3 Burst results for "Willie Mamma"
"willie mamma" Discussed on The Economist: Babbage
"And finally in conservation park in central kenya. Live najim fatou. The last remaining northern white rhinos the world's most endangered subspecies of mammal their mother and daughter. The last male sudan died in two thousand eighteen once nagina. In fact whose lives end the species will become extinct but they may not be lost forever. Researchers have been looking at ways to revive extinct species offering a glimmer of hope for the northern white rhino. They're basically two different approaches catrine. Brian is the economists of environment editor. One is effectively version of ivf in vitro fertilization. More or less the same thing as is done in humans but with considerably more international travel for the last few years on a number of occasions. Researchers from a collaboration known as bio rescue have flown into kenya in collaboration with park rangers. There they've done a procedure under general anesthesia. The two females have a number of immature eggs known as ots sites collected and those oh sites are then immediately flown to italy where fertilized with the frozen and then thawed sperm of the male who has been dead for some years and since two thousand in nineteen this process has produced nine frozen embryos so there are nine embryos of the northern white rhino species which are basically being held at minus one hundred ninety six degrees in an unknown location. At some point. The idea is to put those embryos into a surrogate. It's not actually going to go into national for complicated reasons at some point. They'll be implanted into a surrogate female. Most likely a southern white rhino which is a related species or subspecies and hopefully that will produce live northern white rhino babies. When will we know the team. When i spoke to the murder this year thoughts that by the end of the year they might make a first attempt at an embryo transfer. It seems ambitious to me bearing in mind that they've been trying to do this just with southern white rhinos so they've been sort of testing and so far they have not succeeded in having live birth so obviously they don't want to attempt the embryo transfer before they know that they've got the whole technicality of it sorted out because they've only got a small number of these embryos for the northern white rhino. The reason they're actually so keen to do it quickly is because in addition to the genetic inheritance. There's also a cultural inheritance. So the southern white rhino in the northern white rhino r. related but culturally different they have different lifestyles et cetera. And they want these babies. They want the young rhinos to be raised by a member of their own species so they want version in fact you to still be around if they can't give birth to them that's okay but they want them to be around to effectively mother them. It's not super fascinating. What's the second track. So the second track is not done. Humi- it's called in vitro gamut of genesis and the idea here is to work entirely with frozen cells so you could theoretically do this with a population that has gone extinct. You don't have a nash in or fatou but what you do have our frozen cells that were taken his biopsies at some point when the species was still around and obviously the supplies to the northern white rhinos. Well since we said there's a collection of these cells around the world so if you have a frozen egg and a frozen sperm than it's relatively straightforward and that is done in humans but what if you don't have a prison egg because there's really only a very small number of species around the world for which eggs have been collected and it's a very complicated procedure. What researchers in japan has shown. Is that with some really clever science. What you can do is you can take a skin cell and turn it into an excel and then fertilize those eggs with the frozen sperm. There's a lot more prisons sperm around than there is for his neck so this technique has been used for the northern white rhinos. Well right so. They're starting work on that. They have taken some frozen skin cells and managed to turn them into these induced pluripotent stem cells. They haven't yet turned them into an egg cell but at the minute what they're doing is they're testing those induced prepayments stem cells to see if they are in fact what they think they are if they are pluripotency so if they are able to turn into lonzo's and they've got some initial promising results but it's very early days but of course presumably there's more than just the white rhinos genetic material in the frozen zoo. We could go to lots other different species so in something known as the frozen zoo in san diego. They've got cells belonging to over a thousand species and subspecies of vertebrates. The thing that the san diego facility does that is separate to many of the other facilities the only stores they actually culture the cells so they make sure that they're still alive and they can multiply them and so far they've managed. I think there's about ten thousand cell lines. So there's there's a lot of promise there. And i should add that the san diego facility is not the only frozen zoo as it were around the world. There are many of these. So where do you think this is gonna end up. Is this going to be just simply a way to bring back species for the purpose of preservation or do you imagine zoos and entertainment to be emerged as we see woolly mammoths in either nature or zoo. Yes so that's a really interesting question. Willie mammoth obviously gets mentioned a lot when you talk about what's commonly known as de extinction. There's a big difference there the woolly mammoths. We have a genetic sequence. We don't actually have viable cells that you can grow in culture and the other important saying with the willie mama's is that it would basically only exist in zoo. The environment the species lived in the small sample of that still exists is currently melting as a result of climate change so bringing back species that doesn't correspond to any real environment that exists in a sustainable way on earth today to my mind makes little sense but preserving the species that we have the researchers really made a strong case for collecting stuff today for a future that may or may not exist so having this foresight to put things on ice now for technologies. That may come tomorrow. That to be makes a lot of sense. There's a lot of value in these frozen collections beyond bringing back species from the dead. There's genetic value in there. There's a whole lot of knowledge in there as it can be extracted without necessarily making babies as it were so i think ready the message to take away from this is the real importance of preserving what.
"willie mamma" Discussed on As It Happens from CBC Radio
"The skeleton of a willie. Mammoth is impressive to look at standing taller than a one story house with its long ivory tusks curving up into the air and it turns out you can learn a lot from one of those tusks. A team of researchers have been able to retrace the steps of one. Mammoth by studying its tusk. They discovered that it was born. In alaska and traveled seventy thousand kilometers over the course of its life claim on bataille is the co cocoa lead author of that study and an assistant professor of earth and environmental science at the university of ottawa. We reached him in ottawa. Why did you want to unlock the secrets of the woolly. Mammoth using its tusk. Well the idea behind this is really try to understand the extinction of those animals and puts. Curly's the link between climate change and extinction of megaphone. So we know that hold him. Willie mama disappeared twelve thousand years ago And that was linked to huge transition in the climate of the earth from glacial interglacial. And we don't feel you understand why this huge climate change Might have had an impact on this particular species because some of the species like caribou for example stayed alive cousy interglacial but some disappeared. Like the mama so we were really trying to try to link the mobility. We've we've climate and the tusk as i understand. It holds a treasure trove of information. About where this creature lived. Yeah yes Dusky really exceptional. Because it's growing continuously so it's a little bit like a tree ring that kind of keep recording every day of the life of the of the mamas because it grows constantly as about like six commuter per year and he grows. It'll be like a stock off ice cream cones if you want With like the tip of the being the oldest and the base being the youngest and so what we did is we split the tusk and then in signed up. Tusk is chemical signature That's go isotope ratios that we can unlock Using special instruments laser ablation in particular and tried to merge was isotopes along the tossed super super high resolution measured like a million points along the tusk there and whose chemical signature are related to the landscape on which the most traveling and because alaska has such a huge range of geology. We can start to reconstruct the full history of The modernist movement because it went through so many different sort of colocation we can much location isotope ratio. We've tons of tusk. And where do the prehistoric rodents come in. Yeah so that's where it comes in to build that map because the analyzed rodents isotope oliver alaska to build that map. So why did we use road on first of all just because wrote tar kind of local animals so they represent the local isotopic signature. Local chemical signature. And so we use. We got voted from oliver from a lot of different geology and a lot of different environmental condition and then from there we train a model to create a map that predicted lose isotope ratio across the entire study area and then from the tusk. Compared is a. We've got of the map. She'd kind of backtrack the step of the from point of what kind of map emerged. Where exactly did this mammoth goal. Yeah so the. The surprise was demolished. Move much more than what we expected. So the ranch of the mommas ended up to be a gigantic basically covered the entire state of alaska huge huge ranch of of movement The last thing we that twice the most surprising is that this From the age of fifteen years old and later when it becomes more of an adult male spikes to move feel four time. Its life this huge trip. Like six hundred kilometers out of time in like two or three months. I'm going somewhere somewhere like distinctive. He seems to really know where it's going and This was surprising and we looked elephants. And what happened at l. Essentially that the fifteen years old they get kicked out of the maternal heard and they start to really wander around the landscape much more looking for new herds for reproduction looking for low. We think that looking for love. That's it so. I think he was a time. Are mama's became kind of over and started to just really get excited about moving on the landscape and try to find a new. Mammoth has just did to compare it. Travelling distance of twice around the world in a span of twenty eight years seems like a pretty long way to go. How does that compare. Though to what an elephant today might travel. It will be a probably similar to watch. An african elephant will travel a bit more probably because the tundra in the arctic is very dry the resources for landscapes so this huge animal must have had to move a bit more to just find its resources so in the end what questions has said helps you answer and maybe new questions have emerged about the connection between their migration behaviour and their ultimate extinction. I mean i think it really help us to narrow down a bit to hypothesis about extinction. i mean. we can't really conclude with one single individuals so we'll have to do much more work and doing much more touch to just draw bigger conclusion. What's he could really say but This study is that despite his hot too had a huge landscape To survive so diverse. Landscaped transmits his genes for civil. And you'll probably needed a huge area for just resources So that really helps because what we think. Is that the transition of the glacial-interglacial what happened is most of alaska became forested when he became warmer and wetter and that really fragmented the habitat of the mommas and kind of prevented mama's to move. Maybe better a much on the landscape to a little bit. What we see today was. Which is we've parked damning into this small national parks where they don't have a lot of lens roam around and so that makes them more vulnerable to big climate variation things drought. They don't really have possibility to move around as much and to be flexible with their resource and humility. They don't have as much genetic diversity because they can't go to see different herds from different places. So i think this is really telling us to tell about how climate change is influencing species extinction in some ways and and we really hope to go further with. That was more tusk. Missio bowtie thank you for your time. Okay thank you very much for. Having the player claim all by is an assistant professor at the university of ottawa..
In a mammoth's molar, scientists get a glimpse of evolution in action
"Would have no more surprises. Well, the world's oldest DNA's samples say otherwise, to mammoth molars pulled from the permafrost in north eastern Siberia contained didna dating back to more than a million years ago. It's a big leap backwards in time that that's which was Luca Dillon is at the center for Paleo Genetics in Stockholm. And he says this mammoth DNI is twice as old as the previous record holder, which came from an ancient horse now sequencing million year old knee like this was impossible just a few years ago samples that old were just too small to work with. Now, researchers can see incredibly small samples, but it's challenging to put them together. Tom Vander Vault also works with the center for Paleo Genetics. Imagine if you're Edna is fragment that into literally millions of tiny pieces. It is a painstaking puzzle. It's not only one parcel, it's actually multiple parcels. So imagine you know you have one parcel for the malice genome. But then you have another parcel for the whole bacterial content of the examples. You have another possible for the human Dina for the paleontologists and us in the lab. Once they had finished sorting out the mammoth bits. The DNI gave the scientists a unique window into mammoth evolution. Delenn says the standard view holds there was only one mammoth species in Siberia a couple million years ago. What we find now is that actually we found two different lineages. We can't really say there are different species, but they're clearly two different genetic types of malice so that that came as a complete surprise to us. The ancient DNI. A also gives clues the origins of the Columbian mammoth, which lived in North and Central America. Here's Tom Vander Volk again Good kind of show that this Columbia moment is a hybrid species between two off the genetic lineages. So one is the new general image that we found in this paper. And the other is the Willie Mama genetic limit, So to say their work appears today in the journal Nature. Alfred Rocca of the University of Illinois at Havana. Champagne wasn't involved in the work, but wrote on accompanying editorial. It's an absolutely amazing discovery. It takes back the field of ancient DNA's a Twice a Zafar in geological time as before, and that genetic puzzling unlocks the possibility. He says that we may soon find more evolutionary play by plays hiding in super Old DKNY.