7 Burst results for "William Huggins"
"william huggins" Discussed on Space Nuts
"Line the wavelengths that didn't correspond with anything or a color. The didn't spot corresponded with anything that we knew on earth and so that was identified. Was strawberry question us very well-known british astronomer. It was identified as a new element and given the name. Helium helius greet name for the some got the sun and it was. I think. I think it was william ramsay was. He's a scottish chemist who finally isolated helium on earth towards the end of the nineteenth century or the beginning of the twentieth century. So that's a situation where the something that's completely unknown identified in space but then found on earth of there's actually a parallel story which had a less happy ending and that's the story of a billion when people look to the spectra of nebulae gas clouds in space. This is going back to the eighteen sixties. Fact when william huggins was the first person to do that he is a whole williams in the story. He he did. He did the analysis and he discovered the cloud in space. Because he could see the hub the signal of excited gas rather than star that completely different spectra but he couldn't identify what the element was that was causing this. It got the name bouillon. They decided that because helium been discovered in the but was real element. There must be something there. In nebula we said called nubia liam which was not found on earth but it and it was a like helium which was discovered on earth biochemical reactions really never turned up and it was a puzzle for the first quarter of the twentieth century. It was something that people really sweated over. Especially this is another key. Point to the answer to luke's question especially when the periodic table came along so we could see where all the elements fitted in in their atomic numbers and their tomac weights and things suddenly got this complete atlas of the elements and there was no space for bulan columbia slotted in anywhere and eventually it was ninety twenty eight in american astronomer gold ira allen who figured out that what you were seeing were something called forbidden emission. It's forbidden On earth because we don't expert we can't put a gas into the very rarefied form that you find it in space in space. The guest behaves differently because almost vacuum. And you can't replicate that vacuum on earth so the signature that you're getting from this gas actually was oxygen but but with an unusual signature because it was so so rarefied really great story. It's one of the great detective stories. So you come back up. The wrong tree doesn't exist in ninety twenty. It was demolished by the idea was demolished by about a does is just one postscript to this though is that there is an important aspect where things differ in you. And i've talked about this at length with the idea of isotopes because isotopes that different forms of chemical elements so an isotope is.
"william huggins" Discussed on Space Nuts | Astronomy, Space and Science News
"I think it was around about back end of the nineteenth century by spectrum the fact that there was a what we call an emission. Line the wavelengths that didn't correspond with anything or a color. The didn't spot corresponded with anything that we knew on earth and so that was identified. Was strawberry question us very well-known british astronomer. It was identified as a new element and given the name. Helium helius greet name for the some got the sun and it was. I think. I think it was william ramsay was. He's a scottish chemist who finally isolated helium on earth towards the end of the nineteenth century or the beginning of the twentieth century. So that's a situation where the something that's completely unknown identified in space but then found on earth of there's actually a parallel story which had a less happy ending and that's the story of the billion when people look to the spectra of nebulae gas clouds in space. This is going back to the eighteen sixties. Fact when william huggins was the first person to do that he is a whole williams in the story he did. He did the analysis and he discovered the cloud in space. Because he could see the hub the signal of excited gas rather than star that completely different spectra but he couldn't identify what the element was that was causing this. And so it got the name bouillon. They decided that because helium been discovered in the but was real element. There must be something there in nebula we say called nubia liam which was not found on earth but it and it was a like helium which was discovered on earth by reactions really turned up and it was a puzzle for the first quarter of the twentieth century. It was something that people really sweated over. Especially this is another key point to the answer to luke's question especially when the periodic table came along so we could see where all the elements fitted in in their atomic numbers and their tomac weights and things suddenly got this complete of the elements and there was no space for the bulan slaughtered in anywhere and eventually it was ninety. Twenty eight in american astronomer. Gold ira allen. Who figured out that what you were seeing were something called forbidden emission. It's forbidden On earth because we don't expert we can't put a gas into the very rarefied form that you find it in space in space. The gas behaves differently because almost vacuum. And you can't replicate that vacuum on earth so the signature that you're getting from this gas actually was oxygen but but with an unusual signature because it was so so rarefied really great story. It's one of the great detective stories. So you come back up. The wrong tree doesn't exist in ninety twenty. It was demolished by the idea was demolished by about a is just one postscript to this though is that there is an important aspect where things differ in you. And i've talked about this at length with the idea of isotopes because isotopes different forms of chemical so an isotope is.
"william huggins" Discussed on Health Hats, the Podcast
"People whose heart attack or heart stoppage was a surprise. Mainly Dry Ruben electrocute. CPR NUT trying to forestall William Huggins fourteen years old metastatic cancer and savoring disease. His and Congestive heart cells with that needs when your heart stops. Is Your dying an overwhelmingly as protect your rights lights to a peaceful and dignified passing not the beating the crap out of new perfume and right before you die so the relatives of guilty anyway. That's S. One challenge. Another has dialysis we we have situations where a machine to clean our blood which violated exist when I was more. That's how young Technology is and how old I'm getting is using technology was invented for people compared with younger people with renal failure When transplants were really rare are now dialysis doesn't bridge to transplant? Dialysis might not be appropriate. If it's not any any larger medical treatment I mentioned Roy translation so this technology that sometimes people out here for this is sometimes appropriate or or because I I might just not be eligible another technology we now have. We have a tool to put oxygen blood. When the heart and lungs are not able to write it's called extra corporeal membrane oxygenation or Mo.? Excellence US when when you and your heart failure. We're waiting for a heart transplant. So at a bridge therapy. We're going to do this for you. Acids nature you blood but listen trying to get your financial heart. What's happening celebrated stations now? ridged therapy now becoming. What's called destination therapy where you can put on this device? The expected for the rest of your life. You'll never leave hospital but nevertheless you also won't be jet some people valued at even if they're not able to interact with their Now Award about our sponsor bridge US abridge when you discuss consent and ethical issues issues with your doctors. Push the big pink. By and record the conversation with your doctor therapists read the transcript or listen to clips so when you get home. Check out the APP at a bridge Dot Com D. R..
"william huggins" Discussed on Space Nuts
"There are protections which are more or less effective depending on you the local circumstances just like to go back a little bit to talk about spectroscopy again and specifically ask you about your role well in developing multi object spectroscopy. I had never. I know what that is. Please explain an executive order it. Does this marvelous marvelous technique invented by William Huggins effectively the idea of using a spectroscopy for a spectrum graph which records the spectrum originally it was photographic now hold on electrically to workout. What's going on in the heavens? That became very much stock in trade astronomers during the first seventy years of the twentieth century. Words up until the nineteen eighties. It still is but the a big change happened in the early nineteen eighties. Because in the early days you had to meet your observations one star at the time. It was the only way a telescope under spectograph combination could work then in the late one thousand nine hundred seventy s a man with us absolutely delightful name Roger Angell who looked to the heavens German Brit. He works at the University of Arizona Eh. He's retired now. Still one of American astronomer astronomy very favorite strenuous Roger. Angell thought well outside outside the box in terms of how you could use technology to to you know improve astronomy and he got mixed up with fiber optics now fiber optics were until nineteen seventy. Were essentially an entertaining diversion. What what they are is stones of glass very fine strands of what we now use for fines and yes? That's right exactly. It's actually not quite a few silica which is classy. Material material drawn into these fines strands seldom more than a tenth of a millimeter diameter with the hair. It's it's yes that's about twice the width of very very fine. And they have the property that like put light in at one end and it will come out of the the other now they were known back in the nineteen fifties lava lamp lava lamp different ones. And the Yes. That's right all right. Yeah go sorry for my aside. There they were known back in the nineteen fifties these fiber optics but it was only in nineteen seventy that the corning glass works in the United States manage to draw fibers. Because that's how you make them start off with a block of glass and then you melt it and pull it out into these strengths. And they manage to draw fibers with extremely low losses by that. It means that if you put light in at one end most of it comes out the other disruption eruption. Well it's it's attenuation is. The technical is a reduction in the amount of light absorbed by the fiber before that you put light in at one into not tiny dribble came out of the but from nine hundred seventy with these what were called low loss optical fibers that's when they became a potential chill for the communications industry and so Calling it it allows sound and light to pass through it does allow any other it allows. There's light to pass through it. You Can put light in at one end and it will come out the other if you want to transmit sound through it. You've got to turn that sound signal into light clever modulating citing a light source you imprint. A sound wave on through and and that transmit through the fiber comes out the other end. You need decode and you get the sound route. So that's how communications work but astronomers and Roger Angell in particular. He thought well. These things are brilliant because astronomers are always jealously regarding the amount of light that they receive because it is so faint usually we're talking about single photons. Individual particles light so can can we use these newfangled optical fibers and in fact he's first idea was to have many many telescopes smallish telescopes all coupled together with optical fibers. So Oh you gather the light from all these telescopes and bring it back to a single place and you cannot do all the light together on one single object or one single object. That's right but then he turned the idea on its head and realized that with one big telescope which is looking at an area of sky instead of just taking one star or Galaxy Alexey from within that field of view you can actually use these optical fibers to line per fiber on many many objects simultaneously. So let me get this right. We have a field of sky. We have maybe a planet or is that too close. We don't bother with planets looking at enough galaxies and fire off stars and we could have fifteen or twenty items in sky and we could be looking at all of them and getting this barcode information from the stars Civil Tony's because you you can put a fiber on each one and in fact the first one I built actually had thirty nine optical fibers which by the standards of the day were quite quite large means thirty thirty nine objects simultaneously. So what what Roger Angell duty you got a PhD student. By the name of John Hill to work on this build something called Medusa which Medusa head thank you and that had think twenty-five fibers and they tried it out on a telescope in Arizona at the Steward Observatory and it worked. It was a technique that worked really well L. But then astronomers Australia got hold of the idea and in particular an engineer at the Angle Shirley Telescope by the name of Peter Gray. He worked out that you could engineer this thing. In a far more effective way the Medusa I worked with Peter. He was working with the anglo-australian telescope. I worked with a small telescope telescope called the United Kingdom Schmidt telescope which has a very wide field of view and together we produced a kind of workable optical tickle fiber systems for these two telescopes which kind of took the lead in the world on this science. Could you tell us the names of these. Well Peter Peterbilt you built the. What was it called fiber optic coupler psychot- remember the name but it turned into fo cap that was the acronym I built? Something called the fiber linked array imagery for matter which was flare then flare worse built in the early nineteen eighties. It was the first multi-fibre telescope spectroscopy system that coupled telescope to a spectrum graph which was actually stationary in the dome. Now that sounds weird an esoteric but what it meant was the spectrum of which is a very delicate piece of equipment was not riding around on the back of the telescope. It was fixed on the floor and was incredibly stable. And that's so we were the first to do that. So flair was the pioneer. Then I built a second version. Because flair had certain inadequacies the second one was the panoramic area coverage with higher efficiency. which was panache panache? A Well what clearly came next finesse. Until one of my colleagues said Venus stands for fails to interest nearly everyone saves spectrograph engineers engineers well. She called it flat to then evolved to a robotic system with more boring name of sixty F- with one one hundred fifty fibers that was commissioned in two thousand one and now a building an amazing machine called Taipan which uses things called starbucks so each optical fiber sixty had robot a single robot move the fibers around but with Taipan h fiber dopey. Three hundred in the end has its own micro robot round meanwhile anglo-australian telescope back in one thousand nine hundred ninety six built something called to death to the F. stands for two degree field. That's the amount of sky the thing sees in two F. Four hundred fibers but after tell you the aero which now stands for Australian astronomical optics used to be the Australian Astronomical Observatory. Hey always building. A system with more than four hundred fibers for telescope in Europe a European European telescope straight cuts way up doesn't it. It really does punch above its weight with regards to -nology develops right. That's why Australian astronomers Jonas have had such an given where small country because we have this equipment that we build it probably more effectively than anywhere else Somebody said we should call ourselves. Fibers are us. Because that's what we do. We do optical fibers the tech. The technique technique is in use around the world but many of the ones that are used elsewhere ones that have been built started struggling anticipate so just keeping bring on technology. Same here I heard Margaret Atwood before papal. She's the person that wrote. The Maidens Tail Modem Handmaiden handmaidens and. She comment was that old. Technologies have got good use a bad use and stupid. I use that we never considered and just thinking about lights and particularly with astronomy. What would you think the good the bad and the stupid well look for optical astronomy that's visible light astronomy not now talking about radio astronomers rexroad strong because these these are all different disciplines? Although we're all looking at the same things in a different way and often those results all piece together optical astronomers and and they're talking trades light so they are obsessed with light a more especially obsessed with with actually getting the very the best information from lies so the good is what we learn from from the from from the sky by Sifting light through the spectrum and other types of interest yep yep the baddies light pollution. So that's when light. which is it's been used for completely innocent purpose but gets out of hand in particularly in the light plumes of cities and and really goes back to the early twentieth century when councils putting lights with really no regard to what that was doing tonight sky because we simply simply never thought about it was becoming a problem by the time of the Second World War? It's really interesting. Is that in Los Angeles which is very next very very near the Mount Wilson Observatory in fact exceed Los Angeles from Mount Wilson. Where at the time? The biggest telescope in the world was during the second world. War centuries had had blackouts in order to to mitigate the possibility of invasion and during that time huge astronomical discoveries as were made because the the night sky koby seeing properly from moments again So it was inadvertent. So that's the bad side just on that I. I've attended some conferences in the U. K.. And one of the issues that they have when they talk about. Trying to mitigate light pollution the K.. Is that if you start talking to pay pooped in that sort of generation of about turning of streetlights and they feel like it's taking them back to that so I just like the blackout out to do that in blackout. Yes or no. I remember people saying that's true but it's not a blackout. I mean what we're talking about now is good lighting eh because this been huge progress in the last twenty years with understanding the ills of light pollution and not just for astronomers where the where the least least important in many ways of of the consequences of Bob Lighting. I again when I talk to groups about pollution. I often or haven't often and but I have been asked by people worldwide. Do we have to keep the lights down for the astronomers. When you've got a whole heaven stars you know? Why can't they study the start of the left or the brightest star or whatever and I think in some ways we lost that argument where we talked thirty years ago when when the International Dark Sky Association started and it was astronomers saying are we losing our night sky that that story was lost on the general public? I didn't understand the information that you're getting about heaven. That's probably true thing I'm most people think an astronomer is middle age bald man with a white coat. Who's got a long spindly telescope? And just spend his nights looking through uh-huh nothing could be further from the truth. It's all about you know. Well directed a scientific problems. We're trying to understand the universe because that understanding my actually actually turn out to be really useful to us one day and it's it's conducted in a very very progressive ways. Not just looking mistake. The sake of looking were studying and of course. The great thing is that it's no longer and more pulled middle aged man we we are. How far more diverse? So that's the good in a bed. Yeah stupid stupid. Use of technology that maybes. He's come through astronomy through light and and I know of things you talked about. Doppler effect isn't so I actually almost Lump the fiber optics work that I was talking about into their it certainly quirky. Because in you know I in one thousand nine hundred seventy. Nobody had thaw in this direction. It was Roger Angell towards the end of the nineteen seventies. We're thinking outside the box or this to what you could use these technologies for and I do remember number when I started working on this in one thousand..
"william huggins" Discussed on Space Nuts
"Nuts Fred is well loved by the Amateur Astronomical Community but few know of his pioneering work on multi object spectroscopy Oris Fascination for optics and binoculars. He's around knowledge of all things. Light place him. Well my first guest on dark sky conversations. Thanks for joining us for it. Thank you for having made a pleasure to be here. Thank you question has to be asked. What does an astronomer at large actually do hopes? Nobody'll find find out so the job is essentially an outreach education and advocacy role role. It's all about trying to spread the word scientists good for people to let the wider public. Know just what an enormous contribution contribution Australia makes to the world of astronomy and to engage with with the wider community internationally so there is now a lot of international involvement in astronomy with things like the space agency and despite the fact that we Australia now has a strategic partnership with the European Southern Observatory which operates the biggest telescopes in the world on the finest observatory site in the world in northern Chile. Right and so why why is it is it is astronomy moving offshore to Chile for example. A really interesting story and depends on how long you've got. The story. Goes back to the nineteen sixties when astronomers realized that because of the advent of wide body jets and cheap F- F- flight relatively cheap air flights. They could put their telescopes where the conditions were best rather than where the strongest happen to be before that strong observatories we're always in cities. Because that's where I live. So there was a worldwide push to find the very best observing sites in the world In during the nineteen sixty s and that means sites that are dark without light pollution. That's of course a given start with which we might talk a bit more rebel against but also sites which have clear whether a particular sites which are very stable atmospheres a a a low level of atmospheric turbulence and so Sykes were identified. All over. The world. Australia siding Spring Mountain was discovered it to be probably one of the best places to do. Astronomy visible light astronomy Australia. But we now know that some of the other ascites in the world are even better and in particular it turns out that you need a place on a mountain top. Maybe three thousand five hundred meters is kind of twelve thirteen thousand feet on the western seaboard of a continent. That's what you need to get this spectacular atmospheric stability and and the problem is. We don't have that in Australia. We we don't have a mountain. That high on the Western seaboard. I mean we should pay somebody to build one if we could we do that so observatories elsewhere have better sites and that's what's happened. The astronomical infrastructure has concentrated concentrated on those sites principally in the southern hemisphere in northern Chile in Northern Hemisphere. It's principally begawan defer wire which has the best conditions in the world world. And so that's why we engage with with international. So you mentioned there are a couple of times light. The first being that light is moved away from light pollution. So what does that mean to stretch of what is like pollution. And why. Why did you have to move away from it? So many people don't realize that the night sky itself has its own luminosity which comes partly from a AH atoms in the upper atmosphere of the earth relaxing after a hard day in the Sunday. Get excited and they released that radiation after dark. There's also dust in the solar system mm-hmm which lights up the night sky and a very fame background of stars and galaxies. They all contribute to a natural sky brightness so astronomers are always battling thing against that an often what they're doing is studying faint objects whose light is only maybe one percent brighter the this natural background. So they're right down there up against what nature throws at you if you then put in artificial light you lose the signal together. It's as simple as that. So you simply cannot tolerate any artificial light pollution for this kind of groundbreaking research and AH AH. Are there technologies or anything that we can use to try and adapt conditions or is it just simply that we have to have no pollution. Yes it really is. It really is that you can't have light pollution. The problem the problem is astronomers. Look across cross what we call the whole visible wave band so there measurements are made in all colors of light from deep violet and beyond in what we call coli ultraviolet right up the wavelengths scale to red light and far infrared light and far infrared light. Those are. That's what you might say. Covers the the the visible light waves and light. Pollution tends to occupy much of that spectrum for a while there was an enthusiasm among astronomers for what it called low pressure sodium vapor lamps. Yeah street particularly the street lighting getting because they emit light effectively of one single wavelength are in. July's very familiar to people. See You could Aratu Kate so what that's what's doing. He's only polluting that one little bit of the spectrum and the rest of the spectrum is much much clearer but you never get a city or a community community that only has so every wondering outdoor housing lights normally incandescent lights mercury lights all the rest of it. Actually it turns out now so From the Vantage Point Twenty Nineteen that Sodium Vapor Street lights are almost obsolete. And that's for a number of reasons operationally operationally for for for councils and bodies like that that actually operate them. These sodium vapor lights have some disadvantages right. Yeah so I've heard you talk previously about a rainbow of light that you that you can study and you've just mentioned in the band of flight. Could you explain a little bit about the bar. Code of information that you get from from from this rainbow this spectrum of color that you're that astronomers use so. Yeah Ah I mean it's a really fascinating story. Goes back to Newton who a played around with a prison in the sixteen sixty s and discovered that you can shine wide wight light for example sunlight which effectively why even though it looks but yellowish he could pass that light through prison and break it up into this rainbow of colors. uh-huh Red Orange Yellow Green Blue and violet indigo. Isn't there people used to say those indigo as well but it's not really there so the spectrum colors which merge into one another so it's actually a continuum and it was Newton who coined the term spectrum in fact back a little bit later than that in the early eighteen hundreds around eighteen hundred to a scientist by the name of Williston noticed that if he put sunlight through a prism. Did it in a way that allowed you to look at specific wavelengths. Sorry look at specific color. Shouldn't use that. That came later. Williston notice that there were dark lines crossing the spectrum of the Sun and he thought Oh this must be just where these colors join together but ah later in the nineteenth century it was realized that those dark lines actually are the imprints of atoms in the atmosphere of the Sun. Who and the positioning of the lines actually depends on which elements elements are producing them? So what you've got is this array of lines and in the son's case it's it's tens of thousands of them The the early guys could only see a handful but now we recognize there. There are very many of them and each one is the signature of a particular a particular atom elements like Hydrogen Yup. Yep exactly the most. Common Element is hydrogen but we also find iron calcium sodium. All of those things are imprinted on the sun spectrum. So if you use a device vice to to form the spectrum then you can tell with absolute clarity what the sun is made of. So what is the device to ease. It's called a spectrum. Graph actually clean in early days. It was called a spectra scope which is just a something for looking at the word. Scopus Spectrum Spectroscopy. Lets you look at it and the early days when we started the first people who really put spectrum together. We're at the turn of the of the nineteenth nineteenth century so the likes of Williston. Yes that's right. It was actually two German scientists by the name of kickoff onto Bunsen pair of them. They were the guys who really built the first decent spectra scope and they were the people who worked out what was going on in the atmosphere appear the sun and it was actually an Englishman by the name of William Huggins later. Sir William Huggins who tried that technique on the stars ause realized that he could tell what the stars were made of was it. was there a comment that I remember some way that someone said that we would never know what all this that was. A Frenchman by the name of. Auguste comte was a philosopher and in eighteen. Thirty five he wrote in a book no we will never know what the stars are made of. We will never no the densities sizes. We just won't know that temperatures. He said we'll never know these things and actually in that same year. A demonstration took place in Dublin. In fact by a man called Charles Wheat Stone doing more or less the same as it was talking about with Williston but he it was using metal two pieces of metal with the spark passing between them and he realized that if you looked at the spectrum of the spark I told him what metal the electrodes who made of and that was once again building up to this idea kickoff Brunson were slightly later. They were around the eighteen sixties. So comp got it wrong we actually know a lot of stuff about this does go to complete. So what other information does like give us about the universe hard to overestimate what we can learn about the spectrum of objects coming from the universe so not only do you get for example exemplify looking at stars you not only get composition a starts composition. You can also tell whether it's moving towards or away from us and how Fast Austin moving what you did with the radio velocity. That's right that's something called. The radial velocity its its velocity along the line of sight and and so measuring the velocity of a star towards or away from you is pretty straightforward to do the spectrum of a look actually took until the eighteen ninety s before another German called the handle it better fogel time. He was the first guy to measure of raining. So yes you can tell the speeds also you can tell whether an object's rotating you can see that from the spectrum. E can even tell whether it has a magnetic connectic field because a magnetic field actually splits up the spectrum lines Z.. But wait there's because you can use and and this is technology that we really have only we've only had for the last twenty four twenty five years you can use a spectrum graph to see whether a star is moving slightly towards or away from you as it is pulled this way and that by a planet in orbit around. You can't see the planet is too far away to faint but you can see that. This research has allowed us to find exit planet. Exactly what we call exoplanets or extra solar planets and how many have we found. Now it's swell over three thousand the Yes. There is a different method. That's now used to detect them that. The the methods called the Doppler wobble technique the one I just mentioned because the doppler effect another German scientists. This is the effect of the of the wavelength of the light changing slightly by the towards or away from the motion of a star. And but the what happens is if you've got a planet going around to start pulls the star Dr this way and that and the the doppler effect is measurable for the Movement of the story itself. It's a matter of only meters per second for an object. The size is of Jupiter but something the size of the centimeters per second these tiny tiny houses. They're they're not even walking pace. They're very very slow. And yet you can muse light to measure those and so as you're saying I'm realizing how critical technologies with this and how how much information there is that we could about universe but we we're actually impairing these with pollution that's right yes that's correct Having said that all the world's leading observatories and you can these probably half a dozen of them that will be right at the top of the heat there in terms of the the excellence of the sites that they're on they're all protected with legislation to prevent there being undue light pollution and the legislation simply says that if you've got if you've got a development nearby within up to while in in the case of the siding uh-huh Otari in Australia it's up to a hundred kilometers with two hundred kilometers under certain conditions developments within area have to comply with Orwell's observatories all leading. Pretty well yeah. It varies The the major observatories in on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands. This this grey observatory there in the Northern Hemisphere. The Hawaiian one's the Chilean ones..
"william huggins" Discussed on Space Nuts
"Scale space nuts now before we move on to some questions on a shot at to carry braun carey is <music>. Someone who's asked us a couple of questions in recent times but she came to me the other day and said i wanna start a space nuts podcast group so that space knots what's fans can all talk to each other which i thought was a great idea so i went to a producer hugh and before i could even ask him the question. He messaged me. This was the very the next day instead. I'm thinking of starting a spice nets podcast grip and i said well you need to talk to carry and so they've spoken to each other and now we have a space nats podcast group on facebook and it's called this space. That's podcast group so if you would like to join and talk to other people people who listen and maybe get to know some of the space nuts that have been following app podcast very long find. The space nets podcast group and asked asked to join also yes okay. I'm supposed to vet everybody but i think most people want to join a group like that pretty genuine anyways so have a look at the space nuts podcast group on facebook and enjoy up and get to know some of your fellow space. He's not s- and while you're at it maybe have a look at the patriots page patriots dot com slash space nuts fred we have now got thirty seven patrons and who was supporting podcast which i think is fabulous. Thank you thank you thank you to everybody who who's been willing to spend a couple of dollars a month just to throw into the coffers so that we can keep going <hes> we didn't ask for this. It was an idea from from one person and it's sort of grind from the fabulous. I really appreciate it so sodas fred <hes> everybody involved so it's fabulous nap fred. We've got some questions questions to get to hi. Andrew and freight i wonder fred might be able to get my head around the astronomical term opposition. If something is in opposition to the sun or the moon is it on the opposite side of the visible sky or is it on the opposite side of the planet. That's a question that's come from denise challinor. Hi denise thank thank you. That's a great question. It is it is a great question because it goes to the you know the basics of observational astronomy on the answer usually what it convenes is when an object is on the opposite side of the sky to the some so for example when jupiter is is in a position it means is the son says jupiter rising's so i i would have witnessed an opposition this morning when i was on on the moon setting and the sun was a better is that's right so we call that kind of we give that sort of opposition especially because they full moon yeah. We're in a sense. Oh denise questions <hes> she she said exactly what it is on the opposite side of the visible sky yes <hes> <hes> which means that often you know when you see jupiter when it's the opposition you can't see the sun because it's below the horizon so nights that's fine but it also means that <hes> exactly as she says in the second bit of a question is on the opposite side of the planet. Yes it is because our vantage point is from the planet so we're seeing it on the other side of the planet but it really means it. It's opposite the sun so the the going to say the opposite is it which is the wrong word but the anticipated antithesis of opposition something code conjunction and that's when two things are close together in the sky so opposition is when something's opposite the sun in the sky conjunction can be either something being close to the sun and that happens with jew pitcher as well the other side of the all you can talk about the moon and the planet being in conjunction or planet and a star things getting close together in the sky cold conjunctions any sort of look at them for too hard and too long you get conjunctiva slightest exactly that's where it comes from. Gosh they see what you everything thing. In this show we do medicine and slow jumbo pretty so rubbish. There's a lotta mumbo jumbo. The most important thing on the planet capes assign yeah yeah okay so i think we saw that one. That was pretty indeed. Kinda leads into the next one because it was about to say was that doc is basic. Astrology is what we've just been talking about so go to the next question and people will understand why mentioned that now this comes from dan <hes> of gorgan but he formerly lived indaba which is where i am in central west new south wales and there's a personal connection between toy dan and myself as it turns out high space nets thanks for creating such a brilliant podcast is talking about aspirin. The way can explain mind-bending unbendingly complicated ideas and concepts such and such simple terms. He's a simple man is it true and rare gift. Andrews humor often makes my sides hurt but it's mine minor as well double for that for that dan i recently played <hes> my mother and episode to which you replied that she knew andrew quite well as his children attended tended rainbow cottage where she worked in the office. I think i know who he's talking picture my mind i was hoping fred could explain the difference difference between astronomers cosmologists. Astrophysicists etc is i feel as though i've underestimated what an astronomer does space nuts as the bed best podcast on the the internet by far. Dan elicited at one. Yeah thank you. We appreciate a good question. It is a great question and it's one that you know. I'm glad it's been us because we've never talked about this before. Not really you know we we see when we watch the media. We see these different terms. They used to describe people whereas once upon a time we would older astronomers the tournament actually while astronomy signs odds comes from greek think australia star nomo is number so it's about numbering the stars which different checks checks it from astrology which is when you break it down into its greek. It's words about the stars so astronomy. Astronomy technically means counting this but actually of course it means anybody who studies the stars now in the eighteen sixties six days the lights eighteen sixties we could suddenly work on the physics of the stars by analyzing the light from stars. It was a man called william huggins who was an english astronomer. He basically invented the science of astrophysics because he devised the way that you could break down around the light of a star and reveal its component elements in the physics of what was going on there so that was that was my nostril physics was born and then you know a lot of people started calling themselves astrophysicists lie. I don't know i always think astrophysicists when i hear people introducing themselves as an astrophysicist today. It sounds slightly pompous to me because basically what you are in it is an astronomer who's who's doing physics so most of most astronomers astro physicists as well so they necessarily dylan delineate yourself as though i am a nostril to drag out program even lower the the bachelor on the australian version of the show is climbing to be an astrophysicist and <hes> thinki- runs a petrol pump off tonight. I'm i'm just going up slightly a little bit about this gentleman yes. He did study astrophysics but he's not doing it at the above has an interesting checkout chico's tree carbon what he's doing and let planetary block he does. He seems like i. I should should should explain under the but never seen the show that he's party but i did see a news item about. It looks like a crime is i was watching the wrong channel. That's your problem. Anyway probably channel surfing so astrophysicist is in many ways distant astronomer with you know with a fancy title and and the same is true i guess with the other specialisms within astronomy so you get to more specialised ideas so because mullah gist a which downs asked about is somebody who's special field is the origin johnnie lucien of the universe. That's what kills me is all about. An astrobiologist is somebody who's interested in the origin of life and how life doc might be found throughout the universe but that really all lumped under the heading of astronomers or if they feel if they feel so inclined astrophysicists because they're pretty well astrophysicists as well real time soldiers aside and astronomy is more of a broad spectrum role. Maybe that's right so i've always called myself on astronomer because you know i try and do a bit of everything. An astronomy is the topic that <hes> has five me up since i was a kid with with some fairly big helpings of space science as well which is now a different branch of a you know hundred years ago astronomy include studies of the planet says well but now that has become space until planetary science <hes> the topic is broken up into his you in some cultures if i put it that way fantastic all right. Hopefully that dilemma dan. Thanks for asking asking the question. Say mom for me. Tell the kids are doing well by the way they are really flourishing very proud of them so we'll move onto our next question john hi fred and andrew. How both our hope you're well. Yes we are ending the question. That was the question he says. I've just signed up as a colonel on your oh. Patriotic cats are very worthy cause. I think he said so. Thank you for that. We really appreciate it. I have been interested in physics. Astrophysics particle physics zeke's for a very long time but only really got into it once i read stephen hawking's popular published works and started listening to space that space time sister program <hes> with stewart gary. I'm interested to know what kind of exact address from earth in terms of where we sit in the galaxy spayed and motion and then the local the group virgo supercross outside esser cholesterol veasley and any neighb- avoids super voids and how those things may be moving and if the universe itself itself is turning spinning as well as expanding. That's a question i've never thought of is the universe actually spinning while expense so that those the question and anyway let me know when you can put it on the show right now andrew morton that question comes from so yeah he's asked last <hes> quite a cluster of super cluster of questions really yeah that's right. It's a good question because a picture of where we are depends really on the framework that you looking so yes we're we can easily identify default position on the surface of the earth by latitude longitude and that means that we've speed as well as speed of rotation about the earth which is actually around about sixteen hundred kilometers per hour on the equator the latitude where we are an andrew it's roughly fourteen hundred and fifty kilometres now we're going eastwood's at that speed and of course near you get to the poll the low of the linear eighties so we're already talking about movement that we don't feel bill that's because of gravity and and so on then you can say well aura that the earth is the is the third rock from the sun. It's orbiting around the sun is gone orbital motion which is about thirty kilometers per second <hes> so the mo the earth moves through its own through his <music> own guy in about seven minutes at that speed. This is pretty fast so relative to the center of the solar system. We're also moving..
"william huggins" Discussed on True Crime Brewery
"By phone signed deputy price, Thomann rang the doorbell no baby cried and see felt was wondering feud overreacted. And we're starting to get some neighbors gathering in the street out front because there's some excitement going on at one of these houses, he had the police are there police are there, and then Thomann sergeant drove up and he was talking to men on the front porch. So what do you think we should do the sergeant nest Thomann wasn't sure? But then he heard the baby crying. He leaned over the porch railing pressed his face to the bedroom window cupped his hands to help him. See inside a little Janet Eastbourne was standing in her crib. And Tolman said I've got no choice. I've got to go in. So he stepped over the railing cut open a screen and opened a window. And then he was hit with a horrible smell of death. Now, we've talked about that before if you've experienced it. You know, how horrible it is. And you know, that there's no confusing it with anything else for sure so Janice pajamas with little blue and yellow flowers, just stink. And she was very pale her eyes. Puffy from crying a pile of stuffed animals and toys had been put in her crib. As if someone wanted her to be entertained. They knew she was going to be alone. Janna rep both arms around tomes neck immediately, digging her fingers into his skin, and he passed her out the window to Bob sif L along with some pampers that he found next to the crib now he was prepared to find at least one dead body in this house. So he drew his gun open the door and headed toward the master bedroom. Body of three rolled Aaron Eastbourne was lying beside her. Parents bid wearing a white nightgown with lavender, bows and a pillow is leaning against her face the nightstand. Beside the bed was knocked over onto its side, a knife, nearly severed errands hit Thome walked around the bed, and he looked over and saw Katie Eastbourne who is nude stabbed in dead. With a pillow covering her face. Yeah. When he lifted the pillow he saw that katie's throat had also been slashed. She also had several stab wounds. So Tillman backed out of the room and went back into Janez bedroom leaned out the window. He had a handkerchief over his face. The smell was so bad. And he told them to call an ambulance. But by this time that smell of death had expanded to outside the window. So Bob sif elt had a pretty good idea. Something horrible happened gone. From Seafield also recognize Jan is pajamas were the ones she'd been wearing what his so the kids are the family Thursday night three days before. So he realized Katie was probably did. 'cause that's the only thing that would keep her from caring for her baby. Yeah. Or kidnapped but he has the smell there. So that gives him an indication that she was probably killed Thomann. Meanwhile, continued to walk through the house he walked through the living. Room where he saw Katie sneakers still tied in the middle of the floor. Her blouse was crumpled up on the floor and a basket of folded clothes had spilled onto the floor. So there had been a struggle. But it didn't seem like there was a big struggle because the furniture was all still in place. And there were even some of the kids toys on the floor that looked like they hadn't been disturbed William Huggins. The chief paramedic duty pulled up in an ambulance in Eastbourne driveway, Thome and met him by the side door and told him he would have to go into confirm the deaths. So Huggins follow Thomann inside the house to the back bedroom where he saw the body of Aaron Eastbourne it was his job to officially pronounce her dead. Aaron had been pulled off of her parents bed parents and onto her back and her knees were left up in the air. So she appeared to be in some kind of sick sexual position. Now, this is a three year old, right? So that's very sick. Now, she clearly been there. For a long time, and he lifted her cold, arm and check for pulse. Then he had to really kind of search to find a place between her chest wounds for his stethoscope to listen for a heartbeat. Corsi didn't hear anything and he had to repeat the same thing with Katie pronouncing them both dead..