5 Episode results for "William Mahone"
"How are the readjust remember today? They're not I mean they they sort of vanish. On this episode of Transition Virginia, it represents the promise and the tragedy of reconstruction. The Re adjusters with Paul Lebanon their successes thumb ways really invigorated their rival and delegate Schuyler van Valkenburgh. Your democracy is only as the as the people who participate in join us for a deep dive into a forgotten moment in history when blacks and whites formed progressive coalition in the eighteen eighties all that and so much more on this episode of Transition Virginia. All Welcome to Transition Virginia. The podcast they usually examines transition of power from Republican to. Democrat. Although today we're going to do something a little different. We're GONNA get in our time machine and go back to the eighties the eighteen eighties I'm. And I'm Thomas Bowman Today on the pod. We're going to take a break from examining the transition from Republican to Democrat and look at transition from Bourbon to readjusted. Wait Wait Thomas Thomas did you say Bourbon, yeah but calm down at today Oh. All right. All right to help us navigate through the transition from Bourbon Democrat, to the by racial and radically progressive readjusted coalition. We have an amazing panel. Paul eleven good is the former president of the Virginia Historical Society. He's currently president of the George C Marshall Foundation doctor. Levin. Good. Thank you for joining us. Thanks for having me. I'm looking forward to the conversation and we're also joined by delegates. Schuyler van Valkenburgh a Democrat from Henrico as a member of the House of delegates. He witnessed the transition of power from Republican to. Democrat but delegates. Van. Valkenburgh isn't just a garden variety politico. He's also civics teacher at Glen Allen High School and he's about to take us to school delegate Van Valkenburgh. Thank you for joining us. Thank you for having me for having the on and thank you for doing this topic. I think it's it's a really interesting Virginia history. It is a really interesting topic admittedly a bit. Quirky but let's jump right into it. One of the reasons that the struck says worth talking about thinking about is when the Democrats took power recently, there was a lot of talk about as being the most Progressive General Assembly in the history of Virginia to which I responded. Wait a second. What about the eighteen? Eighty s there was this group called the readjust yours that had. Increases. For Public Education that repealed the poll tax that increased taxes on corporations that increase funding for state asylums that had money for higher education that abolished the whipping post I mean, this is a by eighteen eighties standards extremely progressive, even radical Doctor Levin. Good. I wouldn't start by setting the scene here. So when the readjusts are formed and take power in the General Assembly in. Seventy nine give us the setting here. So this is like we're not even talking about reconstruction anymore. Reconstruction is like nine years past give us a window of what was going on in the late eighteen seventies that allowed this to happen. Well, I guess you're right to point out that reconstruction was over ended in Virginia and eighteen seventy when Virginia was readmitted to the. Union. But there was kind of this interim period questions were being determined as to who was going to be allowed to hold power. you it enfranchised the state, African American population. There were African Americans winning local offices. So the political social kind of setting was was really kind of a bit in flux. You know when you had some politicians and figures from the prewar Arrow returning and trying to get back into power and you had new voices being heard. So it was just a lot of tumble at the time and it created I think this unique situation in Virginia history where there was this. Void and the void in some ways was really filled by as you mentioned, the adjuster what comes to be called a readjust her party, and also it is important to point out that one of you know the key debate in this entire period is a financial debate. The the Commonwealth's finances are really hamstrung by the issue of prewar debt which sounds really boring except this is we're talking about more than probably half of the State's budget is being paid in interest payments. For the debt that it incurred. In. The antebellum period mainly building things like roads and railroads and canals, all sorts of internal improvements which. I'm sure. Delegates. Van. Valkenburgh, you know talks to students about sometimes in that in that pre war era that era of improvements the Virginia had invested in these things borrowed money to do it. And then of course, there most of them are destroyed by the civil war, and now they're left trying to figure out how they're going to pay this massive debt this in these interest payments and do everything else they need to do. And this question really lingers and hangs over the head of all this politics. We're going to get to the legacy later on in the podcast but delegate van. Valkenburgh. I'm GonNa sort of hinted that right now at the top of the show, which is how we think about the readjust now in the modern world, like what is their legacy? How do we think about this time period today? Yeah, that's a good question and I think there's there's two things that I think we should address when we talk about it I think. One thing we have to note is that the reason why they were even possible is kind of the structure that allowed them to come into power. In. So when you look back kind of the history of of Virginia politics, you look back at the history of Virginia Governance we we've had many constitutions you had the constitution seventeen, seventy, six constitution of eighteen, thirty, the constitution, eighteen, fifty one, and it's really only with the constitution of eighteen sixty nine which provided African Americans the right to vote which I did not have a poll tax was added. It was done by the readjusting now, but it was only within the context of that of that constitution that this moment could even rise and I think that speaks to how important it is to have a constitution that facilitates. Democratic participation whether that's in the vote or how you draw the lines. You Know Rep Tartar talks about the Great Gerrymander of eighteen thirty, which was basically baking into our constitution, the legislative power for the eastern part of the state, and what that did was give slave owners the power in Virginia all the way through until eighteen, eighteen, sixty, four in the nineteen, sixty, nine with the kind of postwar constitutions I? Think. That's one thing that's really important to know is how the fundamentals help lead to different policies in different politics, and then the second thing is it is an interesting moment is an interesting moment about what matters to people. Coming out of this, the debt was the important thing. There's this huge conversation around school debt. So the Eighteen seventy eight, the general MB passes a school appropriations bill and the Governor Vetos it. When you look back at the language of his veto and why he vetoed it is incredibly inflammatory but it's basically talking about we're GONNA pay off this debt and schools is optional thing. And then that kind of folds in that leads to Mahone the confederate general turned egalitarian who calls a conference and says, you know this conferences for anybody who wants to come in makes kind of explicit call to people from both races and out of that. You could this coalition that exists in almost you know immediately after once they're successful, the rug is kind of pulled out from under them because the debt is no longer the important thing in race kind of respect to the forefront, and so I think it speaks to. The contingency of politics as well and how coalitions will change, and you know how you guys talk about the transition from Republican to Democratic power and how maybe this General Assembly. Assembly was the most progressive in history and maybe it was. But you know what that means in two years is going to be a lot different because some of these issues have now been taken off the table or have been or maybe have been taken off the table on what does that mean for politics in two thousand and twenty, two to twenty four, right So I think. The lesson is both structural but also the kind of day today politics in what issues drive people in eighteen seventy, eight poor white folks poor black folks were incredibly concerned about schools in the debt issue didn't play. five years later. Everybody agreed that the readjusts did the right thing debt or seemingly right. They put it to bed in the issue became about race again. and. So I think those are two kind of interesting lessons. And I think what? Telling you know Michael Getting back to your question. There is how are the readjusts remembered today? We'll. They're not. I mean they they sort of vanish there this little weird interim period between reconstruction and you know the reemergence of the Democratic Party and the the you know essentially the the machine democratic politics that dominate Virginia from then you know the eighteen ninety s until the nineteen. Well apparently to the civil rights movement, and probably you could argue at least until the eighties. So it really is whether it is conscious and deliberate or not the readjust just vanish. No I mean that's that's a really interesting point. In fact, that's one of the reasons I wanted to do this podcast is because everything that we're about to talk about actually challenges the narrative that have in their head about how what happened in the eighteen hundreds you know like. I think in the popular mind it's okay. The civil war happened the confederacy was vanquished but almost immediately white supremacist to power and started you know a government and so they just sort of skip over this brief but radical period of time when black people had power and held political office and were part of a coalition that did incredibly progressive things and got rid of the tax and did criminal justice reform it had mental health reform reactor education. and. I mean there's all this. So it's really it challenges the narrative that people have in their head because it just doesn't make sense with what people think that they know about history. So doctor, Levin? Good. Let's talk about language a little bit. So I think a lot of our listeners are going to say readjusted what the heck is a readjustment and then Bourbon. Made this at the script at the top of the show made this joke about Bourbon like what explained to us the playing field in eighteen seventy nine what is a bourbon and what exactly is a rid or what do they want to readjust While the readjusting are taking their name from their attitude toward Virginia's public debt, and this notion that they thought that the debt that they were saddled with was gonNA cripple the state, make it unable to fulfill its promises about public education and all sorts of other things and so there You know there's sort of reason they're proximate reason for being is to readjust that debt to repudiate part of it to adjust the interest rate downwards. Let me ask a question about that. So the debt is huge. This is pre war debt and war dead and so what was The debate like if you want if you supported paying off the debt who were you and why what was your motivation if you did not want to support paying off the debt? Who what kind of group were you associated with them? What was the motivation they're sort of what's the debate about paying off the debt versus not paying off the debt? Yeah. I. Think over I mean maybe overly simplistically but those who wanted to the funders as they called themselves they wanted to fully fund the debt were more the business class, the affluent the the the wealthy elite. Bargains the verbs which comes from the Libor Bowl, the European royal elite of sort of idea of of what the Bourbon, not not the not the whiskey variety comes from. So that's Kinda that that class of people the readjusting as as Schuyler just mentioned, were you know this kind of coalition of poor and working class whites and blacks You know it's a some others thrown in like William Mahone who will talk about? I'm sure was a strange character in quite quite interesting. and. And so this notion that what they what they wanted to be able to do was fulfilled the promise of. All the things you mentioned, public education You know higher education, all of these things that were to benefit. A wider range of Virginians and if you're pay more than half of your your in your state budget every year paying more than half toward this interest it was you're not going to allow you to do that. So he's going to continue to benefit the the funders. You know. They really had a couple of motivation for people who wanted to pay the debt in full. You know one they kept talking about a matter of honor its honor to pay the debt, we need to fulfil our state honor. which you know it sounds good I think. But let's also face fact they were also worried that if the debt was repudiated, it would make Virginia kind of a pariah among moneyed interests who might invest in Virginia again. So there was worry that if he repudiated the debt, you drive investment away. And I think that that those two things both the honor of paying that debt in some ways and the the business ramifications we're driving, we're driving them. and I would also add in there too that you have to remember that in Virginia and in much of the south. This kind of concept that the everyday person should be able to vote or the everyday person should have access to education. Was not kind of baked into the populace the funders you know when you look back to the eighteen, seventy eight veto message governor holiday he's a, he's basically saying look we have education for the people who need it and they can go and get it. We don't need to fund education for All these folks and so it's not just. funding the debt although it certainly I think is the is the main thing but there is also just an inherent belief that everyday people shouldn't have a say in elections in don't need public education and that that that lineage goes back to the founding fathers in and the kind of folks who were arguing in this kind of classical Republican philosophy that it was the free. Holders and the people who had leisure time who could get an education and in represent the kind of common good whether that's the common good of Virginia or the common good of the United States, and of course, that's butting up against the reality of Jacksonian. America it's butting up against the reality of the reconstruction amendments and it's kind of you've got these two worlds and I. Quote from one of the one of the African. American. Men who came to the convention that Mahone called to create a new party the readjusting. And he says, you know it's this freed slave he he's from new and he says as to the debt, we don't WANNA pay a cent of it. We think we paid our share of it by our long years of servitude. You'd think it kind of that argument and you think that language of and it's it's it's it's true when it's fascinating horrifying though I have a question. How does a biracial political coalition? Actually a whole political party in Virginia, which is spires to break the wealth and power of privilege. Come to be led by a former confederate general. Yeah that's a great. That's a great question Here's where maybe a opportunity to talk about William Mahone. Who you know really becomes the figurehead of the party he he's. He as you mentioned I mean he is a A. Say. Confederate, general. He's actually involved in one of the more horrific events. perpetrated by the confederacy in eighteen, sixty, four at Petersburg if you've ever visited the battlefield and seeing the crater that was created Union Union miners. Dug under the confederate lines and blew up. try to create a gap in the line and what ended up happening was A. as. Union troops poured into that gap. They found that actually putting themselves into rather a gap really into a pit crater where they were sitting ducks and a lot of African American troops were involved in that and were singled out to be massacred by among other officers involved when Mahone. So this is a guy with a really. I mean, Bizarro back story if you were picking the leader of a biracial coalition coalition which I do think lend some credence. To the detractors who say he was really looking at this as a matter of political expediency more than anything else he had been. He'd been a Democrat he came out of the the war A. Member, what they call the Conservative Party conservative faction, which were mainly prewar Democrats and you know I think he found you know he ran for he ran for. Governor and lost and I think he found this was a different a different route to political power I. Think MOANS. Commitment to racial equality needs to be held in a great deal of question Any certainly saw this as an opportunity. Now, I don't maybe not being completely fair to him, but he you certainly have to at least. Afgha- that question and one of the interesting things about Mahone I heard this from someone a few years ago you know. Mahoney. There's never been a great biography of Mahone. and which would also lend us may be some some aid in deciding why did he do this? And the reason Friday the most prosaic reason I've ever heard he has a massive collection of papers that he left to posterity. There are Duke University, his handwriting is so bad. But the people have people have tried to go in the papers. To do a biography of that's fascinating character and they've given up because they can't deter decipher handwriting saw his motivations are lost. In some way just because the man had appalling penmanship but. But let's mind-blowing if you stop and think about it like it. had better penmanship how much more we would know about the eighteen hundreds in Virginia but I didn't mean interrupt you I think it's Fun I would have to You know what I think what's interesting is he comes about in a moment and I think we should be cynical about the reasons why he did what he did but I also think it's interesting right? You'RE A he's he's a confederate general he was in the Conservative Party. And he splits off on this readjustment issue in know there's two ways politicians can go in this moment, and one is to kind of fully embrace the eighteen, sixty nine constitution voting rights for all and to try to create a coalition and the other path. is to try to you know create amendment poll tax, which some folks did and to try to suppress the vote which you know after Mahone other white folks. Do you know they decide not to try to amend the constitution, but you have to famous laws from eighteen, eighty, four and eighteen, ninety four, which essentially disenfranchised the entire African American community by creating these local electoral board's the Democrats could control which kind of become the foundation for the bird machine. And he doesn't do that and I think if we're going to give him credit, we give them credit there, which is a in a moment where he could try to weaponize the constitution of the General Assembly as a form of suppressing the African American vote. Instead when he dies in, you go to those papers you can find a list of black pastors that he frequently corresponded with because he was engaging in interracial alliances, and so I think we should be cynical about his his reasoning. But at the end of the day, he ended up embracing a more FR in franchise any ended up. Communicating and being in touch with in in helping patronage for the black community and I think that's a it's a really interesting story because so many people in the south didn't do that. Yes. So the sky full of contradictions, confederate general who later becomes a railroad president he was president of a railroad and that's actually how he got involved in politics because he was trying to help himself financially and then decides in eighteen seventy nine to found a new political party. This is another really in my mind really bizarre part of this is the timeline how quickly all of this comes together. So Eighteen, seventy, nine, he has this convention that you mentioned. He forms the readjustment party the same year they take control the General, assembly they had fifty six seats in the House fifty, six, hundred seats they had twenty four seats in the Senate is twenty, four out of forty seats. So that's pretty decisive. Win For having formed the party that year. Eighteen seventy, nine, they take control the General, assembly eighteen, eighty, one, they elect a governor and then in eighteen eighty, two, they win six of the ten seats in Congress, House seats in the Congress. So in the course of just three years, the readjustments capture the General Assembly the governor's office both seats in the US Senate and a majority of the House seats Doctor Levin Good How did that happen? Well, yea. You catagor- you're sort of show the the the meteoric rise. Of course, there's unequally meteoric descent I. mean it it it comes and it goes very very quickly But I go back to what I said to begin with which was there was really this. Kind of strange period after Virginia's readmitted where the parties are still figuring themselves out there. There's a foothold of Republican is in especially in the western part of the state you know in the in the mountains and valley part of Virginia, you have these free blacks you have A. You have a really unsettled political situation which I think allows for that rise to come. So quickly because you don't have you know you didn't return to classic. So dual party you know vying for vying for control or single party control the way you did prewar week party went away and prewar Virginia. The Democrats essentially had almost unrivalled electoral success. So you didn't really have the reestablishment of that. There's so a lot of flux which I think is why? You know why this party kind of is able to come about and come together. So quickly and I think clearly, it was also tapping into something that was of great interest to this. Biracial coalition of people who had long been. White and black kept out of the political process that they had not been allowed to vote and they had not had say economically. And socially in. Virginia Direction. In. That would add to that that I think one of the reasons why if you look at the coalition, the coalition is South Central and southeast African Americans the African American population was at its greatest flood of free. Slaves. And it was cities where debt in public schools are a more pressing issue in it was out in the West and if you if you look at the history of Antebellum America, it's the history of the West being disenfranchised is around the eighteen forties where the western part of the state becomes kind of dominant population force but the General Assembly reflects kinda slave owners in the. East power in an the eighteenth thirty in the eighteenth fifty constitutions it's important to note that those those constitutionally Gerrymander the General Assembly to give the power to the eastern part of the state. You know the eighteen thirty constitution broke Virginia into four regions and then gave each region a certain number of delegates senators in a skewed to the east and in eighteen fifty one rewrite. the Senate skewed to the East something like twenty to thirty seats and so you got a lot of folks in the West who prior to eighteen fifty one can't vote because of the freeholder requirements. who can't get anything past even through their representation because of the skew General Assembly, and then all of a sudden eighteen, sixty nine in that constitution kinda opens up all of that right and allows more people to vote. It allows for a little bit more regional less disparity. And it speaking issues that directly relate to this kind of east west divide and WHO's paying taxes in one of those taxes four remember the western part of the state has less slave owners has lessslaves has historically not liked the slave power and I think that creates a perfect storm But of course, right the flip phlebitis, it creates a perfect storm and then as soon as has gone, it just as quickly goes away 'cause right it's gone within three years. Well. Let's take a quick break because when we come back, we want to talk about what the readjust did during their time in power delegates Schuyler Been Valkenburg, Dr Paul Good. Thank you so much. We'll be right back. And we're back on transition. Virginia we're not talking about the transition of power from Republican to Democrat. Instead, we're talking about the transition of power from Bourbon Democrat conservative Democrat to readjust this almost today unknown coalition of Bi Racial Coalition of progressive politicians that did all kinds of things. So let's examine what they actually were able to accomplish when they were in power I, read this list at the top and it's Worth repeating because it's just sort of mind blowing. If you think about this is the eighteen eighties we're talking about the increased funding for public education they repealed the poll tax they increase taxes on corporations they increased funding for state asylums they increase money for higher education. They abolished the whipping post Doctor Levin Gun talk about the whipping post and the significance of abolishing the whipping post in the eighteen eighty S. Well if you think about public spectacle of criminal punishment, especially in times of slavery, the public whipping post is perhaps the most. Striking example of the the the levers of control that white elite bridge held over everyone else, and so you can imagine if you were living in a maybe a courthouse. Town, a county seat. Very. Often there was a public whipping post which could be used. By for crimes committed by slaves brought to the courthouse square and publicly flogged Mathur's who didn't want to do it. Themselves could actually pay local sheriff to do the same thing and it was public spectacle that was meant to reinforce the power structure very very clearly to everyone You know obviously whites could be flawed to, but it was mostly mostly punishment that was meant to keep an African American population in line. So I think for the African American. Ri. adjusters. Both symbolically, and in terms of you know modernizing the processes of criminal. Justice. Abolishing the whipping post was an incredibly powerful symbol and I'm and I think probably. You know they're they're the probably their influence in the party's platform. As. Much as anything else in that kind of a movement. I'm also kind of curious about the politics here of increasing taxes on corporation increasing taxes on railroads, and then spending that money on public education and higher. Delegate van Valkenburgh is this the beginning of? Liberals. No you know what I think this reflects as kind of thinking about this podcast in thinking about what they did I they would have explicitly said this, but it strikes me that This is an embodiment of a very cohesive kind of idea of what I would call the Frederick Douglass wing of the Republican Party at the time, which is the government being used in order to create kind of inequality of opportunity you. You can just see with the emphasis on education in. Wouldn't have called a K. twelve at the time. Right but K. twelve education a higher ran decrease in Virginia State University. It's all founded on a sense of equality is the first mental silence for African, Americans as well in you know once again, you go back to anti-american you look at the taxation in Virginia and one of the big complaints of folks in the western part of the state was that poor people were being taxed in slave owners weren't and I think what you're seeing is you're seeing a foundation of equality of opportunity of using the government to try to uplift all people and I'll go back to the kind of education speeches they gave If people I'm not GonNa read on. But if people go back and look at the eighteen, seventy, eight veto of governor holiday and then they go back and look at Forgetting the governor's name, the the readjusted Governor Han, Cameron Cameron. You go back and read his statement about the value of public education just in the space of like a year the difference in philosophy behind the to the two. Speeches I mean it's stunning and so I. I don't know the beginning of Texas than liberal but I do think it's the beginning of the idea that the government can be used as a force of good to create a kind of a quality of opportunity, which is, of course, a thread that you see in that certain segment of the Republican Party in the civil war and afterwards which you see in FDR, right which you see in Lyndon Johnson, the Great Society in which I think you could argue see in Virginia Democrats today. So you know I don't think it's a perfect comparison, but I do think you can see lineage. No let me I don't want to jump in with thin with a bit of cynicism here but let's also remember that someone like Mahone loses control of his railroad to outside interests I mean his railroad end up being held by receivership of people in Philadelphia and elsewhere, and so taxing outside companies making money in. Virginia. Is a real a popular thing to be able to propose. So you know you're you're. In some ways you're also That's the kind of something you see in modern politics as well. It's you know this this notion of well. Those who are getting those who are making money off of doing in Virginia or doing business wherever should also pay some price for the things we WanNa, do in Virginia. Info. Virginia's people. That's that's true and also note to that. If you actually look at their tax plan, taxes went down for the average Virginia taxpayer. So they decrease taxes on farmers, the decrease taxes on small businesses in increase taxes on the railroads. In in you know. So what happened is they raised substantially more revenue, but they actually brought down the tax bill for the average Virginian in those series of proposals which I think ties back to that senator or not I think probably both one method explicitly that they use to restore. Virginia's economic base was rebuilding infrastructure or at least that's what they campaigned on Doctor Levin. Good. What did they rebuild when they came to power? Their more notable developments readjust are credited with our things like education I don't I. Don't know that in their brief period, you can attribute an enormous amount of. You know infrastructure improvement and really where where things like railroads common make significant progress in Virginia comes because you do have so much out of state and foreign investment in railroads that penetrate the coalfields in South West Virginia, and so on. In in in that kind of late nineteenth early twentieth. Century period. I WanNa talk about the racial part of the story which is complicated and nuanced. So you had African American members of the General Assembly forming a COA who are mainly Republicans forming a coalition with this readjusting African American readjust as well, and so I mean, just UN's face the coalition itself was Biracial, but it's worth pointing out for the modern listener that they were not in favor of desegregating anything right so To, Doctor Levin good talk about this nuanced from our perspective. It's nuance racial element to this where they're a biracial coalition that actually was not for integration. I I. Don't. I. Don't know on the on the African American side, what the what the feeling was along these regards but only for white readjustments, this was you know black public schools in white public schools. blacking I mean Virginia. You mentioned Virginia State is founded. That's very deliberately at a normal school, a school to create black teachers who can teach in black school So this is not a moment of. You know coming together racially it's I. think it is more a recognition that there are shared interests of the poor and working classes of both races that need to be met that need to be satisfied, and now it was not an turning of that of that order of the races and remember you know this is not an enlightened period racially outside of Virginia I mean this is. Sometimes, it's easy easy to forget that the civil war. Did Not Create you know an instant sort of racial utopia anywhere in the United States it it settled the question of slavery, but it did not settle the question of equality even with the reconstruction acts clearly. So that's you know it it probably is not shouldn't surprise us that someone like William Mahone who was a slave owner before this war fight for the confederacy does not then become the figurehead of a party that is looking to overturn the racial order but is reflecting the reality that there is a block of black political power now and pent-up black desire for. Various services to be rendered by the government that needs to be acknowledged needs to be met, and it is a wing of this coalition who has the power in political clout to demand this of their white partners. and. Also one thing to add their to to kind of even nuances even more. If you look at Mahone himself, he campaigned against the only black Republican running for Congress in Virginia during this time period, and so there was kind of and we'll talk about this when we get to the downfall among the white readjusts tres, how far they were willing. To go it is very limited I think you even arguably at the time, but definitely by modern day comparisons and so I think that's important to note as well. Another aspect of this is that it is by many accounts the first political machine in Virginia which I know probably people have various perspectives on whether or not. It was machine Doctor Levin. Good. Mahone lead a political machine perhaps even you could say Virginia's first political machine. Well Certainly Mahone, recognized. the power of patronage and recognize that there's an awful lot of ground to be made as the leader of this party in the political patrons that he can go out of that leader. I mean I I guess I mean I mean. One, man's machine is another man's. System right I I. I don't know whether I would describe the readjustment machine. As the first machine in Virginia politics certainly, political patronage played a part in. Virginia politics going back to the colonial period. I it. It's doling out favours going out positions and sinecures has always gone on I think Mahone might have been a little more blatant about it. In some ways you know Mahone is in some ways he's a classic newsouth figure in that. If you if you study that period, you know he's a guy certainly on the come I mean he's all about. He's all about money. He's all about. Showing his own money and showing his power. He's not he's not doing it. Subtly you nothing there's nothing really subtle about him. So maybe in some ways, it's the first sort of evident machine or the first machine that doesn't try to in any way math what it's doing and as a precursor to the the Democratic Machine of of the twentieth century. So I guess in a way, it's the first machine, but I wouldn't. I wouldn't push that too far because it's kind of a the logical evolution I think of what of what had taken place but I would say that I don't I don't think it is because I think when you talk about political machines, people talk about entrenching their own power and while he did engage in behaviors that we would associate with a machine you know patronage in correspondence and all these other things did they're out of power so quickly, I actually think if you WanNa talk about the first machine, it's actually his railroad rival. John Barbara who who, kind of helps defeat the readjusting and creates the the kind of modern day. Well, the re constance, the Democratic Party and creates the machine that will lead to the bird machine. Barber campaign managers guy named Thomas Staples Martin who created the Martin machine that of course was by any standards. But you know just because they only held power for a brief period of time doesn't mean it wasn't a machine. It just wasn't a very successful machine at having longevity and part of that. Is something that starts leading toward their downfall, which is there central organizing principle? Was this thing about the debt where they're in disagreement with the other party because the party wants to pay off the debt at the expense of public education and so they campaign on readjusting the debt and not paying it off at the expense of public education? Well, guess what the other party says you don't let your right we shouldn't do that doctor. Levin. Good. The other side essentially folds says you're right right And and they do repudiate the debt by about a third. They reduced the interest rate by half. So they really do succeed in this and I think the Democrats. or their their opponents I think once this passes I think then the pretense of well, this is about honor and all this kind of stuff kind of can fade away and they recognize that this is actually freed whoever follows the readjusts free them up to. Do. A number of different things that they wouldn't have been able to do if they've been fully funding that debt, the way they had claimed they wanted to So yeah, I mean th they managed they managed to do it and I, think it's one of those things ca you know be careful what you what you wish for because I think they did create an environment for themselves where their reason for existing started to wane a little bit I mean when you're sort of almost a one issue for one primary issue party and that issue goes away to a degree then you know it is it is. Probably the best thing for your for your future success. If you can't redefine yourself, it's funny. The mention that because I'm thinking about the Brexit Party. So once brexit happens what uses the BREXIT party anymore. Yeah and one thing that's fascinating I did want to make sure that your listeners ended up realizing too is there's a little funny side piece of the debt, which is when all of this debt is incurred Virginia before the war included West Virginia the West Virginia breaks away during the course of the civil war and there's a long and contentious fight between Virginia and West Virginia as to what portion of that debt West Virginia should. Really. Be Responsible for because were railroads and canals West Virginia that were funded by this and so it actually I don't think it's till Nineteen fifteen or something that it's finally established what dollar amount West Virginia owes toward retiring this debt, which is just kind of a little side note that I thought. It just fascinated me at the time to think that you know they had to take it to the Supreme Court to finally figure this all out. So, delegate Van Valkenburgh, can you put all of these reforms in the context of what's happening nationally and the reason I asked that is because now just like then Virginia's politics often parallels national politics and a lot of ways. So what's going on during this time? Well I mean you're seeing the end of reconstruction you see the north, the northern population losing its will to. Its involvement in the south you see. An economic panic in the mid eighteen seventies that causes kind of a change in priorities. So you're seeing the Republican, party, that goes from the Party of Lincoln, kind of into the party of big business, and so the south is slowly getting its autonomy back in you're getting Kinda slow drip drip that will lead to Jim. Crow, and we were talking at the very beginning of this about how people just kind of think it's it's the civil war reconstruction Jeff. KROGH. But there's really this kind of drawn out period that's occurring. Where there are these kind of possibilities that pop up around a moment like the readjusts tres but as as it starts to settle down, you start to move into the. Start to the gilded age where big business the thing in in the south you start to slowly settle into Jim Crow. That's thirty year kind of evolution into Jim Crow if you look at Virginia specifically wants the readjusting our out. You know you start to slowly get the electoral law change stat disenfranchises African Americans, which you know the machine uses for about twenty years until they don't it's enough in the nineteen o two constitution where they kind of explicit goal is disenfranchise African Americans but you're actually disenfranchises almost everybody and so you know, I think Virginia, in many ways, it's Kinda story. We've been telling us this brief moment of hope where maybe something can happen in I. Think in Virginia happens a little bit more than another southern. States but as the realities of national politics, kind of moves away from the south, you know it's not about the southern issues anymore it's about big businesses of global trade. It's about immigration in the northeast in the late eighteen hundreds, the south is really allowed to kind of become its own place and there's a lot of you know you can look through the history you know the solid sow one party south south is different from the rest of the country and it's in this time period around the adjusters in Virginia after the adjusters where we really start to see that on truly happen and if I could add. Nationally. This is really. The between the end of reconstruction and the First Years of the twentieth century. This is really an incredibly. Tumultuous moment you know the the readjustment movement in Virginia is one example of poor people coming together the same happens in the Midwest. The People's Party the populist movement is a you know it's a farmer's movement thing. You know we're we're done being the pawns of big interest. We're going to stand up for the Yeoman farmer and there's actually some of that in the south is well and you've got labor unrest all across the country as working people say you know we're not going to sit there and just be dominated by management by big business. So there's It's in some ways the readjust your movement with his. On you know the poor and working classes. Is. A part of broad or moment that I think finally by the end of the nineteenth early twentieth century Kinda gets quashed down overall and you do move into what scholars mentioning sort of you know the hegemony of big business and the the sort of linkage of big business and government in a sort of a fairly tight way that really does make it difficult for popular movements to rise up like this again. But there is that period of a couple of decades where there seems to be. Maybe, something else that's going to the possible and I'd also eh to that the Virginia trajectory of disenfranchising African Americans disenfranchising poorer voters has a broader is a broader American narrative I'll go back to Frederick Douglass had this speech in the kind of reconstruction and post reconstruction world that he would give frequently called are on our composite nationality. And he was talking about. The words. He would use the things he was talking about sound a lot like what John Lewis was talking about right. You know who's in the news you know and the kind of message he had about a multiracial democracy of equality. And a positive nationality speech is it is kind of one of out of pessimism because what he's seeing as African Americans be disenfranchised in the south, but he's also seeing Asian Americans disenfranchised in the West in the speech talks about that, and if you look at the the late eighteen hundreds, you've got white southerners who are disenfranchising African American and doing it to a degree that's different everywhere else I wanna make sure we make that distinction but then you also have. In the West, you northeasterners who who are making claims magazines like the Atlantic to limit the vote against the immigrant population has they're not suitable to it. You the Mug won't reformers the government reformer who are. Are really restriction area on these issues, and so it's it is there is a broader kind of moment here happening at the end of the eighteen hundreds in some of our I truly restriction airy voting laws calm during this period where you see these kind of arbitrary voter registration laws where you see these arbitrary electoral board's and how they act. You know I'm from New, York originally, and you WanNa talk about a state that had awful laws in the late eighteen hundreds in some ways does still today go to New York where they put in place these absolutely disenfranchising laws to ensure that Catholics and Jews and eastern Europeans couldn't vote. Let's go and take a break. We are talking with Dr Paul Levin Good. The former president of the Virginia Historical Society and current president of the George C Marshall Foundation, and also our friend delegates. Schuyler van Valkenburgh from Henrico. And we're back on Transition Virginia Brunell going to talk about the fall of the readjustment. So this is a group that we talked about earlier had a meteoric rise to power eighteen, seventy nine. The party is founded in the early part of the year. By the election in November, they were able to gain a majority in both house of delegates and the Senate. They had fifty six out of the one hundred seats mouse twenty, four out of the forty seats and the Senate and the next election cycle and eighty one they kept the general assembly and elected their own Governor Governor Cameron, and then the. Next year and the congressional election they had six out of the ten house seats meanwhile, the General Assembly of course, at this time is picking the US senators. So they pick Mahone who went to the Senate and ran the political machine from his US Senate office and they also picked the other US senator. So they had both seeds of the US Senate. They had six out of ten house of representative seats. They had the house ability. They had the state Senate, they had the governor's office when that's all within three years and then it all falls apart doctor Levin. Good. What happens to the readjustments? It's a really good question. Michael I mean I think we've touched on a little bit of this before in that. I think they certainly achieved some of their goals and I don't know that they had. They had great vision for what the what was going to be next but I think they also their successes in some ways. Really invigorated their rivals, you know I think we were talking a little earlier scholar was talking about the. The constitution and looking at what the Constitution's tell us about certainly those who hold the levers of power and if you look at the kid, the next constitution of Virginia, which is one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, one. It is it in some ways almost reaction point by point to the adjusters in their there. And I think what? What really ends up happening is. As? We just talked about a little bit before the break. White Southerners get better at. Figuring out how the new landscape can be controlled to their advantage how the limits of federal intervention in state of matter, such as this, the degree to which local control can be reassumed. You know that that period that we had that we had talked about the kind of whatever you WANNA, call it between reconstruction and the. Solidifying of the of. White control over a place like Virginia you know comes it comes to an end. Not Evenly. But it comes to an end really in that time. As much as anything else because I think white southerners figure out knowing nothing's going to happen to us if we reassert this. Whether it's the the bargain that ends reconstruction whether it's you know the clear weariness of a national Republicans to deal with you know. How how much energy do they have to keep up with the energy of of of certainly what motivated reconstruction, which is to allow for African American voting and other rights, and I think that once they realize but they were not going to be there was not going to be interference long they became increasingly bold and aggressive about reverse course on this and you know in Virginia it it it doesn't Virginia's way is not to be quite as as in your face about it as some other southern states You know you're not just driving blocks away from the polls through you know night night riding and guys in hoods running around, but it takes effect. You know in some of the same in some, the effects are somewhat similar in that it does eventually reassert itself. When you see that you know African Americans working in cities in you know tobacco companies enrichment well suddenly when those tobacco company owners and management can reassert themselves and say you know. We really think this is how things need to be, and we really think if you're going exercise. your franchise. You may not have a place to work here. That's a form of control that begins to take place, and eventually it moves to disenfranchisement within a couple of years. So I think it's just that you know it's it's that moment there was this flash of a great deal of promise and then the. The wielders of power before realize that they can regain power and there's probably not to be consequences for their action and you know we've noted before too. But I mean the issue that brought them together with settled. After that was settled, it allowed the other party to play to racial fears and you know it's it's it's a sad continuing through history that we can see even up to today with some of the ads in the presidential race around urban protests. But you know one of the big moments in that eight hundred eighty-three campaign where the readjusts lose the general. Assembly. Is there an animal? Over a perceived a slight from African Americans to white people that were walking by them in the street, you know some of these kinds of cultural racial. Codes that were informal that white people and black people followed equal and and so that fight led to a huge amount of propaganda that allowed the opposition to win. You know was one of the reasons that the opposition was able to win the election and and you see that playbook and George Wallace you see that play book in Richard Nixon and you see that playbook right now and so when racial issues were able to rise to the four kind of white conservatives were able to re assert power and I would know one thing about that nineteen o two Constitution nineteen, no one of two constitution. Is the members that convention explicitly said, it was about rolling back racial voting rights. They had passed a series of laws in the late eighteen hundreds that allowed them to disenfranchise voters, but they had to do it in a corrupt way. You know they had to rig the ballot box they had to. Throw out legitimate ballots and so when they came to that convention carver glass who becomes a future? Senator. Says Explicitly The convention will inevitably cut from the existing electorate four-fifths of the Negro voters and that was the purpose of the convention. That's a direct quote. And End, they actually cut greater than fifty percent of the white electorate in greater than ninety percent of the black electorate in we became the state with the lowest proportion of adult voters to the early twentieth century to the point where a famous political scientists said that by contrast Mississippi as a hotbed of democracy. Yet I'm glad you mentioned Danville because gamble wed. it's almost it almost created itself as an opportunity for white supremacist to come back and say, this is what happens right the Danville actually, Alexa Majorities Majority City Council is black in eighteen, eighty three, and so this incident, some call it a riot, some just called it a math. Was it was the details are not are not entirely clear, but it was it was custom made to show to white people say look what happens look what happens when African Americans take control of the city this is how white people get treated. And so they they they used it sort of shamelessly in that regard. And this was an era of yellow journalism as well. Right and beard on an environment where you have the Democrats retaking control nationally was that was at grover Cleveland who comes back into power And and so one point that people make who say that Mahone was just a powerbroker in his own right I guess is that he started flipping patronage to Democrats and does that what kind of consequences does that have for? The readjust your party in Virginia. You know I actually I. think There's an interesting point here, which is once grover Cleveland becomes president that Senator Mahone. No longer has the kind of patronage to Dole out the way he used to right so. The change in the national scene actually sort of was one of the things that sort of lead to the demise right and sort of the patronage and the way that they were able to distribute power. And Mahone I mean from the moment you get to the Senate he's very cagey about who's going to caucus with I mean. He's certainly not rigidly adhering to some code of behavior. He's he's looking to see which way the wind blows in a sense, and so it shouldn't be it shouldn't be surprising. Realize Mahone is. In some sense almost a lame duck senator because the readjusted party is falling from power and he's still senator to wet eighteen, eighty, nine, I think So yeah. So the Party is essentially falls apart underneath him and he's he's still serving. So he kinda has to figure out what do I do next I'm not I'm not sure he was overly troubled by in some ways, but he did have to figure out how do i. kind of land this now that my party is basically gone. That's a good point because after he's no longer in the Senate, he runs for governor right in is unsuccessful. So I mean the whole thing kind of falls apart, which leads us to important question, which is what is the legacy of not just home, but the larger readjust her movement. One thing that I think could be significant and worth mentioning is this biracial coalition, which is kind of singular in the United States and the south right Doctor Levin good like what's the significance of this biracial coalition that they put together nineteen eighties? Yeah I mean it's I pointed earlier too. There's a moment when the People's Party, the populists might have done something I mean in. North Carolina and and a little bit in. Georgia. But yeah, you're right in that. It's the only truly successful coalition. Coalition of blacks and whites in the pre civil rights era So I think the legacy of it in that way although it's perhaps not as remembered as it might be it is one of those counterpoint to this notion that somehow. African Americans and whites couldn't work together politically and so I think it does belive that it does be live that myth it obviously has some real lasting legacy in I think the strength of the public. School. movement in Virginia certainly never goes back direction of some of the readjusted enemies would've would have had it had the readjusting not come on the scene so I think that becomes kind of enshrined in Virginia public life and in electoral politics obviously things like State University funding whether it's Virginia State or the expansion of Virginia. Tech. There's some real lasting thing was there. Even. If some of the other things, the poll tax that they remove gets reinstated I mean there are things that don't go away and I think you know in some ways when we look back on it now it's heartening in a way it kind of gives you some psychic income to realize that. There was a point in history where black and white Virginians came together especially those of of certain economic status and said, enough we're GONNA start our power and there's some real. There's some real value in remembering that and it's something that we really ought to. Remember and talk more about and no more about. Yeah and I think it's it represents the promise and the tragedy of reconstruction and how for as far as reconstruction in those amendments win. They didn't go far enough and I think it speaks is speaks to a gun. I'm going to go back to John Lewis kind of what he wrote in his op Ed in the New York Times that was published on the day of his of his funeral, his last words if you will, and he talks about democracy being an action. In democracy being continuous movement, you can't give. And I think they they kind of speak to the sense in which the vote is never enshrines it could he he says can always be taken away in what we see as we see a brief moment where they're able to come together able to get things accomplished some of which I agree the education piece is long lasting some of which isn't, but it speaks to the fact that if you don't continue to cultivate a healthy democracy, you will not get a healthy democracy thirty years after the readjusts their forgotten their buried A convention explicitly meant to a race them and the possibility of them from Virginia. and. And then you know you have the legacy after that of Jim Crow in the bird machine and so I think it speaks to the promise, but it also speaks to the tenuousness of of people being able to participate in continue to participate successfully in democracy. Delegate van Valkenburgh. What lessons learned are there for you as a member of the General Assembly that other members could take from this era of history. Not sure that there's a lot of lessons policy wise from what they do I. I, I think. I think the lesson is ultimately, you can't take anything for granted. You have to continue to shape a coalition. You have to continue to shake things relevance to people's lives. You have to continue to argue for why a multi-racial coalition is necessary. You have to continue to Kinda stand against racial division. Some of their tax policy in some of their school policies are things that I think in Virginia. We can take a lesson from to this day properly funding schools. You know reason I originally ran. I would argue we don't do that and I think that the lessons of how they got to that make a whole lot of sense but I do think the bigger lesson is the equality and democracy peace and I think it's important to recognize that There's never an endpoint it's never over you've never achieved your goal because democracy there's always tomorrow. Now. Recently, in the Capitol building in Richmond, The statue of Robert e Lee was removed from the old house. This is instantly the same house chamber that the readjustment once ruled and delegate Valkenberg tweeted about this about this particular statue and he said many of these statues like that statue of rubber used to be in the old house chamber gifts from other Southern States has recently the nineteen fifties then tweeted let's celebrate the readjust instead. What did you mean by that and how do you think the justice should be celebrated? Yeah, look I mean there's a difference between history and memory right? We want to study history warts and all because we need to know where we were to know where we're going. Never GonNa Change. But what we memorialize and what we hold up to be true I think should be shaped by what we think is important now and you have tour groups that go into that old house building for decades. All they see is a shrine to the loss caused you go in and you look to your left in there's a bust of Alexander Stevens, a Georgian who was the president of confederacy that was gifted to us in nineteen fifty two you look to your right you saw busted Jefferson Davis, and this is sippy man who was the president of the confederacy that was gifted to us from Mississippi state legislature in nineteen fifty three. and. I don't think that that rep you know we need to know that history we need to know that that. That the capital was used for the confederacy and we need to know the that we had a convention at asked us to see from the Union and we did. that. We had former presidents in that convention weeping when we seated tears of joy, we need to know that history, but we need to celebrate the moments where we reached our finest moments right where we lived up to our values lived up to our democracy in Virginia I cannot think of a better moment there's others but I can't think of a better one. Than the readjust there's a kind of what they stood for because they weren't perfect. They don't live up to twenty twenty values Mahone a great example of that. I do think they transcended their moment to live up to a constitutional values in a way that has been very rare in Virginia history and I think that's worth teaching fourth graders. Doctor Levin Good. Any final thoughts about the legacy of this group that's now almost completely forgotten. Yeah I really like what scholars just had to say I'm trying to think how you how you might physically memorial is that I don't know that you want to put up a statue of Mahone Other wouldn't take up much space. He was a very small guys get along lifestyle catch. Yes. Just doesn't aside I love the comment his his wife had when she heard during the civil war that he had received a flesh wounded battle and she said something like well now I know it must be very serious because William doesn't have much flesh to begin with which I thought was a great. Great great comet. He's. He's really a small cadaverous dude. Yeah you know I I i. mean. It's it's hard to say how you How you might spread this legacy a little more widely. you know obviously. In the Sol's is one is one manner that and I'm speaking to an educator here. You know that's one way we kind of. You know we we can say what we value as a as a state is what we decide. We WanNA enshrine in the standards for all their warts and everything. The standards of learning are at least one way to express that as as a society and I think that that's you know that's one way to do it and to continue like this to talk about them and to make sure that you know where when we have opportunities, we bring up this subject and we let people know a little bit more about it and I. Hope this podcast at least take some. Tiny step toward raising. Public awareness about a really interesting and significant. Brief period in the Commonwealth history although I must step in one last thing to say is I. Think when we talk about statues, we typically talk about very important people right. So we're talking about should we have a statue? I'll leave you with this. I think we should do more memorializing everyday people whether it's the Black Union soldiers or it's the average citizen who you know. Let's get that African American guy from new who was at the convention stood up and said you know what I'm more of a readjusted than half the you because I'm I'm all in on this because it's the citizen like that who leads to the readjustment movement. And and it's also when you're citizen in, you go to the citizens capital, you should understand your role. So this is maybe my call that we should. We should recognize the citizenry more than we do because you're democracy is only as healthy as the people who participate in. That is good of a place as any to leave it Dr Paul Levin. Good delegates Schuyler van Valkenburgh. Thank you so much for being on our podcast today and thank you for listening to Transition Virginia find us on spotify apple podcasts. Or. Anywhere. You like to get your podcast. We're on twitter at transition va, and as always you can hear more at Transition Virginia Dot Com.
California Water Wars - We Who Are About to Die Salute You | 4
"Eh maginness a cold clear evening in early spring nineteen twenty-three you ventured to the home of waterson. He's been having a little trouble with his car. Brand Brand New Stanley steamer. Since you've diagnosed a few tricky automobiles in the past you offer to help care for some refreshment. We're well past five o'clock clock. You Wriggle your way out from underneath the hood as he hands you a glass mighty kind of you George so any guesses. My guess is are all worn now. I'm just loosened this valve to the boiler then tight end up again not telling much of a difference either way what you don't want to say though is that you think George might have lemon lemon his hands. Well isn't that just fine news. You like George. His family the Watterson or what passes for old money and Owens Valley. He may have been here longer than you but unlike some of the others up here he doesn't care where you came from what you did before you arrived. He's a nice guy but George is the kind of man man who buys a lemon and it goes well for. He's got some sixth sense about these things. I swear I bet he's probably just trying to rub it in my face his Stan Dan Lebron's like the wind. I doubt he's doing on purpose probably just out for John. George Wilfred is Georgia's nephew Wilfred Watterson and his brother. Mark Run five banks up and down the county there. The family success. George has never managed to be. You've heard all the stories. Nice just like this sipping Whiskey in the garage. How George Awards would've won that mining claim until Wilford outbid him how Georgia's landholdings don't develop while Winfrey's pan out huge now? This business with the car. George takes another big SIP and looks quizzically. Well what if I told you I was onto something big about the river. I guess I'd ask you if there was money in it and then I ask you if there was money in it for me no. This isn't a joke. I've been talking to some very well connected people in Los Angeles and I'm going to do some work for them up here your interest. This is Pete. Georgia's is Sparkley. What kind of work you talking about? I'M GONNA buy the McNally ditch and then I'm going to sell it to William O.. Holland and I'm GonNa make some some money want to help me you're taking back. The McNally ditch is one of the few large canals off the river. That isn't owned by the city. Few things at this community the aflame like water rights. But it's just business right supply and demand. Let me think about it. Why don't you climb up there and give our start? See How she sounds Saffir. Pretty good right does sound pretty good. And you like George Waters. But if what he says is right residents of Owens Valley your neighbors are about to be torn apart American history tellers sponsored by mail chimp. The strategy sets. Everyone's on board. You've got your way forward. It's time to grow your business now. What well growth requires new customers? Humor and new customers requires new marketing and new marketing requires new ideas and new execution male chimps new all in one marketing platform is the best. I way to manage more of your marketing activities from one place so you can mark it smarter and grow faster you don't need separate email automation. CRM scheduling and list management tools male chimps. All in one marketing platform gives you everything you need to create publish manage and measure multichannel campaigns and then collect organize understand. Understand an act on your audience data. Now you'll know who to talk to what to say when to say it and the best chance to deliver the message. The complete marketing platform has everything. You need to start marketing. Your Business Today and mail chimp will be there to help you as your business grows and needs new capabilities so if you want to grow your business and you're wondering now what mail chimp. That's what for more at mail. CHIMP DOT COM from wondering I'm hi I'm Lindsay Graham and this is American history tellers our history. Your story mm-hmm by the early nineteen twenties the city of Los Angeles in the communities of the Owens River valley were at an impasse although Los Angeles needed water from the Owens River to feed its ever-growing population. The valley residents had decided they'd had enough through a series of violent clashes. The two communities fought what would be known as California his civil war this war would set l.. A.'s Water Department Superintendent William Mulholland on a collision course with heavily armed ranchers and farmers. But the Owens River Ravelli families would find themselves divided as well. The waterson family in particular would find itself in a bitter dispute and its members pitted against each other. This says episode for we being about to die salute you by eighteen sixty Pi. You try tribe extended through a stretch of central California countryside. The Sierra Nevada mountains rose to the west the flat desert landscape stretch to the east between the into a river ran through the valley the by built an extensive irrigation system using the waters of the river to feed fields of wild hyacinth and yellow nut grass which helps sustain their diet they farmed and hunted wild deer and ducks that migrated every year to the edges of the riverbed but the land they lived on was good for something else as white settlers and prospectors descended upon mining camps in nearby Nevada. The Owens River valley became a path through transportation and communication between the minds and California via the same grasslands the pie tailored among became excellent grazing lands for nearby cattlemen's herds by eighteen sixty three a series of heated battles finals. Left over one hundred fifty Tae Dead White settlers in the American military drove them and other tribes. Like the Shoshoni Cowo- issue south in claimed the valley and it's rich water source as their own for the next forty years. The Owens Valley remained a haven for cattle ranching and alfalfa farms. Two young brothers Wilford and Mark Waterson were brought to the valley by their parents in the eighteen eighties. The waterson family settled in the area and in the early nineteen hundreds opened the Inyo county bank wilfried and mark while still in their twenties became president and treasurer handsome and friendly. The brothers grew their banking businesses by investing in the residence of the valley they they were laxed about enforcing repayment schedules. and loans were rarely refused with their casual attitude towards money and their confidence in the people of the Owens Valley. The brothers. There's wall love by the community. They supported their young uncle. George Waterson only ten years older than Wilfred took a different view. He saw his nephews. Moore's competitors petters that has family George work in town as postmaster notary public over time he acquired parcels of land but while wielfried in mark began to make a name for themselves themselves in the community George kept his head down in nineteen to the federal reclamation serves brought some excitement to the Owens River valley. They promised an enormous warmest federal irrigation project. It was big news. The valley might actually become a draw for tourism and if nothing else the government could potentially force a rail line to be drawn up from in Los Angeles. The people of the valley stood to make a lot of money but that never happened instead. The reclamation service offer collapsed and Los Angeles quickly brought up the available water rights. The aqueduct the city built diverted the entire flow of the Owens River into a channel that spend the water over two hundred miles south to Los Angeles in the years during and after the aqueducts construction. The residents of the Owens River valley watched and waited the city's incursion had happened and there was nothing more. They felt. They could do you. If there was any bright side it was that Los Angeles used only excess surface water from the river leading most families with well enough to live on and during World War. One the Owens River valley economy prospered greatly from selling crops. The waterson brothers prospered as well Wilford in mark now owned five banks in Inyo county money. In addition to extensive investments in local tungsten mining operations. Uncle George had not been as fortunate though his land purchases allowed him to raise and sell cattle Hannele. He felt that he was always coming up short in comparison to his younger more socially adapt Ken. George had put in bids on several mining camps. But each time he was beaten with batter offers by his younger nephews but George did have his own social connections. He was an officer in one of the local companies that have bought up. Some of the remaining water rights in the wake of Los Angeles is one thousand nine hundred four acquisition in Bishop thirty miles north from the codex diversion point. The Owens river still flowed freely. It's runoff was diverted it into small canals referred to by locals as ditches and when the demand for water rose yet again it was to George Waterson that the city of Los Angeles and William Mulholland came calling for help by Nineteen twenty-three Los Angeles found itself once again in the grips of a multi a year drought and once again Mulholland found himself searching for solutions with over a half a million people. The city had grown not only in population but also an acreage each from ninety square miles in nineteen ten. The city was now nearly three times that so many outlying towns have been annexed that Mulholland presented city leaders with report port begging them to stop the only way to stop. The city's water problem he complained privately was killed. The members of the Chamber of Commerce drawing desperate for water once once again another plan that involves an eastward expansion to the waters of the Colorado River was explored but then shelf twice once by private business interests. And then and by the defeat of a citywide vote so once again agents from Los Angeles ascended to the Owens Valley. They lowered pumps into the ground to help augment the aqueducts flow. The city began wholesale purchases of land near the river using checkerboard pattern that focused on strategic claims leaving those who didn't sell cut off from water sources and with dwindling property values when George Waterson was approached by Mulholland for his help reaching out to Owens Valley residents. He readily accepted Mulholland invited him down to Los Angeles for dinner at his club. The plan was simple. Mulholland would use Georgia's local connections in the Valley to help ensure that Los Angeles got the properties in needed. Leave none of the ranchers out Mahal and told them we want them all but by this time Wilfred and Mark Waterson knew what was coming and they had a plan as well. The brother other went door to door drumming up support for what they call the Owens Valley Irrigation district a political body. That would lock down the four major irrigation ditches flowing from the Owens River River and give Inyo county a strong unified front from which they could negotiate with Los Angeles but before they had a chance to call a vote on the matter. The watterson brothers awoke woke on the morning of March Sixteenth Nineteen twenty-three to surprise the rights to the McNally ditch the largest of the four upstream canals had been sold to Los Angeles airless for one million dollars. Their uncle George negotiated the sale in less than twenty four hours. The United Front Wilford and Marco Ford and collapsed apt ripped down by one of their own kin. Furious owners of the other three canals upstream of the aqueduct began flooding their districts. Gulping up Los Angeles Angeles's water until the aqueducts slowed down to a trickle equally furious Mulholland from his office in Los Angeles ordered his maintenance crews in Inyo county to counterattack right at abandoned. The Big Pine Canal Los Angeles owned earthmoving equipment began digging a diversion canal in the opposite direction. If big pine unwanted to waste water in the city of Los Angeles would simply move the river. Imagine it's nineteen. I'm twenty three. And you've been sent out from Los Angeles to manage the new canal operations in the Upper Owens valley but this morning. Your orders changed the superintendent himself off call and told you to begin digging a new version ditch right off the band of the big Pine Canal. You sounded angry especially when you reminded him that. You technically be destroying private Robert Property but he also promised reward pave you got the job done now is just past noon and the sun is blazing overhead. You've only dug around ten feet of canal. Now when you see a man stay on the end of the Canal Hemi sat in a loose suit and a tall hat. He's yelling at you. Hey why don't you point you start take for a second so we can talk. He doesn't look like he's going anywhere until you obliged so you shut your machine off. Stay in your seat. You're well aware that life here for an outsider especially one from la can be risky. Thank you that's better do appreciate it. Didn't want to have to keep yelling. Well you want sir. Well what I want is for for you to stop digging that ditch and go on home freight. I can't do that. Four other cars. pull up alongside the ditch now. You really aren't inclined to step abound sir. If you have a problem you can call. The city worked administration. I have all the permits and paperwork for what I'm doing. I'm just a man with a job around a dozen men end step out of the four cars. Well see that's just the thing. where with the big pine ditch? We've got an injunction to stop the word. The men walked towards you slowly menacingly. It's broad daylight. They're moving like they have all the time in the world breath as again a little closer realize why they're armed the man that's been speaking to you gestures to the weapons. Well I guess you could call it a shotgun injunction. Really you quickly decide that this is not your fine. Okay okay. You've made your point. You climb out in the machine and put your arms up to show. You're not about to make any sudden moves all come on son. Don't be like that. Put Your hands down down. The men holding guns don't look especially angry. heavyset man pulls out a handkerchief and wipes his brow. Why don't you just go on into Bishop and get yourself a beer you you can tell him? It's on us one of them and breaks apart from the group and heads towards your machine Ali. But but I'll have to take my machine with me. No No. That's that's not how it goes. You go get yourself a beer. Your machine goes in the river you stop and glared each other being pushed off your job is one thing walking away from company equipment. Specially inexpensive new digger. That is something else you think about reward pay superintendent offered you then you catch the sun's Glare off the guns in the men's hands you break your gaze with the man and walk away without looking back behind you. They drive your machine into the river all this over water. But you're not interested in water right now. You'RE GONNA go get that beer. The citizens are the Owens Valley had drawn the line. They would no longer be taken advantage of by the big city down in south the next day a headline appeared in the Big Pie newspaper. Los Angeles it's your move now for many Owens Valley families. Their routes ran indeed through generations. They raised their children bill. Churches planted crops and carved out a life in the valley sucking the water away. Threatened all of that when a reporter Order Asmaa Holland why he felt there was so much resistance in the Owens Valley. He responded angrily dissatisfaction as a sort of condition that prevails there like foot and mouth disease soon but Mahala knew that money would always win out. He directed his city agents in the Owens River valley to keep the offers for land coming and despite the protests S. of Wilford and Mark Watterson the other members of the Irrigation district decided in the end to take the city's money Los Angeles paid around two million dollars for the water all right so the canals wilfred mark forced to recruit. They couldn't fight their fellow. Citizens Have Owens Valley but could certainly find the city of Los Angeles. All the money in the world wouldn't sway them to change their minds. Only in this coming fight they wouldn't use politics. It would use dynamite American history tillerson sponsored by simply safe every night. Police departments across America received hundreds of breaking alerts alerts. But how do they know. It's not just another false alarm. All the alarm company can tell them is. The motion sensor went off simplisafe home security is different though. If there's a break in simply simplisafe uses video evidence to give police an eyewitness account of the crime allowing dispatch up to three hundred fifty percent faster than normal burglar alarm and simply safe. Security is comprehensive comprehensive protection cameras and video doorbell stand guard outside entry. Motion glass break sensors protect inside simplisafe. Also protect your home from fire flood and carbon monoxide monitor. Twenty four seven by live security professionals. You can set up your system yourself like I did know tools needed. Or let's simply safe's experts to for you and it's the only fifty cents a day. No contracts visit simplisafe dot com slash tellers. You'll get free shipping and a sixty day risk-free trial go now to simplisafe dot com slash tellers hellers. So they know our show sent you that. SIMPLISAFE DOT com slash tellers. The summer of nineteen twelve proved to be just as hot and oppressive in the Owens valley as it was two hundred miles south in Los Angeles for the waterson brothers. It was a summer of discontent. The the city had purchased a majority of the remaining water rice in the upper valley. There was little in property. Values laughed and now the valley is business. Interests were about to become as dry as the ground on which they stood good. I'll May twenty-first Group of Owens Valley citizens stole away from their homes late at night after their families were fast asleep they broke the locks to the waterson brothers warehouse and disappeared with three cases of dynamite. Then they drove to the Alabama Gates Spillway near the town of loan time and set the charges for two hundred pounds. Dynamite might just before dawn. The charges detonated. The resulting blast shook the earth and blew apart one hundred foot section of the aqueduct. The flow of water south abruptly halted hearing the news in Los Angeles. William Holland was enraged. He immediately dispatched maintenance crews to repair the section elsewhere in the city. New District Attorney Eisai's saw an opportunity to make a name for himself. He dispatched detectives to the river valley in an attempt to figure out what had happened. who was to blame? Witnesses reported that a caravan of cars had been seen the evening before the explosion. The Caravan travel from Bishop and pass through big pine growing larger as it went at the crime scene tire tracks and footprints indicated that as many as fifty men might have participated in the early morning bombing but in the weeks following the blast information tried up locals proved close. Lift and intractable disrupting any attempt at further investigation in the community. A small as the Upper Owens Valley someone ought to have known something but no one was saying anything another explosion at Lone Pine Canal. Just a few weeks later breached. The Canal Wall evidence showed that as many he is twenty cars were involved. kyw's private eye glumly predicted that the bombers would never be brought to justice since no grand jury Inyo County would indict no court in that region would ever convict they ally district attorney fumed at a press conference that the Owens River Valley residents knew damn well who had done this but his tantrum led to know New Orleans leans meanwhile Mahala was receiving hundreds of death threats by mail and telephone and his office in Los Angeles. Undaunted he traveled to the Owens River Valley to assess. That's the bomb sites himself but it wasn't until he had returned to the city that he lashed out in print against the farmers and ranchers that had become his northern enemy. He half regretted he. He told the Los Angeles Times that. So many of the Owens Valley Beautiful Orchard Trees were gone now as there wouldn't be enough left to hang the troublemakers. Who lived there? In the Owens Valley itself suspicions ran rampant city agents. Were still in the midst of the bombings quietly trying to purchase more land. Neighbors suspected neighbor of being the next one to sell out. Rumors circulated that Los Angeles was planning to invade the towns or more likely to start condemning hamming properties adjacent to city landholdings. One visitor to Los Angeles wrote suspicions. Our mutual and widespread the valley people are suspicious of each other suspicious of newcomers suspicious of city. Men the Owens Valley is full of whispering monitoring's and recrimination 's George Waterson with his magnificent sale l. to the city just one year ago at also become a target. He was now struggling to keep a low profile receiving death threats to although his blood relation to Wilfred and mark offered offered some protection but Georgia's business partner a local lawyer named Lester Hall would not be so lucky. After the McNally Ditch Sale Hall had been bluntly told to to leave the valley and never return he had left valley and then for reasons. Unknown returned eating dinner at a restaurant one night all was kidnapped dragged out into a car. By a group of hooded men. The men drove hall to the end of a deserted road and strung a news over a tree. Blindfolded and Frantic Hall managed manage to slow the proceedings by using a secret freemason distress call one of his assailants was also a Mason and agreed to let hall plead his case all eventually convinced the man to let them free on the condition he leave for Mexico and never return. Tensions in the valley continue to escalate until the fall of nineteen twenty twenty one when Wilfred and Mark Waterson finally decided they'd had enough imagine est nineteen eighteen twenty four a bone chilling Sunday morning November just before dawn. You're riding in the backseat of your father's four. Besides you is your brother beside him your a cousin. Normally there'd be chatter joking and jostling for space but this morning known as talking. You're headed to the aqueduct. Pure out the window is a car's headlights. Appear on your left. That's Mister Taylor. He's coming down his road at the wheel. Your father was fawns just him. Don't know it's only one car though. Father says nothing turning around in your seat. He watches the headlights. Mr Taylor's car. We've down his dirt road stop then joined the caravan of cars behind and you. That's twenty five by my count. Twenty five cars seventy five men seventy eight county you your brother your cousin. You'll be sixteen in December. Her mark. Watterson the banker is driving the lead car just ahead of yours. He brought his sons to a long caterpillar of headlines. Stretch down the highway. If anyone the city aqueduct guards were to see this. They've definitely sound the alarm. But that's the point. Your father talks without taking his eyes off the road. Now when we get there I want what she poises. Stand the car but you almost laugh. There's no chance you're staying. Karn your rifle is in the trunk right along side. Your Father Shotgun. You all came armed. The convoy finally arrives at the Alabama Gate Spillway with light just beginning to form on the horizon. You can see the bridge. On the Small Triangle Roof Gate Gate House that sits straddle across it. If you butterflies in your stomach but you push them down. This is about maintaining a hold on your community. It's about at life and death. The city has always taken what I wanted. But now you're going to take it back as your father exits the car and grabs his shotgun from the trunk voices erupt in the the distance. Where you are what you down? We just want the water. But you're focused on your father standing with his shotgun. I'M GONNA go in with mark you all stay here. It shouldn't take long to get the gate wheels. Turn the guards. No we outnumber them so. Don't do anything stupid okay. We're not here to hurt anyone understand non if you understand me. Your father joins Mr Watterson. They set off towards the House with a triangle roof. Pair of lights are blinking inside inside. But it's hard to tell what's going on in the distance you grip your rifle tied to your chest glance at the men around you. No one is speaking. Your job is to stand I ant here and wait I the water will come then. The men from the city will come. That's all part of the plan. But what if the plan goes wrong at dawn. On Sunday November Sixteenth Mark Watterson led a caravan of cars to Alabama Gate. Spillway along the aqueduct. Line line in the past. When the aqueduct flow was running to hi- the gates were used to drain the excess water into the Desert Valley but now waterson? His Caravan sees the gate house us and turned the five huge wheel. Sending thousands of gallons of water destined for Los Angeles spilling down the hill washing uselessly into the desert. When this has been done done the men stayed setting up armed guards along the perimeter the La Aqueduct have been seized by the citizens of Inyo County? If the city wanted their water back they would have to come come and take it in disbelief and rage. Mulholland sent armed guards from Los Angeles North immediately to retake the gate house but when the guards arrived they they found seen very different from what they expected. Several hundred Owens Valley residents including women and children had gathered around the gate house. They were singing songs and cooking. Food food local law enforcement through their hands worn for arrests were simply tossed into the river. The county sheriff openly declared his support for the blockade dumbfounded the Los Angeles guards retreated wondering what they were supposed to do. They couldn't murder hundreds of women and children so for four days. The seizure of the Los Angeles aqueduct blossomed listened into a giant campsite. The entire Owens valley rally behind the action nearby ranchers offered cattle for barbecues Western film star. Tom Mix who was filming. Nearby halted all work onset brought his crew in Mariuchi banned in Bishop someone painted a billboard that read. If I am not on the job you can find finding the aqueduct. All throughout the celebrations. Not a drop of water was headed south to Los Angeles back in the city disgusted. William Mahone saw that even the Los Angeles Times had sympathy for the blockaders writing. These farmers are not anarchists or bomb throwers growers. But in the main honest hard working American citizens they put themselves hopelessly in the wrong by taking the law into their own hands but there is still a measure of justice on their side. Well mark led the standoff at the Alabama Gate. His brother Wilfred traveled to Los Angeles to meet with a group of city. Bankers negotiating on behalf of the Owens Valley or Gatien Asian District Wilford asked for nine million dollars in exchange for collective land and water rights. Along with the money the valley would be developed to make it more attractive to tourism mm-hmm. The bankers were excited about the prospects in a telegram to his brother. An enthusiastic wilford wrote if the object of the crowd at the spillway to bring their wrongs to the attention of the citizens of Los Angeles. They have done so one hundred percent so after four days the standoff at the gates came to a peaceful resolution Wilfred Fred boarded a train home. The bankers known as the Joint Clearinghouse Association had accepted Wolford's terms of sale when he was in Los Angeles but by the time he arrived and bishop they'd changed their mind. The Joint Clearinghouse Association abruptly announced that nine million dollars was too much to pay at the present time. No other explanation was offered. Wilfrid was devastated. He had put his best foot forward for his community and been let down. He felt that was the last chance for meaningful compromise. Despite the failure the Owens River valley community remained resolute in their opposition to the city of Los Angeles for the next three years city agents continued to buy more land while farmers and ranchers took matters and explosives into their own hands and the spring of nineteen twenty twenty seven the remaining members of the Owens Valley Irrigation Association pool their money and bought an ad in the Los Angeles Times. It read we the farming communities of Owens Valley being about to die salute you but it was not a capitulation. It was a battle cry a month after the ad appeared. One of the largest Just steel siphons along the aqueduct line was blown up the very next night. Another explosion ripped out sixty more feet of pipe. Los Angeles responded by deploying private the detectives to the Bali armed with winchesters. Tommy guns orders that they could shoot to kill anyone loitering near the aqueduct but more dynamiting sprees followed fourteen fourteen explosions and just two months by the middle of June. A train of one hundred aren't Los Angeles Reserve guards rolled in the Owens River Valley William Mulholland and the the city would not tolerate this behavior. If it was wore the valley wanted the valley would get it American. History tellers is sponsored by audible. You like listening you like learning. It's not too hard to imagine that you like listening and learning at the same time me too. And there's no better place to do both than audible audible members choose three titles every month one audiobook and two exclusive audible originals right right now. I'm almost finished with the making of the atomic bomb by Richard Roads. It's a fascinating history of the Manhattan project going deep into the science politics and big personalities behind behind the bomb he won a pulitzer to fantastic book. Listen to this or thousands of others on any device anytime anywhere and audible members also get access to an exclusive guided added fitness program to keep your mind and body healthy enjoy easy exchanges for any audiobook. You don't love and keep your audiobook library forever even if you cancel. Start listening with a a thirty day. Audible trial choose one audiobook and to audible originals. Absolutely free visit audible dot com slash tellers or text tellers to five hundred five hundred that's audible dot dot com slash tellers or text tellers to five hundred five hundred American history tellers brought to you by capital one. You know how it feels when you've saved enough for that long awaited waited home edition now. Imagine saving enough for an addition on that edition. That's the feeling with capital one. Where new savings account earns five times? The national average capital one is helping you earn more towards your savings goals. This is banking reimagined. What's in your Wallet Capital One and a member? FDIC by the summer of nineteen twenty seven. It seemed as if everyone in the Owens valley was armed and ready to shoot with Los Angeles Guard station across every part of the aqueduct line and the threat of further dynamite attacks from valley farmers. The atmosphere was thick with dread and anticipation. Anticipation of something terrible. Just about to happen in the town of Bishop George Waterson had once again taken matters into his own hands estranged from his nephews still still clinging to his family name for protection. George was still in contact with William Holland after years of feeling left behind by the success of his extended family it. It looks like George would finally get the chance to open his own bank mark and Wilfrid with whom he'd been in such ramp in competition already owned five banks in the Owens Valley but four years of conflict and rapidly declining business and left their inyo county banks drained and weakened when William Mulholland offer George position at a new eubank was planning to open and bishop funded by the city of Los Angeles. George didn't have to think twice. All had to do was put the application in his name but the plan was brought to a halt when the State Banking Commissioner Decline Mulholland Georgia's charter application. Wilfred waterson testified that his uncle was acting in concert with the city of Los Angeles and therefore the bank would never have the Owens valley best interest at heart but during the process of the charter. Application Malone's team. I'm in Los Angeles had gained access to detail statements about Wilfred and marks banking operations. Something didn't quite seem right ever helpful. George waterson volunteered appeared to investigate. What the other side of his family had been up to magistrates summer? Nineteen twenty seven. You're a Los Angeles city auditor. Who's been working with? George Waterson to investigate the bank holdings of his nephews Wilford mark. You're seated at a folding table in a small dusty room in his house surrounded by boxes of bank files. You don't much like it up here in Bishop. There's a hot tension that seems to follow you around and it's almost like you're wearing a sign that says I don't belong here but thinking about it George. Waterston seems to be wearing the same sign just then he bounds in his room. Well I was hoping by this time when I came back you'd be done. You barely look at him as he fiddles with his lighter when I just finished sorting all these deposit receipts I'm starting. It gets very strange numbers. They we should have some more people on this case. Maybe George to do some of the work himself. You thank instead of sitting around smoking those foul-smelling cheer route cigars. No I think you need to sit down and take a look at this when you first started. You didn't think you would find anything. The whole job felt like a giant waste list of time but after a bit of digging you found it look here. This is the third instance I found these deposits from the INYO county banks. Ledger were never received on the other. End Breath here. You've got withdrawals against that same amount for Wilfrid tungsten mine operation. Everyone knew that mind would go bus eventually. That's why I didn't bother investing. No George that that's not the point. It's the discrepancy. See this number two hundred forty five thousand. He doesn't exist. It's been loaned out get your nephews. Bank is stating here that does exist. They've over leveraged by at least a million dollars okay. We'll tell me why that's good. No it's not good but what banks can't report funds. They don't physically have debt or no debt. What they're doing is lying to embezzlement? George looks up to you and then his face breaks into a slow strange smile. Well I guess I'd better call Mr Mulholland. Let him know. I'd say you could call the police for the state the commission if you had a mind to. I don't think I'll do that just now. That's fine anyways. I'm going to get something to eat. We can pick all this backup in the morning. You walk outside and take a deep breath shake your head thinking about the Watterson in their bank. All the trouble. They're about to find themselves in. But mostly you're thinking about George. What kind of man goes after his own famously? Just as on August second. Nineteen twenty seven William Mulholland presented. George Waterson evidence to the State Corporation Commissioner. For at least the past two years Wilfrid and Mark Watterson banks had been using money from the deposits of Owens Valley citizens to hold their own failing personal investments their mining company planned vacation resort and a mineral water company. Were all part of the scheme. The INYO county banks were in the whole for more than two million dollars on August fifth. The doors to all five watterson brothers banks were locked by August Tenth Wilfred and mark were arrested and face trial. The prosecuting attorney was a longtime friend. Both brothers if he had not been prosecuting against them he later said he would have stood as a character witness on their behalf. He wept openly during his closing arguments against against Wilfred and mark and the all Inyo county jury wept as well the Watterson brothers done it for the good of the valley. None of the money had ever crossed the county line. It had simply been reinvested in the community with no irrigation economy left. The brothers have been looking ahead to mining and the possibilities of tourism but good intentions did not change the legality of what they'd done Wilfred Mark had always been the heart of the Owens Valley business community. Now they're going to San Quentin for ten years ears but the WATTERSON brothers weren't to blame. According to Valley residents the real enemy was a metropolis two hundred miles away. A Colossus that scooped scooped up their water and natural resources. Post on the door of one shuddered Inyo County Bank was a handwritten message. This result has been brought about by the last four. A years of destructive work carried on by the city of Los Angeles with Waterson out of the way William Remo Holland felt a deep satisfation that events in the Owens valley had finally sorted themselves out now. He could turn his attention back to the engineering projects undertaken during the years years of strife. This brought him back into contact with his erstwhile friend and former colleague from the water department. Fred Eaton Eaton has spent the last seven years on the sidelines. Lines of what had come to be called California civil war he still owned the perfect site for a hundred and fifty foot. Damn just what Mulholland wanted for the city and even window Mulholland had always felt that Eaton's one million dollar price tag was too high. He turned around and spent more than twice that in the last seven years on his alternative route the mcnally now in big pine ditch purchases both Eaton Mulholland were in their seventies by now but both men proved a stubborn as ever when Fred Eaton lost over a half a million dollars after the collapse of the water since bank. He suffered a stroke even though his son attempted to parlay between him and Mulholland all. The negotiations proved not neither neither man would give in so instead of the Long Valley Dan that he privately wish could be built. Mulholland commissioned a work around with a pair of additional reservoirs along the aqueduct line. The first was two hundred foot. High One thousand foot wide concrete dam nestled in the hills of the Hollywood district. Christened the Mulholland Reservoir. The second check in was a larger project in San Francisco Canyon fifty miles north of the city in the San Gabriel Mountains. Name the Saint Francis Damn this structure would be one one hundred seventy five feet tall holding back thirty. Eight thousand Acre feet of impounded. Water as construction began concerns voice that the dam itself was not built high high enough so the height was raised twenty feet but unfortunately there was no corresponding increase in thickness dams base undeterred. Mahala impressed on the dam was fully operational by the summer of nineteen twenty seven past seven years of conflict with the valley had been chaotic and turbulent but still they were years filled with accomplishment assessment Mulholland felt satisfaction knowing Los Angeles now had the water at needed the city's holdings in the Owens Valley were secure and with the collapse of the WATTERSON brothers banks. Thanks the valley had lost. Its will to fight elsewhere opportunities. Were finally beginning to open up from all Holland's long dreamt project run an aqueduct east from the Colorado River River but he began to receive troubling reports from the Saint Francis Dam site. The dam was leaking water. Additionally cracks had begun to appear on the East assigned to the dam's foundation you ordered fixes and promised to monitor the situation closely. But what the Water Department Superintendent did not know was that in less than a month conditions at the Saint Francis Dam would rapidly go from bad to worse next on American history tellers while Holland find his legacy. Threatened by a disaster could not foresee as a devastating flood risk through the southern California Canyon community from wondering this is American History Tillerson. I hope you enjoyed this episode. If you did. I have two other podcasts. You might enjoy American scandal in American elections wicked game search for them and subscribe wherever. You're listening right now. You're listening on a smartphone TAP. Swipe over the cover art of this podcast. You'll find the episode's including some details. You may have missed. You'll also find some offers from our sponsors by supporting them. Can you help us offered this show to you for free and if you did like this show one of the best ways to show your appreciation is to give us a five star rating and leave a review. I always love to know your thoughts. Reviews reviews are some of the best ways for others to find. Show tell your friends and family and showed them how to subscribe. You can also find us and me on twitter and facebook follow the show at AH tellers. And I'm at Lindsey Graham and thank you for more information on the conflict between Los Angeles and the Owens River Valley. We recommend Cadillac Desert. I Mark Rice. American- history tellers is hosted edited and produced by me. Lindsey Graham for airship sound designed barbaric barons. This episode is written by George Docker ended by Doreen Marina. Our executive producers are Jenny Lower Beckmann and Marshal Louis created by Hernando Pez for wondering.
The Lost Cause
"If i'm not commuting anymore where do i really wanna live while you handle. Life's questions. Merrill guided investing helps you manage your portfolio and invest for your next move with the option to work with an adviser at a low cost in minimum merrill of bank of america company visit merrill lynch dot com slash investing goals to get started today investing involves risk merrill lynch pierce fenner and smith incorporated both a registered broker dealer investment advisory members ipc investment products. Not fdic insured or not. Bank guarantee may lose value. Ever wondered why there are two ways to spell donuts or why some people think you can find water underground just by wandering around with a stick believe it or not. This is stuff you should know. You know the podcast. With over a billion listens. It's now for your eyes so you can read it stuff. You should know an incomplete compendium of mostly interesting. Things covers everything from the origin of the murphy bed to why people get lost. Become the most interesting person you know. Now add stuff you should know dot com or wherever books are sold. Welcome to stuff. You missed in history class. A production of iheartradio. Hello and welcome to the podcast. I'm tracy wilson. And i'm holly fry holly. This has been a weird year. What barbara. I live in a closet. It's been a weird year in general has been a really weird year to work on this podcast. We recorded an episode back in march where we talked about some of that and how just strange it was to be working on the show and living in this moment. That was clearly historically significant. That moment being the pandemic at that time and that sense of strangeness is really continued at also. I think escalated with other things have also happened since then yes future. Historians will have quite a lot of layers to peel on this onion. That is twenty twenty. Yeah so this. Whole sense of very surreal staff like that went on through the widespread protests against police brutality and racism that started in the late spring and summer. And now as we're recording this. The truly bizarre afterlife of the twenty twenty presidential election for most of this year is really felt like either. We just wrote an episode that suddenly not relevant anymore or we've been working on episodes feeling like they're just gonna come out in this black hole of we don't know what the world is going to be like. Thanks is this gonna seem really tone deaf when it publishes a week and a half yet so we're recording this on december. I who knows what the world is going to be like when it actually gets to people's feeds in a way with all this bizarre strange disorienting. Chaos that we have all been living through. The election has felt uniquely disorienting because there are clear historical precedent for the pandemic and the protests and the conditions that led to the protests. And we have talked about a lot of those things on the show before but while there have been disputed elections in the united states. We don't really have a one-to-one one comparison to a sitting president having clearly lost the election making all kinds of baseless and often verifiably false claims about having actually won it in all caps however another piece of this very strange post election season. Is this attempt to just promote the idea that the election was somehow rigged and favor of president elect joe biden and so if we look at things more generally and we talk about attempts to create a narrative to reframe a loss so that it will be more favorable to the losing side. There are definite precedents for that in history and one of them is the subject of today's episode. Which is the myth of the lost cause of the confederacy which was a distortion of the history of the us civil war. That is still affecting the world today. Just a heads up that we cannot possibly delve into every conceivable nuance of this in an episode. One of the many books about how the civil war is remembered is called reysen reunion civil war in american memory. That's by david. W blight and not counting the notes and the index of that book. It is almost four hundred pages long and the author describes that as a quote synthetic selective work on a vast topic so we are kind of looking at the big picture overview of this and not every conceivable facet of it so the lost cause was part ideology parts social movement since its purpose was to promote an historical interpretation of the us civil war. We gotta start with a recap of what exactly the lost cause was trying to undermine although there were other factors played a much smaller role the primary issue that drove the. Us civil war was of course slavery. You can certainly make the argument that the north's went to war to preserve the union but under that argument the reason the union was in jeopardy in the first place was still slavery and this was not a new division disagreements over slavery and efforts to accommodate slave states for the sake of keeping the union together. There's go all the way back to before the drafting of the us constitution and they're represented in the constitution itself. So all the language that we're about to talk about still exists in the constitution today. Although the thirteenth and fourteenth amendment supersedes some of it article one section two sets up the framework for the house of representatives and how members of that body will be apportioned it reads in part quote representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned states which may be included within this union according to their respective which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons including those bound to service for a term of years and excluding indians not taxed three-fifths of all other persons. So this is known as the three fifths compromise and even though it doesn't specifically mention slavery everyone understood that other person's here met enslaved africans. Southern states wanted their enslaved population to count for the purposes of apportionment and that would give those states more legislative power and help protect the institution of slavery they did not want their tax burden to increased by that amount though so the solution was to count three fifths of the enslaved population article one section nine address the international slave trade though again without using that language the reads quote the migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit shall not be prohibited by the congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred eight but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation not exceeding ten dollars for each person in other words while the government could impose a tax or a duty on enslaved people brought into the country it could not ban the international slave trade before eighteen o eight. I'm an article. Four came to be known as the fugitive slave clause. No person held to service or labor in one state under the laws thereof escaping into another shall and consequence of any law or regulation therein be discharged from such service or labor but shall be delivered up on the claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be do. Delegates from the slaveholding states would not have accepted the constitution without these provisions. Each of which protected slavery and the interests of enslavers am slave states and over time the growth of anti-slavery sentiments and abolition movements in the northern states became increasingly threatening to the slave states of the south to be clear there were also abolitionists in the south including enslaved people advocating for their own liberation in liberating themselves but the national balance of power between north and south is what we're really focused on here beginning in about eighteen twelve. The united states started intentionally admitting new states into the union in pairs one slave and one free state to maintain this purported balance and this continued until eighteen fifty when california became the first free state admitted without a corresponding slave state. The compromise of eighteen fifty was a collection of laws mitt to diffuse some of the tension from this shift. One of those being a much stronger fugitive slave act in eighteen fifty four. The republican party was established to try to resist the expansion of slavery into the western territories of the united states by the election of eighteen sixty. It was widely believed that the election of a republican president with spell the end of slavery and would prompt slave states to see from the union. This came to pass after republican. Abraham lincoln was elected president on november six eighteen. Sixty after lincoln's election. Senator john j crittenden of kentucky proposed a collection of constitutional amendments and senate resolutions. Some of which would make slavery permanent in part of the country to try to head off a secession crisis unsurprisingly. This proposal was supported by the slave states but denounced by the free states so it failed and then on december twentieth eighteen sixty south carolina became the first state to announce that it was the seating from the union south carolina issued a declaration of the immediate causes which induce and justify the secession of south carolina from the federal union. This document read in part quote an increasing hostility on the part of the non slaveholding states to the institution of slavery has led to a disregard of their obligations and the laws of the general government have ceased to affect the objects of the constitution. Other states issued similar documents. When they seceded. We're gonna have a couple of examples. The switch from georgia quote for the last ten years we have had numerous and serious causes of complaint against our non slaveholding confederate states with reference to the subject of african slavery. They have endeavoured to weaken carritti to disturb our domestic peace and tranquility and persistently refused to comply with their express constitutional obligations to us in reference to that property and by the use of their power in the federal government have striven to deprive us of an equal enjoyment of the common territories of the republic. This is from mississippi quote. Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery the greatest material interest in the world. It's labor supplies. The product which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce on the earth these products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions and by an imperious law of nature. None but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun these products have become necessities of the world and blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization texas and virginia issued similar documents containing similar sentiments as well and while some of these documents did also spend a significant amount of space discussing states rights in general the rights that were being discussed all circle back to slavery they included things. Like the right to take enslaved people into free states without there being freed as a consequence so these documents supported the slave states rights to maintain slavery but not really the free state's rights to outlaw or restricted. A constitution of the confederate states was adopted on march eleventh nineteen sixty one unlike the us constitution. This one made several direct specific references to slavery and enslaved people ten days later alexander stevens vice president of the confederate states of america delivered. What came to be known as the cornerstone speech. It's said that this new constitution had quote put at rest forever. All the agitating questions relating to our peculiar institution african slavery as it exists amongst us the proper status of the negro in our form of civilization. This was the immediate cause of the late rupture and present revolution. So yeah there were of course cultural and economic differences between the north and the south and other issues that you can cite as contributing factors in all of this but there is overwhelming documented evidence that the biggest issue and the one that was the most important was slavery. It seems unlikely that the confederate states would have shied away from that stance. Had they won the war. Slavery was right there. In the confederate states constitution including the clause quote nobil of a tender ex post facto law or law denying or impairing. The right of property in negro slaves shall be passed but instead the confederacy suffered a humiliating defeat that left the question of how the nation could possibly be whole again. And how the south could envision itself after this turn of events and we're going to talk about that after we pause for a sponsor break along with your donations. Mcdonald's helps support the ronald mcdonald house which provides housing children's hospitals all around the world so that when children are sick their families don't have to worry about where to stay or how to pay for their meals every year. Ronald mcdonald house. Charities provides more than two and a half million overnight stays for families like these. But that's just one of the programs that ronald mcdonald house charities provides. they're also family rooms that give families a place to rest and sleep and even shower without leaving the hospital learning programs to help children catch up on their schoolwork while convalescing and mobile medical and dental programs that provide basic care in underserved areas. Ronald mcdonald house. Charities is a nonprofit organization and its funding. Comes from donations fundraisers and its major corporate partner. Mcdonald's in the us alone this goes toward allowing more than a million families to stay together during tough moments. This episode of stuffy missed in history. Classes brought to you by infiniti. Make your car buying experience as convenient as it is luxury s with infinity now. Infinity has rethought every step. You take to get into a vehicle so each aspect of the process can be on your terms that means purchasing and leasing is offered online. So you can do it in the comfort of home test drive without going to a dealership and get service from anywhere with pick ups and drop offs that come to you. It's the type of luxury that's made to you and your lifestyle so you can shop by and service the way you want. Infinity now experienced the new way to buy an infiniti at infinity. Usa dot com available at participating infinity retailers. After the us of a war there were a lot of questions about how to reunite the country. Like what would states have to do to be readmitted into the union. What would former confederates have to do to earn some kind of pardon. How could the places that had suffered material damage as a result of the war be rebuilt. And how could the social economic and political injustice that had both enabled and grown from the existence of slavery be addressed and rectified. We have talked about a lot of this. In previous episodes of the show that relate to the period of us history known as reconstruction and those episodes include are two parter on robert. Smalls that we put out as a saturday classic the summer and are partner on the wilmington coup. That came out in two thousand eighteen. A lot of these questions were practical. Like would former confederate leaders have to stand trial. What kind of services would be provided for formerly enslaved people. Where would the money come from to pay for those services but some of these questions were a little bit more abstract like. What did this mean for white southern identity. How could the southern states defend themselves from mockery. Shame and accusations of treason from the white southern point of view answers. To a lot of these more nebulous questions rested on a set of ideas that came to be known as the lost cause. That's a term that was popularized by the eighteen. Sixty six book of the same name by edward pollard of virginia. The biggest and most important piece of the lost cause myth was that the civil war had not been about slavery. Southern states had seceded over the issue of states rights and that had been the cause of the war according to this idea still hear it on occasion. I don't know if on occasion is even strong enough and being super polite even though the lost cause narrative claimed that the civil war was not about slavery it also reimagined slavery itself. According to lost cause proponents slavery was not an evil institution. Enslavers in this version of the story are benevolent. They looked after their enslaved workforce providing housing clothing and food and generally giving enslaved people a better life than they would have had otherwise also according to this narrative. Enslaved people were happy grateful loyal dedicated to their enslavers folded into all of this was the idea that people of african descent weren't capable of handling their own affairs that they somehow needed the guidance and supervision of their enslavers even though the lost cause took great pains to minimize the documented horrors of slavery. It also contended that slavery was well on its way to dying out on. Its own sort of a corollary to this. Reimagining of slavery was the myth of the black confederate which became way more popular later on in the one thousand nine hundred seventy s in particular like. It had kind of a heyday. This was the idea that enslaved black people were so loyal and cared for that. They willingly volunteered to fight for the confederacy. In enormous numbers estimates for how many black confederates they're supposedly were are all over the place. They're anywhere from five hundred to a hundred thousand such soldiers depending on who you read. The reality is that enslaved africans were a massive source of labor within the confederate army. They worked as body servants cooks and manual laborers. But they weren't soldiers and they were not volunteers. They were enslaved. Confederate forces also captured and enslaved free black people in the places they moved through or occupied during the war. Historian kevin m levin has written a whole book about this called searching for black confederates. The civil wars most persistent myth people like to use photos of soldiers posing with their enslaved servants as like some kind of evidence that there were a whole lot of soldiers. The person the picture is really depicting is enslaving. The person next to them like that is not a volunteer soldier. Who went with him. So the loss. 'cause ideology also framed the south's defeat as something that was inevitable. Under this ideology confederate generals were brilliant. They are gifted in their strategy and their tactics and the south was defeated. Only because the north had superior numbers and resources so the idea the south was just overwhelmed. So it wasn't that robert. E lee and other confederate leaders failed to develop an effective strategy to offset the fact that the northern states were more industrialized add more densely populated. It was just that there was no strategy. That ever would have been enough. This idea that the confederate war effort was doomed from the beginning. Is the source of that. Lost cause moniker. Within this reframing confederate generals were universally gentlemen. All of the soldiers were noble and gallant white. Women were also perfect. Examples of southern femininity. They had sacrificed for the cause of freedom and had borne up under immense struggle. More broadly antebellum life in the south was described as universally genteel and refined with plantations romanticized as idyllic expansive homes and fields rather than the reality. Which was that. They were slave labor camps. I wanna take a minute for like a more personal note. I understand it for a lot of people. History is very personally important to them and their families. If you're about to write us an angry email about your second or third great grandfather who served for the south. I have second and third great grandfathers too. So i get it like you want to think that your ancestors were on the right side of history but they really just were not in this case eventually. Proponents of the lost cause ideology started to re frame the period of reconstruction as well and under this idea. Reconstruction was not an attempt to repair the damage of the war into address injustice. It was an effort to just to punish the south and exact retribution and northerners who came to the south to assist with this whole process. We're not according to lost cause proponents motivated by altruism or lamb thrapy according to the law skies. They were unscrupulous corrupt carpetbaggers. Were only in it for the money. Money that they were gonna get illegitimately. So we referenced. Edward pollard's book the lost because earlier and while that book did this term the movement itself is not something that just started and ended with one book. It was much bigger. Glimmers of the lost cause ideology were present at least as early as general robert e. lee's farewell address also called general order number nine delivered the day before he surrendered grant and that began quote after four years of arduous service marked by unsurpassed courage and fortitude. The army of northern virginia has been compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers in resources. I need not tell the brave survivors of so many hard fought battles who have remained steadfast to the last that i have consented to this result from no distrust of them but feeling that valor and devotion could accomplish nothing that would compensate for the loss that would have attended the continuance of the contest. I determined to avoid the useless sacrifice of those whose past services have endeared them to their countrymen. After the war was over white southern women's groups that had been focused on providing aid during the war started instead focusing on memorializing the fallen and honoring returning soldiers and some of this certainly included absolutely legitimate work. Like burying the dead and holding funerals and helping to care for women and children who had lost their husbands and fathers but running alongside all of that work were efforts to reinforce the idea of the southern war effort as this noble doomed endeavor that was not about slavery in the late eighteen sixty s. Men's veterans groups became part of this effort as well. The southern historical society was established in april of eighteen sixty nine to ensure that this version of civil war history would be remembered former confederate general jubilee. Early was the southern historical. Society's first president and was a major proponent of the lost cause although many confederate memorials were built much later which we will talk about some were raised in the years immediately after the war was over in april of eighteen sixty. Six jefferson davis who had been president of the confederate states went on a tour to dedicate memorials and multiple cities including gumri alabama and atlanta and savannah georgia confederate figures. Were also lionised after their desks to pick it as noble nearly flawless heroes in eulogies in early biographies. This included robert l. e. who died on october twelfth. Eight hundred seventy biographies written shortly after his death characterize him as a devout christian who hated slavery even though his cruelty to his own. Enslaved workforce including breaking up their families and either ordering or carrying out. The whipping of people who escaped was documented his opinions on the supremacy of the white race. We're also very well documented. Now he was definitely a christian but did not some help undo the other jefferson davis was similarly eulogized after his death on december. Sixth eighteen eighty nine more than one. Hundred thousand mourners paid their respects as his body. Lay in state in new orleans louisiana and then from there. His remains were taken by train to their final resting place in richmond. Virginia and the train made stops along the way with the crowds honoring his passing by laying magnolia blossoms on the tracks and firing their guns into the air at sometimes. These crowds were so large. The train had to stop so they could be cleared away. Not every former confederate figure was similarly though for example after the war former confederate general william mahone became one of the leaders of the readjustment party in virginia. This party was a coalition of black and white political leaders dominated virginia politics from eighteen. Seventy nine to eighteen eighty three with many black members of the coalition being elected into state and federal office mahone presence at confederate reunions had to be sort of explained away with organizers stressing that everyone should remember his wartime service rather than focusing on his political career by the eighteen nineties. The lost cause ideology was immensely popular in the south and it was gaining traction elsewhere. The magazine confederate veteran was launched eighteen ninety three and by nineteen hundred. It had more than twenty thousand subscribers and it was by far the most popular and widely read journal in the south. The united daughters of the confederacy was established in eighteen ninety four and was heavily involved in promoting the lost cause myth in eighteen ninety six that confederate museum which was initially focused on a lost cause. Interpretation of the war was opened in richmond. Virginia historians and commentators criticized the lost cause ideology throughout all of this there were grains of truth to it such as that there were white women who had made huge sacrifices during the war and soldiers who had volunteered out of a sense of patriotic duty but a lot of it was just flatly false. Critics pointed out that the lost cause narrative tried to erase all kinds of horrors including the existence of the ku klux klan and the practice of lynching while also leaning on racist depictions of black people that allowed the clan in lynching to flourish black leaders and their white allies also noted that accepting the false tenets of the lost cause meant abandoning black americans in the work of reconstruction and erasing the horrors and ongoing destructive legacy of slavery abolitionists and other reformers called for the rejection of this entire narrative at the same time though in a lot of the north and at the federal level there was also this sense that accepting the lost cause narrative or at least not pushing back against it too hard might help unify the nation and allow it to heal from the war however this purported reunification but emotional healing of white people ahead of everyone else particularly black americans so in terms of national politics the northern states were complicit in allowing the fiction to stand for the sake of the union at the expense of some of the union's most marginalized citizens. I see this is a continuation of all those earlier concessions and appeasements that go all the way back to the drafting of the constitution and the lost cause was still being reinforced well into the twentieth century and are going to get into that after a sponsor break. This episode is brought to you by rocket mortgage. I know when i was house hunting. I spent so much time picturing myself in every room in the house and painting everything purple and black but of course there is a whole lot more to buying a house then them finding a new home that fits. Your family's needs can be tricky. You want that room to spread out in space together in a place to get away from it all and luckily when you need a mortgage that fits your families need a great place to look is rocket mortgage if you want to see how different downpayments impact your monthly payment. That's no problem. You can see your loan options. Adjust payments and closing costs online in real time. How incredibly helpful is that and with rocket mortgage. You'll have the tools information and expert help. You need to understand all of your home loan options. They will work at your pace and on your schedule when you need to know what it takes for a home loan to fit your budget and your family rocket cam because they provide you the tools and expertise you need to understand all of your options and find exactly what works for you visit rocket mortgage dot com slash history class. Because when you need a mortgage that fits your life. Rocket can call for cost information and conditions. Equal housing lender licensed in all fifty states. Mls consumer access dot org number. Thirty thirty This episode is brought to you by clorox. Listen at our house. we've been hanging out inside a lot. Maybe getting a little bit. He now and again. So one of the things i've started to do is just go out for a little walk now and again through our neighborhood and that means that like i love it and i get some fresh air and i get to see the world although it's pretty quiet out there for us but it also means that when i come home i'm trailing in whatever i have troops through in the great out of doors and on the sidewalks where i live and i don't want any germs to you. Know get tracked into our house. And i certainly don't want them to be tracked onto our floors where pets can have access to them. And so to combat these things. I have been counting on clorox. Disinfecting mopping clause these mobbing clause kill ninety nine point nine percent of germs that includes the covid nineteen virus and they're easy and their safety us on multiple floor types it don't have to worry about damaging anything and moreover i don't have to worry about germs. The clouds work when used as directed on hard non porous surfaces kill sars yovany to covid nineteen virus much of the national dialogue following the us. Civil war had been about reunification and reconciliation and coming together and eventually this included soldiers. Who had been on opposite sides of the war although there had been smaller events earlier on the first major civil war reunion involving soldiers from both sides was the manassas peace jubilee in july of nineteen eleven. This happened at the start of a series of fiftieth anniversary. Remembrances that would go on until nineteen fifteen about ten thousand people attended this event including about three hundred confederate and about one hundred twenty. Five united states veterans a much. Larger event took place in nineteen thirteen with more than fifty. Three thousand veterans assembling at gettysburg. This was a massive event with states and the federal government providing funding for everything from getting veterans to gettysburg to feeding them and providing emergency medical care while they were there. Most of the veterans attending. This we're very elderly and the weather was brutally hot so that medical care was a vital part of the plan down even with it there. Were there were people who died on the scene at the reunion because they were in their advanced years and the weather was just punishing again the theme with all this reconciliation and healing but again for white people at the expense of black people who had been harmed by slavery in the war and their descendants. Who were still being harmed by ongoing racism and violence in the words of the washington. Bee which is a newspaper with a predominantly black readership based in washington dc quote. The occasion is to be called a reunion. A reunion of whom only those who fought for the preservation of the union and the extinction of human slavery is it to be an assemblage of those who fought to destroy the union and perpetuate slavery. And who are now employing. Every artifice an argument known to deceit and sofas street to propagate a national sentiment in favor of their nefarious contention that emancipation reconstruction and enfranchisement dismal failures. Some of the most visible remnants of the lost cause ideology came about during the presidency of woodrow wilson. He came into office in nineteen thirteen. The first film screening at the white house happened during his presidency. It was the film birth of a nation originally known as the clansman which included quotes from one of wilson's history books. A history of the american people wilson was a proponent of the lost cause and the dunning school named for historian william dunning who interpreted reconstruction as a failure. Birth of a nation embraced the lost cause ideology using racist depictions of black americans to frame reconstruction as deeply damaging to white people. It is also credited with a resurgence in the ku klux klan which is depicted in the film saving the south from the horrors of reconstruction by the time wilson became. President reconstruction was long over and many of the games in civil rights for black americans that had been implemented during that time had already been. Lost wilson was the first southern president elected since reconstruction and then he continued that trend of rolling back civil rights including segregating or allowing his cabinet to segregate a number of federal bureaus and offices as well as the us navy. Wilson ran for a second term as president on a platform that included keeping the united states. Out of world war one but after he was elected he began preparing to go to war including constructing new camps for training newly recruited military personnel. This is when us military bases started to be named after confederate leaders. Even though those leaders fought against the us military during the civil war so after the end of the civil war the us army had occupied eleven southern states with troops being removed after the state had met with requirements to rejoin the union. The last of these troops were removed after the eighteen. Seventy six presidential election and that was one of the disputed elections that we nodded to you at the start of the show. The candidates in this election were democrat. Samuel tilden and republican rutherford b hayes. Tilden had won the popular vote but didn't have enough votes to be declared the winner in the electoral college and then the electoral college votes from three states were disputed. The result was the compromise of eighteen. Seventy seven hayes would become president and in exchange among other concessions he agreed to place a democrat in his cabinet and to withdraw the federal troops. That were still occupying parts of the south. This is generally seen as the end of reconstruction and for decades. There wasn't a large military presence in the south because of the legacy of reconstruction the idea of sending troops to the south had become something of a tabu but less than forty years later. The expansion of the military in preparation for world war one meant that camps had to be built in the south. We needed a lot of camps. We had to put them somewhere. So as part of the effort to make these encampments more palatable in the places where they were being built they were named for former confederate generals and other confederate military figures including camps named for robert e lee. Npr g t beauregard. Which along with others were built in. Nineteen seventeen encampments named for general braxton bragg and general henry louis benning followed in nineteen eighteen. It really became a standard practice for new encampments and forts in the south to be named after confederate military leaders. Even though again these were the enemy of the us army during the civil war as these bases were being built. Another trend was developing that of erecting statues to honor confederate soldiers. Many of which were arranged and funded by the united daughters of the confederacy although as we said earlier some memorials were built just after the civil war there never really started to grow after about eighteen ninety with the first surgeon statues peaking between nineteen ten and nineteen thirty as we've talked about in our previous episodes on the harlem helicopters and red summer. There was an intense backlash against the great migration of black americans to more northern states and against black americans advocacy for equal rights. These newly erected statues were part of that backlash by the white majority and another smaller surge in their installations happened during the civil rights movement of the nineteen fifties and nineteen sixties. part reminder of. Who's in charge here and part ongoing whitewashing of the civil war. Although some cities could afford to hire a professional sculptor to create the monument. A lot of these were mass produced and ordered through the mail. One major supplier was monumental bronze company of bridgeport connecticut. Us and confederate soldier statues were almost identical except for whether they had a us or a cs on the belt buckle. Meanwhile one of the most widely popular pieces of lost cause fiction came into print and then to the screen gone with the wind which debuted in nineteen thirty nine. It was based on the novel by margaret mitchell. That came out three years earlier. so as we. You have alluded to see glimpses of the day but in the post world war two era more historian started returning to the subject of the civil war and the lost cause which by this point had made its way into history textbooks all over the country. Historical sites and museums also started reexamining their collections and their missions after the war as these institutions started trying to more accurately represent the war and its repercussions really been an ongoing many year effort. The museum of the confederacy which we mentioned earlier merged with the american civil war center in two thousand thirteen to form the american civil war museum. And that's a museum that tries to give them more honest. Look at the civil war but you can still see glimpses of the loss. 'cause narrative all over the place and this decades-long failure to honestly reckon with the civil war has done so much damage polls about how many americans know or don't know that the civil war was about slavery or regular occurrence but it's not just whether people knew a particular fact history the loss 'cause ideology contributed to racist violence and discrimination all over the united states. And as we've already mentioned it put the emotional healing of the idea of the nation and of white people in the south ahead of justice for formerly enslaved people and their descendants so this is a great example about how this kind of false narrative is not just about whether people know a particular intangible truth it also has real and ongoing consequences that we still feel today. Yeah we still see them. In our inbox response to episodes from time to time. I have gotten in arguments with friends about that. Whole states rates business to own slaves. Right that's what. I can't I there so weird to me. I will say this weird. They're romanticism of that. Is strange to me. Because i don't as much as love history. I don't tend to romanticize it in that way. You know what i mean like. It's not part of my cultural identity. That i am from lines of this or that. And i you know i don't have that investment so it's a little hard sometimes for me to understand the attachment to it. I m pretty sure. Like i have not looked at every single person in the entire family tree but pretty sure on both sides of my family in the eighteen sixties. Everyone in the family tree was living north carolina. There are definitely people in my family tree and direct ancestors of mine who served for the confederacy and like. I totally understand as i said earlier. That like people don't want to imagine bad things about their ancestors but to me. Regardless of any of those individual people's reasons for serving they were still serving as part of a group of states that had established themselves as a slave nation in an army that was fighting a war to extend and protect slavery. Like whatever your personal reasons for that. That's still aside that you were on. Yeah yeah well and it's one of those things. I don't know if it will help people reconcile it right the the nuance of the individual versus the individuals part in a larger group How much they're influenced by what they grew up with and how that is probably you know had probably warped their perception of right and wrong particularly in regard to this issue. I mean it's still as you said it comes down to that is the side. You were on You know. I don't know it's it's hard for people to to accept even now And i i don't know the way through that. I think there are a lot of groups. You a lot of good effort and some of the stuff that we talked about right there at the end of lake trying to really take an honest look at things and and reckon with it is a big part of that but yeah it's a weird. It's a weird thing There's a lot of psychology to it to be unraveled debt. You and i were talking about something totally different earlier this week and i was saying how a lot of times when we look at things. We have to sort of hold multiple contradictory truths about things in our heads at the same time. And i think that's the case for a lot of folks here. Yeah and it's it's difficult but doable and important. It's an important skill to learn to be able to see multiple facets. That are not always comfortable right. I mean it's kind of what we're working on all the time like. No one person is simple and easily. Some aided they all had problems we all do. They're all humans and fallible so before. I read listener mail. I just want to shout out to all of the people that have sent really really lovely emails after our episodes on vivien thomas and ellen. Helen taussig yeah. I did those episodes in part. Because i just needed an episode about saving babies. We have talked before about how a lot of times. They'll they'll have a point in working on. I'm like time to save some babies. So i kind of forgot that every time we do that we then hear from people who either they were saved or their babies were saved and i just. I kind of forgot about that pattern. So anyway we got a ton of really lovely emails from heart moms and other parents and then people who were born with a congenital heart condition who had one of these procedures or who had other relatives who were affected and hughes were saved or extended thanks to surgeries that were were pioneered by by thomas and tells again blaylock so i need to send thank you notes and replies to all these folks thinks still so. Thank you so much to jen. Kelsey kyle timmy. Sarah asaki a different sarah and nicole. Jen also asked us to remember her aunt. Barbara linda who died from a congenital heart condition as a baby in the nineteen fifties Thank you so much to everybody who all those emails i had. I had a hard time figuring out which of them to read. And so i just wanted to thank everyone for sending them and then i'm gonna read an episode on a related topic but slightly different because it's about the listener mail that was on. Vivian times episode. This is from carey carey. Says i have a possible solution to what your listeners. Sean was referring to you at the end of your eleven eighteen. Twenty twenty episode on vivien thomas concerning how she had heard of incubator babies but couldn't find anything in your archive and your fort. Shaw indian school basketball champions part to podcast from eleven fifteen twenty seventeen. You gave a description of the st louis. World's fair in which you mentioned that babies in incubators were on display in response. I wrote to you on eleven. Twenty nine twenty. Seventeen with information from an article i had written about the incubator baby custody case that made national news on and off for ten years beginning in nineteen. Oh four you read my email at the end of your twelve eleven. Two thousand seventeen podcast. Perhaps your reference to the st louis world's fair and my email or at least part of what. Shana remembered an addition. You had mistakenly referred to me as she. I wrote to you on twelve twelve twenty seventeen pointing this out. You wrote back and apologized. But the show's production had already wrapped until mid-january and you were not able to make a public correction anyway. I thought this might help. Clear things up. Keep up the good work. Mr kerrey leave out last name for privacy. So let's talk about mistakes. I made three years ago and still remember. That is exactly what happened. We had gotten this email from carey immediately after we did our last recording session for twenty seventeen and because of the way our time off schedule was falling and immediately after i came back from being away. You holly. We're going to be away recording drawn. And so we had something like a month of episodes already in the can and we were not going to be in this studio again for three or four weeks. And i was very embarrassed. Hope very bad about it and it was like. I don't know how to fix this. So i'm glad kerry That you sent this email carry. Hit even noted that he was a minister in the email that he originally sent. And i just overlooked it so i am sorry for that. I am sorry that three years ago. I did not find a way to publicly. Correct that and thank you again for sending this note. We have gotten a few hypotheses about what folks might be remembering. Some of them are related to different podcasts and some of them are related to things that were on the radio or on television. He's not really sure. If you would like to write to us about this or any other podcast. Ray history podcasts. At iheartradio dot com. We're also oliver. Social media. app missed in history. And that's where you'll find our facebook twitter pinterest and instagram. And you can subscribe to our show on the radio app apple podcasts. And anywhere else. You get your podcast stuff. You missed in history. Classes the production of iheartradio for more podcasts from iheartradio visit the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Holiday season means stocking up on some essentials like decorations and an ugly sweater with the bank of america. Cash rewards credit card. You can choose certain. Three percent cashback online shopping. The essentials have never felt more rewarding visit bank of america dot com slash more rewarding to apply now copyright two thousand twenty bank of america corporation. The radio on you dash more than radio that sirius. Xm button is instant access to a world of exclusive entertainment including ad free music channels for every genre and decade. You can also hear your favorite sports comedy talk in news. Plus you can stream with the sirius. Xm app on your phone connected home devices. So grab your dial pound. Two five zero and just sirius. Xm to get twelve months for five dollars a month with a new select subscription call for details fees and taxes apply.
11 Bizarre & Gross Problems That Took Over U.S. Cities
"He their false, welcome to another episode of the cracks podcast, the podcast, all about why being alive is more interesting than people think it is. My name is Alex Schmidt, and I'm beheaded podcasting here at cracked, I'm also known as many declamatory known as smitty, the champ, and I am, also also truly committed to that premise that I talked about the premise that being alive is more interesting than people think it is I do believe that our world is fascinating in a fundamental way. Just the more closely look at it and keeping with that, here's our topic today, it is bizarre and gross problems that took over U S cities, one more time that is bizarre and gross problems. That took over US cities. The most famous example of that is probably the Boston molasses flood, which I'll just tell you about now. It's a very candy land sounding problem, it would be like an obstacle on the board. If it was like chutes and ladders. But it was also very real. Here's the situation in the early nineteen hundreds, all of the molasses shipments from the Caribbean that were headed to the US would converge on Boston. And there was real. Just one company in charge of storing all of it in a very, very big VAT on the north end Boston. And in nineteen nineteen they did a bad job and the tank exploded causing a forty foot wave of molasses to sweep through the city of Boston. Dozens of buildings destroyed Twenty-one people killed. And I think that molasses flood is famous because it is so weird, and it's almost famous as a really really weird type of thing that never ever happens in any other city ever. But hey being alive is more interesting than people think it is. And one way, that's true. Is that all kinds of cities, especially in the US have had all kinds of strange or gross, or weird problems that shut them down or snarled the function of things. And, and some of them are animals. Some of them are urban planning others are just strange. That's what we're getting into today. And we got into that in a great American city, the city of Chicago, Illinois. This is our first show from our recent tour. That you get to here now and I wanna share my favorite thing about doing that tour has there are many podcasts and many of them do live shows in various cities. It's such a thing. And when we set out to tour the podcast, a few people asked me why you know, like, why are we travelling, why are we doing it? In theaters. We could just tape shows in a studio forever. Why are we doing a tour at all? And I think that's an excellent question. I think anything you do like that, where it's a large scale thing should have a goal and an intention. And one of the biggest reasons we did this tour. Is it let me have conversations and do shows that I couldn't do any other way? I can bring almost anybody into a studio in LA. But this episode you're going to hear is something that we simply could not do any other place in any other context. We had to go to Chicago and do it in front of a wonderful crowd in Lincoln hall. Also. I don't know if you're familiar with the canon of the cracks, podcast, or the, the deep lower of. Of the show. Right. But I'm from Glen, ellyn Illinois, which is in the western suburbs of Chicago as so this was sort of a home game for me. If we can talk sports, and that helped me assemble a guest lineup that I feel is insanely needed cool to me, it's sort of like an vendors of the most amazing Chicago-based comedy and journalism, and scholarship, people just all at once integrate show, and then we also got to bring in the audience because we do that in every live show and so- Chicago based people who are really from all over got to share their own stories that we couldn't hear any other way, either, it's a really special thing to me. Just one other thing before we get into this, this conversation from Chicago, that it couldn't do any other way, we didn't episode here about US, cities, and since we taped, that in Chicago, there are a lot of Chicago specifics that come up, you're going to be fine. We explain everything a few things just to have a laid out in your head initially Chicago has a city council. The city council has fifty members by zero and. Job title is alderman, that's the term. It's, it's an old English word that meant elder man at people have any gender can do it. But that's where it's from and the week before we tape this in April as Chicago had a local runoff election for several of those alderman seats and they also had a runoff for mayor assoc ACOG elected. Lory Lightfoot, who is the first black female mayor of the city, the first openly gay mayor of the city of Chicago and she takes office may twentieth, which is the day. This comes out says, and that fun. I think that's fun timing. But anyway, you don't need to like, hold all of that, in your head very tightly or something to understand the episode. It's very straightforward. It's about all kinds of cities, all over America, and I think we had an amazing time doing it, so please at back or said over the dipping sauce for your large Italian beef sandwich. That is the Chicago approach to listening to a podcast. That's how everyone does it either way. Here's this live tour episode of the crack podcast from Lincoln hall in Chicago with guests Ryan Asher Maya. Luke massive. And Dr Jane daily, I'll be back after we wrap up talk to you. I'm so excited to have these guests today. I up, she's part of the current second city main stage review. It is called algorithm, nation or the status quo. Please give a warm, welcome to Ryan Asher, Ryan Ashraful. Yeah. Grab a seat. Hi. So good to have you. Thanks for having me. I'm excited to be here and hi dad. Let's keep on going. She is a staff writer for the Chicago reader, and co host of guys called back room deal, which, especially with the election, you guys had was amazing, please warmly. Welcome Maya Duke massive. Hey. Is there anyone you would like to say I just went Hello? My mom or dad are not here. So it's great having and, and finally on the panel, she's an associate professor of history and the law school at the university of Chicago author many books, including most recently building the American Republic volume two from eighteen seventy seven on, please welcome. Dr Jane daily. Oh. And is there anyone you want to say hi to all just saying, I do various people as we come in? Say hi to my border collie Cora. Yes. She's really into podcasts. Didn't know this one before. But we got her. Those little earbud things. I think she's got a I think she's gonna enjoy it. Well, let's, let's get into wild wild things about cities, but also to set that up. I feel like there's just interesting things that I am particular picked up from Jane about how like cities had kind of a rapid growth, all at once, and I feel like we don't think about that a lot at least in the US no shoe, especially in the west meetings, you call and west west of Chicago just exploded after the civil war was stats here, the US population quadrupled in the fifty years after the civil wars four tenths many Americans, and we had almost all of them coming to cities, especially immigrants. Right. And there was room with amazing four million people coming to this country and all ending up in Chicago. After the war. They're all like horny the ones that came back. They're like. That's probably part of it, too. Historically. I'm assuming there's a chart somewhere where like horny is the why axis. Yes. Post civil war horny. And yell so between eighteen seventy nine and nineteen twenty almost eleven million Americans move from earlier years to cities and in eighteen eighty that was the year when the majority of the workforce, wasn't farming. I feel like that must have been a really strange social situation for everybody. It was it was hugely different. I think we talking about immigration, but there's migration where everybody wanted to go, go to the cities and work in the factories and get literally off the farm. Looking for people to have sex with? Yes. In part, not entirely. Partial sex. Well, it wasn't nineteenth century. It's like farmers. Who like I'm gonna go work for cans dead? Leave me alone. I don't wanna do cows. I'm going to work in a factory with cans, and there's like stay on the farm, a reenactment. That's historical stuff. Also. And then, and gene in the book yells tells story about a broad idea. But Oliver Wendell Holmes brings it up the supreme court Justice at, but the idea of, like what to do going forward once, we had the civil war, and suddenly had millions more people. Right. He thought that they should vote actually was one of his radical ideas. Hey, how about that? He thought that the act of voting is what kept the Republic alive, and he was really worried, especially after president got assassinated, three presidents, or assassinated between eighteen sixty five and nineteen hundred. So that was disturbing to people so yeah. Holmes thought, if we could all act together, politically, that we might have a fighting chance of keeping Republic is a head of his time and are maybe. That's amazing. But so then cities, they all they all sprout basically, in this lady, hundreds time, or at least a lot of them like you say, Boston was was ready to be molasses already. But then, from there we have all these problems that some of them are specific various cities. But we might as well start with trees that feels like a good point to start. Many cities have trees. That's the show. Thank you. Great to come out. But we, we have two kinds of trees here, that are a chronic problem in cities, because they smell, they smell really, really bad. Several people were like. Yeah. Totally and I don't understand. But that's great. We the two kinds here. One of them is the calorie. Pear tree, the tree smells like many noses to human semen. And hey, hey, this is an anti semen room. Hold on. Hold on. Yeah. I think the scientific term is the Jisr tree. That's the one that's the X axis. Yeah. And then the other tree is the ginkgo tree, which smells like vomit or to some people's noses smells like farts. That's what I have been told in smelt. That's which would you rather have planted? I think this is a good question. Would you rather have the fire tree or the ges tree in your yard, I think farts because I think that's funny. That's just my vote. But does it make for sounds though, I'll have a fart sound machine hooked up? So when people drive up, it's like they're like, is it the tree? Is it me? Is it her? It's probably her option. Yeah. Clap, if you've noticed a tree that you came across, and you're like what? Those people that don't like trees. Yeah. And they apparently the keeping plants it because the calorie pear tree has really nice white flowers. So if you've seen that on a tree, it's potentially this thing, and then gingko, resist pollution really, well, which is killer for treason cities of all the cars. So somebody in some office is always like we just need trees. I don't care. And they're doing these trees that smell to everyone all the time. My son was explaining to me and my son knows all kinds of weird things. So I mentioned this Ilya is. Yeah. Thought of the game goes as smell, like vomit, and the patriot smell, like come. How does he know these things, but he says, don't worry about it because says that the smell is just the pollen and that if you have allergies to the tree, it's because you have a very finely tuned machine to smell come. So then we decided that if this is true that allergy medicine is basically contraception for your nose. Sounds like he should be on this podcast. Yeah. Yeah. But then I wouldn't have anyone writing my baterial. One time for Jane son come together. Let's take a left turn into confederate statues. This is a problem. That's that's all over main cities. And Jane you're in amazing scholar, of, of the Jim crow, south, and the politics that leads to all these different kinds of monuments, in a surprising amount of cities. How did we get to these being in so many places? Well, I think lots of people know they're all over the south. They were mostly established way after the civil war. They're not about the civil war. They might say they're about the civil war, but they're not they're about the age of segregation, really and tend to be more about white supremacy than anything else. But, but I, I learned recently that Chicago has a confederate monument, which you wouldn't guess where's that? Where's it out? Maybe anybody in the audience know we're our confederate monument is. Though, it's not in grand park. You know what's in grand park? There is sort of the monument. There's a lot of bodies in grand park. That's where they buried soldiers who died confederate soldiers who died. They bury them in grant park. Think about that the next time you're strolling through grant park, if you're walking on the confederacy. The buried confederate soldiers in park they did. Someplace because they were prison prisoner of war camps. Oh, that's what this money minutes for this monument is to the confederate soldiers who died in a prisoner of war camp called camp Douglas, which was Stephen Douglas property. But the monument is in a cemetery in sixty first street. So we have our very own confederate monument is not just Lincoln grant, Lincoln grant, Lincoln grant. Yeah. I'm from Charlottesville, Virginia where those Nazis marched two years ago, three years ago, and they were there, I think most people know because they were trying to take down the Robert Lee's statue. And Charlottesville is actually very like liberal college town. And I think maybe the year or two before it was voted like happiest city in America, which is really funny. Yeah, because I think that it's a place where lots of especially white liberals can believe that they're very woke. And that there is no racism there, but there's a huge class divide and that statue was arrested in what was a poor black neighborhood at the time to remind. Find them like, hey, we still hate you. We're going to still oppress, you. So like the fact that Charlottesville was like, why are these Nazis year? Like we're good place. It's like no. You still have confederate statues you still like allowed this to be part of the culture here, and it's just it's horrifying. And like I went to school in Richmond where there's monuments avenue, which is just one after another of like stonewall, Robert Lee, just all the way down at the end, is an Arthur, Ashe statue. At the very end because they're like, fine, we'll give you one, but it's a statue of him up with a tennis racket, and there's children below him with books. And it looks like he's beating. This. Look it up, it's insane. So it's like won't make you on. But he's scary. I knew they were there and I knew there awful. But I forgot that's like I cannot imagine being a person of color and walking on the street. And there's just a big statue of like we hate you. That's what they are like we hate you, as I understand that. And Jane, I think, you know, the most about, but they were mostly built in a relatively modern tire. Right. It wasn't immediately after the fighting. There's spikes that's mostly between nineteen ten and nineteen forty for Baltimore which decided to catch up late and build one in nineteen forty eight boo Baltimore obvious. Let's go there. And then we end up with these things that are built with a specific message for the modern day. But and, and yeah, Maryland. The southern poverty law says that Maryland had almost three times as many troops in the union army as the confederacy. So the main thing to memorialize the union just by numbers, but they they're doing this specific messaging and all kinds of cities, have these monuments, it's like another weird thing that has just popped up everywhere. And people don't realize there's like crazy. Rich guy was like, wait a minute. What about and then I'll get a few? And they're like, yeah. Then they built a statue. Happens statues happened. Look that up. And and couple of other weird spots there. These memorials there's a picket road after the confederate General George Pickett in Bellingham, Washington state, there's a stonewall Jackson bust in the Bronx and until twenty sixteen. There was a, a Robert E Leila entry school in Long Beach, California because this just pops up because people want to do messaging. Also, Jane, you, you have a mazing info on general named William Mahone, who is never in statues. No, he doesn't get a statue because he did the worst thing he could possibly do. This is a big general next to robbery, Liepa Matic's. But then he went, and founded an interracial political party that one, so he's not really the favorite person in, in Virginia history. Historians is repressed who, who wants to listen to a political coalition, that's majority. Black in Virginia. In eighteen eighty as amazing I didn't know that. No, you wouldn't because actually Virginia wrote it out of all the history books. That's you don't see it there for a reason. Yeah, another city, snarling problem, we have in particular for New York City, which was the first city of a million people in the US, they had by the late eighteen eighty s over one point two million people relying on one hundred seventy thousand horses each tours producing fifteen to thirty pounds of manure per day and accord, a urine, and then it was bad. Can I just ask a question? I think that a court of urine is nearly enough for a horse that doesn't sound right to me, this is I like the fact check that because I'm pretty sure a person produces accord court of your date. If you're saying hydrated, which y'all should be, but a court of urine four cups. I don't believe that they produce only a quarter urine. I'm with. Honestly of just depress you how many cups accord is. I, I don't know what I was thinking. That's great writing for an alternative news media outlet. I am tutoring. Children in middle school math. So often we have to talk about how much a court is now you can talk to them about, you know, piss. The letter really hook them in. They'll be like math is cool. We talked about courts and piss. Yeah, my because my, my like mental picture of especially turn of the century so uses that it's like just unlivable because of the human waste on the animal waste and the very beginnings of smokestacks, or too many fireplaces, or something, I don't know how people did it didn't they die say? Like ten years old. They're also British here in my opinion that time everyone's British, and that's another fact. And yet with this, what this horse manure there were some newspaper articles predicting as the turn of the century approached that, well, we'll probably just have manure piling up until we cannot move through cities anymore. And what do we do as probably the thing, the first international urban planning conference was in New York in eighteen ninety eight main agenda item was the horse manure, that was the main not trains, not buses nothing. No horse manure. God, I would love to just go back in time and see that meeting of them be like there's too much boop. For like hours. They were probably like, what do we do? We also have a few other animal things. Let's, let's talk animals for bit here. Another New York thing in particular was they had a lot of congestion of pigs. There were pigs just all over new, especially Manhattan roaming town was just what happens in eighteen twenty s Manhattan, they had twenty thousand hogs loose just loose around, which is one hog per five people at that time. Suicide like it was a significant chunk of the population. Well, aren't there also? So I know this is true Chicago, but there's still some old city laws that are still on the books and some of them pertain to indecent behavior by animals in the streets and how you can get fined two dollars. If your horse or pig is having sex in the city and all of this was to discourage all of those people who were moving from the country with their for some reason that they're walking, and they're like they have a pig on a rope that they're just walking to the city. So they arrive and they settle in a substandard living situation, and their pig is in their yard, or whatever on the streets tied to tied to a stick, and, you know, whatever it's trying to have sex, and now they're getting fined two dollars work because that's country behavior. And this city. Hi to work my pig. Was having sex again got find. I feel like a lot of money like whatever the eighteen eighties. It was a lot of money. Nobody had any cash anyway. So what, what kind of money are we how much money is? Oh, gosh. I don't you're the math two hundred dollars. I know sure let's pretend it's two hundred dollars. It's also it's the current car to person ratio in Manhattan today. One to five and, and my gotta beat that on with that, like, but yeah, they must have had all kinds of laws on the books about. Okay. You've brought several pigs into town like everyone does. And so, here the regulations one other animal thing here. This, this is a modern thing with coyotes coyotes are just in kind of all of the city's all of the time in the modern US. They did a study at Utah state university. They looked at one hundred five big urban areas in the US found ninety six percent of them had significant Coyote populations just running around. Apparently there are a lot like raccoons but bigger nobody thinks about you've seen. I've seen one I like was getting home from my improv show. Don't clap. I was like, in my head thinking about how fun it was. And then I like looked on the street two years. And this was just like standing in the moonlight. On the way back theater. Yes, yes, yes, this show, my show. Like looked at it. And it was like one of those stupid moments, we looked at each other, and I was like hell, yeah. We're doing okay. Kind of like the Simpsons episode, where Homer like trips off that chili pepper and then, like meets his spirit Coyote, I met mine after an improv show. Have you seen one? Yeah. I've, I've seen a bunch meeting to. I'm planning on seeing more. One of them was was pretty entertaining. He was he was, or she's hard to say because they couldn't get the couldn't catch the Coyote. We have a big field empty field near where I live, which is near northwestern hospital on this big fence on it in order to discourage people from thinking that the field could belong to us. Communally. In this field lived in the past tenses is correct here. Many, many rabbits that a Coyote got in there. And we're just running around, like crazy and three days wildlife people came. They could never catch the Coyote, the Coyote finally sneaked away, but we do live near the near the lake and probably five years ago. There was a big storm. And the waves threw up a whole bunch of fish onto the path, and then they all died because they were on the path instead of in the water, and this was heaven, for coyotes, so the coyotes come, and they're having a good time, they're telling down on the fish, and I'm walking my dog and I see this coachee, and it looks kinda strange and I looked down. And there's a woman walking with her back to the Coyote with a little bitty dog. And the Coyote is like Wylie Coyote. He's like after this little dog, which I think he didn't get it. But it was very entertaining. I don't think it's Warner do I say your big stocked by Coyote. He he quit. It was just doing it for fun. If you're, if you're listening at home, when Jane said he was like, Wylie Coyote, gene, mimes building a catapult and rocket center, I try to act, the acne. I think he has sued acne. Nothing these things to trap shins, and they never ever clap if you've seen coyotes around Chicago. God. I've never seen cody's. I've only seen I've seen a possums one came to a party. I was at stayed at on the porch with the partygoers for several hours. Was he wearing a hat? Nobody had very big is frozen. They're on the porch. That sounds like meet a party. Yeah. And WT w talk to some experts about the coyotes said, experts said at least four thousand live in Chicago. And also, according to people in New York Times, they said that a lot of cities, people will notice the coyotes and then people are like I will become an urban Coyote hunter. That's the thing. Everybody wants that. And then the coyotes for some reason, coyotes are kinda tuned to how dangerous situation as and so if people start hunting them then the coyotes start having more babies intentionally. And so then it's like an arms race. It's like. It's like who's gonna outnumber who I'm surprised us asking us about rats. Yes. This is another animal. And it's, it's a thing that's unique to Chicago even versus other cities is the rats. Let's, let's talk about it. Yeah. Everybody thought that the polar vortex was gonna kill them. But similarly to coach who reproduce more when they feel endanger rats continued to reproduce, even when they're cold. What is it? The do the do say period or something like twenty days for a rat from conception to birth and they have very large litters the ones that reproduce are already successful because they've survived. So this is the ALPHA's so they reproduce particularly quickly and they've survived ice ages. So, you know, the polar vortex is like nothing to them. Yeah. But in Chicago, I think it's funny that you that I don't know if this is a recent perception, there's a rat problem here. I know as a reporter, I hear a lot of people complaining about rats. When I go out to report neighborhoods, but I feel like rats are much more visible in New York. But we have alleys here. So all our trashes in the alleys. So the rats are in the alleys too. I feel like I don't very often. See rats outside of the alleys those rats getting stronger, and having sex through the winter is like what like I didn't know that. They're like the Doug. They're like nineteen this. They're everywhere then the coyotes don't eat the rats, which is too bad. That's what I learned trash instead, they're noting mice. They're eating small small things that's amazing. When you hear complaints neighborhoods, is it because you specifically want out to find out about that, or just as your reporting things that comes up. No, it's usually like I will go out this. Particularly frequently happens on the north west and southwest side of the city, which is sort of like the bungalow belt, where it's like kind of Paris, bourbon type feel out there a lot of single family homes and little yards and people take property ownership quite seriously. And when I go out there usually for political stories and I'll go to some local bar, and try to talk to some guys named Bruce school was sit at the bar in the middle of the day. I'll ask them about what the issues are, what are they concerned about in their in their ward or in their neighborhood? And it's like drugs are problem. Them and sometimes, they'll say, more vaguely crime, but then, like rats are in the top three always, they're always talking about rats, would you, rather have pigs? Rants or horses. And now I want you all day. Find this pigs. Yeah. No, I go with big too. Yeah. I like rats. You're tough, and they're, they're tearing. And Chicago, apparently in the nineteen seventies Chicago had a rat population of six million. With over one hundred cog owns attacked every year by by the rats. And then the good news is they've gotten a town, since the it's great good job, all of you specifically, you all did it. Apparently by nineteen ninety eight they estimated it was down to four hundred forty thousand rats, which is the approximate population in humans of Austin, Texas. It's the about the same amount, and then it's gone down from there. But as we've found the polar vortex killed off a few of the rats the can't handle the cold and the strong ones like replace them. They're growing stronger. It's gonna be a good rats season this summer. Yeah. It's like if you live through the vortex outside like you'll never die. Many thanks to touro for their support of this episode of the crack podcast being broadcast to you. That's to rotea you are. They are a peer to peer car sharing marketplace. Do you need a car right now where you are will you need a car in the future, when you're traveling or you've just got, like a thing going on re could use extra wheels, you know, your life, I know would help? Here's some numbers for you to is available in over five thousand five hundred cities across the US Canada, the UK, and Germany, Hallo Deutschland. They also have over nine million users worldwide over eight hundred fifty unique makes and models of cars available out of more than three hundred fifty thousand vehicles listed globally, that is an enormous fleet of cars, and we wanna put you in one one tip for you. If you would like a sort of a steak -ation around where you are. You know, people talk about a steak -ation where they'll book and night in a hotel or something. It's also kind of a station to rent a really fun. Fun car, and then just go somewhere, you wouldn't otherwise go like driving in and of itself is a good time. I'm in Los Angeles. I would no I drive all the time you can do fun driving in a in a unique vehicle from Toronto. And it's really from somebody else, where you are. So they get some money for lending you the car, you'll get to have this adventure. And I think everybody wins. So let's get you winning download the app. That's T. You are. Oh, I mean, apps store or Google play or visit Turow dot com. Get twenty five dollars off your first trip when you sign up for Toronto and use promo code cracked. Checkout, terms of live. Let's let's talk about. There's a few like plumbing sewage things with Chicago that are very interesting. And great, don't do we all we like horses use the bathroom, and for one thing, historically, Chicago was initially built apparently without any kind of sewage system in place. And so, in eighteen fifties, they hired people to go around raising all of the buildings several feet to then install plumbing and sewage and stuff under them. It was a team of six hundred men with six thousand Jack screws, and they would all just turn at once and then building goes up and they would do that event. Just put plumbing under it, and then put it back down, like they're playing with toys or something. It's amazing. That's fun cartoon what if it fell on someone's toe when then and then also with, with the modern day lead piping is thing and my in particular, you've done amazing reporting on as Chicago elsewhere, and how they're handling. Their lead pipes a we're not handling them. Here Chicago is pretending like it doesn't have a gigantic water safety crisis by with its roughly four hundred thousand residential homes that have lead pipes. I mean, I guess, in case folks aren't familiar out go ahead and freak everybody out the first thing you'll do when you get home is get a Water Filter if you don't already have one, but essentially, if you're, if you're living a building, or like a three flat, or single family home, that was built before nine hundred six you have a lead pipe, connecting between your house and the water main which is the big pipe that runs down the middle of the street. Now, you might have noticed. There's been a lot of water main work in the city. This was Rahm emanuel's flagship infrastructure project when he took office in two thousand eleven he was going to replace all the water mains. So that's what he's in the process of doing still the city's doing this and they are replacing all of these. Old decrepit water means. I mean some places in the city that were made out of wood, like I saw pictures of people were putting pictures up from Logan square or somewhere. They were would water means. So all the waterways getting replaced with, like, modern iron water means, but the lead call them service lines, the pipe that leads from the main to your house. All of those ones are made of lead, and they're replacing the means, but not the service lines and the complicated thing is that no place in probably on earth has as many lead water pipes as the city of Chicago because of a political reason, actually, so while lead was a popular plumbing, material, like in the early twentieth, century. The dangers of lead and lead, poisoning became known like in the I don't know, by the nineteen twenties. It was pretty well known so a lot of cities kind of stopped using lead for for their water pipes. But in Chicago mayor, Richard. Jay Dealey was best friends with the head of the plumbers union, who was name was something Bailey, so essentially plumbers loved working with lead pipes because they were very easy to, to bend. And they were very pliable and easy to install. And so in the fifties or whatever when whenever this law was enacted. Essentially Richard, J Daley, let the plumbers right the city code around. What kind of pipes you had to install in your house, and it had to be lead pipes? So while the rest of the country was phasing out using lead pipes, because of known dangerous to human health. The city of Chicago was mandating the use of lead pipes until the federal government outlawed them in nineteen Eighty-six. So that's why we have this huge problem filters and do things. Yeah. You can. So, so if you have an NSF certified filter, you can get a pitcher filter like Britta type filter, you can get, like reversal is Moses. For your house, you can get all kinds of different versions of this, and it'll filter out the lead, you cannot get the lead out if you boil your water. But the reason that the water main replacement is additionally, so, like ridiculous that they're not replacing the lead service lines. In addition to the means is because the lead pipes are not like actively contaminating, your water if they're just sitting there in the ground undisturbed, because the city treats the water with, like a special fos fate that overtime builds a little coating on the inside of the lead pipe. And so there's no actual contact between your water and the pipe. But one, there's construction going on in your neighborhood, which is very likely because of this gigantic infrastructure project, and also because of other city construction projects or developments the ground gets disturbed and the pipes, move, and the phosphate coating shakes off from the inside of the pipes. And then then your water is in direct contact with the with the with lead. Pipe. So then there's basically no guarantee that your water is not contaminated with lead, and you can get a free lead testing kit from the city of Chicago, you get it get tested for free, but it doesn't mean you don't have water which shows up clear because the testing for it is. Well, your Water Filter anyway. And until, you know, for sure your home doesn't have a lead service line just filter your water to be on the safe side. I'm saving. Information, don't they have to test fifty homes? Yeah. Yeah. Yes. So the federal like standard for this as they have to test fifty homes, which they normally do in city workers homes, because it's easier for them to just test in their own employees homes, all of those people know about this problem and have probably replaced their water pipes already. So, yeah. According to the tests, there's lead in the water. Pro- problem in Chicago. And the only test homes like once every few years, I do. I like that. There are things you can do like getting a filter and also being your people to work on it, especially because they just got elected, so they probably wanna know. Yeah, this is going to cost billions of dollars to replace these pipes, that's gonna cost billions of billions of dollars. And the other problem is that every lead service line is half owned by the city and half owned by the property owner, because the pipe is partially on city land between the main and. Your property line. And then from the rest of the way it's belongs to you. So in Madison Wisconsin, they replaced like eight thousand lead waterlines, if you years ago, and it costs them like six hundred million dollars or something like that, because they had to subsidize the property owners to replace it, because it's expensive they had to pay for the city side of the pipe. So yeah, nobody nobody who's gotten elected, not Lori Lightfoot or anybody else has an actual viable plan for how they're going to this and the current administration, they're just like they don't they want to pretend like this is an issue. The main thing I mean, I don't mean to freak everybody out continue to drink water. But, but, like, especially if you have kids in the house, make sure you have an NSF certified filter that filters lead. That's a doable thing about that. Well, plus we, we went from seamen trees really shit about water. And we, we were talking about these alderman, and you've found a few of them in particular, who have just some amazing tales about them and stories and things. They've been up to in the last few years such as James Kaplan fella who is still in a recount, as they went out there. That was like a very strange sound that was like that, like undersea home that people read about sometimes voyeur boy. Well, maybe I shouldn't have brought him up, but who is let's get into it. I guess he's just as good or bad as any of the rest of them in a lot of ways. But yeah, he's the alderman, forty six ward uptown area. And for those of you who live in the forty six word, you might have noticed. There was a particularly heated election Kaplan was in run off with Marianne the laund-. So the weekend before the election cap, Amon hand-delivered trays of cupcakes that said, team cap Amon in frosting over the top of them to nursing homes, that were functioning as early voting places for people who were in those nursing homes. So there's early voting sites in every word, but then you could nursing homes, can get special kind of polling places set up for the residents. So he was coming to the to the to the nursing homes and dropping off these cupcakes. And you know then was trying to claim like it wasn't electioneering because we electioneering is doing. Any kind of campaign related activity within one hundred feet of the polling place. So he was saying it wasn't electioneering just being nice. The board of elections did not agree. And as the spokesman told me democracy was preserved, but the cupcakes were not. The early voting in the nursing homes was happening on like between, like Friday and Monday before election day. And so on Friday he was delivering the trays that said team Koppelman and then by Monday, there had been several complaints with the elections, and he had started delivering cupcakes. That did not say team Koppelman it was still electioneering because showing up at the polling place and personally delivering these cupcakes. Yeah. And they said like happy birthday Dolores. I just found these outside. I'm just being nice. Yeah. I mean I could get by cupcake. If you're like, here's a Cup capable you vote for me. I'd be like yeah. Give it to me now. Elsewhere in Chicago, there was, I guess, electioneering in the form of tote bags being given out in the fourteenth ward, Burke, take that too. I'm serious free shit, and I'll vote. Yeah. That is. That is not cool to go prey on people who might not have all of their faculties, and the last thing they see is capital, men, and they're like, yes, my son is Kappa men. This so that the opponent his opponents like campaign. I don't know somebody who worked for the opponent's campaign was also certified as a poll, watcher, and was like taking photos of him delivering these cupcakes. This is how I found out about the story because I got these photos, kalpa means people were also like will isn't it election hearing to be taking photos inside the polling place wish? The election board spokesman said, no, that is documentation. You shouldn't be taking photos of people voting, but you can take photos of people electioneering. I hope the watcher was like, no, no documentation on Kaplan's person was like, is it electioneering? If I give you this sheet cakes. Maybe. That must've been like the best day for poll-watchers, like, Yep. Shit's going down. Otherwise, they're just like standing there. She was like them. I mean there were also there were also allegations of like straight up vote buying in the twenty fifth ward. Yes. That is a legal. Although I don't know there are people in the city who argued that it shouldn't be as long as people vote. But that's not one of those people. The yeah there's an ongoing investigation right now still into Bairo Byron. Joe Lopez campaign in the twenty fifth ward. He did win his election, but in the twenty February twenty six election in the first round before the runoff. There were acusations that there were people affiliated with him a swapping votes for target gift cards like twenty five dollar gift cards to do that, too. Man. I'm telling you, you can get candles and underwear. He was also a senior citizen residential facility. I'm kidding. It would have to be like a fifty dollars gift card. That is really messed up. Chicago. Also, there's a there's another story here about is Ricardo Munoz. Recent recent uses some funds, maybe folks here have heard about, Danny Sali's this, the reason we haven't you alderman, the twenty fifth ward is not because the target gift cards but primarily because the incumbent resigned because he was involved in a federal kind of corruption sting, and he was wearing a wire, and recording other alderman, who were doing all kinds of shady things. But the reason the feds could get him to where the wire is because it turned out he was swapping zoning favorable zoning changes and other things for developers for he was swapping that for Viagra. And. Wow, you guys have heard of this. This is. By then? Staffing. He was swabbing favors for Viagra? He was swabbing favors for like he was getting hooked up with massage parlor, like a going to massage parlors. Massage parlor. Yes, given the Viagra, right? Right. Right. They weren't they, you all know what kind of massage parlors, so that's one alderman, and then recently this other news broke about Ricardo who also is no longer going to be in the city council as of may twentieth. He was not running for re election after he was arrested for domestic battery against his wife on New Year's Eve. But since then I mean he has not resigned. So he is still actively on the city council. He's doing his thing still, but it came out last week that he, he, he was the chair of the progressive caucus which we do have in city council. It's like I don't know maybe fewer than a dozen aldermen are on it. But he was chair of this thing. And he was using progressive caucus money to purchase meals at an Italian restaurant in also at a suburban laundry and sex toy shop. Okay. Thirty six thousand dollars is the figure I saw. So he got lasagna plug. He said, I'll eat it and then I'll plug it. He said he's paying it back. He has not denied that he spent the money. And he's, he's, he's saying he's paying it back, and he's paid back some twenty thousand dollars worth of the inappropriately us money. This is crazy. The first guys like fleas a give you anything for my penis pills. Please, please. I'll make a deal by penis. This is what I mentioned have jobs. That's crazy. Oh, yeah. I love that you can buy, and you could super just by Italian food. That's like that's like a very Garfield the cat cram. This was not a very fancy sex shop. Or very fancy Italian restaurant. This was just very many trips to these places. Yeah. People married are there, like significant others. Like, well, do you want the guy was going to the sex toy? Shop was married. But now he's getting divorced, because he hit his wife. Oh, that's right. Yes. And the other guy I actually don't know maybe he needed Viagra for his wife. I don't think so. Some about it says, no. At Burke, who is indicted, who was on the wire that Viagra guy. So lease was wearing and the reason he was indicted, was because he got caught on a wiretap shaking down a Burger King owner for campaign contributions for Tony Berquin Cole who did not win this mayor election and had to spend her entire campaign essentially trying to say that she was not affiliated with Burke, but he won his reelection. Stereotype of Chicago politics is corrupt. I don't know if anyone knows the answer. But why how are how is there like one guy wearing a wire who's also in so deep tracking the other people feel like they're all just tracking each other? You know, like like the FBI is just doing like fifteen minute meetings with all of them through the day, trying to fit them all in. Yeah. Robert Muller back in the day when he wasn't you know who he is. Now when he was just like a big time federal prosecutor used to love come into Chicago and catching these people. I mean, we've had like thirty alderman indicted since nineteen seventy five or something like that. I don't know. It's a good question. Why are they so corrupt? I think probably because it actually Chicago has like the per capita. I guess, like representation or like the number of people number of constituents each alderman, has like each member of the city council has is much smaller than a lot of other places. So, I think in New York, it's something like two hundred thousand people per city. Council person and here, it's like fifty thousand people, there's a lot of words and the constituencies are relatively small, it's not that hard to be elected because very few people actually participate in these elections. I mean if you have like thirty percent of registered voters vote for an alderman, in a given election. That's like good. I mean thirty percent is like so what are you saying that? The alderman are like, coyotes in rats. Which is when they feel they reproduce. Yes. So the bar is not that high. And there's a lot of people who can get there by corrupt means. It's you, you can do it. You can't do it, but on a positive note, just this like wave of progressive exciting candidates who just want a bunch of elections, who that people are excited. We are at the stage, the show where if you have something, you know, about cities or strange things that happened in. There's a microphone. We have a lot of people so exciting. I give us your name. And then let's talk stories going guys. I'm luke. I'm from Columbus, Ohio and have a little clips Ohio story in Columbus. We've just like most cities have grown out a bunch and have run out of things to name after a neighborhood that had Nike and Reebok street. They just went on naming after shoes. Because over sprawl, all yes. That's sort of a contrast versus a little family history. Which was that my great, great uncle, Pat? He had attracted land that was close to downtown, and he had a horse farm there. And during prohibition he was involved in rum running. And he his way of offsetting, the bad of that, I think, in his mind was taking intercity kids out the horse farm, letting the ride around who's very special place to him. So toward the end of his life. He would never sell it. Always kept that land. They were developing all the way around it. So when he knew he was on his way out he called in all the lead developers. And he said, whichever of you comes up at the highest bid that's going to sell this land, too, but it always has to bear, the name of the love of my life, grace. And so now today so high oh there's Graceland Graceland mall Gracelands neighborhood, and it's very sweet. But my family hated him for it. Because grace was not his wife. That was his mistress. Give it up for Lou quotes. Let's, let's do our next story. Welcome. Hello. My name is Elaine. I am from Chicago. I'm like Columbus, I guess pandering a little bit. Sorry wildlife rescue in the city, and I have for a couple years on health. Neil out with it, which is really cool. I have a small Coyote story, and that I want to talk about wildlife in general, we had to rescue Coyote from a quiz knows one. So it's not just mice that they eat. They also like toasted sandwiches. I guess that was a fun stories, many years ago. How do you rescue a Coyote from quiz notes? What happens? We kind of normally have to travel around in, in the car, I guess, with a bunch of like industrial gloves and masks and stuff like that getting pulled over as always fun because we will click serial killers, but display. No, no, no. It's for hawks and stuff like that. Clear. Everyone out you kinda coroner in you get some, you know, cold Turkey and you go. Hey, come here. You release him in Jimmy Johns. Just to get some better. I take him out of the city put them in a different field. How we got started doing that was, we got a dead bird dropped on us once at side of Saint Michael's church in Lincoln park. And it was a peregrine that dropped it. There's been a huge peregrine resurgence in America because DT has stopped being used as a pesticide that would make their shells week. So they could ever breed or anything like that. But since DD stop being used we have a lot of Peregrine's, especially in urban environments, because they're naturally cliff-dwellers, and when they see, like big skyscrapers or churches, they're like, that's a cliff. So they're a bunch of Peregrine's nesting, especially 'cause they're incredibly territorial on like, million dollar like penthouse balconies downtown on the north side and stuff like that. And he's like, really super angry wealthy. People. Now can't use their balconies because they're like angry birds of prey out there. Just really cool. Like that they're sticking it to the man somehow, but if you've ever seen, like half a bloody pigeon on your sidewalk or something like that. That's a peregrine who dropped his lunch. That's amazing. Yes. There's a ton of paragraphs all around, you can see him you can hear them. I they kind of make what we think of as an eagle sound but eagles make like super sad, sounds like in the movies. They dub eagles with, like red tail hawk and paranoids, Olga hook eagles. Mix had sounds like an eagle cry isn't super impressive. A lion cries in super impressive either. So when they have like lions movies. It's actually like a combination of like a bear in a tiger or something like that. But like all the like the like eagle it's actually red tailed hawks that they dub in, in movies. Everything, you know, is a lie. I'm sorry. Upper lay still blown all these ways. An extra names Calvin moved here about just now two years ago. And I was really impressed with all the spikes pigeons around here, it's very Mad Max kind of scene. Yeah. But that's not my question. My question was, I understand humans need to p from time to time, especially in a pub kind of central area. And I'm really curious why other cities, especially over in Europe. They have public urinals. But this is not something that we, we see too often here and I'm wondering did prohibition kind of influence that, or, or do we just have a general, you need to keep that at home or inside another business, like, don't, don't, don't be human and have to pee. That's an excellent question. We will fact check what you said about people needing to be. But I believe. I believe that is the case. And yeah, I don't understand why that would be you mean like public urinals, like not, not like a restroom at a bar, but, like like a thing built in a park wall where you can just go in P yet, usually, it's, it's in a circular design where you walk kind of around arc that is walls around you. So somebody who's male could upright in P. But maybe there's even versions that are for females. But generally, it's there is public Bill -bility for you to urinate. Well, you can have that when I can have a whole sit on. Yeah. Squat outside, you can do whatever. No. I will also say that, like every place I've been to Europe, which is a lot of places. I feel like there's generally a bigger issue with just people being in public and everything smelling, like this. So I'm actually glad that we don't have a culture of public urination. However, it would be great, if we didn't have so many businesses that said that you can't just go in there. And also do you can always piss in a Starbucks? You know what I mean? I feel like the ones codes on the door. Need to be burned down? Starbucks for P. I copy second. Great. Thank you. Hi, I'm great, my name's Colin. I'm originally from the Louisville Kentucky area, and Louisville's famous for a lot of things horse races baseball bats, the KFC double down. But what I want to talk about specifically is the Waverley hilson Tori him which was America's largest senatorial for two berkey losses in the early early nineteenth century. So, like there were a ton of people who just were terribly sick and had terrible lies in ended up dying there. They had shoots where they would throw the bodies down, but growing up in that area. I didn't know it as that place of terrible tragedy. I knew it as a haunted house, and what terrible tragedies. Do we know today that one hundred years from now are going to just be seen as, like some fun haunted house that you go with your friends, too? Starbucks. Lighthouse. Well, I actually I have a friend who from Pittsburgh, and they feel that way about all mascots things that are pirates 'cause pirates were terrifying. And now we're just like let's get a cute thing. Let's have a guy a big pirate outfit, answer fields. Thank you. Yeah. Yeah. Hello. I'm marion. I am from Europe and we don't have outdoor urinals in England. I feel that we would just look at each other in apologize. Where a very reserved culture of people that just like we don't want to know what's going on. I want to stoke the animals in London. I live in Chicago, and it's a bit different. We don't have these, we have FOX is lots and lots and lots of folks as red ones, and they will follow you home that very domesticated, one home. My dad was full of chicken nuggets, and I didn't know. We don't we have lots of rats. I think that's just a universal problem. But we once had a well in the Thames the Thames, if you don't know anything about London goes through the goes through, it's very big and in the middle outside the houses of Parliament, I think a whale lost, and ended up in the middle of London. It was a baby way. It's gonna die. No one knew what to do. Because when very well prepared for anything English people sorry, I ended up there anymore. I don't care Brexit. The way it was it was, it was outside the house of the parliament, it was freaking out, because it was suddenly surrounded by all these people, everyone stop working to go and look. Well, the idea, I think, to take out of the Thames was to end if it on, like a sack to back to the ocean. And then reunites it with the whales died before any of that happened, because I think it just felt very stressed out. But you mentioned dolphins and just made me think of the whale. A common for Wales to be like around the United Kingdom. I don't know much about. I think it's I'm up from south end or something. What's to come in one end times? But I I it was just one of those things, maybe it was Harry Potter. I'm not. It just magically a pit in the middle of London. There was a case in France. I think it was a really long time ago, a whale west on the beach, and they exploded it and not people died because you shouldn't do that with wheels the blah, blah. We'll just kill everybody. So we didn't explode it. That was a good sign on up. That's fastener. Yeah. No one's ever married and. Timing wise, this'll be our last person with a story in question. And let's hear my name's Dan. I'm actually here from Pittsburgh, and I can confirm the mascot thing. Hey yeah spooky. Well, my story isn't really a very like biologically discussing, but I find it disgusting. It's less time. My city won the Super Bowl and this involves. Diller's. And usually this involves people like tipping cars setting things on fire, and just generally causing mayhem, and I find that this Cussing it's kinda like you just one guys. Why are you acting like you know the landing or something, this is a regional thing used to live in Morgantown, West Virginia? And whenever West Virginia university won anything, including bowling, I dunno whatever it was would be couches set on fire for those of you who don't know Morgantown about an hour away from Pittsburgh. So I think I think this is a this is maybe a regional custom. Yeah. I'm not a huge sports Queen surprise you looking at me, thinking she loves sports. But I feel like in my mind, it's like sports for people who are like, they probably have their jobs in their lives and their spouses, and their kids, and they're like life sucks. So when a team wins through like I've done something, and they like celebrate by hurting things. That's where my people go to the theater, and we cry and. Folks says the episode for this week my enormous, thanks to Ryan Asher minute massive, and Dr Jane daily for being so knowledgeable, and so funny and for diving into a show with me, who they don't know very well and each other, they are just meeting, and it's all just extremely cool of them. I think it's worth highlighting that it is brave, and neat to do something like that. Also enormous thanks to our audience. Also, brave speaking in public, and huge thanks to the whole team at Lincoln hall, just the best venue in Chicago, especially Sam Anderson, and Giovanna Savic and additional thanks to Josh Lindgren, unions, share Maria, Morales Hannah stifle Hannah Crichton, Andrew under Cohen, Chris Sousa and, and more people I am failing to mention just blew it. I'm sorry, guys. And let's go onto the food Newt's where you will find all the sources for all the material in the show. Also one update, I'm what we talked about. We were talking about these Chicago alderman, James Kaplan. The guy who. Who fooled and basically bribed elderly voters with cupcakes before the election. Kaplan, faced legal challenges to what turned out to be very, very narrow win when the count it all up, and those challenges went on until this past Thursday. It like just ended the challenges were withdrawn cattleman has officially won that race to be on the Chicago city council, by total of twenty five votes that has to five twenty five not for nothing jewel. Osco sells you more than twenty-five cupcakes if you want that he might have given cupcakes to more people and actually swung the race also elsewhere in the city and other Chicago alderman, one their race by just thirteen votes point is local racist matter. If you're mad about that vote in all of your next elections you can Google when they are also unrelated, please support our gas. They were amazing checkout. Ryan Asher live at the second city in their new review, as we talked about the top of the show, those reviews are sketch, and improv, and more stuff. They're amazing shows. Read my Moskva in the Chicago reader, which is one of first and greatest alternative newspapers in the entire country. Also, my covered every one of those fifty wards five zero in the run-up to their local elections, which is an enormous task. And she didn't amazing job of it as so follow her for just more reporting on that kind of scale and on the kind of level, and I insist that you check out building the American Republic, we have a link for it, and it's a two volume US history textbook that is free. And on the internet. It's by Harry L Watson. And by our guest, Dr Jane daily and the idea is to provide a free US history textbook to people who may be can't afford it or to schools where maybe they've cut the budget for history, Cassandra's testing mostly focuses on math and reading at other stuff. So that tends to be what goes, I is history. And I think it's an amazing thing they're doing. It's I've read most of it, and it's very, very readable and a really excellent way to learn. In the history of our country is not a good thing to do and beyond all that our theme music is Chicago falcon by the Budo spanned. Hey, that song has the city of Chicago and its title. Very neat. Also, this episode was engineered live at Lincoln hall by Chris over there, and then it was edited by separate. Chris, Chris Sousa, I thank them both very, very much if you love this episode that's great, if you hate it, let me know about it on social media. That's right. Social media the space where I track your requests for a live cracked podcast in your city. Part of why we went to Chicago and to Saint Paul, which you'll hear a few weeks from now, a part of why we went to those cities is there was a lot of demand online when I asked people where they wanted to see a show that, that actually played into it. Good job people there. And if you want one in your city, lemme know, my own Twitter account for those requests is at Alex Schmidt, -i also my Instagram at Alex, Smith's degrom, and among the wider internet at my website, Alex, medi dot com, and I'm here to say, we will be back next week with more crack podcast, so. Oh, how about that? Talk to you. Many, thanks once again, to touro for their support of this broadcast of alive, cracked podcast. And that is t-. You are. They are an app and a website all kinds of ways to use their peer to peer car sharing marketplace to get yourself on the road in a vehicle that fits exactly what you need wherever you need it. Download the Turow app. That's T. U R o on the app store or Google play or visit terro dot com. Get twenty five dollars off your first trip when you sign up for Turow and use promo code cracked at checkout. Terms apply. This has been an ear. We'll production executive produced by Scott Akron, Chris, Bannon and Colin Anderson. For more information content visit here wolf dot com. Everybody Chris gathered here, dungeons and dragons week, beautiful anonymous, not really just randomly had two phone calls involve dungeons and dragons. So put him out in the same week and that makes dungeons and dragons week, if you don't know beautiful novice I do take phone calls. I take our long phone calls with non stranger each week. And one of the episodes coming out this Friday, a skilled and experienced dungeon master happen to call in got through online. That me on an hour long quest that episode Jeff's Friday may tenth dick Yetlis, very silly. I love it. I will murder everyone in this village until I speak to the council, most of the hill. Bear Q on this town and start killing people until this council. Let's talk say my piece, you, you send your giant grizzly bear. Companion are watering people in the streets again. Yes. Tuesday's episode though, one sixty two title hero's journey. It's really special out of very powerful conversation with somebody who had not slept in days. I've been heard like nearly two days now, I just got back this morning from a like eight hour drive to go. Check on a friend of mine, who is a Seidel last night. That's bad. I'm sorry. She like somebody. We played dungeons and dragons with last night was the first time I actually met her. Thinking about this conversation for weeks, so happy, I finally get to share it with you, her story really represents what I love about this podcast and the community that surrounds it. I hope you check it out. Subscribe to beautiful stories from anonymous people wherever you listen to podcasts.
228 - The Season of the Abyss
"I. This is exactly right. The fall line is an investigative show covering unsolved murders and disappearances in the southeastern United States particularly cases, involving communities marginalized by mainstream media or investigation through intensive research and compelling narratives. The fall line builds the knowledge base on little known cases. You can listen and subscribe to the fall line, and all of exactly right shows on apple podcasts stitcher who wherever you like to listen. Hello. and. We'll go favorite murder the podcast the podcast that you tune into every what Thursday morning. Best afternoon nowadays maybe Friday. Maybe a Friday evening. Sure life is life is changing. Your chains are busy. Who knows what day it is? In this season of your life that you know that that's what the influencers are saying now like the like the lifestyle influencers are calling like the part of your like the in this season of my life where it's like. have to ask you to check out of whatever that entire culture is that? You're talking about recalled alright. It sounds horrifying. These I'm in picturing lot of felt hats, people speaking that were wearing felt hats at the same time. That's right. The word Tom comes up a lot probably even when it's not autumn. People that pull their sleeves down over their hands to talk. Yeah, yeah, no, thanks! No, thanks! THAT'S CANCALE! Gareth Oh. That's Georgia heart start. Hi, how are you? What's going on? just got back from a nice trip with the fam- and again. In this season of my life, it feels like. I can't tell how much time is passing, so I literally one day turned to my sister and went. I've been here for three weeks like she's like I. Don't Care Air I was like no I can't I can't leave my home and Doug's and life. Yeah, but it was really nice, so I got to be up there for father's Day. A lot of lovely well wishes on twitter for home gym which he pretended he didn't care about, but the had already looked at the time. I got to his house Tom Dinner, no, he does. He's he. He's now a legit twitter. lurker like I can't really be myself on twitter our no, because my dad's there. What if he just doesn't follow? You like lurks everyone else's. He's really into Chrissy Teigen and all the things she makes in her kitchen. She's gone. She's legitimately funny. Yet, that would be. So typical. This season of my life. Season is it winter. What. Winter of my life in existence in I am in pajamas right now. Stay in home. I mean. It does feel like a lot of people have decided. They're just not quote unquote doing Corentin for. A while the numbers skyrocket out of. I mean. It's almost like the layers of this seven day or layer dip of horror the. Cheap! Coming where it's like I thought ready head Guacamole. guacamole horror where people are pretending the pandemic ended 'cause they want it to i. read like some quotes like there were these gals in Florida who like sixteen of them went to a bar when they openly all got it and the delayed the the Gal was like I was just done. I just needed to get out I was done, and it's like, but but the global pandemic isn't. So? It doesn't care that you're done, and also we're all fucking, asshole. No one likes it. Okay like no one like you know what I really west I miss missing Vince. I, Bet I bet I wanNA. I. I went down to record just. Give him a kiss, and I was like miss you, and then I was like, will you? Let Your Best Amiss Vince this in this nice. You know this'll be our first three hour. My favorite murders just so you can miss him a little bit more heavy great. Thank you so much. It's very strange. It's like what was Nice in northern California. They're not doing up there. They've been very serious. Since the beginning I understand that thinking of like I can't do it anymore or I need to socialize the people in their twenties like if I was in my twenties and corn team. My Guy I would have gone insane, I hope. I would have absolutely so it's not like there's not empathy, but it's also like to. are dating APP still like happening or more than ever now more than ever now more than ever How would I know? I don't know I know. You I want to ask you. I do I love to know I would. I would love to know I just. Yeah, I could never I couldn't do it even just to be just a peak around. You have the gossip I now. Come on make up a name and and let's I mean look by the end of this I might have to. Simply because you know being cut off from humanity. Really it really Put Your you know helps you put your pride aside our. Own you know I have no. No pride left. I looked at myself in the mirror yesterday when I got up and I was just like. You can't go another minute without shower. Looking at my hair and I'll do i. have this thing where I pull my back in Palma pony tail in doesn't matter them. Here is a greasy mess. It was my hero just like It's there's not A. I forgot what real my sister's real clean cleaner clinic real She her stare sizing cleaning is her. It's nonstop. It's year round She did not like. My should always be like Eah. Take a shower like why we're going to safeway like who cares. But she was not into it, so that was kind of it was good to be around. People and it was good to kind of have that check every day of. Why not put on a little lipstick not? Give up just because there's a pandemic and. Social upheaval in the exposure of a of a completely white supremacist. System and government. Government and people who are resident to be our peers, and we're like who are you, are you now? We know, but but but we have to talk about. We have to keep it positive because the best thing that I would have never been able to envision for this season of our live I. Have Never. I've never been able to know that this was possible? And the the TIKTOK. And the K- poppers made it happen. They put in, and everyone already knows a story but I just want to say it anyway if you've if maybe you're out on the Tundra and you haven't heard about this for the Tulsa trump rally, which was such an offense was so gross. They originally planned it on June eighteenth June nineteenth of this year, and they did it in Tulsa, which is a day of emancipation that emancipation went through, and in Tulsa. You were saying it. But it's true I mean like it's the kind of thing where it it's almost like. Facts of reality of what. This guy these people do and how offensive it is, and how gross it is, it just doesn't land more because it's one thing after the other, but I I was like Yoga. Is some kind of serious rioting because of this. It's deserves. What kind of fucking bullshit is this at? They're like Oh. Oh, we're going to go to Tulsa Oklahoma where the Black Wall Street master took place on June teen and we're GONNA. Have a trump rally ladles if he's a fucking on purpose and like a fucking, fuck you to lack people. Then I don't know what is the season. Of the abyss has happened and turned. Yes, right now, slayer song yes. Season of the abyss Salah. High School Boyfriend's song. He was a black metal head, and so slayers seasons of the best cars some. Girl just I'll just bust it out avatar. or He'll start singing. It now busted out on Air Guitar. This season at the list. Right fuck slayer. Get your felt hat on because. Here. It's here. Get the patches sewn into your sweaters. It's mad here. Make. Your is slayer. The woman had that s that was a line and thank. Yeah, that was all over. That was carved into every desk in my high school. Failure was big. Big My high school. Well, it's funny. You mentioned that because I have a show. The perfect segue. It's funny. You mentioned that okay, so there's a new. Did you know there's a new Perry Mason like a remake of Perry Mason wait? Is it already yeah? It just started this last week. 'cause. It's the guy from the Americans so awesome that Matthew Reese. Yes, you think he's I think he's Welsh holy crap is a good. Okay first of all, there's no. They didn't I'm going to go ahead and do what they should have done. which is trigger warning dead baby like full-on trigger warning that. No, it's very, it's. It's a really gruesome like dark show. Right. Now Oh l., it takes place in L. A. and the twenties. It's nothing like the old Perry Mason. He's not even a lawyer he's like. Cool Okay Yeah It's dark and good, and it's like no war, e and a little over the top, and then you remember that it's Perry Mason, and that was a little over the top, so it fits. It's not it's good. I like it. It's like I. WanNa, Watch all of it and get into deep dark depression. Well I feel like you know. Yes, like a period piece depression. Yeah, it's yeah. It reminds me of Boardwalk Empire which I really want to watch again for the outfits outfits Falcon everything. It's good. Do you do that? Were the are their shots? Of La, where you're like I know that spot that there are remaking in this being on, yeah is. There an angel fly. In when they show it with the buildings around it, because that's that's how it used to be. It's exciting I. Love It. It's good good old new our La stuff perry. Mason. That's amazing. Oh and sure they're warning enormous. Surprise Dick. Don't ragged around. You'll see. Take take a shot. The surprise, enormous de. Now is it what is it? It's skyscraper high knows. How big is it big I don't WanNa I. Don't know. I mean you know. Do you know what channel IT'S ON HBO? So we get gritty reboot, apparently ready I wish I could get down there for that pitch meeting. People are like. Yeah, it's not what I expected and it's. It's good I should be a to counter. That I should be talking about Marcella right now. 'cause season three is out I watched one episode at when I was at my sister's wait till more went to bed because I don't see anything bad. On of course, I fell asleep four minutes in because they all have Irish accent was like. It was like meat meal, grandmother Lullaby Anita Sleep. Or I just always go to sleep at ten thirty. But I did last starring for true escapism. There's a television show. It's British, but it's on Netflix and it's called one hundred percent hotter and it's like a makeover Shimono. Hundred percent hotter they get these British people and I think I I, not to say that Americans aren't absolutely like this, and you couldn't absolutely cast this show in four minutes in Los Angeles but. There seemed to be a lot of people in England. Who are lake decided that they're gonNA be I was. What's that girl's name? There's you know how they have like the page. It's like the page, two girls or something from the tabloids I. Don't know if that's the right page. Number says basically like it's like super sexy. Where like you save up all your money to get? Yeah, humongous implant. You're like you're like A. Like Kim Kardashian type. Right her fict- but like a Brexit A. Way Yes. It's a brats dull going way over into the lake. Performance taxi like beyond. Yeah, and so they take a couple of people like that. Then there's a couple of people who just have very strange styled. There's A. There's a girl who's doing a full on new look where she has two different color contact lenses, and like Hello Kitty stickers on her cheeks and ship, so they take people with a look with a with a really extreme look, and then they make it's. It's the classic like reality. Show, then they. There's people on the street looking at pictures of them and suspiciously all of the people on the street giving ratings like I would give this a three out of ten and the people are shocked. They're like what. I'm really H-. How could I be at three year? Whatever the people on the street that are being interviewed? About the ratings, all are wearing scarves different beautiful scars where I'm like sorry ear cast. Starve commercial I it's. Is this sponsored by scars CETERA. Store. Scarves etc card anyway, yeah. But it's a good like just put it on him. Here's the thing it's an amazing makeover show because at the end of the day, who doesn't love a really good haircut and really good makeup, and the and also the outfits are amazed. Turn them into like. Classy classier look. They basically try to take what they want to look like on. Just make it more like if you're walking down the street, people won't run into a poll because you are stickers on face yet or because you, there's one guy that is like the one like an industrial goth where he has. A WIG of Like dreads made out of rubber, oh. No, you know that kind of thing. That Elliot Oh yeah. That looks it's pretty extreme that sounds. They re just redo everybody, but what it is is just awesome. Makeup awesome hair. It's just really satisfied. The hairs yoga girl when she gets redone. Everything is like it's gets very philosophical where we're all wearing. We're all wearing. Masks but like the hairs Yuka girl she. Gets out takes all her stuff off and make up. Women's like look at your is. What do you do and then gives her this? This makeup were in. The girl. Is just like this really beautiful young girl who goes I? Never thought I could look like this again. Staying on. What's it called one hundred percent. Hotter hotter and the hair guy is such a legendary hair guy where he himself has my sister's hair from nineteen eighty-nine ladies like a spiral Perm I thank amazing hair guy, and he gives the best hair cuts. What about the show? I get turned into a club kid. That's what I want I. Want The opposite. I feel so you're walking boring now. You want to go back. Go back to when I was sixteen and had huge fuck fucking cramped pigtails Yup I. Cut your bags all fucked up. Okay, my pants great and then yeah. I would put stickers on to really -solutely. That, was that the drugs telling you to put the stickers? On Dot, your style join. The drugs were the stickers. Oh, they're. Going through the skin. Absorbing it. Yep. Okay. What else well? There's season to dirty John has started. Okay, I haven't done that yet. It's the Betty Broderick store. You did I did it. She's the woman down in San Diego, yes, and it is. It's very dirty. It's very much dirty John. Season One this style about it, then kind of like it's outfits and it's. It has almost. Feel to it, yes, 'cause this. It happened in the. Everyone is real eighties outfits. The problem I have is. Amanda Pete is Playing Betty Broderick and Betty Brodrick one of the main issues going on in that relationship was her husband was leaving her for a younger hotter. Ryan right and No one's leaving a man never ever. Like she is, she's Hollywood perfect Shia, so I got that. She is a great actress and she's playing the intensity, and she's really good as a character, but there's a whole piece of that character that is, that should be there. Yeah, and I think I wonder if it's because they didn't WanNa like in the year two thousand twenty put someone in like a fat suit or Farah like that's part of the issue and part of the story yeah I there was a mom and you know wasn't tiny wasn't rail I. Don't know I mean after Stevie for you. They TV to betty and then vote and in doing so in my opinion, she doesn't even resemble. She doesn't even resemble. Her may not even a little the brown hair I guess. She's a barrage usable on his blonde hair. Oh. Yeah. But it's good definitely. Watch it okay. Good story in its and you know it's Christian slater in Amanda Peet, so it's so watch. Yeah, guys, unless you hear that the amazing music that Stephen puts under an ad. We're not this. Is Not US pushing? Any of we are being paid zero dollars by Amanda Pete for Talky. Be has never worked for us a day in her life not once says she called. I've asked her to cats it. Fuses, take. CARE scared of her? Own she was so good and togetherness. That's still on. Can you find that anywhere? Remember that show the The duplex brothers vehicle. Yeah I I don't know. She was so good enough so good in most all things I see her. Boss, her heart. Paul I don't know 'cause I. Don't watch TV alone anymore. There's no like like neither Vince, nor I watch what we want to watch because we're always watching together. You. Know what I mean. The I'd be careful of that. You get a second TV. We have one, but then it's like. Go downstairs stare. Yeah, could yet and it's like. Yeah, it is there. It means you don't want to be around me. Say if you're mad, saying. Do you just totally time, look. Follow the kitchen I. Don't admit it. Can I tell you that I have cried more since I turned forty than I did my entire thirties. What's going on two weeks three weeks? I don't know PMS. And then I also found a new psychiatrist, so my meds are getting tweaked a little. Oh yeah, so. That's fun to be like that. Those two weeks of like willed air. Won't they work? Or kind of insane side effect. Is it going to give me? That I that I won't remember is is a side effect shall be like I can't stop sweating. What's wrong with? Well then cry. Here's your at home. That's. What? I was say oh, but you meant for Vince like it's. You're next to him watching TV on the couch only. Oh Life Oh, and the excited for the. The, Golden State Hiller show. That one cancale Gareth friend. Best friend podcast friend of the POD. I'm an insider. To say I've been listening, says the episode one. That's right. I haven't seen that trailer yet. I'm to. Keep it but yes yeah. I've I've heard a lot of feedback. That people are excited and excited to see. You'RE NOT GONNA. Can you watch yourself? Are you GonNa? No, no, no, no, no okay. We'll do it for you. You please do and then just say nice things. I don't care if course here I don't care you don't like. Only complements only I. Used to say that after my standup five is like going somewhere with people afterwards. I'd be like compliments. Only I only want to hear if you thought it was the best one on the show. Yeah, keep it to yourself totally. Yeah No, thanks! This isn't. This isn't fucking critique time unless you're funnier than me, no critiques. should we do exactly right? Corner Chur so our podcast network. Exactly right is the thing. Isn't that great? We love it and we're adding shows just by three months every season. He's turn. There's a new show. It takes so long guys. GUYS, but they're coming. They're coming there in the works. Were you know they're all great and? the newest for example, the newest I said no gifts has the Great Andrew. Mishaan on it who is from podcast, but outside that I a podcast. I recommended on this show long ago. but Andrews a great stand up. That's friends with lots of people in. So and my friend, my friend Mary. Hart is on Bananas This Week and she's been friends with Scotty for decades, so they your decades. They're so young. A decade, probably sure sure one just one and she money so listen to bananas and They Oh God. The this podcast will kill you is. They're talking about what's the disease that it's affects cows. It's called rinderpest rinderpest yet so I haven't listened to that one and I'm really looking forward to it because that sounds like the worst being of all time. Ranger Path, you know it's not the worst thing of all time is from our one of our favorite podcasts. Do you need a ride? Christopher banks has a new standup special. That's coming out called Rescue Cactus, and it's available for rental in digital download. Now on what is it on? Nice one. Thank you, boy. He's a new stand up special yet. Look up Chris, fairbanks he, so if hilarious Hazel is, it's He's I'm sure it's on his twitter or his instagram and we can, and we will. We'll put it on websites that you can find it. My friend was there. He filmed it in Portland and so my friend Jason Our stage mother Jason Hill always the. Show love him. Tex Notes Francis even He went and. Watched it, and said he it was so great and met at the end he cried. That was because there is like a touch way Chris. Kreider Jason Cried Jason Okay. Good, but there was like you know they're yeah. Touching I watch one joke. I watched just a quick clip of one joke, and it's was one of the best jokes I've heard the master the masturbating line with the parent yeah yeah. He's really he's really legendary I, mean he's. You know he's the Chris is the real deal. Really is like one of those truly unique comedy voices I. Mean Like you don't get the sense of it on our podcast because we are taught, are constantly interrupting each other and and. One person is trying to tell a story, and then somebody else starts starts on something else, but when Chris Stand up. You know I've seen him in like. Aside from being on the road and stuff in rooms around Los Angeles like him destroying a room when he's just up to ten minutes set. It's one of the most like thrilling breathless amazing things you ever seen because it's very hard thing to do. People who are good at it, make it look so easy targets. Yeah, and he's one of those people, so it's yeah, if you're looking for a good laugh I, think Chris Fairbanks, Hall. He'll help you out with that. Also please check out our merged store where we have our black and white logo pen-. It's a really cool enamel pens, ten bucks, and all the proceeds are going to the black, emotional and mental health collective so. So? That's really exciting and we have some new march in there. We have a puzzle and some fun stuff to check out. It's on my favorite murder. Dot Com and the store. Yeah, we're very I'm very proud of that puzzle. There's a puzzle for everybody that's that's. That's still believes in the quarantine and the puzzles. Let's causal season. It is puzzled truly puzzles season. Hey Georgia yeah. As we look to make the most of our homes outdoor spaces right now, article is here to make your dream patio a reality. What with weather resistant dining sets who lounges sofas? Articles? Selection of outdoor furniture makes it easy to create a welcoming Patio Oasis. That's because article combines the curation of a boutique furniture store with the comforting simplicity of a shopping online. Their team of designers focuses on beautifully crafted pieces, quality, materials and durable construction. You'll find plenty of items that have a modern aesthetic, mid century, Scandinavian industrial and Bohemian designed with article you save thirty percent over traditional retail prices, because they cut out the middleman and sell directly to you know showrooms, no sales, people, no retail markups. They're vast affordable. Shipping is available across the USA and Canada and it's free on orders over nine hundred and ninety nine dollars. You know now that I'm only venturing outside to go on my patio I'm realizing how cheap. My furniture on the patio is. Not In a cheap as not expensive way like article, but she hasn't falling apart Yeah Yup. It's a crucial. You only need a couple key pieces right to make it look amazing and I. Say! You are really realizing how cheap articles stuff is because it's surprisingly affordable for how is it looks definitely? They really put it right in that pocket of affordability, right in the pocket articles offering our listeners fifty dollars off your first purchase of one hundred dollars or more so to claim visit article dot com slash murder, and the discount will be automatically applied at checkout. That's article dot com slash murder. Get Fifty Bucks off your first purchase, a hundred dollars or more. I. On the morning, of May, twenty ninth, nine hundred and seventy nine, as he left his townhouse, A. US District Judge New John H. Wood Junior was shot dead. He was the first federal judge ever assassinated in the United States. And at the time it was called the crime of the century. The hitman implicated in that murder was named charities, V, Harrelson but that's just the beginning of the story introducing a new spotify original podcasts son of a Hitman. The true crime series follows present-day investigation into the murders, crimes and conspiracies involving Charles Harrelson, the father of Jordan Brett. Famous actor Woody Harrelson yet you heard that right and there's a lot of the story that has never been shared in the media before. It's a pretty crazy investigation with twists and turns as host journalists Jason, Kavanagh investigates the many allegations against Harrelson like that, he was an assassin and a conman tied to organized crime, and even theories that he was involved in the facination of JFK, son of a Hitman is a spotify original podcast, and you can listen to the serious four free only on spotify goodbye Okay! This case I'm doing. It's less of a case in more of A. It's a disaster story. Okay, and so this is the Saint Francis Dam collapse! Shit. Yeah I I feel like I started this one. Yeah, many a time. Yeah, I can't believe we haven't done this at l.. A. Alive La show yeah. It's like it's one of these stories and I'm sure you've always kind of heard about in the background. Everyone knows Chinatown is loosely based on The water wars that came before it and It's always spend like. A story that I didn't know that well, but I think being from California and Southern California. You hear little things about it. Yeah, but it's been forgotton kind of in history a little bit too because it happened right before the stock market crash. The Great Depression so like nobody cared Sorry say that would be an amazing book to a book of all the stories that got buried by Huger Stories Yeah didn't. We just talk about something recently that it was like, but then nine eleven happened, and so this story got Berry yes. Yes, it was a documentary are watching or something like that we were like. How could you not know about this? McMillan's I like. It was something like that where it was like it wasn't a You know wasn't a horrible story. That was more of a like. How how could this happen? And just got erased by nine ray, or like or like? The hearing was in late September, and so nobody gave a shit at that time. Yeah, yeah, this is like that so Let me quickly read my sources. I got some inflow from history dot com on hub dot com. There was a section from the book. The Mirage factory illusions. Imagination and the invention of Los Angeles, and that's why I now. That's by Gary Krist and then there's SCV history dot COM Smithsonian Mag kcet article by Hadley nears. What water empowered Dot Org? Some great information and photos from there I called down to the DWP. They gave me a little information. They. Let me come look at their microfiche. It was great. An article on. There's a website called. Failure magazine and I think it's just failures just yet. There's a Web. There's a page about the a book called Flood Pack. The deadliest man made disaster of Twentieth Century America, and the making of modern Los Angeles. fucking manned. That's by John Wilkinson. and then did you know there's a song by frank black from two thousand and one called Saint Francis Disaster. And there's US like unofficial music videos, a video from the disaster and photos from the disaster Jesus. Yeah okay, so saint. Francis. Dam Disaster is is known as the worst American Civil Engineering Disaster Of the twentieth century, and it's kind of compared to the triangle shirt factory fire in that it kind of led to this movement of safety legislation. Because so many people lost their lives so before we can get into the collapse of the actual dam. We kind of need to go over some history. And that is California's water wars, and that will give us some context, but the end of the eighteen hundreds Los Angeles was still a relatively small settlement, and it got its water from the La River via a system of reservoirs, and these open ditches made that were made there called Amazon has and. That had been used since the lowest public. Doris built them in seventeen eighty one. But by the early nineteen hundreds, there's a huge population boom in Los. Angeles, and over half a million residents are now living in La and the city's growing, so does the need for water, but it's we're in a desert. So this bunch of drought, city planners wanted Los Angeles become a major American metropolis like these people who had money in. An stake in the city growing. And, but that can only be achieved if there is water you know. Yeah so creed bright. Like you said and greed. Yes and greed greed a big part of it. Yes, I need to make that point grade water. Whitmore does one want. So the Dude Fred Eaton, he's the mayor now, and he used to be the superintendent of the Los Angeles Water Company and so he fucking knocks on the door of the new superintendent of the water, company and that in he's like. Let's build an aqueduct like that's how we get water, the city and that new. Superintendent is William Mulholland. Him Yeah. You have so mulholland drive. Everyone knows so let me do a quick sidebar and William Mojo and he's got this fancy story fucking life so William Mahone is he's born in Belfast Ie. And in eighteen, fifty five, he's born into a family of modest means. Any leaves home at fifteen with his brother, and they go to America and he ends up in L.. A. Around Eighteen seventy eight twenty three years old. He's got ten dollars in his pocket, so he gets a job in La, as on Harrow, which is digging, those wells in what is now compton and he uses his downtime while he's not working a fucking crazy job with manual labor, too, because he's really interested in engineering, so he start studying engineering, geology, hydrology, and mathematics. You know as you do weekend stuff, exactly casual stuff. It was like the eighteen fifty seven version of one hundred percent hotter. What. Do you think of this engineer on the street with their scarves? I'm Thursday night by. There's no water. Please just give me A. Wider. So he actually becomes a self taught engineer, which doesn't seem like it should be a thing. It should not be at their well. That's and some What's it called right there for shadowing? Thank you. So for the next twenty years Mojo rises through the ranks at the water company. He becomes the foreman, and then it comes to superintendent in Nineteen O two, when the city officially forms what becomes known as the Los Angeles Department of Water and power. What you and I pay every second month. And he's named the chief engineer, which is super impressive. However I feel like like maybe as a surgeon or certain jobs. You don't want self taught. You won't be one a a paper degree that says you learned all of it right? Yeah, and the people who already knew everything taught it to. Yes, not Utah, did you? That's right. You're like I got everything I got all of it. How do you know that oh? It's me Bill Mulholland high no every day. Okay I bet he was really tall, so everyone just listened to everything. Always with tall guys I think even as a young man. He looked like a grizzly old man and people believe him you know, Yup, so, he earns a good reputation when it's projects are built under budget, and ahead of schedule, which I also think is bad like time and use the money and build it right. Don't make it quick and cheap. He is he is? He is like a sellout engineer. Because usually engineers are like no, it has to be right in that means if we go over budget or over schedule eight, it still has to be right. He's like hey, pay money men. Are you happy then I'm happy pigs. And one of those projects that he got a good reputation for include friend of the podcast the Silver Lake Reservoir. In the nineteen oh six. Oh. I think it's the pot I think it is. A friend of the pilot. Is Silver Lake Reservoir? They are at our live show. That's right. So back to the water wars Mulholland is now tasked to transport water. They look for water where they can divert it from a certain part of the state and bring it to La, and they find that in the Lush Owens Valley, which is located on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada. It's about two hundred miles away looks like it's right on the Nevada border. Basically over over no one goes ever exactly where you have to drive through to get to Vegas and it looks really hot deserty Yep so meanwhile, though the United States reclamation service, which was responsible for settling the. The Owens Valley which is like lush place where lots of things grow, and people are flocking thriving, they they had settled Owens valley in the late nineteenth century with farmers and ranchers, and they're like we're gonNA. Use the Owens Lake to build irrigation systems to help these farmers in the area. We're going to grow this area. We have plants. It's our. It's our water and we're making plans for exactly so there's this whole water war over who's going to get that Owens Valley water there. I mean that's a whole book in itself so I'm not gonNA. Do It justice. Read me the. Page wine. Unfortunately for the farmers and the ranchers and the people who live there. The dude eaten has extensive political contacts of course, including the president of the United States and hand Mahone aren above using dubious tactics like bribery and deception, so after these fucking long water wars, and by the end of nineteen o five, they're able to acquire enough land and water rights in Owens Valley to block the irrigation project and they are. Are GonNa build their aqueduct. Wow, when this canal project goes, public people fucking lose their shit, because everyone in La knew that like their livelihood in them, staying there and working and building families and more people coming to Los Angeles dependent on this water so finally there's a front page headline that Los Angeles finally has water. People celebrate property and real estate prices the day. It's announced double when a day well. People are just squirting hoses straight up into the air. Right use it all you weren't. Exactly and so in one thousand, nine, seven with a budget of twenty three million dollars, which I looked it up, and you can't even go that far back. You can only go to nineteen thirteen on this calculator I. didn't I didn't look for another one which I just realized that could have done. That would six hundred million dollars in nineteen thirteen. She's but don't worry. MOJO US at all. You know how ill. Yeah, that's right. He loves to come in under budgets right so construction begins on the aqueduct in Nineteen, seven around four thousand laborers work at top speed. They use new technologies like for example, a Caterpillar tractor the new thing well they set records for miles, tunneled and pipe cut. which I wrote, which slowdown guys get this right? NYRA. Also how hideously were they abusing those manual laborers that New Waco record that's in the desert, so they're working under the fuck and blaring son and the desert. There's no such thing as bottled water. Not, even dishonesty. Y-, everyone's. Favorite water, not even disowning. It tastes like plastic disowning. And it is really I mean when I started looking into this and looking at photos and you know reading about. It isn't really impressive feat. It's two hundred miles that they were able to take from this lake in. Owens Valley to the San Fernando Valley. In one thousand, nine hundred eighteen construction of the two hundred, two hundred twenty three mile aqueduct is finished the nineteen thirteen at the time of completion. It's the world's longest aqueduct and the largest single water project in the world. Wow, yeah, so it's super fucking impressive. It's a self tack kid from fucking Belfast, who made it happen? He becomes as big hero. While, we're and while we're talking about it. Dairy is not Belfast, although it's also in Northern Ireland and just call a dairy. Okay I. Got I got I. needed a pick me up the other night when I was watching TV alone and which I know, I said I don't do so I. started watching dairy girls again. Yeah, it's just meeting. So concerning the greatest so the city of Los Angeles is stoked. You know something like forty thousand people come to see the damn. Get turned on. The thing what am I doing right now? You're doing some bathtub exactly. Turner they turn on Yeah Faucet the Faucet. Pasta. I opened the big faucet. During the opening ceremony Mojo famously says to them. Is. Take it about the water. is taken it which is like, so he I think he got a really big head and became really cocky about all the things he could do, and almost like he's God like he's giving them this like essential Saying yeah, he made it happen. He made it happen he an. It's like a lot of people credit him with with Los Angeles, becoming what it was because it wouldn't have without the water, and he should be credited for how bad people have allergies here because it's the water that then made the non native plants get brought in, and there's all kinds of weird plant combinations here that don't make sense, and you could have no allergies or life and you move to La. You're screwed. Yeah I, have A. Damn Mulholland Mulholland. Next, Time Your Hay Hits Stephen. That's Mulholland talking through your nose. Order. He was a great nasal order. Another word, okay, he becomes as local hero. An Los Angeles is able to overcome its drought issues, and virtually overnight becomes a boomtown. The San Fernando Valley is transformed from a grain raising community dependent on the rainfall, essentially for water, it becomes an empire and quickly becomes one of the richest agricultural communities in the nation. Wow, so a lot of people make a fucking shit ton of money. Essentially 'cause they had. This is where they at least I know when I lived in Burbank Lake. It was all citrus groves. It was like tons and tons of orange and lemon grove an orange county then why it's called that. But meanwhile back in Owens Valley and by nineteen, twenty four, so much water has been diverted from the area that the actual Lake Owens Lake is drying up and the agriculture economy is fucked in the valley because they don't have access to the water anymore. Yeah, and a group of pissed off. Farmers Start to protest and one of the things they do that. They used dynamite and blow up parts of the aqueduct, not just sabotage, but so they can get the water like they blow up certain parts to get the water to start. Flowing to their areas yeah, and you know there's all these like. Underhanded things like they won't Los Angeles. County won't give the farmers and adequate payment for their land, so they don't want to sell, and they're threatened, and it's just like this it's it's really shady and underhanded, so there's all kinds of legal action going on, and there's. It's really that's that's what the water wore is and because of the water wars and the aqueduct controversy, and the fact that you know. He Mona realizes that his could be sabotaged really easily, and they'd be screwed, so he thinks you know what we need to do. Is Make these kind of these smaller. Storage systems closer to Los Angeles that if something happens to Owens Lake or the Owens, valley aqueduct will have you know these little pockets of water that can sustain us while we fix it so so in the early nineteen twenties he starts to build major reservoirs closer to la with concrete dams. The there's the one where rich people live above in Hollywood. The Hollywood hills Oh. Yeah, yeah! I went to rich person's party wants and saw that and it's gorgeous. It's just as beautiful reservoir the Hollywood reservoir with You can walk around it, and it's actually like being in nature. Right in the very middle of Hollywood. It's crazy. Right and you can see the. The Hollywood sign from there right? Yeah, yeah, it's Kinda right below there. Okay, and that's the one that when there was a drought here. What was that like six years ago or something? When it was really bad, and I would go up there to take my dogs to that dog park, which is now no longer dog parks idly, but I would come over that hill, and the reservoir would be going down down in my anxiety in. Hanoch was constantly going up based on the water level. Until a man at the dog park explained to me that that is drinking water, and it's actually not really used that way, so don't worry about that. Don't worry about the reservoirs. Thanks he's like excuse me. Miss I've been seeing your face every time you come here and you look sadder and sadder. You were wreaking. And you don't need to take a deep breath. Here's a bottle of Dasani. Don't worry. It's mean Dan Dasani here to comfort you about the reservoir. It's the season of plenty. Okay so he built that, and then he is like another one we need to build is in the San Francisco Canyon which is Forty Canyon. That's forty seven miles away from. La and he's going to aim it the Saint Francis. So it took that long to get to our dam. Only isn't why it's. Their construction begins in nineteen, twenty four, and in his haste, and with he has this kind of moment has confidence in his abilities. So much that he is just like plows through making this damn, he breaks ground without extensive consultation with geological experts. Here and you know points to a place, and they start building a dam. That's not true, but something like that. And essentially Mulholland, he also keeps raising the height of the dam as they're building it, so it keeps going up by ten feet of what the plans were, but they don't they don't widen the base of the dam to match that and so. It's super dangerous and at flex with the structural soundness, the Damn so when the dam is completed in one, thousand, nine, hundred six. It's able to hold twelve billion gallons of water from the aqueduct, so the water from the duck goes there. There's twelve billion gallons of water, and it's enough for two years worth of reservoir water. In case, something happens, and the main structure reached a height have to hundred and five feet of this concrete, these concrete walls, damning the slake, and it spans seven hundred feet, and you can look. There's so many photos which is fascinating before and after. The disaster and it is. It's huge spike. The precursor of the Hoover, Dam Oh, wow, so it's a big, fucking giant concrete structure and the hoover dam. I can assure you was built by college educated engineers. That's exactly right Karen I mean. This is a guest for sure, but I would bet my arm on it. Because what in the fuck are you doing? Building something that big right with no Halloween? But at the same time like the aqueduct never fell, none of the other structures fell. It was just aren't aqueducts, don't they? Just go flat along the ground. They're just the water in running at hose to like. Barriers Yeah. No, you're totally right I realize I'm being highly critical of Bill I'm not on his side area. Slee I'm not gonNA, argue for him. This is Hubris I'm seeing it and I know where this is humorous. So over the next two years, cracks and seepage appear in the dam, but inspection show that they're all with normal range for a damn the size of Saint Francis, so they're just sealed up and patched. On the morning of March Twelfth Nineteen Twenty, eight, the damn keeper named Tony Harnischfeger, he discovers a new leak during his morning inspection and this leak worries him because the leak has. Blood in it. There's a finger sticking out of the whole owe. No because. There's a ghost. There's a ghost in the bucking dam. There's a damn goes. No because the water is muddy, which means that the water is eroding the foundation of the dam and bringing up the muddy water, and so he calls out Mojo on Mojo and comes to the dam. He takes a look and he and his assistant were like no looks good to us all this fine, and they take off and go back to Los Angeles but Tony the damn keeper, and as well as the powerhouse workers who live in the nearby hydroelectric power plants nearby. Powerhouse workers who live there and the farmers who live in the small towns in the valley below not convinced like they can just see that something ain't right, and they can also see the mountain above is soaked in water, so workers start joking. See later if the damn, don't break, like becomes a joke. And one farmer, so where that he sleeps with his in his barn with the door open. So that same night, why not just get? You know what that's a great. Point I really wish they had. But at the same time. It's like they almost live in a rural area. You know it's it's. It's so far away from anything. especially with those little cars, they had an array. Sir, so on that same night married. The Mohammed was like all looks good. It's mine I'm going back home to eat or an expensive dinner. The concrete begins to shatter. No surviving human sees the Damn break at about eleven fifty eight PM. The Damn Keeper Tony. Who lives in a small cottage right below the dam with his six-year-old son? Qatar and his girlfriend. Leon Johnson are speculated as the first victims. So Lena's body is later found fully clothed and wedged between two blocks of concrete near the base of the dam. which suggests that she and Tony may have been inspecting structure right before it collapsed Oh my God, so later as water rushes from the dam, nearby power lines are swept away leaving the whole Canyon without power, and in total darkness, the residents of the San Francisco Canyon are awoken to shaking and rumbling and some mistake at first quake in California you know. However within moments, the Canyon is filled with twelve point six billion gallons of rushing water. And I've always pictured. When I heard the story in the past, I've always pictured like shantytowns. You know it's like the twenties and you think it's just like you know tents and stuff, but no these are. You could see the photos these communities of houses of home. Yes, yeah, this is not just kind of you. Know, pup tents and Shit, right? It's not yeah. It's not like workers cabins that are nearby exactly i. know these are real home town sir. Towns are actual towns with with With infrastructure and with the livelihoods, so at twelve, zero, three, a M, a wall of water, more than ten stories, high sweeps into the Community of seventy four people at the powerhouse number, two an LA DWP employee, Ray rising, who lives in that area with his wife, and three daughters, remembers being asleep in his wood framed house when he hears a roaring that he said sounds like a cyclone. The water is so high. They can't get out the front door. And the house just disintegrates around them and rake. It's tangled with an oak tree. He swims to the surface, and then he gets wrapped with electrical wires. He's able to grab the roof of another house that's floating by and jumps off He gets onto the roof and he jumps off the roof when it floats by the hillside, so he lands on the hillside. By himself. He standing there. He's got no clothes on. It's a freezing cold night there's. No light because all they lecture city went out. And the only other person on the hill with him. There is his neighbor Lillian Curtis Eyler and she is holding her three year son. What happened with Lillian? There's a few minutes before the Lillian woken up in bed and noticed a strange mist. And she and her husband instantly knew it was the damn I think it was a worry on everyone's mind. And he shoved her husband shoved their son into her arms pushed her through the window. and he's like I'm going back in. Save our daughters. But he in his daughters are swept away with the rest of powerhouse, the powerhouse number two community. And the the concrete powerhouse itself get swept away. Which just tells you how wrong you know this rushing water was and so the three. Players on this little hillside huddled together and wait for rescue Oh my God and The you C. Two hundred feet tall. Dam. Completely collapses. A hole punched in it. There's one structure in the middle that people end up calling the tombstone, but on its right and left these enormous concrete structures completely crumble, and those big pieces of concrete also start flowing with the rushing water as well Oh God. Yeah, so from there. The water continues to surge. It's rushing at a rate of eighteen miles an hour. And it's causing catastrophic damage to the towns of Kostanic Saugus fillmore Santa, Paula and saticoy. Wow, so you know when you're driving down the five to get the fuck Outta town and you drive past magic mountain and all that shit on race towns. Yeah, yeah, that's where it is What's that call when you drive down the five? Well I called IF I'm on my way up. That's the first leg of the journey I'm on my way home. It's the last leg of the journey, so it takes forty five minutes for the reservoir to empty completely of water. The idea ten stories of water is very upsetting to me. It's it's I. really don't like it. Like our big fear of mine, yeah, and rightfully so I mean there. It's horrifying ended, but that idea because it's like they didn't even have skyscrapers. That taller buildings that I L I mean I guess they didn't in downtown. La or whatever, but Emily Shire yet I don't think it's. It's just like a so monumental and horrifying, and you know beyond like it's just that. That idea of all the sudden something's happening that you could never imagine and in the middle of the night to wake up to that you know and not know whether it is or two were I feel like it's worse to know what it is coming your way. Yep Yeah I mean the chance of survival is tiny. Oh, also to see your neighbor naked would be. I'm just and I know. It's not as a big deal. Yeah, but it just be like. Did she just go? Hey, look, we just lived. Who Cares? Get over here and I guess. There wouldn't be an awkward moment if you both if you and your son and your neighbor are the only people in your town. That lived through something. You'd just be like deep. Yeah you'd have to be in deep Sharm Biaz. Horrifying it it it. It hurts because I think of so many people who woke up. And immediately their lives are over, you know there are a higher. How at the House disintegrating around you is such a crazy visual. His also it's water is so power. Yeah, it's scary, right? You have to think of it like that. We're not like no. You just swim to the surface. No and So much debris, it's carrying all the houses and all the cars and the concrete from the dam with it and wires and it it's just it's horrifying, and it takes forty five minutes for the reservoir to empty so this fucking flood is happening for forty five minute and twelve point four billion gallons of water, flood, the Canyon and the Santa Clara River Valley. Residents who were able to get out of their house in time. Grab onto whatever they can It said that the a woman. Some people see a woman on top of a water tank dressed in evening wear. A woman and her three children hold onto a feather mattress as it swept away in the flood for two miles. They hold onto it. A man named William Spring Swims Amaya with his infant around his neck, holding his infant, while his wife had climbed up an orange tree and just stayed there until she was rescued. A man in cliff Corwin of fillmore. He's trying out drive the flood in his car when it picks him up picks his car up, and he had a passenger with my guess, and the passenger was like said quote I won't be caught like a rat in a trap and jumps out of the car and his filled. But I'll let themselves stays inside the car. Until almost completely fills with water, and then he hangs under the hood, and he carried to safety. Thank God I know. I'm sorry that just reminds me of member of the soon Nami and I of the car that did that driving. This has to do at three point turn really fast, and just as staying on the edge in the Front of Oh Japanese soon Nami. Horrifying so five miles downstream in camp. A group of one hundred fifty workers for the Edison Company are asleep in their tent camp, so the nightwatchman. This guy named Ed Lock. He sees the flood coming. He tries to wake up as many people as he can in their tent and eighty four workers die. Of the one hundred and fifty workers, and the people who do survive they survive because they had zipped up their tents and they were able to float. Like what the fuck are the chances, oh? The kids also that such A. zipping up your tent is don't want this to be happening. Right deleted works earlier in the night or whatever Oh like you just never have it race I thought it was like a reaction of like unzipping no way later day. Yeah, wow, that's amazing and as self dies, and he's considered a one of the. Bigger heroes of the disaster. God, the first official alarm is sounded at one twenty a m via the Pacific. Long Distance Telephone Company so there's telephone operators. Louis Guy type in. She's in Santa. Paula and Resell Jones Saticoy I. Think the fact that they were in the. Flood, zone so they were. They were potential victims themselves, but they refused to leave their post and start calling residents in lower areas to warn them to get the fuck Outta, their house and clean to higher ground there later be nicknamed the hello girls for some reason. That just gave me chills lay now understood, what was happening tried to call everybody Holy Shit. Wake up, get the fuck, so they probably see run home and he lives because they call the people that were like. Further down. Oh, my God one of those operators, the woman Louise, she calls this. Dude Thornton, Edwards. He's a California Highway Patrol officer and he becomes known as the Paul Revere of Saint Francis of the Saint. Francis flood because he goes door to door. He's in his. He's on his motorcycle blaring. His Siren warns residents to get the fuck out, and then also deputy deputy sheriff, Eddie. hearn writes his motorcycle up the Santa Clara River valley toward the flood with his siren, blaring, making people wake up and get the fuck out He makes it as far as fillmore before he runs into the flood and gets swept away. Many residents are able to rush to safety in the hills because of these two and the women. Operators and there's a monument to the officers in San Santa Paula Cole. Is Wow meanwhile. Meanwhile, in the cozy I'm sure opulent home of William William Mulholland. The phone starts fucking ringing. In the middle of the night, his daughter answers and She brings her dad the phone. And when he goes to reach for it, he says quote. Please God. Don't let people be killed, please God don't let people be killed. Like, she must have been like the dam collapsed and he's immediately like you know. Yeah, knows what's knows what's happening. The flood damage is whole towns and farming communities for fifty four miles stretch before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. South Aventura WHOA fifty four miles. At Five thirty a M with a wave, still two miles wide and traveling at six miles an hour. It's carrying debris and it's also caring bodies with it. It's thought that at least five hundred people are killed. And that could be anywhere between five hundred thousand, because there's lots of people who were migrant workers and undocumented, so it's it's hard to exactly say and victims are recovered from the ocean as far south as the Mexican border and many are never found because they just got swept to see. The. The wave itself in the like the river it turned into was two miles. Y I. Mean that's like I can't even. I can't wrap my head around it the be school district in the area lost thirteen of its fifteen pupils, the Ruez family, a family of farmers in the Canyon that had been there since the mid eighteen hundreds. They lose six family members rose, Rosario and Enrica ruas and four of their children age eight to thirty. And many of those who were hit the hardest were Mexican American farm workers, and aside from the loss of life. There's also a huge devastation to the land and you know these are people's livelihoods. Over twelve hundred homes are destroyed. Orchards are ripped from the ground livestock. In the thousands and the Red Cross quickly sets up a headquarters near the dam site and men searched the money debris as high as twenty feet in some places for survivors, and there's actually video that you can see that people took of this. Silent video of them bringing bodies out of these cars from back then. And so they sort through the rubble, volunteers wade through all of it to find bodies, more bodies and survivors and makeshift morgues set up some in the fucking local dancehalls. And crowds form at the morgue as people look for their loved ones. and. They want to search through the night so actually universal city studios loan them giant spotlights to use. A ten year old girl is found underbrush still alive him. She had been carried ten miles from her home. Oh my God! Shall actually lived. It said that a baby thought to be dead starts crying at the morgue. She's still a wire. An amount of manage down stuck in the mud up to his neck, still alive. And a twelve year old girl is found by her neighbor in a tree and she's good, yeah. So news aerial photos of the collapsed damn spreads across the nation. People fucking lose their shit It's a relief. Fund is set up and telegrams and monetary donations role in from all over the country, and then so the investigation starts at least a dozen official inquiry panels by the Federal State, county and city government are immediately set up to investigate the collapse and eventually There's so much of course the collapses attributed to four factors unsuitability of the foundation, and so actually they find out that there had been an ancient Paleolithic landslide on the exact spot where the dam had been built, which there was no way to know that actually. And then. An uplift saying is called an inadequate design so ultimately a coroner's inquest determines who's responsible for the disaster, and during the inquest, William Mojo, and says and he okay, so he does seem genuinely devastated by. He must be what it's he. It's all his fault. He knows it and he takes responsibility. He says quote whether it's good or bad. Don't blame anyone else. You just fasten it on me if there was an. In human judgment I was the human I won't try to fasten it on anyone else. which was like? Yeah, you're to blame, but it's also like. I can't imagine someone these days taking that much responsibility for their obvious mistake, right? You know it's it's very laudable for sure. Yeah, so the enquist decides that Mulholland and then governmental organizations that oversaw the dam's construction at fault, but they clear home. Any charges that they do. They're basically like construction and operation of Great Nam should never be left to. To the judgment of one person, no matter how that person is like. You gotta get. A second opinion essentially. William Holden has been looked upon as los. Angeles. A savior for so long is now seen as a murderer. People fucking turn on him. People across the region even put up signs their windows that read kill Mulholland. Oh my Gosh! He's devastated. He retired from the Bureau of Water Works and supply in one, thousand, nine, hundred, Eighty, eight. His reputation is ruined. He retreats into a life of semi is. His granddaughter Katherine Says She. Remembers him sitting in silence at family gatherings just lost in his thought. He dies in Nineteen, thirty, five of a stroke at the age of seventy-nine. the victims are compensated for lost lives and land, and by nineteen thirty one. The tragedy is pretty much completely swept under the rug. And in fact, there's a book about California water. That doesn't even mention the disaster. Well yeah in later years, Mojo's reputation is restored and the Mojo in Damn. In the Hollywood hills, Mulholland Drive Mulholland highway and the William Mulholland memorial found in Los. Villas pretty colorful one. Yeah, are all named in his honor. There are still remains of the saint. Francis Damn that are like weathered broken chunks of gray concrete at the site. Where the dam was that you can see today. Wow! Isn't that creepy? on a positive note in response to disaster, the California, legislature creates a dam safety program, and soon has some of the strictest oversight laws in the country in one, thousand, nine, twenty nine. The California legislature also passes laws to regulate civil engineering smart ingrates. The State Board registration for civil engineers, and there is no more self taught engineers. Go like no, no, no yeah. The collapse of the Saint Francis Dam is considered to be one of the worst American Civil Engineering Disasters of the twentieth century, and remains the second greatest loss of life in California, his. Right behind the nineteen six San Francisco, earthquake and fire. The exact death toll remains unknown recent estimate safe. It's around two thousand, and since original counts didn't include the number of Mexican American. Migrant workers are transients remains of victims continued to be discovered in that whole fucking area every few years until the mid nineteen fifties. Continued, to find bodies, the remains of one victim is found deep underground near Newhall in Nineteen ninety-two. Oh, my God and other bodies believed to be victims of the disaster are found in the late nineteen seventies and nineteen ninety-four, and that is the story of the Saint Francis Dam disaster. Amazing. Turn out so long. There's just so much fucking information. Well, also yeah, you needed Kinda the back story, but. Wow. That's. Pick. The MAZING! Take coloring your hair at home to the next level with Madison Reed. He deserve gorgeous professional hair color delivered to your door, starting at just twenty two dollars for decades, women have had two options for coloring their hair either outdated at home, color or time and expense of a traditional salon. Many Madison Reed clients comment on her. Their new hair-color has improved their lives. Lynn loved the. Gorgeous Shiny multidimensional and healthy looking hair. This is game changing among your free color. You can do at home and look as if you just came from Salon. Madison rates color is crafted by master colorist to blend nuances of light dark cool and warm tones to create over fifty five shades, and if you're thinking okay, how do I match my collar? Don't worry Madison Reed, gives you the tools you needs. You can color competence and I do use it I. Use Tuscan Brown that like medium, Brown color them with extra great coverage and I W- during the quarantine. I was like. Gray grow out and see how I feel about it. And then I got into like month to the wasn't doing it, and if the hair-color on, and it just made a huge difference in the way I felt about myself. I looked in the mirror. Yes, it's it's feels great to. These days you? This company has figured out what women need. which is the convenience of having? Arrive at your door. it isn't. It isn't made simply. It's still like really nice nuanced color, so you're just getting that block color I do that sometimes when I do like the at the store boxed. And it is like I always say look like the my pillow. Guy Like you need those nuances and you need other stuff going on a Madison read knows how to do it. That's right. Find your perfect shade at Madison. Dash Free Dot com, and our listeners get ten percent off plus free shipping on their first color kit with code M. F. M. Ten. That's code MFM ten at Madison, Dash Reed, dot com go by. Whether you're working from home or working on your fitness? You want what you're listening to to be what you're listening to not what your roommates or your neighbors are playing. That's right, so check out the wireless ear buds from RECON rake earbud started about half the price of other premium wireless brands, and they sound just as amazing. The everyday e twenty five ear buds are the best ones yet with six hours of playtime, seamless Bluetooth pairing more base and more compact design that gives you a nice noise isolating fit break, Hans. Wireless ear buds are so. So comfortable in perfect for conference calls or binging podcast. They're both stylish and discrete with no dangling wires or stems to distract during video calls. The company was founded by Ray J and celebrities like Snoop Dogg. Cardi B. Melissa Ethridge. All Your Friends Randy Jr, Smith and they're all obsessed with recon pair, and see what the hype is all about so I got mine before Georgia and let me just tell you I open the box. And then there's this little almost like pill shaped container and I opened that and then like a blue light starts up. They are so fancy. It's not I was just like Oh. Who can compete these days with other brands, or whatever are incredibly high quality ear buds. They're made so nicely and the they're just I'm so impressed. I really cool. I'm mad at you that you got them before me. I can't wait to see what they look like I'm not really what I can't hear. You have been right now. So now's the time to get the latest and greatest from Ray recon get fifteen percent off your order at by Ray recon dot com slash mfm. That's be you. I RECON DOT com slash MFM for fifteen percent. RECON WIRELESS EAR BUDS SPY RECON DOT COM. Slash MFM. May. Alright. Hello, hi, it had been so long since I've done a survivor story that I figure. It was high time that I needed one personally. And Emotionally and morally and. I can't go back to my old. The old ever loving well of I survived stories, because now is derived, has its own podcast. They basically have taken all those stories, and there's an ice survive podcast so. Now, you can just go and hear firsthand. The people tell their own stories. I was I was the band aid in between the time where the people from is arrived understood. This was a needed thing. It's happening. You're welcome, America. So go listen to the real firsthand. I survived stories because there's so many. There's so many good ones so when I was looking. For this I was looking for one. I'd never heard of before that and that wouldn't count as an is survived story because there's there's a couple of them that are so unbelievable that they have only been on our survive. Yeah, they've been on like a couple. Other different kinds of shows yeah, this is one I had not heard of. It's the girl in the bunker in the survival story of Elizabeth show of. Have you heard of this one? Oh okay I'm I'M I. GET IT! Let's do it okay, so sources for this our state newspaper. That's in Columbia South Carolina. An DOT com the inside dateline blog on MSNBC DOT COM l.. A. Times Wick Pedia. Did I say that today? Dot Com and the lifetime movie the girl in the bunker yes. Starring Henry Thomas? Henry Thomas Elliott for me to. As, a kid adult he. It's a recent movie. Oh, he play! He plays the bad guy creep and he's really good at. It made me really sad how good he was at it! 'CAUSE I I'm. He was one of my first great love. Sure is Elliott for me. I was like why do I love so much? When he was dying, I was dying. Totally okay, so it's September. Six two, thousand, six and fourteen year old Elizabeth show has just gotten off the school bus and she's walking up her driveway and so her driveway. basically runs through. Through this wooded area. It's very rural area where she lives. It's outside the unincorporated community of logoff, which is the population is just over eighty three hundred. Wow, in south, Carolina, so she's about halfway up per driveway and she here's a man. Call out her name and she looks over, and there's a man in a sheriff's uniform standing alone in the woods. Might! Make. Any of any uniform alone in the woods. And he's he calls her by name Elizabeth and he waves her over, and so she's complies because it's. It's a person in uniform. She's a fourteen year old girl, and she asks what he wants. And he explains that he's with the Kershaw County Sheriff's department and that she's under arrest. and. She is totally confused and asks why and is really freaked out but he's already handcrafting her with her hands behind her back. He tells her that the Sheriff Department is found a bunch of marijuana plants at the house and that she's in a lot of trump show. She's really freaked out confused scared, but she also asked to see her little brother. WHO's already home? She he gets home before her and their home by themselves. After school, their mom works so the officer starts walking her through the woods and. And says that's why I'm. I'm taking him right now, and but they walk further and further away from the House and she starts to realize that something is really wrong off at one point they are walking along a riverbank, and he makes a point of keeping her off of the sand, so that her footprints aren't in the sand, and his are either, and she starts to realize there's something really wrong, so she finally gets the courage to ask him where they're going. And he stops and tells her you not a policeman. like fourteen. Is that that perfect age of of being naive and starting to have an understanding of the world yet and you're still you're still so minus thirteen and she is so young. She's like, but she is kind of you know. She's definitely getting more mature by the second but they're still their baby. They really are like they really are. So, at this point, he puts a caller device around her neck and tells her that it's a bomb and that if she tries to run or get away at any point, he'll detonate it and shall be dead. She says she won't and that. She'll comply when he asks her. If she's a virgin, she so scared, she can only nod So when Madeleine show calls from work to check on her kids like she usually does every day. Elizabeth little brother tells her that hasn't come home yet and Madeleine doesn't think much of it and says she's going to call back. She'll check back in a little while so when she calls back a couple of hours later, in Elizabeth's still home. She knows that something's really wrong. so she leaves work, she tells Bobby to walk down the driveway to see if for some reason Elizabeth is on there like hanging out with her friends, and because she has a friend who lives across the street when he does he, he sees Elizabeth's friend walking down her driveway two. She's looking for Elizabeth as well. 'cause. Madeleine called the friend to say. Do you know where she is? My made so basically? They started looking for her. So modeling gets home calls the police. She waits for over an hour for someone to show up in her house, and when no one shows up, she calls back and finds out only to find out that. That they had gotten the county wrong they had sent an officer to the another county so finally after several hours, officer shows up only to tell madeline that she's overreacting. He says that most teenagers away for a day or two. No parents ever think their kids. The type who run away Elizabeth's probably at a friend's house or off with her boyfriend somewhere and maintains trying to convince him note, this is not her at all. She everyday she comes home and takes care of her little brother makes him food like this is not her at all, and the guy says it's you know I see this all the time. Don't worry about it. He explains he can't put out an amber alert for her. Because it's too soon, he assures her. Will come back and he leaves. So we're back in the forest after walking from more than an hour. Elizabeth's kidnapper stops at the side of a hill, reaches down to the forest floor and pulls up a perfectly camouflaged door. It's the hatch to a bunker. and there's a manmade. Let like a homemade ladder made of branches that lead down eight feet down into total darkness, and he makes her walk down into it oh. My adviser gone. It's cold. It's it's pitch black as her eyes adjust, she sees. It's a fifteen foot long space that's dug into the forest floor, so it's the floors are dirt. The walls dirt It has a six. You know. It's a six foot ceiling. There's a well there's a bed. There's a stove with a chimney and and there's a battery operated television. The walls are lined with shelves are stocked with canned goods, guns, other weapons porn. She said She would later say that. It looked like something out of a nightmare. Now this man chains Elizabeth to the wall by her neck and sits her on a man-made bed that he that he obey Abed. He fashioned out of branches. Swimming floats and comforters, so it's really weird and Janki and creepy Elizabeth's looks over and season inflatable doll in the corner. And she starts to cry. But the man tells her. There's no point in crying that she needs to get used to it because this is how it's GonNa be for her now. He says that he's not going to hurt her and very soon after that he rapes her. So. This man's thirty six year old Vincent Fila and he's an unemployed construction worker, whose father died when he was a year old. So as mother remarries a man with a substance abuse problem, and so Vincent begins his binge drinking at age fourteen, and he'll go on to be treated for alcohol abuse ten different times, and this is the drinking problem that ends up getting him fired from his job as a construction worker, and will eventually leave him with alcohol induced brain damage. So he's got, he's got a bad drinking problem and just a year before. Elizabeth Chefs Kidnapping He is charged with sexual assault of a twelve year old girl, but when the authorities go to arrest him, he's nowhere to be found, so the authorities assume he'd the state, but it turned out. He was right under their noses the entire time. And their feet okay so. After a couple of days, the police begin a search with this show. Family keeps going back to them and saying you have to start looking for our daughter, so they put up. They distribute flyers with her picture on it, and then they start doing searches, and they start walking the forest And there is a point where they are sitting in the bunker and they can hear the searchers walking above them. But the it's so perfectly camouflaged that no one sees it or notices anything about the bunker at all. So after five days of captivity Elizabeth has built a bond with her. After said this girl, she's fourteen. She's really innocent. Really sheltered. She is so fucking smart like it's mind blowing. I don't know what she I don't know how she knew any of the stuff, but she knew to mid that she needed to make sure that this guy knew she was a person young, so she would ask him what his interests were, and she would pretend to be super into what he was into, and she talked to him all the time, and she basically slowly one his trust, and like establish bond with him while so. Like when they hear the searchers, he holds a gun to her head and tells her. If she screams, he'll kill her and when the Voices Fade, she tells Vinson that she likes him and that she wants to be down there with them, and she never would have screamed, so she's basically like establishing this kind of like the I like being here with you like you want to be here with you I. Want to be with you getting handled trust. Hurry I, yeah, exactly. She soon builds enough trust with him that he lets her leave the bunker so that she can go take a bath and like wash dishes and a nearby pond. Yeah, so when she's there, she pulls out. Strands of her own hair and leaves it around the side of the pond so that if they ever have dogs searching in that foreign, they'll be able to find her. She also one time when she goes to. The pond leaves her shoes behind. Just in case someone might see her or the Duh again if there's tracker dogs. SMART, it's genius. And then like when she's, he says. Where did your shoes go? She's like I I must have left them at the pond I can't find them like, and he believes everything. She says because she's so sweet and innocent and like, and and playing it so perfectly the most genius thing and Like of all the genius sings, she does though in this nightmare, situation is building enough trust so that when she asks him if she can play a game on his phone, he let's hope. Yes so she basically weights enough time and and you know basically builds the build the trust enough. And because she had gone to the pound and not run away. She done all these things and not done anything to break the trust. She was convincing him that she liked him and that they had this kind of a relationship. How long how long after she had been there that she asked for the phone day five. Wow, so or I believe day five or six so she starts playing games on his phone now he. He figures. Yes, she didn't run. He can trust her, and also there's they don't have phone service in the bunker. Right so it's not like He. She can't make a call, so it's safe. Yeah, so she'll uses phone play a game. Give it back and that's like a thing that that he starts getting used to her doing so on the eighth night. When he's asleep, she climbs up the makeshift ladder and hold the phone out the bunker door and and texts. Her Mother Holy Shit Yup. She writes it's so genius. She writes hi Mom I'm in a whole across from Charm Hill where the big trucks go in and out. There is a bomb. Call Police. Can you imagine being a mother and getting? Taxed especially after that amount of Taya where the police haven't helped you. Yeah, they've argued you. Then it turns out. Your child is missing then. That happens is like nothing. They're not finding anything. I think coming of any of the searches. There's no results of anything. And then suddenly she was actually on her way to a vigil that night they had been, they'd started holding vigils for her, and my was headed out of the House for a vigil, and she looked at her phone, and that taxed on her Chicago. Chicago I mean what you think. It's a hoax or like someone messing with her in the beginning well. No, she immediately was like this is lizzy. Family called her Lizzie and she knew her because that that's it's the. She knew she knew daughter. When when she showed the police, they called the police and showed the police the first officer that came to the House said. She might have like gone away with her friends. And now she's trying to establish a lie to come back and at that point she was like. Are you fucking kidding me what so, but then the sheriff shows up at an and also the little brother. This actually happened in the lifetime movie I'm not sure if this was happening, what happened in real life? But it was kind of a genius moment in the lifetime movie because the first cop that says she might trying. Trying to establish like an alibi is going to call back on the phone and the little brother goes yet is not a bad idea. Because what if she's what does she took the phone and that's going to get her car and like and the cops like. Oh, I think I'm the one that's the policeman here and share when the sheriff shows up, he's like we don't WanNa. Call 'cause that could put her in danger, and the little brother just looks the Copley. So they don't respond to the text, instead they run the cell phone number, and it comes up registered to a woman, and when they drive out to the address this woman's house. The sheriff recognizes the area. This is where they serve the warrant a year ago for the child rapists who had fled I, there's they're now starting to put it altogether. So, they end up searching the property while they continue to question the woman who lives in the House and it turns out that it's his girlfriend slash common-law wife, and that when they searched the property, they find what they think is a trash like trash hole and she ends up telling them. This is a bunker. He dug here and then they find There's like an abandoned car somewhere on their property, because it's all in this forest area, and she admits that she had been leaving food for him, she'd going then going and buying food for him, and leaving in in that abandoned car for him to come and pick up so now they know he's. Okay, so he'd been hiding out and she'd been aiding and abetting him. Exactly and so now they know he's within walking distance. Has He's hiding out somewhere else but near enough to come and get supply. How so so what they decide to do is they realized there that the theory is that he's a coward. He's not. He's GonNa run and this is not he's you know. He's a child molester rapist, and but he's not A. A serial killer, whatever so the chances are that if they leak this to the press that the mother is actually gotten a text, and that this girl might be somewhere alive and that they're going to go on a manhunt now he'll probably run, and so that's what happens. They leak the story to the local press meanwhile down in the bunker when the eleven o'clock news comes on Elizabeth. Elizabeth and Vincent are watching on their weird little TV and he sees the entire report of Elizabeth's mother got a text now. She that Sutton now they. The cops know that she's being held nearby. And now there's a huge manhunt on. Of course, Vincent Loses it. He's enraged. He's panicking hiring out and he's screaming at Elizabeth and she's like I would never do that to you, she is. It's so amazing. She convinces him that she didn't do it. And she basically says will. Couldn't it be the woman that's leaving food for you? How did I not that oh? He told her that because she is getting food. Yeah, okay like she knows everything. She's like his life now. And basically she convinces him. It's not her that she didn't do it. And so then he's. He basically goes well. Then what should I do? And she and she says you should run because they're gonNA. Come and catch you and they can't catch you down here. You should definitely run. So he does. He listens to the fourteen year old girl and he collects. Gamble, he could have just fucking killed her in anger right, but she's so smart. She's able to fuck. She's so smart and she later on on that, and it's a it's called inside dateline. It's this blog on MSNBC DOT COM and so she wrote a thing on there. That was really so. It was so young girl of her where she was like, but she basically said he was really stupid, so she realized after a while that it wasn't like. She didn't think he was gonna be violent like she thought all the things he was doing was kind of like out of desperation. She realized she could outsmart Yeah, and so she just knew basically she got him to do exactly what would get him caught so? He took all his weapons and the pipe bombs that were down there and some night vision goggles, and he told her I really love you and I really want to marry you and she was like yeah. I totally want to marry you to, and he's like okay. Well I'M GONNA run, but then I'm Gonna I'm GonNa find a way to come back to you? And she was like okay sounds great. You better go and he's like. Don't leave here until tomorrow morning, and also while she had been staying there with him the whole time. Time he was telling her how the whole thing was booby-trapped. The whole bunker was booby-trapped, my God and that there were bombs and different things every everywhere all around, so even if the police did come, you know he could make it blow up, so he leaves, and then she waits until the next morning, and then she comes out of the bunker now. Meanwhile, the morning of September sixteenth authorities had set up a line search and they were walking the woods, too 'cause. They knew that she was somewhere in the vicinity when they hear someone yelling help. They Find Elizabeth standing alone outside the bunker. And the officer got who got to her first, and she was like. Be careful. There could be bombs. It could be booby-trapped. Running toward her and he later was quoted as saying I received credit many times for saving her and I did not that child saved herself. Then since Fill Ya is found the same day nailing on the side of interstate twenty in Richland County, so he just basically went and gave himself up and got arrested while At his trial. Moments before his trial happens. Keep pleads guilty to kidnapping ten counts of first degree, criminal sexual assault, two counts of second degree, sexual assault possession of explosives. Armed robbery and impersonating a police officer, and he is sentence to four hundred and twenty one years in prison, and at his sentencing. The judge told Philly era this position requires IB, the conscience of the community, and the community is outraged by your axe. Many people have dick difficult paths, and they don't commit the heinous crimes you committed. You have preyed upon helpless victims with violence and savage manner. Good luck to you, sir, how? Then on that MSNBC, dateline, blog The Great Keith, Morrison writes this about his experience, interviewing both booth and Vincent for the to our dateline special episode. They interviewed him. They interviewed both they interviewed him from jail, and they interviewed her well. They did a whole thing about this whole case, and here's what Keith Morrison said. When Vinson snatched Elisabeth just fourteen years old, she had never dated a boy never once spent even a single night away from home without a family member, she was taken by a wily wolf of a man who had just spent the better part of a year, alluding the efforts of law enforcement. She endured. Terrible horrors faced what seemed to her certain death, and she prevailed the contrast Vincent to Elizabeth was quite remarkable where his story was self-serving claims, shifting back and forth to suit whatever version he was trying to sell Elizabeth was open, and brutally candid were his fearsome behavior wilted in the presence of a television crew. Elizabeth seemed to gain strength from telling the experience, and having come through it with her dignity and humanity fully intact. She smiled a smile to light up the room. Every once in a while a dark tale turns out well, and the worst human behavior is overcome by the best, which is why it was quite an honor to tell the story of Elizabeth Shouf. Home and that is the Harrowing Kidnapping Story of Elizabeth Shue. How Good team good Utah for torn eighteen years old. Oh! She so murder and Susan believable. Oh my God, hell, yes, girl! That was great great job. Thank you. I that's I needed that one and then. To find the Keith Morrison Code at the end is like. Those guys those dateline. Guys, are there legend? He followed Josh He's so funny onto it. Oh, yeah, oh! Yeah, he's my. He's my twitter friends under the PODCAST. Judgment Quits the greatest great job. I was the I think we all need that for sure. It's been a while speaking of. It's been a while you talk in her as Oh. Yeah, this is a underscore. Gilchrist was to drop my fucking array here for Y'all for years. My Dad and I been on separate size of the Colin. Kaepernick protest no matter what I said. He just always felt quote. It wasn't the right menu. I don't WanNa talk about it. I never gave up trying to help him to see but I figured he was pretty set in his ways this morning. I got a text from him. That said quote I. I was wrong. I was drew brees. I didn't get cap I do now. I cried and told him I was proud of him. He said I'm proud of you, so no matter how long it takes no matter how uphill the battle seems, we must continue to push for our black community pedal to the metal. Love you guys Hashtag. Black lives matter. I love that well. Mine is similar. The subject line is Birmingham says, fuck you and your confederate memorial. This is from Shannon P. Hey, they murder PELS, my fucking! Hooray is in my home town of Birmingham Alabama during their protests on Saturday local DJ funny main Johnson declared that it was the goal of himself, and the crowd gathered there to finally tear down the confederate memorial that is Ben an eyesore inland park too long. This memorial has been surrounded by plywood for years. Years Because last time folks tried to pull it down. That was the state solution for protecting it, but also hiding it kind of the perfect metaphor for American racism. Let's cover it up instead of dealing with it. It is needed to go for far too long. After a few hours of protesters pulling away plywood, the city's mayor. Randall would thin entered the crowd to. To speak with funny main. He said he didn't want anyone to get hurt, so he would like for for them to let him tear it down and promised it would be gone by Tuesday at noon. They agreed and the crowd dispersed. Trudeau would fins word. The memorial was removed Monday night. It's been the source of contention in the state for years and the state's. State's Attorney General's Steve Marshall said he would sue if Birmingham tore it down. What a Dick Would Finn said I don't fucking care paraphrasing and tore it down anyway. What a hero! Both he and funny main are I am so proud of these hometown heroes right now, hell! Yeah, that is I love that that's happening everywhere. Yeah, people people aren't messing around anymore so. It's so important for dig NESIC. Yeah, that's. Yeah. That's really good. Nice ones. Please send us your her raise You can just comment on our twitter or instagram or send them in via the website that Fan The Fan Colts. That was good Thanks for listening. Thanks for always being our rod friends. I hope everybody's doing good stay strong stay, make sure you log off every once in a while, and just LIDO SCO by a tree. If you possibly can please wear your masks, Please tell other people to wear their masses. But most of all stay sexy and don't get murdered goodbye Elvis. Cook? That was right on the money.