19 Episode results for "acoss"
Mark Cuban's 'next-gen' podcasting platform
"The latest from daily newsletter at news dot net. Mark cuban co founding. A next gen podcast platform where hosts can talk to fans live and monetize conversations reports. The verge it's sent to be similar to clubhouse but with the ability to record conversations. The app is reportedly to be called fireside which comes as news to the five year old podcast host fireside surprising and more than a bit concerning says damn benjamin from farsight not that one will podcast advertising keep searching twenty twenty one media radar expect to see a ten to fifteen percent increase in ad spend this year by s. Fourteen point five. Allow you to choose your defaults counter. According to be tested in india the podcast producer. Win studio has raised two crores of rupees. Which is two hundred and seventy five thousand dollars. Casey read has joined blue. Wire as head of marketing should be an hulu for almost five years in no way. Podcast company acoss reported two hundred and sixty six percent increase in revenue last year. A thirty nine percent increase in you. Advertisers plan b egion content creator which produces some of norway's biggest. Podcasts has signed with the company transistor has published five free pieces of music for podcast interests. You'll need attribution. The brussels podcast festival is looking for your votes for the public prize. Twenty twenty one. The event itself takes place over three days from february twenty fifth. I have a few thoughts on what clubhouse really means podcasting in short. Not that much can rebel base. Media's mark asquith. Lets me but that's what he's written. And he's suggesting that clubhouse his a solid way getting cheap attention right now but is not likely to push people to listen to your podcasts downloading. This american life costs a typical south african the equivalent of three dollars. Fifty two in data costs writing on my personal blog. I wonder whether the proposed alternative enclosure tag could mean we get another billion podcast listeners. At on that all funny published to listening examples for podcasts in coded at different rates and different codex even some audio posted at six kilobits. A second you're thinking that rubbish but surprisingly here it is so why have we invited. Rin well grin sideboard right. yeah at. We spent like to tell people news. Resonates co-founded jacob bozarth appears on a recent episode of economics to talk about lessons. He's learned about podcasting experience of producing podcast. The story of resonate over the past five years. It was probably some february. The third financial literacy podcast. Earn your leisure which we reported in july two thousand nineteen is now part of the black effects podcast network. It's had more than five million downloads. The alfred daily forty minute daily local podcast shaft spree in dorset has been awarded by the town's a rotary club number of rotarians nominated alfred for the vital role that daily podcasts have played in strengthening community cohesion. During lockdown and the newsworthy erica mandy is profiled in kansas city. Magazine on the podcast is currently hiring. Hotjobs jobs dot net. And that's the latest from on us. And i said subscribe all links at news dot net.
Why advertising cost of sales (ACoS) is BS!
"I hit by introduced to you Mr Mike. Hey Hey hey welcome to amazing. FBI The place the UK based Amazon entrepreneurs. I'm your host Michel Visi welcome to the show. Starting starting a business on your own can be lonely. And worrying. Selling online multiplies issue. Ten fault getting expert help is a great way to Jesus anxiety not wasted time and confusion the amazing FBI. Mentoring program is in its fourth year of helping sellers to get started on Amazon by now we have former clients aunts. You have a starting from scratch done six figures and even in one case seven figures a year. Obviously these are not typical results. These exceptional don't people nevertheless we can help you get launch faster safer and with a much higher chance overall of success with clients from Melbourne Australia earlier to Manchester England we bring a genuinely international perspective to find out more. Go to amazing F. B. A. DOT COM foot slash mentoring. Thanks for listening. Hi this is Michael from amazing. FBI TUB in said the quality of your questions determine the quality of your life now but if a general statement but they about. I'm going to talk about Amazon advertising and some of the mistakes that people make with the questions that asking that welcome and this is a bit of a sort of fireside chats style in don't have a fireside but we have very cozy. I'm chas very old old very comfortable. At great prices sets I did a lot of reading here. Result business books here is. I think I'm GONNA guess around. My wife would shout three things as well so I thought this was a nice place to how a chat to you about a couple of things. The quality of your questions Equality tiny very famous frigate quotes. I believe got to be true. I think he also said the questions terms where you focus on on what you focus on determines the quality of life. So that's missing piece in business. What you focus on is very hey? Brian pulled Energy goes way you'll focus goes if you're the CEO of the business. That's what the focus Businesses Well Davies. Just you that it's one hundred percents treat. Tends to be treated with. Employees will stop of any kind as well so what is to do with everything and nothing but the the main thing that's prompted today is a lot of questions on facebook groups from fairly new bias. Finding these sellers she she's Amos insiders say would buy because they bought into the idea of having an amazing business funding for the enslaved and some very good advice comes out but the thing. Is this if you focus on the wrong questions you never gonNa get good advice. Never GonNa be helpful today. I WanNa talk about Amazon ads. There is a couple of metrics people light to talk about around this. The I think one in particular is a big big red herring if you focus on this gang to help you. In my humble opinion this is after many many hours debating this with a six seven and even occasional eight figure Amazon sellers are in masterminds Member all Iran. Or what have you Plus reflecting experiences. And so here's the thing that's wrong. A advertising costs of sales the first hint that is not a great thing to follow as Mike Questions. Have you ever seen that outside the Amazon ecosystem now. One of the disadvantages you'll have become to Amazon is your first of business model let alone online boxing one is. You won't have any sort of set. Some references by can promise you that is not a metric. Any normal business would recognize good mice which isn't necessarily a sign this wrong but it sounds very technical and it kind of is on it sound financial news as well but what is really read Harry his wife because if you have this also is the stuff that people face gave some of my closest to percent does really bad. What can I do to change my process? Fifty fifty percent of people to say well. That's not bad average cost should be ten percent says who based on what I say. This is full of full kind of specificity. Status thought is. If you're really GONNA get into detail you're going to have to be able to find a forum where you should reveal a lot of detail about your product on the entire A system within which the ACOSS number fits before somebody can give meaningful feedback on a detailed number like that and of course you don't want to be on a facebook group. I would advise against unless it's within a very trusted for people who've signed nondisclosure agreements and stuff all with the coach while you're working one to one and that sort of thing I I do a lot spend a lot of time analyzing people's acoss but not really the cost. The appetizing spent absolutely critical of course cities and the spend per product. Line is is also critical number. But the ACOSS if you think about it if you're running a manual campaign and you are bidding on a particular key would say I dunno digital watch for the sake of argument. Because that's what I can see inviting me doesn't sell digital to watch his plan. Multiple reasons is donated by brand. I got Casio my risk. It being dominated in the space the is or whatever ever ever since that invented and also it's electronics which he shouldn't be so saying unless you really know what you did say don't do this having fights but Sam trying to solve A. I'm trying to Bait on the keyword digital watch for a particular product. When Cecilia blocked is to watch with orange face? which is I could see it? Well okay good. So let's say you bid on that you pay the cost per click systems. Let's say you get a thousand impressions of thousand people. You see the ad and you get a decent click. Through one percent to ten people click on it and you make one sale in a given period say a month right bat. Great Okay. So let's say on the twenty dollars on the six dollar click. So I've had ten clicks dollar each about ten dollars appetizing appetizing coast on none of had sales of twenty dollars from advertising Gusta. Spend as ten dollars for the for. The advertising divided by the sales have made via advertising hint twenty dollars. Ten to twenty is fifty percent k so that seems like a number. Keep an eye on right. But here's the thing. Unlike with Google as a system the Amazon search algorithm new organic one will reward your products forgetting clicks clicks through advertising. Which means that if you run a product for example digital watch which very unlikely incredibly generic Eric Black did so watch orange face might be better. But what have this watch and you manage to run kits through advertising sales right you you gave the algorithm of a hint that it should be ranking. You'll products for that. Keyword will quickly in other words when Abaya comes on Thomason in typesetting Search the search results page maybe pay one pays to pastry whatever should show you a product a little bit higher than it. It did lost time on. That is actually for me. The main use of advertising apart from a discovery mechanism keyword research and stuff which is a separate matter but intense. It's a sales mechanism and ranking mechanisms. Right it's kind of both which is good thing and also confusing. It's good good to get sales whilst you will get you brought it ranked because out Chicago's flick but the main benefit for me in most cases of advertising. Is that you Dr Organic sales now. Here's the problem. Let's say in that month period. You drove one. You'll you'll launching a new product. It's a bit of a strange strange Say That saying one one month. He had ten thousand impressions on this keyword. You had one. Thanks one hundred clicks and You made Let's say fifty sales because you haven't fifty percents domestic assignments. It's fifty percent but let's imagine that same period you sold four hundred units via the Kiewit dish to watch but free under the appropriate organic on the one hundred as driven by advertising. Well now how do we account for the organic sales the value of your advertising for Ganic Sales. It certainly isn't acoss. If you think about it clear mindedly the ACOSS. The cost of advertising for the sales Via advocates is what a costs measures. So it doesn't take account of the productivity of your advertising across across all of your sales for that product line and the solution is very simple the metric which you can pull different things some people call it the wheel acoss some people call the actual ACOSS AA calls. I will call the advertising sales ratio because industry standard thing across the bold in any kind of industry. That's about fast moving. Consumer goods are in fact even broader than that so not just an Amazon specific thing which is a good hint. Ride that is actually a normal business metric which is a good plan to us because in the end we have to compare the opportunity of selling Protozoan with other possible uses of time money and effort and focus and that means we can compare like like with a bit more of that because the appetizing to sales ratio takes the total ad spend on a product line in a given period divided by all of the sale. All all of this is not just the ones driven by particular platform so if you spend some money on facebook cats and you spend money on Amazon. You just add up together that advertisements band unless save the thirty appearance Diapers are the lost thirty days and let's add uphold the sales that you got a particular product line say over the last thirty days then appetizing to spend ratio. Joe Is very simple. It's it's old. There has been divided by the sales and that gives you sort of efficiency ratio. How well your advertising is helping to drive sales? And that's a way more valid metric personnel. Wouldn't bundle up together. FACEBOOK and Amazon spent by the way the way I just suggested that probably not helpful metric forget that but just announced by which is bought most most of US focus on most of the time for driving own recitals. FACEBOOK is probably for launch. And that's kind of a separate issue anyway so coming back to this. Why is this helpful number one? It gives you a much broader perspective but still product line specific on how useful your advertising is being. I'm not suggesting that you don't go into the weeds and and look at the Amazon ads. Data Catholic should click through rates on the absolute sales rates To some degree. If you've got a low click through rates that's not a good sign because you that'd be sending bad signals algorithm that is not going to help rank your product whole galaxy for Kiewit virus is slightly different reason for not doing it but his advertising listen to sales ratio is great festival. It simplifies everything but not in a CPI intelligent way secondly it stopped going mind trying to manage things virus silly metric Acosta costs as meaningless in isolation hyper made clear why that is and the third thing is it. It's it's a very very simple matter to look at mule profit margin per unit of gross margin and your adspend unit Oil Total AD spending your total margin for the month. It doesn't matter. It should be the same thing percentage wise and see if you making a profit breaking even making a loss you'll gross margin on put it off the cost of goods sold so the title landed cost. manufacturing freight 'em insurance Import Duties Etcetera plus the Amazon is in fulfilment fees in Tulsa plus Amazon selling fees. So the commission right so you got the title revenue the Price Salad Minus will this caused gives you. You'll grace majd off the ads then is GonNa be bigger than the title call. You got a just sending a unit for twenty dollars. Listen you'll free. Advertising title Costs Fifteen dollars. You've got a five dollar profit in that All twenty-five percent Avio advertising to sales ratio at a product without slim early margins which not that uncommon for beginner especially is above twenty five percent. You're actually losing money on each sale. If it's lower you'll make a profit and it's Kinda. I knew that simple ready because what other costs have you taken account if I forget the cost. Now you've got to tell you. Advertising costs into account thus the grow small. It doesn't take account of OVID'S I'm not talking about anything else outside outside of the gross profit and loss but still per product line. That's actually the kind of metric you need to stare at by in the end will you need is a product that will make a profit and of course the self rate is also critical another metric that people tend to look at and there's a lot of talks about that and also about in another another episode but this is pretty robust pretty simple very lobbyists. Were all the serious sellers I know use exemption on people get caught up in his AAC offs offs. Walt to why does even exists. Then why are we being security is to ignore it. Well think about it. I have an an odd words account with Google and they very often get hold of me. They try and persuade me to spend more money in. Oh to optimize will make my campaign otherwise about yes. vaiciunas Google. Google makes his money from advertising now. Amazon has a COUPLA very profitable divisions mostly. It's not a profitable company never has is being in fact. It made pay within profits for pretty much all of his existence because isn't very solid strategic reason behind not just businesses the savviest sky in the planet right now in my opinion pretty much up there and one of the reasons if the tax strategy have avoided sales tax for twenty five years finally finally being made I knew like or a company responsible for sales tax but also the other big income tax is tax on your profits as a corporation. So you don't many many taxes you can get the money back into the company without the tax inefficiency in grow your business quickly and it was all about growth. which for the stock market largely is especially rush? Amazon's Greystoke noted dividends Doesn't pay out much cash than that's what they WANNA do right but even in has to keep the lights on so they need cash and uneven Amazon has shareholders. You eventually lost couple of years being pushing to get a little bit more profit so. Aws is the really profitable of Amazon Web Services Services where they provide services very very cheater as sort of competing platform for the planet including everyone famously including the CIA and things like that and the other thing is the advertising advertising that is very profitable for them. So unsurprisingly Amazon's pushed to get their profits from the profits for Amazon ads on the Amazon Dot com retail platform. Going up from mm about two billion dollars a year ago to eighteen ten billion. Sorry the loss figure the likelihood now that might be very out of date but it doesn't matter it gives you an idea of the scale as five X. I five hundred percent increase in an money to Amazon through ads of the last year. Obviously they want us to spend money on advertising if they give the delusion of control via acoss than it gives us a feeling that we know what we're doing means that we're measuring the metrics in the wrong way. I mean you don't necessarily need to worry about a call so it depends on your margins and the effects it's got overall ranking really the simplest metrics in business often turn out to be the most important again. I'm not saying you shouldn't do. Things like negative keywords the efficient use of the data in two tone your advertising you you should but I probably going to be one of the loss metrics. I would look at an overall con of way of staring. Amazon's it sort of constantly wood for the Trees Syndrome because if you are focused on a cost that he would will maybe by advertising campaign pain. The campaigns ECON breaking down by Kiewit obviously. But he's still the wrong metrics be worrying about the one that really really really matches is. What's a gross margin how much she's putting on sizing and if you've got a profit left off that his it the rest is detail yes you can do negative to what you can do all all sorts of stuff that is beyond my ability to say in about five seconds here and some of it's quite technical and I would suggest you get an expert involved in that as well? There are many many many of them Matt. PC on Toronto's very good. Brian Johnson stuff is is very good. There's lots of good people out now but before you dive into the big picture metrics and don't look at the wrong details so hopefully. That was helpful. I'm kind of amazed that anyone still looking at a cost. I guess I live in a world where the people I know who the series Detecting that much as of now I mean they might just just keep an eye on it in the early because the very early days of selling product. What I mean is when you just launched it? Neil this how's is it gonNA come from PPC because obviously it has almost no organic ranking so that point. Yeah you got one hundred percent line and you're only selling sort of eight attended a sold via advertising. That is quite similar to your total appetizing sales ratio. Right and by the way spending hundred percent of your revenue on unappetizing isn't necessarily the wrong thing to do. This is a slightly different discussion. But that's about launch a as long as you know what you're doing and have a particular objective for it that's not necessarily thoroughly Either but I suppose mostly addressing what you should be doing what you've got a product launch you try to make a profit so again. He comes onto clear objectives so I appropriation muddy the I'm just saying there is no single. ACOSS figures writes an ecosystem even if he should be worrying about the advertising is the way forwards. It simplifies a lot as well which is a wonderful side benefit. But that's not the main reason for doing it. The main reason is it's meaningful in the end on. This is going to be the same team. I WANNA do a few different ones about metrics different different Brokaw's about that in the end. What really matters is that you're measuring something meaningful in the wider business context if you'll worrying about profit than what matters? Is You determine profit if you think about cash flow than what my Liz you determine. What your cash flow now is and will project into into the future? What is going to be Those are really really important. Basics of business and any other metrics you have have to relate to those big picture metrics to be meaningful in my opinion and the same with moxy while market share is a very meaningful thing but again as measured by revenue of marketing metrics wchs breakdown sooner or later to find out to metrics things like play three rates breaks down to some not so much market share as of search sharing. There's a few different ways of looking at it but this is getting beyond the scope of this little Little chance but what is important is to measure meaningful things that relate to a wider simple business contexts in the end a lot of it comes onto prophet return on investment annual cash flow. So we'll be talking about a few more metrics on a few more red herrings see out there. Hopefully this has been helpful car fighting thing. Listen again if you need to think hit three because this is not rocket science is the opposite actually simplifying that people make into rocket science into something essentially very simple you can do with in the the back of an envelope and this is a a sanity metric. The I often guys with people he come to me with the listings in trouble. I say well you know. We've got a few options to look at the one ratio we absolutely should measure now is appetizing to sales ratio. And then if you adjust your price all the anything about your listing will you adjust to add. Spent that we should keep an eye on that not necessarily always about having prophet if your objective is to launch your products about profit. You making loss if you'll get to sell through product because you think it's a bit of a rubbish choice and you want to turn that into cash than you might not instant profit item. I just work at break even but that should be a conscious decision to aim for will launch profitable break even and then you should make sure that the metrics are using aligned with a different objective. So get probably getting getting a bit too broad for the for the purposes of this show but that's been helpful. I'd be like a little bit different. I quite like sitting having a chat in an armchair listening and be different. Run about it than than sitting there with my seat and In front of a white bull but Tokyo which I've got to go and talk to a client soon and we got into the research whether full metrics while will be talking about another point. Thanks very much for taking the time with me today. We enjoyed it ticket. That's it thank you so much for your attention really appreciate it now over to you. I eight hundred twenty. Everything learned the critical few. Maybe there's one thing in this podcast that can make all the difference. Find that thing. Twenty percent of inputs give eighty percent of the outputs which all the critical few fees then take action. Imperfect action leads perfect in connection every single time. Finally a not least review. If you've made mistakes learn from them if you made a success duplicate it. You
Alien Stellar Stream Discovered in our Neighbourhood
"Love this podcast? Support this show through the ACOSS support a feature. It's up to you. How much you give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty three episodes, seventy six full broadcast on the twenty fourth of July, twenty twenty, coming up on space time, alien stellar streams discovered in our galactic neighborhood tracking satellites from the Arctic and Red Planet Rush. Hour with remissions bound for mass this month, all that and more coming up on Space Time Welcome to space time. We'd Still Gerry. Astronomers have discovered a stream of stars close to our solar system. That didn't originate within our own Milky Way. Galaxy a report in the journal, Nature Astronomy claims this alien stock loss data which has been named Knicks after the Greek goddess of the night slices through the disk of the Milky Way in an arc, extending some six thousand light years above and below the Galactic plane, early estimates suggest the stellar stream consists of at least two hundred and fifty stars, still a streams of thought to be the remnants of globular. Or some galaxies that have been stretched out along the orbit by the Gravitational Tidal Forces of logic galaxy before being disrupted, the data shows the knicks stream piece to be rotating with the Mogi Way's galactic disk, but it's also moving towards the Galactic Center the authors also detected an additional stellar stream with have dubbed mix to it has similar motion and still A. A characteristics to nick's but opposite velocity, suggesting that it's related might be debris from a separate passage of the same dwarf of Galaxy through the Stella Disk the oath is made the discovery using data from the European Space Agency's Guy Satellite, are they then ran that data through sophisticated computer modeling? Notice the feedback, relativistic, environmental five project, resulting the discovery of Knicks. Launched in twenty thirteen geyer is studying the movement of more than one and a half billion individuals stars across the sky in the process, creating an incredibly precise three dimensional map of our part of the galaxy and knee by space. The PHYA project uses deep learning algorithms and artificial neural networks in supercomputers to create a simulation of galactic evolution. Across time the authors added differences between stars originating the Milky. Way from those created from beyond the galaxy to the fire program, and then included the guy data and crunch the numbers the program success. We identified the Milky. Way's Galactic Halo, which contains a lot of oldest is often unusual. Unusual orbits and importantly it also identified to previously known streams of Alien Stars the. Guy Is Sausage, which are the remains of a dwarf game that merged into the Milky Way between six and ten billion years ago, and the Helmi Stream the remains of another dwarf galaxy discovered in one, thousand, nine, hundred nine. That is also being cannibalized by the Milky Way. The authors say Nix was likely once it's wolf. Galaxy Globular Kosta that merged into the disk of the Milky Way at a low angle and in progress orbit, one of the study's authors Lyndon Asleep from the California Institute of Technology says. It's other the remnants of. Of Galactic merger between the Milky Way in another galaxy or the disc styles from the Milky Way that have been gravitationally into a new orbit, following a collision between the Milky Way in another galaxy, it nicely slots in with astronomy and the standing of galactic evolution galaxies grow through a process known as galactic cannibalism, a series of mergers and collisions with other galaxies, for example, the milky ways currently stripping matter from at least four nearby, said light off galaxies, two of this satellite to off galaxies, the large and small magic clouds, I connected to each other by gravitational titled Stream of Stars Known as the magic. Bridge and they're. They're also losing material to the Milky Way through another bridge known as the metal and extreme, then as the cat, US Major Dwarf Galaxy which at twenty, five thousand light years is actually closer to our sun in the center of our galaxy is, it's also being totally disrupted by the Milky Way with a filament of stars, trailing behind that as it orbits around the Milky Way forming a complex ring like structure, wrapping around Al Galaxy at least three times, and is the secretaries to of Royal, Galaxy, which is already collided with a disk of the Milky Way on at least three occasions, and he's losing more and more. With each pass of course collected cannibalism works both ways with the Milky Way now destined to collide with and be consumed by the much more massive and Drummer Galaxy, m, thirty, one and dromedary, currently approaching the Milky Way, at read one hundred ten kilometers per second, depending on which set of calculations you believe, the cosmic collisions likely to occur sometime between three point, seven and four point five billion years from now this evening, colleagues next job will be to. To use ground based telescopes to obtain detailed spectra from the stars in extreme in order to determine their age exactly when they joined the Milky Way and to understand the chemical composition in order to see exactly how they differ from the stars that form the Milky Way this space time still to come tracking satellites from the Arctic and Red Planet Rush Hour with three missions bound from us this month, all that and more still to come on space time. European Space Agency's Operation Center dumpster Germany operates a number of satellite tracking stations known as s track European Space Tracking Network. These stations support various ace emissions and facilitate communications between mission managers on the ground and spacecraft such as Xm Newton Mas Express Baby Colombo guy. Solar orbiter the Copernicus Satellite Constellation, and the Galileo satellite navigation system, many of the satellites that gather information and health of our planet hoping. Hoping with awards, transportation and navigation and taking important scientific missions are on what's known as polar orbits which take them over the planet's North and South Poles and keeping in touch with spacecraft as their fly over these desolate remote areas isn't an easy job. While space time, listeners would be familiar with the European Space Agency's new nausea tracking station Perth Easter operate similar stations in Spain Argentina Sweden Kenya Belgium. Chile and the curious space center in French Guiana, but none of his isolated, or in such an inhospitable and desolate environment, as val sat acis most novel Ground Station located on a windswept mountain plateau on the island of Spitsbergen. Swell bad Norway well above the Arctic Circle. The complex of more than two dozen dishes is a vital link collecting data in communicating with the missions flying above them as well as Asia. Swale sets also providing satellite. For NASA, no the US geological service in a waging coastal administration and the Space Agency's of multiple countries, including, Taiwan South Korea India, Germany, Italy, and Japan this report from act. Dancing above these satellite antennas at the small bars satellite station high in the Arctic. Here next to one of the most northern cities in the world is the perfect location to track polar orbiting satellites, including some for the European Space Agency. Peer Up. There is at station twelve Martin about to a trekking antennas. This station is unique and we have a perfect location for attracting liles Bass quotes. And the main reason being that we can see fourteen also foregin daily orbits. Spherical domes protect the antennas from the harsh weather. Conditions of the environment inside the antennas work like any other ground station, following a satellite to collect its data check, it's health and send commands back. Data from eases Earth explorers such as AO listen. Smalls are down linked to fall set as well as from the sentinel satellites for Europe's Capanna Casse environment monitoring program. Eight of these antennas are dedicated to tracking the copernicus sentinels. The visibility of this. Sensitive satellites pair are about fourteen minutes from the time they come from the horizon and the time they are. Not to be simple longer, and during that time we download the payload data, the housekeeping data, and sometimes we speak to the satellite that means commanding the Seth Light. In addition to the earth. Satellites, the ground station also supports Europe's Galileo Network for navigation as well as I search and rescue. while. This location is optimal for communicating with the satellites orbiting close to the North Pole to snow, cold and long periods of darkness makes life for people working here a challenge to ensure that the environmental conditions do not affect the ground operations teams of two people working twenty four hour shifts to monitor each satellite pass. On the day from the satellites are very important for lots of people around the world when it comes to. Whether the hell is the the the future of the PLATTE. Planet of course, so it's it's really nice to be part of that and to to help people get this information and distributed. Across the globe, teams at ground stations work around the clock to download vital information and track the health of satellites that are checking the health of our planet, and the report by city included spouse that station director, Ole, Pitta Strom, Stat, and case at Central Service Manager Cheng Johnson this space time still come Red Planet Russia with remissions bound for Mars this month, and later in the science report news at the virus that causes covid nineteen has been found to be structurally different from its nearest bat virus relative all that most come on space time. Well, it seems to be rush out on the road to mass with three missions, currently targeting the Red Planet Nasa's Mars Twenty Twenty perseverance rovers just been made with Atlas Five Launch Vehicle in preparation for its flight from space. Launch Complex Forty one at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida slated for July thirty. It had originally binch for launch and July seventeenth, but have been put back three times I. July twenty because of a faulty crane, then to July twenty second after potential contamination issue was identified with ground support lines, and finally to July thirtieth. Liquid oxygen sense alive presented off normal data during a waitress rehearsal mission managers, deciding additional time was needed in order to understand and resolve the issue at this stage. There's no panic as the launch window to Mars remains open until at least August the fifteenth, these are designed to provide the shortest journeys between Earth and the red. Planet which is based on how the orbits of the two planets line up, and they line up best during a narrow window every twenty six months. The six Wilbur Body Perseverance rover will land on an ancient river delta in forty five kilometer wide jezreel crater in the Mash Northern, hemisphere on February the eighteenth next year, and that touchdown date is set firm regardless of which date launches once. Perseverance has wheels on the ground, ill such signs of past live studied the local atmosphere, weather geology and collect samples for title. Title Worth Future Joint NASA. Mission slated for twenty thirty one. It also test new technologies including oxygen harvesting equipment new materials, which be used during a manned mission to the Red Planet, and it will even launch a little helicopter named ingenuity. Perseverance is based on the existing. Mars Curiosity Rover which has been exploring the nearby gale crater since its arrival in two thousand twelve. But Nassar isn't the only agency on its way to Mars China's Tianhe Win One. Oh, heavenly questions! Mission is also bound for Mars flying on a Long March. Five rocket from the wing spacecraft launch site on Hainan Island in the South China Sea it includes both an arbiter and a Land Rover. The Land Rover's design appears to be barred from this spirit and Opportunity Rovers in owner to reach the surface, the land that will use a parachute, retro rockets, and ultimately an airbag for final touchdown. Meanwhile Japanese age to be rocket is carrying the United Arab Emirates set alight. The one thousand, three hundred and fifty kilograms satellite will study the Martian atmosphere from for full mash. In Year six hundred eighty seven earth days, hope carries three primary, Science Instruments and infrared spectrometer to measure the lower atmosphere and analyze the temperature structure, a high resolution imagery to study marsh and Liberals and an Ultraviolet Spectrometer to measure atmospheric oxygen and hydrogen levels. A fourth plan mission demise, the joint European Space Agency Russian Roscosmos xhosas mission was also expected to launch this month, but is now being postponed to twenty twenty two G to arrange of technical problems compounded by the COVID nineteen pandemic. This space, time! And not to take another brief look at some of the other stories making news inside this week. With a science report, new researchers concluded that size covy to the virus that causes covid nineteen is structurally different enough from its nearest respect virus, relative that it's most likely the result of two or more distinct coronavirus, combining a report in the journal Nature. Structural and molecular biology analyze the spike protein which enables the virus that bind to an end to human cells for both sides, covy to and the closely related virus rit thirteen. They found that other structures were similar size covy to has a more. More stable former, the spike leisa protein, and is able to bind approximately a thousand times more tightly to the human h two receptor protein. The study suggests that a bad virus similar to Rit g thirteen would be unlikely to infect human cells. What supports the theory that says curvy to is actually the result of two or more virus swapping Diana now for those conspiracy theorists survey. There's nothing sinister about that. The sort of events known as recombination occur quite commonly in nature for example when two viruses infected intermediate host animal, but on the other hand it can also be made artificially in a laboratory. And you study looking at sexually similar European countries as found that the number of covid nineteen fatalities tends to be lowering areas with book. Ulysses vaccination is more prevalent. The findings were reported in the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences took into account variables like population density access to healthcare and the stage of the covid nineteen pandemic. Now this observation isn't after confirmed that the burglar says vaccination gives protection against the covid nineteen virus, but the authors are pointing to an ongoing Austrian clinical trial as a possible source for more solid evidence. We'll keep you informed. The World Meteorological Organization bricks. The annual average global temperature is likely to be at least one degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels for every year of the next five years, and it also warns the temperatures will be more than one and a half degree Celsius high during at least one of those obvious, the predictions take into account, natural variations as well as human influence on climate, however, the research does not take into account changes in emissions as a result of the coronavirus lockdown, although the impact of the drop in emissions, this year is not expected to lead to a reduction in a role. Calm, the oxide atmospheric concentrations, which is the driving force behind global temperature increases. And you study claims the world's population will reach nine point seven billion by twenty sixty four. The findings were reported in the Lancet Medical Journal also suggested the global human population will vince dot to decline tour at eight point eight billion by the turn of the century, the new computer model estimates are around two billion low than previous studies have suggested researches say that by twenty one hundred predicted fertility rates. Rates in one hundred, eighty, three, one, hundred ninety five countries will no longer be high enough to maintain Karen populations without liberal immigration policies and twenty three countries could even see the population shrink by more than half including Japan, Thailand Italy and Spain. The study also predicts dramatic declines in working age populations in countries, including India and China, which could curb economic growth and lead to shift in global powers. Well if you've been hearing some eerie MONZ and groans coming from the attic basement, you're not alone. It seems there's been an upsurge in claims of paranormal activity in residential homes ever since the covid nineteen lockdown began while rational people could put down to spending more time at home, so having more opportunity to hear the house settle over, expand and contract with changes in temperature. Others insist this something strange in the neighborhood. So who you GONNA call well Tim Mendham from Australian skeptics. Skeptics of course story guys that is rising paranormal activity. and someone said that Moore I'm stuck in this house. The more there's a failing as one person said it's a wonderful example, this article of logical fallacies with the yeah. They don't understand what they're saying. Paranormal activity looking bad. I- surge of strength things happening, but it's not certain things happening just a surge of your time. You're spending time so a little noises and things that the flashes AIDS. That building's Craik if? They do all day long and all night long. If he had more time, you hear the more often, and you'll think they happen more often which they died. You're aware of them to more about yourself. In about the paranormal holdings and that sort of stuff never thing that someone said with his classic believes a philosophy that was talking about. I'm a fairly rational person, said one person I tried to think what are the reasonable tangible things that could be causing this when I died. Have those answers I? Start to think. Maybe something else is going on with a leap. By saying maybe something else is going on. Maybe you just and when I don't have those answers you stop it. They and you say I don't have the answers you can say. I have the answers. Therefore, this is happening like I see a lot in the sky. What do these days? I an IBM crossed. Things happen done what it is. They forgot exist visit seriously all these different things that people might base late from. Now to do now, but it's something that and it's a very strange in San. Mateo where people often might this? Because I know, it must be this at a dozen for because you know full, stop he now. You're going to have to leave it I. Guess It's also case if people often know how little they really don't know who they are underestimating wherever it was. Think. I think they do know a lot and people who do know a lot. I think a lot of the more you know, the more you realize you know. Wonderful! If you knew anything, you'd stop diagnosed. Sound a half the time to Mendham from a strain skeptics. and. That's the show now. space-time is broadcast on science own radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington, DC and through both I heart radio and on Tunin radio or you can subscribe in Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple. STITCHER BITES DOT COM. Puckett cast soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom. ANDROID CASS box from space time with Stewart, Gary Dot com, or from your favorite download podcasts provider, you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies, or by becoming space time Patriot which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burners, already content and other awards just go to a patron page through space time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details. If you want more space time, check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit. Fit in the show as well as loads of images, news, stories, videos, and things on the web, I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart. 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Amazon PPC Automation with Ganesh from AI Hello
"Welcome to the k. Collective podcast for six seven and eight amazon and e commerce sellers apart of the amazing. Fbi family if you want to scale fast target seven figure exit and enjoy the process. Thank you for listening. Today's episode is sponsored by the new ecowas. Podcast the ecommerce leader co hosted by myself michel visi and jason miles top one percent a shop if i store owner and utilize highest rated e commerce instructor. If you're the owner of a thriving e commerce business look for the commerce leader on your favorite podcast app and subscribe today. Ladles and jelly spoons boys and girls. Welcome back to ten k. Collective this is the first podcast. Some recording of the thousand twenty one starting with a whimper. Not a bang. We all in lockdown here. But i'm delighted to welcome onto zoom working from home ganesh christian from hello. Hello is was the first class automation from amazon. So that really aiming to take the pain of going through all those spreadsheets. An all that nightmare of micromanaging amazon. Odds and also i think the dangers of spending crazy amounts of money on it. When you don't even know which is something we've both experienced so very greatly needed and your warm welcome to the show. Thank you for coming on. Hi my name is gonna thank you by his podcast. Let's get started. So what what we do is we do. Food service automation for amazon. And we are one of the top rated amazon at on the amazon side of central store excellent. Yes and we're going to dig into a bit of the detail but just tell me what you mean by full service or first class automation. So how most of the amazon. Pbc automation works. A lot of our competitors do is that he had to go instead of rules. You can choose what time you want your ads to be active. You can choose how to set your bid spy echoes. So what we do. Is we completely wipe this off the table and then we say it was on a mission. All you need to do is switch it on and our. Ai will automatically today one of the selling times increase a bit during those times and during the night it will property the lowest if approached on saturday night but some products have been in. The night includes a bit during the night so we do automated. They're partying and we also increase because the bit depending on your acosta that so the one lead parameter that we need from you is the target the rest of it. We managed also so so he's led by a target. That's fine sigmund. I know that day passing is not an automatic part of the amazon system and people who have really come from google. Ads are often a bit shocked at that lack of kind of granular control. So thus very vain so you just set the target. So why do you think we sort of step back one level from the detail of how to run amazon ads through an automated system for second. Why is this particularly important. Do you think he'd people's businesses. What's the bigger picture that it makes this segment. I think from my experience of talking to thousands of sellers over the last year. Is that most of the people you know. Treat amazon as a casino they come in. They want to gamble. They wanna spend the money and close to eight. Nothing go bankrupt in the first year and a lot more. Go bankrupt in the second year as as you mentioned a few moments before it's a gold rush now. Everyone wants to give them some business. But it's exactly like as people wanna going for the money you know and get out and unfortunately forty to sixty percent of the money. The highest portion of it goes into ads and that is a product cost and the shipping cost. So i i even brought a block. Post amazon makes more money by not selling product. Dan by selling your product because people click on and the commissions that owns from ads in from people. Click on channel. Twenty product is much more than what s from selling one product. So what what we did. Is that the whole goal of software. Company is to make sure that you do not money at hannah's up we'll tell you what price the product we tell you. What is might big. I make sure your senate for us. That's a couple of shocking statistics. Three shocking things. The first thing eight percent go bankrupt in the first year. And that's kind of insane. But i guess it's rather like saying somebody. The other day the amazon is a different business model to normal business. It's on steroids in other words. You know you'd expect out of a new. Most new businesses eighty percent will will stop trading within the first five years. But actually that's like an exaggerated version of statistic. Isn't it that. Most people actually go. Brian in the first year. The second shocker. But then to anyone. Who's been around for a long time. Maybe less shocking that sixty percent of your money goes into ads does a hugely high percentage my rule of thumb. It's you should be spending about ten percent if you're out of your overall revenue on ads. I mean where did you get that figure from. That's incredibly i while it's something we based on interviews with what i've seen in all the data what we spoken to people. What you need to think about is that to start a business unit of spend a lot on ads even an established company. Of course you can keep you add between ten to twenty percent but most people that are we starting up. they have no chance to be about. They don't have reviews. Don't have not the credibility that will know what they're doing they're just set up the ads and the forget about it too small for agencies so roughly sixty percent is on the low end for adds some people spend eighty percent hundred percent. We even have a client. That is a valid stablest top seller and that causes eighty percent. You would also be surprised. I shouldn't be saying this. But we have some amazon glues using foam and that causes not what they say well yes. This is often the way in the amazon. Well isn't it. So yeah okay so once you establish this can be at low. I suppose what i was thinking of. And this is an important point to make actually that we've gotta define which percentages get obsessed with that i have one of my favorite metrics is the appetizing to sales ratio which is for example if you make a thousand dollars in sales and you spend one hundred dollars in ads to help drive that. Then you're out to sales ratios is a ten percent so you're took acoss which is more directly the sales attributed to particular set of ads right so just to be clear about the okay so that would explain why sixty percent is cited so high but nevertheless it's it's a pretty some pretty much guaranteed to make you zero prophet unless you've got an extremely high profit margin six acoss beans that you're basically going to be losing money on those at the very least not make sense to me. Okay so the other thing you said which is obvious. Essentially say but it's really kind of thought. Provoking not to say alarming. The atvs make more money by not selling your product. As soon as you said. I thought well okay. So i'm studying Twenty dollars they. There are twenty clicks to get to that. Let's twenty dollars. In in adspend of every dollar click and of course if they actually sell it than any take fifteen percent or three dollars so as soon as you said the athol my goodness this absolutely true and i hadn't thought of it so that's quite scary. You so how do we. How do we got ourselves against the i. Guess we kind of hate to answer that question. But what's the sort of simplest version of the answer to. How do we stop that happening. Original simple answer. That is okay. Well that's a simple answer. I guess to a dumb question. Let's let's go a little bit further into this automation things so you were saying that adult summation is seen as different thing by different other platforms. There plenty platform self purport to do add automation farmers and sellers right. So how do you define the word at automation for amazon. Selling wolf fun us. Automation means complete automation. That means you just click a button said yaw across target and then you forget about it and then everything has the departing the bids placement boost. Everything should be handled by the platform. If a setting the rules than you might as well do it. The next Dude yourself and the problem is getting roses most of the time. You don't even know your product you know. You don't know what if i ask you. What is your best selling product. And what kinds of salads. You know how much is going sell tomorrow. Most people want know the answer but increasing number of skews know from fifty two hundred hundred and fifty then of course. It's impossible for him to do it if he wants to do it on their own they might as well get a pennant able to the calculations. But that's not what we're here for like. We're here to save time. Save money and save you a energy so what we do is we put all this algorithms in. We put our automation tool in that automatically calculates. Your bid should be should be automated day potett and then we want an algorithm on top of that would go to them calculate shipowners and then we calculate optimal based on that. I guess what you're saying even if you take mechanically what it comes down to the bid level and the day parties when you show ads and when you turn them off or when our guests not turn off a book arpand and lower the bid. What about the budget side of things. The daily budget that subscribe to particular campaigns and stuff. How how do you deal with that side of things. We don't deal with the budget because the budget is more of a business decision and what we generally tell seller says that if your campaign is profitable keep increasing. The budget is not something we we are comfortable doing it. Because you know we have within the bid and we don't want it does himself you break us within the because sometimes it's exceptionally plausible. Sometimes i can go crazy. I'm they can bid for some reason. So we have a circuit breaker for that. But for the for the budget we always tell the people set up a budget and then don't change it for the next couple of months until the campaign becomes profitable then increase. It gradually so that part has to be done. Because it's a business decision has to be done by you. Okay interesting so what. You're implying then. The next thing is i guess. This is a broader strategic question than just automate gotta think about how rush news adds to get a return on investment and even more basically to not run cashing broke. So you said set the budget for eighteen months then when it for a while till it's profitable on that now up the budget as much as you can afford. And of course i guess you gotta do internal cash flow calculations as a business owner as to how much starts afford to do. But even if it's an roi doesn't mean you conquer broke but tell me about that. Then you're implying guest. That's it's going to take a couple of months to get profitable as is that realistically the the case what. What is his two months period about so that should be most campaigns when the start out that users when they start out it really takes on one to two months before they can stop seeing good results. You've got a fresh new onset. But he been selling for a while. It might take fifteen to twenty days before you campaign on all the bleeding stopped and you're making some money out of it. What we generally become. It is that as long as the campaigns profitable keeping in the budget and more importantly does it fit your cash flow just because the campaign is profitable. Doesn't mean you'll be able to afford the ads. Because amazon takes gifting days later to give money. Sometimes you know you need to give the supplies two months in advance the shipping dick one month. What cash flow is coming from. The budgeting has always to be done by you. Internally by human that's the one that human aspect of assets yeah that does make sense to me. Actually that there's no getting around the the and this is one of the obsessions. I'm personally so forcing on anyone who listened to me as a client anyway because you put your finger on the cash close. Everything is absolutely everything you can. Profit and loss is actually the more i learn about accounting as i understand it and i'm not an accountant play on the internet. But it's really clear that it's a semi fictional number that is very flexible and particularly depending on what you're allowed to do legally and says depreciation the it can be very changeable number whereas cash doesn't lie in cash flow or the lack of it is what kills business. I really liked the fact that you put that responsibility back onto the business owner. So tell me a bit about your the numbers you just give me there so takes a couple of months if you're a. Let's get a good result from your advertising. That kind of feels a lot longer than the vibe that is so we say the feeling that is given out by a lot of training out there. So what's behind that. What is it takes a long to to get to a profitable or at least a reasonable add return allowed spent reason is is getting hotter and hotter one new solos to to establish themselves and want to two months. A very rough figure it could be longer it could shatter. It depends on what you're selling for some sellers. It could be as short as fighting. Some for some sellers is more than three months. Depends on what you're selling. We have some sellers that are sending in all the contactless which right now is really really hard and really competent but setting it at a high price and it has taken them two months for them to to sell to get some reviews. So there's a lot of factors that goes in. So when i say no one to three months on the broad range of different kinds of sellers different kind of product different kind of categories at kelly's visible very hot to sell so it really depends from what i've seen from experience on three months. It also accounted factor that if you create the campaigns using hello. we stopped very very conservative. So we started one of the lowest bid. And then we keep on increasing until you're profitable. That's very interesting. That's sort of the opposite square. Quite a few people teach and what i've tended to do myself i have to say and maybe this is something i need to adjust for. I say to my clients. Well if you're going to get visibility and you'll be judged from day one first of all by the algorithm. So have you don't get sales. I don't get clicks or decent click through rates. Say whatever it is. Point seven percent one percent. Whatever you'll view is then the algorithm isn't gonna start ranking you for juicy keywords and so i always feel like this is rushed to get visibility for keywords at all costs now is that a misguided idea. No that's absolutely advisor actually. So it's an away right but remember that amazon algorithm is constantly updating so the always always updating safety of rush to get a high number of impressions number of clicks. You know you're you're your of course you're on the top but you're losing a lot of money and then if it dropped down your algorithm you of course you sales ranking is gonna drop down so it's like being on a hamster wheel you always have to keep running so you could do database. But they're not wrong is does that we say that. Do it gradually rather than rushing intrigue spending all your money. Of course he can do that as well. You can ask about hallo really high cost sixty eight percent can do it. Our general idea is. Don't spend all your money trying to go for the graphic on new partner for today's episode is ovals the stock management experts according to retail dive ecommerce store and has lost twenty two billion dollars in sales because of being out of stock fifty percent of consumers actually switch sites to buy the item if they encountered an out of stock product online. Don't let that be your customer. Ovals can help you avoid these mistakes with ovals you can check for stock and improve inventory accuracy to increase sales. Abel's want to help you grow your sales with a free inventory. Accuracy cheat sheet. All listeners will get two months of an ovals paid plan for free. You could get your free month's by visiting ovals dot com forward slash amazing fbi. That's lovie a l z dot. I uh-huh ford slash amazing f for freddie beef of betty alpha. Yeah that's probably a more conventional business. Like a. And i guess one of the things about the amazon situation is because it's kind of we'll knock out contests particularly some contactless the momentary trying to rank for keyword like that. It's going to be so much demand and so much supply that is going to be super hard to ryan kilometer mentioned that you could spend all of your money trying to rank for that and get no weapons on the other hand. It's kind of hard to imagine breaking for keyword like that without spending a ton of money and is that something. You've seen is actually possible to do that. While the story that i tell is that you're trying to run away from tyler chasing you. Know there's a group of people and the tagline chasing you and one says that you don't have the arc on the tag you just don't go out on all the people so many many many are running many running competition against a certain amount of people. You don't have to be smarter than amazon. You just have to be not have number budget and more stamina and more than the rest of the competitors so the rest of the communist is spend all the money you know to go probably bankrupt. A lot of them are going to drop out. You just need to have a long run long. Seminar and we always amazon is not as printing business matt upon sooner to give running for a long time mitchell. The money mitchell the budget make sure your smart about eight. Make sure don't even an ads and make so extremely good point institute incentive business strategy. It sounds primitive but effective but actually given the statistics. You giving me the eight percent of people that start off. Go bankrupt in the first year. I guess if you will lost a year and a month then that means idea percent of your competition gone in theory. Right is a crude way of looking at it. But it's a very good point and actually one day. I could do well to probably remind myself because i guess i knew a lot of business. Owners that are super aggressive and growing and some of them have tax revenue since joined the thank collective three years ago the most wind. I've run and certainly some people have doubled or even tripled their business year on again in that. Context is quite tempting to be progressive. And what you're saying is that the stamina is probably the more important characteristic to how is a business center then aggression. It's a different business model. That on other is right on. Either of them is wrong. There's no right and wrong in business and wait what works for you. The people who are aggressive usually have a really big cash flow. They have lots of cash sitting on them a lot of the cash. Just all around and of course is the fastest way to deliver lots of cash. Majority of the people do not have lots of cat food. That does make sense in yes. That's very true that the people i know that success without approach deputy have a pretty healthy budget and the things that realistic about the fought the when they launch a new they spend money on product development probably very spicy put up manufacturing and freighting and so forth but they're realistic that the first three months our cash flow negative for products unending months four five six experts repaid on then make a lot of money for the remaining lifetime of the product. So i guess you're right the obviously correct the what you just said. It does apply people quite deep pockets. And i guess his horses for courses right. But you're quite correct that there's no point in being the kind of you know new. Come with a tiny budget and acting like your some big guy because that's a great way to go by quickly. yup okay. we'll see what you're saying is though is that white tweed. Just be aggressive. Just beat the competition and then try to get ahead of it as quickly as possible prevailed unlimited bridget to be on the thing about that one is. It's probably just less efficient financially. It's it's a quick way to grow the business but is probably higher risk which is a risk. You can take if you've got experience if you've got cash flow from existing products which can then finance the new product launches. But you're quite right that actually with a smaller budget is probably more efficient intensive return on aspects. We say a year or something. If you look at it automation to start small because you're gonna get in amount of return on investment from evens radio low bids and by definition. It's going to be you know good value because you're getting a great. Ten science is bound to get. I guess a better return now. One of the things that i know happens with amazon ads. Caveat to what i just said is that with sponsor product ads if you bid really low within the amazon system. My understanding is the and. I've occasionally seen this but what to get the experts view that you're gonna end up showing up. Not instead of sponsored is they'll say well. This isn't actually enough bud. Bid to show up anywhere. Sponsored is in your to start appearing instead various other forms of ads. Which aren't really proper. Sponsored is not keyword driven searched. Him miss driven. So what. what are your thoughts about that. It could be possible. It is what is called as in aspen as remnant ad so if there's no suitable add amazon stops displaying all ads in different places in junk pleasers keyword is really low than usual buddy about it because in if you make one sailor of times and you're going to be around one to hide percent. It's a good way to do it. It's a way as what you call as some people planet as a bottom trawling putting lots of sponsored product really really low bid in the hope that it might know. Get into one of those places and get. Some sale is a good way to do it if you are annoyed. Micromanaging a product with the approach. The had i would naturally take with super-low bids is it quite common. That will result in in this kind of remnant being what results what amazon gives you. It could be quite possible but frankly it doesn't matter because as as we doubt i'll go to them sees that there is no sales to it to start increasing the bid and the targeted cost. So it'll keep on losing video. Remember that amazon also constantly monitor the bid it updates at every couple of hours every couple of minutes in fact on is stocks showing the accident abide plays so many. Start really not yes. Of course it will is going to show you some about what i meant. Areas areas where there is no ads. No no high bids on the new over that and then it'll as we increase the start wing it in the right position interesting. Because i mean the what's interesting is about to ask you. Why bother without automation but this is kind of leading into slightly different question. Which is the actually when you're managing things manually. And as you say if you call a couple of hundred skis or even if you've got twenty busy than it's not practical to micromanage and therefore the way you set stuff up at the beginning is the way it's going to be in two months time and if you sat up something with as you call it the bottom trawling ads. That are showing up in odd places. You end up getting clicks and not sales. It could end up being actually more useless and spending more money without resulting in sales than a slight more expensive out that shows invaluable places but the difference team that and what you just described as the adult mation adjust to reality constantly. I guess that's the big difference right. It's a little bit more about a guess. What's the difference in how to manage because we still gotta manage your budget. We still gotta manage your money as as the entrepreneur. How do you approach managing an ad budget when he's able to mason at the post to when you're doing it manually. What are the differences. I think the way you manage a budget has to be irrelevant whether using automation man woman is debatable. But according to debate for it what. What tom rule is that if a campaign is profitable is if it is hitting your target at costs and is constantly reaching eighty ninety percent of our budget than increased. The budget fight so keep on increasing the budget. That is a bit of a kind of a us on the amazon community on his group. That if you keep your budget really high then it's considered as a well-performing campaign But that's not the way as work as on round-robin basis until the Exhausted so what happens is it's kept in a pool. All the campaigns kept in the pool on the rank way performance and keeps on picking up Ads from each campaign and round robin fashion. And if anyone is auto project kicked out of the pool so it's round robin fashion. It doesn't matter if your budget is one thousand dollars or ten dollars you get an equal opportunity to be displayed. It depends on the bids in so yet you make it very very important point and that is something that i understood to be the case in back in the day maybe lost. But he's more like seventeen is the last time. I personally really did this sort of thing but putting a high budget on the amazon campaigns. I heard that it said the signal to the algorithm that you want to be aggressive. Spend more. But i guess what you're saying is really unless you've run out of budgets you're gonna get fairly equal usage of the money across different campaigns. Is that right. That is proud of. You could keep it one dollars. Could give it one thousand dollars. You get an equal opportunity until you. Because it's the pool. Amazon is not really that smart and with millions of sellers on does milk and bread on the will that can do all of this commission. You remember the ads out in a very straightforward simple non-complicated way. They're all in a pool. Disordered by the bids by the bid on by the comments on they get all an equal opportunity. Going on amazon system. Goes round robin on then gives each one an equal opportunity auto budget you picked out of the rest of the world is just it keeps on going around musical. Yeah i get it. Yeah i city run out of money. Okay i get it goes round and round you. Remove a couple of chairs goes false around the other remaining shares interesting. Now that's a really very important p of knowledge and for those who listening her real addicts. But it's probably saying. Mike you know we've known this for three years but i mean maybe it still a mythic as wrong because i i do that anymore but i have heard people that have done it and risk revai. Obviously i saint before went on online. That i've been working with a client confessed this to him so veasley a daily be listening. He confessed to him that i was wastefully sat budget because i had an ad budget on in germany that was just quite highest relative to performance the confession where it had been dismal for whatever weird reason phase product to be honest and i because it had been doing anything. I wasn't really aware of that. And then suddenly. A bunch of gems went click. Happy just before christmas. Maybe they are panicking about what christmas present to buy. Hardly anything boy. It was a whole one percent conversion rate on that campaign which i knew because i plugged in a low and i caught your daily update. Email looked at him. When oh my goodness and went in intended all but the point is if i hadn't had really high but it's that i wouldn't have been exposed to that risk in the first place so against the moral of the story for those who are you know as dumb as i can be. Sometimes it's like don't leave a high daily budget out there unless you really have a good reason in other words what you're saying which is that you've got a proven you're hitting an costs level accessible to you absolutely which is which may be very very obvious but unfortunately i'm dumb enough and honest enough to say dumb. Sometimes i was very ashamed by the way. Hang my head. Turn an offer to refund that money to my my client. Because he's a really stupid mistake. Should be making it of the game. But i'm sure i'm not the only person take that out there christmases especially you know like a lot of window shopping list. Just one ends up on amazon because they make ten times as much money on the ads as in shipping product. You made such a critical point with that. i think i'd like to revisit. The question of maybe negative no magic ensemble. But what is it defensive. Way of acting within the abbas in ad world in the knowledge that amazon's acce- incentivized to just have people. They shop a nicely by in advance on cliche usually a hello. We always spend. We make sure that your your bids are limited but reasonably speaking on honestly. Speaking arab think being in an amazon. You can be defensive your inside the garden honey expecting to be nice to you the best way to do it is to have your own brand sell it from your own website and use an echo caused guaranteed add system something like ebay the doing but there are lots of ads systems ad networks that get you. Sales guaranteed at 'cause we didn't amazon within the playground. You know you can choose the game to play very pick the rules to so within an amazon echo to play by the rules of amazon so unfortunately there is no short and sweet onset to that nobody. You make a very good point because it's not necessarily given the all marketplaces where it this way. You're saying that as a cost guaranteed systems like eight which i wasn't aware of whereas amazon does not work that way. I suppose we just need to be at the very least aware of that. Possibility in and be very disciplined about keeping an eye on on. I guess the ad budget right because once we using an hello type automation system. Then the bids will be adjusted but the budget still something we need to be. Aware of that is ending up spending. I mean th this scenario for example. If i'd be smart enough to not just set up a hello to monticello jim in campaign but she to manage it. What would these systems reaction have been when i spent two hundred dollars in order to make fifty dollars in sales. Roughly you spent two hundred dollars and you spend fifty dollars the next day. The next day the bids were dropped up. Okay so he would make sure that you're not overspending all of it. Christmastime is particularly harsh. So we we forecast in christmas. You're going to have a lot of mistakes. So we'd use the bid to as low as possible and we make more than competence us of people who are clicking on would click competence watch and then they'll land on your product in that detailed pages so you get to know your views at a much lower bit in saying okay. Yes so it's really. The the is more critical than than the budget. We suppose i was thinking of the budget as lowering a budget as defensive mechanism. But actually really speaking. It's the bid level. That's critical is what you're saying. Judas what are your the metro. You don't always as it goes breaker. We do casual amazon playground. Actually there's an interesting story that was published. Two days ago was one hundred million dollars on the ads which was wasted which didn't have to be done. Because they realized that there were clicks being generated which resulted in no sales zero sales. So the spent hundred. I think hundred one hundred twenty million dollars in the last twenty without any sales and accidentally hit upon that while they were checking out the ad system. If that an automated system it would have been noticed. Dildo souped hundred hundred and twenty million dollars. Wow they employ you well. I look forward to speaking to you. When you're the head of ads management for uber so they spent one hundred million dollars with zero sales. Is that right his even possible. What did they do. They advertising to people who don't leave the house or something nine people who did not use google so it has the our in random website we make red tape so the switched off. Google ads google ads. Which is the same philosophy and they had absolutely zero percent difference after turning of hundred million dollars in ads. But i'll okay. I feel a little bit better about way skiing. A couple of hundred bucks in my clients money now particularly given the refund will get a not the only person he does that. So what kind of impact. Comebacks management side. Then you said you want to get an acoss from somebody and then the system will do the rest if there are any other kinds of input that you would ask cellphone. If you're working with a big company. We have enough advanced options. So what he can do is we generally don't recommend ourselves to go in and tweak it so you can choose how much to boost your bids in our depending on pico off picabo you can choose. How many to do automated keyword harvesting so we find the keywords that you competition ranking fall and then we added to your campaign we choose. What is the minimum threshold. After which they. I will start learning a bid that's a circuit breaker for each bid. Madigan sat on. What have been more than an amount of a bit. So that's fine tuning to this algorithms that we can do to most of us ninety nine percent of those we said. Just don't not tweak on this. The default is enough yet. The danger with a lot of this stuff is e thinking will need to and and if you give an entrepreneur fiddle with something they normally will i mean i say that because i'm the worst offender i i of banned for example my clients launching new products. He won the experience on disciplined from changing their price. More than once a day which is obvious but several people on i. We've been there policy just me and my friends but when you first start out you want to change the price every single time you make a sale because mccain of sales thinking about to run out stock and you change the beds and you change everything and actually fiddling with detail my sprays is it gives horrendously bad quality data to then make future decision so i guess that would be the main reason for not filling with what are your other reasons to leave it alone. Get push also kind of soda. Algorithms from performing with peak performance is good too as maximum auto bid but the rest of kind of constricts. Our so you wanna to do it if you think like. I still need to lower the cost even more than what i've said thanks for listening. Today's episode folks. I hope you find this interesting. I certainly think that. Ppc management on amazon. And indeed if you going outside amazon in e commerce generally managing your ad spend is absolutely critical as ganesh is talking about nothing. This is something we're gonna come onto ads getting bigger and bigger percentage of your visibility on pretty much any platform ever whether it be google facebook or amazon amazon different so managing that spend is going to become more and more crucial to actually staying in prophet so today's topics just to quickly recap the fact. The most amazon ella street amazon like a casino. And it's not a business like way of doing it. Some frightening statistics about bankruptcy. The sobering bring thought that was in makes more money from you not selling product but advertising against it than it does if you actually make sales. That's pretty scary. It makes sense to me that you can completely see how that would and also really the that if you set up a system like a hello an automated system really up to you to set your budgets such that you can afford things but at the bed side of things. Which is the awkward. Bit to figure out how much you should be. Bidding on a keyword is handled automatically. So that's really quite a cool system. I've got say having spoken to quite a few people who run amazon. Ppc automation type systems. That this does seem the most sophisticated and actually ironically therefore the easiest to operate. I've come across so far. Everyone has different preferences. But i would edgy to at least check it out if you are a busy seller or if you really are not doing very well you'll ppc and let's face. It is not an easy art. If that's you then you can get amazing. Fbi dot com for slash ai. Hello and you can get a nice big discount on this standard rates and you get a bit of a free trial as well just to be clear. If you're one of the most sophisticated amazon advertise you may want to try things. Outside of the us sponsor products ads and for bigger clients semi deal with sponsored brands and sponsored video as well sponsor videos apparently are performing incredibly well for their clients at a. Hello as well so. Do go and check out air. Hello and ganesh. If this is something that you'll even considering in the end you gotta make your own decisions between the different platforms out there. And we've interviewed lots of different people so i try and bring you a choice that you make yourself ordering my neely yourself. Put the one thing you have to do. A strategy to deal with this thing because if you look at the numbers and you discover that you're giving amazon all your money and you're working really hard to make hamas enrich. Guess what they don't need you'll money. You need the money. So whatever path you take audrey you to your. You'll ppc strategies into tactics in huge detail. It will really pay off more on the same topic in an interview with ganesh for now. Thank you for listening and has ever done. Forget to give a review on apple podcast. I tunes if you're listening and either which way do forget to subscribe on whatever platform you listening. Thanks for listening. Thanks for listening to the elected. Podcast part of the family of amazing fbi podcasts. Today's episode is sponsored by the new e. Commerce podcast the e commerce leader. The podcast is hosted by yours. Truly and jason miles multi-million dollar shop owner and economies highest rated commerce instructor if you're the owner of a thriving online business and you want to become the best commerce lead you can be it's got your name on it for free guides and many courses on many topics go to. Www dot the ecommerce leader dot com
Self-Publishing a Book on Amazon | Researching Profitable Niches
"Are you struggling to publish profitable books? Would you like to know how to find profitable nations in self publishing than stay tuned? Today's pot gaps. This is so publishing with Dale where you'll learn to publish books that sell and build an unstoppable, author brand before we jump into things. I wanted to let you know that today's episode is brought to you in part by the DIY publishing. Course unlimited lifetime access for those that are not in the know if you would like to get access you want to go. Visit DIY publishing dot biz slash podcast and used the coupon code podcast for ten percent off lifetime access to the I publishing. Course you might ask was the I publishing listen. This is the catch all everything that you're going to need to know within the world of self publishing in, it is a course that is quite possibly, the most comprehensive publishing. Course you're going to see on the market today, and it continues to grow if you'd like to get access to the lifetime access. Again, head over the publishing biz lash podcast and used the coupon. Code podcast to get ten percent off. All right. So today, we're gonna talk a little bit about self publishable on Amazon. We're going to focus on this area. In researching profitable niches now, you might hear me from time to time, I'll say, knees niche either way, I'm just saying categories in the specific area that your book should be related under. So the big problem is. A lot of people are either low sales because they probably didn't you lies right nations. Or they pick the right ones, or they went into something that was not very profitable either. They got unclear direction. Maybe even have overwhelm. I see so many authors, aspiring authors. More importantly, that get older wellm. They're like, oh, you know, minds genre bending, you know, book, it goes under these science fiction and also knitting, you know, of like, oh, well, it was, so there's sometimes that overwhelm. And again unclear direction, and sometimes there's those that want the path of least resistance and a coup to you and I can respect that. But it's the other lot of people and I'll talk about each one of these pain points in specific and in particular. So we'll get to each one of those. Let's talk about overwhelm if you're new to the business. It's going to feel like trying to learn brand new language in between review Asians, like Katie p acoss, and AM, S A, and all these types of things, and then having to figure out, you know what, what does royalty mean would do. I get my paychecks. I heard I have to market through this way. I don't wanna market that way heard I could get banned if I have two accounts all my gosh, if you're new to this business, take deep breath. Take a breath. I would say the very first thing when I recommend to you, as a newbie is fright, the content I get that part of the process nailed down before you start thinking about the next step. There's going to be some people that will argue against what I'm saying. But I'm gonna tell you that it has not led me astray as wells any, my coaching students. If you just take it one bite at a time. If you're in a stab wished, self publisher bleed third actually are some established self publishers that have been around for longer than I have, and they are still overwhelmed. And that's, that's okay. It's just how you cope with that overwhelm that's going to hopefully, get you more success in this business. And that's what we're trying to shoot for so overwhelm can happen on clear direction as the next thing. I know there's some people out there that don't like to set goals, like, I don't set goals. B's don't meet them, then I feel bad, and then I quit. Well, if you try to Mosey on about from one thing to the next you're not going to get very much results. I want you to think about goal setting kind like dartboard. You wanna make sure that you see where the bulls is that you don't wanna have a blindfold on you wanna look at that everybody's trying to shoot for the, the bullseye typically depends on the game that you're playing either way. We're aiming for that bullseye. So I wanna aim at that, that way, when I throw that dart able to analyze wherever it hits how I wanna throw it again on the very next try, it may not hit that bullseye. And if it doesn't hit that bulls, I think, to myself, of course, correct. And he figure out how I can better hit that. And then keep Anna. Allies in that as you go forward. So that's what goal setting is. You gotta know your destinations that way, you can figure out what you need to do to get to that point, a lot of people like Dale. How does have do anything with researching breathable nieces? Stay with me. I'll twenty hit these few pain points. And I'm a really really cover it. Next thing is diem. Oh, you hear me say this from time to time with some of my students? Even heard me say this daily method of operation you need to have some type of daily method of operation something that gets you from point a to point be some people call this a to do list, that's fine. If he call do this. I call my demo I have one on my desk, and it actually has everything that I want to do in this is broken down according to the priorities of mice specific goals. I've got a goal I wanna do X amount of publications over the course of the next year. Okay. I need to kind of work backwards from there. What do I need to do to get to that say one publication per month? Well, I need to see about creating one publication per month. All right. So how long is each one of those books, ten thousand words, one hundred thousand words need to break those down into smaller bits, so that diem? Oh, is going to help you understand it your directions. It's the way that you can navigate from one day to the next and. I know exactly what your priority is. I bought my priority at the very top that strongest one in the lease strongest priority at the very bottom of him. And from one day to the next item revolving that list, and I get it to where I know from one day to the next what I'm going to be doing. There's gonna come some days when you're like, I don't feel like messing with this. It's okay put a pen and do it in comeback to another day. It's all right. To actually just give it a pause every now, and then the most important thing, folks is you need to have clear actionable and beige Rable results. Okay. Actual steps and measurable results easy for me to say because they goals, equal vague results. Remember that you can say to yourself. Well, I want to be successful and self publishing. What is that? I mean, is it publishing a single book, I can help you at that, that super simple or is it making ten grand per month publishing books? Or is it a thousand dollars a month part time over the next year get specific about what you're going to do with your goals? Because just saying. I just wanna make money. That's great Burger King's hiring, and it it's there's so many ways, you can make money. I need you to get dialed in what you're going to do. And you don't need to share it with me by any stretch in you. Don't need to, you know, feel obligated to that. Okay. It's just a good thing. Have that out there and get it to where, you know where you're going. Why are going there and how you feel when you get there our right? Let's go over to the path of least resistance, and that I'm gonna go ahead and talk to you a little bit about low sales and how we can address those was researching profitable Asia's, the path the least resistance, folks. This is the people that think about the easy button, the get rich quick and self publishing. If anybody tells us businesses easy. Hold onto your wallet. Guided Garnett guided guided into your back pocket guard it there you go. And you wanna make sure that you understand that this is not a get rich quick business. There are some folks that are exception to the rule, but they're unicorns. There are some people that get into business thirty days in their crushing twenty five hundred dollars per month. Ten grand per month fifteen twenty that's awesome. That's fantastic. They are the exception to the rule. So I don't want to dissuade you into thinking that sell publishing business is not worth it, it certainly is. But you're gonna have to work, it, you're going to have to put in the work. So what I'd recommend identify your passion or something, you can competently get behind for a long time to come. The reason I say, this is you might look at something like a Nisha, like adult baby diaper, romance, by the way, totally Israel, adult baby diaper lover, AB Ellison's called by the insiders. I don't dig this type of content, but there is a barechested reading on of this type of content, and you can make a pretty substantial living, producing this type content. But can you imagine worst case scenario? You go. And you do one inside a niche that you really don't care about K worst case scenario, then you're stuck with the scab with this work that you don't like doing, but can you imagine if you did enjoy something like where bear shape, Shifter romance or a car repair manuals or any type of thing? Imagine if you just at least either had it as a passion of yours or you can constantly get behind it. So, for instance, not that I've done this before. I enjoy watching things about real estate investing. It's just bass needing to me. I just like consuming the type of content. I could probably get into that. And maybe even find some good freelance writers to build a brand around that. However, you couldn't get me the save my life into a b l just it's not it's not something I enjoy it. Can only imagine just I wouldn't care about it. I don't care. So that would suck if I'm stuck with ABC L. But if I was stuck with publication that was about real estate investing, at least in the course of me publishing this book, I probably enjoy the process, it would enjoy reading the content. I would enjoy promoting and marketing this stuff the best case scenario here. Regardless talk about the best case in I like to be optimistic. Let's say your book succeeds. Let's say you're books exceeds. All right. We'll say my real estate investing example here. It's exceed man. I get to publish stuff that I enjoy that. I'm somewhat passionate about and it succeeds it crushes it. This is where I think. Would be very rewarding because I'm doing something that a enjoy, and I'm getting rewarded for it in them not regretting having to spend more time on it. Here's where I say, why not regretting this because the thing is you imagine if you had this. AB L let's just pretend some people be like I would kill for that Dale. That'd be awesome. Let's say you're getting ten gram per month on. ABC L. But you just hated you like the paychecks great. But can you imagine you have to keep marketing and promoting this, you'd have to keep putting out more interational underneath this brand? You have to keep growing it enough to while it just becomes a paycheck and you're gonna learn that in due time when you just try to go after that, paycheck, you start to resent the stuff that you're doing, this is why try to tell people go for that passion, or gopher, something that least interests you. So. Now, you see why I'm shifting? I'm kinda talking about researching profitably issues because before we start talking about researching it. Those are two things that try to tell people it's get those two things dialed in are you passionate about it? Or you least interested in it. Because if you aren't chasing after you're chasing after the dollars and the dollar should be chasing after you, you shouldn't be running after that, because it's so disheartening. Let's say you finally get that dollar amount down. Again, you're gonna eventually live to resent that's thing. So let's talk about low sales make that hard shift. We're gonna take that hard left here. It all starts with researching the market. What do you like he? Yep. I, I'm going back to the wellness one talking about passion or something, you're interested in what do you like, because you're going to be more susceptible to enjoying the content that you're gonna be producing. I was talking to a young self publisher the other day video chat. This was a great conversation and can't say his name because it didn't ask for Britian, but I found that he was actually a Google had words expert house, like, dude. That's phenomenal. If you put anything out on that, and he's like no I ever thought about I was like, do you enjoy doing your job? Absolutely. I'm like you are insane. Why aren't you taking advantage and that would be like me? I'm into fitness. Former personal trainer used to work with senior citizens in the healthcare industry, even doing fitness with them. It would be nuts that I wouldn't share that passion with the world. And thankfully, I did take advantage of that. And it's real. Paid off in spades over these years. So think about what you like I now the thing is who likes to. It's not enough that you're passionate about or that you're interested in it. It's even more important that you find the audience that likes it too. So this is where you're going to end. And I'm gonna talk a little bit about the bestseller rank here in just a minute. You need proof of concept. It's not enough that you like it or that you share your cover, or the idea that you have with friends and family and they like it. You need to have an actual market to send it to because otherwise it's going to be an uphill battle, it's already uphill battle. But you're making even more of a steep drive up this hill in order to actually meet your goals. Next thing is where does your audience congregate? So you decided what did you like he researched who likes to where does this audience congregate? This is so important. Not of people skip this. They don't think about social media man social media. There's so many ways you can make shake bake it. There's so many different bible options. But sometimes people make the mistake in thinking that their audience lies on all of those platforms, and it's not true. It's not you're going to have to really study and take your time. And I'm not going to go into. The full studying social media where you're gonna find all you differ reading audiences. Just do your do diligence, chances are, if you're passionate about what you're going to be talking, or at least semi interested. You might have a pretty good clue as to where the audience has already congregating. Why do you want to know where they're at these? You wanna start connecting with them before you write chapter one, you need to have already started breaking ground with people and getting to know them and making an authentic and genuine relationship. Because when you get ready to watch your book, you can have a little bit help. With beta reading maybe you can find somebody that will, you know, look at your covers give you some feedback, you know, pick a look at your copy page give you recommendations on pricing. You shouldn't do this whole journey on your own. And that's why I say fine where you audience congregating. Next thing is here we go. Here comes the meat of what I was going to talk about today. It is gathered the keywords in common. Search phrases. Oh. Because it's a podcast, it's kind of tough for me to kind of verbally walk you through this. And how you're finding the keywords, generally speaking, if you're once again, passionate about or semi interested in, you probably know if you buzzwords within that specific niche that you can use for your research. So here's a general overview, go over to Amazon preferably. Open up incognito browsers that way. It's not a dirty research that you're doing you wanna make sure it's clean as possible. See open up your browser in incognito. Go to Amazon gin to the Kendal store or the bookstore. Start to type in your specific keyword, and don't press enter allow the auto suggest to populate in show you what is commonly searched for on the Amazon marketplace. And this is going to give you a plethora of options. Now, if you go real, obscure, the chances are pretty likely prowler could have very many suggestions. But just as an example, you can try this when you get the opportunity in front of computer. Go to Amazon opened the kindle store start to pipe in something simple, like workout or exercise fitness, promise you, it's going to auto suggest a lot. It's going to populate tons there in it's going to give you an idea of what the Amazon marketplace is generally looking for there. So once you find a specific, keyword that you're happy with, in it, seems relevant to the specific book that you're going to be getting into we're gonna go ahead, precedent. We're going to select that one. I'm looking for in the first page results. Just I pay attention to the I sixteen books show. I'm looking at the bestseller rank now the bestseller rank is Representative of its placement in chronological order, if you will, of importance of what's driving the most sales or page reads on a given day, given moment. I'm looking for the specific keyword to actually place, really. Well with Bs are about one hundred thousand or less anything above hundred thousand I'm gonna tell you. I mean, unless you have scores upon scores of books and hundred thousands, you're not gonna make a very good living, you, you know, going above that rank, but for less competition though, I would rather. Recommend get it. The sweet spot between thirty thousand one hundred thousand that he s are now the Bs are bestseller rank is going to be the general overall. Okay. There's going to be the knee shes the categories that go below each one of those that way, kind of compartmentalize think, like, the, the Dewey decimal system, or the categorization is the library said, you know, you have fitness books over in here in this aisle, and you've got cookbooks over right next to it. So on and so forth. And same thing's going to work when it comes to the categories and Nisha 's so what is exactly is thirty thousand by the way, just to kind of clarify, it's roughly about ten e book sales per day and give or take a couple here and there when it comes to, you know, the print books, by the way, I did look up this information at the book sales calculator, you can actually access that on the Kim dot com actually over to Dale links dot com slash calculator. If you go to Dale links dot com slash calculate. Ter- you see a specific right gear on how many books, do I need to sell per day for this? You can actually get a general idea. Remember, this is not, you know, it's, it's not down to a science, but they do give some pretty good recommendations when it comes to that. But I'm once again, when I'm looking at some of these nations, I want to really dial it. And so I got you to do the keywords entered it in there, you looked in is like, okay, I found a good keyword, that's got some books between thirty thousand nine hundred thousand averaging right inside there. When I say, averaging though sixteen titles when you average out their bestseller, and just take each one of the bestseller ranks at all together divided by sixteen and you get your answer as far as the average. So the average will be placed there looks good slept, one of the titles scroll down. You're going to go into the product details and you will see the categories. Now the us time full what's called browse pads. But now they've kinda claps to down Amazon made it hard for us, but they were trying to make. Easier for the customers to kind of understand if you're ever concerned about how to find that browse pather that knee, which gotta do is just click that given category and the product details in, it'll open up the bestsellers list for that specific want. So let's just say, for instance, it's an ABA workouts will say workouts you looked up when I took stab workouts, click on that it goes into the bestseller list for this, and it'll show you the top twenty twenty twenty five something like that on the very first page and you're gonna look to the left hand side and on the left hand side, by the way, there's only on tops not on mobile. And you'll look on the left hand side, you will see the browse pass individually boat broke down, it'll be something like kindle bookstore. It'll be health fitness and dieting. And then I dunno aerobic workouts, and then at workouts, that's browse Pat, that's the knee. And that's going to be something you're gonna wanna make sure you copy on a separate spreadsheet in save it because you're gonna eventually need to submit those after you've published her title so that way, they're listed in each. One of those knee nieces. Pay attention to these specific niches again, it's the same kind of a rule that I think about when I look at best sound list for specific niche. If I see the number one placement is three hundred thousand in the paid kindle store and said the bookstore deuces I'm good. I mean that's like going in and fighting toddler you know. Could I win -absolutely should I be going there? Probably not chances are likely either a, it's a brand new browse path of some sort be the audience is voted with their checkbook, and they've decided that they don't want this, this specific niche. Now, if you're still passionate about and you see number one's at three hundred thousand go forward. If I see though, the number one, let's say is thirty thousand thirty five thousand maybe even we'll see even we'll push up twenty six thousand I'm going, okay. All right. I'm gonna dog in this fight. I feel like I can definitely break into this one, and then I skipped down to the top ten and get down to the top twenty and I just try to see what their ranks are. And I think in my head, okay, how many books would it have to sell per day in order to take that spot? You will look at their given rank so number twenty in AB workouts might be at. We'll say one hundred fifty thousand done deal. I can definitely sell about five books per day, and I'd be able to take that spot. And I wanna move up in the whole purpose of moving your way up in a specific bestsellers list in a specific nation of specific. Browse path is to get more disability more. Discover Billy and gain relevance for you giving keywords and your categories in the Amazon algorithm. Because that's the name of the game as relevance, folks. Already. I wanna tell you, this is a dead simple process. You may have to kind of go back through, and listen to this again. Kind of just kinda study this to make your life easier. Folks. I do what I do. I honestly it's been forever. And a day, except for when I have to kind of go through, and do these type podcast, I have to kind of walk through and go, okay my doing this. Right. Okay. Okay. I just have to remind myself but I make it easy. I just get publisher rocket folks year. Me talk about publish rocket on number of occasions. Dale, you're such a Schill. Listen, I only endorse products that I use and wholeheartedly get behind. And if you wanna get yourself access to it as well. Head over to Dale links dot com slash rocket. You could go and troll about for the best keywords in the best categories or you can simply get rocket and just go ahead and let it do the research for you and skip to the chase and get all the stuff you can get. And I'll means like what I'm doing right now. Record the. On a Saturday, even though it's posted on Monday when I record this on the Saturday as soon as I'm done. It's not the brightest sunshiny day outside. I'm gonna go out for a walk. Why? Because I've got this resource and I recommend that you do the sell your for yourself as well. Dale links dot com slash rocket generally speaking, when you do get rocket you're gonna want to look for a specific keyword when you're doing your keyword research. Not look for something that has a competition score of forty or less. This one actually comes directly from Chessen himself. You're going to get a better, likelihood of having first page placement with competition score forty or less you probably sitting Greek to me Dale a believe you can get all those details. If you go over check it out that specific linkages told you about for me. I tried also pay attention to the average monthly profits on a given keyword, and typically, I kinda liked to have something it gets me out of the bed in the morning. If I know that it's getting about an average monthly earnings about five hundred dollars per month. Now, what is this? Have to do with the categories in sort of not really with the categories you can search categories really simple avocado, Gorey's feature, and you could search for specific keywords will give you the exact browse paths, and you can organize it, according to how competitive each one of those categories har- so that way, you can give yourself the unfair advantage in getting those categories and getting your book listed into those categories and hopefully start to Corocha in yourself publishing business. Well folks, that was a lot of information ain't gonna lie to you is like today. I think I did it. And if you find that you have any kind of questions, concerns, a comments, you know, hit me on up over Dale at self publishing with Dell dot com. I also wanna let you know, today's podcast is brought to impart by the DIY publishing course unlimited. This is the most comprehensive self publishing course you will find on the Mark. Market today today bar. None, I pulled out all stops. If you want to kinda see exactly all the things that I have says over that I live breathe eat sleep when it comes to self publishing every kind of go man. I really wanna know exactly everything he knows. I gave you that and more inside the DIY publishing course unlimited to get access. You're gonna head over to visit DIY publishing dot biz slash podcast and use the coupon code podcast for ten percent off lifetime access to the I publishing course in folks. Please favor. Subscribes me on the cell publishing with the podcast on apple podcasts and leave a little review. That would be awesome. If you did that at really would appreciate a big banana sticker. If you do that in the meantime, and in between time this has been self publishing with them. I talked to.
Acast reaffirms commitment to open podcasting
"The latest from our daily newsletter. Pont news dot net we believe strongly that opel costing coupled with cray to first mindset is the best way food for an industry experiencing such explosive growth after all you can have the biggest budgets from clients but without poll. Costa's acoss ceo. Ross adams reaffirming the company's commitment to an open podcasting ecosystem. He was speaking at a presentation from a cast. Uk who shared stats and data from their twenty twenty. They now have more than sixty million. Uk monthly listens and saw one hundred eighty four percent growth in brands spending more than one hundred thousand pounds. Which is about one hundred and seventy eight thousand dollars. Seems someone agrees. The rogan experience has started posting clips shows on. Its old open. Rss feed currently a clip from a recent elon. Musk interview ends with a forty second promotion for spotify at the end voiced by rogan. The show went exclusive on spotify on december. The first podcast listeners in the middle east and north africa and listening to more podcasts in new report from media says listeners continue to prefer shorter. Podcasts says the survey youtuber. Tom scott has posted a thirty minute. Video called youtubers have to declare ads. Why doesn't anyone else. He doesn't but could highlight branded podcasts. As well trump house users may be sending role audio and use the data to the chinese government. It's being claimed. The app uses a chinese company. Agora for the voice conferencing service that that company denies. There's an issue. Of course kerry allah has joined podcast host captivate as the company's head of design and the next news from sounds profitable tomorrow sponsored by charitable is hands on explainer of how dynamic ad insertion works would've published that today but apparently somebody turned all the power off in texas news. Apple have a new podcast for all mankind. The official podcast. It's an accomplishment to the tv plus series for mankind and apples press release says it's available globally on apple podcasts and fire. Rss which is one way of acknowledging that other platforms exist. The show isn't on spotify and the young blood. Podcast has the biggest proportion of under thirty five listeners. On the bbc sounds app. It's been revealed the app crimes. One hundred and thirty million plays for on demand. Radio and podcasts in quarter four twenty twenty and that's the latest from our newsletter subscribed all the at pod news dot net.
The Crashed Vikram Lander - Found
"Love. This podcast support this show through the ACOSS support a feature. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. Fifteen seconds guided journal Chan. Ignition sequence UH space nuts. Three To. Tabloids. report it feels good. Aloe thanks for joining us. This is the space nuts podcast I'm your host Andrew Dunkley and joining me every week with that file because he has no choice is professor Fred. What's an astronomer? Fred, the choice disappeared years ago I should say. At the beginning shouldn't Would be easy to say now when we don't have an audience but. Now that we have United Serie People that listen you I've. talked to all of them. So that's good. Including Gregory Peck it's just hard to do it. which but we do get some nice notes occasionally had beautiful. Now this week from fellow who's only just discovered this and his binging. and Franz must enjoyable. So we we appreciate that kind of feedback you can send height miles well, two frayed. Other than that in a, we do like to hear from you in whatever form now today Fred we're going to find a space probe one that was due to land on the moon in September last year but it landed a bit too heavily and became what is. Officially, known as wreckage. but it looks like they've found This particular private was launched by India. Will learn about that, and this is a rather interesting story about how some of the rivers on Mars may have formed under shades of is suggesting that Mars had its iron is perhaps will also be looking at some audience questions. One about I kind of like this question about the Hubble Space Telescope how it's able to take such. Brilliant images of things that are light years away. And yet y kind of taken. US close up of Pluto. That's a really good question and we're guided talk about long-haul Spice Travel and whether or not going from one place to another could be even if you could travel need a spate of lot, could the journey take longer because of the expansion of the universe somebody's thinking way outside the box it wasn't May. So we'll get to all of that but I fred. Let's look at the Chandra, yon one lunar orbiter and the. Unfortunate demise of the land in September last year. Yeah. That's right. So a mission from the Indian space. Agency. is rife. I remember rightly. The. Yan Mission was designed to Land Rover on the surface of the moon not far from the South Pole. But. The I. Think you covered this at the time Andrew. That basically they the Indian Space Agency lost contact with the with with the spacecraft. Around about the time of touchdown, this was that basically crush on the surface and all it was was upon of wreckage. However, there is a somebody who's described as techy. which I think he's an engineer actually in China his name is Shanmugam Muga Super Soubra Magnon. An, clearly amateur space enthusiast. Of Great, challenge I have to say because he. used. A NASA. Lunar reconnaissance orbiter images. Were made in November last year. To identify the day bree of the land that carried the rover and just to put put put a couple of other names in. The Landau was called Vikram it was named after one of the founding. The actual founding scientists of the Indian Space Agency. And the rover was called program and I'm not sure what those names mean. I think that sounds script but that's Beyond our remitted the moment. So Shanmugam Soubra Magnon, the the man who was looking at these images he he identified. What he took to be daybreak from the Vikram. Land. From these lunar reconnaissance orbiter images that were released last year and that yeah I think I think we probably covered as well trained. In a wide ranging talks. However. There were more lunar reconnaissance orbiter images of this region. Released I. Think it was in January. Yes. January that they were taken on January the fourth but made public in May. And it because of changing light conditions and remember these a near the South Pole of the moon whether whether sun angle is very shallow. Because of the changing light conditions, the January images revealed much more detail. Than the November images. So. Shanmugam has had a good look at these, and now believes that what he's seeing is that a in fact, the lander made a soft landing. What he what he says is going by the January fourth images which were made public in May I think prog Yom maybe intact and. Was the was the rover. I think it may be intact. The leaders rolled out a few meters from the Landa. We we need to know how the rover may have moved I. Hope Israel is able to confirm this. So. He's. Pulled over these images and done some very clever analysis i. think he's done. Some you know is used algorithms that that tease out the detail in these images. An almost looks as though the thing made. A A soft landing, and the speculation is that the space craft itself sent the command for the rover. To. Essentially to to be deployed from the lander. So that the rover in the land communicating with each other autonomously, but they'd already lost communication with the ground station back here on earth. So nobody knew about the. It's A. We we just naturally believe that something catastrophic happened the thing. Crashed or landed too heavily to be functional, and that's been the belief up until now that's right. Yeah. It's called echoes Andrew of of the the Beagle two story which you'll remember was launched from. British spacecraft a British lander on Mars was launched deployed from. The Mars Express spacecraft a European spacecraft. That deployed Beagle two which to the surface. Landed and was never well, it was never heard of again basically. For about twelve years. And everybody was lying in millions of pieces on the surface of Mars until maverick. Came along with it's high-rise Camera I resolution camera. An could see an image of this thing sitting on the surface almost fully deployed of the solar panels had not. Folded back and so it was it's antenna was enabled to send signals back to Earth to say I'm here so. On yes him once again, a near miss a near, Miss Event. Don't exist. A big catastrophic era. It can be as simple as lucky. Say a solar panel, just not quite getting where it needs to get or. Could even be loosed at it could be anything it could be so Mina, and it could completely ruin a multi-million dollar project. That's right so It's I. Think this is really interesting. So kind of forensic science. Detective work done the event. It seems unlikely that the Space Agency will be able to wake up a the victim lander to get communications. Apparently, they tried many many times. But well, own guts radio so Is Wonderful. Radio is it can't physically move something. Exact. You know if if If it's the link between the earth and the. Land of that he's broken and it sounds as though that that said, it does matter how well the rest of it's working he'd never going to know what's happening. But very interesting that they may have come within a whisker of success with the Chandra to. Yeah that probably went Mike the the government feel much better about the investment in which was many millions of dollars. was millions of dollars, but it's cheaper not Indian. Mission was one of the cheapest. Space missions to to another in another world has ever been done. They managed to do it and what we're going to be their goal what would I hoping to achieve? So it was a Rosa rather like the to two rover this currently the Chinese road with its on the on the far side of the moon. Investigating Cameras I. Think he had a analytical equipment to to sense. The makeup of the rocks that it was on I'm not sure whether it had ground penetrating radar because that's one of the really interesting aspects of of the Chinese missions that they've got ground penetrating radar on board their rovers I'm not sure whether whether the Vikram rover had that. Okay. So again, the river was programmed, Vikram was the Landa I'm getting my. Eating my. Vehicles mixed up here. That's okay. You getting your curried sausage sausages mixed up with you chicken Tikka that what's happening but I will try again. Do you expect that the Indian Spice Agency will matt another mission or I? Think it's an inevitable that they will. I think that probably lot work going on behind the scenes in India and in space. That this space research agency they. That, probably. I don't really know. Any contact side but it probably working a reduced rate as most of us are because of covid nineteen but there is a very ambitious and very efficient space agency with with big? Ambitions. So I'm sure we'll hear more Andrew. Yeah I think it's great that more and more countries getting involved in space exploration because it can only make it better and better into the future and you know if somewhere along the line there I'm more and more collaborations better still the SARS concerned I, think that's a good thing. Indeed by agree integrity. Will Competition never heard anybody did bus right collaborations great to you. Know we we see that in in the International Space Station but. Many many nations cooperating. Okay all right. Well, I've found it but unfortunately they. Mike move which is. Very very sad and I suppose one day someone might walk around there and have a look and go. I still think. Plug back in an oh well I just. Suppose, you're listening to the space nuts podcast with Andrew Dunkley and Fred Watson. Free. Space Nuts as always I'd like to say hello to everybody who supports us through whatever social media platform you prefer, and of course, course many many of you listen to us through youtube and we appreciate that. So if you'd like to be a youtube subscribe at, just do a search for space podcast in your youtube search engine and subscribe there you can catch up on all the episodes I. Think I've said before all you have to do is hit play and it'll just run the whole damn lot of them back to back it can listen to all two hundred and four day. Episodes nonstop if you want to and of course, facebook, very popular platform for us with the the official space and that's facebook page but also the space nuts podcast group which is continuing to grow, and that's the way you as a spice nuts listener if you so desire can bicycling chat with other spice nuts listeners, it's It's a group especially for you to talk to each other and compare the size of you telescopes and all that sorta stuff. It's It's a fun group and sometimes they do some interesting things such as showing a rooster in a spacesuit. GotTa. Photo of what is purported to be Gregory. Peck in a spacesuit and that thing has gone absolutely nuts online fred it's It's it's a funny picture. Attendant now. I did tell you that Doug Gregory Peck, the type, the world by storm. I notice he's already made a today so. He's not quite as he was right outside the door when he made a lot noise a couple of weeks ago he's done in the past at the moment but. I'm sure. Again Our dont data? Yes. Indeed. He couldn't get a word in when mandate is around but now are now he's He's taken center stage. Now, let's get on with it Fred. We're going to go back to MAS. This is fascinating plice and We do know that it had oceans and rivers and all sorts of stuff that we know and love on our own planet But now it looks like it might have had an ice age in that. Some of these river valleys may have been formed under sheets of ice that is a very interesting theory may be more on a theory. And it could be a quite revolutionary Andrew because. What this is offering A. Completely, new idea is the idea that no actually Mars wasn't woman wet three point eight billion years ago because that's the current thinking that Meyers. Rivers, flowing and. An, very similar climate to the earth, and that comes from The geological evidence has been gathered both by being spacecraft and spacecraft on the Martian surface. This is a new idea that. Actually puts a slightly different light on what we understand. Mars might be like and it comes from researchers at the University of British Columbia in Canada. And You know essentially challenges our view of what Mars might have been like. Three point four billion years ago. I'm what the scientists have done They have looked at What happens beneath the ice sheets of actually places the in the sock to in fact, they've particularly concentrated on the place called Devon. Island. I'm not sure exactly why that is but I suspect it's northern Canada there is an ice sheet covering that landscape and beneath that landscape, there are drainage channels. So the pressure of the ice essentially melts the water underneath which forms channels in the Rock and what the scientists of dumb is they've made algorithms that essentially. The. Judgments to the shape and size. Of these networks have volleys which have which we find on Mars, and they've applied this to ten thousand Martian valleys than that new algorithm. and. A look to how that shape and dimensions compare. Excuse me with with channels on the earth that are known to have formed on the ice sheets. And Okay I'm so one of the one of the authors his he's a quote from him. Mark Jellinek, who's a professor in? University of British Columbia's Department of Earth Ocean atmospheric scientists he says. These results of the first evidence for extensive subglacial erosion driven by channel Channelize meltwater drainage beneath as ancient sheets on Mars. The findings demonstrate that only a fraction of valley networks match patterns typical of surface water erosion, which is in marked contrast to the conventional view. Using the go mythology of Mazda surface the shape of Mazar surface to rigorously reconstruct the character evolution of the planet in a statistically mean meaningful way is frankly revolutionary. So what he's saying is that most of Moses Valleys were formed not by rivers running you know. Essentially equilibrium with an atmosphere but by. Melt water underneath glacial ice sheets, and that is a completely new picture of the way Mars might have. Might have full dis. It's river valley networks. The still I think room for the planet has had a liquid water ocean because we find. There are there are features on Mars which Really characteristic of coastal coastal erosion. So I don't think the idea of. Having some stage being warm and wet has been thrown out entirely. But what these guys are saying is that most of the valleys we see on ause may well have been formed underneath I. Sheet. So exactly as you said, a nice age on Mars. The might well have been the time when most of those ballots with formed. Excuse me under the Turtle Frog in the throat again. It's it's. A. It's really very interesting piece of work, but there is a surprise to it as well. That is okay comment. If he did have you know these drainage valley networks underneath ice sheets. They claim that environment would actually support better survival conditions for possible life on Las. So you've gotta shake device and it's giving you more protection from things like solar radiation and it makes the underlying water more stable the perhaps it would be if it was open to the atmosphere. So. This suggestion is that we shouldn't be disbanded about this. This might have been a place where Martian life would have thrived D- rather than you know being open. Surface environment to all the all the powers some throws at the planet. So a really interesting new set of dead. I was wondering about that because I was thinking well, these stories come at just a week after they've learned day. Demise from NASA to look for life in Riverdale, turn that now we now go great. Not Great. What are we gonNA. Do now we count and It might actually be better. A more likely scenario. Yes. So that river I mean I don't know enough about the mechanics of glacial drainage but it's possible that that River Delta might been under Nice Sheet. We know that Revuelta is made by water flowing into Jesuit Crater, which is whether spacecraft setting full perseverance and I. Think it may well be Andrew that when perseverance gets to work. Early next year on the surface of Mars it might actually be able to give an answer to this question to to say, yes, we've got definitive evidence that these channels were full by subglacial is I don't know whether the the seven instruments onboard. That spacecraft whether that whether they're able to do that but it is possible that we might set get clues about. The real nature of what these flows water flows were were doing on those. And and obviously, the way water forge is out. It's rivers and valleys under is is very different from the standard erosion that we know from exposed where the situations of the possibly the white quoted Yep. That's right. I mean there are some you know the canyons on laws which you probably the. Coast by water flow with I formed under. Sweet. The really interesting questions it sound kind of you know opened up probably can of worms really but it's provided a new picture of what ancient models might have looked line. Yes indeed well, even ancient earth was very different to what way experiencing our you look at. One of the ICS places on the planet. ANTACTICA and it's believed that at one stage it was tropical. Yes. It was but at one stage, there was a you know they did go through a period when is called snowball earth period when it was essentially iced up completely. And it's all to do with the way. The atmosphere behaves really interesting stuff. Indeed well. Stands to reason that it's probably been the case on Mars as well and Hopefully, some of these questions will be answered by a the the three missions that are headed that way, and we'll start to get answers into next year. and. You're listening to the space that's podcast Andrew. Dunkley and of course Professor Fred Watson. Space nuts thanks to our patrons who have been supporting the space and that's podcast. Financially, we appreciate whatever willing to put into the program. So thank you for that whether you do three patriots, dot com or super cast it's up to you some prefer one over the other and vice versa. It doesn't matter. But if you would like to sign up to be a patron, you can find all the details on our website space nuts podcast dot com that's space nuts podcast dot com. That's our official URL now and go to night from someone the other day decided that will be becoming a patron. Of course, as a patron, you get bonus material and we'll be adding more material in the next a little while to for our patrons a plus you get a free edition commercial free edition and you get it ahead of. Everybody else basically, we would give you an early release version of spice nuts So thanks again to our patrons for supporting us You can put in as much or as little as you like, but as I always say, it's not mandatory. You do not have to it is a voluntary situation. So well, we appreciate your support. Either way now, Fred, let's get on to some questions and this one comes from his accuracy. Sta. High Boys loved the PODCAST. So much is question. He's from a telescope perspective hacking, the Hubble capture such amazing deep-space magnificent images yet not focused on local planets. In detail I would think from a Li- person's perspective Hubble could image Pluto. In great detail. But this is not the case. Will the James Webb telescope be able to detail local images that is a really interesting. Question and one I must confess I never thought ask but it It makes perfect sense to think that something capable of taking crystal clear images of things that are light years away would be able to do an even better job of something that's light hours away and and indeed it does So the best images we have apart from one stake in spacecraft of. Of. The of the planets are have all come from the Hubble telescope. The. In fact, the Hubble published a couple of weeks ago I. Think it was some stunning images of Santa than the data how in the? founding. So. The the issue here is that they dig spice images you looking at things whose dimensions a measured in in light is. Enormous. Enormous. Distances. When when you looking at the planet she looking at smaller things, Mola distances but you can still the eight still resolves the same detail the. We measure the what we call the resolution of telescopes mount of detail can CONC-. We measure it in terms of arc seconds. The. One ARC second being one, three, thousand, six, hundred, eighty degree I can't remember off the top of my head. What the resolution of the Hubble telescope is, but it's in the region of a tenth of a second, probably rather better than that. Fighting, he might be more like hundreds of an second dot sort of Dato. And so it doesn't matter whether you're looking at something Niro. You still see that Angela detail on it. So small objects relatively nearby. Give up their secrets in the same way that large OJ alone wail do. Now. Found, it says it's about one twentieth of an ox second. Okay. So Five yet thank you for checking that. Typically on a on a on a good ground based telescopes. You would be looking at a resolution of not much better. The second unless use this technique cold adaptive optics She cancels out the turbulence of the atmosphere and the big new telescopes will use that. And, in fact, some of the these. The the big new generation of extremely large telescopes the ground by swarms, they will actually be the Hubble in terms of resolution It'd be better because they're bigger telescope. So a big Amirah in a telescope in increases, your resolution but of course, against that, you've got the atmosphere. But so on the grounds telescope, you'd need to use the the adaptive optics technique. This is all something we'll be seeing within the next decade with European extremely large telescope and the TM thirty meter telescope and the giant Magellan telescope the three. We'll see exquisite imaging comparable with the Hubble. Zachary mentioned Pluto and you can actually see. The Good. Among towns used to using talk shows a how view of Pluto changed and the Hubble image of Pluto was basically about the pixels. Because Pluto is tiny wells smaller than our own moon. It's at five billion kilometers away That's why you don't see more than a few pixels with the Hubble telescope. That's why we're so crucial to get a spacecraft out of Pluto to find out what it was really like, and of course, that was new horizons. Back in Twenty fifteen, did that marvelous job of showing Pluto was really like Yeah. So it's not really a question of the distance. It's a question of the size of the object per the distance. Exactly. That's exactly what was like as big as Jupiter or something, we'd get much more stunning images of it through. We. That's right. That's precisely the case but his tiny. Well Joy Planet. Yes indeed. Okay. So you guys. Zachary, hopefully that answers your question, all he also asked. Know if we can expect. Even greater detail from James the James Webb Telescope and I imagine the answer is yes. Because it will be so much more advanced and so much more capable. Yeah. In fact, the secret is that it's bigger James Webbie's his six point five meter diameter telescope the. The Hubble is two point four Mehta's. So Dot Dumb kind of trickling of size in itself. Gives you an increase in. resolution. Against actually. Is that resolution? The finding that you can say actually deteriorates with wave length. So you going theme for Red You, actually lose resolution. Because visible light has a shorter wavelength infrared. So the will be a slightly negative effect because the James Webb Telescope is an infrared telescope, but we'll still see some fabulous images from it with detail, which will certainly be better than the Hubble. It won't be able to take a federal Pluto. You'll be a bit better but not not much different. No. I'm sure it's looking for bigger and better things why beyond s all the systems are? That would make sense. All right bath will use it for solar system observations. We'll learn things from. From the James Webb our own solar system, which will be great. Yes indeed, very much. So thank Zachary. Great Question. I gave us a chance to explain that situation. and. That's Gregory Peck Ringing Fred. Do. Let's move onto the next one from Jeffrey B., M. and High Jeffrey thanks for this question this is really thought provoking unlock this Jeff, is from Colorado If we gained the ability to accelerate a probe or generation ship or other spaceship two point two, five to a destination one hundred light years a guy a hundred light years away point two five of the spate of lot would the ship delayed by the amount of the expansion of the universe during its four hundred Ye trip? So let's Do Point two, five, the spate of lot it traveling relied is. And that would equate to a four hundred year journey but. Is. This something this influence that and slow you down such as the expansion of the universe. That's what Jeffrey is asking. That is a really interesting question because we talked about the expansion of the universe and that's happening faster than the speed of light. So is that going to create an increase in the distance between the objects you're traveling over the four hundred year timeframe? So He's a great question answer is yes it will. But at a microscopic level. Suicide. Factual. So. What Jeff postulating is yet you accelerate spacecraft to a quarter of the speed of light that's seventy, five, thousand kilometers per second, and if you do this four hundred year trip. To get to a destination one hundred light years away. That's. That's a pretty high speed. So. The expansion of the universe, which is kind of taking place. You know the space craft is moving through the universe. The Universe is expanding is that expansion going to increase the length of the journey? And the what you have to do is the calculation. So the expansion of the universe is measured by something called the Hubble constant. H. Which? At the present time because it's varied over the history of the universe, but at the present time h note is about seventy five kilometers per second per mega passback. Now, a Mega Park is three point two, six, million light years away. One is three point two, six light years. So a million six is three point two, six, million light years so the. Of the universe over a distance of three point, two, six, million light is. All the spate of expansion seventy, five kilometers per second. So a a one, hundred light year trip on that scale is completely irrelevant. It's the expansion of the universe. Takes place over a very, very large scales indeed. So you'd have to be going to other galaxies by means that we don't have at the moment in order to notice any difference in your journey time because of the expansion of the universe, I'm not sure whether it made that clear. What what what what it's saying is that over distances. Even, distances with are within our own galaxy. The expansion of the universe is irrelevant because it is so so slow. So there reason effect but it's minute. You'd have to be traveling a heck of a mega long wife for to stop become. So. You really only start seeing the effect of the expansion of the universe when you're looking at galaxies, millions of light years away then you can start to see. Rather than and his away. Yeah, and a heck of a make a long way is an official unit of measure by the way. As, ratified by the International Astronomical Union. Yes. Christmas party last year. where it would happen but it's definitely yes. Hopefully, that is solved your puzzle Jeffrey You can jump on ship at point two, five light spade and get to where you're going. One hundred is away in four hundred years and a very little bit. It's not going to make much difference. You'll. You'll still be able to catch you bus. Thanks the question was very enlightening. And thank you fred that this up for another week it was. Short and sweet sweet. We would go through a rather rapidly I'm not used to that. That's all right. We're going at the speed of. Light. Andrew so. quickly. Every didn't even have to allow the expansion of the universe. Thank you. Fred okay. We'll speak again soon. Thanks very much. Thanks. Ext Week our episode will be dedicated one, hundred percent, two questions. We'll have some more questions will also raise some at that have been sent the old fashioned way by carrier pigeon. And whatever means you find looks best for you. But if you do want to send us a question plays jump on our website. And Click the I am a tab up the top. So space nuts podcast, dot com, click the IM TAB, and if you've got a device with a microphone in, you can record question. Tell us who you are way you're from From, and ask you a question. We'll try and include as many questions as possible in next week's episode two, hundred, fifteen of the spice nuts podcast one, hundred percent questions next week. Until then stay safe and we will catch you real soon on another episode of the space nuts podcast. US. To this. PODCAST. Available at Apple podcast Google podcasts, spotify, iheart radio all your favorite podcast plan. You can also stream on demand. Palm. CAST PRODUCTION FROM THOUGHTS DOT com.
U Deserve Some Credit
"There's is get money and entertaining podcast. Yes but also guide to getting a financial shit together so I had to build credit from scratch after moving to the US sixty s but lots of my friends talk about spending that childhood hearing their parents freak out about the credit and so now they're freaked out by that credit to of course because like that works on this episode of get money would be mystifying credit and credit cards. I'm amber and I've got my friend. Call he he's worked at the big banks and is about to be a lawyer and wedge joined by. Aj and Shane certified financial planners and Co founders of financial planning firm Could Brooklyn FBI. Everybody Russa pouty. How's it going all right? Let's get money. So here's vocab. You should be familiar with a credit score is a statistical number that Evaluates Your Credit Worthiness Aka how much someone can trust you to pay back alone and is based on credit. History lenders use credit scores to evaluate the pro ability that you will repay your debt. A person's credit score ranges from three hundred to eight fifty and the high school the mall financially trustworthy. A person is considered to be. What is the good decent credit score? Like how what classifies as being pretty good classifies as being like really bad war classified as being like the fucking best thing. Aj knows it depends on which lender asking but if you want a ballpark Generally we say above like seven sixty seven sixty. Eight fifty is a great score. You're going to qualify for the lowest mortgage rates. You're going to get the access to the best credit cards with the lowest interest rates. The best perks you know between six fifty and seven six kind of like okay. You're doing pretty well. Keep going and then we start to see like below six fifty. That's when we get into the fair and poor situation where you're going to be. You're going to be charged a premium. So you'RE GONNA be charged higher interest rates for showing a poor credit history so can really impact like different aspects of Your Life. Maybe unexpecting okay. What's the first word that comes to your mind? When you hear credit card free flights I was GONNA say Paris as in free flight to Paris I would say nervous because I like all the benefits of the points but get very nervous about being able to the payments in time you know I think when I think of using credit cards. It's like what's the warning on a bottle of alcohol drink responsibly discredit responsibly. If you're in a position where you've got steady income and you're spending less than you make. Yeah absolutely use credit cards. Grab all those awesome points. Get those sign up bonuses. Get Free flights hotels. If you're not in a position to do that don't do it. The points are marketing campaign. So if they're going to get in the door without nice bonus but you don't have the income to support your spending you're gonNA lose the credit card game and you're going to end up on the other side of that where you're paying interest on money already. Spent a no a few friends. Who JUST USE CREDIT CARDS? When appoint stay literally stripes wiping and they pay it off maybe three or four days after Jesse get the points? How many credit cards should I have? How many should you have been well? You have opinions on this actually occurs to have. I have six cards and to business credit cards. I've sixteen credit cards. I kind of feel like a like a doctor that smokes right now with my me having sixteen credit cards. That's definitely not good planning advice for anyone listening to this. You don't need more than five credit cards. I think that's going to be a really bizarre situation where you need more than five. You know how often should you open? A NEW CREDIT CARD COUNT. I think when you're starting to build credit early on it makes sense to open a few cards because eventually when you are trying to buy a house or trying to move into an apartment and they need to check your credit you WANNA established that credit history so when you're starting out. Yeah you're ages zero talk on those cards but as you're starting to get into more maintenance mode and you have a car you like to stick with that car it also okay. I know calling someone on. The phone is scary. But if you're applying for a new credit card call him up on the phone. Don't just apply online. You can ask all the questions you have and they'll stay on the phone with you because they want you as a customer to anyone out there who's afraid of opening credit card or using that credit card in your wallet this one's view now one of the important things about your financial situation is improving your credit score but in order to improve that credit score. You've got to use credit cards. It's about debt management not debt accumulation. So that credit card is in the mail. Don't be afraid to open just set guidelines to how you going to use it and how you gonNA consistently pay it off because I damn well know that you will so what. I'm applying for a credit card. Who is it that is actually approving me foreign? Who's checking my credit score and who's making that decision. It's me now. Just getting is not me? It's me I'm the credit cards princess reviewing in credit card applications. You're it depends for the most part. It's yeah it's going to be some AI. Some algorithm putting a fact basically reviewing your credit report and credit scores. Saying yes or no then. It goes to a human team for review. If you are rejected you can appeal. Try to get a human try to get them to explain why you are because often. They won't tell you why you were. It feels Shitty to get rejected by credit card to get rejected for anything. Just checking your credit skull effect it. You checking it doesn't but a creditor checking it does so that that's a it's called. It's called a heard inquiry. Sit On that one So have you for a credit card? It's going to be hard angry to play for mortgage. It's going to be hard inquiry those Negatively affect your score but not in a dramatic way and those Disappear after about a year and a half so don't worry too much about those beget when you. If you apply for six credit cards you're going to have six heart increase. I was rejected twice for credit credit card and I literally was like this. Is the most insulting rejection of it comes in the mail run instantly one told me straight away and then I tried again and then it was like no you gotta declare. What have you got an invitation? A wedding in the mail that it said that you would specifically were not invited dirty. You can't come. Knowledge is power so let me explain an important concept real quick if you ever had a credit card or debit card you probably saw a little small logo on either mastercard discover or American Express and you thought to yourself who the hell are these companies and why the hell are they on every single car that we have well. These companies have networks filled with merchants and banks they essentially track all of your transactions processed them think of this as a road and visa discover. Mastercard and AMEX are essentially the toll booths on that road. Not only they collect a fee for every transaction but they also tell who was on the road at that time and who has told so. The credit card processor is essentially the middleman. How does like using a credit card police then affect my credit score road affects your credit score negatively usually paying late knock some points off but not paying the car back at all can a lot of points off and it's much easier to lose points than it is to gain them back. It's like kind of having a girlfriend. You know You know it takes a long time to earn her. Trust but you know once you get that one text from that girl. It's hard to get her trust back so and chatted thing that way classic the Credit Score. It's such a black box You know the different things that go into that number that three digit number at the at the bottom end of things the three fifty at the high end eight fifty. There's no reason anyone needs to have an eight fifty credit score. That's like shooting for the moon. I don't even have any fifty. I'm above eight hundred ninety eight fifty but so much. Sorry Humble Brag. There wasn't even humble. It's so much goes into the score that we spend all day talking about the mechanics but essentially the scores dynamic. When you make one move your score can go up or down. Relating to so many different things it could be the utilization rate which is how much credit that's available to you you're using It could be the age of your credit. So if you're a new bar let's say you just arrive in. The United States is trying to get a credit card. It's GonNa be hard for you to get a credit card because you've no history. No NO LENDER. No Credit Card Company is going to be excited about opening a new credit card for you because they don't know how you in the past so there's no easy answer for what actually goes into the score but paying your bills on time is one of the most impactful aspects of the score. So if you miss a credit CARBONARI MRS student loan payment that can have a really drastic impact on the score. You want to make sure that you're on top of payments. One of the first things we do with all of our clients is set up auto pay for all of their cards and a loans just because the minimum fee is just easy to forget. People get busy. You got ten different accounts. You missed one of them. Because you're busy and then you're certainly not one hundred percent and it has a dramatic impact on your credit score. So that's one thing. We advocate everyone on this. Listening to this podcast. Police set up minimum payments. On All your credit cards your student loans and anything else that you might owe people money for minimum. Payment is the smallest amount. You have to pay your credit card company. In a particular billing cycle. If a balance has accrued pay it the credit utilization ratio is the percentage of how much you charge your credit card versus the maximum that you can put on the cod for example if you have a ten thousand dollar credit line and you spend five thousand. Your ratio would be fifty percent lowering the ratio can help improve your credit score. The age of a credit card is how long credit card has been open for the longer cod has been open the better effect it has on your credit school. I WANNA NAR like high. School is such a thing as extra credit. Well sort of actually really heartache heartache. It's not necessarily extra credit like I said. There's no reason you need an eight fifty. That's silly Just having a great scorer is good enough but what you can do is if you have a family member or a close friend or significant other D Day. Can actually help your score out. If they have great credit it's called They can make you an authorized user on their card. Actually Shane an authorized user on one of my older credit cards. It up. You're a lot of Burrito week. As we discussed small you can meet someone authorized user and then you absorb their positive credit history. Observe THEIR CREDIT AGE. And give your score a nice little boost without you doing anything really. Obviously this has to be someone you really trust and you have to figure out. Make sure that you're close enough that the arrangement makes sense for both of you But that's a little trick for their home Columi- mountain mom I heard about your score was hooky. Asano yeah I mean there's six things that impact your credit and it helps three of them. The number of cards that adds a car the utilization rate will go down if there's no balance on it and then it adds age to your credit score so it's usually your friends oldest card with no balance. That isn't used. That often is what you want That wanted to be added an authorized user on. Are you listening? I'm GONNA need that. Let's hope so. So what other like? Really good quick ways to increase your credit score you want all of our tricks on how they pay. Hoti GONNA get paid. They give away all the money we got him. On a quick way to decrease your utilization rate therefore increasing your credit score is to just call up your bank and ask for more credit the less credit. You're using the better your score so if you have more available to you that's a win for your credit score and one other thing to watch out for is you might have a high credit score. Because you've got one card with a high limit that you never use. But that is a high score but it's also called thin file which is a secondary qualifier Someone will look like hey. The credit score is great but they only have one credit card so they don't have a good mix of credit. Scores are in a multitude of types of credit so You know they're not These creditors dumb. They're not just going to take a credit score and slap slop down a mortgage for three hundred thousand dollars for you. They think about the qualitative aspects on top of the quantitative stuff in student loans. Actually help your score a lot having student loans paying them back On time let's keep key point on time not missing payments that adds a lot of weight a lot of ballast your credit score so You know if you've if you borrowed a couple times a year for four years of Undergrad. You could have you know sixteen different loans making up part of your credit score. So that's GonNa make your score. Go Up Actually. Ballast terms. Here's one way not to get scammed mixture. You read what's called the Schumer box? That's the mandatory disclosure for interest rates and payment terms when you sign up for a new board. Now let's bring in our producer Ravana with a question that she's not too afraid to ask so. I have a question about credit. We we've been talking about credit and credit cards. How much of my available credit should I be? If you want a rule of thumb you should be using less than thirty percent the credit available to you That's just a a nice easy mark. We're going to have a green check. Mark in the utilization rate category when your credit score is calculated and the way we would calculate that is. Let's say you have a credit card with to keep things simple a thousand dollar limit. You charged three hundred dollars a month. You're good that's great but the mini get above three hundred. Then you're inching towards above thirty percent and that's bad cool. Maybe we should expand on that because shouldn't carry a balance. I'll tell you shake area balanced. You're just like a very small one assist show they use it well Credit card companies. Don't actually look at the like the balance on it doesn't get the credit score. So what would impact the credit score would be your utilization Ray and you want that to be as low as possible like south of thirty percent into your question. The answer is my class thanks This is how you get money so when it comes to credit and credit cards number one. Don't let the credit card companies win. If you're not going to be able to pay off your statement balance each month the fancy travel rewards just aren't worth it number two. There's no exact formula to how your credit score is calculated but we know it's impacted by six things the age of your credit your utilization rate payment history derogatory marks the number of accounts that you have and the number of heart increase on your score number three remember credit cards can be used to your advantage to help you build your Preta. Another type of credit can add a higher limit to utilization rate and can add to your credit score as well. Here are three tips to help you become a master of credit number one. Keep your credit score healthy. Don't close older credit cards? Having them open helps the age of your credit score number two. Don't Miss Minimum payments on your credit cards or loans? That's the biggest detriment to your scores number three. The Schumer box is the mandatory credit card. Disclosure brochure then. We'll tell you exactly what interest rate you're going to be paying on the balance. Always find the Schumer box on your credit card applications before signing the paperwork times the best remedy for fixing pass mistakes on your credit report new derogatory marks fade. Your Age will mature in. Those hard increase will drop. You don't need a perfect eight fifty credit score so don't get too obsessed with your credit score your score matters with big things like getting a mortgage you'll have access to the lowest interest rates with at least a great score. That's in quotes of around seven sixty. So hang in there. If you want something from getting money we WANNA know. We really excited. When you guys Texas hit off at nine one seven nine zero five six six three six and tell us how get money has changed your life for the better. I need money for overprice sneakers. So that's all for this episode of get money. Get MONEY ISN'T ORIGINAL PRODUCTION FROM GILDED AUDIO. An ACOSS studios lost episode of the season is all about taxes just in time for tax season. Listen in so you can do your taxes a little bit better. I need money. For My equinoxes membership. Check US out at get my PODCASTS DOT COM and follow us. Get money on instagram got money.
6 Tips For Working With Clients | Best Of #ASKGARYVEE
"In this is Gary v audio experience protocol. Hey, guys, welcome to the Gary v audio experience. This is Dustin. I am video for on team, Gary, and this is a mash up about tips to working with clients and the first clip from ask Gary v episode. One sixty seven on November. Thirtieth two thousand fifteen. Gary takes a question from Matt Young's on how he treats employees compared to clients to grow his business effectively. Matt says, Richard Branson says, clients not come. First employees come, I do you agree or disagree and why I agree and Matt, Matt that I mean, I agree and like I've been pounding, you know that for hundred sixty six episodes. So at least forty times. So I feel very comfortable and kind of dodging this answer because one of the things like the repetitiveness of the show is something I challenge myself with always recognizing there's so many new people watching ahead, you know, and there's a lot of people watching. So just go very fast. This doesn't get my juices going and I'm not trying to dismantle it. I seem you're fairly new, so I'm excited. It's not even close to me. It is fundamentally my employees, then my customers that my own interests and that has been the backbone of my success. I feel like you end up with a whole lot. If you go in that order at, I think my actions have spoken to that at this company. I've got a lot of people that have worked in agency of the street for a long time and have been surprised by how hard I push back on. Clients we've fired client store, which is sacrilege. Even people say it. And so yes, I think Richard's correct. I think anybody successful like a Branson that's built an actual organization not as like a single entertainer as an investor or somebody built a product, somebody that actually built a six hundred six thousand sixty thousand person organization or six person organization successfully recognizes how much value in the people that are really is. I also happen to like people which makes it even easier for me. So just keeping very basic, I say, I say, yes. I'm curious to your strategy picking that question in the. And we're getting so many new viewers and like I checked last time we really talked about that was like in the forties episodes, fine. Come with real data in the answer's no, really good job. Yes. So now India's guilted me into going a little bit deeper here at listen. I mean, well, appreciate it. I'll go a little bit further to me. It's a very big deal and and and it's so surprising to me law firms consultants agencies were they actually sell people's hours that they're not completely infatuated with that process. I get it for wine library where like we were selling wine. The end result was transaction with wine. There was will, here's a transaction with another human being against their hours. So again, if you are in a business where that is the case, you run multiple gyms trainers, you you again, law firm consultants, anybody who's listening to this who has a business. That people's hours are being sold should be religious. I mean, coltish about caring about their people, and then anybody that selling a by product of it, your results. The shelves are gonna, be stocked better at one library. You're gonna get a better answer on a recommendation from wine library. If you care about your people, even though the end result product is about all of wine, or if you go into a bicycle shop, the end result is still selling a bike, but if Ricky is happy, when he came into the shop and you come in for like he's gonna spend that extra fifteen minutes enthused the enthusiastically, trying to tell you that this tire is better than that tire. That shit matters. The second clip stemming from scary episode fifty eight on December nineteenth. Two thousand fourteen Gary answers a question about the most friction list way to communicate with clients. Acoss asks when you're working on a project with clients, how much is done online, like Skype versus in person meetings. Coz I can't speak for the whole Vader media team, and I think they're all individual, but at my level or what I do not even probably probably not predicated my level just the way I roll when I think about the client stuff that I do, I would say. Ten percent on text forty extra. I'm not gonna. Try to make this round up to one hundred. Let's see. It probably is predominantly Email. Solid amount face to face a big face to face fan, almost non-existent phone and growing pushing them into more taxed. So face the pieces, probably twenty five percent, the rest of digital, no Skype or Google plus. Any of that kind of stuff. I'm just a predominantly face to face emails number one face to face texting. That's no Goto meeting them. And the third clip from episode one sixty nine on the fourth two thousand fifteen. Gary answers. Question from Carter Whitaker about how he preps meetings and pitches to give the strongest performance possible quarter asks, how do you prepare for a big meeting or anything where you're required to have a strong performance. Carter I prepare for big meeting by living my life meaning I'm always prepared for big meeting. Thus I never prepared for a big meeting meaning when you when you were great at something or very good at something, you don't need any prep time because you're always prepping right. And so that's the punchline of me in a professional meeting standpoint, like the years of experience, the bravado, the results, the cadence, the the natural skills, the two things that matter practice and natural talent have been there. So I don't prepare for big meeting. It's pumped up. I don't put in like little Wayne and be like, all right, we're going to get it like, there's there's like looking like, okay, we're gonna win this pitch. There's none of that bullshit. I put in the work every day three sixty five to be ready for that. And I think anyone that's very good at something is always doing that. You know, you don't just wake up and decide to be good at something you're always preparing. You know, it's like it's like, if you're if you're if you're preparing in a tactic way, you're unprepared. Yeah, that was that was some deep shit, right. Yeah. I mean, like how prepared to cook a great meal for these homes right now they answer is I'm not there's no reading a blog post watching YouTube video or calling a chef friend like I'm going to pick it up. I haven't done anything for forty years preps me to cook a good meal to you. That was some high levels shit. In the fourth clip from scary v on July first thousand sixteen, Gary enters the question from Henry about how to communicate with small clients and large clients. What are the different in the way you deal with small big accounts. There's a ton of differences. You know, when you're dealing with small or big businesses, senior or junior employees, big or small in all shapes and sizes in business really dictate very different strategies. So small council out of times don't have the same budgets. Small counts often have chips under shoulder and lack competence of the great things we do for small accounts is actually bring a little bravado to them because I, I'm more comfortable actually coming from small going big because that's what I do. Right? And so there's, you'd need to be scrappy or you need to build self esteem more. I think big needs the reversal lotta times we need to make sure they don't waste their money. You know the the sorrows of riches or what is it the hell? What is it called anyway? Right. Thank you being there for me, you know, like the spoils of riches or whatever. It's called like they have so much money. Sometimes they just mail in waste the ton of it. I think a lot of times our biggest brands need a huge level of humility. So it's really the in and Yang to each other. Right? I think the small council that provide, oh, and self esteem and like we could do this, like, screw the big, I if we're smarter, we can beat them. They're wasting money on TV and other dumb shit. Big accounts. Stop wasting money on dumb shit. You're not as big as cools, you think you are. Somebody small can come and catch you. So those tend to be the two different religious pillars, and they're very important and having those strategies at the top really, really do matter. On the fifth clip from scary v episode. Ninety four on may six, two thousand fifteen. Gary takes a question from viewer about the best way to deal with impatient. Clients who demand too much too fast to keep them on. Shea Thanh asks, what's the best way to deal with patient clients. Shea Tana pronouncing that right Xian. You know. I'm gonna say something pretty interesting. I have pretty extreme views on this question. Meaning I think the answer to the question is brute force. I never waver ever ever. Wanna clients pushing back and they're like, well, this isn't going to work. I push back equally with ten percent more gusto in the other direction, which is it works. I see at work all the time. See it work for myself from my clients. I see at work for other people and you're just not doing it right. We haven't had enough time to pull it off yet, blah, blah, blah, blah. So unwavering and the number to equal with my unwavering. I just don't give a crap if they fire us or give up. I just don't. I know how this is gonna play out. I love being on the right side of history and I'm willing to give up my short term money for the long term. I told you so sucker, let me just say that again, and this is what makes me a happy person with clients. Why can you client services? I am willing to give up my short term money for my. Long-term, I told you so sucker and that's it. So I win either way I win. If I'm able to forcefully convince them to stay the course, I keep my money's I win if they say, get out of here, you're fired because I'm going to see them on the street in three years. It'd be like now what punk and I love that feeling. I like that more than the money actually. Thus, it's all good for me. In the last clip from ask air episode ninety on April seventeenth two thousand fifteen. Gary takes a question from zek side on what he asked clients before working with them so that he can deliver the best work possible Zach asks what three questions do you most commonly asked your clients when meeting them for the first time that wonderful question for everybody in client services agency, life, that should be fun. You know, number one is what is your KPI? What's your key performance indicator like? What is the thing that you want us to accomplish? Is it news is at sales is a perception is a press, is that is that your own judgment on how you feel about the creative? How are you judging us? What are the results are really separate? How are you judging us? What are the results are number one, a and one b that matters the most. And then really the third one would then be, what are you willing to tell me about your words? Meaning there's just a lot of people that are not going to tell you about the politics. That are issue the money that's an issue. I'm always trying to get them to be very truthful for to us. Once I understand what the issues at hand are. So what you really wanna accomplish by the way, people struggle with answering that people with answering that number two, how you going to judge me. Sometimes they struggled that less number three. What are the words? Most people don't want to tell me up front. We try to sniff them out early so we can navigate them and it's like it's a minefield to get to the finish line. Sort of three and they're very important questions and trying to figure out in every situation in absolutely every situation in dating in building your own business in having clients. I really think those three are Superfund, and by the way they're very important equally think for example, I think people that struggle with dating are spending way too much on number three. They're so concerned about what the person's warts are skeletons in our closets. They're not trying to figure out how they're being judged to be good partner in that relationship or how that's gonna be scored. And so having a great balance of all three, that's a little nugget there. Give you a little fun fact. At the end of this question, it's the thirty three percent execution of those three questions that may be equally important. Yeah, yeah, that that got to be a better article because I layer of that last pizza. It's what's going on in your cat. Steve. Somebody somebody asked they're conflicted about whether they should watch live of your cat away too. So it some really interesting question. What if both of course, but what everybody wanted everybody say how many people? One hundred eighty two three two. People asking about personal brands? Yeah. Interesting. Well, everybody, I'm your cat. Get on Instagram. Take a picture. Ask the question hashtag gas, Gary v, and maybe you can be on the show speakers. Kathleen says, dating. Eight. Yeah. Nate. Natives. I'm taping ask Gary v, and Kathleen is your cat. That Kathleen's curious where you are. So here you are, why don't you give the vendor nation, two seconds of what you've been Kathleen specifically? What have you been really doing today? Scopes primarily, it sounds very riveting. Law spreadsheets, excel teaching, Allie young, Alex, the ropes we ought to school Boven right there. We'll don't show the scope. All right. Let's get back to the show. Thank you. Yes, Kathleen isn't Australia. Like the need has secret admirers getting their nice jobs to fund Dirac might not get as king back with that move right. There was a very smooth transition. Coach. Gas peeps. I know you're a listener, but are you were watch Monday through Friday, twelve pm on YouTube, YouTube dot com. Slash Gary v e the daily v the best business log on earth.
Planet-9 - Oh Dear...
"Love this podcast. Support this show through the ACOSS supportively Joe. It's up to you how much you give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. Fifteen seconds guy internal. Ignition sequence. Space Nuts. To. Radio. What it feels good. Hello once again. Thank you for joining us. This is the space nuts podcast. It's all about astronomy episode two hundred five. My name is Andrew. Dunkley your host and joining me as always is professor Fred, what's an astronomer at large? Hello Fred Money Andrew. How you doing? I am quite well. Thank you how USA Unwell to. I. Know We're not supposed to be time specific when we greet one another on these Costa, it's morning here and it's going to stay for a little while so let's last place Kollek morning. We will regardless of when people are listening, right. Some people will be some people will be listening to this months from now seems to be the way with podcast. But anyway, that's terrific. Now before we get into the topic, so we have to congratulate Nassar and Spicy on this successful launch in the astronauts making it to the International Space Station I. saw footage of the launch in NY. They went ahead. The weather didn't look too pretty, but I did it anyway. Yeah, they did I think I think Brian. Dope and the last minute. I think they were junxing it a little bit but it certainly the conditions certainly different from when when they cancelled it Thursday, when? They were worried about. The space spacecraft itself creating lightning. I don't know whether you saw. On I saw a tweet. Sound somebody's twitter feed saying. It was something that you cancel for possible lightning. And then then there was some footage of. Liftoff? which was being struck by lightning all the way up. It was amazing. Stuff I think it was real. I'm not sure so you know. Maybe there's a slightly Moat Gungho attitude cups starring Kazakhstan. McKee possibly so yes, indeed, anyway, it's good that it. it's created now the pace of astronomical history. And now. The first the first. American based launch. In was it nine years. Yes, yes. Look at you. Know when you look at the inside of the I. Don't know the footage of Bob and dog floating around in the capsule it. She a luxury eight looks a lot different from any of the spacecraft's that have been launched before human spacecraft in Sunday Sunday. And we look forward to the first Australian based launch in twenty, one fifty. Either I think. Today I. Don't think today for it. A Today Fred we're going to be looking at planet nine will. Maybe we won't be looking at it. Because Nether starting to think it doesn't exist which I'm very disappointed about We'll also be talking about a dwarf galaxy that's repeatedly impacted our Milky Way Galaxy, which sounds like a bad thing, but it might have been the reason why as solar system exist so good thing? Apparently we'll also be talking about. A, couple of questions, one involving who is in charge of the orbiting satellites with all the new satellites up there. Is there a body in charge of controlling all of that? That's a good question and the question. We've had a couple of times, but we'll revisit it. Where is the center of the universe? Darryl. Just say! Now that look? Not. We'll try and explain it to you Daryl. I'd I. Remember we get a quick? Question once asking the address. which may will Relate to it, but we will. We will investigate that. But first of all Fred. Planet Nine, yes, or no. Dear you might be disappointed about this story. Bomb devastated. Because because you wanted to find, that's why. Is Worse than. The whole chapter of OF COSMIC CHRONICLES AK, exploding stars and invisible planet on a planet, nine chapter fourteen is called stoking an invisible planet. An even gave. Its name to the title of the of the US edition of the book exploding styles name visible planets. Maybe. These invisible not to be there. I did say did put a caveat in. The end of that chapter something the fact that you know by the time you read this, we might have discovered planet nine, so you can ignore everything said already. It may be that you can ignore it anyway. We have discovered it, so you shouldn't feel too bad. Fred because I watched that bay. Say documentary that dates back ten fifteen years snack. Hold the planets. Yes, and a lot of what's in that is now redundant. Yes, we've made new discoveries. Yeah, but that's just. That's just astronomy. That isn't what I gave was a snapshot of. States have knowledge of about the July or August last year when the thing went to press, oh! Yeah, so we best, and it still possibly might turn hundred. It's not this is not a death sentence for. The idea of planet nine, so let's just go back to what it's all about. This story goes by think about four years now. To two separate groups of astronomers who? Who are interested in the outer solar system and The observations were made. And these were the groups of astronomers of some significance These are top guys in that field. But they noted that they are I see asteroids out there in the debts of the solar system. Capable objects or transnet tune objects a slightly different those two things, but we can lump them all together. Now we know that they have extremely elliptical. Orbits very elongated and what they noticed was that the? The direction of the Gatien of these orbits wholesale to cluster in one particular direction, and so these two separate. Groups of researchers they they did calculations on why this might be. Why is this sort of clustering of the of the alignment of the OBA's and? Popout the calculations was a a very large and very distant planet. That would maybe be shepherding. The obits into the same alignment invites. The these groups came to the conclusion that that was the only thing that could kate. These obits sort of you know. narrowed down to that bit of the solar. System hence theory funding nine. which is assumed to be fine five to ten times more massively earth. All. That carry way way beyond the solar system starts. Its nearest dessert is ten times worse. Fires Neptune is You know this is the hypothetical. Hypothetical Planet. More than two to twenty times father away. Thirty Times paps farther away. These how helium the furthest point from the some? Not so predictions published as to where is put? Nobody's founded an what I said and I said this in the book. That and one of the problems is the predictions place the planet pretty firmly in the Milky Way where you're really struggling, because the so many stars and what you're looking for something very faint is moving very slowly among a really rich star failed, and that is intrinsically something. That's very hard. Very hard to to find so. What is happening now? Well think there are two groups involved here, but I'm going to talk about one. And this comes actually from a compensation article written by. One of the members of of this group as Samanta Lola the at this group of scientists is called offs, which is a great name, also is an movies also in America. It's an acronym could be outer. Solar System Origin Survey. Very nice name outer, solar system origin survey, and they actually kind of coming to a conclusion. The maybe maybe We've been led astray and that's because. These objects are so difficult to observe. That that, generally speaking the color belt jets are a long way off the small objects. Some some of their only a few kilometers across, and when you think of the distances, many billions of light years. Thank you really you really have a problem. That so that's that's the so faint and what they're saying. Is that the ones that have been found maybe have been found. Preferentially they've they've. They've been advantageous positions. In their obits advantages directions. Suggesting that our knowledge so far of the belt. As highly biased. In other words. There's a lot more there than we have yet seen. The biasing comes from these. These the preferential positions where the objects that have been found so far and so. They. program is discovered some new A. Newly, discovered. What it called! They're actually called extreme. The Belt Jags because they've got this extreme eccentricity orientation of the. They've discovered what they describe as a handful. Of, these and there is another. Another survey found over three hundred of them a both of the these new sacks of discoveries. Can Be shown to be as the as the statistically consistent with a uniform distribution that means that the bias in a particular direction has gone away. I'm what she says is so now to independent surveys, both of which carefully tracked and reported their. Observational bias. Discovering independent sets extreme Cao's about subjects found no evidence for clustered OB's. So. Very very interesting. They've done further work to test the planet nine theory and and you know even the most extreme of the ones that sound The basically been. Suggested in support of planet, nine their extreme orbits that the very. Essentially very elongated obese can be explained by known physically facts what they say. So maybe. The likelihood of the planet. Is. Much reduced, but not an absolute runoff off yet, but it sounds like what they're saying is that the multitude objects out? There is probably more likely to be the influence than one massive object the yes, that's right exactly so on on the fact that. You know we're only seeing a small number of these objects. And it just happens that the ones we say no lineup in in a way. That's probably more to do with where we've seen them in their orbits than the. A really fact so Hit Sir Yes, it's not. It's as I said. It's not a death sentence, but it is really. It calms things down. He suggests that maybe the planet. Nine theory was a little bit premature. Actually this Africans are thinking of in a very very nice nice way. Little. Obviously has a way with words she says at the end many beautiful and surprising objects remain to be discovered in the mysterious outer solar system, but I don't believe the planet nineties one of them. So they won't. That's a soft landing very disappointing. But don't you know? Don't give up on it I'm sure they'll be still looking for it. because. That's kind of what happens. Is That's how Neptune was found? The evidence for Neptune was I think a lot more convincing than the evidence for planet nine unsure enough. It turned out pretty well exactly what they predicted it back in the eighteen forties but. We're dealing with something quite different here I think Statistical With net you want what led to the discovery was was hard. calculations on orbital dynamics of actually the planet's. You're innocent. The planets that you can work out. From the orbits of urine in particular the something else out there with this. What would what we're talking about is statistics over a large number of objects that point to the existence of planet nine. And the bottom line might be that. We just haven't been looking at a large number of objects that we'd be selective about what we saying so yes. That you go. I I all. WHO's GonNa, save tall we can, we can live without it. We acted. I think people if they do how copy of exploding stars and invisible, planet. Should should still read the chapter anyway, because they talk about other things that have been discovered by the same sort of technique, it's not just about. That could keep reading the chapter unless of course psychot- Bonnie toilet paper, and of course. themselves. Well. We will certainly keep an on the story because you just never know with. Some some other careful pop up. That goes. Oh! The only reason that exists is because there's a planet nine. We'll have to wait and say. Now looks like perhaps not. You're listening to space nuts with Andrew Dunkley and Fred Watson. Ago! Once again a special thanks to patrons, the people who put a little bit of money every month into the space, and that's podcast, and there are a couple of options these days. If you have one preference over another, you can do it through space. Nuts, super cast website, which is space, nuts dot, super cast, dot tech, and there are different options. They can buy bundles. For five six seven dollars a month or thereabouts, or you can go to Patriot we have a big followings repatriation, and mainly because we've been doing it through Patrie on long. you're more than welcome to sign up through. Either of those platforms Super Casto Patriotic Dot com slash spice nets now many times it is not mandatory, but if you feel compelled to put a few dollars in our kitty said, we can do extra things like purchase new recording equipment that that of as you're more than welcome to do so through either of those platforms on or super cast. Now, Fred, let's move onto the next topic. And that is an interesting discovery about a galactic crash I. Think the describing it the store galaxy that keeps smashing into the Milky Way, and they now believe perhaps that it's why we exist why our solar system is. He which does make for a compelling story I imagine. A does it's. A great story and it's actually very close to whom this Andrew because. The DWARF GALAXY that we're talking about smash through the plane of the Milky Way whilst discovered. The United Kingdom Schmidt Telescope. I don't think it was discovered when I was. Astronomer in charge there. Wasn't it was just before was yes, it was earlier on that so it was. It was a discovery the research paper discovering it actually was published in Nineteen Ninety Four I. Think I'm writing saying. that. That's the year on move. He not been heave twenty six as now Anyway, but it was, it was discovered. At the UK Schmidt Telescope by Nineteen Ninety. which is the year I took over as astronomy Charles, but I worked at before before it was a strong recharge I. worked for ten years is just one of the taking place and that was how? This dwarf galaxy was discovered, so they are. Not so maybe. Dwarf Galaxy that was discovered by the United Kingdom Telescope A. Is the reason why we exist, which is a nice. We should make something of that. We. You know look quite show what Trophy trophy trophy. MANTELPIECE YEP so all right. What's the story and it really what what allows us now to make the absolutely exquisite observations that they story reclines. The facilities the Guy Space Craft. That's the new parts of the story guy is a European. Mission was launched these five six seven years ago. Maybe it's. Essentially doing. Absolutely high precision measurements of the positions of stars. A galaxy the Milky Way Galaxy. An East total I think so far is about a billion and a half that they've measured it says huge number many many more than we ever did. With the telescopes like Schmidt back in the nineteen. Eighties but they're also measure velocity, so what the guy data shown us is the way they start a moving and so the secretaries Dwarf Galaxy. The guesses principally the constellation of Sergey Terry's. We've known for a long time that is. that. This is one of the Dwarf Galaxies in orbit around our own milky, way and more than that it actually being dismantled by the milky. Way The two best examples of the other large and small Gilani clouds that much much bigger than the Sagittarius Dwarf, but they They are being torn apart of. Timescales of millions of years hundreds of millions of years probably. And eventually will wind up his positive. The Halo of our galaxy's not halo of stars that surrounds our galaxy so the. Terrorists twelve is in the same boat. It's being. Told about by tidal forces, but it's much smaller, and he's actually near to the the plane of Galaxy, the much alantic clouds, and what's now happened is that because of the observations? Of. Of. The Guy, a program, the the guy spacecraft, being able to measure these stop positions very accurately. What it means is that you've only two or three years how she's probably about five years. But you measure them again. They've moved, and so you can. You can actually work out what the how fast they start traveling. And so they've done that for the Secretary Wolf that then allows you to track back as to wear. Come from an how he has behaved. In a the interaction with the Milky Way Galaxy, and so the the models the allow. That allow you to do this show that the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy is basically fallen through the plane of the Milky Way three times. Allow first. One was about five billion years ago, then again about two billion years ago. And on the third time, only one billion years ago, and what they saying and I should say. This is a research. This dumb. Actually a by astronomers at the place. I used to have a lot to do with it, too. So institute the Astrophysics Echevarria. Which is the Canary? The Canary Islands astrophysical institute? my Spanish, it's. The Upright Telescopes La Palma and I used to work that because there's a British. Facility was is now. He's now much more collaborative than that. So the the people that is as cold institute toss That's. The place where this work has been done, so what they looked into was at festival, the model and the model shows that the cemetery stool. WACK through the Milky White three times, but you can do. You can come at this from a different angle. You can look at the star formation history in our galaxy and you can do that by looking. Star. Colors luminosity distances. You can basically do this giant analysis because there's such a huge amount of data coming from Guyana. And it turns out that our Milky Way has three periods of increased staff omission, which peaked five point seven billion years ago, one point nine billion years ago. A one believe years ago and they're exactly the Times that the secretaries dwarf is believed to kind of punched its way through the disk of the Milky Way. So what's happening here? Is that gravitational interactions as this this dwarf galaxy with all these stars pass through the Milky Way they trigger the formation of new styles, but because. The plane of the Milky Way is reaching hydrogen, and that's the raw material of star. So this disturbance is what you know, the compression of gas and that actually kicks off the stop formation on so what they are suggesting. Is that that period of enhance stuff relation five point. Seven billion years ago is probably. The the same What you might call the same batch of stuff election, the same period of stuff election in which are some for the unfold about four point six billion years ago, so it's a little bit more recent than that, but some could be you know possibly the end way of this stuff that was caused by that I transfer transitive. The DWARF GALAXY, three disk of the Milky Way to very nice story I have to say and You know the the brings together they. The the the many facilities that we've got to do astronomical research these days, but in particular. The Guy Project which is really an excellent project A. Remarkable look. Galactic Collisions not. Unusual, really other. We've talked before about now impending collision with an dromedary. Sixty kazillion time but. They things happening all the time. There's a couple of others that are happening as we speak they not yet. There are a we see them. You know the most famous. The antenna galaxies two galaxies. Very close together under spiral lounge kind of being spread out. They looks just like an with two John Antennae Sticking v Said which is why they called the antennae galaxies, and that's that's the disturbance stripping off the spiral arms. Of the galaxies now that sort of thing happens when you've got two galaxies of similar size colliding and he's what will happen, and it's about three and a half I. Think Billion Years, Shuping, diarrhea Andrew. We've talked about it and I know just. On I never look at my daughter's. Three billion three billion years down the track. This is going to happen to ours. That's probably what the end product will be. Take a few billion years to settle down, but we might wind up looking a lot like the antenna. Galaxies, I've seen simulations of office will be like but. With Dwarf Galaxy Colliding into a a big galaxy like. The the outcome is different because the big galaxy enough masterpiece Shank is not dramatically affected, although these authors is suggesting that those collisions with the secretary stool through the plane of our galaxy might well of given rise to. The spiral structure that we see in our own galaxy now that maybe how the different spiral structure behalf before that what we seeing? In terms of a spiral structure we can map it using infrared and radio telescopes. That might be a result of these collisions. which is itself an interesting idea? Yeah, and the bottom line bidding that mathematically the timing is exactly right for the birth of our son. There for us all the system YEP, so we might not have been here without all this. which is a very sobering sort. It is rather but If it didn't happen, we would know about it, would we? If we weren't here. We wouldn't know but. Exactly. Fascinating you're listening to the space and that's podcast episode, two hundred and five Andrew Dunkley here with Fred Watson. Space Nuts just a reminder, too. If you'd like to visit our website, you can check out the space nuts shop. It's bought spe-. It es dot com slash space nuts. You can listen to back episodes of the podcast there or through your favorite podcast podcast distributed like Google Apple, spotify android iheartradio podcast box. We can set it up as an hour assists podcast feed also options Abbott. What they check out the shop. Because all sorts of amazing things are available for sale and a few, not so amazing things like some weed saw. Its Cups and Holo shirts and united all available through the spice nuts shop on our web site and Fred's books to even though one's gotTa, redundant chapter. We were talking about that today. Will we, Fred? Aloha now. Let's get to some. Simple questions. This one comes from Peter in Berwick Victoria. Hi Andrew and Fred, thank you so much for a wonderful podcast. Are we done one of those Anyway? My question is recently I was thinking about a lawn masks star link satellite system, which made me wonder if there is some type of global authority who determine where you can or can't place a satellite in orbit with the ever increasing number of satellite launches combined with projects like the styling system I imagine they should be authority who controls the occupation of satellite orbits a the way. I think your answer will be very interesting. Keep up the great work. Boys, thanks Peter. Thank, you Peter. Yeah this something to wonder about we've We've had a lot of people talking about the observation of launches in the lining of the satellites and lights in the Sky I. Mean when we're talking thousands of satellites, really that a starting pup there one one disease their global will sorority that oversees always. took. The answer is really interesting. Exactly basis says. The Way I think your interest. answer will be very interesting, so when so you? You've got to deal with different social satellites. BG Stationary satellites these other ones that basically. We mostly use fidelity communications. That the lodge tonight, say way thirteen to fifteen tons a huge things. The, sitting up at a distance of thirty six thousand kilometers above the the earth, because not distance they go around once per day that follow the rotation of that so that always over the same point on their service. You know they blame stuff down to to to to the uses on the planet so. That region of space a is very very specific is got to be exactly the right distance They also works best if they're right on the equator, and so you can imagine that you've got. A very very narrow A. Region with which Spicer successfully operate, and that region is allocated I meant to. Follow up I think it's probably the. Communications Authority that does that. The national. Telecommunications Body. So. You're allocated your. Your orbital slopped. And I know because. We have a good friend who actually operates these satellites? She works for optus and know from talking to her. That much of their work is to keep the spacecraft on station because. Gravitational forces from the Moon from the silent planets actually tends to disturb the position of the satellite, and so they've got to do periodic burns. Thrusters just to keep them in the right place. So that they fulfill the rules, there are chain a box. This kind of box of space allocated. They've got to keep them inside that. So that the so the thing that you would expect to find in the space world, but. From my reading of the new I knew there was about this. Debate. From my reading of the situation in Lewis Thobe, it is much less less controlled and actually. I? Love The Washington Post article is a few years old now at written by a Christine downpours. And he titled His Article Companies Flood US orbit with satellites, but no one's directing traffic. While, that's kind of eight and you know that's how we've. We've suddenly go this. This flood of satellites that of certainly taken the astronaut Michael Well by surprise. The styling satellites and the one white ones which. Which World Serving Launch One web I think he's now in financial difficulties. and I'm not sure what the future that is, but but SPACEX is going gangbusters. With that plan to launch twelve thousand styling communication satellites so the reading of the situation I have once again. This is a few years old I'm going to read an article by Jeff I. In the space. Review, And he's. Talking about the authorities, basically this, this is a a basically an article advocating somebody directing the traffic. Basically, there's a paragraph here that I think tells the story as it is, I believe it's still this is still the case. Today may have changed, but I think it might still be the case today. The concept of on Orbit Authority in that means Sorority that looks after spacecraft on little. Today the concept of auto bit. Thority is a great one for commercial spacecraft in the United. States the FAA the federal. Aviation Administration is that right the FAA's Office of commercial space transportation ast regulates the launch and reentry. Of Commercial, vehicles however? Excuse me. However it does no direct ability to regulate spacecraft between the end of lodge, and the of Reentry, including oversight of their activities, or ensuring that they're in the proper orbits and don't pose a risk to other spacecraft. Wearing It is fascinating, yeah. I'm mean within our miss fear. We have a traffic control which regulates the flight paths and the slots in the altitudes of aircraft. Yes, it sounds like in space. It's a different kettle of fish. Yes, so so the the Celtic Elise is very quite complex. You know the stuff we're talking about. Let me just read a bit more. Officials have made it clear in recent years that they would like to close that regulatory gap between launch and Reentry seeking on Obits Authority for commercial vehicles. The FAA believes it's time to consider closing the current. And safety gap between launch and Reentry said. George Field Faa Associated Administrative Commercial Spice Transportation the opening of the FAA's Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee meeting in Washington may not was actually. Six years ago, so it's quite a while back. The nothing seems to have changed. Joel things, so he says our goal will be to promote orbital space transportation safety, including for orbital debris mitigation for spacecraft, whose primary function is transportation, so one thing to say is of course this these things are all tracked. There're authorities principally. With the defense. Agencies but are authorities that track everything down to about one hundred millimeters in size by radar, so we do know where things are, but that doesn't mean at least the big stuff is because there's millions of pesos smaller than that. That's the danger of of spice daybreak, but with the big stuff. At least we know where they are, but there's nothing that says well, it should be here. It's not here, so we're gonNA find them or something like that. All that's telling you is where they where the space entities the spacecraft, the bits of daybreak whereabouts. They are in their obits so very interesting stuff I'd like to. It sounds like we're kind of. In the cowboy era of spice at the moment when you. When there was no law there was just you know you and your six gun. Yes, until barbed wire came along, that ended the era of the cowboys try. Maybe we could send up some barbed wire. Already, yes, Bob wiry space junk. I'm afraid the trouble. But yeah. I look I'm to be only stunned surprised. The Southfield things have moved on. But so far and I confess time an index search what I should do I. Do know people. Who are deeply involved with this kind of thing and I. told them because I'd like to know. I'd like to know the answer to this myself as to whether there is a movement in place. I mean we've we've still got cost by. There's a meeting of Conspiring Committee for Space Research. That's been going since the nineteen six that the the kind of global authority space work. Every, two years, they were supposed to make here in Australia this year actually in August, but that of course has been. Postponed, due to nineteen on I, think the plan at the moment is a meeting at the beginning of next year but that's the sort of body that you would expect were looking after this calendar thing. Interesting. Some of course very interesting was brought it home is. Is the fact that yes, we've got along a putting putting a spacecraft up there. Is Not a cowboy. He's an extremely able entrepreneur, and we're gonNA, you know. We started the segment of lauding his prizes for getting a Dog Imbaba. into. balanced us time and fact. It is marvelous what he does and he's he's. He's becoming quite a hero amongst. Those the astronomical fraternity and I've I've actually read some of the. Material that's online particularly on social media in response to what he's done and people adore him are now. He's got his critics, but people adore him for being. In a position to do this and doing yeah, doing such amazing things Yeah, he's paying looked at his his quarter. Folk hero, yes. Yet, but you know. He's. He's not the strongest favorite because of the spy sex constellations. was going to get to that. Yes. And this ethical issues as well with his plans from ours which. I was in a meeting a couple of weeks ago to him out this the ethics of spaceflight and it's not clear that he's got a mandate to go, and you colonize miles which he certainly onis agenda. So in very interesting stuff You know Maybe, that's the way it is. You've got pluses and minuses with everything trying to do at the moment. So he's not the Messiah. He's a very naughty boy. Couldn't help himself. A. Thank you so much for the yeah for the question pater really appreciate it, and suddenly opened up an interesting discussion. Now let's move onto our next question. This one comes from Daryl and it's an audio question. Get Spice Nets Daryl. He was having a chat with the might the other day and was discussing the center of the universe. Hey, saying to feel that that wasn't really a center of the universe, And I think that there is. Can you tell me if there is a center of the universe? And what would you find? The and the other question I have is the date field find. That was taken a few years ago by Hubble is towards the center of the universe or is that? On the outer edge of the universe. Love the show and thanks very much. Thank you Daryl I. Suspect Darryl is Australian Fred. Maybe. anyways. Thank you. Question and It is one we. We've been asked before, but. It is really interesting, and it's Kinda country to counter intuitive. And the Glib answer a Glint, but it actually factually the answer. Is that. The really isn't a center. To the universe that we can perceive, so let let me start I think the probably the way to do. It is to start with the second question that Darryl House about the field of the ultra photos that that show. You know the universe back because he was homeless thirteen billion years ago, going back a long long way. That image? You could take in any direction a new. Get the same sort of thing you won't get the same galaxies of course, but you get the same distribution, and that is because to the best of our ability. The best of our ability to to determinate the Universe is the same directions is. The tropic is the technical term? And that kind of comes as takes us back to the first question. Does the universe have the center? If he does, we can't perceive it. But the GLIB onto. That was referring to a minute ago. Is that because Universe is believed to have? Emerged from what's called a singularity point with no dimensions then. Everywhere was at the centre. Essentially, the there was no. There was no. You know specific center to it. Because the whole thing expanded from a single point now that's really hard to get your head around We always think of of an explosion something expanding. We think of looking at it from the outside, but it's. It's the geometry that we intuitively thinking of when we think of something expanding doesn't really work. With the university. The Observation Wakeham make a studied expanding. It seems to be expanding the same. The same writing all directions the have been issues with that. We discussed those within the last few weeks about that. Some people think that the the acceleration is not present in all directions, but I think the general consensus still think it is so that's the action that we may that the expanding, and then from that you work backwards to get the idea that there was a single point to singularity from which it expanded, but that tells us nothing about any center or any. Preferred Direction in the universe to all intents and purposes. It's the same everywhere, so no center and and and really no chance of finding one, although after say that as time goes on, we get more more detailed map things of the expansion of the universe. It is possible at one day. Somebody might find something that says well this big more of the universe on this side than there is on that side. That might you know? Impose an idea of directional did, but it's. Hard to save not happening because. We limited currently in how far we can look by the cosmic microwave background radiation, which is a horizon that we can't see and further than. Looking back to the flash of the Big Bang and within that sphere of visibility. The Universe is highly isotopic. Very much the same everywhere, and he's only the tiniest ripples on that cosmic microwave radiation the talent that. The Big Bang itself had echos in it. That eventually led to the full of. Is that the frozen? Signals level of of of acoustic as within the the Big Bang itself so apart from those tiny variations, the big bang is the same everywhere, and that suggests that. Yes, there was no sensitive that what we see. Is. A Universe actually tropic everywhere. No matter how hard we looked, we wouldn't see any evidence of something different. It's a it's hot. It's hard to get your head around because I. Know I know Daryl's coming from because you know you think of the big, Bang is happening somewhere and everything bursts out from that point in the same direction or directions, the same speed, and ever expanding so surely if you go back from the outside in from all directions, you've got to come to a point in the center. Our guest. That's what he's getting at. But the thing is. I mean the. Was a place where the Big Bang wasn't. It was here that. You know here everywhere because it did come from a single point. the the thing that makes it difficult is a very large scales. Joma treat doesn't work the way we think here on earth because he's affected by gravitation, and you know the the idea that we had back in the seventies was the universe might be closed what we call a closed universe which means. that if you head off in a straight line eventually come back to where he started from that he said you know the because the universe as Joma trade that brings you back to where you started rot. That's actually not the current view of the universe, but. On. The lesson it. The lesson it gives you is that you can't just rely on. Intuition when it comes to walk shapes. Things are an how things work, and that's why. You know whilst we might be wedded to the idea of a center The the evidence is the reason because geometry doesn't let you have one. Sir. Waffling I know but. The the believe me. That's what the mathematics tell you. What the gravitational theories tell you I'll give you a mathematical probability. Your explanation spoon at least one or two more questions these. Good if if it does because the questions are always great, you know we. We learned from the questions so. Thank you for everybody who sends rent because Yes indeed and thank you Daryl. That was thought provoking and the answer. The question is yes. or no could be known years, aren't the. Jury's out on that one. But if you do want to create an audio question for us, you can do that at that website. As well dot com slash space nuts. Just, make sure you've got a microphone of reasonable quality and internal microphone laptop will do the trick, and you just press start recording. Tell us who you are where you are with your bank account details got and I don't need that last beat We just don't want to know who you are away from Yes, name way from and ask you a question and We'll slaughtered into the space. Nuts podcast if if we have room, and and if we have an answer before, although we've had that one before, but it's always worth talking about Noah simcity something new to discover with the with repeat questions that fail. To wired about that send your questions to us on a mile. As well we, we take them in written form to so easy to do deal with either way. So thanks Daryl. Thanks to everyone who's contributed this week. Thank you, Fred. We got to wrap it all up for another week. Yeah, we should do with us being a bumper edition today. Has You to your guest in these rambling on about everything so I'll try to be more concise next time. I think people would like it if you were concise freight problem anyway. We'll speak again soon. Andrew, indeed we will thank you fred professor. Fred Watson Astronomer. And from me Andrew naturally thanks again for listening. We'll catch you next week on another episode of the space, nuts podcast. Available at apple podcast Google podcasts spotify. Radio your favorite podcast. On demand at. This insane another podcast production. Dot Com and if you lost by the sound of it. All, right now. You're there courses. Are the. Cockatoos Corollas Pink and Greg allows. King tards. We see at King Parts in. We do sometimes if the if the season's arrived. We have at the moment because they've been driven in by the drought. But Normally not now, but we've had some unusual braids turning up. He, because there's nothing for them to eat or drink adding the bush, but that's changed so I suspect. Some of them will move on, but we've got some at the moment. That are out there that beautiful birds.
The Evolving Dent in Earth's Magnetic Field
"Love. This podcast support this show through the ACOSS support a feature. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty, three episodes sixty three for broadcast on the ninth of September twenty twenty coming up on space time a small but evolving tent in Earth's magnetic field the strange heart world of Kelp nine be and calls for the development of a new satellite early warning system to do with hypersonic missiles all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to Space Time with Stewart Gary. Scientists is seeing a split in a growing weeks in magnetic field known as the South Atlantic Anomaly Earth's magnetic field acts like a sort of protective shield around the planet repealing and trapping charged particles from the sun and deep space however over the southern Atlantic Ocean and initially weak spot in the field known as the South Atlantic. Anomaly allows these particles usually high energy protons, Alpha particles, free flying electrons to dip close to it surface than anywhere else it means the particle radiation can crush through this week's but in the magnetic field hitting delicate circuit boards and other. Electronics aboard spacecraft damaging or destroying their systems and even reducing multi-million dollar satellites in space junk in order to avoid losing instruments or entire satellites. Operate is commonly shutdown not a central components as they pass through the anomaly. For example, NASA always turns off case systems whenever the Hubble Space Telescope, but through and astronauts flying through the region. Also suddenly find their laptops crashing any native, a reboot, the International Space, station, which is low with all that also passes through the South Atlantic. Normally, it's well protected astronauts. There is safe from harm while inside ev as that's NASA speak. For spacewalks are never conducted when the space station slated to fly through the anomaly instruments on the outside of the orbiting outpost are affected by the high radiation levels. One regular victim is the global ecosystem dynamics investigation mission Org Eddie it collects data directly from various positions on the outside of the space station and the South Atlantic Anomaly causes. Regular blips in Getty's detectors, forcing resets of the instruments Powell boards about once a month necessary I honest feerick connection explorer regularly travels through the anomaly in order to monitor its magnetic field strength and Mamadou Position Neurosis Rosser studies the. Particle radiation in the area and around the anomaly using another satellite, the solar anomalous magnetic particle explorer or sandbox scientists looking at two decades of Sam picks data have shown that the southern lining anomaly is slowly but steadily drifting in a northwesterly direction, the results are hoping to confer models created from geomagnetic measurements showing how he normally he's location changes as the geomagnetic field evolves. The good news is that currently, the land normally creates no visible impacts daily life on the Earth surface. However, I wouldn't want to be a commercial pilot flying daily run between south, America and Africa. Normally is of interest to scientists to monitor changes in the magnetic field strength their birth, how the changes affect the atmosphere and as an indicator of what's happening to US magnetic fields deep inside the planet NASA scientist Geomagnetic Jeff Physics Hillier Physics Monitor the South Atlantic Anomaly in Dito to try and predict future changes in how that will affect both space operations and life on earth. The nominally arises from two. Features in Earth's core, the tilt of the magnetic axis and the flow of molten metals within its outer core some two thousand, nine, hundred kilometers below the surface the a bit like a bar magnet with north and South Poles present opposing magnetic polarities and invisible magnetic field lines which encircle the planet between them. But unlike a bar magnet, the magnetic field isn't perfectly aligned for the globe nor is it perfectly stable? That's because the food originates from Earth, small to nine rich out a core, which is in constant vigorous motion spinning around the solid metallic ENECO. Like Jira Dynamo Generating Electric, current which intern produce the geomagnetic field ask the coal motion changes over Time Judah? Complex. Geodynamic conditions within the core and at the biology with a solid mantle above it the magnetic field tends to fluctuating birth space and time these dynamical processes in the court ripple outwards into the magnetic field surrounding the planet generating. The South Atlantic anomaly as well as other features in the earth environment including the constant tilton drift of the Earth's magnetic poles. These evolutions in the magnetic field which happened at similar timescales to the conviction of medals in the core provides scientists with new clues to help them unravel the core dynamics that drives the dynamo recent observations and computer modeling suggests the anomaly is both expanding and continuing to weaken in electromagnetic strength importantly, and that's what the story is all about. It's also splitting. The data shows the anomalies valley or region of minimal filled strength has split into two separate lobes creating additional challenges for Satellite Missions Theresa backup from this has got out space flight center. In Greenbelt Maryland says the magnetic field is actually superposition of fields from many different current sources regions outside the solid also contribute to the observed magnetic field. However, the bulk of the field does come from the core. So the forces in the call and the two of the magnetic together produce the anomaly the area of weak magnetism allowing charged particles trapped magnetic field to Dick Close to the surface the sun exposed a constant outflow of particles and magnetic fields known as the solar wind as well as vast clouds of plasma and radiation through processes. Notice coronal mass, Jeff Sessions, literally explosions of stellar material. When this material streams across space in strikes, the earth's magnetic sphere that's the space occupied by US magnetic field it becomes trapped and he's held in done at shape belts around the planet known as. The van Allen radiation belts these boats restrained the particles forcing the travel along the Earth's magnetic field lines continually bouncing back and forth from pole to pole. The most built usually begins about six hundred and forty kilometers above the surface of the planet, and so keeps its particle radiation a healthy distance from the earth and most satellites and low-earth orbit. However, wearing especially strong solar storm of particles reaches the earth what scientists refer to a space weather. The van Allen Belts can become highly energized and the magnetic field can be deformed allowing charts. Paddock was the penetrate deep into the atmosphere. Of course, the other big deal with the South Atlantic anomaly is that it's also being seen as a potential sign of polarity changes which would affect the entire planet. We know that the sun flips, it's polls, every eleven years the so called solar cycle the North Pole gets a south clarity and the South Pole and north polarity. The same thing on the slow at timescale happens with the earth geological records of solidified lava shows magnetic north and South Poles have flipped or reverse polarity on average about every two hundred and fifty thousand years. The problem is it's been over seven, hundred, twenty, thousand years since the last flip. So the planets will truly overdue for the next many scientists speculating that strange magnetic surrounding the South Atlantic. Anomaly could be a sign of an impending polarity reversal of course, others debating that it's not. The way life on earth seems to survive these plans reversals without timmy problems. Issue, this time however is the next polarity reversal whenever it happens, we'll also affect human technology and man's reliance on that technology means it's a whole new ballgame. We'll keep you informed. This is space time still to come the strange art world of Kelt, Nine Bay and calls for the development of a new satellite early warning system all that and more still to come on space time. Astronomers have discovered one of the strangest most dream worlds in the galaxy. The Planet Cope nine be is a so-called hot Jupiter, basically against giant in a very close in orbit around its star, and while all hot jupiters a fairly unusual. This one has meet standards for witness. You see the exoplanet is on a knee polar orbit around its host star mustache systems including our own see planets orbiting around the host stars. Cueyer along what we call the ecliptic. Killed Nine be is on a polar orbit and to complicate matters even further the her style rotates. So quickly, it's stolen shape. The study's lead author John Olas from this has got out spaceflight center in Greenbelt. Maryland. Says this unusual combination of factors makes it difficult for astronomers to understand the star and its effects on the planet. Kelt nine was discovered back in two thousand seventeen by the transit survey a project observations from two robotic telescopes located in Arizona the other in South Africa, the planet was picked. Up. Because it passes directly in front that he's transit's Star for at least pad of each orbit as the planet passes in front of the diocese from Earth a small. But detectable amount of the stars light is blocked out causing the stat or dim at regular intervals, and that's the total sign that it's a planet. They kilt nine be is guest giant. It's about one point eight times bigger than Chipita with a two point nine times Jupiter's mass. It's located some six hundred seventy light years away in the. Constellation Cygnus the Swan, the planet swings around its host star in just thirty six hours on an the carries it almost directly above both the stars polls because the orbit. So close gravitational tidal forces have looked at nine BS rotation so that the same side always faces the star says you can imagine things get pretty hard. In fact, killed nine be received some forty four thousand times more energy from its host star than what the Earth does from the sun and this gives the planet a day side. Temperature around forty, three, hundred degrees Celsius, which is actually much hotter than the surfaces of many stars and this intense Haiti's causing the planet's atmosphere destroying away into space like a comet's tail it's all pretty strange but then again, the host is also weird. It's about twice the size of our sun and about fifty six percent hotter. But it rotate on its axis thirty eight times faster than the sun completing a full rotation in sixteen hours that compares to our son's average rotational speed of twenty nine earth days. This rapid rotation distorts the star shape, flattening it at the polls and expanding its equator. Now, because the surface of the stars polls I, now closer to the core than the equator, the polls, and they're being much hotter and brighter than the cooler dimmer equatorial region. It's a phenomenon astronomers referred to as gravity darkening. And the result of all this strangeness is a Temperature Difference, across the star surface of almost eight hundred degrees Celsius. So with H. O. But the planet kilt nine be experiences the full range of stellar temperatures producing what amounts to a peculiar seasonal sequence. Let me put it this way. The planet experiences summer when it swings over h hot poll and then a sort of winter when it passes the stars cool amid section. So think. Of It like guilt nine, be experiencing two summers and two winters every year with its season lasting just nine hours measurements from this as transiting planet survey satellite tests have enabled astronomers to greatly improve their understanding of this bizarre environment between July eighteenth and September eleventh. Last year tests observe twenty-seven transits of nine be taking measurements every two minutes. These observations allowed astronomers to model the systems unusual star at its impact on the planet the. Were reported and the astronaut Michael Journal suggested varying levels of energy being received by the planet from its host star is likely to produce extremely dynamic environment also killed nine bs polar orbit around its flattened star produces distinctly lopsided transits. The Planet begins its transit near the stars. Bright polls then blocks less and less light as it travels over the stars dimmer equator they say symmetry provides clues about the temperature and brightness changes across the surface and committed the authors to reconstruct the stars out of round shape how it's oriented in space, its range of surface temperatures and other factors impacting the planet this report from Acitivity Kelp? Nine? It's about twice the size of Jupiter and is always super hot taking only thirty six hours to orbit its star. It receives forty four thousand times more energy than the sun delivers to Earth, making it. One of the hottest planets known with decide temperature hotter than the surfaces of some stars. This causes its atmosphere to boil away into space now. Thanks to. From Nasr's test satellite. We Know Kelp nine be is even weirder. Tests spots dips in starlight whenever a planet passes in front of its star from our perspective astronomers call these transit's. But Kelp nineties odd star complicates things. It spins so fast it's squished into an oval. This makes it polls hotter than its middle a property scientists call gravity darkening. The Planet's orbit also odd curious it over the stars polls combined these effects make the start of each transit different from its end making further study difficult. A team led by NASA Goddard scientists used tests observations disentangle these effects and provide further insight into the system. The polar orbit and gravity darkening give Kelt nine be an unusual type of season. Summer occurs when it passes over the stars hot polls winter such as it is happens when it passes the cooler equator and for every thirty, six hour or. which is killed nineties year. The planet experiences these seasons twice and each is less than nine hours long. Scientists expect the frequently changing temperatures, produce wild winds, and they're busy modelling Nine B's atmosphere. Thanks to tests. Astronomers are equipped to learn more about this curious system. And others like it. The. United States and Japan looking at the vote new satellite-based missile early warning defense system in order to focus on the growing threat toward peace being posed by China, and it's puppet state North Korea. Then you satellites would complement existing missile defense systems, which include Japan's PAC three missile interceptors. The growing urgency follows heightened concerns that Pyongyang's finally miniaturized its nuclear warheads by allowing them to be deployed with a ballistic missile forces. Turkey is also worried about increasingly militant and threatening China in fact, Beijing's increased its military expanded by six point six percent from last year alone the People's liberation. Army already has more than two thousand. Range ballistic missiles capable of reaching Japanese territory, and it's looking at doubling its nuclear capacity. It's also following Russia's lead in developing a new generation of hypersonic missiles which can defeat existing satellite early warning and intercept systems thereby seriously impacting the balance of power making matters even worse tensions between Japan and China have been escalating in recent times after Beijing's been placing Chinese vessels new Japan's Senkaku. Islands, in the East China Sea this space time still to come launch of new Argentine. Earth. Observation satellite and later in the science report, despite the claims of work nece. It seems seventy two percent of generation Z. wouldn't he humanely grown artificial meet all that and more still to come on space time. Talk. Show. SPACEX launched the new Earth Observation Satellite Frontino. The CEO COM one B was launched aboard a Falcon nine rocket from space launch complex forty at the Cape Canaveral Air Force. Base. Florida. The mission was originally planned to launch out of the Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, but was later switched to the cape making it the first sun synchronous polaroid loans from Cape Canaveral in more than fifty years, the flight path meant the rocket flew south over the Atlantic Ocean instead of east. The Falcon nine first stage booster was on its fourth flight returning the Florida and successfully touching down on landing zone one. Night. Or? Three. Two. Zero. As Liftoff Falcons I. Launched Ola Arteaga. D-. were. Now, forty seconds in the Flight Falcon, nine has taken off. It's cleared the tower. We're currently throttling down to prepare for maximum queue. That's the point of maximum aerodynamic pressure at one minute twelve seconds. Supersonic vehicle has reached maximum aerodynamic pressure. You've heard it. We've reached Max Q at this point, the loads and the vehicle become less and less as the atmosphere gets thinner we're now able to throttle. He's GonNa Change backup, and at its maximum power like right now, vehicle soon, more than seven hundred gallons of fuel per second. Also, looking good with our first stages trajectory the next couple events, they're five events one after another I, our main engine cuts off on our first stage the stages will separate a first stage will then flip around to begin its landing attempt the second stages. Merlin vacuum engine ignite. For. Second. Engine start. One. The first is boost back burn will start one of three burns to help us land. They occur one after another in about fifteen seconds and Meka. Stage separation. Confirmed in condition. All right. All of these events happen successfully one after another this back burn. It'll last about forty seconds, our second-stage carrying those three satellites to orbit and coming up next in about twenty seconds that burn will end and then we'll have our faring deployment. Boost, back all I burns has successfully ended our to. Jettison to expose the satellites space first stages already been turnaround nitrogen from our attitude control system helping guide at back Eric, separation confirmed to. Have Jettison it'll take some time to get those to come back down with next milestone for the first stage. I Stage Entry Burn Falcon nine needs to execute enter guarantees slow itself down before hitting the dense parts of the atmosphere without this second burn relying on the atmosphere loan. Slow Falcon nine down put unnecessary strain on the rocket Jenkins following the directory acquisition of Signals Texas. We've deployed four hypersonic bins. They help to guide the first stage back during descent by moving the center of pressure on the vehicle, they'd want entry burn startup and three Merlin engines have realit-. Currently slowing the first stage down before it hits those tense parts of the atmosphere second stayed continuing to perform as expected. Want, shutdown. And that is our second burn completed. We are going to be attempting to recover this booster back at land on landing zone. One first stage has one more. Saved that is the landing burn. It begins just before we touchdown and provides the butcher a soft descent before we land during this period that the landing legs will also be deployed right before we touchdown restored at the base, the vehicle and made up of state of the carbon fiber and aluminum honeycomb. Transplant the first stages passing through the cloud layers right now state leaning sort of here comes nine attempting landing page one landing like the boy, and you couldn't ask for a better landing than that Falcon. Nine has landed once again that number four for this first stage booster and the fifty eighth overall of an orbital class rocket. Start off tonight's mission, the second stage and our primary mission are still continuing and remain healthy. The next milestone for the second stage is second engine cut off one also known as Seco one and that is coming up at. Ten. Minutes and five seconds the CEO come one be will now join it sister satellite CEO. Come one a which launched back in October two, thousand, eighteen, the three, thousand and fifty kilograms. Spacecraft are each equipped with full parametric synthetic aperture radar to monitor weather conditions study soil moisture content, and analyze crop yields from a six, hundred, twenty kilometer high orbit. The mission also carry the GNOMES one constellation small satellites. Designed to provide radio uncle tation data for weather forecasting climate research in space where the monitoring also aboard was the Taivon's zero, one seven to nine satellite built by Thai Satellite Systems and his purpose has remained classified this space time. And turn that take another brief look at some of the other stories making news inside this week with a science report and you study of more than two hundred, thousand men in the United Kingdom has found a link between waist size and prostate cancer. A report to the European in Congress and obesity found a link between how much body fat men have around their belly and waste and the risk of death from prostate cancer. It seems those in the top twenty, five percent for waist. Circumference were also thirty five percent more likely to die of prostate cancer than men in the bottom twenty, five percent. Scientists have discovered a blood test which could help predict those at risk of psychosis. Then you test reported in the Journal of the American Medical, association looked at proteins in the blood plasma of twelve year olds allowing doctors to determined the likely risk of psychosis in those subjects by the age of eighteen prestigious compared the blood plasma proteins of people at high risk of psychosis within went onto develop the condition with a control group of randomly selected people finding differences. In the levels of thirty, five blood proteins, they then use some of these protein differences if they could predict from a group of tour of your than the general population who would go on to develop psychosis age of eighteen, they found that sixty seven percent of those who the test predicted were of psychosis. Did infact go on to develop the disease and seventy five percent of those tests predicted not to be at risk remain free of psychosis by age eighteen. German intelligence is evidence that Iran is actively been seeking technology for weapons of mass destruction and missile carrier systems. As recently as last year, the new report adds to a growing list of independent documentation confirming these republics, ongoing efforts to develop weapons of mass destruction in violation of its international agreements the new intelligence reports warned that Iran. Pakistan and to a lesser extent Syria made if it's to procure. Equipment and know-how for the further development of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems. The term delivery system is used to define the capability to launch missiles, the United States and Israel as well as many Gulf nations believe Iran's radical Islamic regime is seeking to develop nuclear weapons. That's a claim strongly denied by Tehran which insists the oil-rich nation's massive nuclear program is for peaceful power generation only. They claim to be the virtues signaling worker Roddy of identity politics yet, there's growing evidence that. See simply don't have the environmental credentials to be gritter Thambo Green a new study reported in the Journal of the frontiers of nutrition found that despite claiming to have great concern for the Environment Animal Welfare seventy, two, percent generation Z. weren't ready to accept humanely grown artificial made. Artificially lab grown meat is defined as meat produced through in vitro cell cultures of animal cells rather than coming from the bodies of killed animals. The study was carried out by researchers from Curtin University and the University of Sydney as a cohort of five million people born between nine, hundred, ninety, five, and Twenty fifteen encompassing some twenty percent of the Austrian population and two billion people globally generation Z. A. Consumers to be reckoned with, but apparently, they level of Apocrypha is something to be reckoned with as well. And that's the show for now space-time is broadcast on science owned radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and through both IHEART radio and on Tunin radio or you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple stitcher. Bites. Dot Com Puckett cast soundcloud spotify Youtube Auto Boom Pud Beim android cashbox from Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com. Or. From your favorite download podcast provider, you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the space time, online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time Patriot, which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show, as well as burning audio content and other awards just go to a patriarch page through space. Time with Stewart. Gary Dot Com for all the data hours. If you want more space time, check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff. We couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images, you stories, videos, and things on the web I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Tamla. Dot. com. That's all one. Word and in lower case and that's tumbler without the it can also follow through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart. Gary on instagram through Space Time Youtube Channel on Facebook, just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary Space Time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine Your Window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from BITES DOT com.
NASAs Dragonfly Drone Mission to Titan
"I. Love this podcast support this show through the ACOSS support a feature. It's up to you how much you give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty-three episode one, hundred and eight for broadcast on the Fourteenth of October twenty twenty coming up on Space Time Nasr's dragonfly drone mission to tighten the Red Planet's close approach to the earth and you cosmic commode rockets into orbit. We look at the Dynamic Space Danny all that and more coming up on space. Time. Welcome to space. Time. We'd still. Gary. And he study is found relatively fresh exposed water is impact craters on the surface of the turn Moon Titan the findings reported in the journal Astronomy, astrophysics could prove beneficial in plans for the proposed dragonfly mission to send a drone aircraft to tighten the new data is based on observations by the European Space. Agency's visible and Infrared, Mapping Spectrometer aboard Nasr's. Cassini spacecraft. Cassini orbited the Ringwood of satin at its moons between two, thousand, four and two, thousand seventeen and launching the Horgan's landed down to the surface. Of Titan on Titan Atmospheric Processes Berry is under a thick layer of sand like organic material. In fact, when Hogan's touchdown on the surface scientists describe the ground as feeling like whitsand in tons dry with toil regions, the sand piles up, but at High A. Wetter latitudes surface streams erode away the sand. The study's lead author Georgia's Catherine Niche From Within University says this more SAM on Titan per area than anywhere else in the solar system she says the for nearly two decades. Now, space sciences have been focusing the majority of its fans and research on Mars in the search for the building blocks of life, and yet there are dynamic words like sense Moon Titan. which may actually have more going on biologically. Then the Red Planet Titan is Saturn's largest moon, the second-biggest Moon in the solar system, and it's larger than the planet mercury. Importantly, it's the only world in the solar system other Earth with clouds rain liquid down on the surface forming streams and rivers, which then flow into lakes and seas. But the Earth's water-based hydrological cycle titans rains a made of methane. And Ethane on Titan temperatures are so cold water is frozen. So hard it forms the bedrock and it doesn't end there tons atmosphere is about ten times stig as the Earth's atmosphere, and it's primarily nitrogen laced with methane and ethane all this forms a dense hydrocarbon. Hey, Hey, the moon stratosphere where it's broken down by sunlight scientists say it's all very reminiscent of what the primordial earth might have been like. It all makes tight and the compelling Astra Biological Target. Its surface contains abundant complex carbon, rich chemistry with both liquid water and liquid hydrocarbons possibly forming a product primordial soup in order to get a better understanding of time that its environment necessary planning dragonfly Astro Biology Mission for Titan slated for launch in twenty twenty seven dragonfly will send a robotic rotorcraft down to the surface landing in the Shangrila Junefield's in December twenty, thirty four. It'll study prebiotic chemistry performing multiple vertical takeoffs and landings to fly to a variety of different locations thereby allowing dragonfly, study the local terrain and analyze the surrounding geology in a number of locations. This space time still to come the Red Planet Mars putting out Speciaux in years right now and a new cost. Me commode launches into orbit all that and more still to come on space time. Right. Now, the Red Planet Mars is putting on its best celestial show in years. You say, thanks to their orbits, the Earth and Mars rich they closest position to each other every twenty six months, and that just happens to be now vichy mazdas. Closest approach to Earth was on October the sixth when the Red Planet was just sixty, two, million, sixty, nine, thousand, five, hundred, seventy kilometers away now that's not as near as the two thousand and three close approach when it came to just fifty five, point seven, six, million kilometers the. But it is the closest. The Red Planet will get for the next fifteen years. In fact, Mars weren't bid it's two thousand and three close encounter until August, the twenty, eighth, twenty, two, eighty, seven when the red planet comes to just fifty five, point, six, nine, million kilometres the earth, and that's still not the record see the minimum distance between the earth and Mars can get down to about fifty four point, six, million kilometers but. That doesn't happen very often if the earth and Mars had perfectly circular orbits than the minimum distances would always be the same. However, they have elliptical or egg-shaped orbits, the orbits of Mars in the Earth. Also slightly tilted with respect to each other, and then there's the effect of the gravitational tidal actions of the other planets. All constantly changing the shape of their orbits purchased the bid the gas giant Jupiter especially influences the orbit of Mars. All of these factors combine to me that not all close encounters are equal but every two years or so when Meisner Noth I close to each other, the Red Planet appears especially bright in our night sky it makes it easy to see both telescopes and even the unaided eye right now, Maas will be visible for much the night near the ecliptic, the same out of the sky with the Sun and the moon. Travel and it'll be at its highest point at about midnight and win Marzano Sarah Closes. That's usually the best time to go to Mars. That's why many Mars missions take advantage of the close distance to visit the. Red Planet. So depending on budgets, you'll see Mars missions launched roughly every two years must close approach is also closely related tomorrow opposition and mass retrograde oppositions happening right now. So it's the best time to view. Mas because it's directly on the opposite side of the Earth from the Sun. So Mars rises at sunset. It's visible all night long and then sets sunrise and because the sunlight shining on it from behind the earth, it also looks brighter still take advantage of the spectacle while it's their Mars will quickly become fainter as it in the earth travel further away from each other on their respective around the sun and Interestingly Mas. Will appear to be moving backwards in relation background stars it'll be in what's called retrograde. The happens is the overtakes it Judah orbit being closer to the Sun than the orbit of Mars the next month's close approach. What happened until December the eighth twenty twenty two, the current issue of Australian sky and Telescope magazine as a special feature on Mars close approach joining us now with the details is the magazine's editor Jama Finale. Sir. Next few weeks. We've got miles coming up Tom to see it. Taylor. Particularly the best time to say MAS. In fact, this'll be the best new. We will have a mile and many Easter Tom. Let's do distance because it's going to be quite close. So in the lead up to this feeling seasons, we're going to give you all the information you need to study the. Full Mazowsze God in the magazine. So the best times to see the viewing conditions what for the Equipment used and what to watch out for the. So it talking about the south polar ice cap, I need storms up a mountain ranges huge extinct volcano. On. Mars. You can actually see all the way. If, you haven't been up till a scarf. And you have the right kind of year, you might even be able to spot the two little tiny moons at mom during around an empty. Purpose and they must be the nappy can use to work out when they should be visible from your action in your time wherever you. Are you need reasonable To do that, but but for the rest, any telescope will give you a pretty good. You're mouth but grabbed his chance to to go good with to have a look Mars when it's close up because when other times of the when Mars is a long way away, it looks less than half the size and Mars a small thing to begin with small planets are. Really. You need to take the opportunity to look miles when it's close when books be an an doesn't last long. So get out the telescope or you're not someone has have been planet because it's just going to be the best utions about. Ten years we'll start We'll still get you know more conscious. Over the used but. This is going to cost. That's Jonah finale the editor of strain sky and telescope magazine. And forget if you're having trouble getting Okapi Australian sky and Telescope magazine from your usual retailer because of the carrot lockdown on travel restrictions in always get a print or digital subscription and have the magazine delivered directly Ata letterbox or inbox subscribing. Just, go to sky and telescope DOT COM Tara you that Sky Telescope Dot Com dot AU and you'll never be left in the dark again, this space time still to come a new cosmic commode rockets into orbit, and later in the science report growing fees that one of the world's most important food crops the sweet potato could become another victim of global warming all that most come on space time. Let's take a break from our show. For word from our sponsor expressed VPN rated number one by Tek. Raider. You may be wondering why you need a virtual private network. Well, it's in the name it's all about privacy you really want big brother tech companies, hackers, governments, and who knows who else knew ping in on your online activities. Now, you might not have anything to hide, but it still really creepy and it could be dangerous for you and those you care about also, how often do you run across a website and you want to get information from it but you find out that the Geo blocked it's all very frustrating and. It's becoming an increasing problem and that's where expressed VPN can help you express VPN's simple and efficient way to protect your online privacy. It's Internet, without Borders from the world's leading VPN provider. So protect your online privacy today and find out how you can get three months free at trikes press VPN DOT. com slash space. That's try express VPN DOT com slash space for three months free with a one year package visit try experts VPN DOT com slash space to learn more, and of course, you'll find the link details in the show notes and on our website that's strike express VPN, dot com slash space, and now it's back to our show. You're listening to spends time with Stewart Gerry. To go where no man has gone before might no longer be accurate but a new space toilet has nevertheless been delivered to the International Space. Station. Then cosmic commode was part the payload aboard the cygnus N Fourteen cargo ship with successfully docked with the International. Space. Station. Two days after launching. Border Northrop. Grumman Antares rocket from NASA wallops island flight facility on the Virginian mid Atlantic coast. Four three. Two one. inning in the engine start and lift off the SS traveler takes flights sights set on the International Space Station. Pitch and roll programmer in. Engine that one hundred percent at nominal. Engines are betty and nominal one hundred percent altitude twenty thousand feet. One Minute into the flight everything looking good on Antares passing through Max Q. Two nominal engines at one, hundred, ten tears passing through the area of maximum dynamic pressure fifty thousand feet had nominal I'll vehicle subsystems are nominal coming up on the two minute mark into the flight everything looking good just passing one hundred thousand feet attitude nominal vehicle subsystems. Nominal engines remain at one hundred percent good reports from the Range Control Center at wallops thirty seconds to throttle down throttle down as the precursor to main engine cutoff of the first stage coming up on the three minute mark into the flight engines at fifty five percent thrust standing by for main engine cutoff on. The first stage main engine cutoff age separation attitude nominal stage one separation confirmed from the Range Control Center and Antares Flying Straight and true carries and coast phase. Until proper conditions for fairing separation and stage ignition are achieved fairing separation confirmed cygnus now exposed to the atmosphere as it continues its trek uphill to its preliminary orbit aged ignition, this will be about two minute forty, four seconds burn of the second stage engine attitude nominal vehicles substance nominal hundred, and forty kilometers coming up on the five minute mark into the flight office continue nominal altitude, one hundred and fifty kilometers the second stage. Scheduled at about the six minute fifty, one second mark into the flight altitude hundred seventy kilometers roughly one minute the stage to burn out to one hundred, eighty, four kilometers all systems nominal roughly thirty seconds to stage to uber out six minutes forty seconds into the flight standing by for stage to burn out to tail off stage to burn out. Says, reached the preliminary orbital insertion will coast for roughly one hundred seconds prior payload separation, and as you heard, the next major event will be sicknesses separation from the second stage attitude nominal cygnus. Has begun its journey to reach the International Space Station early, Monday morning, all vehicle subsystems nominal altitude one, hundred, ninety, one kilometers roughly one minute the payload separation liftoff occurred right on the dime at sixteen and fourteen seconds PM Central Time. Nine sixteen fourteen p. m eastern time the International Space Station and it's three crew members who are asleep at this hour approaching the south west coast of Australia altitude remains a hundred nine hundred kilometers roughly thirty seconds to pay the separation off systems nominal at the time of sicknesses separation from the second stage, the operations will move to Dulles. And the cygnus Flight Control Room under the direction of Mission Director Zach wire fitness separation spacecraft separation confirmed the. Cha Well on its way to the International Space Station he initiated attitude nominal Elsie Ace out as so great job calling it out. This is Mission Control, HOUSTON? cygnus. Now, safely in orbit on route to the International Space Station, perfect launch from the Wallops flight facility in Virginia following its rendezvous with Yogi on post cygnus was captured by the space station's robotic arm and made it to the unity modules earth facing docking port. It'll remain attached to the space station until around mid December during this time, it'll be unloaded and then filled up with space station trash and undocked the fall back to earth burning up in the atmosphere during reentry. The Star attraction among the three, thousand, six, hundred kilograms of frits supplies equipment aboard cygnus is the space station's new toilet. The new orbital outhouse is being tested on the space station before the designs approved for use on the items missions to the moon and Mars officially called the Universal Waste Management System. The new interplanetary potty is smaller and lighter than the current space toilets with redesigned restraints better position to allow astronauts more comfort as they try and achieve well splashdown in zero gravity environment without getting bogged down. Then, you celestial Karzi includes a three D. Printer, tatum Kaba for Joel Fan separator, which should be more reliable than the existing design which dates back to the space shuttle and has been under breakdown on occasions. Also included isn't a urine transfer system, which further automates waste management and storage well, increasing the amount of water recovered and recycled for us. That's ride in space. Yesterday's coffee becomes tomorrow's drinking water one of the engineer behind the new system Jim full of from. Space speaking with Nassar's Melissa McKinley. At a big laugh from my friends all the time like, oh, he's. The toilet in your life on just the toilet titanium space. So It's pretty nifty especially when you get into the complexities Ivan uw is sixty, five percent smaller and forty percent lighter than current toilet used on. ISS are toilet will be installed just to Jason to that toilet and we'll undergo concurrent views with that toilet as we do the demonstration. One of the things that you? Do that actually has to inject. Bridge. into the urine before to the urine processor assembly. pre-treated is a very strong passive and. Is Not. Very compatible with a lot of materials so that forced us to have to use a lot of exotic materials such as in canal eligible Oy titanium. So one of the coolest things that we actually did on this project is we implemented a process called electron being powderkeg fusion. That's just a fancy word for three D. Printing. Here gravity of everything to the ground essentially away from the body. And microbrewery and go into space you don't have that luxury. Essentially three, our own artificial gravity. So at the heart of the. Mask is. Fan Separate, and that's actually the part that's actually made out of. Titanium exploration is is hard businesses. It's uncomfortable. There's a lot of things that the crew has to do just to. Explore and the goal with the UW. Too can meet the challenges of spaceflight in terms of mass and volume and. Power usage and keep within those constraints, but also make a system that the crew. Has a more likelihood to be comfortable with associated with a new space toilet. It's new electric Chemical Emmanuel removal system. It alternately hope with water recovery long duration missions to the moon and Mayes, and could also be used to provide a vital supply of drinking water in remote arid areas on earth comedian morillas. As Dr Carlos Cabrera who with the University of Puerto Rico are the principal investigator is on the experiment. Looking for somebody to take advantage of the waste generate that in the international space station. And one of the way of those ways is hearing. After thirteen processes. rain can be converted to ammonia. And ammonia can be used say. Enough field. The project intense. To help with the water recycling and also generate electrical current. Is just one component of fake processor has been developing. For the signal years now that could be used to purify your it. This will create a system that can be used for dot. So this is An application application for the space denture a FISA featuring the space station is more efficient earth. So so that's why we want level straight that it could work. Also Abboud cygnus are new crop of vegetables to see what grows will in the space environment. Previous experiments have grown different types of lettuce ingrains. This time they're looking at radishes cultivating seeds to see how different light soil conditions affect growth as explain bud experiments, principal investigators Dr. Cal Hassans Stein from the University of Lafayette and Textual Operations Directed David read the objective of the experiments seems very simple and it is growing the radishes. On and S I know that radishes have been grown several times but never advanced plan habitat that we have actually enough space to grow a number of plants that allow wants to do some statistics. Habitat is currently the largest most complex plant growth system on the space station. The actual growth vitamin itself or plants measures of about twenty by twenty by twenty inches few. All the rest of the volume implant habitat is all of the stuff that it takes to provide full environment for the plants that are growing inside the growth chambers. radishes grow to his size of war. and. Peace of that mass is the ravaged set that office tissue at the process of developing the secondary. Is completely unplanned surge in space. But it is. Because it is sensitive to all of these things that we have on station. So it adds to this. Rather complex set of data that we need to get a handle on to property, grow and understand the cultivation of plants in space to go to bars longer home. Any further the marlins laundry yet. So without a doubt unless we are learning have space the tools the. Rotating elements that can provide some fractional. Michael Gravity. And in order to grow a reasonable amount of plans, we're talking about about much larger systems and so this. Is. Trying to get a little closer is also a microgravity messenger irony cancer experiment studying new drugs for treating. Leukemia Yours Aku cafe has demy from Colonel Biologics are the experiments, principal investigators me being developing cancer cells to Pacific and biological drugs that selectively and effectively go after cancer cells, and we uncovered the cancer cells have foreign language that they speak in the body. This allows us to exploit this language to keep our biological in that foreign language only cancer cells can understand us. So we're doing this extreme form of festus thing under microgravity he got his first. Identify at least one candidate. that. Is Resistant to weakness in normal cells despite being pushed to this microgravity conditions. Then there's a good chance that me going to the clinic. Hundreds of different types of cancer cell Robertson's Kansas. Then, we will be able to still rely on this. NASA. For. Astronauts. Will take ourselves and put them into a back into the proper thirty seven degree south culture incubated. Cheering just they're going to apply all the agents include cancer cells. and. The health south and then the next day they are not doing readouts and See that there is the friendship behavior is. decapitated. In micro. Conditions this is all about bending on the right assets for future development because drug development, these costs, he takes time and also also building hope it patients to identify the best candidates for them me well, Felix Lushan and Rafael from Felix and Paul. Studios. Are supplying the space station with a new customized three hundred and sixty degree virtual reality camera part of the new documentary project about life on the orbiting outpost. Years, we have been in extensive production on project called space explorers the. Experience that is filming inside and outside at the International Space Station through the immersive Bauer virtual reality, and in a few months, we're gonNA take the camera outside to document eight full spacewalk and to fill exterior shots of the space station as well as shuts planet earth. What we're doing now is getting ready to lunch hour EDA virtual reality camera, which is slightly different system to the Ivy camera that we've been using for the past years inside a station we worked in collaboration with non Iraq's. Make It. Basically resistance to. The pressure of space. The extreme variation temperatures, and we had to make sure that the lenses also certified four for use outside and basically going to use texture and the cat Dr Nice kind of a celestial frame. As, in movies to shoot outside of the ISS beyond the ISS, of course, are a lot more places to explore. So this is really been. You know valuable knowledge to help us design future cameras that are going to go deeper into space. Once ince's experiences I believe they will not want to go back to traditional media. Experience space content, you know it it's going to be the sort of default fasttrack space equals immersive media, and because of that I think that we're going to be in the next few years doing more and more and more of those projects. And time now to take another brief, look at some of the other stories making news in science this week with a science report, there are growing fees today that one of the world's most important food crops. The sweet potato could become another victim of global warming a new report in the Journal. Nature climate. Change found a Peruvian study of nearly two thousand coumarin sweet potato strains discover that list than seven percent I hate tolerant scientists will now focus their efforts on these few heat tolerant varieties hoping they can be used for breeding programs to help crops to predict the temperature increases of between one and six degrees. Celsius expected because, of climate, change, by twenty seventy. Australia's National Science Agency the Seer Siro as provided the first ever global estimate for micro-plastics on the seafloor with results suggesting there are at least fourteen million tons in the deep ocean. A report in the Journal frontier in Marine Science claims plastic pollution is being found throughout the oceans of the world including Australia's Great. Barrier Reef World Heritage area the amount of Mike Reid Plastics recorded was twenty five times higher than previous deep-sea studies based on their origin micro-plastics journey divided up into primary micro-plastics such as microbicides in face Washington toothpaste or secondary micro-plastics, including fragments from plastic bags or fives from. Textiles. Once ingested microbe plastic particles physically damaged organs in Leach Chemicals. These can range from hormone disrupting BPA's the pesticides that can compromise immune function and retard growth and reproduction both micro-plastics, and the chemicals they release accumulate up the food chain potentially impacting whole ecosystems including the health of soils in which we grow our food, and because micro-plastics are also in the water you drink in the breath, they're also affecting humans. Paleontologist of described the new genus of mozell naming Neta, mortar stat nanny, the giant marine ripped off from the age of dinosaurs swam in the sees of what he's now Colorado during the Cretaceous period between seventy nine and eighty one, million years ago a report in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology claims the tin made along specimen was originally classified in a different genus but was reclassified following the discovery of portions of the Moses Or Skull Roof Chore and Braincase Then You name is derived from the Greek and Latin Woods Fa jaws of death. Well even though you think your dogs gazing lovingly into your eyes and he study suggests the dogs brains don't process faces the same way humans brains do the findings reported in the Journal of Neuroscience claims that the canine visual systems organized differently to that of humans and so they don't have the same reaction to seeing a face, the team measured brain activity in. Humans and dogs while watching a short video of other humans and dogs. Human Brain showed increased activity in response to seeing face compared to the back of the head and increased activity. When seeing a human compared to a dog on the other hand dogs brains were more active wincing another dog and there was no difference when seeing face or the back of the head. Well. Like most of you, I don't have great technology every year rather wait until the new technology has something that I want. But one guy who I can't imagine standing in the line stretching around the block at the local apple store is Alexander Royd from it y dot. com of course win you're Alex you need to do that product sent to you and he just got his hands on the new apple what series six so alex is the upgrade worth it. Feed eisman losses don't necessarily must have upgrade. If you already happy with, you'll series fool series five watch because it looks the same has the largest screen that series called brought teen over the previous series one, two three but it's definitely a big upgrade from the series three and earlier, and it has exclusive features that the cheap Apple Watch F E, which also wants to see it doesn't have. Now this uses the same chip as last series five doesn't have an always on display as the series five and six have, and it doesn't have the G to check your heart rhythm although Best Bible. As you. Anyway, the series six definitely improved on the series five mosty informat white one it's got that always on display but in sunlight, it's two and a half times brighter now directly compared the always undersupply of the series two series six and definitely brighter in the dialogue, and also because his brother when you tap on an eye on the display, will you push the digital crowd on? The right hand side, what's doesn't have to light out into the broader mode I as the case with the series five or previous watches, we have to screen push the crown through it to light up from black to showing something. So it just opens up whenever you utecht on or brings up the menu of APPs when you press the crown so that by Pasta, but it also has the. Chip, which runs APPs twenty as well and it's GonNa. Blood oxygen sense of now they. Will Contain good. Then well, it goes to great pains. Medical grade but if your blood oxygen level is low key could be one of the you haven't. Yeah. It's good for carbon and you also have the handwashing my that you've gotta switch on in the settings of your phone not to watch that has a countdown. Twenty seconds and a little animation bubbles and this and that the end these sums up slightly. Brighter on your electric toothbrush that's right. Yeah. So you can you can sort of without having to look at what you can feel and you wash your hands for enough time and also you can switch on a reminder so that whenever you come home he also you know a few after you've arrived just who you should go wash your hands. So there's a little handy phages for the new postcode reality that we live in okay and Google -fluenced a new nist odious bake. That last quarter of twenty twenty the time when a lot of companies are watching you things ready for the holiday gift giving season now as we. Apple, will have its new five. Jay. Insane. But doable has launched products. One is the nest author speaker. So this is telling the march one dollars in the US and one forty nine in this right now. We will says, it's seventy five percent louder with fifty percents, stronger base and the full clear natural sound also has an ambient chew mode that can adjust the volume of Google Assistant News podcast an audio books based on the background noise behind. So you can hear the weather forecast say over a noisy dishwashers. So that's an intelligent feature. Also Google up reading his crime cost with the new remote control and the Google into. Basically brings it in line with sort of experience, you would get from the Amazon stick roku boxes or the Apple TV. So it's an APP TV operating system. It's holding on ninety nine in the US on Dole's in Australia, and it should pretty popular various apps like you would expect from other Android TV boxes or the show teams and have the android. Interface. It's going to be assistant finance also to questions will bring up certain shows and that's let's go buttons on the remote for Youtube Netflix's and I think it'll be very popular. Then you've got the pixel four, eight with five G. and the pixel five with five Jay rows of these has to recap I. One is the Standard Camera, the other one ultra-wide. Why Link? Which is very fashionable with today's phones. Now, you also have the portrait lights which illuminate your subjects. Beautifully there's an united site and portrait mode that lets you have beautifully blurred backgrounds in portraits extremely lot and both of them were ten, the astronomy retiree feature that debuted with his. Let you take amazing pictures of the sky also have a improve Google July video calling which lets you share h the screens or whatever's on your screen with the other person. They, they're not using the latest and greatest dragging processes in the sense of the highest model easy one down the seven, six, five, jade collection seize the eight hundred series processor but it's got a punch holder splice a normal nachos. You have this little hole with front facing cameras. I think Ram one, twenty, google storage, and the Pixel Five, which is more expensive one while it's charging reverse Schwab charging to reverse charge on the phones or while head funds, and also I pay Shakespeare water resistant. But there's one more piece of Google News. Yeah. That's right. The dropping of daydream via headsets we'll google zone the companies to kick off the modern the our revolution when they launched, I think Cobb, which was a a headship that you could put. You'll find into made from cardboard and had a little magnetic switch on the side that was sort of. Like the button to do something and that sort of took the well by storm for Awhile and people showing you how you could make your own. But Google lighter on just like Samsung made its own physical via hits it the problem is both times and bugles daydream the hits it a no longer on it was sort of one of those things that really took off but then it never really kicked on and we now have htc and facebook oculus that really lead in the space but Google and Samsung basically up because people swin bind the devices now. But what a chose, the future is old mentioned reality where you have some glasses in front of your face and glasses. We'll show things that interact with the real world. So you know cutting off the world, you're seeing things overlay with. Mark a follow on from Google glass. Well, it is. Google Google glasses very basic just had sort of simple icons for arrows for Cherney, you directions in match, but it was all very primitive stuff compared to what we've seen in science fiction much coming. It's probably GONNA be the cash to an apple launches Apple Amena Reality headset. said that the rest of the world will finally figure out how it's supposed to be done. Now, we can have copies that will flood the market and and I. Will be here and you'll be able to put little things in front of the glasses to them into the as well but that's probably not coming to twenty, twenty, two, twenty, twenty, three. That's Alex our avoid from it Y. DOT com. And that's the shut for now the space time is available every Monday Wednesday and Friday through apple podcasts I tunes stitcher. Google podcast pocket casts spotify cast Amazon Music. BITES DOT COM soundcloud YouTube your favorite podcast download provider and from Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com Space Times also broadcast through the national, Science Foundation on science own radio and on both IHEART radio and tune in radio, and you can help to support our show by visiting the space. Time store for a range of promotional merchandising goodies all by becoming a space time patron, which gives you access to triple episode commercial free versions of the show as well as lots of burners. which doesn't go away access to exclusive facebook group and other awards just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for full details, and if you want more space time, please check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff. We couldn't fit in the show as well as heaps of images, new stories, loads, videos, and things on the web I find interesting or amusing, just go to space time with. Stewart Gary Dot. 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About That Fake Asteroid
"Love, this podcast support this show through the ACOSS supportive. Asia. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. Fifteen seconds guided journal can. By ignition. sequence. Uh. Nuts. Three To. Five. Reported meals good. Hello, again, thank you for joining us on this the space nuts podcast. It's all about the spices stormy stuff spy sides united. We do it and my name is Andrew Dunkley by the way your host and joining me as always is professor Fred Watson Astronomer Large Hello Fred Andrew z going. Pollen city ran he city. Started again. It's the worst high fever. I've ever had a really and. I don't think I've ever had it worse than of. Medicaid it to the eyeballs but it's the eyeballs that the suffering the mice because the drops just do the trick. I love Chinese. Prefer the warmer weather but. It comes with a price that we brought in the midst of it but the reason is because we've had drought-breaking Ryan's and. Now, it's not official yet, but the drought is basically over in this part of the world and we have got crops as far as the Arkansas See why Dan South all the way to the the hunter coast and brought up in the north west of the state around places like Ouaga and Burqa. There is just mega crops The farm suggests brimming with crops it looks fantastic in the canal blooming. So you've got these these sort of green patches with with his yellow squares in the middle of them. They look fantastic. Really Looks Pretty. But the pollen could grief you can look at over the rising and it looks like a fog but it's not. It's that nasty stuff gets India but You Know I. Think Most People Are Pretty happy with the situation at the moment and the dams felling upside Y. Yeah. We're all. We're all good. What about your part of the Wilfred? It's not like that. I traditionally suffer from people as well but so far it's just been yelled sneeze down here in Sydney, but something to look out for Andrew if you have. A lot of pollen in your atmosphere you should check out the sun and so what you need to do is put your thumb up or better. Still something a little bit bigger that blocks out the direct light of the Sun. And you might find some colorings around it. which is called a pollen corona. Because if there's a lot of pollen in atmosphere, the pollen grains are all the same size, and so you get a process called diffraction which splits alight up into his rainbow colors. So you might see these colored rings. With. Reds and Greens in them a which spectacular when I used to live in Coonabarabran. Quite commonly at this time of the year, you could see them well worth a look if you if you try do say them so that you can let me know next time if you find. I'll give that a crack because it is A. Clear Sunny Day today but I can say hey, so there is pollen in the ace how I'll give that a try and if I can get a photo a lump. NAP Today Fred where we're going to look. I was amused last weekend I. Always read the news on a Sunday morning. Just kick back with a cup of coffee and catch up on all the the dross getting put out by those Most savory news outlets, and apparently we were GONNA get hit by an asteroid again. That seems to be one of the Sunday goto stories. Are we going to get hit by an asteroid although this turned into a rather interesting story because it? It probably isn't an asteroid it could be a rocket. Yes. So. We'll look at that. And we've got a bit of audio to play for today, a piece of music as pain put together and it's titled The music of the Milky Way. So we're gonNA hear that today and Something a little bit different in the Question Department because we surprisingly, we are a bit light on the questions didn't get any new audience questions and only. I think one well, one aim mile with three questions on it. So we're GONNA go with that. and. I'd like to say this this fellow works for the Jet Propulsion lab NASA. For Jackson. Dot now where he comes from but he's name's Ashley and he's come up with three rather stunning questions that we got put to. You Fred because Yeah. They're worth answering and it with discussing so why we don't often play favorites but Ashley came to the Party for us this week with with three stunners. So we're GONNA knock. More? In this week's edition of Spice not. Now. Read. fake news fake news. We're going to get hit by not. In fact I think we're going to get hit by it, but we might capture it. That's a possibility. That's certainly the kind of thing that has been raised before with such a events. Now taking place. So this happened Dea. Is that. What was classified as an asteroid has been detected I think by the Pan starrs projects, which is a telescope on Mt Gold. Jala in. MAUI A in the Korean chain highly-accurate has a number of telescopes. He's not quite as high at ten thousand feet as Medicare on the big island differ Whi-, which is fourteen thousand feet. But still has absolutely stunning conditions for observation pretty sure. That's why this was picked up. So an asteroid. In a very similar orbit to the earth around the sun. Gets classified as an asteroid given the name Twenty Twenty S. But. What has now transpired is that to gentleman by the name of Pool? Is the children's CODA. So called US C. H. O. D. He is the director. Of the near Earth Asteroid. Section. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory venire subject studies at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In southern California Boston fact. So. PULL has. Doctor, showed us. Let's giving me his full name I. Hope I'm pronouncing it right. Actually look to the dynamics of this object and finds that it is in an orbit that may reveal the fact that actually it's not a natural asteroid tool. It is a spent upper stage of a rocket. In fact, has center apostate very commonly used during the nineteen sixties. Rocket which was taking. A craft to the moon, not a spacecraft with a crew onboard, but one of the surveying series of robotic spacecraft in fact, severe to. which was on its way in nineteen, sixty, six but it didn't make it because there was a fault with one of the thrusters. A think when the survey was coming down to the moon and the crash landed on the moon. Savannah. Survey as well known to. People who are interested in our exploration of the Moon Cassava three, which was successful and went the following year nine, hundred, sixty, seven. was actually the one that was landed right beside by Apollo twelve so that the astronauts of Apollo twelve could pull itself bring them back to see what a year and a half of exposure to the lunar climate. A did two things. The series were generally successful, but severity wasn't and its upper rocket body. Would have basically gone into orbit around the Sun and is what? The scientists thinks has now been rediscovered. So. Now. been unexpected because when when it Pasta Moon night basically. So it well, that's they ended. That will never say this thing again and it may and this has not been confirmed yet has it. It's just a theory at this stage, but the numbers are starting to add up but I didn't think it'd come back. It's like the old cat isn't it just keeps turning up turning. These things. Once. Again, we're littering the solar. System. So. Yeah. Okay. So why why do you think is This particular object twelve, eight, a basically. An orbit that is really very nearly circular, very similar to the US in the same plane as the there's no tilt and that is the kind of smoking gun and an actually slow as well. Two thousand, four, hundred kilometers per hour. If my Arithmetic Dunham ahead is correct that as two thirds of a kilometer per second, which is very slow for eight overseeing Jake's. and. What will confirm Andrew is what the effects of solar radiation is on it because this is the center is I mean it's basically it's an empty. A TIN can really. Allow drawn one. Described in in the popular press. An can. Yeah. That'd be Bowie thrilled. They would eight meters long three meters in diameter and that's so. That means that the sun's radiation a could have an effect on could could push it into. An orbit is what we say non by non gravitational forces. In other words, it could be changing 'cause the radiation of the Sullen that would probably be the a clinch. The thinking is that it's going to go into orbit around the earth. But. That orbit will be unstable. It will probably spend four months. Oh, circling the earth. From, about the middle of next month mid November and then we'll be effected back into its own orbit around the Sun. and. You know that might be the less we see of it so. Really interesting piece of detective work on the part of of scientists whose whose deck today job is option looking at these things. Yesterday indeed, and and the fact that it sorta been doing this for fifty was fifty four years. To. SORTA gallivanting around and not. Is it possible that it's been a around Earth before and we'd haven't noticed or is this might be its first comeback? Yeah, I. think that's right. I think there's a possibility it may once have all you know in the past have been in orbit around there but it's now because we've got these really powerful near Earth asteroid searching telescopes that we find these things in your life that when the rec- Ruben telescope comes on stream thing next year. Which is eight point, four meter telescope. which will survive the until I sky every week. We'll find a lot more of this kind of thing. Unfortunately. There's a lot of garbage eh, that we've We've just sort of laughed I think in the modern age we're starting to pay a bit more attention to it and make things more retrievable unsalvageable but. Yeah fifty years of not during that has created all sorts of all sorts of junk do do we know what severe to was supposed to achieve? yeah it was. It was a landa of the idea was very much to make sure first of all. Going to land on the moon and sinking to its surface because of. This dry quicksand effect that some people thought that the moon might exhibit. It was a big worry especially when you're planning to send humans to the Moon but also it had. All the usual radiometer spectrometers a camera aboard a stuff to really sample the lunar environment in as much detail as possible. Now, it is possible that this is not the rocket way talking about diet is starting to look more and more likely I suppose that's the best way to put diced very much the conservative approach to take Andrea, my your your scientific inside there it is probably, but we're not said. It's called journalistic integrity. Not many of his left. Well, you the last person would thought. No No. No. Fair enough. They might be more. But come from. You're listening to face nuts with Andrew Dunkley and Fred Watson. This episode of space not to is brought to you by last pass simplifying your online life. Now, if you're anything like me, you probably find one of your biggest frustrations in life is remembering all your passwords. All that has logging day tiles, username names, passwords, important information of built up over many many years, and you might have hundreds of them I know last time my candidate had like. Passwords for various things and. It can get quite cumbersome. So what can you do about it? Well, I use last pass it's a password manager. It's a fabulous solution to this problem and believe me the relief is unbelievable not to mention time-saving. Now. You can sign up for last pass and you'll be joining twenty five point six million fellow users from around the world and seventy thousand plus businesses with those kinds of numbers have gotta be doing something right and I do in my experience it is simplified everything I got every username every password from everything I do built into last pass and it's it's integrated I can use it on my desktop. I can use it on my laptop I can use it on my phone I can use. It on my ipad it's that simple and can even work in a way whereby you don't have to type in anything you open last pass you type in what you're looking for. Let's say CJ mile account or something, and it will it up and you just click on the link and it will open for you. You don't have to do anything it is really really good. Now you can get the premium package for around four dollars fifty a month, and there's a family enterprise plan as well. And it works as I said across all devices, put your passwords in. You can go into autopilot you can reduce the stress. It's really fabulous I highly recommend it and it will give you pace of mind you will never have to sit there going on now forgotten my password is one of the worst failings in the world and this is the solution it's really simple and highly secure I mean it is very safe. All you have to remember is a master password one password said that you don't after any of the others. So, check it out go to space, and that's podcast dot com slash last pass and help support the show sign up and you can check it out for free at space and that's podcast dot com slash last pass, and just simplify your life linked day tyler in the show nuts and on our website now back to space nuts space nuts. Now. Don't forget if you are a social media user, you can find spice nets on most social media platforms. There's a presence on Pinterest as far as I'm aware certainly on twitter definitely on facebook and there's a podcast group that's been created by space nuts listeners. It's called the space nuts podcast group like put a lot of thought into that name I. Think there were several votes before they decided upon that one but it's wairoa spice nuts listeners can get together and talk to each other quite often questions posed and. Answers very liberal in in in the way they furnished people love talking to each other about these things whatever the to- topic might base. So check it out if you if you haven't joined the Space Nets podcast group yet a highly recommended are heading there occasionally and and occasionally make a a a a remark but it's really for the listeners They're the ones who wanted to put together so. that's where you go. Of course, the Spice Nets, official facebook page is there as well, and you can enjoy that too, and of course, youtube you can listen on Youtube and fondest they and unaware else so many other places. Now let's let's go to this next story, which is something a little bit different for us because it's it's about listening. To The music of the Milky Way as reported by the astronomy now, dot com website should give them a credit because I've put up this piece of audio. This is really really interesting what sort of led to this doing our I think it's come about because. People. You know that there are many different ways of looking. At the universe until this isn't a novel, a view and different way. Just being put together by scientists Chandra x Ray Observatory and in fact. Yes astronomy now has carried the story, but the Chandra x Ray Observatory website has. Has Information on this. So basically, Chandra is not as flagship mission fags ran strongly is with the Hubble one of the great orbiting observatories. And the scientists Chandra what they've done is they've said, well, we've got images of the Milky Way taken by all these mob whistle between telescopes. On they and that gives US A. Very multi wave band view of the Milky Way until what they've done is they've merged images from the Hubble telescope. So that's the visible ultraviolet from the Challenger X Ray Observatory. So that's x ray images of the Milky Way and the space, the space telescope, which is no longer operational but. A did actually observed the milky way in the infrared wideband. So taking these three. Really. Because you've got ultraviolet in there as well from Hubble. Very very different wavebands a made a composite image of the Milky Way and then they. Suddenly. Fight it and the Sunday fixation process says okay. Let's. Look at the picture and at from top to bottom, imagine that you're going from Haya to low notes. So that gives you at a you get a paying in the middle range of the of the musical scale that not somewhere in the middle of the image and he's caused the Ping would because by a point of light, a drone would because by an extended object something which which covers many many pixels in other words a big part of the image. Then, they give it a tone which depends on the instrument which was used to make the the that particular part of the. Of the image in other words the Hubble or the Chandra or the Spitzer. Telescope? If. Given a kind of Tom Bre a characterization of the note until when you put it all together, you get something that I think is extremely beautiful I kind of sonic journey across the length of the Milky Way with remember the high notes from the top of the image, the low notes from the bottom of the image but I played as you scan across the width of the image. And Get a very I. think a very restful sound sort the. It's lovely. It is really lovely and and it's so basically what we're about to hear is actually scientifically produce. This isn't just somebody playing games with with with noise and and just sort of running them across a four hundred light year wide image. This is scientifically produced. So what you're hearing is Designated sounds based on the objects in the image. Is that what is that? What you're? Describing. Perfectly, been an in a way. You know it's a different way of looking at the sky you're not looking listening to it, but you know if if we were equipped only with his and some people are. Then, this is a great way to visualize the splendor of the Milky Way. Well, without further ado, let's have a listen to the music. Of the Milky Way. It's absolutely lovely. Isn't it and to think That compilation based on. The visual overlapping of several observations and and put together in a to create that sand One of the sounds you heard Donna which one it was, but I'm guessing it was one of the big ones was secretaries is star charged with talked about? and And several other objects in particular from. Part of the universe the Milky Wise Iowa. Yeah. That's just beautiful. They've done a really good job of that. Haven't I tried who would have thought a black hole sounded so lovely because in the middle of. I saw the black hole is. Just a postscript to this. Andrew on if. People want to follow up on this the Chandra x Ray Observer tree website. which as Chandra DOT SL DOT EDU. If, you go to that website and hunter around a bit South Schinder that photo album section. You can find the Sunday cashing. You find exactly what we've just been playing, but you can also find the individual tracks that come from each of these different telescopes. So you can find the the the track, the Hubble track. On a spit to track as well, you can listen to the independently. And you can also look at some other objects in the sky they've sunny fide, an image of Cassiopeia A, which is a very bright x ray source in the sky with with the not tickle counterparts, and perhaps most especially, they've only find the pillars of creation remember the images from the Hubble Space Telescope. Those three pillars of creation they've done a solid foundation of that too. So he can. You can look at all of this and yes, it's a great place to look around especially if you like. If you like music and you're musically minded a different way of looking at the sky. This could be really good for the sight impaired Ever getting opportunity to say what's out there. Exotic. Creating images in their mind through music or through through various tones might be might be an option I think it's fabulous. might up that on again towards the end of this episode it's not unlike the way we record podcast Fred this the the Fred Star. Odd and the Andrew Blackhall sand on the other side, and we put it all together. The end attracts independently recorded from different observations. Sound as good as those. Yeah. Definitely not. Listening to Spice Nats we've Andrew Dunkley and Fred Watson. Space Nuts as always I'd like to thank Al Patrons, the people that put a bit of coin into the podcast via Patriae on or super cast or acoss whatever is your preference all the details on our website of course, spicing DOT com. If you'd like to become a patron and if you are a patron keep an eye out. For new material, it should be up very very soon if not already a couple of news segments for Al Pie Trans across as a patron, you do get bonus material. You do get the Ad Free version and you do get the early edition of the spice nuts podcast. That's just part of the deal and y saying thank you for supporting us. Every dollar counts in. Cape says some sort of hooting along in space as we like to do. Afraid. Question Time, and we have three questions to tackle today to a pretty serious topics ones just a bit tongue in cheek, but it should be fun and they all come from Ashley now actually has said his questions before but for some strange reason we've hit hit a bit of a question drought. So don't forget if you want to send us a question, you can do that via. At website, just fill in the blanks. At Spice Nets, PODCASTS DOT COM or you can go to the. Tab at the top of the website, click on that and actually record your question. with your own voice and everything and I ask you a question that way just tell us who you are. Way You from and ask your question like had it. Andrew Cowie. Gulf. Last weekend the Ola Eighty one. Was Pretty Good. Eight. Was Eighty one line is. One what we shook it it it that far. But, yes that's how you get your questions to us on spice nuts now Thank you actually sending in this treasure trove of questions. Hi Andrew Afraid I have more questions for you. This first one is about population three stars in there a theoretical minimum size for population three stars. There is obviously a lower mass limit for youngest is before they are classed as Brown dwarfs. Ten percent the mass of Sun but is this different for stars which would have no medals in their formation. This of course leads to the question. Could they be population three red dwarfs with no middle in their spectra. So. That's his first question. Fred? This is a really fascinating. An insightful question obviously knows he's stuff does actually yeah, indeed. So let's just Saying. Let's just on. This is what they say journalistic circles. You know it's What is the population three star? So this was a classification that goes back to a man called. While I guess he would've been involved about when he was Germany, he moved to America in the Nineteen Thirties became Walter Varda. Very famous astronomer who during the blackout actually at Mount Wasn Observatory when Los Angeles. Was Blackout during the second, world? War He. Observed, the stars of the Milky Way. Classified them into what it called population. So very briefly, population one is stars like the Sun Stars which are. So the rich in now, what we call metals is anything other than hydrogen and helium. So to Strana oxygen is a metal as is calcium as he's Kaban So styles of Hodgson Helium and metals It's a curious thing that you know is involved of over the decades but at what? He said was that population one stars are rich in metals. They've got all the components that we find around some of the earth because that's where they've come from originally from other stars but then this population to I, mean, not that they. Stars principally in the central region of our galaxy. Also in the galaxy's halo the the financial swollen stars. which surround galaxy and they are a much lower in mentality that means that got fewer of these heavier elements like oxygen. And Carbon and all of that. But there's also this postulations of a third population population three, which is the very first as that were created in the universe and because metals heavier elements are created instarem house. If you go back to the first generation of stars, you should find stars with no metals a toll in them. And they haven't actually been found yet. We found population what we might call extreme population to styles styles that have got my nudist trace unusually high that you're looking for. But very little, and you know that they have very very old stars because they've got such small amounts of these contaminants that come from earlier generations of stars but population three still something we have not genuinely scene and population three styles are usually assumed to be very large with masses up to one hundred times the the song because they were formed in the other universe hydrogen was everywhere. They pull in lots and lots of hydrogen as they collapsed gravitationally into a star. And A. Chance of the helium which also comes from the big. Bang by the way, the hydrogen and helium leftovers from the Big Bang. Okay so to the question, is there a lower mass limit and? That's a really interesting question because as I've just said, we, we normally think of things as being highly massive. The the outcome I'm not especially stung population three although I've worked you know to some extent with. Scientists who were looking for extreme population Tucson's we did not in the right when she Looked at some very low messily sixty stars which are extreme population to. But. There certainly have been studies that have looked at exactly this if you've got. A low mass star being formed in the early universe what would happen to it and the usual thinking as the dilemma style wouldn't stay alone my stuff along because as it was growing the so much raw material there it just to suit accumulates more gas and becomes a high mass. So the thinking is that that probably antennae but that was a study which took place in two thousand seventeen. That looked at the possibility. Of there being Aloma star or star, which is going to be a little star it's still. Material if because of gravitational interactions with other objects within the clustering, which is being bombed if those gravitational. Attractions. Ejected it from the birth cluster before it could collect more bass than you might have a population three star, the survives to the present day. They looking at something about point eight of a solar mass. It's not the the Brown Dwarf Star size don't that Ashley was. Referring to which are indeed actually smolder than ten percent I think it's thirteen times. Jupiter is the law for a Brown Dwarf Star. So. They're not at that level. Then much more light, the massive, the sun but point of the mass of the Sun. This was suggesting the star of that mass could survive to the present day. And that means we might find one one that was ejected from his birth cluster before it could get bigger. But it hasn't been found yet. The the normal way of looking for population three stars of course of this is one of the targets of the forthcoming. Array of extremely large optical telescopes that we will have. That to look into to the distant universe. So you're seeing they stars. As they were you know just a few hundred, million years after the birth of the universe that's way you expect to find. Conclusive, evidence of population three thousand. Of course, by looking at the spectrum by looking at the the the Rainbow Spectrum, which contains the signature of any metals that might be that hopefully, this case just hydrogen and helium. Okay. So when he asks about Population Trae. Red. Dwarf. Stars again probably. Probably. Got Small. But. Who knows we might find something like that? It's a great question and a great suggestion population three stars really interesting. Is He? Was He. Can tell from my rather. Long, winded answer the. Well, it's just another thing we think exists in we just haven't found yet. which is a of that going on. Right now, actually second question is about the effect of dark matter just heard everybody grind. Tour about document often We noticed doc mattis effect on the motion of Stars in the Galaxy on the large scale, could we expect to find a similar effect on a smaller scale like the obits of the of planets in our solar system? Would it be feasible idea to put a high accuracy clock on a deep space probe block new horizons to measure the gravitational field in Atta solace systems or our solar system in this guy's yet so you're already measuring the gravitational field just by the trajectory of the spacecraft. that. Tells you what gravity is experiencing? As you watch his movements over time until it's being tracked, very accurately and so the gravitational field is exactly what you'd expect with a few what we've referred to already in this in this podcast, a nonprofit textile perturbations where the radiation of the sun actually pushes things in a slightly different direction from what you'd expect from pure gravity. So that's all sort of taken the council butts. You would not really expect to see any effects of the matter in the solar system because. A on the scale of the solar system. It's very likely that serve distribution of dot is uniform. So it's It's just providing a uniform background within which the planets. Orbiting everything is going on as normal. It's only when you look at large larger scales where the dark matter seems to be concentrated, and in particular on the scandal, the galaxy we know that Mattis concentrated towards the center of the Galaxy. Extend Gina in very cool Halo and the galaxies much much bigger. than the solar system that's when you start seeing the effects of dark matter. And, of course, when you look biggest structures like structures have got a story like clusters of galaxies. Galaxies, you will also see its effects there. So on the scale of the solar system. With small to see the effect dot matter. Okay, I would have thought. and. You probably said this in a different way and much more inside fully that I did but I would have thought the dock matt fix everything when you take into account the entire universe. Yes that's really. Does Bu-. You if you're immersed in a sea of doesn't matter which is not do not changing until then econ detected literally stopped from a gravitational view can detect it. We Hope One day by very subtle particle physics detectors and there's a new one being built. A new one being built here in Australia called a touching a mine. The stole the mind putting dot matter detector in to look for these rare interactions that data me, how with normal matter. That Selah Best Bet for finding I think rather than looking at gravitational changes this most go. All right now let's get to the final question from air interrogated this week Ashley. This one is more of a fun question to do with Mickey Messaging, extra extra terrestrial intelligence. If we take the premise that lots of technologically advanced civilizations existing H. Galaxy, but the set to our in space and time for response, then we can ask the theoretical question of the Aliens Asl's what would you like to know that we can tell you so flipping the question so where the receiver what would you by Andrew and? Fred like the aliens to tell us a quick example of such a thing we transmit a picture of the andromeda galaxy to the andromeda Galaxy notwithstanding the link budget issue as the signal passes through the galaxy in various civilizations detect knowing that we are long gone, decode the signal and say the completely useless but interesting information of what their galaxy looked like two million years ago from the Milky Way flipping that same logic, we detect the signal. From Andromeda and the information it contains is two and a half million years old a picture of Al Galaxy from the. Perspective. So. What's actually actually asking us to answer on this one? He's asking us. What we would like to tell aliens is that each What we will. Tell us how. Okay. You're failing we've been down this road before we've been done similar roads, but it's nice question actually. Introduces an interesting concept, mattie mass messaging extraterrestrial intelligence, which is not something we've done in a big way I. Mean we do it in vertically by all the radio signals that a leaking out into space from the Athens is the Chauve radio signals virtually hundred light years in radio because that's how far these radio signals have gum that probably. So wait now they're indetectable. But we've never. been two occasions when testing new radio telescopes, messages have been beamed into space. In directions that we know contain clusters of stars one. I think was with the our Sabo the show. What was done was kind of crew picture was encoded into the signal was named off. They are however very rare events and hasn't ever been. A sustained campaign to send signals out directed into space. For example, stars that might contain the my have like planets in orbit around them. That has not has not happened. But. That is a project which is part of the breakthrough set of initiatives which we've talked about before the set of initiatives. Funded. By RAMONA A Russian billionaire with a number of quite imminent. Scientists, some of these board which included. when he was alive Stephen Hawking. Breakthrough listening one of them actually using radio telescopes like parks to listen for extraterrestrial signals, none of which have been found yet. But the recently called breakthrough messages parts of the breakthrough initiative, and as it says on their website brain breakthrough message aims to encourage debate about and what to communicate with possible intelligent beings beyond earth he takes the form of an international competition to create messages could be read by an advanced civilization. The message must be in digital format and should be representative of humanity and planet And but they make. That for the moment we have no plan to send these messages. It's really about encouraging global discussion on the ethical and philosophical issues sending messages into space and they pledge not transmit any message until there's been a wide-ranging debater higher levels of science and politics on the risks and rewards if contacted advanced civilizations Stephen, Hawking, you might remember was dead against this kind of thing. Because He. Looked too tasty for the aliens. It's always there's always the risk of MIS interpretation you're such exactly. Send a message of goodwill and humanity and interpret. As something quite tall for declaration. Transplants to did you remember to bring the milk? Yes. Yeah. That's right. and. What I want to know that. I think it's been well portrayed and a bit of a giant but this sort of situation has actually been well portrayed in the hitchhiker's guide to the Galaxy Douglas Adams had a lot of fun with this misinterpretation of messages. And write some very funny parts to the story of the HITCHHIKER's guide to the Galaxy in in in his in his entire story or the the islands, the detective 'cause they misinterpreted message and great by dog. I. Still intrigues me. But the best portrayal was the movie arrival which I think you've. So where the whole of the movie was about the issue of how you communicate with. These ARYANS who turned upon L. Doorstep. Very, very interesting ideas not movies quite and the other one that portrayed. It well was contact where we received an alien signal and what that was sending back to us was the opening ceremony of the nodding thirty, six Olympics, and the first image we saw from the islands was a Nazi swastika so. There is your is exactly the Siamese Ju misinterpretation standing miscommunication whatever you WANNA call it We. We should probably indulge Ashley and say, what would we like the islands to tell us I think. I've tried to think about something different I mean the question comes up How did you come into being? Why are you? There? You know what's what's your history? We do you believe in a creator I'd really like the guy down that road with the islands I think it would be interesting to see if they Sort of. Became advanced and intelligent. Beings. And had a biblical belief backing it up as we do on earth in many different forms But yes, that that's something I would wonder about. I would ask I would ask that question. And you could extend the Andrew to you know to sort of ask in what their version if he. was. Because If you ask a scientist on this that same question. Why did we come from? Then we've got a fairly coach story about that but of course it. Has To have a universe there in the first place and. Nobody's very sure about where that came from. So I think that's A great question is a great line of questioning to take. Minded probably be a lot more. Lot Simpler A. Lot more naive coach I can put it that way be something along the lines of. What you'd ask God that you have. Do you have roosters. That's what we'd asked. Gender Rousson. Again. No it would be shea. Exactly. It will be what's it like way? To use them. As a as a probe to as a tool to probe. The details of an environment in space, which is a long way from us. That will be very interesting. It will be like having a Free Telescope A. Telescope could could give you an imagery of of a things on a local level of an extra solar planet. That will be that will be priceless information Your weather records almost that sort of thing. No. We should. Probe very violent in a way that will be very informative to scientists say over. The Truth Ashley is you've probably never stopped thinking of questions to ask I'm trying. Just beside, much more that you'd want to know it would be an issue revolving Communication situation, I imagine. which would, of course, end with? Frayed so long and thanks for all the fish. Except Here. Actually. Thank you, You have been at guest interrogated this weekend some really really interesting topics that you brought to the. To the platform this weekend we we appreciate it. Thank you so much We're going to have to wrap it up or by the way if you do want to ask a question as I mentioned before you can do that on our website, go to the tap to record your question into it. The fashioned way by sending us an email all available on website space nuts podcast dot com. And that's GONNA it up for another week. Fred. It sounds like Andrew. Integrate to discussion and look forward to the next one, which might not be too far away. Probably what? The going to wear so. We'll we'll go out with some beautiful sounds the music of the Milky Way. As created by the Chandra X ray observatory, and the Spitzer space telescope and the Hubble Space, telescope will as images put together to create. a beautiful image but then like put music tour and created this, it is just absolutely lovely. And now, that's how we'll finish this week. Thanks as always deferred thanks to here in the studio and from Andrea. Thanks to your company will look forward to you joining you again on the next episode of spice nuts. To despite not podcast. Available at Apple podcast Google podcasts at spotify radio. Your favorite podcast Playa can also streamed on demand God still Tom this is now the podcast production from dot com.
A Ring Galaxy Discovery
"Love this podcast support this show through the ACOSS support of HR. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. Fifteen seconds guided journal and. Admission sequence UH. Space Nuts. Three. To. Five. report it feels good. Hello again thank you for joining us on the space nuts. podcast is episode two, hundred and sixteen more word. And next week it's episode one thousand because we can't count My name is Andrew Dunkley joining me as always is professor Fred. What's astronomer large? Hello Fred Hi Andrew How you doing? I am quite well, sir. How are you? I'm doing fine. Thanks. Yeah. All good. I am a milestone this weekend or last weekend with the knee. Because of being free of the industrial strength painkillers now drive again, which is great. So You. Six. Weeks. We'd. Restrictions on people who take drugs I, don't understand that. Were good drugs. Imagine this. Yeah. Some of the strong painkillers because they've changed all the rules in stride era and now there are certain things that he used to be able to get over the counter. The now have a prescription for and it's much much harder than it used to be the to get pain medication and all sorts of other medications and I suppose that's because people were abusing them. and turning them into things they shouldn't have. Three. So the instant remarks disarm assery pain because of people who WanNa make money on the side yeah. Thanks a lot. but but you're the pain isn't too bad. Now it's doing case still exhibit as I said, six weeks after the operation it's. A seems to be doing really well I'm doing my physio program and you know up keeping keeping hot at work at it just to make sure the new knee joint doesn't seize up or anything like that But yeah, it was a big. Drive success me back to a normal life basically. Indeed yeah and my back saved up three weeks ago I. So I understand the pain you're going through. Thanks for the crunchy little letter you sent meets good on Ya. Thanks. Let's talk about what's on this week we are going to be talking about this this distant galaxy that made the news by the white sides wake. This waker is whitmer. Do we introduced a couple of really amazing stories and answer a couple of questions one of which actually relates somewhat to this particular story about this this galaxy that appears to us due to a gravitational effect as a ring. But when you unravel it, it's a more amazing There's also concern in this why doesn't surprise me? That landing modules on the moon could pollute the ice. The order is shock who would have thank it and we got anywhere answer some questions today one Brian about whether or not. We are just a universe inside an atom inside a massive universe was something to that effect and another quirky little question about the the universe and whether or not. They could be another Milky Way Galaxy and son editor in another part of the universe all very interesting stuff which we will unravel today on the space nuts podcast. First Fred. Let's look at this ring like. Or looks that way from our perspective. Indeed, that's right and I. Listen. Andrew to to see if they can see a picture of this because it is really an amazing image. It's A European Southern Observatory press release, but he's also been picked up by the media. So he so is the organization that issued this. Is Data from the. Array the Atacama. Large millimeter. In Chile which is partly operated not completely, but partly operated by the European. Southern Observatory. So that the headline for the. Press releases almasy's most distant milky way look alike, and if you can of do search not you probably find it because they image is extraordinary it is almost a perfect ring. And like that, because of an effect called Gravitational Lensing, which I've talked about before but this is a very special. Sort of situation in the effects in the what you've got is a galaxy, a distant galaxy, which is exactly in line with a very, much more distant galaxy. So To basically three galaxies in a straight line because we're in as well. So from. Point we say a galaxy. which is in front of a more distant one, and you might think well that just you know the nearer one will block out the light of the foul, but it doesn't of course because of the. Gravitational effects of the near a galaxy store space around it it makes space behave like a lens. In fact, it makes a space behaves like a gigantic telescope because you effectively magnify the the distant Galaxy Beyond and certainly. Increase the. Light intensity of it but of course, it also distorts it. About the particular case of distortion that you see here is what Einstein predicted in I think was nineteen, thirty, six member. Rightly he predicted in a situation where you get two bodies exactly lineup the further body would look like a ring. It will be stilted a ring and that's why it's called a nine Stein ring. He didn't believe we'd ever see these things but. In the nineteen seventies we started picking them up. This is really stunning example of of an Einstein ring. But what is I think even more stunning is that given the computational power that we have today and the algorithms used for? Essentially reduced. Reducing the data. Scientists are able to to look at that ring look at the structure in it and anybody who's looking at the picture will see that is nobly, is is not just a perfectly uniform bring a Scott variations in intensity around it circumference. But we with modern computational facilities, you can take that ring and you can basically say, okay, we know what the effects of the gravitational lens walls let's. Basically turn the ring into what it would have looked like if we could see this galaxy directly. Any fights on the ISA press release there is a rather nice video that shows that process taking place while you go from a ring to to galaxy by. Lube essentially something called involving to turn into the original galaxy itself, and then that's where the story really starts because it turns out that this galaxy, which is twelve billion light years away. So his life is taken, you know almost the full age of the universe to get here. It's rather like the Milky Way, which is a surprise. The resemblance to the Milky Way is this galaxy has a disk and he also has a bright nucleus bright cord to it which our galaxy has to. What don't cease fire alarms? May Be just because you know that sedate tell too difficult to reveal or perhaps more likely they have formed yet because this galaxies in baby galaxy. It's only you know something like one one and a half billion years old. It's well, let me put it a different way. We see as it was when the universe was only about a billion and a half years old. So the university itself was young that the galaxy was young. We're now looking back from advantage point in a galaxy thirteen point eight, billion years old. Galaxies. Look a lot different now from what most galaxies look like in the early universe. But this one is a bit of a standout because unlike many of the galaxies that we have observed from this era which are pretty ragged looking Faz because they have got themselves sorted out yet as as as clearly has. This. One looks is it is rather neat and tidy not surprised to the authors of this work who by the way are based mostly in Europe. It's an astonishing star. Amazing. It is, and as I mentioned, it relates to a question we're going to answer lighter on We've talked about coincidences in alignment before an and one of those is when we say a total solar eclipse and it's just coincidence that the moon is just the right size to cover the disk of the sun at this point in time, and so we're very very lucky to be able to say that. So this is a similar coincidence that we aligned with Galaxy, which is lined up with a galaxy in a perfect straight line to create this. This lensing effect that gives us a ring galaxy on I think that's just incredible. It is. It is an amazing story done. Yeah, I think. You know the the interest in the press release is really about the puzzle. This is a a a galaxy that looks older than he is, and he one of the authors actually says more or less. Now, what we found was quite puzzling despite forming styles at a high rate and therefore being the site of highly energetic practices. Under. Galaxy S. P T. zero four one, eight, minus forty seven. Zero eight minus forty seven is the most well ordered galaxy disc ever observed in the early universe not the result is quite unexpected. Than has important implications for how we think galaxies evolve. So remarkable stuff. Yeah. It's an extraordinary story, but I just led by studying this one. We could learn a lot about ourselves and way we are in the universe maybe that's right. Yes because we were so that in a welded galaxies are recent product to the university and when you look back in time, you see these scruffy ones that don't look at all well ordered. Yeah, fantastic or I I would I might do is. Get the image from the website and get a producer huge. Put it up as the photo attached to this week's episodes. People can see it as we're talking about it they've they've done a couple of variations of the image some some give a really good example of what we're talking about. So I'll say what I can do. They've it's it's quite a when when when was this one originally discovered doing are Quite recently I think it's probably The usually the. One to two years between the observations in the paper being published. So I would guess within the last year Atto. Yeah Wow. Okay. We'll keep an eye out for that. When when you clicked play on our episode, you've probably already seen it on what is that will now we've told you. You're listening space nuts with Andrew Dunkley and Fred Watson. Now. Let's take a little break and find out more about our sponsor express VPN writer number one biotech radar. This is the one I use. I've been using it for a couple of years and I love it when I joined expressive APN. Now brand new new to the market but I read a lot of reviews and did a lot of comparisons and it was just something about the business model that I particularly liked and couple years down the track. Honestly. Can't complain their interface is very easy to use the service is second to none. I've had to contact them a couple of times about certain things that I wanted to do and I were brilliant. So you may be wondering why I do need a VPN at all it's all about privacy Do you really want big tech companies, governments and others knowing? What's going on with your online activity? Even if you're having nothing to hide, it just feels downright creepy. I think you'll agree and governments are getting more and more interested in what you're doing everyday and so protecting your privacy what Vpn is all about and how often do you run across websites that you want to get information from only define that the GEO blocked this is becoming an increasing problem, but express Fabian solves that problem foyer. Now. If you go to special URL, you'll see quad list of things. This service can help you with things you may never have thought of before as I say, it's the one I use secure fast and it just works. So. Protect yourself online today and find out more about how to get three months free at try express VPN DOT com slash space. That's T. R. Y. E., X. P. R. E. S. S. VPN DOT com slash space for three months free with a one year package. Try Express VPN DOT com slash space to learn more and you'll find the link details in the show notes and on our website now back to the show. All space nuts once again would like to thank our patrons. We getting a few patrons join us every week, and we appreciate your financial support of the spice nuts podcast, which can customers little as you lock can cost you nothing at all. It is completely. Up to you as to whether or not you decide to support the podcast financially if that something you would like to do, you can do it three Patriots or super cast, and you can find those links on our website spice nuts, podcast dot com but thank you to all of our patrons, and of course, as a patron we give you bonus material. We give you a commercial free version of the PODCAST and we give it to you early is just at saying thank you and once again to everybody who supports the spice nuts podcasting whatever form even just listening through youtube to get download numbers up that helps as well. So thank you very much. Now to Annex Story Fred and this one is not so positive in the astronaut Michael World that of land is on the moon polluting the water is. How human of us to do such a thing? Isn't it but this is another story under the that surprise me. Down Stein Ring. One. So they did this did too because who would have thought. That AH lander. With. Coming down on the Moon's surface with its exhaust plume helping to decelerate the spacecraft so that it does a soft landing who would have thought that the products of exhaust could actually go all the way round the moon. That's Steiner idea because the moon is not a small body. A quarter, the size of the earth. So Couple of basics, the moon doesn't have an atmosphere as we do. But. It does have what we call the next US fear which is. Basically a very rarefied gas around it. So you might think of as a very, very thin atmosphere. A, which is. You know basically very different incident hydrogens that. We know. Other things too. I'm so what we're talking about here though is. Dot being polluted by lodge comedies, particularly, Water Vapor, which is present in the in the exhaust of. Of. A spacecraft. So. This is a in fact, the the work that we're reporting actually comes from simulations it's not anything that's been measured. These modeling simulations light actually at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore Maryland But what the scientists have shown there is if you take just. Kind of. small-sized. Luna Honda. Nothing as big as the the Luna models that landed during the Apollo. I. Think they basically looked at something a bit more than a tongue twenty, six, hundred and fifty pound lambda that out twelve hundred kilograms. That's much less than the Apollo lunar modules were okay. So what you do, you stimulate this thing coming down with its exhaust plume, slowing it down touches down near the Moon South Pole. And that the first thing that staggering is that simulation showed that the exhaust really takes only a matter of hours to disperse around the entire mood. Really. Yeah and and two months later. Thirty to forty percent of this vapor. Actually persisted in the Lenexa via the sphere of very rarefied gas. And then they said. That ultimately. Eventually a few months after that about twenty percent of the gas would freeze out back into water near the pose of the moon. That's because those are the regions on the moon, the DAKOTAS, these places in the in the crisis neither south of North Pole while the sum never reaches. So. It's we we know there is water. Is there for many observations that particularly at the South? Pole. That is that's froze mortar in some of these craters. Now, what that means of course is that when you do scientific investigations of that water that natural water, there is the moon's polls. Suddenly you've gotta take into account the fact that that as water ice there that come from the exhaust of spacecraft, which is earthly origin is not you know this is not stuff that has arrived by comments stuff like that. And so people are very much looking forward to studying the water isis at the moon south to look at things like the. Isotope. Ratios which tells you a little bit about the origin of that water ice. If you suddenly find that there's all the stuff that's got who are very earth-like Isotope. Maybe. That's GONNA. Spoil these these observations. In fact, as the as so some of the researchers say. The So these are some of the. Yes. This is talking about the natural ice in the in the crisis of the mood, South Pole these some of the only places where we can find traces of the origin of water in the inner solar system. And reading that record requires measuring the composition of those isis as well as their various isotopes to deduce whether likely came from and how they may have gotten their frozen out exhaust gases from robotic or human exploration that collect on those Isis could come found these measurements even if the land of touches down hundreds of miles away. Is a remarkable thing who would have thought that we could. So easily pollute the moon's environment by spacecraft that have gone there already. I'm not at all. Surprised me. Honest. Had such a natural thing for humans to do. Let's trash the price. Out On it, we've we've driven around on it. We've left all junk behind. We've got a habit of doing these things. But. If I may. We know there's water on the moon. And we now there's water on the moon that we put their through Lunar Exhaust. Land. Exhaust But. Water. Would have gotten on the moon through I suppose impacts. Objects and would they have been Warta potentially on the Moon as it? was created after the impact of. Of of that unknown planet into worth. I think now created the moon. Does that too early in the in in the process for to have extracted water? It's eight full that some of the water I mean this is really specifically referring to the earth, which is also a puzzle as to to wear water came from and impacts by. Suddenly one. One answer to that but there is that suggests that you know the the the the young self embodied water molecules in its structure. And the same is probably true of the two of the move when it was impacted. By Sia is the name of the object that the hinshaw. It's a hypothetical object, but is so entrenched in our understanding of. The move came from the. She got a name. Night after the the mother of. The Moon itself a great night. So yes. So they may well have been water molecules hydrated rocks within that objected self. Meant the world from the moonies indigenous rather than having. Viacom. And these are all you know these are ideas. That is one reason why people are so much looking forward to to analyzing the water on the moon to try and see whether we can learn stuff from that. But they now to take into account the fact that the might be layer of. Water on top of it a frozen frozen water this come from rocketed sauce. Interesting stuff job every excellent work. There, enough back as I mean that. Quite a bit but. Supposed to what you have said though opens up another avenue of thinking in my mind is in the water on earth in the water on the moon and perhaps the water in so many other places. Is a multi mix of sources it's not just one sort of deposit from one place it could come from all sorts of different. Situations and created what has become a unique mix on earth I. Imagine water is probably nothing like water anywhere else. IN IN A. Minute Sense. Yeah. That's that's that's true. The key. Signature in in terms of water where it came from the isotope ratio between. It's between noble hydrogen and heavy hydrogen, which is usually called deterioration. That will conform water molecules as well as cold heavy-water. and. So it's the ratio of light water to heavy-water. Is the one of the key. Signatures of where war tomorrow come from and so that that you know that really. Just, to set the scene back in. The nineteen seventies and eighties the theory was prevalent that all water on earth that come from comets. Between our objects. And we know comments impacted their throughout its history. So take that as your starting point, but then when we started. Visiting comet. That gossip is in more detail. We founded the isotope ratio in comic water is not the same as in the water on the earth and that. Kind of suggest that perhaps comments were not the. Were not the the source of water. This is the thinking back in probably two, thousand, two, thousand, ten's. However. There one or two comments that do have the same isotope ratio as a swatter. So among the comments this variation and I think you're right that what we wound up with is probably a mixture of various different sources. Exactly as you said I think that's looking to the Roy under. Okay, now, sending a messy water to the moon. Well When time comes for them to report on what they've found when they get a chance to analyze it we can talk about it again. We'll be fascinating. Revelation are imagine plus so let Lunar Exhaust. Yes. You're listening to the space nuts podcasts my name's Andrew. Dunkley with me, Professor Fred Watson. Space. Nuts now did mention youtube earlier where people can log on and listen to lightest podcast as well as all ow material from day one dating back to eighteen, twenty two or whenever we started something. It was twenty are more. thank you for listening. Of course, we we're available on all sorts of platforms you'll. You'll find us on facebook, the official space nuts facebook page, but there's also a face book group that has been created by spice nuts listeners, the space nets pod podcast creep on facebook where you can old chapter each other share ideas and a lot of people like to ask questions and see what the group thinks. It's It's a pretty good little. Grip very dynamic. So if you haven't joined the space nuts podcast group on facebook, get look it up and say Hillary I. Think you'll find it most enjoyable. and with we've got on just about every podcast distribution platform on the interwebs. picky fiber and and listen to her say you. So desire I mean if you listen to this message clearly doing that anyway. Let's go to some questions Fred and this one comes from. Brian. Kenyan get I on a nice to have you send us in a question He asks have you guys looked at the solar system as a bigger much atom Small comparison to how they have some similarities for an eighth grade. Pipe has this been discussed and have we thought we just seems to something bigger. Now, I've seen this kind of imagery portrayed in science fiction movies and there was even A. Story on facebook this week, which may be way Bryan. Came up with the idea for this question or it's a coincidence I wouldn't be surprised but it was suggesting that the universe is just inside an atom of a greater universe. It's an interesting concept whether or not it's possible. I don't know maybe you do fred. Don't realize this but the do. I really liked Brian's. Question because. I remember you know this is centuries ago and Brian said he was thinking about this for eighth grade paper. It was probably about the same age when I was thinking exactly the same thing that you know I got your remember sitting in looking at dust particles in in a beam of sunlight. environment is the sunshine shining in the see these dust particles. Now thinking I wonder that little solar systems because I knew the atoms, the electrons around them, which were a bit like the planets of the solar system. And Kinda, Chip Mail Pouch lethal maybe maybe there's a tiny solar system. However what we know about the atom. tells us the is very different from what we know about the planet so that it's a nice analogy, but it doesn't have a you know it doesn't carry full with. Partly because. I. Guess the. When we think of an atom The the original idea of the Tim was that you had a nucleus with electrons. which were in orbit around the nucleus, and that's where the comparison with planets comes in. We now know of course, these are actually just Basically A. Cloud they're not. They're not electrons that probability clouds. If, I put it that way when you you may have an electron and you might not have an electron because of the way autumn physics works. So they just clouds of. Essentially clouds ways. That's another way of looking at them but nevertheless, the idea of of an atom with its electrons whizzing round it is still a very nice concept. It differs however substantially from what a solar system looks like because we know from both our own Selma system and other ones that we've observed around other stars the we don't have things whizzing around in different orbits at least as far as the planet concerned the planet are all in the same plane they're not at angle differently A. Slight differences a few degrees but basically, a solar system is a star then this disc of planets around it rather than what we would envisage and asked him to like with its electrons always around in different inclinations even though we now don't actually think that Mali's correct. That's the reason why the planet is rolling. The same plan is because they came from a disk of debris, the protoplanetary disks that's what they were formed it. He can just extend this one step further though because comments do behave more like the way, we would have envisaged electrons that come in all kinds of different angles the. Excuse me because we believe that comets actually come in from the Orange Cloud, which is a shell of material material around the some. which is really a leftover from the original cloud of debris in which the solar system was full. So is a nice tonight's comparison. When you? Okay. So then he say while is the solar system a big atom in something bigger an innocent is because popped the galaxy but. The IT turns out that you know the space between the solar system's making PA galaxy probably even bigger than the space between the individual atoms? Making up a solid. On Earth. A So. It's it's an analogy doesn't really carry any weight theoretically but certainly a nice way to envisage the way the solar system fits into the bigger picture. It's a good question to ask because I think we will bay as kids may as a grind up. To. Wanted if our world was just a A universe under some giants thumbnail. We've all had those kinds of thoughts because and the reason I suppose we think that is because we have so many unanswered questions about the universe and this so much about the physics and the science and the and the. Lack, of knowledge that all mix up to create these these theories, we all want answers and we all. Let our imaginations run wild and you know they things can be become real insides fiction. But we're starting to kind of get a handle on it and realize certain things can't a. but it reminds me of the original line king movie when The two mates relying Dan looking up into the night sky and One of them said to the other water water allies, lights, and the first one says it's just the holes in the cloak of not letting the sun shine through and the other one said. I thought there were millions and millions and millions of worlds just like als adding. The riches nothing. Very. Cleverly done have one of them. The same very dumb came up with the exact right answer to the middle of the situation. But you know we've all been they read. An but the great question Brian Thank you very much for it because it's nice to revisit those ideas. Indeed thank you Brian Hey from let's move onto the next question from James, Friedrich Very South Australian now he's from Loxton in South Australia, of course those who don't know what we're talking about south? Australia has a very significant German heritage. German, settlers began the the wine industry in parts of South Australia tend to be perfect for growing wine We now starting to realize that most of. Most of the southeastern quarter of a strider is great for growing wine. Now, even grow in this district, which is some quite a dry arid place at some times, but perfect for for growing. Anyway Fred James US I recently read an in this sort of relates back to our first story about the ring galaxy that we were discussing a read. Recently, an article that said the data from the bank satellite suggests that. Spacey's flat and Infinite, or at least absurdly huge and curved I wonder spice is truly infant infinite. Do you think it's possible that matter somewhere else in some preposterously far-flung part of the universe would have arranged itself so that there is another milky way another son another earth and they for another you and I contemplating the same question. it just seems that if the universe is infinite then it must be inevitable just wondering what your thoughts are on this now. Again sort of looking at science fiction. I've actually made movies about sickened earth. and. It's another one way your childhood imagination probably guys from time to time. That's right. Actually James is kind of on the money because so that that. He's referring to come came from the plank satellite, which is one of the spacecraft that men should the cosmic microwave background radiation and he get. Results from that really talk about Joma tree of the universe. And so. The belief really is that the universe is probably flat and that doesn't mean it checked like a tabletop. Maine's the geometry that we experience around US essentially extends. To very great distances in other words, parallel lines never made. And triangles have A. Hand goes up two hundred and eighty degrees. So it's Normal Joma Tree. and. That's pretty well the the the the view of most. cosmologists a blue look at the history. Of the universe is a whole and a consequence of that is that the universe is probably extremely large. And we really don't know what that means. Because is possible it may be infinite. We don't we. We were not able to see an infinite universe because they're our horizons beyond which we can't see one of them as the cosmic microwave background radiation, the flash of the of the Big Bang, which is kind of like a wall of radiation. Thirty point eight billion light years away. that. We are looking back setting point eight billion years that we can't see beyond. So we we live in a bubble of the universe, this little bubble within which we can see and beyond that, there's probably a lot more universe that might be like might be infinite. I think of it. You know imagine a beach ball or something like that floating around in a in a concert hall. And the console rep might represent the universe. The beach ball is what we can see of it tiny part. Aware at the center, of course. So. Even. Though even within. The observable universe we believe there are two trillion galaxies and that is not just a it comes from measurements made by the Hubble Space, telescope true two, trillion galaxies, each of which might have a hundred billion stars. So you're talking about around two to the power twenty, three stars. Now we know that most start planet so. It does seem like a very large number of objects even within the observable universe let alone the infinite universe beyond it if it is infinite. The obviously a great. Reservoir of potential objects that might turn out to be like ourselves and might have. You, know James and ourselves contemplating the same question another earth we know it's a, it's A. It's A. Theory that certainly are an idea that certainly has Mary e can't just dismiss that idea tool perfectly valid. The perhaps the argument on the other side comes from astro biologists many of whom think that the step from. Single celled organisms. multicellular life might be very, very rare, and therefore for the intelligent life, itself might be very rare. And that it but even then you know when you way up the statistics who knows it all comes back drake equation of gross entered. Most of which we don't most of whose promises we don't know We do know that there are planets how. Which Frank Drake didn't know any put the thing together back in the sixties still. The you know we we can only guess at the likelihood that the might be other intelligence agencies. She's out there the downside the real downside is, yes. It's there yet while they might be of the of the folks like us out that the distance is so colossal. Even within the bubble, which is the observable universe you talking about distances measured in many billions of light years and that as a very big challenge for actually finding these punitive individuals if they all they're. Certainly, rules out any kind of communication with them at least with the physics that we know about today. So it's a yeah, I think you know that's James suggests that lifelike our Species, like ourselves. Talking to one another in the same way as we are doing now might be inevitable elsewhere. That's A reasonable assumption to make but we don't know. We might never be able to prove it. Never know kids. something. You said in James's referred to about the universe flat confuses me because we've told in the past about the universe expanding at writing right in all directions simultaneously. Which says to me it's very cool. So how could it be flat? Yes. So all we talking. Material in it? No, it's just jail matry an it's a description is a polling night talk about the university flat because it does what you know it. GIVES A pitfall everybody falls into. Because it is. It does have spherical symmetry. The flatness refers to whether. Whether geometry. that we understand here on the. Weather that extends over the full size of the universe in other words is parallel lines don't mate. Powerlines don't maintain a flat. Universe but. You can point those power lines in any direction because he's got it's very cool. Very cool symmetry. It's confusing to an surreally by. Now I. Get it now in my sent. So I get I get it. Thank you. Thank. You to repeat it. Comes from the fact that if you I mean I'm sitting the title of the Moon Imagining The table that has normal geometry. with. Power lines not making trying goes angles ending up Tony Nineteen Grease. If this table was not a table but a globe and that was balancing my laptop. Rather precariously. that. Would not have flat geometry on it because he's a globe is a curved surface and the geometry curved surface different. Parallel lines meet and goes don't add up to one hundred eighty degrees. That's where the night comes from the flat universe. It's the geometry, not the shape of the universe itself. Got Ya. Thank you. Wish. Net. Thirty five years ago in my mathematics ambit. Anyway it's too late now. Much to light. Anybody's understood is. there. All right. Thank you very much. James great question gave us a lot to think about and and also hello to the other James from Loxton South strata in the other earth at the end of the universe. Thank you for asking the question. Thank you, Fred. That's where we wrap it up for another week. It's been a lot of fun have been an interesting one for science week. Yes. Indeed. That's right. scraped. Great. A have I've got a big it coming up tonight as well with CSL road talking about the square kilometer array. So I'm looking forward to that. All systems go. Or very good. Well, we'll look forward to your company again next week. Thanks, right. That's great. Thanks. That's Fred. What's an astronomer lodge here on the space and that's podcast in for me. android dunk. Thank you again. Don't forget to send your questions in via our website space nuts, podcast, dot com you click on the link and if you've got a device with a microphone in just hit record, tell us who you are where you're from and ask your question we love Odia questions. But if you don't want to do that, you can always send them in via text form and we look forward to your company on the next edition of the spice nuts podcast pays. To this. Available at Apple podcasts Google. PODCASTS spotify iheartradio. Plan. You can also stream on demand stuff on. This has been another podcast production from thoughts dot com.
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Ancient Milky Way Eruption Still Shines Bright
"I. Love this podcast, support this show through the ACOSS support of HR. It's up to you. How much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty three episodes, sixty five full broadcast on the twenty ninth of June, twenty twenty, coming up on space time the ancient eruption at the heart of the Milky. Way Galaxy at still shines bright millions of years later, a Cyrus rix asteroid sample collection set down for October twenty and an annual solar eclipse captivates the world as it sweeps across Africa Asia and the Pacific. All that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd still Gary. About three and a half million years ago, supermassive black hole at the centre of our Milky Way Galaxy suddenly unleashed an enormous burst of energy. This blast was so powerful yearly hominids ancestors of modern day humans roaming across the Savannahs of Africa would've noticed this gigantic flair as a ghostly glow, higher head, constellation secretaries. Maybe a million years now aons later astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope are uncovering more clues about this cataclysmic explosion, looking to the outskirts of the Milky Way Galaxy, they founded the blackhawks. Floodlight has now reached so far in a space it's illuminated vast train of gas, trailing the milky ways to prominent satellite galaxies, the large and small match. Let it clouds. The was probably caused by a massive cloud of hydrogen gas, maybe a hundred thousand times, the mass of our sun, collapsing down under the creation disc of material, swirling around the blackhawks event horizon, the resulting blast. Blast sent cones of blistering ultraviolet radiation I above, and below the plane of the Galaxy and space, the Radiation Kern that blasted out of the Milky, way South Pole lit up a massive ribbon like guests. Structure called the magical in extreme. This magical in extreme gas and dust connects both the large and small. Let it clouds with the Milky Way itself, and is thought to be caused by gravitational tidal interactions as out galaxy slowly begins to cannibalize the magical any clouds now a report on the ESTER. Physical Journal claims. The flash lit up a portion of the. The stream ionizing it's hydrogen, and after one hundred million sons by stripping electrons away from their protons, the study's lead author Andrew Thoughts from the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore Maryland says flesh was so powerful. Illit lit up the street mark Christmas tree a truly cataclysmic event. In fact, this shows astronomers are supermassive black holes impact, not just their own galaxies, but also those around them Fox's it also shows how different regions of the galaxy a linked what happened to the galactic. Centre, really does make a difference to what happens out in the magic extreme the. The authors used hobbled. Vala capabilities to probe the stream by using background quasars, the bright 'cause, distant active galaxies as a light sources, hobbled cosmic origins spectograph can see the fingerprints of ionized atoms in this ultraviolet light from quasars, the authors studied sidelines the twenty-one quasars far behind the magical in extreme and ten behind another feature called the leading arm, attended an shredded gases armed that precedes the mental, and it clouds in their orbit around the Milky Way. When light from quasars pass through the gas, some of it specific wavelength gets absorbed by atoms in the cloud. And Win astronomers looked at the quays spectrum at specific wavelengths. They see evidence of light absorption that they wouldn't see that. I hadn't passed through the cloud, and that tells them something about the gas itself. Uses found evidence at the ions have been created the magical and extreme by an energetic flash, this burst was so powerful that lit the stream. Even though it's an incredible two hundred thousand light years away from the Galactic, center and the source of the explosion, interestingly, unlike the magical in extreme leading I'm didn't show any evidence of being lit up the Flair, and that makes sense because the leading arm isn't. Isn't sitting right below the South Galactic Oh, so it wasn't shout with bursts radiation, another interesting point this same event, which caused this radiation flea. We're talking about also generated those hot plasma FERMI bubbles. We talked about last week as massive bubbles, tearing some thirty thousand light years above and below the plane of the Milky Way, they're energetic. Gamma-ray glow was discovered in two thousand ten analysis firming Gamma-ray Space Telescope. And as we mentioned last week story in two thousand Fifteen Fox used hobbles ultraviolet spectroscopy to measure the expansion velocity composition of ballooning lobes, and now Fox and colleagues have managed to stretch will be on the FERMI bubbles. Faulk says he always thought the funny bubbles in the magical and extreme was separate and unrelated to each other each doing their own thing and different parts of the galaxy's Halo, but he now sees that the same powerful flash from the MILKYWAY's for three million solar mass black hole played a major role in both. This space time still the come Cyrus. Rex's asteroid sample collection set down for October. Twenty and spectacular annual solar eclipse sweeps across Africa Asia and the Pacific all that and more coming up on space time. Nassar is, said October twenty as the date when the Sarah Rick spacecraft will maneuver down to the rugged Boulder Strewn surface of the asteroid Banou, an attempt to collect a sample of the engine space rock for return to Earth. The touch and go tag sample collection event will be the culmination of more than a decade of Planning Work Mission. Manages Caridad a successful I rather so back on April fourteenth and a second. It's been slated for August eleven. The original target data sample collection was planned for late August, but then you October. Twenty date will allow more time to prepare in the wake of the covid nineteen pandemic. Ten nine, hundred and fifty five new is what's known as an Apollo Group asteroid that means it's a neo near Earth object on an orbit which intersects with in Crosses, Earth's orbit around the Sun beneath classified as type B carbonaceous asteroid, generally similar to topsy kaban asteroids, droids, but with surface spectra suggesting Priscila gets. Klay Minerals organic polymers magnetized and Sulfides the four hundred ninety to meet a white space rock as an intrinsically dynamically unstable orbit with a significant one in twenty seven hundred chance of hitting the Earth between twenty, one, seventy, five and twenty, one nine. That's one of the highest confirmed impact probabilities of any asteroid. That, if it were to Clyde with the earth, the resulting impact would be the equivalent of twelve hundred megatonne thermonuclear device launch from the Cape Canaveral. Air Force. Station Florida aboard an atlas, five, rocket back on September. The twenty, six, sixteen, the two, thousand, one, hundred ten kilogram, Cyrus wreck spacecraft arrived at Banou in October, twenty eighteen. The probe spending threes orbiting the asteroid. Jude's as low as five kilometers mapping the. The News surface geology, studying its evolution, chemistry and mineralogy, one of its key mission objectives, involves studying non gravitational influences such as the Kofsky effect in which sunlight heats up the surface of an asteroid, and that Haiti's then radiated back into space is the asteroid rotates providing small thrust knowing the news physical properties will be critical for scientists, trying to determine the likelihood of this mountain sized asteroid slamming into the earth. When the Cyrus undetected sample collection, he one actually touched down on the surface, but will have a just above extending a robotic gone down to collect about two kilograms of pristine. Asteroid Regla the sample return to Earth spacecraft decided to leave Banou orbit in much twenty, twenty, one with a sample return capsule, being jettison for a parachute landing in Utah in September, twenty, twenty, three. This space, time. Still to come an annual solar eclipse sweeps across Africa. Asia and the Pacific, providing spectacular celestial display, and China launches more spy satellites, bringing its total Earth Observation Fleet to willow the ninety all that and more still to come on space time. People across parts of Africa Asia and the Pacific of being treated to a spectacular aniela solar eclipse time to coincide with the June. solstice solar eclipses happen when the Moon's orbit lines up in such a way that it passes directly between the Sun. The Moon Tolbert around. The Earth is actually inclined back. Five degrees compared to Earth orbit around the Sun So normally the moon's orbit, a piece to across the sky, either slightly above or slightly below the path son, but roughly every eighteen months. Oh, a lunar orbit places the men directly between the sun and the earth resulting in solar eclipse. Eclipse this happen because over the moon, some four hundred times smaller than Sun. It's also some four hundred times closer to the earth, and so the to appear to be the same size in the sky, as seen from when the Sun Moon and earth lineup exactly experiences a total solder eclipse as the sequoias, the moon begins to slowly pass in front of the sun and Partial Lunar Shadow. A number crosses the surface of the earth. And this can last over an hour. As more and more of the sun is hidden by the face of the moon, then just before totality occurs the Christians son converges into a single, brilliant white diamond of sunlight, as the very last bits of the sun's bright disk shines along the edge of the moon, and the first glimpses the faint. Created a ring around the moon and effect known as the Diamond Ring, then in the last fleeting moments before totality, the diamond ring breaks up into a string of beads, created the Sun's ray shine through the low lying valleys between the mountains, along the Lamar edge of the moon once this fate in on his bailey speeds ends. The moon has completely covered the entire disk of the sun, and you're into town, was he? During totality, the is part of the moonshadow known as the number crosses the surface. During this time, the skies doc stars will appear. It'll suddenly get notice with Kula. Birds will start roosting shedders will take on. On unusual crescent shape, and you'll be able to see the sun's tenuous outer atmosphere corona, glowing, a milky white, often explosions on the sun's surface called prominence will appear a spectacular, Bright Pink or Red Cloud, stretching high above the lunar limb. This path of totality can be up to two hundred and seventy two kilometers wide, although usually it's a lot less and the further away you are from the center of the Path. The shorter the eclipse duration will be if you're outside the line of totality to the north, or south of you'll only see a partial eclipse, which only part of the sun's disc will be covered by the moon. The reason, a total solar eclipse, he's only visible over small part of the earth is because the moonshadow is relatively small when it falls on the Earth on average, the moon orbits about three, hundred, eighty, four, thousand, four hundred kilometers from the Earth about the men's over around the earth is in a perfect circle. It slightly elliptical, meaning one part of the orbit, a bit closer to the Earth about three hundred fifty seven thousand kilometers. That's as parody and another. Another part of the lunar orbit will be bit further away around four hundred and six thousand kilometers, that's not as apogee and win. The Moon's orbit takes a little bit further away. A man looks a little bit smaller in the sky, and if that coincides with a solar eclipse, it doesn't cover the entire face the sun, so instead of a total solar eclipse, the Moon's passage across the sun create an annual or a ring of fire as light from the. The Sun completely surrounds the dock had moon resulting in an annual or eclipse, and that's what happened on June. The twenty first the spectacle began at sunrise over the Central African Republic, and then crossed the Congo and Ethiopia before moving over the Arabian Peninsula, southern, Pakistan northern India and China and then ending sunset over the Pacific Ocean a partial eclipse was visible in north and east Africa's will southeastern Europe most of Asia and Australia wasn't completely left out people across. Across the top in were treated to a sky show those endowing getting fifty seven minutes of partial eclipse while people at the northern tip of Cape York. We're given twenty two minutes of showtime. As the moon continues to slowly move away from the earth rate of about three centimeters per year, eventually, solar eclipses will become a singer of the past, but you don't need to be Earth to witness eclipse as Jonathan. Nellie editor restrained sky and Telescope magazine explains. very often said opposite of the lot. You may say to yourself. Lots of people say that we are very lucky here on that we can experience title. Salary pitches all right. This is because the moon and the Sun a very very different in size but they are just the right sizes, and each of them just the distance from Earth. So when we look at them, they seem to be the same size in the sky. This is with one hundred comes in. The the moon is about one four hundredth of the size of the sun, but it's four hundred times class roughly so we can get titles. Older ships is because the moon can cover up. The Sun doesn't always do so sometimes because the moon's orbit is he lip? Sometimes, it's a little bit further away. From my someone moves in front of the Sun doesn't completely cover the sun, and you get an annual Phipps or ring of fire eclipse, which leaves a little bit of sunlight around the the the age of the moon, but as far as total solar trip says yeah, everyone always says gee. Really lucky and millions and millions of millions of years from now when the moon will moved further away from the earth because he's getting further and further away at the rate of. Growth. Scar was interesting. Goodness Crashes Three Senators. The we'll have to get to the moon on with. so we're very very lucky that we can. We can see these total phone. the questions being raised Can you get tunsil solid clips? In on other planets in the solar system within moons, okay, so one of their authors Rod Hill. WHO's a retired CSI of our research a? Crunch the numbers and he found out that a few of these moons can actually give you a title solder eclipse so about. Yeah, so the the the difficulty is that. these moons typically threat. All the system is very small, compared to the parent planet album moon is very unusual because to. Compared to the Earth, the Moon is actually quite big than some people have sometimes said that. Had Double Planet System and I sometimes say that also Pluto with shower on. I've actually is because the definition of a binary planetary system involves the Berry Center. Being outside that is the center of gravity between the two bodies, being outside the conference of the primary body, in which case that would be Pluto and indicates Pluto Sharon system. It is the Berry Center is outside of Pluto. Technically occasionally, the sun and Jupiter do the same thing with Barry Center of the sun moving just outside it surfaced, but not very often, but yeah, in the case of the Earth and the Moon Attaran system. Be a lovely name for this star Trekkie name. But unfortunately. The Center through center of gravity of the Earth Moon System always remained beneath the surface of the earth. Very Center was a nightclub on Georgia Tech and May will be. How to drain anyway back to this. So it's so, the question is, can yes I? Can any of these other moons on other planets Cho's sober someone it turns out. They can take their twelve moons. belong to Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Pluto. But they occasionally will cause. A scene from those pilots, but usually. Only, for a few seconds duration. Right and and they can be many many years apart like hundreds of years about so if if you didn't know it was going to happen, you would definitely miss it. so I guess the thing is yes. We are very lucky here. Earth, because we do have a moon. That's the right size and righteousness to give on me and they they haven't nice and slowly, so we get to enjoy them, and they run fairly frequently for the which one of the Martian moons does. The eclipsing is a demon so for. Phobos is the bigger of the two. It's the one that's going to fall apart I by the way. Bodily Organ Quantifiable GonNa fall apart. My Body's going. That's Jonathan. Now is the editor of Strain Sky Telescope magazine and forget. If you're having trouble getting your copy, the strain sky tell it's got magazine from your usual retailer. Because the current lockdown and travel restrictions, you can always get a print or digital subscription. The magazine delivered directly to letterbox our inbox subscribing. Just go to sky and telescope DOT COM Dada you that sky and telescope dot com, dot AU and you'll never be left in the dark gain this space time. Still, the come China launches more spy satellites and later in the science report you evidence that climate change is making wet seasons, witter and dry seasons, even drier, all that and more still to come on space time. China is continuous pushed to launch a messy fleet of spy satellites designed to provide continuous coverage of the entire surface. The latest launch takes Beijing's current constellation of Earth observation satellites to over ninety as well as providing the. Coverage. The growing Amata provides ample redundancy for future satellite losses failures. The latest addition to the fleet was the golfing nine, zero, three or patient satellite launched aboard a Long March. two-day rocket from the Satellite Launch Center in western China's Ganci province golfing nine, zero three is optimal remote-sensing satellite capable of providing images with resolutions Daniel batum meter, the mission payload also included two other satellites head five, which will monitoring collect information on shipping and aircraft movements and provide communications for China's Internet of things and a small Pico satellite designed to test future technologies in space. This space time. anti-matter, take a brief look at some of the other stories making us inside this week with the signs report and you study is found that the patents of nineteen contagion around the world suggests that it may spread like a seasonal respiratory disease, a report in the Journal of the American. Medical Association looked at fifty cities, eight with substantial community spirit of Covid, nineteen and forty two, though either minimally affected or not affected. Affected at all, they found that all eight cities with the virus spread significantly occurred in a narrow latitude. No band between thirty and fifty degrees north had similar weather patterns with temperatures between five and eleven degrees Celsius and had low humidity levels. The authors say the patent is consistent with a seasonal respiratory virus, and they're finding should pretty which countries will be at highest risk of covid nineteen spreading in the coming weeks. And you study warrants at the growing impact of climate change on the planet means wit seasons going to get a lot. Wetter or dry seasons will get even drier. The findings reported in the Journal. Nature, communications shows how global warming will cause rainfall to become follow. Variable researchers found that girl. They'll be an increase in annual rainfall averages, especially under the higher emission scenario is being predicted. However, they also founded the variation between the seasons is likely to increase and regions that already having consistent water supplies into high seasonal variation in rainfall may experience even more inconsistent water availability in future. Head congestion is one of the most common symptoms experienced by astronauts during spaceflight that not much is actually known about what causes it now. A report in the Journal of the American Medical Association Claims Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans of NASA astronauts, both before and after missions may have determined why the study found that some astronauts who went along spaceflights aboard the space station had build up of liquid in the inner ear. Well, astronauts on short emissions didn't and this may be what's causing the head congestion. And you. Study has found that pet owners attorney, more and mortar homemade or raw type pitch foods, instead of the more conventional safer. Drying can't options. A report in the Journal, Vet Record Cidade. More than three thousand six hundred dog and cat owners in Australia New Zealand. Canada the UK and the United States and compared their findings, the data published in early studies they found that most dogs and cats were off conventional pet food, but only a few offered exclusively instead ran half of cats, and some two-thirds of dogs were being offered homemade or options, different feeding practices will report it in different places with Petronas in new, Zealand Canada the most likely to feed their dogs and cats, and exclusively conventional died. The authors are calling on educate clients about intitial needs of their four-legged friends, and the health dangers of feeding them exclusively raw meat diets. Okay let's that by remembering the immortal words of the Great, Dr Sheldon Cooper from Classic Sitcom Masterpiece Big Bang, theory and I quote. There's absolutely no scientific evidence to support clairvoyance of any kind which means it's a fraud. Professional swindle, and its livelihood is dependent on the Gullibility of stupid people. No offense intended. With that opinion mind, we ask the question. Can A PSYCHE COPE? Get through these difficult times to the COVID nineteen corona virus. Anti minute from Australian skeptics is the answer may not be what you expect. From starts off with the interesting cramps that the vast majority of clay avoiding. Get, things wrong. If I say that I can see the future they lying. also says it very. It's tough. It's a very critical story about psychics, and then rapidly deteriorates into a good psychic versus bad psyche permission. If you like of Hey, you can tell with us which often either psychic therapy astrology. They're throwing astrology in there for the psychic treatments and things, obviously in nineteen people are very worried. Cetera story very concept assigned good psychics and dance. Stuff, with the wrong premise he used to say out or any thought so case and certainly. As we've seen and tasted of shine that they don't do it, they can't do it and really the exclusive sake Mike for the errands it's. Hundred. He made me spend spending spending. Psyche help you maybe just to talk to the talk to some of the United States, so you talked to a friend that all these things can help you get through these difficult times yesterday. That depends listening abilities of the psyche of space, but I think they're gonNA help you in any way with their psychic ability as quote fucking ability. From Australian skeptics. And that's the show for now. space-time is broadcast on science radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington, DC and through both IHEART radio and on shooting radio. Oh, you can subscribe and download space. Time is a free podcast through apple stitcher bites dot. COM PUCCA CAST soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom, Pud beam android cast box from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from. From your favorite download podcasts provider, you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time Online shopping, and grabbing yourself a few goodies all by becoming a space time Patriot, which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burn as ordinary content and other awards just go to a patriarch page through space time. Time with Stewart Gary. Dot Com for all the details. If you want more space time, check it out blog where you'll find all the stuff. We couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images, you stories, videos and things on the web, I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot TAMLA DOT COM. That's all one word and in. In lower case, and that's Tumbler without the you can also follow us through at Stewart, Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through Space Time Youtube. Channel and on facebook just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australia and sky and Telescope magazine Your Window on the universe. You being listening to Space Time with Stewart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from DOT com.
Possible Origin for Mysterious Fast Radio Bursts
"Love this podcast support this show through the ACOSS support a feature. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty-three episode eighty-one for broadcast on the twelfth of August twenty twenty coming up on space time discovery of a possible origin for mysterious fast radio bursts. The first exposed planetary core discovered and virgin galactic to start space tourism flights next year over that and more coming up on space. Time. Welcome to space time, we'd Stewart Gary. Astronomers detected mysterious signals known as fast radio bursts apparently emanating from a highly magnetic type of neutron star and is a monitor. The discovery reported in the astrophysical journal. Letters could finally solve the mystery of fast radio bursts, extremely powerful blasts of energy from the distant universe but lasting for just a millisecond, the discovery was made using the European. Space. Agency's Integral Hi Angie space. Observatory, detecting a unique mix of radiation bursting from magnetized in our own Milky Way. Galaxy something that simply never been seen before coming from this type of star monetize type of neutron star still a corpses of stars much larger than the sun, which of exploded a Supernova at the end of their lives. If the magnetic fields of these stars are intense enough they become magnetized when Meka's become active they produce short bursts of high energy radiation, which typically lasts for less than a second but makes them billions of times moreland medicine, the Sun. On the other fast radio bursts were first discovered in two, thousand and seven. They appear as transient events pulsating extremely brightly in radio ways for just a few milliseconds before fading away and a really seen. Again, the true nature remains unknown and no such burst ever been observed either within the Milky Way with the known origin or meeting any kind of radiation behind the radio spectrum that isn't. So now in late, April this year Sgi Nineteen, thirty plus twenty, one, fifty, four, a magnetized discovered six years ago and the Constellation Picula. Following a substantial burst of x rays suddenly became active again, and soon afterwards as tremendous spied something astonishing, the magneto was not only radiating its usual x rays but also in radio waves, the study's lead author Sandra mcginnity from Italy's National Institute for Astrophysics and Milan says integral detected the magnetized burst of high energy or heartaches raise on April, the twenty eighth launched in two thousand and two injured will carries a suite of four instruments able to simultaneously observe and take images of cosmic objects in gamma rays x rays, and visible light. The boost alert system on integral automatically loaded observatories around the world of the discovery is enabled the Scientific Community Act fast to explore this source in more Dato. Meanwhile. Sternum is spotted a short and extremely brightest of radio waves coming from the direction of S G, nine, hundred, thirty, five, plus twenty, one, fifty, four easing candidates chime radio telescope on the same day, and over roughly the same time frame the x ray emissions this was. Confirmed a few as later by the survey for transient novel radio emissions to or stare tubes ovary in the United States McGee says it's the first time astronomers of the ticket a burst of radio waves resembling a fast radio burst coming from a monitor. And the connection strongly supports the idea that fast radio bursts emanate from magnetized. Therefore also demonstrates that burst from these highly magnetized objects can be spotted in radio waves, and that's useful because magnetized are increasingly popular with astronomers as thought to pay a key role in driving a number of different transient events in the universe from supernova explosions to more distant and energetic gamma-ray bursts. This space time. Still. To come discovery of the first ever exposed planetary core and virgin galactic to start space tourism flights next year all that and more still to come on space. Time. Astronomers have discovered what appears to be the exposed core of a planet. The findings reported in the journal Nature, provides an unprecedented opportunity to see inside the interior of planet and learn a about its composition. It would take an impossible two, thousand, nine hundred kilometers of drilling to reach the earth's core and said, the discovery of an exposed planetary core is considered a huge breakthrough. Any problem being it's not knee by the newly discovered planetary core belongs to exit planet and is Teo I eight forty nine B, which is orbiting a sunlight star located around seven hundred and thirty light years away. This exposed cords about the same size as the planet mercury in our solar system. Scientists assume the court belonged to a guest giant that was either stripped of its gaseous atmosphere or that failed to form early in its evolution. Te'o I nine be is an extremely unusual planet located in the so-called Neptune desert term used by astronomers to define a region close to stars with a really cheap lots of niche Younes, mass, or larger. In fact, the study's lead author Dr David Armstrong from the University of Warwick says the planet strangely close to its star considering its mass Tia white forty-nine be orbits star in just eighteen hours and as surface temperature of around fifteen hundred degrees, Celsius. The EXOPLANET was found using the transit method by NECESSA- transiting except planet survey satellite tests. The transit method measures the brightness of a star and then notes dip in brightness indicator planets passing in front of the Star as seen from the spacecraft. One scientists new planet was there. They further analyzed it using the instrument at the European, Southern Observatory's List Sillier Observatory. In Chile this uses the Doppler shift or wobble method to mission the massive exa planets by measuring the gravitational pull on the staff there orbiting causing the status wobble ever. So slightly now, the movements only small, but an instrument like Hobbes can detect the slight spectral movement as the star moves towards and away from US judo gravitational effect of the orbiting planet this. Allow the authors the determined the planet's mess to be about forty times that of the earth but that's surprisingly heavy. Considering the transit method confirmed the planet's radius to be just three point four times that of earth. What it all means is that this is an extremely dense object fi than the earth and therefore most likely consisting of lots of iron and. Rock, and water with very little hydrogen and helium the lack of significant quantities of hydrogen and helium for such a massive planets. Hot One to stand as both should have been created in large quantities as the planet formed, and it's this combination of factors would suggest that what's being observed is actually an exposed planetary core rather than a fully differentiated incomplete a planet. The study's Co of the Kristof mortar cine from the University of Bern says, the discovery fits in nicely with the world renowned burn model for planetary formation and evolution I proposed in two thousand and three. The burn model combines insights into the manifold process involved in the formation and evolution of planets and suggest two possible hypotheses to explain why ty eight forty nine B is not a typical gas giant but rather and expose punditry core one possibility. Is that this extra pilot was once a guest giant similar to Jupiter but lost nearly all of its gaseous envelope through gravitational towel disruption to coming to close to its host star by colliding with another planet or maybe Judaism lots scale federal evaporation of its atmosphere although that probably couldn't account for all the guests that's already been lost. Now, of course, alternatively Te'o I eight forty nine could simply be failed. Gas Giant wants the core of the guest. Giant formed something unusual could have happened resulting in it not forming surrounding atmosphere. Now, this could have been caused by something as simple as a gap in the protoplanetary disk that planets form in that could have been Judaism gravitational interaction with another planet or the disc simply ran out of material right at that very moment when guests accretion would normally occur the find out more Andrew, Dunkley speaking with astronomer. Christopher. Watson this is an EXO planet we've. Had quite a few exa planets to talk about lightly this one it's unique. They have never seen one like it before now, we're in the early phases of except planet discovery and we're finding more and more in the numbers of getting up into the well up into the thousands now. But this one is one is in lock any other that's ever been seen so far and I it has been suggested that it may will be a unique discovery. So, what are we got about? It's not unique in terms of. The existence of these things outside in the universe but? You're. Absolutely right it is unique to knowledge a other way to put it. This is a sunlight star so you would expect maybe a solar system like solar system around it but not adult what was discovered an again this is a discovery that comes from tassie transiting exoplanets of which looks the dips in the intensity of stones as a planet passes in front of them, and so this particular objects with actually rejoices in the name of Teo I eight, four nine. Tests object of interest. So it was. Some time ago that I think they found this. You're quite right where numbers are welp in the thousands now at thousand I think it was about a year last March when we lost four thousand well above the now anyway. Ti Eight four nine be. surprised. People because it's a relatively large. It's an easy one to observe because it goes around its parent star. Once every eighteen hours that six year once he knows, and so you don't need to observe over a very long period of time to to to catch many transit of the planet in front of Star that means you can refining very well, you can get a really good idea of its diameter. It's basically a Neptune sized object in its diamonds which would automatically make you think guests John that's. Right, yes, exactly a net sized objects are interesting but this is more interesting because it's right near the parent star. Normally, you don't find that tune sized objects, right? Next door defense. Sometimes, you find hot Jupiters, things that are bigger than Neptune but not anything of the size so that already made it interesting. But then the real clincher was when the second part of the research was carried out because as you know, if you've got a planet that's going around to stop and. You're looking at it in the orbital plane which you have to be for to pass in front of the parent star and Dim the light. It also makes finding its mass easier because he can measure the doppler wobble of the parent star. You can actually look the way the planet is pulling its parents are out of place using spectograph writes up the light into Suray colors MATZEC. The Barcode of information which includes inflammation of the city what we call the radio, the losses. So astronomers did that they measured the amount of wobble. The style was participating in because of the planet or around it and having done that they could determine the mass of the climate of that was the big surprise because it is thirty nine point, one times the mass of the earth and that when you combine it with its known diameter from the transit method basically gives you a density which is very similar to the best entities. Five point two grams per cubic centimeter. So they're saying this is it rocky planet? Yeah exactly. It's a rocky planet. It something as big as chart, but as big as an yes. One of the smaller guest's John's so to point. The massive net to the small dive into the net to an identity the same asleep us. That as a puzzle, it's not the most massive planet that's been discovered, but it's the most massive size which means it's very dense. So it's a rocky planet. And that is you know the puzzle stops it's Nia its parent star. The comment that one of the researchers has made a is that we don't normally see planets with this mass. The short orbital periods short orbital period tells you close with parents and that leads to the suspicion that basically what we're seeing is is the naked core of a gas giant planet. It's a gas planet Kinda like Jupiter Buck. whose atmosphere has been stripped off and it may be just wear it. You know where solar system has done that because the surface temperature is estimated to be fifteen, hundred, thirty degrees Celsius, which translates to two, thousand, seven, hundred and eighty degrees finally, it's very hot while so close to stop, and so the thinking is that that has caused the atmosphere to evaporate and essentially you know become this naked. Gas Giant coal apparently when you do the calculations, the loss of atmosphere that you would get from that hating it's not enough to account for the fact that this. was fear at all so People are suggesting that maybe other events have played a part maybe collisions with other large bodies in that solar system which Ram. Found all another interesting suggestion that it may be started foaming is a gas giant but something prevented that from carrying on a maybe there wasn't enough gas left in the in the disk, the protoplanetary disk around the star or maybe there was a gap in the discourse something else had already full whether wasn't much gas to to become an atmosphere and so it was like. You're taking a blanket in the middle of the stabbed. It's very good analogy Andrew. If you gone, you can't former that was fear around yourself enough space may have happened so that they're all these theories and I think what's happening now is that astronomers are going to make more detailed observations of the subject Eight four nine to try and find out one way or the other whether it's a gas giant that's been strict atmosphere or a failed gus? John will never got its atmosphere There's a nice quote actually from the lead author. Its first telling us that planet is like this exist in can be found we have the opportunity to look at the core of the planet. In a way that we can't do it in our own solar system. There are still big open questions about the nature of Jupiter call, for example. So strange and unusual exoplanets like this give a window into planet formation that we have no other way to explore sight Nice quotes the as he said, we've always wanted about what's going on down in the cooler of Jupiter. Neptune and satin this May this may be not the total answer but it gives us gives a maybe some better ideas if we study it as to what's happening in the guest Johnson exactly. That's exactly run sound. We do it. We look at other systems to find out what's happening now is paradoxical really isn't it? That's talked to Fred Watson and astronomer with the Department of Science speaking with Andrew Dunkley analasyst the program space nuts, and this is space time I'm Stewart Gerry still the come virgin galactic start space tourism flights, next year, and later in the Science Report South Australian company vaccine to begin phase two trials of its new Cronin nineteen vaccine all that and more still to come on space time. Virgin Galactic says it now expects to be carrying its first fare paying passengers to the edge of space during the first quarter of next year. As the Buddha. To the commencement of operations continues test flights using the spaceship to spacecraft unity are also building up with another success will glide flight from Virgin. Galactic New Mexico spaceport now completed the summary from Virgin Galactic. Crab. Our team arrived at our commercial headquarters gateway to space facility at spaceport America early in the morning to complete the final preparations for spaceship to unity's second flight in New Mexico airspace it was a typically beautiful New Mexico morning with a fantastic sunrise as our crew ran through the final checks. This flight was conducted under a set of stringent operational protocols to ensure safety against cove in nineteen. These protocols included changes to work areas in procedures to enforce social distancing as advised by state guidelines. On, spaceship two unity's Flightdeck were pilots mark forger stuck and Michael Sewage Masuchi who have both previously flown unity into space while piloting our carrier aircraft was Nicola Peci and CJ. Stir cal. Once on board the spaceship spaceflight team conducted final checks before they were cleared for takeoff. Vehicles then took to the skies runway takeoff with unity attached to. The mother ship carried our spaceship approximately fifty thousand feet above spaceport America. Wants. The vehicles reached release altitude the eve released spaceship to unit. During this phase spaceship to reached a speed of mach point eight five are pilots two series of maneuvers unity designed to gather data about performance handling qualities while flying at high speeds. With, all tests points completed, the pilots then brought unity back down smoothly for runway landing at spaceport. America. Our mission at Virgin Galactic is to open space to change the world for good. This glide flight took place during pride month, and we'd like to take a moment to encourage unity for all. Our crew were wearing masks in a variety of colors to show support. The future were building here perfectly represents Stephen, Hawking's naming of our spaceship unity. This test flight brings us closer to commercial service and being able to open space flight for all. The company will undertake to more test flights of its orbital rocket powered space plane over the next few months after which virgin boss Richard Branson will ride the spacecraft for the first time paving the way for the first commercial space tourism flights to begin so far more than six hundred of the will to do of already paid more than a quarter of a million dollars each for the ride. Virgin Galactic. Spaceship, to spacecraft design is based on the original Burt Rutan scaled composites spaceship one space plane, which one the X. Prize back in two, thousand and four by becoming the first privately built reusable manned spacecraft to reach one hundred kilometers an altitude the official star space returned to Earth safely, and then repeat the achievement within two weeks. Branson was so impressed he contacted returned to build lodge aversions to carry. The flight profiles e spaceship to take off horizontally from a conventional runway mandate under the sentence by wing section of the unique twin fuselage white knight to mothership powered by four jet engines. What night to climbs to an attitude of around fifteen and a half kilometers fifty thousand feet at which point releases spaceship to which after a few seconds, a free fall ignited single hybrid rocket engine quickly accelerating the spacecraft to over Mac three or four thousand kilometers per hour. The hybrid rocket engine burn only lasts for about seventy. Seconds before Meka or managing cutoff. But that provides enough momentum to allow the spacecraft to Costa ballistic trajectory up to an picks altitude of over one hundred kilometers three, hundred and twenty eight, thousand feet that official start of space that is the came in line. The fine by the theoretical physicist Theodore von came in in nineteen, fifty six as the point where aerodynamic services can no longer control the role lift pitch or your of an aircraft forcing the use of reaction control system such as rockets to maintain Corson maneuvering. At this altitude passengers will be treated to stunning views of the earth below they'll see the curvature of the planet and the delicate thin Blue Line of its life giving atmosphere along the horizon, and they'll see the velvet blackness of space despite this space craft and the Earth beneath being lit up in broad daylight. At that will be the unique feeling of weightlessness for around four minutes. Then is the space craft reenters the atmosphere it's twin tell booms will be raised into a vertical feathered position increasing drag and slowing down the rate of descent at around twenty three kilometers of seventy thousand feet. The tell booms will be reconfigured back into the normal horizontal position thereby allowing the spacecraft glide back to the earth for a conventional runway landing. Of course. Virgin. Galactic. Development suffered a major setback back in two thousand fourteen when the current prototype three assists unity's predecessor the visas enterprise broke apart in mid air killing one of test pilots after he wrongly released feathering system during the assent space releasing the feathering system during us, it forced to lock in place at the same time putting huge aerodynamic loads on the airframe and causing the spacecraft to break apart this space time. anti-matter take another brief look at some of the other stories making using science this week with a science report, South Australian vaccine or back to begin faced two trials of the new covid nineteen vaccine and you study follows successful phase one trials which found the vaccine was both safe for humans to us and that had generated an immune response. The trials were conducted in consultation with scientists from Adelaide's flinders. University. Well looks like all the controversy surrounding the drug hydroxy chloroquine. Away anytime soon with a new study, showing that it does cut death rates among patients with Covid nineteen the findings published in the International Journal of Infectious. Diseases found around thirteen percent of those trigger with Hydroxy Clark wouldn't died compared to twenty six percent not traded with Hydroxy Clarkson none of the patients had documented any serious hot at in the melodies however, patients were monitored for. Hot Condition as it's routinely listed as being reason to avoid using the drug as a treatment for covert nineteen, eighty, two percent of those studied received the drug within twenty four hours of admission and ninety one percent within forty eight hours. The study was based on an analysis of two, thousand five, hundred, forty, one patients hospitalized between March, the tenth and may the second across six? Different hospitals, all the patients in the study were eighteen or older with the average age being sixty four years fifty one percent of patients who were male and fifty six percent African American. Hydroxy Corcoran is used as an arthritis medication and it's also been approved to prevent entreat malaria. The study also found that those treated with Z. Throw Meyerson or a combination of I drexel Corcoran. Anisi three mice and fared slightly better than those not treated with the drugs. The analysis found twenty two point four percent of those treated alone with Z. Three Miles and died and twenty one percent of those treated with a combination of Z. throw mice in and drugs. Chloroquine died that compared to twenty six point four percent of patients dying who were not treated with either medication. A new study claims modern humans have begun colonizing the Americas thirty thousand years ago some fifteen thousand years earlier than previously thought the findings reported in the journal Nature, a based on stone tools discovered in a cave in central Mexico together with a separate statistical analysis from several other sites in North America and Siberia archaeologists from the University of New South Wales, Oxford University and cover nearly two thousand stone tools and other artifacts in the cave over almost a decade both radiocarbon and luminescence dating we used at Tim. The ages the items which included burned charcoal and sediment. Archaeologists say the items belong to a culture never before found in the Americas suggesting a previously unknown and possibly failed colonization attempt. And you study claims there might be more having a gut feeling than you realize all sort of the enteric nervous system is an extensive network of neurons and transmitters wrapped in and around the human gut with the primary function of managing digestion scientists from flinders university dove into the complexity of this brain like system to uncovered sacred capabilities have identified a particular type of Neuron in the gut wall that communicates singles the other neurons outside the gut near the spinal cord and even up into the brain. You can read the findings even fall in in Euro, the Journal, of neuroscience. And that's the show. Now, space-time is broadcast on science zone radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and through both. Radio and on shooting radio or you can subscribe download space time as a free podcast through apple STITCHER BITES DOT COM Puckett cast soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom. 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"Love this podcast. Support this show through the ACOSS support supportive feature. It's up to you. How much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. Fifteen seconds guided journal Chan. Ignition sequence, uh space nuts. Three To. Pablo. report it feels good. Hello, and welcome to another episode of the Space Nuts podcast with me Andrew, Dunkley your host and strong Amac at large, the titanium man himself Fred. What's on? Maybe better explain why I'm the titanium man. Because last week after we recorded you in straight into hospital, it's. Dickie, this one's good, it's the need. Sorry, what's called a K. R. Total knee replacement is one of the big bits of the pediatric surgery can have so recovery time of order a year on the weekend to it. It! Through your pain you have been able to join us. I appreciate that, and does everyone else but better than long around in bid actually that let you do that anymore. Do they get you up walking the? Six hours after the surgery. On. An. Herb if you do that, it can go belly APSO YA. Physiotherapy eight movement. I can actually walk now a week. How with crutches? which is astonishing really but. I'm GONNA the crunchies for another day so just because. It's less painful. In fact, he's recovery's been so impressive. We got a phone call from Arsenal just yesterday in your. Goal came. Out. That would work now. old Jackson's automated. Sad news to yes. We, we F-. Friend Man, do who joins us very occasionally on spice nuts. Yes the end of the road this week and very suddenly he's not been very well. He was an elderly cat at. We're not sure exactly all day, was we? We've for twelve years or so. We think he was about three when we go. Fifteen years old a good age cat. He's had some internal problems which got compounded. Really towards the end of last week and A. Yeah, we had a fairly. A fairly upsetting weekend within and. As you know, we actually live next door to to an animal hospital to events surgery and we know that that's all know man do because he used to be that triage. So. They were upset as well, but end of the road, and it was. It was a very peaceful and you know A. Very fitting conclusion to what has been an extraordinary life. Is just you know he's basically dominated of the life around? Here is such a big cat. Getting on for ten kilograms at one point and that's you know the size of a small child so his presence was always filed, he was always cheerful, always very very affectionate and friendly. Much missed. So the cosmic cat. Somebody texted after I. Sorry tweeted after I tweeted the news that we'd lost in that. He can't join comment. Neil Neil wise, which is currently grazing skies, which is a nice little. I'm sorry to hear that as a person to grow up with cats and had have had several over the years I know how it feels. When we lost our last cat, we decided that, was it we just we just didn't want. Gus wrote again. They can just bond with crutches. And and I suppose it's one of the amazing things about life is how we all bond to each other way or otherwise and it and it hurts as much is as anything can and feel. Feel sad for you and I'm sure many people do but You'll have great. Of Amanda as you. I used to love the WII interrupted and. This. Mandy was very much cads. was really amazing bond between them. I think he just thought money. WAS HIS MOM basically? That's yes. Oh, Lico left in our life, but. That's the way things are and thank you for your condolences, Andrew. Now I would like to also say hi to Hannah. One of our regular listeners and regular contributors when she's not flying around the world in a jet airliner. Now she's She's at home in England. And set aside some will instagram post of some photos assume she took from L.. A. Altitude recently of knocked loose and clouds, but the other day she sent one and noted me in her post, which I appreciate Hannah out of of the comet. We just mentioned Nia was it does you go Naushad of it from way up there people in the northern hemisphere to to really notice this thing, and it's going to become more apparent. It's we've got another couple of weeks. Maybe which can be quite still quite bride. Wonderful things for the photos. Terrific as always now fred. We've got a few things to discuss. We have and go down to business yet. astronomers have discovered a cosmic structure almost one point four billion light ease across. That is one big Lego said. Also the truth about as the planet Venus. It's not as Sta or something else. Perhaps We've also got some questions. Already questions today about the chemical elements. Where did they come from and Simon in? Newcastle is asking at about interferometry, so we will investigate all of those things on episode. Two hundred eleven of the spice nuts podcast freight. Let's start off with this This cosmic structure that's been discovered. It's a massive thing. One point four bidding Yee's light years across. WH-. What is it Read, a couple of descriptions, but I'm still trying to figure out what they've found so. When we look. Deep into space beyond our own galaxy, and beyond our local group of galaxies, and we can chart the distribution of galaxies. We find plusses of galaxies which you and I talked about a lot very well. But there's also this almost like a honeycomb structure, a three dimensional on the comb structure in the universe which we think was laid down by the by the matter web. Really formed after the big, Bang. So galaxies have formed along the longer tendrils of this web. We've got a this as I, said I kinda funny structure now of the last twenty years or so. We've been able to explore that in detail. By looking at the, Details of galaxies, and this all comes about with things known as redshift surveys, and the what was then the anglo-australian Observatory we were. Among the first to produce a very detailed redshift survey of our local neighborhood out to about two billion light years. So what you do is you measure the amount of red shift in galaxies light, and that's the of course as the name implies when you look at it spectrum, the light is shifted to the read by measuring. How much shifted you? You know it's velocity. And by the Hubble. Velocity. Because of the expansion of the universe, you also nice distance effectively so. The early wretched surveys, including the what was called the to the. Galaxy wretch. Done by the anglo-australian telescope. That those early surveys showed this quite clear structure within the universe. So not only are you seeing an overall honeycomb patent, but we could also see. Particular features in that structure so there there are walls of galaxies which are. Here and there there's some very nice animations. We the United Kingdom. Schmidt telescope in the two thousand stood a wretched. Like the to the F, one to F was an instruments on the anglo-australian telescope. I was a bit more local because it was a small telescope. He covered the whole southern sky. And the UK, Schmidt. Galaxy redshift of sorry Galaxy Survey. Also showed these phenomena, these these walls of galaxies. What it was about to say was the reason why mentioned is? There's a very nice fly through of that survey. Sixty F- galaxy they. If you look up sixty gs on your so changing, it will take you to. The fly threw beautifully done so this is a simulation of what it will be like to fly through the universe about A. Trillion Times the speed of light or something, but you do. You get this impression of walls of galaxies coming toward you as you fly through them, so that's what this story is about. It is a newly discovered. Wall that has been revealed by KNUTH, three dimensional maps of the universe, a very big one point, four billion light years across, and it's being called the South Pole one. because. It is actually a close to the South Pole of the sky now by the South Pole of the sky. What we mean is the point. Essentially the extension of the axis out into space in the southerly direction the north. Or is the other way of colds. And how does that relate then to the to the orientation of our Milky Way well the Milky Way. Galaxy, is. Probably the other way round we should say the solar system is tilted. Almost perpendicular to the Milky Way Galaxy not quite, but almost perpendicular, and if you think about it that means that the South Pole of the sky is very near the plane of the Milky Way Galaxy and what what you have. There is a blockage of our view. Into intergalactic space. So. The South Pole of the sky is not the best place to look to find walls of galaxies because our own Milky Way is in the way where in the plane at the galaxy. And so the scientists who've done this work. Is really quite an extraordinary piece of work. It's one of the one of the authors is based. In France actually in Paris. So a once again at. A large group of scientists. Many of them are in the in the in the USA. It's. been found not just by doing these redshift surveys in other words by surveying galaxies lie in what you might call Hubble space, but they also. Looked at the at the velocities. Of Galaxies, in the vicinity. To infer the concentration of mass that you find. In the. King County. In. What's called zone of GALACTICO obscure? Oceania you behind the Milky Way so looked at. Things that we call peculiar velocities, and that's one reason why I mentioned the sixty s galaxy said earlier, because that was one of the first big surveys that actually used this technique I'm getting deep into detail. Andrew, but what happens is. If you imagine the expansion of the universe that's carrying galaxies along, and we can measure the speed of the galaxy, which is due to the expansion of the universe, and not gives us the distance, but. There each galaxy has its own what we call a peculiar velocity it's it's its velocity in addition to the Hubble flow, and the way to imagine it is if you think of a river flowing. Imagine all other boats on the river. They're all being carried along by the river, but each post got his own individual motion within the ribble. That sounds like galaxies. That's that's what the peculiar motions of galaxies being carried along by the Hubble flow, but you're seeing. Peculiar motion, and so what these scientists have done is used that look looked at galaxies that you can see which aren't blocks by the. By the by the Milky Way and infer from their motion. What gravitational structures have pulling them? Out of you know away from the normal Hubble flow. So it is really quite remarkable is the technique that has been used before. The most? Famous Evidence of that goes back. Thirty is actually something called the great attractor, which is once again like gravitational source behind the Milky Way when it was discovered by the peculiar motions of galaxies so. One, just one final comment on this this South Pole Wall. Is. Probably about the fifth or sixth largest cosmic structure discovered so. That up, it's not the biggest one found in fact, yes, as you say, it's the sixth largest so. This Is. Kind of. And you can put it in. Perspective by doing a bit of mathematics and I want people to this like we used to call it mental arithmetic at school way you did the answering your head. So one lot ear is roughly six trillion miles or nine million kilometers, and this New South Pole is one point. Four billion lot is across the quick. lost. A LOT! Of these things in kilometers normally. Stick to. Now I, mean this massive so? An insight into their the when we were doing the galaxy redshift surveys back in the early two thousands and found this kind of honeycomb structure, typically the cells of the honeycomb. About one hundred million light years across that sort of size this thing. He's fourteen times bigger than that is a very very big structure. That's amazing, isn't it? Just it just. It's just hard to get your head around the enormity. Of things within the universe. Let alone the university itself. It's just It's just an incredible. Situation that we learning about bit by bit small bits, but Yeah, we've. We've got a big chunk of it day, but again in terms of this is the university things probably tiny? It's just. The nature of the universe I suppose. Is a big place. Douglas Douglas Burgum said Spacey's Big. Nikki sized it up. Perfectly. Yes, and the answer to that question of a six trillion times, one point four billion lot years is of course to. List you're. Listening to the space, not podcast. We've Andrew Dunkley and of course read Watson. Space Nuts. Hello again to allow social media followers, the many thousands of you that follow us on facebook with her. It's the official spice knots, facebook page or the facebook podcast group spice nuts uses put together I noticed more people joining that group every week. which is fantastic, gives you a chance to talk to each other about what you're doing is. If you want to join that group, you do a search for the space. Nuts podcast group in your facebook search engine Of course we're also on twitter. We're on instagram. You'll find is just about everywhere, and of course with good our respective websites as well spice knots podcast dot com is the official site and all the links to asocial media are on there if you would like to. Take advantage of those opportunities and get to know each other now, Fred. Let's move onto our next topic and that is the truth about sister planet Venus. They call it the sister planet, because it's a rocky planet, and it's about the same size as earth, but I think that's why different stops or the similarities. The differences are. Down surface temperature, four hundred and fifty degrees, Celsius. Thick son, obscuring clouds with. which at least with sulfuric acid it's. It is it's? Incredibly, different surface pressure. Pressure is about one hundred times what it is here on earth, so you'd be flattened. If you're standing on the surface, you'd be very very squashed. Bonds, fiction you can get. Cha sounds good stuff. Is Science fiction in in many ways. It's just impossible to imagine what it would be like that the rocks themselves would probably glowing a dull red because they so hot. So. Let me, give you a quote from. Dr Susan Smith. Who is at the jet propulsion. Laboratory in Pasadena in California she says Venus is like this cosmic gift of an accident. You have these two planetary bodies. Earth and Venus started out nearly the same, but have gone down to completely different evolutionary pass, but we don't know why. That is the you know that's the kind of. Setting the scene for a space probe which is has currently been. Under consideration is still at an early stage in its evolution itself out, this space probe is being considered for for selection on the Nassar's Discovery Program. An, and actually it will be JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory. That would be the managing organization. They offer nearly all these into interplanetary probes. So, what is this space craft cold? Eight hit heat has a rather nice acronym actually. Eights, the eight Very Tass is the name and. A lost one. For. You look. The vs Venus? Venus. Mississippi Radio Science, inside topography and SPEKTR speaker sexual. Right. You've got. So, what does it a whole list of things that will teach Venus? Ethnicity Radio Science in Sarah. I'm not sure what that is. Topography spectroscopy so basically is an orbiting spacecraft. To follow up on. On the on the last big mission to Venus In certainly in terms of studying the surface of the planet. That was the Magellan spacecraft back in Nineteen ninety-four, Intel to believe he's twenty six years ago when that project ending and there are other spacecraft in orbit around Venus at the moment. Venus Express is a European one. There is a Japanese whose name eludes me at the moment, but they've produced marvelous. Insight into the atmosphere Venus some remarkable imagery, showing things like standing waves in the atmosphere in curious things like that. This would be I. Guess something that will build on all those the proposal is that it will be launched in twenty twenty six. It will orbit the planet. State of the art radar system. That's the big the big new facet on this because things of moved along since one thousand, nine, hundred four. Three dimension. Out to be able to really see what's going on because Venus's just. Is essentially a paik. So you've got You have to have the radar to produce these detailed maps. there is. Also going to be a near infrared. Spectrometer. Which of suspect he's in some might be actually. NEARY spectrometer. which will basically analyzed? You know what what the surface itself is made of. It will give you at least some good mineral, some some good insights into the mineral makeup of the surface, but the other thing which which is what we're seeing with Juno in orbits around Jupiter. By. By knowing the details of the spacecraft to orbit, you can essentially plot the gravitational field of Venus and Glueck more detail than we have at the moment at the internal structure Venus because. The gravitational field is different. Depending on what structure is so all these? All of these instruments and facilities will basically we hope give us some idea of how the planet is evolved. Geologically, what the geological processes are, that are going on at the moment, and as they say from its core to surface, so it's a it's a holistic look of the planet. Venus what there are lots of things we want to know are there. Is that plate tectonics on Venus? This is something that's not really. Not really well known so. All of this sort of the all of these questions on the table for the very task's mission so I hope in six years time hundred when mine when my niece fully recovered. Bobby talking about the launch of the space craft. Indeed are they going to try and find out what went wrong with Venus. Say. Earth and Venus started at. Pretty much the same and just went totally opposite directions. we became a livable world with with water and oxygen, and all the things needed to create life, and they went not trash the lot. Lot. Earning Hill all or they weren't too much car. Recreate `electricity not that we would. could we learn? Could we learn anything from the demise of faintness? As potentially livable world. That might help. That's why we study. These Rocky Planet is because we've got two opposite extremes on either side of Mars and Venus. And the more we know about them, the more we understand. The atmosphere of our own and the geology of our own planet. Look, it's it's really you know. The questions are really really interesting. This guy! Jet Propulsion Laboratory has a press release on this which he's had it. Can find the title very tough. Exploring the D. truce Venus and it's worth the read because it really sets out what the the questions are. What for example? What is the delicate geodynamic balanced ultimately makes planet habitable. Considering the discovery of thousands of extra planets, orbiting the star orbiting styles, other than some the answer could inform our understanding of the nature. And the The scientists don't to smack smack out that mentioned earlier. She's quoted as saying to unwrap the mysteries of Venus. We have to look under the hood of Venus's Interior. Guess. We'd call it the bullet. It is the engine for global. Geologic and atmospheric evolution of Venus Earth Fundamentally, unique worlds are other differences between these twins. Only cosmetic. Don't seem very cosmetic to me. Answering this question is key to understanding what makes other rocky planets habitable, and ultimately he merged with life, so it all feeds into that discussion of the origin of life whether we. All Sweat and Fascinating. Done, if the white a heck of a long time for that one, hundred, twenty, six, a little away, but a lot of a soul certainly be watching that one with interest. This is the space and that's podcast. Andrew Dunkley here with Fred Watson. Space Nuts. Hello again to our patrons It's repatriation, DOT, com or super CASS. Thank you for supporting space nuts with as little as a few dollars a month. There'a several options for packages particularly through super cast if you want to. Support the PODCAST and and put a few dollars into the Kitty Cape is rolling along and of course you get bonus material and we did put some bonus material up for our patrons last week, so check that out. If you haven't already met that, you'll find Patriot dot com slash space, nuts, or just do a search on super cast for space nuts. I think the links on our website anyway. Spice Nuts podcasts dot, com. You can also support us through through that website is a is an cast. Botany way it can. Certainly, putting a few dollars hero, they as a voice, said not mandatory when a telling you to do this, it is completely optional. You do not have to die if it's something you feel like doing if you'd like to. That's great to own. We really appreciate it. Now fray data. Let's get into some questions to audience questions. The swiftlets get into the first one. I guys love cost to definitely my favorite another plans to. Raise could inflation you give us. Thanks my question is. Looking around on this planet. There are awful lot of chemical compounds of fluorine hydrogen oxygen nitrogen etcetera. If you think even the a not body kills oxygen, molecules, calcium fluorides I and oxides Distraction the question is. A stage did those chemical elements. Atoms come to Canada. And I guess most of the older actions produce. Hey, where did he go? Is it significant in the full nation of planet? Wanted clouds around stalls or when? I'm just rubbing trade enough. The interest euro, so many chairs and thanks again. Okay now we know who that was. didn't give a name, but we appreciate the question and. Yeah, it's an interesting one about the the chemical elements. Where did that come from? What point did it all happen we sort of? We know about these things and we're still discovering new elements. Yeah, what was? What was the cause and effect? It is a great question and the. They're kind of to to it because I think. We're talking not only about the elements themselves, but about the compounds that. The created when when elements join together chemically so so we can couple them both Felli briefly I think. What separates. Story so when the when the universe was when the universe was formed. In the aftermath of the Big Bang, essentially the only chemical elements were. Hydrogen, which was about seventy five percent helium, which was about most of the rest of the you know the other twenty percents very roughly speaking with a few. Just a few. Elements like lithium I, think Berlin. He's wrong as well deterioration so these an event. That's one of the reasons why we saw. The Big Bang theory is correct because when you when you. Go through the theory. You get these elements being producing some proportions, and that's exactly what we find when we look deep into space at the makeup of the. Of the chemistry of the universe see sell off with mostly hydrogen, and of course, hydrogen is the raw material of stars the. Hydrogen clouds collapsed. Undesired collapsed under their own gravity day. The pressure and temperature increase temperature eventually goes up high enough that you trigger nuclear fusion, and that's the case to the origin of the Calicut elements, because it's the a processes taking place in the interiors of stars that generate. The other with. Normal Stars generates elements up to the excuse me. Tell me wait of iron. That's right. But, beyond that, with the heavier elements, Silva Golden. Uranium, maybe platinum all these heavier elements you need. You need a supernova explosion. You need much higher temperatures, but the fact is that it styles that make the chemical elements and stars at the end of their lives, either blow themselves up or shed their outer envelopes into space gradually, which has some. We'll do a few billion years time, so what they do is they and rich. The what we call the interstellar medium, the medium between the stars they enrich. With. The basic building blocks of chemistry and this then the the processes starts the create the compounds because many. Compounds are actually. Created by chemical reactions, effectively taking place in the depths of space as as atoms come together. To fall molecules now you need. It's interesting that the the question. And I'm sorry I. Don't know his name, but it's interesting that you mentioned the heat. The heat produced by those reactions is probably relatively small, because they are taking place in very very rarefied gases. You know the top anything there, but there's enough that these atoms come together and like each other in bonding the in a chemical way. That sort of chemistry, the formation of these molecules does take place at very low temperatures. Why Why we when we look at most stars, we find only evidence of. Chemical elements themselves. A few cool styles have got me kills in their atmosphere as well. As one of very familiar one in in certain types of cool stars, so the chemistry. Takes place not so much in the stars more in the in the depths of space, and then of course those. Molecules themselves find the find themselves in. The Pre Stella clouds of gas and dust that form the next generation of sellers so. Some of the compounds on the earth will have come from space. Probably we now recognize the more we study things like comets. The more complex molecules refined and in particular we find lock complex carbon. Based molecules organic molecules, so chemistry is kind of going on in space over time. Of course it also takes place once. He formed the planet like the Earth. The chemistry can place hero the this well, so it's accounts so the pin down say yes, those this epoch of molecule formation. It's a it's an ongoing process Hatton's. It's been happening for a long time will continue to do so, and there's a whole science of Chemistry and Andrew. which encourage the listener to go and check out astro chemistry's basically the chemical chemical reactions of some of my. Close friends and colleagues from my early days went onto the. Significant Careers Industrial Chemistry and of course we'll feeds directly in terrestrial biology. because. You've got the often these pre pre biotic chemicals. We need for life so very interesting topic. That's it in a nutshell. Knows, to get something from left field that that we normally talk. That's a great question, and yes, oppose the answer is it didn't happen at a certain time. It's just been an ongoing. Process. All right thanks for the question. Let's move on. This is Simon Simon comes from the area where I grew up. A, from Newcastle, he now thinks for the podcast. Question to ease unseen. There are a lot of technical issues in different tree. However e flake could be overcome. What could we resolve from baseline between L, four and L? Fall League orange politics. Thinks cows walking. Question. So let's. First of all talk about the Alpha, male five points. You and I spoke about points many times Andrew, there that that gravitational null points. In the case Simon so came out here. That the gravitational, no points where the sun's gravity and the gravity balance out effectively, and there were five of them. There's one in between the sun and the earth, which is kind of the most intuitively obvious one web you get to a point where the sun's gravity balances the gravity, but then you go to remember that they settle, thing is rotating, so the four more and two of them are a also in a straight line, the sun, earthline ones beyond the ones beyond the earth, and the other is on the side of the sun from the, but then the L, four and l five points. Sixty degrees ahead of and sixty degrees behind the earth in its orbit. So you've got this? These, two points which are. Within the orbit rotating with the Earth gravitationally no points so you could put spacecraft that the point of of what Simon saying. But they rotate with the orbit sixty degrees ahead in sixty degrees behind, so they are long way of. Many millions many tens of millions of kilometers apart. Well okay so the other side of this question is interferometry. Technique. This always been close to my heart. I spent I wasted many. Many months when I was a student trying to build A. New type of interferometer. Never been done before I. Don't think anybody had done it before. Don't think the since it did actually work. What are you doing with interferometry you making use of the wave nature? In my case, it was the wave. Let nature of light, but you can also do it with radio waves. So that you can bring to light being together and under certain circumstances when you add them together. They don't just get brighter. Because what happens is that the the waves of light can actually cancel each other out, so he can. Paradox you can bring beams of light together and get darkness now because the. Waves. Exactly canceling a little bit light, we do with noise cancelling headphones in in in the sound failed. So, but you can learn a lot from that. And in fact, he was in the nineteen, twenties and thirties. I think that. Scientists such put. into parameters onto big telescopes. What you need to do is. Separate your. The collecting. The collecting. Elements of your optical system if it's if it's optics. Separate them, by as far as you can bring the light beings together separately so one way of doing it for example. Andrew just simply. Isn't yet imagine a the normal telescope, a normal big astronomical telescope, and you you cover mirror up instead of having a three point nine minutes to mural. For example we've got at the end strategy and telescope you cover it up and just put two holes in it an either side of that a of a of a diameter. And, then you what you can do is the image form you can bring these light waves together in such a way that they will interfere. That's hence the the name of interferometry, and you can measure very fine angles without technique. And, in fact these days it tends to be done certainly in the optical regime. It tends to be done on radio as well. In fact, it tends to be done not just by having to to sources you. You have many you have an array. Of course. That's why we have radio telescope arrays, so you you building a multi baseline interferometer, a the techniques used in optical, strongly particularly successfully at the very large telescope in. Chile because the four eight me to tell us. Groups of the not can be connected together along with full more smaller telescopes to form an interferometer, and that's how we. have been measuring the essentially, the a movement of styles around the Galactic Center. It's how we know there is a black hole. Essential by galaxy comes from interferometry. Actually, also the. Tree, but the as well now I think Simon's question. A is really aimed at the radio field, and of course, that's why. We have radio raise the square kilometer array that I'm very closely connected with being built in Western Australia and South Africa that is effectively an interferometer with a very complex one, because it doesn't just. To to collecting elements got hundred, thirty, six, thousand, and you kind of each one of these plays into. Being able to build a high resolution picture. What I guess. The technically Simon is thinking of the heading. It comes under something called vlb very long baseline interferometry and a radio strong technique. And the the have been ideas for doing space. In other words he put vob, I satellites into space to give you greatly extended baselines. That the? One particular system. that. We have I think this is historical one. An. Says yes. What nationality put this into orbit, but this was a ten meter radio telescope, an orbit, making it for metric observations until January twenty, nineteen. This is in orbit around the earth, so it reached a resolution of eight microseconds. One ARC second is three, one, three, thousand, six hundred thirty degree. A micro second is a millions of that, and this could do eight of them. So. You will be talking if he could do it and I'm not sure whether it's feasible at all, but if you could do it over the Lang separating the two L. Five Alpha. Male five lagrange points you would have. You'd be looking at peacock seconds or or Resolution very very fine detail. But. The trouble with this sort of thing is that he told based on economics of and that would be very expensive mission, and he's not one that I've actually seen put. Proposed to the must be some really serious difficulties with it, whereas on the other hand, the arrays that we're seeing like the square kilometer array and Strengths quite kilometer right pathfinder. Those arrays working very successfully and managing to overcome the difficulties of combining these beams of of of radio. Wise because I think that would be the problem with. Such a long baseline. And also in the optical field, yes, eight microseconds is easily achievable with the the. The. Real Ti very large telescope into for. Parallel that's a slightly waffly answer to a direct question, which I didn't answer adult what the resolution will be between the two realms, points could probably sit down and work it out. Actually the answer depends depends Italiam wavelength. You're looking at It's. I think it is an interesting idea. I suspect their technical difficulties that the moment consid- on Samah insurmountable, so that's probably one. Nobody. I saw. He spoke without taking a breath a probably fifteen minutes in your question when the answer could have been defined. Exactly, it depends. You said there was six points. Well, I think they were seeing. I just. Found one he? It's a song buys eight top called the. A good. Let's good, but we're bitcoin. Shall I indulge wash? Let's see. I'm not allowed to play too much. Copy road. GETS TO THE Actors. Top Legras. They do well balancing their guitars and. So. Incredible. Thank you. Question hopefully, we answered that in true and traditional spice now form by answering. All. Now. And thank you for the audience questions. We've had quite a few sweet, which is Great. We couldn't get to all of them, but we revisit the others that have turned up in the next episode to, but if you would like to send us in question, go to our website. Spice Nuts podcast, dot com, and then click on the I m TAP, and there's a recording button mayor and it's a really simple. Simple process if you go microphone in your device whether it's a smart device or top or a desktop computers, long as it's a microphone that you can easily get to amend point having a microphone in the towel down next to your ankle, but yeah, just all you have to do is press. Start Recording and say hi. I'm Fred from Sydney and I. Want to know oldest secrets of the universe. And Fred will be able to answer. Maybe. That's how it's guy. Space Nuts PODCAST DOT com. Check out the shop. We've got a space that shop. There's a book tab there as well and. astronomy daily you can check out stories. They good the website coming to get an awfully still a work in progress, but it's It's well on its way. That's it for another week. Fred! Thank you so much. It's been a great pleasure. Sorry, about do, and hopefully the knee will stop hurting in Idaho. and. Everything can get fact. They'll be good. We're doing alright. Thanks and thank you again for your condolences under. It's nice to remember man. He was such a big part of of space nuts so. Yeah. Indeed. Or, so you and me and We will catch you again next week on another episode. Thanks a law. Professor Fred Watson. Astronomer Lodge joining us every week, he on the space, nuts podcast, looking for do company Knicks Time Episode Two hundred, twelve, coming up, and for my Andrew Dunkley farewells. See real soon. To this. PODCAST. Available at Apple podcast, Google podcasts spotify. Radio your favorite podcast plan, you can stream on demand at. 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Astronomers vs Starlink
"Love this podcast. Support this show through the ACOSS supportive Asia. It's up to you. How much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. Fifteen seconds guided been journal, Jan.. Ignition sequence, uh. Nuts! To. report it feels good. Hello once again. Thank you for joining us on this. The space nuts podcast episode two hundred nine. My name is Andrew Dunkley and with me as always is professor. Fred Watson astronomer at large frayed. Andrew how you doing. I'm quite well sir, how are you quite well to I? Guess more or less. Doesn't it and so. Much more to say. But we carry on regardless and there's plenty to talk about again this week. Including an update on the styling satellite program. A planet discovered by the University of southern Queensland, but it's more about how they did it than the discovery itself. That's interesting and we're going to follow up a story that seems to be doing the rounds. I- collision between two black holes that looks to have created an explosion of light. That sounds rather spectacular. Will tackle some audience questions about except planets and this. This fascinates me freighter. Have you've done your homework? Quack, matter in quacks stars. I. Thought that was the stuff of myth, but we'll find out. but that's all coming up. We'll start off. Fred with a look at the styling. Satellite Program is an update day. This is I think it is the certainly the tenth launch off styling satellites, which takes the total up to something like six hundred satellites in orbit from of course. This is the issue that has got astronomers. Hot under under the color all over the world, both professional and amateur, because the of the amount of light these spacecraft. Reflect back from the sun and. SPACEX. Have come to the party on this they have. been very concerned that that's the case, and so they looked to town to mitigate this I think I'm right in saying that this the whole trench of Anna believe it was fifty seven. Spacecraft that will. With probably some other payloads in as well as a fifty seven of the styling south allies. But this whole tranche of them now. Uses walks. What? SPACEX is calling well the cooler satellites. The visor sat because they've got adviser a Sun visor. To Stop the direct light of the sun, illuminating the antennas of the space craft and hence. Causing bright reflections or causing light pollution for astronomers trying to see this, house. These apparently are made of a foam material. Dark. Foam like material that. Has No effect on the radio signals that are being transmitted, but will basically. Prevent. The that are certainly reduced the amount of light that comes from each base craft, as it reflects sunlight, so their effect is yet to be seen. We might expect to see some observations of this transfer fifty seven spacecraft going across. Across the sky with the visors and it'll be grave nobody. Says anything. So. That's the thing, isn't it? Because in the past people have photograph, these lines of lights in the sky and we've had a few amateur astronomers. messages decide that. They've had issue with satellites while try to do astro photography, and if indeed they have managed to come up with solutions for that and we did talk about that last time few weeks ago that they were considering this it will be just a fantastic effort, and and and that that's got to be a positive thing very much, so yeah, so we'll. We'll wait to see what the verdict is as. It's a good story and I suppose we'll. We'll now in the next little while take long shouldn't do. Probably before this before this episode space, it's the airways anyway. Long does it take for them to deploy fifty-seven satellites It's it's a pretty rapid process and you know what has has a. Almost alarm people in the past when they went to wear what was going on. Here is a stream of of up to sixty spacecraft in a line across the sky, a very very interesting stuff. That's what I'm saying photos. Often it It does sort of cut you off God and I've seen a few people said what is it? What is it? Can someone told me and there are others in the? No, it's I all that Spicy Blah Blah. And And there is so this time. Perhaps no one will say anything. It'd be great nobody so anything yeah. Fingers crossed. All right. That's good news. Let's let's move onto this planetary discovery by the University of southern Queensland I I know the stories about maybe how they did it, but do. We know much about the planet at this stage? Yeah, we do it's. It's a really interesting story Andrew because some a very strong strand flavor of there is a strong excellent group of University of southern Queensland. People most of them I know pretty well because it worked with many of them. Before on. The observatory. Assigning spring in new, South, Wales, but University of southern Queensland has its own observatory to place called. Mount can't eat doc sky site, which means be July but. The SPACEX satellites have been done because they defendants from that. Eight. Essentially a a planet discovery facility. which is used in tandem with Nastas? Test Satellite Transiting Planet Survey, satellite basically. University of southern Queensland provides backup facilities. That's exactly what's happened in this particular story. Sorry, you asked me about this story. The planet itself which now getting to. A cold a you microscopy e, which means it's in the constellation of Lico Scorpio microscopy. Say Making Lia. A you Chris Copied give is Latin pronunciation usually known as you make. It. San and how Australian is that Fred? Well is that? It makes us raw. Australians have a reputation for abbreviating things and Michael Becomes So this is now planet meek, this planet make. A with actually quite right because he's a you. Make a you is designated. That tells you. It's a variable star, but also leads Australia's of A. Does. Everything going for it so there it is. Why is this very? This is a young variable star. Why is it been trust because he has a dust? Debris disk around it, so it's you know this is what we call a protoplanetary disk. Our Son had one once upon a time. A solar system within that as these particles have dustin. The debris start together by this process cold accretion. So, it's got. It has been known to have this disc of debris, but now what has happened is as a planet has been found within that disk, so young as I said only twenty thirty million years old, compared with a four point six billion years of our solar system. And the the planet has been discovered by the tests spacecraft Dad Transiting EXO Planet Survey Satellite. Which noted the dip in the Star's brightness as the planet passed in front of it. So, that's a fairly standard process. That's how tests works these. How many of the planets that have been discovered at the moment of being found, but what then was able to happen? Was that because? The University of southern Queensland as this link with the tests, facility? The information was basically a passed over to add to the STRANA NBA US Q. who used that telescopes, which is actually a? Part of. A support network called Minerva. Sakarov want me. Nerve is an acronym for, but it is a fairly large consortium. And as I said with telescopes at Mount Kent near to MBA, so the US Q. Astronomers use that telescopes, not only to check these measurements of the of the change in brightness of the of the of the star, but also to carry out what's called doppler wobble method which you and I talked about before the smell Andrew, so you use a the the light from the star you can split it into components. Spectrum colors not reveals this Bar Code of information which is imprinted by the elements in the atmosphere, the style, but by making very accurate measurements of these you can you can. You can work out the motion of the Star itself as he's pulled around by the the planet and so. Some has an effect. The Sun moves backwards and forwards slightly. Is that different planets in the solar system? Move around it principally Jupiter that does that but the other plan. Back to? So, that is now observed with the the Mount Kent Telescopes, and basically it means that you you actually extract much more. Information because he can determine the mass of the of the transiting planet. You can also determine. By looking how far it dips the light of its parent star, you can also determine its size not gives us density, which tells you something about its nature. This one is is a Neptune star. Neptune sized planet unlikely to be a home for life, but nevertheless parts of the giant picture of exoplanets that we're building up now it's well over four thousand dollars been discovered, so we live in a golden age of planet discovery, and this is just another. Way which they can be, you know that they can be characterized. Yes indeed, so I ended up confirming it with both methods transit an doppler wobble. That's right exactly. I know all about the global effect on Mr Short Pat on Saturday because of that. Nasty stuff. Yes, you've got to watch out for on the Gulf coast. There's a lot of Doppler wobbling going on. It's terrible. It's my excuse for everything. Well, that's that's a great discovery, and they're doing some good work by the of it Fred now down in. The paper that Scott in the journal Nature, which is the leading a? Science Journal published in the UK. The team from. A very long list of authors in this in this Piper, which also includes people from University of. Wales. I noticed Christie's names, ed crisis, a an old colleague of mine used to be at the eye of Johnny Henry's one. The lead people up to Mount Kenta Observatory us q so lot of friends and colleagues in this large number of. Office for this paper. Johnny wouldn't be South African woody. He comes from not very far from where I grew up. He's got an accident. That's not that different from mine. Believe okay. Interesting well Janis. I should say very much north east of England diminutive. Except when you get to Newcastle East Jump Eight. because. Johnny Man I. Got It. Yep. and. Map can't one of the. Mount Canton one of the most horrible shots astrology at the dialing dance what he is looking. Straight. Think you'd better explain the? UPSET, it's it's absolutely beautiful, Rolling Hills and green valleys in just glorious, just a beautiful part of the world. Just over the border, why didn't we snaffle that? When we drew up the maps, Fred alive not. Probably. Sleep! Well? New South Wales the the state way leaving us to encompass all of Australia right to the West Strident Boorda. And someone decided to carve it up and they gave Queensland based on pretty unimpressed to be honest. But anyway that's the way it goes. That's the way guys. You're listening to the space. Nuts podcast with Andrew. Dunkley and professor. Fred Watson. Space nuts now. If you'd like to become a premium member of the space, nuts, soup cast franchise were serious You can do that by visiting our website spice. Not Super CASS DOT tech. And radio about it there I. their monthly plans this this if you want to put something back into the podcast, which is completely. But as a super cast member you get access to the back catalogue with new episode debris week ca weekly new episodes exclusive bonus I am I content, and it's one hundred percent commercial free, though if you'd like to look that up, you can go to our website and check it out the URL space, not start super cast dot tech. you can also find out how all this works through well-run standard website space nuts podcast, dot com, and thank you to our patrons We're going to be adding some bonus material in the next waco-style. Now Fred. Let's move onto this story. That's. been hitting the headlines in many many publications, and that is the collision that's been reported between two black holes, which may have caused an explosion of light now. I'm guessing that's a little bit more significant than a fireworks display. Yes that's right I mean. You know this is A. Lie a little bit like the the story just talked about. Excuse me the planet discovery. This is A. Highly collaborative event between many different institutions. Some of which are very very different in that in that style of observing. The discovery that as well. It's a world I it's the first time. This sort of thing has been observed a pair of black holes, merging but producing light signal so. Okay let's get back to basics by Kohl's merging. You basically need a gravitational wave detector and we now have working gravitational wave observatories. The Lago facility in the United. States operated by the national. Science Foundation the LASER INTERFEROMETRY, gravitational wave, observatory and European version, which is called Virgo. These instruments have been operating together for a number of years now and actually producing gravitational wave at detections, most of which of from either merging black holes, all merging neutron stars, all merging black holes neutron stars. You can characterize them. Quite accurately by looking at the the the wave pattern of the gravitational waves as they pass through the earth. Because what we're talking about, here is slight shaking of space that comes about when a when allows mattis accelerated way off in the depths of space, but it shakes base around it that causes waves. Sit like dropping a pebble in a pond. The. Only a bit like it. Like that. and. You know you can detect the ripples as they go past, and looking at the details of those ripples tells you what you're actually seeing. It is an astounding. Scientific discipline the emerged since we've actually been able to detect these gravitational waves, so two black holes merging and don't. Cause any light. Normally because that black. What they do, is they spiral around each other? And then. Merge into alarm. Black hole which itself. Like the two precursors, he's also black, and so you don't get a light flash until now. And event is. An event which I love. The name is Gw. Nineteen O five to one G. Up tells you it's. An event gravitational wave event that occurred on the the twenty first of May, two, thousand, nine, hundred, eighteen, so second until now to analyze the results. Get them out, but it turns out the Don that day, and at the time of the event. Excuse me a another completely different style of telescope. Which is at the Palomar Observatory near San Diego, and if I remember rightly, this is based on their Schmidt Telescope, which is effectively a twin. Of the Schmidt Telescope we have siding spring. Observatory here in Australia. What used to be called the phone in Schmidt. Two of the one in Alabama one here hearing Australia now called the one point to me Schmidt. So. They can take right instrument on. And I'm pretty sure I'm talking about the right. Tell us if I'm not somebody must excuse me. A this Vicki transient facility is essentially a wide field imager the looks for transient events things that. Take place over a short length of time is named after Fritz Vicky who? Is actually the person who discovered dot matrimonial things he was A. Twentieth Century Drama, sadly now no longer with us, but the character and a half according to accounts. The ZETI ethics called. Is Vicky transient facility. Actually served a flash of light at the same point that this gravitational wave disturbance seemed to come from until that's. That gives you essentially a puzzle. You can look at the you know the shape of the gravitational wave measurements you can determine what you've seen is not to neutron stars, colliding black holes colliding, but then you've got the the enigma of the fat that they produced a flash, and so the office of the paper that has resulted from this. suggest that the the two black. Kohl's themselves which? Probably quite large of older of ten times the mass of the sound that sort of Size, but they suggest that these two black holes were in orbit around each other, but together where in orbit around. A supermassive black hole in other words sibling in the central. Alexey lets millions of times the mass of the Sun. And and it, it's a disc around its disc of and stars and bits of debris that it's kind of sucking in. And so the suspicion is that these two black holes, which just part of the swirling massive stuff going around the big black hole when they merged. They essentially provided an acceleration. The merging accelerates the final black hole which may have. Essentially somehow plowed they the the the words that they use plowed through the disk of gas, causing it to light up. Sounds like a complex story, but it seems to be the best that you can do. In terms of trying to understand why to merging black holes would give you a light signal, and it's all about the environment that they're in if they're in a dense environment with. A swelling material, going around to a bigger supermassive black hole. Then you can create this flagship lines. And so what the officers suggesting is that you know given what we now can can detect to gravitational wave telescopes detectors. Basically? We've got a new way of centrally studying the black hole population, generally, if you look for merging black holes in orbit around biggest ones, which is what this event to vein so. They are very excited about this. And there is one footnote in the paper, and that is is kind of a bit of a disclaimer, really because Although the conclusion of this of this paper is that light fled was picked up the Viki transient facility. Although that is very likely to be the result of this black hole merger. There there are other possibilities and you know you can imagine that it could have been just a chance occurrence of two things in the same direction, whichever completely independent source. One of them gives a flash the other. Gives the gravitational wave. Signal, but they've nothing to do with each. I think. It'd be very unlikely, but it's always a possibility is not likely to but yes. They say they cut up completely. Rule Out of the possibilities. Fair enough fair enough, but as we've discussed before with the gravitational wave detection capabilities, we now have It's early days in terms of what we're finding and how it detecting they sings, and the combinations of factors the create gravitational waves so. As you, said we. We've got signatures that indicate to blackhall's merging to neutron STAS merging or a neutron star, merging with the Blackhall, but this could well be. Two black holes merging in a dust cloud so. What else could what else could possibly happen? Exactly? So you know it's. I way whatever the whatever the causes this is. This is. You know it's a big step forward. I think as well just to perhaps give it a little bit more credibility. I think you know theoretical astronomers of already realized that maybe such events could happen that you can get a black hole merger that gives a light flash before the this one was detected in other words if They astronomers. They think way outside the box. Imagine all kinds of scenarios Maybe they were thinking about this beforehand and. This is the first confirmation of that I'm not quite sure that was the older in which things happen, but that's very of the West giacobbe works. okay well. They might be more to learn on this. I'm sure they'll be doing a lot of analysis on that data and keeping their. Eyes Open for. More gravitational, wise and. Who knows what will learn from those? Which I think is what I said last time, but that's that's the way that's just the way it is at the moment the. It's a sort of A. Fresher areas in science and and a stormy so It's definitely a watch. The spice scenario because this seems to be accelerating amount of DOT. Coming out of gravitational wave detection technology. You're listening to the space, and that's podcast with me Andrew and of course Fred Watson. Space nuts now if you would like to send us a question and see if you can stump Fred, we'll call it. That's what we'll call the segment from now on, I think can use dump freight You can send your questions to us the repeal away by missing or a mile or something like that Barra. Vara website all you can go to our website and click on the I, am I link at the top of the page and record your question in an audio form. We love to hear your voices had some great questions from people in Yeah. It's nice to hear from you. You literally so You can do that at Spice Nats podcast dot com space, and that's PODCAST DOT COM while they can check out astronomy daily the spice now shop the bookshop but the IM link up the top. We'll give you access to the audio recorder. You just gotTa microphone on your device, but it will work on a smartphone at work on a tablet, and if you've got a laptop, they usually have microphones built in but if you've got a desktop with mark of unattached, then it'll work on that, too, so it's pretty simple and we'd love to hear from you quite. Quite literally love to hear from you. Now Fred. Let's get to a couple of questions now audio questions this week, but we have one from a from Alex Poten- Leo Hyper have pronounced that correctly Alex. thanks for your question. Hi Andrew and Fred have a question about exoplanets planets, if we cannot say except planets directly, and we measure the amass and yearly obits via the wobble technique and the dipping lot technique whereby the stars lot dim slightly when something allegedly passes in front of it. Can we possibly know if it's one planets mass? We are measuring scholley stars wobble could only be linked to A. Concentration of mass on one side of the star. Does that even tell us how many except planets that star has, and if one was viewing our own solar system from Alpha Centauri using the transit technique then doesn't one need to try and the telescope constantly. Stop the best part of one hundred years close in order to record the dips in brightness of most of our planet's passing in front of the Sun Logically. One must stay at s on for years from Alpha. Centauri, in order to catch the passing in front of Assan, full measure our planet's mass and distance perhaps from the sun. Is that what planet hunting telescopes do stare at the same system or patch of sky for every? If they don't then have, can we ever hope to discover earth like planets that are close that are not close to their son's red dwarfs the best candidates for us like planets Is it possible to discover planets in bigger orbits? If we haven't had time to watch some vs in years to catch the second dip in brightness, anyway would love. would be great to hear your thoughts. Keep up the good work Alex. it's a long question and I think we've already touched on in this episode in terms of. The wobble technique and the transit technique. Buddy brings up some good points. How long is long enough to make way? Discoveries you hope to make exactly so what Alex says! He's absolutely right. It's not a quick process. And okay. Let's imagine the scenario that he. He mentions that if you're looking. At our solar system from well, it said the distance of Alpha Centauri. Let's say you're looking. In the direction that all the planets would pass in front of the some. then. What what happens is. You you. Basically have to look for a long time. You, you of what how the styles brightness changes. And in many of the. Planetary Systems that have been discovered. Yes, this is what we've seen. We've seen multiple dips. And some of them are different depths by that I. mean the talking about a big planet blocking the light of its parent star, so the light dips than you know. He alleged dips again, but it's a deeper this time then. What you what you wind up doing is recording all these different bits, perhaps from several different planets. You know if it was also assistant Jupiter Saturn. The guests they ice giant. All of them would give different debt, and they would be on a different cadence. Say that the different spicing in time. You would to watch our solar system for a very long time to make those discoveries. You Know Hundred Years, plus that's right because you either going going around twelve years. In order to. To. Volley. How what's the word validates is the what I'm looking for. In order to validate a planet discovery, I think you have to see it. It's like dip three times. I think that's the standard. So? That's thirty six years with Jupiter. This. This is why. Most of the planets that have been discovered so far aerobic around Red Dwarf Star, which much less massive than our some on the planet closer in that narrative that parents star, so they have shelter years. That makes much easier to pick up. It's why we often see things with with a year of just a few days. Because he can pick up this this dip after not very much length of time in observing. And Yes that is one of the limitations so the test spacecraft which we talked about few minutes ago. I think if I remember the Alex's right. They stare at patch of sky. Looking for the dips in brightness and I think with test. Looks at each patch of sky for if I remember on these twenty seven days, which is not a very long time when you're talking about things in obits around around stars, but what you can then do is if you find a star that has clearly has a planet passing in front of it to absorb one dip then you can go to other observatories and. They're now dedicated telescopes, which will focus on just one star, a look for the the the the the change in brightness, overload period, and in fact, that's all been turned out to citizen science as well so much is now could do this with their own telescopes the the. Technology has come on by leaps and bounds. And okay, the just throwing a little bit at the end of Alex Talk to the beginning of this question about the the doppler. Wobbly facts the fact that as as a planet goes around a stop, it pools, the staff slightly one win the other once again. If you've got multiple planets that pulling and pushing gets more complicated than so, what you get is what we Colorado velocity curve that's. The shape of the the line of sight velocity of the star over time, and with a single planet it will be just a regular up and down curve, but if you've got more than one planet that gets really complicated, it's got little steps in. It jumps and bumps and things of that sort, but once again you can analyze those and tease out exactly what it is. You're looking at and discover a multiple planet, so it's long process. It's a complicated process, but it does work. Yes I. We know it does because we've as you said Fan I've a four thousand such planets, but it also indicates to me based on these hit and miss approach I suppose that four thousand planets is probably a drop in the ocean. In terms of what we've already. areas of spice will go already observed is probably for every planet we have found Know if we use our solar system as an example, probably six or seven more that we haven't seen. I absolutely, that's right the smaller ones. Present technical techniques for determining what discovering planets, they're not sensitive to small planets, particularly small planets, hundred and fifty million years from this parents star like the earth. The earth will be very hard to detect. By the techniques using at the moment, but over time those technologies techniques are improving so. Yes like plenty suddenly on the agenda, but was once again. It tends to be red dwarf styles of there will be singing around. And of course he's right Dwarf Stars by the most common style, said no galaxy so. That's another reason why the. Why the discovery has been Basically towards those kinds of styles. He mentioned Alpha Interiors and observation point of AL solar system and The price and the time it would take to find the planets orbiting on. I recall a thing that we have discovered. A planet, all maybe more than one planet in the Alpha Centauri Region, have we? Yes, that's right. Yeah, and in fact I think Proxima is supposed to have an earth like planets around the is not very proxy. Moore is the nearest of those styles the office and Tori Stars. It's not don't think it's a very firm observation if I remember lightly, but. There is a suspicion that there's a there is a a planet in orbit around Proxima Centauri. Ingesting. More loose Andy for me. Sorry, if you were on Alpha Centauri, you wouldn't see the planets of the solar system crossing in front of the Sun because you're in the wrong direction, which is why I think of said. Take from a star of the distance of office story of it. The Alpha Centauri is well away from the plane of the solar system. Oh okay. Yes, of course. But. Apart yet. You never going to see. The Solar System's planets crossing the film from Dot Direction but there are other directions that you would see it from. Yes indeed Moron Alex. thank you for your question While Austin hopefully we gave you an adequate answer. Here on spicing outs now, afraid, let's move on to our next question. This one comes fraum Janet pits hello from a walloon Queensland. Andrew Infrared. Double Bunks for you. Or maybe it's the same question twice. there was a recent announcement of evidence that neutron stars may contain something called crack matter in there. 'CAUSE I hadn't heard of this before. Can you please tell me what quack matter might be? I know. It's in saw. Golf Balls I'm guessing it's an even more dense matter or state of matter than that in the neutron star. Also in the past week it spent announced the gravitational. Gravitational waves from a collision between twenty-three solemness black holes in an object of two point six solar masses. This object is heavier than neutron stars is supposed to be and lighter than any blackhall previously observed. It could be a small blackhall or trans, star or something else one of the possible something else. Candidates is quack. STA, which I suppose is made entirely of the aforementioned quack matter have. Could a crack star differ from a neutron star? Jeez brought up something very juicy and interesting. Tell something we certainly never talked about before. John that is quack, matter and quacks stars. So you fred. Okay so. A, you know they are among the funded the fundamental building blocks of matter until the standard model of matter. Involves. Actually sixteen particles seventeen. If you include the Higgs Boson, which is the particle that gives all the others mess, so therefore force particles. There are six leptons which include things like electrons and museums. These. Are you know basically smallest subatomic particles? And then there are six quarks. And the not together makes up the the sixteen plus one particulars of Subatomic Mata-. What I love about, Fox is the names that got these six quarks have got different names. They are up down top bottom. And strange. Could. A, they're all different, so they asked specifically you know. Indi individually determined Components of the building blocks of matter that what you and I am. Adolf you've. Got A, strange quark India in your digestive system was probably well well in other places as well so anyway. The components of things like protons, neutrons, and that's really the. The Nub of the matter when it comes to. So we recognize. Several states of what's called degenerate matter in in astronomy and the characterized by. Attained H clocks. Sorry missed the word. That walk teenage. Teen, quacks the degenerate Meta wasn't degenerate when I was a teenage. SHORROCK was. So okay, what's degenerate? Matter is matter that's in very unusual state, and the you know the example, the most of us think of a white dwarf stars. We. In fact, seeing product to the cell, the Sun will wind up his wide USTA. Something with almost massive of the some butts which is about the size of the earth. So an compressed. Density that only the outward pressure of the electrodes, the stopping it from collapsing to a to a another stage of. So, this is called electron degeneracy when the electrons walks holdings stuff apart the next stage, if it's more massive, the month point four times a mess of the some than it will continue collapsing until he gets to what we call neutron degeneracy, just the pressure of the neutrons stopping collapsing further, and that's a neutron star so. These are. Of the Order of ten to twenty kilometers. But once again with the massive a starring them. Exactly. As as A. Sorry John was saying sorry John. A mixture without lakes there exactly as John was saying. That s that's the typical picture of what we imagined to be the the most dense kind of star, and until now they have been thought not to exist more than about twice. The mass of the Psalm the thinking has been that. If you get a neutral style with more than two solar masses of matter, it will continue its gravitational collapse, the force of gravity that does this of course pulls it down to be a black hole. And nothing can keep. You can stop it from collapsing into that. So what put a spanner in the works exactly as John says, is observations made recently which seemed to suggest that the neutral laws which are more massive than not to Sola mass limits in particular one of a massive two point six. Sorry a massive two point six solar masses. So. What is it it somewhere between a black hole and a neutron star, or is some something else? That's where the idea of styles comes in to to the picture. Because? Then is work. This has been done. Thanks John for pointing this out. In the University of Helsinki announce whites. Were done by a zero theoretical group that. I'm what they are suggesting is that? Neutron Stars might be more complicated than we told. They might have structure now. We know that already through previous work, which suggests that neutron stars in that outer layers of probably a high proportion of propulsion of protocols as well. You've got to have protons that somehow because they things a highly magnetic, a neutrons up monetize. So there is the thinking that. A neutral stomach might be a bit like. An orange with until land is rich in protons, then a neutral a neutral coal. But the new book suggests that may be more to it that we feel and they might have a kwok call at the center of a neutron style, so you've got this Change in density from the outside to the edge and in the middle. You've got this really exotic stuff, which is kind of predicted by theory. that. Quark, matter things that are Sony stop from turning into a black hole by the clocks themselves the ups, the downs, the Buttons Toxin chums strange, although it might not all of up not enough of a particle physicist to note which. Which prohibited witcher allowed? So, my bright's falling apart this. Yeah, this new. Stuff people about quoc sauce for a long time, but this seems to be the first time that it's really coming into the. Job Into the regime of something that is worth falling rather than something that is highly speculative. It's still pretty speculative, but it looks as it's heading for the mainstream and certainly. Group in Finland think that Kwok styles all this exotic state of matter. Might well be a very likely outcome. There's a quotation hia. By one of the League scientists police work. which is the re still a small but non zero chance? The Dole Neutron Stars composed of nuclear matter alone. What we've been able to do however is quantify what this scenario would require. Ensure the behavior of dense nuclear Meta would then need to be truly peculiar three for instance, the speed of sound would need to reach almost that of light. So this is what they're saying here is. This is a scenario where you don't have. The just got neutrals. What it says is he got very peculiar comes so I. Think Everybody's leaning towards the idea that maybe maybe we starting to discover Kwok's. Load it's possible. We classify. As quack, rather than whatever they are at the moment, rather neutral torello than massive neutron stars. That's right, yeah! Fascinating interesting. Nas to open a new door on space nuts, too, and I appreciate the question Thank you John, wasn't it? Sending constellation Adrift Month break as well. It's. Starting to get into the. well, I. Wouldn't call it science fiction, but it's it's. It's theory. but it's starting to soda. Crack into the reality saw it of things. Might become yeah, as you said might become a mainstream science in. IF I can make some more discoveries in more understand more about what's going on. It's it. It's just one of the fascinating things about astronomy just keeps throwing up all these curveballs that you've got to try and figure out and. Now more and more questions to. That that's what it's. All of AAC GOING ADILA or no questions left to answer, which could take a long time. Yes, he got lost you at. Most most possibly. but anyway thanks John Appreciate the question and hope you well up in Sunny Queensland. And staying safe? Let's just about it for us for another week Fred. Thank you so much. It's a pleasure always good to stretch. The brain will see. Feels quite stretched. Yes, all right catch you very soon for it. Watson astronomy at large and don't forget to visit us if you're a facebook follower. On the spice nuts facebook page we have caught following nab. 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