17 Burst results for "William Berkeley"
"william berkeley" Discussed on History On Fire
"Man, I love all of them. These guys are doing such a phenomenal job. With that we pass the ball to CJ Keel mayor from danger history. Begins Rebellion. which took place in colonial Virginia in the Sixteen Seventies. Was the largest rebellion against established authority and colonial British North America prior to the American Revolution. And yet, it's little known today. But despite that. Its Effects have been profound in reverberate through time all the way to our own era nearly three hundred and fifty years later influencing race and class relations and conflict in the US and the methods that the elites used to manipulate, orchestrate, shape, exploit, and leverage those tensions and conflicts for their own benefit. To tell the story of Bacon rebellion, we have to give a quick sketch of colonial Virginia's origins. The colony began in sixteen o seven with the founding of Jamestown. The colonists initially hoped to find gold, but instead, they found mostly misery and death due to a combination of disease famine off and on conflict with the Indians in the area. The death rate among the first couple of generations of colonists in Virginia was astonishingly high? In Sixteen O seven they found a way that would make at least some of them very rich. Growing tobacco. Tobacco thrived in Virginia and as Europeans got addicted to it, it became Virginia staple crop dominating its economy. Some virginians those who got there early and who had the money and political connections to get titled Two big pieces of Land and who didn't die. Of course, families with names like Bird Carter Lee and Randolph to name just a few. Ended up becoming the colony's first plantation owners are planters, its first homegrown aristocrats, and in conjunction with the colonies royally appointed governor, they dominated the colonial government. The earliest known instance of African slaves being imported into Virginia was in sixteen nineteen. But for much of the seventeenth century, numbers of slaves remained pretty modest in the colony. and the majority of the labors on plantations were actually white indentured servants. These were poor people from the British isles mostly men who had no prospects at home and so were willing to take desperate chance on moving to Virginia despite dangerous. But these were people who are so poor. They couldn't even afford a boat take it across the Atlantic. So they'd contract with a wealthy guy who already owned land in Virginia. The wealthy guy would cover their ticket across the ocean and then once they arrived, they would work for the rich guy for a set term of years most commonly between five and seven. The indentured servant would not be paid though their master was supposed to provide them with the basics of food and shelter and so on. Once the person worked off the number of years on their indenture, they were to be set free, and usually by the terms of their contract, their master was also supposed to provide them with a little something to get started on their own, often including a little piece of land. Now, if this sounds kind of like temporary slavery, you're getting the picture. In theory, indentured servants were supposed to have a little bit more rights than slaves including the obvious one that their condition was supposed to be temporary and didn't pass onto their cents. But in practice indentured servants. Hardly in tough conditions and often face tough physical discipline for any infractions. So the daily life of an indentured servant. This time wasn't much different from a slave state a day. And while they were supposed to be freed and provided with land at the end of their term in the first few generations of settlements in Virginia, usually around half of all indentured servants would die mostly from various diseases before they ever worked off their indenture. But by the time you get into the mid to late seventeenth century conditions were improving at least enough in Virginia, that more and more servants were actually living long enough to work off their indenture. But since most of the good land anywhere near the coast was already long since spoken for many of the indentured servants worked off their indenture and either got no land or they got marginal lands in dangerous areas near the Indian frontier. Now Virginia's governor for much of the mid seventeenth century was a man named Sir William Berkeley who was in his early seventies when Bacon's rebellion broke out and he'd been governor for twenty seven years by that point. Berkeley was pretty popular for about the first half of his time as governor but became increasingly controversial in the lead up to Bacon's rebellion. Early in his tenure as governor in the sixteen, Forty S, Berkeley was an aggressive expansionist who defeated Indians west of the Blue Ridge and thereby opened up new lands to white settlement. But he also made a deal with defeated tribes that they would essentially be tributaries to the Virginia colony in return for which Virginians wooden encroach any further onto their lands. This deal like most other deals of this sort throughout the colonial period and after the establishment of the independent us. Didn't really hold for very long because the colonists who actually lived out on the frontier wanted those lands and they tended to stir up conflict with the Indians and encroach into their territory regardless of what the distant colonial government proclaimed. But, the fact that Berkeley was even trying to stick to the agreement with the tributary tribes was enough to anger many white Virginians both rich and poor who lived in the frontier areas. Major population growth in. Virginia. In the mid seventeenth century just added more pressure on the natives. Virginia's colonial population increased four, hundred percent from eight, thousand to forty thousand. Between Sixteen Forty and.
"william berkeley" Discussed on The Political History of the United States
"They weren't going to fight a war, and they certainly were not going to be tricked into fighting Berkeley's war. The men picked up turned around and went back home. Some accounts say that as the men walked away chance of Bacon. Could be heard. For Governor Berkeley. This was nothing short of devastating. It was a complete disaster. In addition to now finding himself literally standing alone deserted by his Army, Berkeley head just changed the course of the war. On some alternative timeline out there you can imagine a situation where Berkeley went out beats big into the punch, dealing with the Indian threat and proved that the Virginia government still has the backs of the people. All of this would work towards eroding the popular support for Bacon as Berkeley would prove that he's still willing to defend the colony. Unfortunately for William Berkeley that version of things never plays out. Instead what does end up? happening is the complete opposite. Berkeley had exposed himself as being weak men were unwilling to follow his orders or fight for him against the rebel Bacon. With the Indian threat looming Berkeley's actions clearly state that he is more interested in dealing with his personal grudge against Bacon. Then he is about fighting the Indian medicine protecting the colony. Finally he not just supported, but created a plan of action that was he virginians killing Virginians. All the worst fears that biggest supporters had regarding Berkeley or in a single moment confirmed and worse. The governor was working against them and had no qualms sending their neighbors out to kill them. They get upon learning about this immediately recognized just how we Berkeley was. There would not be a better time to strike. With that Bacon and his men abandoned their campaign against the PA- Monkey. Indians whom they had yet to find anyways they turned around and much back to confront and deal with Berkeley once and for all. It's important not to lose the much bigger point in all of this as a whole lot about the state of the colonial leadership in July of Sixteen, Seventy six when Berkeley hit asked twelve hundred men in Gloucester to come with him and take down the rebel Bacon, all he got was some uncomfortable muttering before the entire group collectively.
"william berkeley" Discussed on The Political History of the United States
"Him. After eight tenths standoff. They can men realized that they had little choice as surrendered on June the tenth it certainly appeared as though Berkeley had won the day. The rebel Bacon and his men were in custody that afternoon begging was brought into the State House where he would meet face to face with governor Berkeley however much to everybody's surprise Berkeley didn't exactly seem to take advantage of his moment. He used his time to call out. Drummond in Lawrence and warn of the dangers that they posed he allowed big into confess which big did charged vacant for two thousand pounds and then agreed that if they can promise not to overthrow. The Virginia government would go ahead and authorize bacon to lead a force out against the Indians. Berkeley even went so far as to low bacon back onto the council. Okay so what gives Berkeley for all of his. Anger is just going to force. Bake it into making an empty apology. This entire ordeal was really just a hell governor. Berkeley feel better. Everybody in the Virginia House of Burgess was as stunned seriously. Nobody anticipated this and everybody is just trying to figure out what is going on at this point did Governor. Berkeley come to his senses and decide that the path to peace is by meeting Bacon demands. Well as it turns out. No that isn't the case at all. Uc Berkeley at. This point was sitting on information that nobody else appeared to known. Berkeley was becoming concerned over the fact that the Virginia militia was taking their sweet time to fully garrison Jamestown amp repair for the defense of the city. Defense from what you ask well at that same time. A large number of Bacon supporters were coming to town. They were armed. They were angry and they were determined to air. Their grievances to the governor in the assembly Berkeley was to his very core a royalist. He has supported. Charles I during the civil war. He supported Charles the secondary the restoration the only time when he was not the governor of Virginia was drained those years when Cromwell was empower however despite personally supporting and being friends with Charles the first Berkeley had zero interest in following his example. In death. Berkley just not super excited to be dragged out by an angry mob and beheaded with this in mind. Berkeley gave a generous pardon for Bacon. Made a nice show of mercy and intended that with Bacon. Pardon and actually getting exactly what he wanted. The angry mob would round and leave Jamestown to his credit Berkeley guessed correctly. Bathing was Freidan. Hey the concessions were pretty sweet with no reason to hang around Jamestown. The rebel promptly turned around and went back home. Berkeley figured that through these concessions he would be able to remove the immediate risk he would pacify bacon followers and more importantly would keep them from getting too interested in hunting around Berkeley's finances. The problem however for Berkeley is that he couldn't move past Nathaniel Bacon if Berkeley had just stayed on this path. There is a decent chance that biggest rebellion is nothing more than a mere but note Berkeley however decides to go in just totally different direction here as much as the people. In the House of Burgess were shocked. So wasn't the thing. Bacon making one would sure assume was aware that being captured by Berkeley enforces probably wasn't going to end well for him so a parking was not something that he would have seen coming. Bacon rightly was not just surprised by the pardon. He was also very skeptical about it. Those who had come to protect Bacon. We're going home and very quickly. Baking was going to find himself alone once again. Bacon was right to worry. Berkeley had no plans to let this go. And on the night of June eleventh Berkeley issued a new arrest warrant for Bagan having cleared beacons loyalists out of town. Berkeley now had a chance to bring the militia in to make sure that Jamestown was properly prepared should the rabble decide to comeback calling for their soon to be recaptured leader. Berkeley by all accounts was not planning to mess around this time. The order of the day was to capture bacon at execute him before a rescue mission could be launched when Bacon supporters returned Jamestown. Berkeley was said on their leader. Being dead hopefully nobody will be all that interested in funding a war over a dead man and they would all does go back home disappointed to be sure but without launching an attack on the morning of June twelfth men loyal to Berkeley Storm the Lawrence House where Bacon was expected to be hiding except Bacon. Apparently missed the memo that he was supposed to be holed up at Lawrence House when news reached Berkeley. That baking wasn't there at all. The governor realized that he had made a gigantic mistake. But this point. The news was out there that he had reissued the warrant begins. Men were coming and general. Bacon wasn't going to be anywhere near as dead as Berkeley had hoped. He would be Berkeley knowing what he had to do. You know defend James from the incoming agree mob instead decided to take another path Berkeley after evaluating the situation said yet no. I'm going to leave now. He quickly packed up his belongings. When to the Treasury and withdrew. His money made his way to Semi Bay and decided to get out of town. Well he still could and catch up with his wife. If all went as planned Berkeley would be on his way to London in just a few days. I think it goes without saying that. Just basically running away from the incoming storm storm largely caused by him is not a wonderful look for Berkeley however all things considered his real mistake in the situation is not that he decided to leave. James to the rabble. The real mistake at least personally for Berkeley is not making sure that the ship was ready to go. Berkeley suddenly found himself sitting on a ship. That was at least a week away from being ready to leave. Keep in mind that we are just thirty. Six hours pass Berkeley surprise. Pardon though when he may because Bacon men were beginning to flood into the poorly-defended Jamestown simple math tells us that these men loyal to Bacon are much closer than a week away. Berkeley as it turns out could also do math and quickly figured out that he had a very serious problem on his hands. He wasn't going to be able to hide Taylor to London before a furious mob descended on Jamestown if Berkeley had been concerned by the biggest supporters days before he must have been terrified of them now they were not only upset over the treatment of Bacon but they were feeling mightily double crossed by the governor understanding this predicament. Berkeley was forced to accept that he was not going to be getting out of Virginia. In time with the fight option exhausted Berkeley turned to his other option fight. Berkeley had some canons. Those that have been used before to fire on begins mid in the harbor that he ordered position for the defense of the city he likewise cintos cows to figure out the position of the rebel army for the second time this episode. This cows are not going to be heard from again which was still a very ominous side. So yeah not a great week to be a scout. On June twenty third look was made Bacon. It was just two miles from Jamestown out the front of a lot of angry colonists. Berkeley almost instantly realized that this was not going to be a battle. It was going to be a slaughter. Bacon was at the head of approximately four hundred men. Berkeley had about thirty militia members to defend the city and worse Berkeley Hackensack amongst the militia members. Present their loyalties were in question Berkeley wanting to avoid the wholesale destruction of Jamestown declared the city open and told his men to stand down. Bacon was going to take Jamestown without firing a single shot. General Bacon as he was now so lovingly being called was not going to waste any time making sure that everybody inside of Jamestown understood. We're the power now lied as soon as the town was captured. Baking called for the Virginia Assembly. To meet it goes without saying that this meeting was not business as usual and one has to imagine at this point for a man like Berkeley. He must have been wondering if he was going to leave that meeting. Alive once assembled Bacon made his demands directly to governor Berkeley. Well he must have enjoyed being called General Bacon by his men he wanted to actually make things official and thus demanded to be made a commission general now to be fair to the. Guy William Berkeley has had an especially bad couple of days in the realm of bad days is raking up. There really are not about to get any better. Of course eight respectable Manley. Berkeley is going to act in this situation. With only the highest honor and dignity right. Well if you consider a temper tantrum. Highest Honors Dignity then E. performed pretty well Berkeley at this exact moment has absolutely no power at all. Well on the surface. Bacon is asking for these things to be granted. Nobody at all is mistaken into believing that these were really requests. Bacon is telling Berkeley he expects Berkeley is going to do instead of accepting the inevitable or attempting to fight back against Bacon and his forces however Berkeley instead rips his shirt off and just request that they can shoot him right there on site as though this was not dramatic enough Berkeley then challenge begin to a sword. Fight Begin. Not really interested in. This makes a quick speech saying that. He just wants to protect the good people of Virginia and needs his commission. Having lost the day. The governor turned around and just walked out bacon for his part was trying to make. It appear that he just wanted what was best for the colony however with Berkeley unwilling to play ball. And they it actually requiring that. The governor acquiesced whose demands in order to grant legitimacy to his cause bacon needed to be clear that he wasn't there messing around Bagan followed Berkeley back to his house. Let him know that. Failure to comply to the demands of the people would result in Bacon's forces killing the whole lot of them. Berkeley unmoved shut the door and big face with the bowl. Back in begins court. The general ordered his men to present arms and aim them at the burgess his so a quickly of the land here. Berkeley is shut up inside of his house pouting. The members of the House of Burgess are watching from the window of the Assembly House with intrigue bigoted at his men have now turned towards them on are aiming their weapons at those same assembly members watching with intrigue intrigue quickly turns to fear for the assemblymen who are not interested in being shot despite Berkeley's wish for them to send from beside him. The assembly quickly yells back that they will find a way to give picking what he wants. Just please don't shoot us with the governor broken and the assembly just wanting to avoid being shot big it was now free to dictate its terms bacon needing to protect his victory. Set his men around Jamestown to keep a constant watch.
"william berkeley" Discussed on The Political History of the United States
"Hello and welcome to the political history of the United States episode. Two point nine the June assembly. We left off last week. With governor Berkeley declaring that Nathaniel Bacon for his role in leading forces against the Indians on the frontier without his permission was now a traitor. Berkeley was left with little choice in had to do something to reassert the authority. The big head so seriously challenged. What results are some of the most famous times in the entire rebellion? This week? We are going to spend our time. Examining how William Berkeley took eight. Tenths situation poured gasoline on. It backed it with explosives and then threw in a match for good measure. We are going to focus. Mostly on June sixteenth. Seventy six today as we see Berkeley. Take misstep after misstep pushing the colony into the throats of an open rebellion. William Berkeley. Very quickly realized that he had a serious problem on. Its hands the mealy. After Bacon and his men set out into the frontier Berkeley could see the writing on the wall on May tenth Berkeley put out a call demanding that those under Bacon stand-down only a handful were interested in the message with most just choosing to ignore it. Those who did listen tended to be the large landowners who were basically the only one still loyal to Berkeley upon declaring Bacon a traitor. Berkeley failed to get the rousing response that he might have hoped for instead of rallying to the cause of their increasingly beleaguered governor. The colonists rallied over to the side of Bacon after all. Bacon understood their plight from the viewpoint of the frontier colonists. The hip been long ignored except a time for years by the Virginia Assembly. The government wasn't working for the small planters. It was working for Berkeley and his fellow assembly members. Bacon who is now affectionately being referred to as General Bacon was a man of the people even though Bacon really did have more in common with men like Berkeley in the rest of the assembly was the guy on the frontier. He knows their struggles at instead of just trying to use the occasion as an excuse to extract more tax dollars. He was out there. Actually doing something about it. Following his declaration that baking was a traitor. Berkeley as well as a few hundred men who were loyal to him made their way up to the James River to way for big to be intercepted and arrested Bacon smartly. Have become aware of this and had little interest in being arrested by the governor. Berkeley by this point is beginning to see the writing on the wall. He understood that well there were still those within the colony who were loyal to him. He was rapidly. Losing the support of the Communists the wealthy landowners who had gained so much under Berkeley remained loyal everybody else. However was at a minimum feeling overtaxed and for those out on the frontier they felt as though Berkeley had abandoned them so that he can maintain his position in the for trade knowing that his position as the Governor Verging Virginia was now in serious jeopardy. Berkeley goes ahead and for the first time in over fourteen years calls for a general election. Berkeley himself by this point is an old man. He has been empower for a long time and was ready to just throw his hands up on the matter and head back to England Berkeley wrote back to England. Let him know that he will be happy to resign. The governorship and that England needs to send somebody knew. He blamed his increasing loss of control over the fact that he had become an old man and that a more vigorous governor was needed to run Virginia. So now many of you are probably sitting there more than a little confused. Berkeley is prepared. To step. Down is called for a general election. Where does the rebellion come from? Didn't bake it in his men get more than what they were asking for. It is an interesting thought. What would have happened? If Berkeley withdrew the word and gave into the clearly widespread support that begin had would he have been able to turn this event into nothing more than a case of insubordination and the individual personal political career? Of course? We know that Berkeley isn't going to do that. Is going to take the path that is going to turn this incident into something far larger than it really ever needed to be the problem for Berkeley. Isn't that he wasn't willing to step down but rather he was unwilling to change his course as a concerned bacon after returning to Jamestown without Bake it on May twenty ninth Berkeley gave an impassioned speech setting himself apart from the rebel Bacon. He made clear that he given decades of service to the colony and that under his command Virginia had thrived. The speech was in every sense. Berkeley doing what he could to maintain the political systems that he had been so influential in building. The last thing he wanted was for somebody like Nathaniel Bacon to stroll in an undue a decades long career. The play takes place on the eve of the election and was meant to plead his case to keep the colony the same as it had been recognizing the danger the next day. Berkeley sent his wife a large amount of his personal fortune and that litter describing the current conditions as well as his request for a replacement onboard. A ship bound for London as a result of the election. The man who Berkeley had himself named a trader thanks. Bacon found himself as an elected representative from the county of Henrico to give you an idea of the locations that we are talking about. Henrico County is the eastern side of Modern Day Richmond. Despite there being a warrant for his arrest Bacon was not going to take his responsibility lightly make in border to ship and set sail down the James River for Jamestown with every intention of taking his seat in the assembly well. Tensions have been mounting for a long time. It really has felt that a full-blown rebellion could have been avoided head Berkeley accepted the public mandate following the election. Allowed baked. You take his seat and then let reform follow then. I think there is a pretty good bet that I'm not having to spend weeks writing episodes about Bacon's rebellion however when it comes to the question of the revolt becoming inevitable. Berkeley is about to ensure that he minor civil disturbance becomes a full fledged rebellion on June. Six ship carrying the FANEUIL Bacon plus forty or so bodyguards made its way down the James River towards the Jamestown eventually docking. It's one point. Any small outcropping lend directly across the James River from Jamestown. It was on his way to take his seat in the assembly. The bodyguards onboard. The ship are made up from the veterans of the campaigns against the Indians and they came armed with muskets. They made their message clear. General Bacon was going to Jamestown he was going to take his seat as the representative from Henrico County and he was going to be their voice in the Assembly despite Bacon reassurances to his men that he was confident that he will be allowed to take a seat in the assembly. One has got to believe that. Bacon himself would have doubted this assertion down to further. Prove his point that he was going to be able to take that seat eat decided to send a few men in a rowboat along to make sure that the coast was clear and always going to go well. It was an ominous sign of things to come. When the men failed to return it was even worse on when the cannons mounted for the Defensive Jamestown opened fire on Bacon and his men they can unsurprisingly was not super thrilled with this reception and quickly cut anchor and got out of Dodge as Bacon sailed away from swamp point. Several of the ships incurred across the river in Jamestown joined in the fun and opened fire on big at his men. The good news for Nathaniel Bacon. Is that the artillerymen. Had really poor aim. They get and his men aboard. The ships were able to escape without a scratch however by this point it clear that Berkeley was not messing around. This is not something that he was going to simply let drop with the opening salvo by Berkeley. The ball had really shifted to big. It's court making good either. Pack up and get out of Virginia or he could regroup and return to take his seat much as in the same vein as Berkeley. Bacon had no intention of just letting this go he had after all been elected the representatives from Henrico County. He knows that for him. This moment is just as critical as for Berkeley. Should BACON BACK. Down now in fleet. Virginia it is going to those living on the frontier vulnerable not just to the violence of the Indians but to the machinations of the governor and the assembly they can had no intention of backing down and fleeing from the colony however at this exact moment he does have some more pressing issues that he's going to have to deal with the very top of that list. Is that moments earlier. He hit come under Ken. Fire in Jamestown after Hino for a few hours out of sight and more importantly out of range in the early morning hours of June seventh. They can turn around and was able to sail right back into Jamestown landing at Sandy Bay. Because you know apparently nobody on Berkeley side thought that having a watch might be a good idea. Following the Landing Bacon and his men marched through Jamestown unmolested to the House of Richard Lawrence Lawrence was well off and he had a nice estate inside of Jamestown more importantly however he like. Bacon viewed governor Berkeley as corrupt. His home had become something of a headquarters for Berkeley Resistance. Inside of Jamestown well. The resistance had previously been constrained to some grumbling and complaining of Berkeley and the Assembly with big rival in Jamestown. The resistance had quickly taken a quantum leap forward in his resistance. To Berkeley's rule. Women men like William Drummond and John Colpepper together culpepper who was the leader drumming and Lawrence form the core of the resistance against Berkeley for his leadership. In this moment they were most importantly friendly faces. Who were more than happy to give aid to Baker and his men all three men as well as Bacon. We're largely cut from the same cloth educated wealthy and articulate. They were really perfect group to lead a rebellion. Well sitting around and waxing poetic about the corrupt nature of William Berkeley may have been with the men really wanted to do. The fact remained that for Bacon. Stagnation very likely mun death. He was a wanted man and wasn't exactly hiding out in a forest. He was sitting right there in the middle of Jamestown just prior to dawn on the seventh after spending the last several hours at the Lawrence House big and his men decided to retreat from Jamestown. They manage to make their way back down to the boat and set sail however before they could get out of Seti Bay. The Sheriff of James County appeared on the duck of the Adam and eve arch tobacco boat. The boat was heavily armed and quickly opened up on Bacon and his men. Unlike the day before Bacon would not escape this time and instead was forced to head back to the shores of Jamestown which obviously was a less than ideal situation.
"william berkeley" Discussed on The Political History of the United States
"So far over the course of this podcast. We have been telling the story of the colonies moving from an initial place of instability towards them much more sought after stability. We have gone from the early years of Jamestown through the starving time conflict with powder and all the way to a functioning government in Virginia. The same goes in New England where we have been able to shift our conversation from questions of survival and starvation to the structure of legal codes and government systems. However we all know that. This isn't exactly how the story goes. We know that the history of the United States isn't a straight line movie from chaos to a more orderly form rather change and development comes in fits and bursts instability and conflict move back in on a regular basis and disrupt then established order of the day. We are going to see this time and time again as we move throughout this podcast for the young colonies. This is about to be one of those times. Where an era of a people is about to move through and shake up the entire structure in the coming weeks and months. We are going to look at rebellions as they break out all throughout English North America. We're going to see rebellions in New England in New York in Virginia and Maryland. All of this is going to help form a basic question that is going to reign supreme throughout the next century. Specifically what is the role of the North American English colonies in the Greater English Empire? These years in American history and specifically I'm talking about those years between sixteen. Seventy and seventeen hundred are going to profoundly changed the relationship between the colonies and the English. There is at least an argument that can be made that the road to revolution is going to largely be laid out over this thirty year. Span. And why don't necessarily believe that you'd be completely true. It is undeniable that this span of time is going to forever alter the relationship between the English and the American colonists today however we are going to start by looking at an event that has had such a wide range of interpretations that it can be difficult to make sense of what actually occurred. I am talking about the first major rebellion. In the English colonies. Bacon's rebellion begins rebellion. Holds an interesting place in history and has a legacy that has become so quoted by myth that the actual events and ramifications of the rebellion can often get lost in the mire drain. My research I have seen Bacon's rebellion referred to as an insurrection a civil war a riot and a revolution. I have seen it called a precursor to these seventeen. Seventy five revolution. Eight failed attempt at Liberty. Full One Hundred Years Before Lexington Concord. It has been referred to as the event that established the complex race relations. That we have. In the United States Nathaniel. Bacon himself is called everything from a traitor. And a radical to a hero at a revolutionary. Today Bacon has memorial celebrating him as a great Patriot leader throughout Virginia included in the state capital itself despite this historians have long debated the actual effect the Bacon Hat as well as his influence on the American revolution. A century later. These are questions that we are going to work on parsing out over the next several episodes we are going to spend our time looking at the causes of the rebellion the events of the rebellion itself and then finally look at the legacy and influence. Bacon's rebellion on later events in American political history. To begin today I want to take some time to look at the long-term causes of the rebellion if you are a high school student taking a test right now and the question asks what. Caused begins rebellion. The answer is C. The rebellion was the result of repeated Indian attacks and the failure of the Virginia government to adequately respond to the ongoing threat however as is nearly always the case the real reasons for the rebellion are far more complex and long in the making sure the above as is correct however the relationship with the local native Americans is really just the spark ignited a powder keg that had been fifteen years in the making now. None of this is to suggest that the relationship with the Indians is into important factor the proximate cause of the rebellion absolutely is those poor relationships boiling over into what would become a full rebellion however to say the biggest rebellion was caused because of Indian attacks on the settlers and the Virginia government being unresponsive to a threat leaves out major parts of the ultimate cause of the rebellion. My focus therefore today is going to be on those long running causes of the rebellion to begin dissecting the events of the rebellion. We must go back much. Further than the Indian attacks a sixteenth seventy five. That would fuel the anger of the farmers along. Virginia's frontier in fact the roots of the rebellion can really be traced back to sixteen sixty. This week. We are going to spend time focusing on these long term issues that come to infect the Virginia colony these are the issues that set the stage and allow a situation where conflict with the Indians could set off something so major so to start today. I'm going to look at what has been going on in Virginia since we last loved colony. Since we last left Virginia one man has come to completely dominate every aspect. Virginia Life There Governor William Berkeley grain. Of course writing this episode. It occurred to me that William Berkeley has actually been a part of our story for a really long time now and yet I have never actually given the guy a proper introduction Berkeley. I came into our story last year when we were discussing. Jamestown and he also made an appearance in our episode on Maryland and most recently Carolina in the case of Carolina. He along with his brother are one of the Lord. Proprietors born in sixteen o five. Berkeley was part of a well to do family that had risen to prominence in the preceding century by all accounts. He Bright Child. Berkeley found himself enrolled at Oxford. After completing his education Berkeley would make his first foray into high society during the reign of Charleston. I initially coming into court. As a playwright Berkeley soon became a popular fixture at the court and was liked by Charles himself. Drain the first and second bishops wars. Which was part of the war of three kingdoms which include the English civil wars Berkeley fought with honor and again was noticed by the now leaguer King Knighted for his actions during the war. Berkeley was then sent by Charles. Diverging it to replace Sir Francis Wyatt a writing to the colony in sixteen forty one. It was Berkeley. Who is the governor during the third Anglo powder war where the confederacy was finally brought down and their chief overshadow was killed? Berkeley's main concern when he assumed the mantle of governor was to attempt to diversify the crops. In Virginia by these sixteen forty's tobacco wasn't just the cash crop but really it was the only crop producing revenue in any meaningful way the region. This is a risky thing for the English. Should their crop fail or competition? Come along. It could leave Virginia struggling to survive with so many of their exit. A single basket in short Berkeley and in fact many back in England felt that an economy is so tied up at a single crop was dangerously vulnerable however despite efforts by Berkeley to expand the crops in Virginia colony by this point was synonymous with tobacco. Tobacco is going to remain the cash crop at that. The entire colony recipes on Berkeley was to his very royalist he had been close with Charles. The first at Henry's into prominence fighting for the king during the Bishop's wars it was Charles the first who had knighted him and given him his appointment as Royal Governor. Now we all know by this point. The English civil war is going to end well for Charles the first Berkeley. However despite the death of Charles I remain loyal to the stuarts m economy immediately recognized Charles the second as its right bold ruler Oliver Cromwell and company were not amused. Parliament in response to this light would lead a brief blockade of Virginia Virginia. At this point said yeah okay. That's enough of that and decided it was time to get on board with Cromwell Berkeley surprisingly lost his job. In all of this and in sixteen fifty two resigned the governorship but before you feel too terrible for Sir William Berkeley know that right before the restoration. There were elections in Virginia for a new governor and William Berkeley regained his lost governorship with the restoration. Charles the second immediately took kindly to the old ally of his father and Berkeley would quickly become synonymous with Virginia politics. Berkeley's second stint last from sixteen sixty to sixteen seventy seven in total between his two times empower. Berkeley is the governor for a total of twenty seven years and remains the longest serving governor in Virginia's history drain. His second stint as the governor of Virginia. The colony is going to increasingly find itself existing operating at the whims of Berkeley. What develops over the next decade and a half is a system that in modern politics would be generally referred to as cronyism. These changes to the system are going to lead Virginia on the road to having a three tiered class system at the top of the ladder are those who are working closely with Berkeley. These are large landowners and they are going to dominate Virginia. Politics both at the time and in a very different but no less important way following the rebellion that second group are going to be the poor farmers these farmers due to the competition. The larger landowners are going to spend the next decade getting slowly pushed to the breaking point. It is this group that is going to be so receptive when rebellion comes and they are going to be the ones to flock to bake inside. Finally there is a third group to consider here and that is made up of indentured servants and slaves. This group has far less control over their situation than either the first two groups when the rebellion comes bacon is going to use his influence to try and capture the help of those indentured servants. Look I blow. Virginia came in sixteen sixty and sixteen sixty three with a set of navigation. Acts Parliament passed initially in October of sixty sixty. The Navigation Act which is going to have a profound effect on how the American colonies conducted business. The acts of sixteen sixty and sixteen sixty three together accomplished several ends I. The act moved to prevent foreign vessels from entering colonial ports in the Americas only ships that were owned and staffed by at least three quarters. Englishmen were allowed to Inter American ports. The second part of the act which comes out of the sixteen sixty three version. Further establishes that certain major goes we're going to have to be exported to England prior to being sold on a more open market among the goods. That were now being required to be sent back to. England were sugar cotton dies and most importantly tobacco ship masters who were in the business of trading in these goods were further required oppose large bonds.
"william berkeley" Discussed on The Political History of the United States
"Hello and welcome to the political history of the United States episode two Point Three Carolina. Last week we spent our time going back and covering the province of Maryland in the case of Maryland. I admittedly should have covered it last season because yet most of those events would fit better than in the case of Carolina. However this episode is exactly where it belongs. My plan with Carolina is to have a short series of two episodes to cover its creation and early years so this is not going to be anything like our epic dive through New England or even our treatment of Virginia in Jamestown so without further delay was dive in and look at the founding of Carolina. If you look at a map you'll see. That Jamestown is located in Virginia. If you look to the south of Virginia you're going to have to go all the way down to Florida before you reach the next European colony specifically Spanish Florida. Not surprisingly the English had noticed this large amount of uninhabited land for the taking. Of course it wasn't really uninhabited. But that really doesn't pose much of a hindrance for the English. We will come back to that issue here in in a few moments the initial claim on. Carolina. Kim Back in sixteen twenty nine made by Sir Robert Heath. Carolina was intended to be a haven for the fridge. Humans now and here comes the real. Shocker Charles the I was just not feeling well he did go ahead and give the grant to heath. It was very clearly laid out that it was meant for members of the Church of England for. He's this made the entire Endeavor Alba pointless heath would never end up actually starting a colony or acting on the grant after the death of Charles. The first there was an attempt by the heath family to make their claim to the land. But Charles. The second wasn't having any of this either and declared the claim invalid. The next major tempted colonization would come. In the early sixteenth sixties the biggest hindrance to English expansion to the south had been fear of Spanish. Reprisal if you recall from episode one point six by the Middle Part of the sixteenth century Spain had become the dominant power in the Americas despite their growing influence however they kept a relatively small foothold. In what would become the United States? Well they did concede hold Florida. They never really had a sustained expansion to the north with said however the threat of Spanish aggression had long been a concern of the English which explains why there is such a large buffer zone to the south of Virginia however following the peace of Westphalia. The Spanish Empire entered into a long and gradual period of decline. Their decline as a colonial power had begun in sixteen fifty five when the English captured Jamaica with Spanish power. Now on the wane. The English felt comfortable expanding their holdings to the south of Virginia. The English had become increasingly interested in the prospects that the American colonies had in regards to their sheer amount of land added. We saw up in Maryland. English landholders realized that they could substantially increase the size of their holdings in North America beyond that the English monarch had maintain a hands off approach to this point for somebody looking to start a colony. The idea of having a literal fiefdom was interesting. Prospect in example of this type of settlement surviving was easy enough to find as well. All one had to do is look at our friend. Lord Baltimore up in Maryland here. You had an English landlord who was interested in expanding his holdings the province of Maryland offered this opportunity to do just that and discuss a moment ago. Baltimore had near total control over his colony with Spanish influence on the decline. It meant that there was less of a danger of aggression from the Spanish. Should the English settle further South Than Virginia? A Spanish decline came at a super convenient time for the English as well. The English discovered the cash crop. That was sugar. The probably sugar is that much like tobacco. It is a labor intensive and land intensive crop. Now there are various ways to deal with the incoming labor shortage this includes having more colonists over indentured servants yes slaves. The land on the other hand was a bigger concern. The islands of the West indies at were basically exhausted. There was a major shortage of available. Where you could grow sugar? And the soil itself was becoming increasingly drained of nutrients this shortage of lament that the cost to produce sugar was rapidly increasing. The effect of this is that sugar production fell completely into the hands of wealthy landlords and squeezed. Poor planters right out of the game. This increasingly angry mass was desperate for opportunities that were simply becoming less and less available throughout the islands of the Caribbean enter. Sir John Colton Colton was born in sixteen o eight as the second son of Peter Colton growing up in Dover Colton was of some means but would truly see himself ascent to prominence during the English civil war Colton spent the war fighting alongside the king and the royalists where he was marked with distinction. Earning the commission Colton would end up commend his own regiment. However as we know the royalists did not win the English Civil Wars Colton would end up having his land seized by parliamentary forces and cultured himself was forced to flee England or the relative safety of the English Colony Barbados. Colton would then spend the next decade as a sugar planter on that island. Seeing the less shortage Colton recognized that. The West indies were becoming over saturated to the point. There was little opportunity for anybody. Other than the wealthiest landlords Colton had good personal connections from his time in the war and was close personal friends with William Berkeley. The governor in Virginia Colton had become tied to the Berkeley family during the civil war. As it was William Berkeley's brother John Berkeley who would grant the commission to Colton? During that war John Berkeley is going to come up again here shortly as he is going to become one of the founders of the province of New Jersey. The situation in England had also changed by this time. Oliver Cromwell had died in Sixteen. Fifty eight upon his death is son. Richard Cromwell became the Lord Protector of England. The problem however is that Richard was definitely not his father without going into details as they are not really important for our story. Richard would end up resigning as Lord. Protector and England turned to the son of Charles. I who had been hanging out in exile in the Spanish Netherlands Charles. The second was brought back to England and was officially recognized as King on May Twenty Ninth Sixteen Sixty. I think recognized as king because to his credit. Charles the second had been telling everybody for the past decade that he was in fact the king the difference is it took until May of sixteen sixty before. Anybody really decided that it was time to listen to him or Colton. This presented him with new Charles. The second did in fact recalled those who had remained loyal not only to his father but to how Stewart in general Colton marking these check boxes found himself in a perfect position joining together with the Berkeley brothers as well as the Barbados Plantation. Owner Anthony Cooper. They set out with a plan to colonize the Carolinas. The Carolinas were a perfect place for such an ambitious project. Unlike on the islands of the West indies there was absolutely no shortage of land in North America. In fact to my Colton Carolina must have seemed like nearly infinite amounts of land. Picking up a handful of other major investors along the way including Edward Hyde. George Manek Sir. George Carteret and William Craven the Earl of Craven. The men mentioned above were not just wealthy but carried with them. Large amounts of influence monarch had been a pivotal player. Making the restoration happen. Hide was the king's chief minister. Not only did these men have money for the project but they had the power and influence to make it a reality on March twenty fourth sixteen sixty three. Their request was granted. Charles the second issue to grant to the eight men that gave them control of everything south of the thirty six parallel down to the state Mathis River near the border of Florida. Now oddly enough. I can't actually find anything to tell me. Worthy see Mathis River actually was as it appears to have been renamed so my awesome listeners. I would love an answer to this as anybody knows looking at a map. I suspect that the State Mathis River is now saint. Mary's on the Florida Georgia state line. However beyond me making what I think. Is it educated? Guess I've got zero to back me up on this so if you know the answer want to help me out please do either way Colton. And his company had just been given a very significant grant of lead. And we're now ready to jump into colonization game understanding the difficulty of getting people to pack up from England and travel across the Atlantic. The plan was to get settlers into the Carolina in a different way. Instead of looking across the Atlantic for colonists the focus was instead play some people much closer to that location. This gave several advantages over trying to get people in England up route. I as we SANJIV sound. The trip was extremely rough on one's health. Not only was the journey across the Atlantic. Excel FRAUGHT WITH DANGER. But things did not get much better. Once you arrived in colonial America the difference in climate led to long periods of acclimation and typically a high mortality rate having to learn the land and figure out how to survive took time and came at great expense to the colony. We spent a ton of time on this last season when we looked at the early struggles at Jamestown Wolves Plymouth. The Carolina investors had no interest in repeating these mistakes instead. They wanted something that will be immediately able to get on. Its own two feet and quickly become profitable recruiting. People already in. The new world meant that they will be able to avoid the worst of the process of acclamation. Secondly Colton was keenly aware of the land shortage in the West indies. He knew that there was already a large population place that was anxious for opportunity to make a profit with the land shortages. It was practically impossible for them to carve out a place in the West indies however the prospect of coming to Carolina afforded them the chance to establish their own plantations. Colton having spent a decade in exile in Barbados focused his efforts there. Laghouat named are proprietors as being the absolute proprietors of the colony. So much as it was in Maryland are a proprietors are going to essentially be running their own little kingdom. So let's spend some time looking at the charter itself and figuring out what we can learn from it in the beginning of the charter. It is interesting to take notice of the position of England in regards to the native Americans. The first paragraph grants the land in order to enlarge the empire and means of England and clean those parts of America that are not yet cultivated or planted and only inhabited by some barbarous people who have no knowledge of the Almighty God contrast that to what we discussed way back in episode one point seven as we looked at the English attempts to justify the fact that the lead was in fact not open clearly here in sixteen sixty three that has moved from being something of concern to little more than.
"william berkeley" Discussed on American Elections: Wicked Game
"February very sixth eighteen thirty seven in the House Chamber in Washington Massachusetts Congressman. John Quincy Adams has the floor a stack of dozens of anti slavery. Petitions from New Hampshire New York Michigan and Virginia. But there's one piece of paper in particular that he plans to use as a weapon. Gentlemen I have in my possession of paper from twenty the person's declaring themselves to be slaves upon which I wished to have the decision of the speaker. I wished to know whether the speaker will consider this paper as coming under the rule of the house. Adams's pressing the issue of the GAG. Rule deliberately baiting his southern counterparts into a fight the speaker replies. The gentleman gentleman has the paper in his hands. He is the best judge of the matter. If the gentleman will send the paper to chair the chair will make a determination as you wish. Mr Speaker in Alabama Congressman Job lawler leaps to his feet objection. Mr Speaker. This document must not go to the table under the rules of the House. lawler is joined By a throng of southern Congressmen. Who condemned Misr Adams? Virginia Congressman William Berkeley Lewis Presses for punitive action. Mr Speaker. The House should immediately punish the member. I I second. The motion Adams rises one last time to his defense Mr Speaker. It is my duty to remains silent while these resolutions charging me with high crimes are pending but as the gentlemen of this House have gone on consuming time in the house in such a manner. I also feel a duty you to show these resolutions for what they are erroneous. I simply Rosen my place and stated that I had in my possession in a letter from twenty persons representing themselves to be slaves. I did not state. What the object of the paper was Adams knows the papers object? It calls for the ratification of slavery but in a clever move he plays dumb. The gentleman from Alabama might find that the object of the petition is precisely what he has been so strenuously uneasily contending for so Mr Speaker all petitions should be received whether they come from the wealthiest individuals in the land or the poorest among us. I hope Mr Speaker that no distinction will be made in petitions in a free government. Blessed we make ourselves fit instruments for the abuse of a desk in the late eighteen thirties. John Quincy Adams repeatedly challenged the gag all in one speech. He stated you begin with suppressing the right of petition. You must next suppress the right of speech in the house. What will be the consequence? Then you suppress press the right of petition you suppress the freedom of speech the freedom of the press and the freedom of religion for in the minds of many. This is a religious question in which they act under what they believed to be a sense of duty to their God on the same day that Adams made his stand John C.. Calhoun offered a counter argument. On the floor of the Senate and less anti slavery petitions be speedily stopped it will spread to brings the two great sections of the Union into deadly conflict. Calhoun argument was was a portend of one was to come on February eighth. Eighteen thirty seven. Congress counted the electoral votes van. Van Buren won by a slim margin. Fifty point eight percent of the popular vote. He won fifteen states mainly in the north he took Pennsylvania but narrowly van Buren beat Harrison by less than five thousand of the nearly one hundred eighty thousand votes cast. In the past two elections. President Jackson had made a strong wrong showing in the South Van Buren didn't fare nearly as well. They're van Buren ran nearly even with Hugh Lawson white even losing Jackson's home state of Tennessee. A sobering fact that showed that the Democratic Party was no longer fully the party of Andrew Jackson. It was thought that the whigs had hoped to throw the eighteen thirty six contests to the house. US were unite around a single candidate and beat Van Buren. Their strategy failed but Congress still had a part to play in the election of eighteen. Thirty six Democrats in in Virginia refused to vote for Van Buren running mate in large part. Because of Johnson's scandalous relationship to Julia Chinn as a result he fell one vote short sort of an electoral majority so for the first and only time in American history. The Senate exercise the power of the Twelfth Amendment and selected the vice president on on February eighth the Senate convened cast their votes but despite the many strikes against him the largely pro Jackson Senate named Richard Johnson Vice President throughout vampires. First term. Johnson's personal life would continue to make headlines. According to the rumors after Julia died of Cholera Johnson took two of Julius Nieces uses as common-law wives before selling them off ultimately van buren would have no choice but to cut ties with his vice president and while the whigs lost the eighteen thirty six contest. They made an impressive showing especially in the south. That's in large part. Due to the issue of slavery in the eighteen thirties anti slavery sentiment was growing and in response. The south built fortifications around the plantation economy to them. Neither van Buren nor Johnson were true champions of Virginia principles in the eighteen thirty six contests the pro Jackson dominant seen the elections of eighteen twenty eight and eighteen. Thirty two had all but faded away in. Its place. What would come? I'm to be called the second two party system had taken. Root the era of the whigs and the Democrats in eighteen thirty six van Buren had won by the skin of his teeth in the eighteen. Forty contests van Buren would have another difficult fight on. His hands made all the worse by a devastating crisis. That would cripple the American economy. Van Buren Aaron's response to what would come to be called the panic of eighteen. Thirty seven would cost him in the election of eighteen forty and he would leave the door open for a whig candidate would made a strong showing taking thirty six general William Henry Harrison on the next episode of wicked game the election of eighteen forty the wing seek seek to deny van Buren a second term but to beat the little magician. The whigs take a page out of the Democrats playbook and unite behind their own man of the People General William Henry every Harrison. Don't miss a single week of our march from seventeen eighty nine to twenty twenty. Hit the subscribe button. PODCAST APP. Now this show is supported by you you our listeners. Please give us a rating leave a review but the single best way to help the show grown used to tell others share with your friends and family and find us on social media at wicked game pond. And I'm at Lindsey Graham. Another way to support the show is to go to wicked game. PODCAST DOT COM members. There get early access to add ad free episodes as well as bonus content only available to patrons find out more and wicked game. PODCAST DOT COM and about our reenactments in most cases. We can't no exactly what was said but everything. Our show is heavily researched based on surviving historical documents. WICCA game is an airship production created hosted and executive produced by me Lindsey Graham sound designed by Derek Barron's CO executive produced by Stephen Walters in association with ritual productions written and researched by Stephen Walters answers fact checking by Greg Jackson Seattle Salazar from the podcast history. That doesn't sock music by Lindsey Graham distributed by wondering..
"william berkeley" Discussed on The Political History of the United States
"Hello and welcome to the political history of the United States episode. One Point Twenty nine the New England roundup. Well here we are guys. Fifteen episodes was on New England and today we are going to finally wrap this up now. Of course we aren't really going to be leaving New England for all that long throughout the colonial period of the United States. New England is going to remain in epicenter of events. However for the sake of this season I needed to find a place to draw the line in the sand and this seems like as good a time as any be four we move on for today? I WANNA give a brief idea of where the podcast is going for the rest of this season after today. Okay we only have got one more episode in the main narrative next time we are going to jump in and look at the introduction of slavery into the colonies after that we are going to be ready to get into the review episodes. Now here's the good news. I'm a little bit further ahead on research and other things than I thought I would be at this point so we are not going to be looking at a long break in between the seasons like I hit originally thought at this point my plan is to take one week off sometime around Christmas and battle be about. How did we will have a two part review episode where we go back and look at all of the different things and try to draw some strings together and then we will jump right in to the second season so at at this point I anticipate that we are only going to have a one week break sometime around the holidays other than that the podcast will just keep moving to begin for today? I want to start by discussing Cassini events in England and how they are over in New England way back in episode one point thirteen. We had talked about the fact that when the English civil wars came Virginia had remained and a holdout for as long as possible against parliament and specifically against Oliver Cromwell. This along with re electing William Berkeley as their governor set. Virginia up very very nicely for when the restoration rose around in the sixteen sixties events. Were very different. However in New England Oliver Cromwell was appeared in? And let's not forget why all of the puritans left England in the first place there was widespread persecution of the puritans throughout the sixteen twenties and thirties. So many of the colonial leaders became colonists in direct response to the practices of Charles the first and more specifically his henchmen William laud the policies of of Charles the I n laud were the reason for the great migration happening and while I can't find a source specifically stating this. I think it is a pretty safe bet that when laud was beheaded in January wary of sixteen forty five there was not exactly a lot of colonists grieving his death even with the execution of Charles I I would imagine that celebrations were a a bit more muted than in the case with William Lod however there was very little love for Charles the first amongst the puritans in the case of Virginia. They found themselves on the wrong wrong side of the battle having remained loyal the house stewart however the effects were fairly minimal. There over in Virginia. When they're governor was forced to resign? There was little practical who affect in Virginia with New England. However the Connie had been built upon animosity towards law and the king? So this is where I tell you about the great battle between new New England in Virginia. Right after all New England Puritan and Virginia would remain aligned with the crown. Of course everybody would want desperately defend their honor right the at now. That battle never came and was never really much of a risk throughout the duration of English of wars as well as the English interregnum the a period where the nation was under the protectorate following. The fall of Charles the first and the ascension of Charles the second there was only a single skirmish in the English. Civil war fought in North America. It was in in Maryland near Annapolis and right around fifty people died. This is going to go down in sixteen fifty five on the ground. In New England itself there was no actual fighting or violence. The major tangible effect was a reduction in the population any decline in the immigration rate. As I mentioned just a moment ago the cause of the great migration was largely driven by the policies of William Laud puritans attempting to avoid his persecution decided that it was a great time to get out of dodge left their homes with around twenty five thousand finding their way to North America tap following the end of Charles the first period of personal rule and the establishment of what would become known as the long parliament aptly named because it remained in session until sixteen sixty pence was very very long. We see those who had been loyal to Charles Begin to get impeached and arrested. This includes men. Like William Laud the beginning of the Long March effectively marks at the end of the great migration to New England despite how stable things have begun to appear throughout Massachusetts and the rest of New England in all fairness things are still pretty rough rough given the choice pretty much anybody is going to want to remain in England as opposed to packing up and heading across the Atlantic as the threat of persecution diminished. The need to hop on a boat at emigrate across the Atlantic to New England was also drastically reduced on top of that. In addition to the reduction in immigration from England New England there was a portion of the population. Who believed that? This would be a good time to head back across the Atlantic the other direction and return home to England by the a sixteen forty head rolled around life in New England was at least becoming bearable however people were not starving in the colony was not overcome with illness and disease. Plus for a lot of colonist honest they had a good thing going in New England that they would lose if they decided to return back home. Well nobody. New England was preaching for anything that resembled a desire for independence from the crown. It's it's not like the crown had ever really exercise that much control over the New England colonies Charles. The I was busy throughout the sixteen. Thirty s not calling parliament and trying to raise he's funds. He didn't really have the time to worry about trivial matters. Like how the New England colonies were off effectively governing themselves. None of the puritans in New England would would have been all that upset though admittedly they were probably a bit surprised at the execution of Charles. The first they were likely thrilled to see a puritan England getting more of a foothold old but for those living in New England six forty they hit spent the last decade living in a puritan nation basically unchecked and largely unnoticed in that way there was very little pointing pointing returning to England for a period in haven when they already had one in New England. Some do go back there for to fight most chose to remain right there. In New England the period ends as devout as they were did not believe that piety and poverty went hand in hand the periods more than happy to make money and economic prosperity absolutely was a keen interest to them. So then how did the puritans go about making their money. Unlike what we saw down in Virginia there is never a point where a single staple crop appears. Tobacco is a crop that is going to completely define the southern United States and along with cotton are going to become the stables of that region tobacco and Conard are going to play significant roles in the history of the southern United States and ultimately the United States at large however the situation in New England is different. The primary Mary way that wealth found its way into new. England was from communist coming over from England in other words New England depended on the fact that the new communist coming over from England. Good brought with them. Wealth that transfer of wealth from England into the colony was initially self sustaining especially during the sixteen thirty s during the great migration. It for obvious reasons over this is an inherently unstable system if that steady flood of new colonists were to say dry up it is going to completely stall the economy to me as we now know by the time sixteen forty one arrives. The great migration was over that steady stream of communist dried up this form. Some of gathering wealth is obviously never going to be sustainable. And this wouldn't have been a surprise to anybody with the end of the great migration and immediate need to diversify. The economy of new league became a paramount concern. This as economic depression began to settle it at the end of the great migration. What initially emerged? Was He fishing. Trade the ocean right off. The coast of New England was already a popular spot for fishing. However the English Civil Wars had been a boon to the new englanders English fishing boats could not easily easily get off the English coast to fish with the ongoing civil wars? This gave the new Englanders a competitive advantage. The Communists would ship the high quality product to Spain vein in other parts of Europe. Well the low quality catch went south to the West indies to feed the growing slave population. Something that we will talk more about next time for or the PURITANS and economy based on fishing was great because hey we all like economic prosperity the problem however is that the puritans and the fishermen didn't really get along long. This is going to be a shocking revelation sailors especially those coming to North America to make money in the sixteen. Forty s didn't exactly have a reputation of high. Hi moral fiber guys like to drink swear and do all of the other unsavory things that sailors do. The periods were aghast at the behavior. And we're always careful not to let this unwelcomed profitable group disrupt their carefully curated colony to keep fishing from for me the one and only cash crop in New England and having that culture completely take over it was necessary for the puritans to further diversify the economy what emerges here is something that would become a staple of the New England way of life the family farm instead of the huge plantation system that we see emerging in the south new Englanders instead focused on smaller farms which brought dual benefits. I A small farm was great for personal sustenance. You could grow your own food which you could then eat yourself. The other benefit is that the remainder remainder of that food that you grew south that you personally did not need to eat was a great source of income. Well a small surplus food might not have been enough for any single person to get rich. When taken in the aggregate New England was producing large amounts of surplus that could then be sold? Him Bull was again. This was often means sold to to the West indies where the growing slave population put new demands on that region to produce food the crops for sale included every report beef barley and dairy products as well as things like timber tar and plant board by selling surplus from otherwise small family farms. The puritans were able to accomplish a couple of importing goals first and most importantly to them they were able to turn a nice profit which everybody was happy about second they were able to keep fishing and more importantly fishermen from taking over the economy and inevitably Indian their way of life. The small individual farm is going to become an important part of the fabric of New England life and is going to remain a characterizing feature of it moving on into the future this form of an economy is also going to lead to other developments that are going to end up being important in the long term. The large plantations in Virginia required huge amounts of labor. Tobacco is a labor intensive crop and required a large amount of manpower. The best way to you. Get that manpower. In the sixteen forty's was through slavery. In New England. Smaller personal farms were far less labor dependent. Most of the food was grown by the individual family with just surplus being sold back. These are not the massive farming operations and the need for slave. Labor was far less than New England than in Virginia. This isn't to say that slavery doesn't exist in New England because it does however it doesn't exist to the same extent that it will develop in Virginia nor is that as critical part of the economy the Economic Structure Virginia depended on slavery and in New England that just doesn't ring true now in all fairness the New England economy still was depended on slavery though in a different way well slave labor was not a huge facet of the New England economy. The West indies was a huge huge buyer of the surplus being created by the small farms as well as the be great fish supply where the primary consumer of the goods was the growing slave population. Shen if the West indie system collapsed the New England economy was going down with it over the remainder of the seventeenth century. We are going to see the economy of new linguine. Become more diverse as manufacturing is going to become a key component of that economy..
"william berkeley" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class
"Iheartradio app, or wherever else you get your podcasts. Further break, we talked about the enslavement of native Americans and Africans Virginia from the earliest years of the colony up through the sixteen seventies. And now we need to rewind just a little bit to talk about how the colonial government developed because that was a big of frustration leading into bacon rebellion at the top of the show. We talked about how the Virginia company established the colony at Jamestown in sixteen seven in sixteen eighteen the company drafted a set of instructions for newly appointed governor, Sir, George yearly. These instructions were called the great charter, and they included the head right system that we talked about earlier the great charter also included instructions about the colonies governance, the company decided to establish an elected body of representatives. So that the colonists could have some say in the government while the colony state in the company's control. These representatives were known as Burgess, and they were elected to represent each settlement today. Gather. The Burgess is the governor's council and the governor formed a unicameral body that was the general assembly that has come up a couple of times in this episode, but in spite of ongoing reforms through these decades and all these instructions that were detailed in the great. Charter the colony still just was not thriving the Virginia company never managed to get out of debt. Even though it was not paying the vast majority of its labor by the sixteen twenty s critics were also raising serious questions about the company and how it was running things. So in sixteen twenty four after a yearlong investigation. The crown revoked to the company's charter and took direct control of the colony appointing a Royal governor and other officials this was a massive change for the colonists. Especially because for the first several years, the general assembly had, no, formal recognition. The colonists were frustrated and angry over the situations since they'd gone from being at least somewhat self governing with an elected assembly. To being under the control of a governor. Who was appointed? By the monarch, the crown did eventually recognize the assembly and then in sixteen forty three governor, sir. William Berkeley, split the Burgess as off into their own house of the government. And so this turned the colonies unicameral legislature into a bicameral one his goal in doing. This was part of a plan to try to create a stable central government for the colony but a side effect of splitting the Burgess into their own house. Was that the Burgess who had always been mostly made up of the colonies, gentry, they became increasingly focused on their own needs and the needs of other rich colonists. So the colonies less affluent people really felt like they didn't have a voice in the government anymore throughout all this time tobacco. Continued to be the foundation of Virginia's economy tobacco. Prices had started to drop around the sixteen twenty s as exports from North America, and the Caribbean flooded, the British market the Dutch also about a lot of tobacco from. Jinya and that revenue was cut off completely during the first Anglo Dutch war which started in sixteen fifty two then in sixteen sixty parliament passed the navigation acts which required Virginia's exports to be sent through English ports on English ships that once again, upended Virginia's tobacco trade with the Dutch Republic since the colony could no longer sell directly to the Dutch. Once the war was over they had resumed that trade. And then the navigation accidents that they could not do it anymore. And then of course, because it was a war or also all of the other wartime effects, including the colony being directly attacked also in sixteen sixty sir. William Berkeley was appointed the governor of Regina for a second time his separation of the Burge's into their own house and the government had happened during his first term that first term lasted from sixteen forty one to sixteen fifty two and it largely took place during the English civil war. Berkeley himself was a royalist. So when that's I've lost the war initially loss. His position as governor not long afterward. Charles the second was restored to the throne in sixteen sixty in Berkeley's, first term as governor had gone well enough that the king restored him to the position. But the second term did not go nearly as well in his first term, Berkeley, hidden, courage, Virginia, farmers and planters to diversify their crops. So the colonial economy wouldn't be so susceptible to everything from whether to wars Charles the second approved a formal plan to do this during Berkeley second term, but Berkeley's attempts to carry it out. Just didn't go well taxes were increased to fund the diversification effort, which meant that planters felt like they were being taxed in order to make a change that they didn't even wanna make in the first place. The diversification effort fizzled and tobacco remained as the primary export crop. So when the second Anglo Dutch war started in sixteen sixty five planters incomes. Once again, plummeted planters were also becoming frustrated because of some of the consequences of the. Head rights stem that we talked about earlier the land that was granted to people under that system was not the most fertile farmable land out in the Tidewater area of the colony it was farther inland, where it was a lot rockier the soil was not as rich some of it was on the other side of the fall line, which made it harder to transport goods out to the coast, and the more people moved into this territory, the more frustrated they were about this disparity between the people out on the Tidewater and people in the inner coastal plain governor Berkeley was also really fond of granting some of the best lands of people that he liked as rewards and that meant that that extra good land was not available to sell to anyone else. Those earlier issues with colonists feeling like they weren't represented in the government resurfaced in sixteen seventy when the assembly adopted legislation that restricted the right to vote only two people who owned taxable land this disenfranchised a lot of previously eligible voters. On top of that. There hadn't been new election for the assembly in eight years, so only the wealthiest and most elite people in the colony felt represented in the government since they were the ones connected to the Burge's who had been serving all that time as if that was not enough on top of all of this in sixteen seventy two Charles the second granted, all Virginia's revenues to the Lord's Arlington and Culpepper and this led the governor of Regina to raise taxes again. Both try to offset that loss of revenue and to pay for an appeal to try to get the grant reversed all of these things that we've talked about today led to the British colonies first, violent uprising among its colonists. And we're going to talk about that on our next show. I have a little bit of listener mail to close us out. And this is about our not that long ago episode on rough Olympic and the genocide convention it is from Nate. Nate says Hello, Tracy and Holly. I just wanted to add a note to your episode on. Raffaelle Lipkin and the genocide convention, you mentioned that Lumpkin studied law at LeBow Poland, which is now in Ukraine and called LA live while Lumpkin was working to define genocide as a crime the related, but distinct legal concept of crimes against humanity was being developed by Hirsch, louder pocked who had studied law at the same university. The parallels between the two continued at the Nuremberg trial where louder parked was an adviser to the British prosecutors while Lincoln was an adviser to the Americans both men lost relatives in the holocaust. And at Nuremberg that came face to face with a defendant and most directly responsible for these deaths Hans Frank the Nazi governor of Poland. I learned this and more in a fascinating book called east west street by Philip Assam's, which I highly recommend keep up the good work Nate, thank you Nate. I wanted to read the Email for two reasons. One to include that tidbit about ladder and the idea of crimes against humanity because that did come up in my research and was not. That we really got into in the episode as much one of Lincoln's sources of frustration was that it seemed like sometimes there was more focused on this idea of crimes against humanity. And he really felt like there needed to be a legal focus on the idea of genocide and on preventing and prosecuting genocide. And then I also wanted to clarify because I don't think I said that he has studied law in Poland. I I'm not sure what gave that impression. What I did say that was definitely confusing or what I did write that was definitely confusing. I don't remember which said it in the actual episode as that I've made it sound like the university of Heidelberg and lavar off which is now. Live was one place. Those are in fact, two different universities and Lincoln studied at both of those universities at different times. So if anybody got the impression that there used to be a university that was called the university of Heidelberg and live that it's two different places and live. Yes is in Ukraine now. So thank you for letting me share that if you would like to write to us about this or any other podcast. We were a history podcasts at how stuff works dot com. There were Oliver social media at missed in history. We are at Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Instagram as missing history, and then you can come to our website, which is missing history dot com and find a searchable archive all the episodes should never done and the show notes for the upsets, the Holly, and I have worked on together. And you can subscribe to our show on apple podcast iheartradio app. It anywhere else to get your podcasts.
"william berkeley" Discussed on The Political History of the United States
"The English. Of course, we're not gonna go forever. However, without a proper response that response would come in may of sixteen twenty three the English heads spent the preceding months attacking the burning their villages and destroy their food supply that made the Indians were themselves now experiencing major food shortages, and we're in a position where they had to make a deal themselves. The English came to them and made peace overtures following a period of negotiations. A peace was reached the peace English proposed a toast and invited two hundred fifty Indians attending the negotiations to have a drink with them. The problem is that the drifts of the Indians have been given or dropped the English quickly moved and slaughtered the entire room obituary in a was not present during the counter massacre of Schengen a- will continue. To lead resistance against the English. Until a real peace was reached in sixteen thirty to the peace in sixteen. Thirty two however is telling following the end of the first Anglo pout, and what we saw a decade of peaceful relations come into place for the most part during that decade, the sides, just coexisted. However now the English were far less interested in coexisting peacefully with the Indians the peace settlement of sixteen. Thirty two was harsh for over. Shing 'em must have been a bitter pill to swallow the English got pushing no to agree to massive land concessions. The English were now allowed to continue their expansion northward along the Chesapeake the big difference. Over was that this piece was not meant to enter into a new period of cooperation between the two sides. Instead the piece was designed to do exactly the opposite. Strict borders were to be established separation was the plan other than communication for the limited purpose of trade. The English may clear that they did not want anything to do with Otieno or the powder and people the English by this point had become self. Efficient the powered and tribes were no longer needed to provide food or to help ensure their survival. Even after the peace the powder and tribes were viewed as a nuisance at best in enemy at worst. The English wanted to be clear that there was no room for both cultures to resist the English. Love. No mistake of which culture. They intended to survive into the future in the years after sixteen thirty to Jamestown continued to thrive during the sixteenth thirties. The colony began to see population rapidly expand this is something that becomes an important factor. Moving forward as the population of Jamestown expands. There is further pressure place on an already limited amount of land for the English. The boundaries of the settlement of sixteen thirty two was to an extent more of a suggestion than any kind of hard border. Now, of course for the powered people. This was a fixed border the peace between Otieno in the English therefore remain tenuous best shinkin with his options dwindling. Decided that his best move was a repeat of the sixteen. Twenty two massacre in sixteen forty four O pachinko made the tactical decision that it was the time to strike again. This is an interesting decision for the powder leader. Now, an elderly man probably in his nineties. He had witnessed the diminishing of his people and the ones powerful pouting confederacy by the time sixteen forty four had rolled around much had changed James Sam by this point had entered into the era of William Berkeley, Berkeley is going to become an absolute tight emerging in is going to spend the next several decades completely changing the face of the colony Berkeley became the Royal governor back in sixteen forty two and was anxious to make his Mark eliminating the threat that he played Jamestown literally from sixty seven was just one way for him to do it. And the attack in sixteen forty four gave Berkeley all the justification needed to eliminate the pouting and confederacy wasn't for all now as a quick note before moving on. I'm intentionally not going to do a full. Introduction to William Berkeley here today. Berkeley is in fact, a huge vigor and is going to wind up being the longest serving governor in the entire history of Virginia. However, his role in this episode in the next episode are going to be relatively minor next season. We are willing to spend a lot of time with William Berkeley when we cover bigots rebellion. So for now know that William Berkeley is in our story that he is super important, and that is about all you need to worry about for today. The attack in sixteen twenty two had made some degree of sense after all over shinkin own knew that drain the attack that he still had a major advantage in the immediately available manpower discounting, the English ability to restock men as well as far more experienced fighting in the forest will the English did enjoy a decisive advantage in their arms their ability to defeat pushing was not in fact, certain the colony had a population of only about a thousand people in sixteen twenty two it was at least. Reasonably thought that the massacre could be successful in. So seriously weakening, the colony that could cause the English to retreat from the Connie back to England for Oprah shake it out. It must have seemed like a last ditch effort to stop was now nothing short of an invasion by the time of the sixteen forty four attack. However, the English Connie wasn't a much different place. No longer where people dying and unsustainable rate. If back the population of the colony head exploded by the time of the sixteen forty four attack the Connie had approximately ten thousand people well unclear how many men Oprah Shinko had that point. It is almost certainly less than the English hat on the morning of April eighteenth, sixteen forty four opus Shinko made his move much as in the attack in sixteen twenty two the attack in sixteen forty four was a surprise attack and did affect catch the English off guard grain these sixteen twenty two attack Oba she can manage to kill approximately three hundred fifty people which at the time was about a third of the colony the attack of sixty forty four was actually more successful in actual numb. Numbers with between four and five hundred settlers killed. However, well, undeniably bad. This was far from the catastrophic blow that the sixteen twenty two attacks had appeared to be on its face despite more people died in the sixteen forty four attack. It was a significantly smaller portion of the Virginia population. What followed was the third and final Anglo powder war, Mike earlier periods. There is no room to debate. If this is a fair fight, the English had more men superior weapons, and we're still growing up Shing and his people had been in decline for a while and possessed little hope successively expelling the English or even recapturing a portion of their loss lands one must question what the thought process of Oceano was by the time that sixteen forty four he come around the most logical explanation for the attack to me. At least is that Oceano may have been trying to force the English into a more favorable peace. Then that they had secured in sixteen thirty two it, however shouldn't be discounted that for the. Aging paramount chief this may have just been his final act of defiance his last attempt to try to recapture. What had been his from the English perspective? It was abundantly clear by this point that the powder and tribes were continuing danger for the colonists and their prosperity. What would follow over the next two years where English attacks which managed destroy a majority of the Indian towns along the river and scattered their survivors deeper into the forest these attacks are nothing short of devastating for the powered and people not only do they no longer have the manpower to mount a capable resistance, but the English had gained the pretext to remove them completely from the land land that the English needed to continue to expand in sixteen forty six ocean. Co himself was captured transported back to Jamestown as something of a trophy by this point Otieno was nearly one hundred years old blind and barely able to walk his time and Jamestown however would be short shortly after making it into a fort in angry soldier shot and killed him. For all practical purposes. This is the end of the pouting confederacy the remaining tribes agreed to a peace which ban them from Jamestown peninsula under the penalty of death. They had to accept that the English had essentially free rein to colonize. It will finally they had to acknowledge the king of England as their sovereign. Make no mistake. This was complete and total feet for the powder and people having to accept the king of England as their sovereign basically marks the end of the powder. Confederacies ability to meaningfully conduct their own self rule. We will not see another figure like piloted or opus shinkin rise up to take the rates of power for overshadow. He is left with a mixed legacy. Well, so often he stood in the background pouted. His voice was something. That was always present. He had spent nearly thirty years in charge of a trap that had to deal with rapidly expanding and
"william berkeley" Discussed on WBSM 1420
"Get people crossing the border because they can't get there. In addition defensing with me Schumer, also argued that the president doesn't need five billion dollars for wall. Because. He has yet to spend the one point seven billion for border security. They already gave him. All right. Let's go back to what he said walls. He says don't work. Here's Hector Garza of the border patrol council. Democrats were quick to Georgia border patrol agents. And what are ages out there? It's so secret or rescue a lot of people on a regular basis, they they'd be recognized. But a lot of our members in congress. Now, they were saying that some of these kids need medical checkups that they needed all these services, well, fun border security, give us the money. So we can do our job payers paychecks give us the proper money. So that we can have the resources we can train board maturity deserves paramedics as it is. We have a lot of ages that are certified as paramedics so that we can provide that medical attention to those people are coming to our custody. But again, they're quick to criticize but gives the funding from the boys curry from the border wall. One of the points that Chuck Schumer made in his interview with the CBS local reporter, New York is that nobody was talking about a wall back in two thousand six two. Thousand nine nobody. Here's part of an interview that William Berkeley did Jan September fourteenth nineteen seventy seven what's that forty one years ago interviewing the then mayor of Baja California Roberto de LA dread here is what Buckley said to him. We know we know that illegal immigration from Mexico has risen one thousand. In the last fourteen years would would your government be sympathetic or not sympathetic to attempts to physically obstruct that movement by visiting some sort of a wall along our common frontier. No, no, no, no, no. Nobody was talking about a wall back in two thousand six two thousand nine hundred Schumer. This is nineteen seventy seven giving you some idea of how severe this problem has been. Here's what Buckley said to the then governor of Baja California. But the reality is right now are that your country on a massive scale, your citizens are violating American laws on a massive scale. And we don't quite know what to do about it. And you are certainly not coming up with any ideas, the effective word. We'll be to cut down on that lesion. So we've maybe headed towards a certain ugliness. We've requires Royd. We know we know that illegal immigration from Mexico has risen one thousand sat in the last fourteen years. Let's get his response to the proposition of how would Mexico feel if we built a walk. You've just now told us governor that it's up to every country to police it's own loss. It's not up to Mexico for the United States to to police their loss. It's up the United States. You just now said that. So what's the problem with us building? A wall said Buckley. Would would your government be sympathetic or not sympathetic to attempts to physically obstruct that movement? By building some sort of a wall along our common. Frontier certainly not why not. If you accept the responsibility of providing a home for your own citizens as I just said a while ago and all Mexicans have the right to return to Mexico at any time. Not disputing their right to pretend Mexico's disputing their right to come to the United States without an American visa, well, that's the problem the United States, you're the one who should I say. In other words, if we had it the other way around where people from the United States, we're coming into Mexico. It would be up to us to see that these. US citizens did not come into Mexico without the necessary documents Mexicans financing this war. I'm simply asking what would Mexican opinion v? If such a war were constructed, we would that under the conscience of the people of the United States here that I'm not asking you to pay for the wall. I'm asking you what what's your opinion be? If we constructed it, and he said he was still against it. And then he said, well, it's up to the conscience of the people United States, I'm into Mexico without the necessary documents. I'm not talking about Mexicans financing this war. I'm simply asking what would Mexican opinion? Be. If such a wall were constructed we with that under the conscience of the people the United States. Well, do they want? They wall between Mexico, and they want this. They want to do something about illegal immigration because it is. It is a problem that by everybody's reckoning is getting out of hand. We're talking about a ten twelve million people whereas only four hundred thousand people are legally admitted every. Nancy Pelosi has referred to a wall as an M morality. This was a conversation that Buckley had forty one years ago with feet, then governor of Baja California Mexico. Why would you have an objection to a wall? We would be you just now said didn't you? That it's up to the countries themselves to police are own countries to police their own borders. So what skin off you if we put up a wall, and we pay for it. You heard his answer. Well, I got to the conscious of the American people. How could he possibly object? What would your objection be? You have the military on the border Guatemala to make sure the quantum Marlins don't come into your country illegally. Why would you give a rip if Americans want to spend the money, however, foolishly in your opinion to build a wall? If it's on American property. Why? I didn't hear a good answer. Come back on me give you some more of this interview. And also, the mayor of Shiloh Israel talks about what happened the first year that they built a wall, and how that affected legal entry into Israel, all that and more Christian bale, thank Satan for giving him the inspiration. Dick cheney. Brad Sherman says Trump should be impeached. Even if there's nothing in the mother report, hey, why wait for that? Ciro co hosted the Golden Globes and saluted diversity. This is the moment when I see real.
"william berkeley" Discussed on 1170 The Answer
"The agents can't get people crossing the border because they can't get there. In addition to fencing with me humor also argued that the president doesn't need five billion dollars for wall because he has yet to spend a one point seven billion for border security. They already gave him. All right. Let's go back to what he said walls. He says don't work. Here's Hector Garza. Of the border patrol council. Some of the Democrats were quick to Georgia border patrol agents and what are agents out there. It's no secret or agents rescue a lot of people on a regular basis. There'd be recognized by a lot of our members in congress. Now, they were saying that some of these kids need medical check-up that they needed all these services wolf onboard security, give us the money. So we can do our job pay of gives our paychecks give the proper money so that we can have the resources so we can train border patrol paramedics as it is. We have a lot of ages that are certified as paramedics so that we can provide that medical attention to those people are coming to our custody. But again, they're quick to criticize but giving the funding for the boys curry from the border wall. One of the points that Chuck Schumer made in his interview with CBS to local reporter, New York is that nobody was talking about a wall back in two thousand six two thousand nine nobody here is part of an interview that William Berkeley did Jan September fourteenth nineteen seventy seven what's that forty one years ago? And he's interviewing the then mayor of Baja California Roberto de LA Madrid here is what Buckley said to him. We know we know that illegal immigration from Mexico has risen one thousand. In the last fourteen years would would your government be sympathetic or not sympathetic to attempts to physically obstruct that movement by building some sort of a wall along our common frontier. No, no, no, no, no. Nobody was talking about a wall back in two thousand six two thousand nine says Schumer. This is nineteen seventy seven giving you some idea of how severe this problem has been. Here's what Buckley said to the then Baja then governor of Baja California, but the reality is right now on that your country on a massive scale, your citizens are violating American laws on a massive scale. And we don't quite know what to do about it. And you are certainly not coming up with any ideas. The effect will be to cut down on that. So we may be headed toward they certain ugliness. We worked. We know we know that illegal immigration from Mexico has risen one thousand sat in the last fourteen years. Let's get his response to the proposition of how would Mexico feel if we built a wall? You just now told us governor that it's up to every country to police it's own laws. It's not up to Mexico for the United States to to police their losses up the United States. You just now said that. So what's the problem with us building? A wall said Buckley. Would would you government be sympathetic or not sympathetic to attempts to physically obstruct that movement by building some sort of a wall along our common from certainly not why not? If you accept the responsibility of providing a home for your own citizens as I just said a while ago any and all Mexicans have the right to return to Mexico at any time. This keeping their right to Mexico understanding their right to come to the United States without an American LIZA. That's the problem the United States, you're the one who should say. In other words. The other way around for people from the United States. We're coming into Mexico. It would be up to us to see that these. US did not come into Mexico without the necessary documents. I'm not talking about Mexicans financing this wall. I'm simply asking what would Mexican opinion? Be. If such a war were constructed we with would that under the conscience of the people the United States. I'm not asking you to pay for the wall. I'm asking you. What would your opinion be? If we constructed and he said he was still against it. And then he said, well, it's up to the conscience of the people of the United States into Mexico without the necessary documents. I'm not Mexican financing this war. I'm simply asking what would Mexican opinion? If such a war were constructed. We would that under the conscience of the people of the United States. Well, do they want the wall between Mexico, and they want this? They want to do something about illegal immigration because it is it is a problem that by everybody's reckoning is getting out of hand. We're talking about a ten twelve million people whereas only four hundred thousand people are legally admitted every. Nancy Pelosi has referred to a wall as an M morality. This was a conversation that Buckley had forty one years ago with the then governor of Baja California Mexico. Why would you have an objection to a wall? We would be you just now said didn't you? That it's up to the countries themselves to police their own countries to police their own borders. So what skin off you if we put up a wall, and we pay for it. You heard his answer. Well, I got to the conscious of the American people. How could he possibly object? What would your objection be? You have the military on the border Guatemala to make sure the quantum Marlins don't come into your country illegally. Why would you give a rip if Americans want to spend the money, however, foolishly in your opinion to build a wall? If it's on American property. Why? I didn't hear a good answer. Come back. I'm gonna give you some more of this interview. Also, the mayor of Shiloh Israel talks about what happened the first year that they built a wall, and.
"william berkeley" Discussed on 10 10 WINS
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"william berkeley" Discussed on WCTC
"Icty choir who has not played much recently is averaging six points nearly couple of rebounds sixty percent free throw shooter line writes at the first more ravioli freak rao roles off rebound picked up by church up ahead for flour you were treating achy overshoots herat about s rutgers we'll get a back as michigan turned it over again really good brief guard bug william berkeley didn't allow learning to see that law fifth michigan turn over here of the quarter spoke to forty remain and that really did the wolf we did in their loss two purdue the patrick upped up the pass for harris off of her hand she is able to tap it and keep it in the hands of carb choir is walker's still has fifty to shoot choir quiz while right wing rollins ha your a box harris baseline dr other wreath parable that scores victoria hours with a tough mothers it rousseau insult by victoria has declared grew weaker defender baseline an coming round to rutgers with a six 600 raw they before the last five michigan one of their last seven your left wing flowery who has yet to score flower gets a high smith adult tells the quarter splits the past with all ski off of her hands the pick up by harris again she pushes euros a week that's patrick up topic up choir all wide open 3 no good back rim what rebound achabal wallet farright wing up top greier near right wing fitzpatrick wide open 3 that sure at of all we bound to minority of michigan and then flowery jubal traffic she loses in another michigan turnover and workers will father restore some order and once of slow offense year with an eleven seven lead ninety seconds to go in the first let's of the little straw a knighthood and been doing very much for taking the time getting the game under control in limited a point to do a good look rolex off of one dribble from eight feet of.
"william berkeley" Discussed on WPRO 630AM
"And the great swamp site and he uh rallies again just the search for match com meta comes manner sick unclear why bought he done they do eventually capture meta comes wife and son and they tracked him down uh over several days and finally shoes him uh there is a very famous diary entries philip has x sets is this understood by the puritans to be victory or do they know the do they think the war will continue luke luke no no this is a wall which is going to continue because what happens the end the king phillips wars eat it isn't now the reason to sort of a complete stiff um as a almost this moment this is a war which changes shape and moons geographically so that he said he moves boston so that if those most of human writing about the are watching in boston the appears the war is over but that actually but you know that and they suspect we could trace this right back to the early days of virginia but as long as the english columnist wish to expand they need we'd be pushing against the traditional tear it trees as a native inhabitants and that is always going to um uh create conflicts and war so that the war does actually lean going off three danes but the but the killing if metric called me so symbolic key powerful um so the think again the the the the pierre teacher right there in history so they see the perfect moment where you can at least in the czech terrific will quite the book the war as for the second generation the tsa right what the great migration was for the first war continues and we move to the chesapeake colonies because here there are indians rising up the dogs in particular and there's fighting in maryland they're fighting a junior colony but most importantly the governor in virginia is in aged man governor sir william berkeley he in diplomacy to handle the frontier and.
"william berkeley" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030
"And they would come over from greening from rigopiano him and wondering why don't you call my show and eventually i became a regular korani through and he would appear here are you going on i would always go and he would crying me and dragnet around and who do need to people or one i only wanted northeastern and hindered you need william berkeley and now all he knew everybody oh here we offered lawyer for yup also uh we were friends from 1979 until he died in the poor and on the day he died i took my radio and i locked in a closet and i would not listen to any kind of radio after that so many years path and in 2014 uh within the hospital after my leg had been implicated in andy accountant from the law for more work came into a little radio in the wb he won't good yeah and so i turned it on and of course my river witkin in pain during the night and discover bradley joe and who now i'm a regular caller to rarely jade poker and i have called you and your matthew return and when going from brighten my zone we're talking about is something really unique although radio i've mentioned this on a couple of other occasions there is no more intimate mass medium than radio radio talks directly to you you feel like you're part of this extended conroy version like there's people listening to us all over the stadium thanks to the magic of the internet all over the world and we're engaged in this conversation in a way the you can't do on any other mass medium and when i get on the year and i get to talk about some of the announcers i remember and what radio meant to me i know that a lot of young people today don't have that experience but radio still isn't dead radio was still around people have been predicting it's the my since like nineteen twenty two sale here and it's still valuable and it's still a great way to make friends and thank you so much for being a part of the.
"william berkeley" Discussed on WGDJ Talk 1300
"Have being tested so used to be like gold even though undoubtedly but the tonight we goat by man boston is bearings frida for a day and benjamin charge would nets from his wilms in the great swamp fight and he rallies again to start the search for match a calm matter comes manner sick unclear why bought he did they do eventually capture mehta comes wife and son and they tracked him down over several days and finely shoot him there's a very famous diary entry philip post accept it is this understood by the pure seems to be victory or do they know the the devey think the war will continue but no this is the award which is going to continue because what happened to be an to confirm its forward improvement another everything to sort of a complete stiff as of this moment which changes shape here graphically so that means away from boston the latest most of whom rocking about what invoke the appeared for the warriors but but i believe both with a mix of space between the right back to the early days of virginia but moments his columnist which to expand they win with the pushing again the traditional homeland into a tree the night couldn't have become an iq wait covering too create conflict in war what does let's leak after dead but that the but the killing of medical knicks side can only can powerful but i think i'm akin to beat appeared to right there in history for the big moment where you can at least and to chat to lift not quite the books the warriors for the second generation the professor right swat the great mike ration was for the first but the board continues in we move to the chesapeake colony is because here there are indians rising up the dogs in particular and there is fighting in maryland there's fighting of virginia colony but most importantly the governor in virginia is an agent man governor so william berkeley he believes in diplomacy to handle the front tier and that is rejected by a man named bacon i was bacon why does he revolt i mean this part of the complex to this story is the new baker you that she one of the canucks minutes.