly reading and I was politically inclined. People always talk about two thousand four election. People were very excited about George W Bush. Because it's a Red County and two thousand eight of course with the banking crisis. Things got much more serious and of course the Iraq war still going on so I was chatting with one of my best friends. Her Dad and I was regular Republican fully supporting the Iraq war in in the war in Afghanistan and he said well. Why don't you read this person named Joe So brand? Joseph O'Brien was a former senior editor for national review. He was fired by William F Buckley because he could not control his anti-semitism. I ate him alive. Almost like a neurological virus and I'm eighteen. I had never met someone of poop practice. Jewish faith Jewish background nothing. I didn't understand anti-semitism and I was reading the Essay. That was recommended to me. Call the reluctant anarchists sing. How all government is evil in the constitution has already been so violated. We just need to go back to something. Like pre articles of confederation. Okay this is very important to understand. Is that there is a serious libertarian. Too Far right pipeline very serious and the far right of course is just steeped in. Eugenics steepen utterly discredited on Justifiable Race
Explaining Occam's Razor
"Today we're going to discuss a problem solving principle that many of you probably heard of and we've we've definitely referenced on the show before and that is autumn's razor that's right. It's it's one of the classics one of the hits of like the skeptical toolkit and I think it's a really one to get into because it's something that is widely known but in different ways and often To whatever extent it actually does have value. It often gets deployed in ways that do not actually make use of its value right like like an actual razor blade. It may be misused from time to time. Yes now. What one specific place that. I know we've talked about it before. Is that is in the context of Carl? Sagan's recommendations for the the tools of skeptical thinking he these out and one of them is autumn's razor. He writes all comes razor this convenient rule of thumb urges us when faced with two hypotheses that explain the data equally well to choose the simpler. Okay now why did we end up talking about this today? We we were in the studio the other day Discussing upcoming episodes. And you said that. Seth had mentioned this our producer Seth Yeah. I was in here and set a nickel Johnson was working on. A crossword puzzle was at the New York. Times he tells us it was the New York Times And he he asked me how to spell. Autumn is in razor and I took a guess at it and I can't I can't remember. I was correct. I was probably wrong but also probably hit one of the multiple acceptable spell things for razor But anyway we started talking about it and I was like. Oh Yeah we we could do that as an episode and so here we are. I'm very glad we picked this because I think one of my personal favorite genres of of critical thinking is is being skeptical about the tools of skepticism. You know is sometimes people who identify skeptics can ca- can I get a little cocky. You know they get a little too sure of themselves about what the reasoning tools they use and it's worth putting those tools to the test. Giving them a closer look. Yeah absolutely now I have to say I definitely remember. The first time I encountered the concept of outcomes raise or at least the first time I encountered it and it on some level stuck with me and that was when viewed the Nineteen ninety-seven film adaptation of Carl Sagan's novel contact the movie. I can't watch without crying. Oh Yeah Yeah Yeah well. Why does it make you cry? Oh God there's no point especially the first part where you know it. Zooms out from the earth and you're hearing the radio signals go back in time and then and then it shows the young. L. E. Airway experimenting with the Ham Radio and her dad's helping her and get so emotional. Yeah Yeah it's it's been a very long I. I haven't seen it since initially came out and in fact the main thing I remember from it is seen in which jodie foster's character. Eleanor Airway has having this conversation with Matthew mcconaughey as character. Who How old was Matthew mcconaughey at this point? I don't even know how old he is. Now is this ageless demon but anyway. Here's this character He's scared Palmer. Joss in the scene in question foster's character brings up autumn's razor in a discussion on the nature of God she. She says well which is ultimately the simpler hypothesis that an all powerful God exists or the human beings made got up in order to feel better about things and then this ultimately comes back around is kind of flipped on her later on film regarding her characters encounter with an extraterrestrial intelligence right. Is it more likely that she really had the experience? She thinks she had with With all these aliens or that. She like hallucinated. Something that would give her emotional closure. Yeah and so. Yeah I think I was in high school at the time so it was. It was interesting concept especially in the context of of atheism verses of faith in a creator deity inserted to suddenly have this tool from the chest. Skeptical thinking just thrown up on the table and you and seemingly used by both sides. Well Yeah I think this is funny. This is a great example because it highlights some of the most common features of all comes razor as it is actually used to like. It's often invoked in a kind of fuzzy way without an objective measure Just kind of invoked to back up your intuitions about the probability of something right but another thing is that this example shows how. It's not always easy to find a way to compare the simplicity of two different propositions like is the existence of God a simple hypothesis or a complicated one that I think that really depends on kind of how you feel about it like like what kind of objective measure can you come up with to evaluate that question right. It's GonNa depend so much on your like your background your culture what you grew up with. And you know how you how you've come to view the possibility of Of God's existence. Is it just kind of the bedrock of your your worldview or is it this thing from the outside that you are contemplating and also how do you view it at like the coherence of the idea? Do you view it as something. That's like That's full of all these little kind of ad hoc accommodations or something that is a holistic coherent Sort of like fact about nature. Yeah you know I it's I I think this is a perfect example. That shows like win. People used the idea volumes razor in a way that is not helpful and doesn't really doesn't really get you any closer to figuring out what's true now if you're if you're still questioning what the concept really means. Don't worry we will get to some. I think some very understandable examples of how it can be a used properly and used improperly. But let's go ahead and just start about the concept itself the the word autumn You know where this comes from. We'll get to the origins of autumn's razor so Oxfam's razor is also known as the principle of parsimony and parsimony means a tendency towards cheapness or frugality. So I like that. It's like the principle of parsimony is like you. You want to be cheap with your with your logic right yeah. I don't need more than two steps of logic between me and the solution. Don't give me one with four or five. And it was named after the Medieval English philosopher William of autumn. Of course William of Arkham So he he lived in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries from twelve eighty five to either thirteen seven or thirteen forty nine. I've seen different death dates given forum. I've seen different birthdates as well. Eighty seven twelve. Eighty eight looking at That's interesting so he was a prolific scholar. Franciscan friar we'll get more into his ideas in a minute. I you know one thing I've always wondered is where the heck is awesome. I've never heard of that. Well yeah because the word sound has kind of like a remoteness to it. It sounds alien in some ways. Autumn is very much a real place. It is a rural village. In Surrey England. You can look it up online. You can find that the website for the church in Oxfam for example and this area has been occupied since ancient times. It's about a day's ride south west of London and it was the birthplace of the individual who'd come to be known as William Volume now beyond that beyond the fact that he was born here. We don't know a lot about William's life We don't know what his social or family background was or if his native language was French or Middle English. As Paul Vincent Spadea explains in the Cambridge companion to Arkham he was likely given over to the Franciscan order as a young boy. Before the age of fourteen and here Latin would have quickly become his language of not only writing but also just conversation Grey Friars Convent in. London was likely his home convent but later he traveled he visited Avalon he visited Italy and he lived the last two decades of his life in Germany. Now philosophically William was a Nominal List and spayed writes that the two main themes of this for William were the rejection of universals and ontological reduction in these two teams are are not necessarily interconnected like you can you. Could you could believe in one but not the other and vice versa but basically like let's get into what these mate so the first rejection of universals is perhaps best considered and this is very brief and broad Certainly you can find so much written in instead on this topic but basically think of it as a rejection of the tonic idea of the realm of forms. So that idea that all chairs that we might make design and carve a symbol are an attempt to create the perfect chair which doesn't reside in our world but only resides within this realm of forms. So all chairs that we create our like an aspiration for the ideal chair another way. I've thought about it at least as I understood it was. The nominalism is kind of the idea that there is no such thing as a chair. There's only this chair and that chair in this chair over here. There is no chair right like this. This is the kind of the situation gets too. When you you get into the genre classifications of say albums artists or movies. You care a great deal about and someone tries to limit it to a classification and say oh well that's classic rock where that's alternative rock near like. No no no no no. Don't don't try and fit there is there. Is these categories. Do not apply. There is there is only you know whatever. Your band of choice happens to be. There is only tool. There is only primis or whatever right there yeah there. There is only things not category right. Now let's move onto the second theme here. Ontological reduction this is as Britannica defines it quote the metaphysical doctrine that entities of a certain kind are in reality collections or combinations of entities of simpler or more basic kind. I think your classic example here is molecules atoms. Yeah so another example. Here's while our aristotle defined ten categories of objects that might be apprehended by a human mind. These would have been translations vary on on how you wanted to find these but substance quantity quality relative place time attitude condition action and affection. William cut these down to two substance and quality. He's really getting in there. That's the razor. That's what a razor Dutt. Cia slices away. It cuts off the fat and gets down to the meat. Spayed writes quote. Although these two strands of thinking are independent. They are nevertheless often viewed as joint effects of a more fundamental. Concern the principle of parsimony known as Oxfam's razor okay. So we're getting to the razor. Yeah so William. Devoted a lot of energy to arguing against What spade calls the bloated onto logical in inventories of his contemporaries and became well known to his peers for this as such either towards the end of his life or shortly after his death a kind of greatest hits album came out on his thoughts and ideas titled On the Principles of Theology? Now it wasn't actually by William of Arkham but it featured his doctrine as well as verbatim quotes there is no ascribed author either so later generations would often just attribute it to him as well as the notion of outcomes razor however the specific phrase was apparently never actually used by him. He never said autumn in the house. I'M GONNA get the razor out and started carving on some some some some some ideas
Wayne Marshall Discusses His Short Story Collection Shirl
"That you've been getting some great reviews rarely been rating than they In the press. But could you tell us a little bit more about the pathway from the awards at Josh mentioned. It's not quite as simple as just getting shortlisted. How did you get to this moment to die? Sure so the shortlisting was a whirlwind anthony. We'll stay with me for the rest of my life. I think Contacted by agents and publishes the very same day of the announcement which was fantastic announcement on on the announcement receiving emails frog messages on twitter. It was and and if you hate from a Christian Fish Chen or any of the other rod has its time experience so At that point I only had a thirty seven thousand word manuscript. It always influenced to actually Melanie Chang head submitted. A similar word can't install Ebay had had success. There was a Willa Center event where she spark and that was the moment that actually decided to submit the thing in the first place. It wasn't really on my right up at that point so it shows that a warden spas other artists to get input Stuff into the wool absolutely and so through that process affirm press came aboard and wanted to publish the book but it was still too short so the idea is that you would try to get the collection out as soon as possible. Bang that it was still you know the APLA shortlisting was still very much out there. So I had unwritten one story in the previous year and when I saw him with a fan press. The deal was four stories in four months which was terrifying and exhilarating the same time a deadline. Exactly it just shows you yes. So I managed to produce the full stories Are went for some. I didn't have time to doubt the material doubt the premises so I went with some stuff that I otherwise wouldn't have gone with had a bit of a list of ideas. I I did a deed but a few of the stories that had around for maybe three years but hadn't quite moved along with them or just forced myself to write first drafts. And it's down in the something to work with whereas before I just thought that ought not gonna work so there are two stories and it looked quite metaphysics which I played around with that conned of fiction nonfiction mash up a little awareness about their own existence. Yes side Some things that were on the journey to rotting show that awed decided it was time to put in such as I went through cancer In the in the early stages of the book which was an impetus to writing the book in the first place. And how did that for you up to to write. What has led to this stunning book? Yeah sure it freed me up in the sense that I thought none of these stories I would be published that you know it was very very seek That were just diagnosed and it took a year Eh. Going through all that until the second stint of came to water out again and I was doing came on Friday Friday mornings and I'd get up and write for two hours beforehand forehand and it was stuff just to amuse me. There was no industry. No hearing about concept about published that was turns out that that was exactly what I needed. It's so true silver lining from a very dark clad so with the stories and I. I can't believe how you do this. Every time we get to the end of the the story I had a hell. Did he do that now. I'm going to look at one section of prize from you've got people in the front of your book who've praised the collection who've read it in advance of publication GonNa Ray the nines to whine Makola Nikola generals in Reina. Neil all very influential influential writers an Australia authors but I actually want to zero in on John Rosen's because she starts in a way that you'd think the maybe this doesn't sound so vain she finishes cries. I'm going to read this APP. General sense is on Wine Marshall's collection show these stories of a strident men in small towns and pull suburbs stories of sport drinking fighting and love sands awful right that she puts but there's a big battle here but these are stories. Tall was SAIMAA chart. Wit a meticulous craft that even as you're reading about a limitation Class A man in love with a kangaroo a mermaid on a fishing trip. You're asking yourself why did did this really happen. Wine Marshall is a worthy successor to his town might pay to carry. That's prize. It went a writer of gorgeous imagination endearing experimentation ikin compassion and chill is one of the best books of Australian stories. You'll rate wow and autograph with her on that assessment. I'm not gonNA make anymore. The raiders. Fortunate can't that listeners. Fortunately can't say that here but there are other prize in however automob- beyond that prize tries to the craft. You mentioned before how it freed you up to right. I'm GonNa quite something. It sounds like a real mouthful from aristotle. approachable impossibility is preferable to an impossible probability. I I had to write that. Deng's always mix it up but in wine Mashall's world old. You start with the everyday will that we think we Then you give it a bizarre twist and you you make us believe it. And that's what I my. By the time you get to the end and status with his arresting ending. We took hand-held that he does that. So do you start with the bizarre edition or the ordinary reward and let it emerge. Yes so it's normally. It will come to me in a bizarre image or concept. They're usually quite concept driven stories so we start not like that and I guess I've always had that Oban. I'd been working on writing for ten years before I started having success with these stories and I could come up with an initial initial idea well enough but I think what was holding you back as well is. This seems to me now. Like a Secondary Act of imagination. Where you get the blood D- But the grounding the will building the making real which is absolutely essential on not so much into say straight out surrealism where it's just go let craziness? I want. Want to feel absolutely real and so. That's the big task beyond the initial idea. And that takes a lot of drafting and all that. So I'm probable impossibility impossibility. You believe. This could happen but you know it's impossible in the back up. Yes you do that. So it's the balance of the two and finding what you call a secondary incidental storyline more like. I guess it would come back to will building the Secondary Act of imagination. You've gotta fill that. Would you've go to populate it you've got to fill it with all the details not too many. That it bogs down and working in short stories. You've got a zipper too long. But I wanted to feel real fo for raiders but real to me too I want these stories to feel absolutely real. Even though they're crazy like I know I'm going to go to a specific example here and it's it's the story that's inspired the cover of show and a man has fallen in love with the kangaroo route. How on Earth do you make that real that that sort of the bizarre things you wouldn't put it in a literary collection of short? Say How do you make that believable including that the kangaroos wearing accounting jumping. I think it's the stuff like the cotton jump and the party pause and the name of the beer and the name of specific replies that gives it that you can feel that house and that place and the two men that popular that story. I think this is real reality to those guys. And that's where I grew up. That's my culture and so drew on all of that again beyond the crazy idea to fill it with with realistic Dato and to just dropped often draft and draft until it felt real it does feel very real one of the things I really liked about. It was the kangaroo. Never reacts in the way you expect now take something personally and some there does that so you give it a three dimensional character a kangaroo. Yeah but you don't buy that. We all got along with each. I really like I think you. Would you call that an. I probably want to bring this up in terms of defining does the Jonah but would you call it magic realism of fantastic realism here. I'm a bit be careful with the magic realism stuff. Because it has a specific origin and a specific cultural lineage being in South America and the magic realists to come out of there so that the second one fantastic realism. It's really you know. Version of magic. Yeah improbable things happen everyday. Well I think I'm coming more and more to the understanding that I my entire style comes out of the young culture that I grew up in. I grew up at a suburban Melbourne with people. Ah stood around telling toll stories full exaggeration and huma and color and be twists. And I've just realized that informs my style so much that sums up beautifully and it shows and all your work now you have a Melbourne launched last week at the hill of content bookstore in Melba. You've got a bacchus marsh. Could you tell us the data. Yes I do. So we have a launch of the Pekka Smash Lobby this Saturday at twelve thirty. And it's GonNa be really special because they've supported may for so long mm-hmm and they gave me and another friend of mine. Jim Tully Mila the lessons to do things like create the pay to carry short story award which we in running for four years. It's just small ward. That is now national and really personal imprimature. Hasn't yes and hate us as the winning stories and to talk to someone like to carry even Chrissy. Molly's Alley's huge so. Tom Employs at the back of Smash Library this Saturday at at twelve thirty at twelve. Thirty four thirty. Yes yes exactly yes thank. You're very much wind Marshall on your congratulations on your debut. Collection of short stories show is the title published by FM. Prison back to you
"aristotle" Discussed on New Player Has Joined
"Way better than whatever you I wish comparison. I gotTa Tell You you tweeting. I'm Amanda After Losing Your Virginity. That's a good secret. That's a good seat now. You can tweet that whenever you wanted people. Who like the tweet? I'm a man badly. This has been. How old are your video game aristotle? It doesn't matter because then zegers good baby. I didn't think of it as much of a secret because it's probably still deep in my twitter feed so like out there. Yeah but I couldn't find the exact date and time at which aristotle awesome veto losses. Virginia we're all three of rent to our separate. Let me just get off. I'm just have to scroll down so far. My my concern is that at a certain point. Twitter stops keeping track of your tweets publicly. That can't be true. Is that true. They can't be true he's going to take a picture of it picture and I'm going to delete it. Ah You gotTa send that picture to us. I don't know if I can okay. I have the strength. Let me let me see it. Let me see the time stamp on this. Aristotle has found the tweet tweet Cami your computer your guests on our show air subtle. Give me your valuables. He refuses to hand it to me. Aristotle I'm GonNa look at it Bro let let me see. I also included a winky face. Lear he's covering it up. Aristotle two thousand nine two thousand. Wow how it's going back there. What time and then night almost minute wait? What's what's the date? It's the November twenty twenty fifth. So getting ready to Fuck Oh man thanks giving fuck. It's the next given fuck aristotle losses virginity the day before Thanksgiving Nice. How did how did you wait? But it was regularly like literally minutes before Thanksgiving. How do you forget? That thanksgiving wasn't as important. I Ah Man. That's so funny you you lost your virginity. Almost at the stroke of Thanksgiving in two two thousand and nine wonderful while watching stepbrothers probably probably sounds awful so funny that's you were trying to climax towed. John C Reilly pretended even eight. I can't wait until until November twenty fifth because we're going to celebrate. We are man's man's today. We're going to tweet that John's God all right. Let's jumping jump back into have live to here. So here's the thing about half life to the the big the ending of the game name is like you are you guys ever watched Futurama that scene. Where the when they take professor Farnsworth entertain up to the old person funeral home thing or there's like cities upon cities of bodies now tombstone? It's literally like you get into a thing that swings you around and on like a roller coaster. Yeah it takes you around this huge combine into the citadel into the city that which is where this guy what is his name. Bream mean where he's waiting for you. He's been trying to find you. What is his master plan? Do you remember not at all. I don't like he's he wanted to use the technology that Alex's father was was creating too I think just like invite more aliens or something. I'm not sure. Yeah because they're trying to work on the transportation device that they're trying to try to be able to transport people whenever they want wherever they can go and that sort of things. They're trying to get in touch with him because all point is they're trying to gets Alex's Dad. They WanNa Kill Alex's dad because basically the savior of humanity he is going to find the cure. He's going to help humanity lead the way and looking in for him for guidance and really he's looking towards you be like your kind of Lear and all these people that you're meeting by the way we didn't touch on this are just people from Black Mesa. Yeah they're all people from I mean yeah and you get betrayed by one of the people you meet and then in the end you can tell. Yeah you know Oh. She gave me horrible vibes of the whole time. I it was not a fan of her. Yeah but at the end she double crosses and Set You free so that you can go you know. Stop this crazy maniac president dude from taken over you blow up a portal everything explodes right before Alex is about to be killed by the explosion. Time just stops and the g man shows up and he's like hey you've done great you've done so great we're GonNa put you back in stasis and that's just the game just fucking ends The game just fucking ends right then and there and then the expansions happen. And why don't we talk about that. So expansions happen and the first first one saying did you play both of them. I played both of them but I do. They blend together in your head. Yes right after another but there was a gap of time in between half life to when I played them. Well yeah because half life two came out and the expansions came out like the first one two years and the other one was two years after that that and then I bought them both after that. Yeah Yeah So. In the episode one is the first expansion episode one. Essentially you help the civilians rebel. You go on and you take on the army and all these sorts of stuff and then the third one is is you basically create episode to the third the third half life two game. And that's the one where Jesse if you can any fable to pull pull it up. There's a reason people get upset about half life three not coming out. Yeah and it's not and I get the people are like Oh half life threes not gonNA come now. Why is that the big deal? I mean when when the last of US ends the last of US ends in a way that makes you just go like. Oh yeah like that. It's upsetting it's upsetting half flight to ends in such a way. I think if you can find like an audio clip or able to put it in all south but like at put put it to like let people listen to it because it's literally a moment of Alex watching her dad. Die in front of you watching dog be get hurt essentially and watch your whole world around you just laugh a lap and it ends with Alex is crying and you're just kind of like what the hell do we do now and the game and it's over that's how it ends a satisfying thing. It's the biggest cliffhanger. Live hanger up in the world now. Half life three is coming up. But it's a prequel about Alex's life three they're just saying it's like they needed they come out the half life game because what it was. I who wrote half life said he wrote the script for half life three. But it's never coming out. Yeah which to me is just is weird. I want to I bring this up in a way because I'm a I'm a huge fan of steam and it's weird to me because when they came out the new counterstrike game they just what they're supposed to come out with new engines. They come out with new games. They make video games and over the past ten years. I don't feel like they've really done any done anything. They make their controller. They did the steam box again the hardware. It didn't happen yeah. Everyone's stolen their model. Essentially for you. I for how you play video games now you own them and everything like that. They haven't done John Enough no so Alex. VR is supposed to be there hey. VR Sat people. It looks fun it looks great. It looks exciting. Still we're owed. Yeah heard half life care that your own a console or peace both. You're you're owed at the very least the PC version of half life. That answers the story of what happens to these character. Yeah you can't just be like here's a prequel. Nobody fucking cares. Deal in the future crying with Morgan Freeman about her dad. Die Against the SAS moment. It's like somebody kicked your dog and Shot Your Dad and baled and you're like what just happened. And then the game it's over. It's a terrible terrible cliffhanger. Tangier to to live with and speaking of Tarot aged they. We have a game for you or saw it's time for Keith hangers with cliff and Jesse. Here's how it works at the great title you go into it. Came about.
"aristotle" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime
"The form of the thinking which enters into conduct is that which terminates donates in the production of a rule which declares some means to the end of life. The process presupposes a in a clear and just apprehension of the nature of that end such as the ethics itself endeavors to supply be be a correct perception of the conditions of At least is impossible except to a man whose character has been duly formed by discipline. It arises only a man who has acquired moral virtue you for such action and feeling as forms bad character blinds the eye of the soul and corrupts the moral principle and the place of practical wisdom is taken by that parody of itself which Aristotle calls cleverness the wisdom system of the unscrupulous man of the world thus true practical wisdom had true. Goodness of character are interdependent. Interdependent neither is genuinely possible or completely present without the other. This is Aristotle's close contribution to the discussion of the question so central in Greek moral philosophy of the relation of the intellectual and the passionate factors in conduct. Aristotle is not an intuition EST but he recognizes is is the implication in conduct of a direct and immediate apprehension. Both of the end of the character of his circumstances under which it is from moment to moment realized the directness of such apprehension makes it analogous to sensation or sense perception but it is on his view in the end due to the existence or activity and man of that power in in him which is the highest thing in his nature and akin to or identical with the divine nature. Mind mind or intelligence. Is this what reveals to us. What is best for us? The ideal of a Happiness which is the object of our real wish and the goal of all our efforts but beyond and above off the practical ideal of what is best for man begins to show itself another and still higher ideal that that of a life not distinctively human or in a narrow sense practical yet capable of being participated in by man then even under the actual.
"aristotle" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime
"It is a permanent state of the agents self whereas we might in modern phrase put it of his will. It consists in a steady self-imposed obedience to a rule rule of action in certain situations which frequently recur in human life. The rule prescribes the control troll and regulation within limits of the agents natural impulses to act and feel thus and thus the situations fall into groups which constitute the fields of the several moral virtues for each. There is a rule ooh conformity to which secures rightness in the individual acts thus the moral ideal appears as the code of rules accepted by the agent. But as yet to him without rational justification and without system or unity but the rules prescribe no mechanical uniformity each within its limits permits variety variety. And the exactly right amount adopted to the requirements of the individual situation and every actual situation Russian is individual must be determined by the intuition up the moment. There is no attempt to reduce the rich possibilities disabilities of right action to a single monotonous type on the contrary there are acknowledged to beat many forms of moral virtue and there is a long list of them with their correlative vices and numerous aided the doctrine of the mean here takes a form in which it has impressed subsequent thinkers but which has less importance than on is usually ascribed to end in the table of the virtues in devices each of the virtues is flanked by two opposite visit vices which are respectively the excess and defect of that which in due measure constitutes the virtue. Aristotle's tries to show that this is the case in regard to every virtue named and recognized as such but his treatment treatment is often forced and the endeavor is not very successful except as convenient principle of arrangement of of the fairies forms of praise worthy or blameworthy characters generally acknowledged as such by Greek opinion. This form of the doctrine is of no great significance. Books three to five are occupied with a survey of the moral virtues and fi says the seemed to happen undertaken in order to verify in detail the general account but this is not kept steadily in view nor is there any well considered principle of classification. What we find is a sort of portrait gallery of the various types of moral plants which the Greeks of the author's age admired heard and strove to encourage the discussion is full of acute interesting and sometimes profound observations? Some of the types are those which are and will be admired at all times but others are connected with peculiar your features of Greek life which have now passed away. The most important is that of justice or the just that man to which we may later return but the discussion is preceded by an attempt to elucidate some difficult and obscure points in the general account of moral virtue and action in book. Three chapters one to five this section is concerned with the notion of responsibility the discussion decidedly excludes what we may call call the metaphysical issues of the problem which here present themselves it moves on the level of thought of the practical man Dan The statesman and the legislator coercion and ignorance of relevant circumstances render acts involuntary free and exempt. They're doer from responsibility. Otherwise the act is voluntary and the agent responsible choice or preference of what is done and in her consent to the deed art to be presumed neither passion nor ignorance. Silence of the right rule can extenuated responsibility but there is a difference between acts done voluntarily and ax done of set choice or purpose. The latter imply deliberation deliberation involves thinking. You thinking out means to ends in deliberate acts. The whole nature of the agent consents to and enters into the act act and in a peculiar sense. They are his they are him in action and the most significant evidence of what what he is. Aristotle is unable holy to avoid allusion to the metaphysical difficulties and what he he does hearsay upon them is obscure and unsatisfactory but he insists upon the importance in moral action. The agents in our consent and on the reality of his individual responsibility for his present purpose piss the metaphysical difficulties.
"aristotle" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime
"Especially. He has investigated the various Admirable forms of human character and the mode of their production. But all this though it brings more clearly before us what goodness or virtue is and how it is to be reached remains mere theory or talk by itself it does not enable us to become or to help others to become good for this it is necessary to bring into play. The Great Force of the political community or state of which the main instrument is law hence arises the demand for the necessary complement to the ethics I e a treatise devoted to the questions which center round the the inquiry by what Organization of social or political forces by what laws or institutions. Can we best secure the greatest amount of good character. We must however remember that the production of of good character is not the end of either individual or state action. That is the aim of the one in and the other because good character is the indispensable condition and the chief determinant of happiness itself the Call Hall of all human doing the end of all action individual or collective is the greatest latest happiness of the greatest number there is aristotle insists no difference of kind between the good of one and the good of many or all the sole difference is one of amount or scale this does not mean simply that the state exists to secure in large measure the objects of degree which the isolated individual attemps obs- but his too feeble to secure without it on the contrary it rather insists that whatever goods society society alone enables a man to secure have always had to the individual whether he realized it or not the value view which when so secured he recognizes them to possess the best and happiest life for the individual. Joel is that which the state renders possible and this it does mainly by revealing to him the value of new objects objects of desire and educating him to appreciate them to aristotle or to Plato. The state is his above. Aw Aw large. And powerful educative agency which gives the individual increased opportunities of self development and greater capacities for the enjoyment of life looking forward than to the life of the state as that which aids support and combines the efforts of the individual to obtain happiness aristotle draws no oh hard and fast distinction between the spheres of action of man as individual and man as citizen nor nor does the division of his discussion into the ethics and the politics rest upon any such distinction. The distinction implied is rather between two stages in the life of the civilised man the stage of preparation for the full life of the.
"aristotle" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime
"Both deal with one and the same subject. This subject is what Aristotle calls in one place the philosophy of human affairs but more frequently political or social science in the two works taken together we have their authors whole theory of human conduct or practical activity. Nobody that is off all human activity which is not directed merely to knowledge or truth. The two parts of his treatise are mutually complementary but in a literary sense each is independent and self contained. The problem to the ethics is an introduction to the whole subject not merely to the first part the last chapter Europe the ethics points forward to the politics and sketches for that part of the treatise the order of inquiry to be pursued an order which in the actual treat is is not adhered to the principle of distribution of the subject. Matter between the two he works is far from obvious and has been much debated not much can be gathered from their titles which chewed any case. We're not given to them by their author nor do these titles suggest any very compact unity in the works to which they they are applied the plural forms which survive so oddly in English ethics and politics six were intended to indicate the treatment within a single work of a group of connected questions the unity of the first. I group arises from their centering around the topic of character that of the second from their connection with the existence and life in the city or state we have thus to regard the ethics as dealing with one group of problems and the politics ticks with a second both falling within the wide compass of political science. Each of these groups falls into subgroups subgroups which roughly correspond to the several books in each work the tendency to take one by one. The various problems problems which had suggested themselves in the wide field obscures both the unity of the subject matter and its proper articulation Shen but it is to be remembered that what is offered us is a valid Louis rather an inquiry than an exposition of hard and fast doctrine. Nevertheless each work aims at a relative completeness and it is important to observe the relation of each to the other. The distinction is not that one treats moral and the other of political philosophy. You know again that. The one deals with the moral activity of the individual and the other with that of the state nor once more that the one gives us the theory of Human Conduct while the other discusses its application in practice though. Not all of these misinterpretations are equally around. Yes the clue to the right. Interpretation is given and by Aristotle himself where in the last chapter of the ethics he is paving the way for the politics in the ethics. He has not confined himself to the abstract or isolated individual but as always thought of of him or we might say in his social and political context with the given nature due to race and heredity and and in certain surroundings so viewing him. He has studied the nature and formation of his character all that he can make himself or be made by.
"aristotle" Discussed on New Player Has Joined
"Oh they're watching a can't tell. Who's the boss Oss? It's it's next door. They've been watching eighty s sitcoms and early new sitcoms all afternoon. What would what's the one to say that one way to keep going sure? Sure sure man. I get that this is an era. But I'll keep doing it because that's the that's the song. The husband makes his wife's asleep watching the show for the fifth episode in a row at night. Like uh Dan Sing it himself. I hate this is what was the one with Michael J. Fox. Oh a a famous yeah family ties that what it was yeah family ties in what was he in. What was he? Shot fucking doc in makes a big shock Mr big piece of Shit. Google googling on Maureen are episode from our -partment Donaldson here came to visit us at. This is the first time he brought your stuff. So this is what you bring to the puck. This is what you bring the Land Malthouse. Well we had a place but this is where I bring to. You know whenever we need to go home. Gotcha on the road on suicide buddies suicide as. Yeah this is the setup this that you're their apartment. Do they record studio. What do they do at their places? We switch off like like divorced parents. Are we like our Jesse. Neither ones that go to the studios. Most people do at home. I Know Jackie uh well it all depends everyone. Does it differently. Everybody's special indifferent what what was Michael J. Fox and Aristotle Spin City not be family thank you. This is spin city. What was Michael J. Fox in the neutral? Three O n one and to you. Learn something new every day. All right Keith. No okay well. This has been new players scare style. Okay Aristotle what are you playing doing nothing at the moment. Because I'm in the middle of a move. Jesus Christ. Hey Keith. What are you planning air? We're moving moving. Hambro ham brought sounds exotic really because I thought it sounded like the Spanish version of the hamburglar. What is how Halmahera translate to? I don't know it's it's like a gateway or area area in Paris experience. It's not it's not as bad it's not l.. I am not el-Hamra mistake. It sounds like the French him. Yeah as long as I get to make the Joepat hamburger sounds like Hamburg. Where it's pretty high concept comedy? See if you can follow along at home yeah. I'm not playing anything about playing playing games. You're playing mind games with everyone guys. I gotcha I'm complained at stranding and I'm taking breaks between us during guys. The story was great and I still don't know really. Yeah what's going we know. I'm technically halfway through the game. Really because you have to go across the country star on the East Coast to the West Coast Through do we. We think that once that happens the game is done. No because people are like. It's like an eighty hour playthrough and you're not forty hours in but watching this game ame developed so really what it is is connected through everybody So there's like rocks and all sorts of stuff. You have to go through them but you can also do is you can build roads and highways so I built Parma highway. Our way built part of another highway and other players. Were doing it so we were seeing this highway. Yeah do like the whole map and it keeps your bike. Energize in charge charge the whole time so so much easier to get from place to place. Yeah and I finally got my hover carts. I can't believe his game got zero stars from some people or one on stars and it sucked. I got I got my hover board for the first time I hover board game guys how me any other video game. That's fun has hover boards words in it because in this game I get these carriers with you a hover needed on top of one. He can write down a mountain escape literally. Like on on a skateboard. So a lot of parts of the game. And I still don't know what Matt's Mickelson's deal is. There are so many people have no patience for video. Oh Games anymore. I don't think so because like I know it's a because some people are like man the first ten hours or like such a drag and it's so boring and I'm like I don't what do you what did you want. Yeah what the game it got pitched everyone at the whole time as you walk places in Your Messenger. Yeah and people are like. That's Mike Mike. It's only been same thing the first two hours of phantom pain yeah. We're you crawl everywhere and you're injured. Yeah that was it and then there is a big horse right at the end and nothing made sense. This is still hitting OKAJIMA. This is what he does and I listen to his comment which is really great. He's like I made this game because I wanNA connect people. I saw too many people playing shooters kind of jumping in and killing each other and make something people can connect. You need something special and cool core. It's really cool. It's really gorgeous this but yeah I'm really digging it halfway through. That's where I'm at Jesse Be I did Holland. We Indian episode about what he wanted. We're going to have to do an episode about it but but I have so many feelings on this game I love it. Yeah I hate it. Why it's beautiful soundtracks amazing hand-drawn on graphics? It's gorgeous lors incredible. I beat this game at eighty percent completion. which is probably more than and I beat a lot of games at like Red Dead Games like like granted all the Rockstar Games? I feel like you'd be like forty five percent completion and there's this whole world I beat this sucker at about eighty percent completion and I got the shitty ending which I'm fine with He? Here's what you put it perfectly perfectly. Well you walked by as I was playing like. You don't sound like you're having fun now once. You told me that I sounded like I was making dad noise. Komo come on kids bills and Jesse players game he was like I'm like Dude leggings games like I love it. I love it to death and I'll walk in in here. Come on. I died so many times in so many ways. When I got to the end of it I was like go do this? I could go to this I can go to this and and I went fuck it. I'm not doing any of that horse. Shit Yeah I'm so tired so I went and I beat the game and it felt extremely gratifying and then as soon as it was done on just now I started a new play through Nino Cooney a much easier game and I said it too easy because fuck that shit I deserve. You don't like hard hard game. I deserve a walk in the park after that. Game's not just that Games fucking difficult. I don't get the difference like if you played played the last of US hard. Yeah it's hard it's hard but that's still not like dark souls. This game is indie dark souls. Cheap it's there are times where I'm like. What the fuck is this? Sheep is. That's have stamped on it when I say so much. Thank but it's a beautiful game. Name the story behind it is cool. There's a tunnel lore it's like all the characters are missing. There's so much that's great about it and and I feel like I very rarely play games at that difficulty and now that I'm done I'm like I'm set for five years. You don't have to do anything did like it was so hard. It was so fucking like Graham at a- At my gym was I was talking to him news. I got beat Holland that he was like. Oh I played that game for ten minutes and I almost broke my television. I deleted the game. Yeah so it sounds like Graham. Yea He does that whenever he is a massive man. He's a scary massive yeah. He sometimes breaks his television. Just by sneezing man is horrified ways. Now replaying no Kuni and it's adorable isn't about area is very. It's such a big swing departure hollow night boy guys utilize. US No bringing a child into the world or hollow night. What's cheaper what's cheating but you know I This is the other thing because there's a whole group of people who love Games out of this difficult got like like specifically Dark Knight Hall from all this out grew dark souls hollow night bloodborne. Seems like this is what I want and I'm convinced after beating eating Hala night that a at least a sizeable portion of those people are just people who enjoy creating an in group out group and WanNa feel better than other people who don't beat those games interesting because people who dance dance revolution. Yeah Lane. Dark Souls Yeah have you seen that. Yeah that's they use a dance dance. Revolution dance connected to their playstation in. Play dark souls. There are all sorts of crazy people. Play take the Rockstar Drum Drum set and play dark souls with Iraq Star. Yeah I mean that sounds like fun but are they actually trying to beat the game. Yes they eat. The again like isn't that there's there's big dark souls by committee where everybody puts a one input in like type it into a group chat and then the person does that. There's all sorts of crazy things that people do dark souls also. I watched a speed speed of hollow night. Yeah they got the same ending that I did in thirty three minutes versus my thirty three hours. That's not why and how what what what were are they good at. They were so many platform things like. There's all these soft barriers and hollow night. You get things like the double jump or the Mantis Claw that allows you to get areas as you can be four and the person I saw. Who has the world record? beat all the like skipped huge areas of the game went to like only a third of the Games map was able to skip stuff by cheating out double jumps by using spells mid air and then jumping again afterwards. Propelling himself off of different creatures it was bonkers. They also saved only at like the first bench and dirt mouth at the top of the game and they would save quit at numerous points and go back into their load file and open backup and dirt mouth at the beginning of the game to save on On travel time which is a technique. Pets allowed because this is not a glitch with the game you can save an exit and go back in and save a ton of time. Can I ask this Any listeners listen if you guys know the answer to these speed runners some are they like I just play hollow night. They have to be like I. Can't you know what I mean. That means they're playing holiday all bald every day like it good at it watching this a person play hall night. There were things that they pulled off that I was like. I've never even thought that was politics. I was impressed when I was watching. You play Seles. Yeah you know what I mean. I'm like that means you're constantly playing that level over and over and over again. I mean the way when you watch a speed run the way it's broken down on the side is that they have the little segments in each of uh-huh individually timed and so they practice every segment on their own over and over and over and over again. This person was like two seconds behind third third their best pace and then they made up for seconds on actually beating the hollow night at the end of the game. That's how quickly they just burn through the boss of the game for fucking seconds made up on it so like daytime it out. It's it's like watching a mario speed on or do a single level they won't just like play the game the whole way through they'll play level four to fifty times through in a row trying to get one more millisecond off their time or whatever and just keep playing that section over and over and over again. It's it's crazy when you get when you win. What do any of us get ever? We all die not carnival they give me giant stuffed animals stuffed animals die animals. Bring them home. I hang them Mike. It hates it I I love that. We both jumped in that moment. We knew we know we knew Aristotle Aristotle when you say to be honest honest nothing hung up on our walls. You notice that artists. Is there a hang up frames bunch of concert posters jazz musicians. TV on the wall to Komo TV crooked Nice. It was crooked what I do best. We paid a task rabbit to not have Kurkin. no-one no one I got this cut on my knuckle nice you paid for it and flesh. Show us that knuckled Lupus off show. How much easier just to go? Fuck Yourself Keith Jesse. We gotTa Fun. Today we've been waiting waiting three months to do this. I've wanted to this episode forever and then fuck it. All drink came in was wonderful and then last week we had to do revolution. Collusion acts which was very fun. There was this a while ago. This is a minute ago. In fact it was to the point where I forgot what games I made need for you episode and today when I went back and say oh man I'm pumped into these games and I read them. I was like it's been uh-huh that way distance between A. Oh that's good but Keith Jesse what game are we talking about. No idea twisted metal all two and I one old on metals plant.
Sometimes a Planet Can Manifest It's Energy Through a Person
"Because I want to demonstrate how sometimes a planet can manifest it's energy a person fixed extinction bellion he's an activist organisation based in the U. K. and the funding to do some details Kim Co founded a Jar Hallam hermit ladies the other person that but we need to back in time base so I think probably the best I'll make sure provide linkin so if the putting into the New Statesman 'cause that's covers who All the information about the Organization and what an up to digital output thinks to Mr Hallam's website itself and his treaty his book Coletta which is now called publishing deal for so we bite so this could watch Tom was born in Manchester and in one thousand nine hundred ninety nine he moved to Wales and started up nice organic farm and thought he do edgy book season and for at least two years running that was an inorder inordinate amount of rain and his crops ruined he wondered what it was about and the ads often a pig Baena bouncer but something wherever ended up at university and did degree in Activism canoes into the existed I think it's a king's quality number one in his first year university he we second year or something I don't know how many days doesn't investment that's happened he decided to go on hunger strike doc because the university themselves what contributing towards foresaw summit rather and he didn't Kareem event now so the man himself Mr Hallam is a tourist and Send Me Speaking Tureians aunt rebellious type people wanted to some studies on philosophy and this muscle memory skips minute he was a tourist but generally speaking as a general rule tours is didn't entrusted Passe in activism rocking the boat changing the world or any of these things that's note will tours is about so how did someone with sudden tours get that stage case it is wary now he's been in prison until ten he's just come out where we still at work with Scripts Quality Twenty Six folks are he's being released not too sure combine it was in court on the fourteenth Barrow Mavis Imprison for bribes imprisoning book deal for them book though for let's do some background this why would anybody want to be an activist what is about what's inner child that might suggest that as something that is possible so let's just go through the don't have both Tommy ages to find out where he was born but he's stepney-born in Manchester Anti Stat was Sabbatical Warehouse Purse and so he doesn't come from an upper caste poche family from and he's so we know what state your birth place fantasy details companies house and companies view after obesity in fact just start researching squad eweek Scott I'm so we've got said it's get this chance home so let's displayed what he's talking about the son is in chorus and regardless of the day malls is also tourists and the two very talked more dump them in the lesson degree appall so mas is the god of war this is who you are so that would accentuate his venditti to be manipulated in some way avid downs Loyd to Mars conjuncture the sun is that you could be angry to daily do all the time could skip cross about stuff the positive side to Moscow junked the sun is that you might be physically quite active now he birds suffer system would he does have his mercury in the sign of aries so even though he's a tourist he's got his nano contain how many toys it's on with my Korean areas it's not and when you met treason ABC's and aristotle forgets will buy mouse you're going to be things mentally quite swiftly as a fossil now if he had she doesn't but if you had his mother in tours we wouldn't be having anything batsman toll be an activist any shake phobos is but the tweet is not quite so she has met Kunda totally different sign from his sons
'Sontag: Her Life and Work' by Benjamin Moser
"Today I'm very pleased to have as my guest the very brilliant Benjamin Moser who is the author of two biographies of Women Writers The I was a biography of Cou- reese the specter which did a good deal of bringing the Specter a writer who spent a good majority of for life in Brazil to the attention of American readers and the second is the biography of Susan's son tag her life and work which has been a controversial book as if a biography could be controversial but nevertheless this is the way it seems now what do you think of the controversy that seems to have surrounded this book well I think a book about Susan Santa that wasn't controversial would not be a book about Susan's contact I think she's somebody who elicited very heavy very visceral and sometimes violent opinions all through her life and I don't really see this controversial this book I see it more as just I hope it's something starting a conversation about an author that I think is more essential than ever Monsanto was always associated with fashion she was associated with with photography associated with being on the cover of Vanity Fair and the only possible American intellectual who could have been on the cover of Vanity Fair I think the real writers that we actually care about are the ones who go on after their deaths and who have these chances to be reevaluated I can remember the first time I read Susan Sonntags First Book which was against interpret Tation can you remember the first time he read against interpretation yes I can't because I actually hadn't read it until I started working on this book really I know I had read the Auger fi stuff mainly and then I had read essays from against interpretation I think I hadn't read the whole book I'd read notes on Camp I'd read the title essay I'd read some of the film essays but what was really exciting about going back to read it now is that you see a world you see this time which is quite again it feels contemporary but it's all most sixty years old you know against interpretation but you get this whole Panorama of culture and ideas that feels very adding to me I have to tell you it was the first of her books that I read I was astonished by it because Some of the enormity of range of what she's read I mean just when she makes a list of the books that she thinks of you think Oh my you'd already read that in the early sixties choose only in her early thirties to thirty when that book came out before it became fashionable to avert Arto Susan cared about our toll and in fact you know she seems to no that the time she's living in as opposed to the time she died in was a time when p do new things I- slivered out some quotes from Susan let's hear Susan people want to be moved on is a writer want to move people I was very moved cried even a couple of passes that I was riding this one line that made me laugh grimly where I wanna say I say but I don't feel it's me the book says it was a time when knowledge was fashionable Philistinism was unfashionable and I wrote that line with a great deal of Glee and grimness has a time we live in as a time in which knowledge is unfashionable Philipson as it was very fashionable I'm talking to Benjamin Moser son tags biographer that what you just heard was the very first time I sat face to face with Susan from our first conversation and You considered deeply the subject of knowledge and Philistinism and Susan's almost desire to attack the Philistines can you talk to me that I think it's really funny I think it's one of the great American questions I think we're living in a time when Philistinism seems triumphant we don't have to name names but I think we all know who I'm talking about and I think that there's a kind of feeling that we're always being engulfed by the gold escalator and the the all the things in her lifetime worse symbolic of Middle Brow Ism whether it was life magazine in the book of the month club or elevator music all these kind of things Santiago always stood for the opposite of all that crap now you seem to think she becomes as she lives longer and longer harder and harder on the people around her tell me what you mean tell me what that means a lot of it might have had to do the fact that she was physically ill a lot of her life when she was forty two she got stage four breast cancer and it almost killed her and she was subjected to this very gruesome horrifying treatment that did end up saving her life and that's nineteen in seventy five to seventy eight so she's in her mid forties by then and it seemed to me that something did change in her where she got more impatient she got more intolerant of certain people but I think that it's something that's interesting to try to understand what happens but then AH dwell on it too much because what I'm really interested in in Santiago and what I think makes her relevant is her writing and her ideas I think that what we're talking about is a person who wrote in the introduction to against interpretation that we need an erotics of art not a her renewed ix of art and she writes about her fondness for the supremes which at that time you take some on won't take any number of someone's whether it's Irving Hauer Saul bellow they're not listening to the supremes they find it be quite a surprise that a highly thought of intellectual is talking about the supremes by the end of her life she's not talking about the supreme sending more and she's not talking about neurotic criticism no well I think it's very important again to think about how old a lot of this is this is again it's almost it's more than fifty years ago in that time and in that year that was really shocking and it's absolutely really hilarious to see the reactions that she got because the thing about the supreme it's not like she wrote about this frame she said something about how she likes the supremes in one line nobody it followed her the whole life but you point down very well and intelligently and correctly in this book the Cultural Conservatives awesome is has very little to do with political conservatism. Well this is another idea that I think has been forgotten sondheim comes out of a world where out of me education where what she means a small C. conservatism is starting off with Plato and Aristotle and going up to Dante and Shakespeare through the great modern poets and that love that syllabus that Canon that became extremely unfashionable and now I think we're in a world where people aren't reacting against Beethoven you know they don't even know who Beethoven is Dante Shakespeare and so both the people who wanted to modernize that and expand it for example to feminist African American authors those people lost out just as much as the people who wanted it closed for political reasons from the right wing and what happens in that song tag is very perceptive about time and time again it said it all lose out to money it always is out to consumerism and so what happens is you know famous a great painting becomes an expensive painting a great song becomes a song that gets a lot of play on the radio a lot of clicks on the Internet and that's the thing we're in now come talking once again to Benjamin Moser Susan Sonntags biographer in a book from Echo called Sawa tag do you think that you're writing a biography of Susan or in addition a biography of her times well I think both the book is called Sante her life and work and those are two things that are complementary but I'd really there's a lot I'd like people to remember that people don't remember people don't member for example that it was quite common for women to write their husbands books as happened to attack yes fascinated yeah I had no idea will I didn't either I've inhabited this world of the great female intellectuals having done Clarissa Specter before and then Sante it's a world that generation of my grandparents grandmother's generation that I'm familiar with and so about three months ago this piece came out in the Guardian announcing that I had discovered that Sante had actually written the book upon which her husband's career was based book called for the mind with moralist and this piece went viral everybody was talking wrote me and they said are you kidding this happen to everybody nobody wire people so surprised and the reason they're surprise is that I think feminism has made so many gains is that people have forgotten what it was like so when you're talking about a history of her life and times when she applied she's got Souza's very brilliant student and she comes into the World king world and she applies for a job at a magazine and her friend a male friend says well the fact that you're a woman is a real problem but we're going to try to help them get over that and that was a totally normal thing to say to a woman at that time now you would get sued and you know rightly so a lot of the ideas that we think are able in in our culture whether you think about the position of African Americans do you think about the position of women are homosexuals or all these things they've changed really radically and one of the things I think a book like the biographies and Sonic can do is trace the evolution of these ideas so that's the part that I find fascinating because sometimes she's ahead of things and somehow she's behind wind and sometimes she's struggling to understand new ideas as they come into the world it's a fascinating
The Voynich Manuscript: A Book We Cannot Read
"Into stuff to blow your mind. My name is robert lamb and i'm joe mccormack and today do we have a a conundrum consider a book that cannot be read by anyone so it's kind of a riddle in the dark isn't isn't it like something that gall might ask of <hes> of bilbo or bilbo might cunningly ask of ghalem right. It's like i walk but i have no feed. I stand but i have no legs. They're so bad but but it it is an intriguing kinda riddle. Why can't the book in question be read so we instantly. He can think to some of the tricks of riddles right well. Perhaps the book does not exist. You cannot read a nonexistent <hes> fictional book such as <hes> <hes> your hey louis as the book of sand or a thorough peres revert as the book of nine doors to the kingdom of shadows. These are books that exist within stories or within other works that have no reality in our world likewise. You cannot read a book that no longer exists. You know a book that has become law such as you are. The various destroyed meyer. Kota sees or aristotle second book of poetics of which of course a major plot point in berlin echoes the name of the rose right <hes> but no the book <hes> that we're talking about here it is real and it definitely exists okay so that might lead you to the next <hes> like level of contemplation contemplation here okay well. Perhaps this book cannot be read because it is forbidden. You know some powerful librarian or clerk keeps it hidden perhaps alongside the ark of the covenant inter something right okay so like that same aristotle text but in the name of the rose right yeah where's where somebody just preventing you from viewing it and reading it no <hes> that's not not the case with this book because plenty of people have attempted to read it and still attempt to any serious scholar can <hes> you know they can actually travel to its physical location and go oh through the you know the the the necessary of paperwork. One presents can examine it physically and you you the listener can even attempt to read it on the internet or you can so you can acquire a printed facsimile <hes> many of which were very nice understand okay.
"aristotle" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"All right. We're back. Now, of course, as we said that over time there has been this steady increasing catalogue of some knowledge about undersea life. There's still a lot. We don't know. But we know a lot more than we used to. And one of the earliest major explorations of marine biology was that of Aristotle in the fourth century BC in his biology or this history of of animal life, Aristotle got a lot wrong. Like, for example. He said the octopus is a stupid creature for it will approach a man's hand. If it'd be lowered in the water now on the other hand Aristotle for his time. If you consider his limitations got an astonishing amount, right? For example. He correctly determined that whales and dolphins were not fish. And he made lots of other extremely astute classification. So file this away under Aristotle occasionally says things that sound dumb to us. But was not dumb. Yeah. Yeah. I've feel like we've touched on this before on other topics from our vantage point, it's easy to to say, I you really screwed that. Up here, Donald. But really given what he had to work with his his understanding of the natural. World was amazing. Yeah. I just think about Aerostat -als the research methods available to him knowing lot of what he did. He probably he probably got a lot of information by like talking to fisherfolk and stuff like that. But he also I think some people have said, you know, really looks from some of his statements like Aristotle performed dissections. So we must have had some access to specimens. And it's not so easy to always get specimens in the ancient world. Like, how do you collect them? You just like throw some nets. And hope you get some good stuff. Yeah. Especially this is especially important considering the you have other historians and writers of the ancient world who are very much going on second third and fourth hand accounts of what was going on elsewhere in the world. And and that's where we see some of these more ridiculous notions of of even terrestrial monsters and creatures totally. It's like it's through. Glass darkly on in like four ways. Right..
"aristotle" Discussed on AM 1590 WCGO
"Minner animals right in some people say they're just animals it would never do that now in fact aristotle said this excellence is an art one by training and we do not act rightly because we have virtue or excellence but we rather have those because we've acted rightly right we are what we repeatedly do excellence then is not an act but a habit that's true that is true but it's difficult that's a difficult thing to teach somebody how you teach that how do you how do you call what even makes them want to learn it because that spark of god who i believe they know that i can be better right can do something so teach me with trying times those that went through the depression or or you've gone through something that really tested your mettle tested who you were put through you into the act of sacrificing for your family or sacrificing this or sacrificing that many parents went to bed hungry so they can feed their kids during that time and without an era of trial which we really haven't been through what we're up against is the inundation of a cultural change amongst us but we have not been through the hardship of trial so how do you how do you teach that if you're if you're sometimes those circumstances set themselves up to make those right choices but what happens when you you don't have that can you still do it can you still setup experiences can you still set up the paradigm in which somebody can learn to be for that to become a habit i don't know i think about that i think the world is filled with great man of course evil man.
"aristotle" Discussed on That Awful Sound
"The the safety dance but everybody can do the human a secondary if he can do the human um yeah and i'm on my knees looking for the answer and aristotle o'boyle who we had a celebrity here such an honor aristotle said has got his celebrity seat verified contributor aristotle i believe them the dead lee rocked his world fizz after world i believe that the line where he says he's on his knees looking for the answers could be interpreted religiously that is to say that he is looking towards faith slash religion slash god to give him the answers and that we are all puppets in god's game it's an interesting interpretation that was discussed in a class of mine oh my god while imagine paying money so we'll have to learn about never been more confident my decision to go to college like this this podcast is free we explain the killers to you for free do not go to this man's college course on the killers human down at the learning antics on abed that teacher said thought chair backwards i'm just picture in it i can you imagine what his epaulettes leclerc he's got like chalkboard erasers for epaulettes better land listen i'm like you and like you but ian's years sitting on that chair backward look at them allow he's doing a stilted marionnette routine as he gives this dissertation on human it's it's so immersive over like i'm there okay and this is this is where the lyrics.
"aristotle" Discussed on AM 1590 WCGO
"He my best friend is the man who in wishing me well wishers it for my fate for his friendship is a single sold dwelling into bodies and what else and without friends noone would choose to live though he had all other good how many lonely people out there all the lonely people were they do where do they come from aristotle quotes on politics and peace yeah rush all right he believe that society should be organized so that each person could achieve his or her full potential that sounds very galateri in doesn't ya and he was opposed to tyranny he also believed that those who seek power for their own good will not bring about a peaceful and duct if society use right about that you write about that aristotle man aristotle you're going places where these ideas well he he saw business in war is sometimes necessary we know that for every time there is a purpose he thought that their ultimate aim should be to fill sylla tate leisure and peace okay quote so he that the proof that he is not a modern man right again that is not the aim at any government in the world now i don't think so okay let's get some quotes on politics war ambition such us on and so forth go ahead yes the truth is that meant them bishen in their desire to make money are among the most frequent causes of deliberate acts of in jeff it's running wild right near here now it is evident that the form of government is best in which every man whoever he is can act best in live happily of course please be by dow definitely do next one should be right tattooed on the heads of all of our military people and political people it is not enough to win a war our it is more important to organize the peace man if you don't have a plan for the and he just create more chaos and disorder way to go bush way to go obama botha hitting go stern of the pot libya let things devolve in syria iraq uh all of these people are guilty it does it matter how much longer do you people want to believe in.