20 Burst results for "Walter Alvarez"

"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

03:36 min | 1 year ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"Hey, Brain stuff. Lauren Vogel Bomb here on the northern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula near the town of Chicxulub. Mexico is a crater about 120 miles in diameter. It's about 190, kilometers. Ask for the created this crater was about six miles that's 10 kilometers wide and hit the Earth 65 million years ago. In spite of these immense measurements, the crater is hard to see. Even if you're standing right on its rim to get a good map, NASA researchers examined it from space. 10 years before the 1990 discovery of the chip Philip Crater, physicist Louise Alvarez and geologist Walter Alvarez, a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it. They noted increased concentrations of the element. Iridium in 65 million year old clay. Radium is rare on Earth, but it's more common in some objects from space like Meteors and asteroids. According to the Alvarez theory, a massive asteroid had hit the Earth blanketing the world in a radium. But a shower of particles wasn't the only effect of the collision impact caused fires, climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time, Dime stores which until then had managed to survive for 180 million years. Died out. Geophysicist Doug Robertson of the University of Colorado, Boulder theorize is the impact heated Earth's atmosphere dramatically, causing most big dinosaurs to die within hours. This mass extinction definitely happened. Fossil evidence shows that about 70% of species living on earth at that time became extinct. A massive die off marks the border between the quotations and tertiary periods of Earth's history, which are also known as the age of reptiles and the Age of mammals, respectively. Today, scientists call the extinction the KT event after the German spellings of pretentious and tertiary KT event had an enormous effect on life on Earth. But what would have happened if the asteroid had missed? Would it have led to a world where people and dinosaurs would co exist or one in which neither could live? In a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with the force of 100 million tons of TNT, life could have progressed much differently. 65 million years ago. Some of the animals and plants that are common today we're just getting started. These include placental mammals, which are mammals that develop inside a placenta in the womb and angiosperms, which are flowering plants. Insects that rely on flowers such as bees were also relatively new. Many of these life forms thrived after the KT event, and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way they may not have found ecological knishes to fill. In this scenario, today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals, including people. Even if the asteroid hadn't hit dinosaurs and other quotations, life forms might have become extinct anyway. Some dinosaur species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid's impact. This has led many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story. Other global catastrophes like massive volcanic eruptions in what is now India most likely played a role. Also the earth changing landscape is the supercontinent Pandya broke up into today's continents probably had something to do with it, too. Then there's another argument that the Chicxulub asteroid hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction. Researchers guarded Keller and Marcus Harding both conclude that the impact took place 300,000 years before the end of the quotations period. Heller theorize, is Chick Philip Impact was one of at least three massive collisions. Harding argues that theory, Diem layer didn't come from the Chick fil of Asteroid, but from another event, such as a series of.

Mexico chip Philip Crater Chicxulub Walter Alvarez Chick Philip Impact Marcus Harding Alvarez Doug Robertson Lauren Vogel Louise Alvarez supercontinent Pandya Yucatan Peninsula NASA Iridium University of Colorado Geophysicist geologist physicist Heller
"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

03:09 min | 1 year ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"From space. 10 years before the 1990 discovery of the chip Philip Crater, physicist Louise Alvarez and geologist Walter Alvarez, a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it. They noted increased concentrations of the element. Iridium in 65 million year old clay a radio is rare on Earth, but it's more common in some objects from space like Meteors and asteroids. According to the Alvarez theory, a massive asteroid had hit the Earth blanketing the world in a radium. But a shower of particles within the only effect of the collision. The impact caused fires, climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time, Dime stores which until then had managed to survive for 180 million years. Died out. Geophysicist Doug Robertson of the University of Colorado, Boulder theorize is the impact heated Earth's atmosphere dramatically, causing most big dinosaurs to die within hours. This mass extinction definitely happened. Fossil evidence shows that about 70% of species living on earth at that time became extinct. A massive die off marks the border between the quotations and tertiary periods of Earth's history, which are also known as the age of reptiles and the age of mammals, respectively. Today. Scientists call the extinction the KT event after the German spellings of pretentious and tertiary KT event had an enormous effect on life on Earth. But what would have happened if the asteroid had missed? Would it have led to a world where people and dinosaurs would co exist or one in which neither could live? In a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with the force of 100 million tons of TNT, life could have progressed much differently. 65 million years ago. Some of the animals and plants that are common today we're just getting started. These include placental mammals, which are mammals that develop inside a placenta in the womb and angiosperms, which are flowering plants. Insects that rely on flowers such as bees were also relatively new. Many of these life forms thrived after the KT event, and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way they may not have found ecological knishes to fill. In this scenario, today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals, including people. Even if the asteroid hadn't hit dinosaurs and other quotations, life forms might have become extinct anyway. Some dinosaur species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid's impact. This has led many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story. Other global catastrophes like massive volcanic eruptions and what is now India most likely played a role. Also, the Earth's changing landscape is the supercontinent Pandya broke up into today's continents probably had something to do with it, too. Then there's another argument that the Chicxulub asteroid hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction. Researchers go to Keller and Marcus Harding both conclude that the impact took place 300,000 years before the end of the quotation period. Heller theorize, is Chick fil of Impact was one of at least three massive collisions. Harding argues that theory Diem layer didn't come from the Chick fil of Asteroid, but from another event, such as a series of.

Chick fil Walter Alvarez Marcus Harding Doug Robertson Louise Alvarez Alvarez chip Philip Crater supercontinent Pandya Iridium University of Colorado geologist physicist Geophysicist Heller Keller India
"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

03:34 min | 2 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"On here coast of the Yucatan peninsula near the town of trip to Mexico it's a crater about a hundred and twenty miles in diameter that's about a hundred ninety kilometers St the created this crater was about six miles that's ten kilometers wide hit the earth sixty five million years ago in spite of these comments measurements the crater is hard to see even if you're standing right on its rim to get a good map NASA researchers examined it from space ten years before the nineteen ninety discovery object to the crater this is Louise Alvarez a geologist Walter Alvarez a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it they noted increased concentrations of the elements radium in sixty five million year old clay medium is rare on earth but it's more common in some objects from space like meteors and asteroids Alvarez theory a massive asteroid hit the earth blanketing the world in a medium but our particles wasn't the only effective the collision impact caused fires climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time dinosaurs which until then had managed to survive for a hundred and eighty million years died out Doug Robertson of the university of Colorado at boulder theorizes the impact he did earth atmosphere dramatically causing most big dinosaurs to die within hours this mass extinction definitely happened also evidence shows that about seventy percent of species living on earth at that time became extinct die off marks the border between the Cretaceous and tertiary periods of earth's history which are also known as the age of reptiles in the age of mammals respectively today scientists call the extinction B. K. T. event after the Germans spellings of Cretaceous and tertiary the KT event had an enormous effect on life on earth but what would happen Astrid had missed would have led to a world where people in dinosaurs would co exist or one in which neither could live in a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with the force of a hundred million tons of TNT life could have put sixty five million years ago some of the animals and plants they're coming today were just getting started these include placental mammals which are mammals that develop inside a placenta in the womb and angiosperms which are flowering plants insects that rely on flowers such as bees were also relatively new many of these life forms thrived after the KT event and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way it may not sound ecological niches to fill in this scenario today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals including people but even after it hadn't had them stores other Cretaceous lifeforms might have become extinct anyway sometimes our species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid impact this led many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story other global catastrophes like massive volcanic eruptions in what is now India most likely played a role also the changing landscape as the supercontinent Pangea broke up into today's continents probably had something to do with it too there's another argument that the check to lab asteroid hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction researchers Greta Keller and markets Harding both concluded the impact took place three hundred thousand years before the end of the Cretaceous period Keller theorizes Chicxulub impact was one of at least three massive collisions Harding argues that the regulator didn't come to the church asteroid from another event such as a series of.

Mexico Yucatan
"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

03:11 min | 2 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"Good nap NASA researchers examined it from space ten years before the nineteen ninety discovery of the trip to the crater this is Louise Alvarez a geologist Walter Alvarez a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it they noted increased concentrations of the elements radium in sixty five million year old clay medium is rare on earth but it's more common in some objects from space like meteors and asteroids the cover is a massive asteroid hit the earth blanketing the world in a medium our particles wasn't the only effective the collision impact caused fires climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time dinosaurs which until then had managed to survive for a hundred and eighty million years died out Doug Robertson of the university of Colorado at boulder theorizes the impact heated atmosphere dramatically because in most big dinosaurs to die within hours this mass extinction definitely happened also evidence shows that about seventy percent of species living on earth at that time became extinct die off marks the border between the Cretaceous and tertiary periods of earth's history which are also known as the age of reptiles in the age of mammals respectively scientists call the extinction DKT event after the Germans spellings of Cretaceous and tertiary the KT event had an enormous impact on life on earth but what would happen Astrid had missed would have led to a world where people in dinosaurs would co exist or one in which neither could live in a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with the force of a hundred million tons of TNT life could have progressed much differently sixty five million years ago some of the animals and plants are coming today we're just getting started these include placental mammals which are mammals the develop inside a placenta in the womb and angiosperms which are flowering plants insects that rely on flowers such as bees were also relatively new many of these life forms thrived after the KT event and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way it may not sound ecological niches to fill in this scenario today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals including people but even Astrid hadn't had them source other Cretaceous lifeforms might have become extinct anyway sometimes our species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid impact this led many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story other global catastrophes like massive volcanic eruptions in what is now India most likely played a role also the changing landscape as the supercontinent Pangea broke up into today's continents probably had something to do with it too there's another argument that the chip to asteroid hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction researchers gritty Keller and markets Harding both concluded the impact took place three hundred thousand years before the end of the Cretaceous period Keller theorizes particular impact was one of at least three massive collisions Harding argues that the Arabian later it didn't come to the church asteroid from another event such as a series of.

NASA
"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

03:27 min | 2 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"Twenty miles in diameter it's about a hundred ninety kilometers the created this crater was about six miles that's ten kilometers wide hit the earth sixty five million years ago in spite of these comments measurements the crater is hard to see even if you're standing right on its rim to get a good map NASA researchers examined it from space ten years before the nineteen ninety discovery of the chip to a crater this is Louise Alvarez a geologist Walter Alvarez a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it they noted increased concentrations of the element of radio in sixty five million year old clay medium is rare on earth but it's more common in some objects from space like meteors and asteroids Alvarez theory a massive asteroid hit the earth blanketing the world in a medium our particles wasn't the only effective the collision impact caused fires climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time dinosaurs which until then had managed to survive for a hundred and eighty million years died out this is Doug Robertson of the university of Colorado at boulder theorizes the impact heated atmosphere dramatically because in most big dinosaurs to die within hours this mass extinction definitely happened also evidence shows that about seventy percent of species living on earth at that time became extinct the massive die off marks the border between the Cretaceous and tertiary periods of earth's history which are also known as the age of reptiles in the age of mammals respectively today scientists call the extinction B. K. T. event after the Germans spellings of Cretaceous and tertiary the KT event had an enormous impact on life on earth but what would happen Astrid had missed would have led to a world where people in dinosaurs would co exist or one in which neither could live in a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with the force of a hundred million tons of TNT life could have progressed much differently sixty five million years ago some of the animals and plants they're coming today we're just getting started these include placental mammals which are mammals to develop inside a placenta in the womb in angiosperms which are flowering plants insects that rely on flowers such as bees were also relatively new many of these life forms thrived after the KT event and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way it may not sound ecological niches to fill in this scenario today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals including people but even Astrid hadn't had the other cases lifeforms might become extinct anyway sometimes our species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid impact had many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story other global catastrophes like massive volcanic eruptions in what is now India most likely played a role also the changing landscape as the supercontinent Pangea broke up into today's continents probably had something to do with it too there's another argument that the chip club asteroid hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction researchers Greta Keller and markets Harding both concluded the impact took place three hundred thousand years before the end of the Cretaceous period Keller theorizes Chicxulub impact was one of at least three massive collisions Harding argues that the regulator didn't come to the church asteroid from another event such as a series of.

"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

03:29 min | 2 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"Is a crater about a hundred and twenty miles in diameter it's about a hundred ninety kilometers St the created this crater was about six miles that's ten kilometers wide hit the earth sixty five million years ago in spite of these comments measurements the crater is hard to see even if you're standing right on its rim to get a good map NASA researchers examined it from space ten years before the nineteen ninety discovery of the trip to the crater this is Louise Alvarez a geologist Walter Alvarez a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it they noted increased concentrations of the elements radium in sixty five million year old clay medium is rare on earth but it's more common in some objects from space like meteors and asteroids Alvarez dairy a massive asteroid hit the earth blanketing the world in a medium shower of particles wasn't the only effect of the collision the impact caused fires climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time dinosaurs which until then had managed to survive for a hundred and eighty million years died out Doug Robertson of the university of Colorado at boulder theorizes the impact heated atmosphere dramatically causing most big dinosaurs to die within hours this mass extinction definitely happened also evidence shows that about seventy percent of species living on earth at that time became extinct the massive die off marks the border between the Cretaceous and tertiary periods of earth's history which are also known as the age of reptiles in the age of mammals respectively today scientists call the extinction B. K. T. event after the Germans spellings of Cretaceous and tertiary the KT event had an enormous impact on life on earth but what would happen Astrid had missed would have led to a world where people in dinosaurs would co exist or one in which neither could live in a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with the force of a hundred million tons of TNT life could have progressed much differently sixty five million years ago some of the animals and plants they're coming today we're just getting started these include placental mammals which are mammals the develop inside a placenta in the womb and angiosperms which are flowering plants insects that rely on flowers such as bees were also relatively new many of these life forms thrived after the KT event and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way it may not sound ecological niches to fill in this scenario today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals including people but even if the asteroid hadn't had stores other Cretaceous lifeforms might become extinct anyway sometimes our species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid impact this led many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story other global catastrophes like massive volcanic eruptions in what is now India most likely played a role also the changing landscape as the supercontinent Pangea broke up into today's continents probably had something to do with it too there's another argument that the chip to let us try to hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction researchers Greta Keller and markets Harding both concluded the impact took place three hundred thousand years before the end of the Cretaceous period Keller theorizes impact was one of at least three massive collisions Harding argues that the originally didn't come to the church asteroid from another event such as a series of.

Iridium's Pivotal Role In Our Past And ... Maybe Our Future?

Short Wave

10:01 min | 2 years ago

Iridium's Pivotal Role In Our Past And ... Maybe Our Future?

"We're talking about iridium as show. What does this element tell us about dinosaurs? and how they went extinct. We're going to go back. Tens of millions of years ago to start. Yeah well we start and say like nineteen eighty. That's what I said Richard. I said one thousand nine hundred nineteen eighty okay. Well that's actually. When an academic paper gets published by a group led by a father and son team from the a University of California at Berkeley Louis Alvarez the father of physicist and by the way Nobel Prize winner and his son Walter Alvarez? WHO's a geologist and they? We're interested in a specific period of time. In Earth's history it was a transition between two geologic periods the Cretaceous period and the Paleocene good ones too good period. Yeah so dinosaurs still roamed the earth during the Cretaceous period. But after that you don't find any of these dino bones except in our current dinosaurs birds. You're you know what I mean. I I do know what you mean. Yeah thinking of dinosaurs. Birds Birds Dinosaurs. Same thing it's sad. It's true so at any rate but the Alvarez's weren't actually trying to answer that big. Why did the dinosaurs go extinct? Mystery that point Walter and Louis Alvarez. We're trying to answer. Just one part of that riddle which is how quickly that transition between the two periods took place so walter trump off to Italy where there are rock outcrops that were laid down his sediment back at the time of that transition. Okay seems like a good idea. Why look at those rocks knocks well to get the back story? I talked to another Berkeley scientists. My name is Paul Renae. And I'm the director of the Berkeley Ju- Chronology Center any said the secret to figuring Out How fast. That transition happened involved measuring dust from outer space. That's constantly raining down on earth. Tiny amounts Louis Alvarez Walter's father her biggest physicist thought. Well you know we can determine that we can. We can make some reasonable assumptions about how much dust is coming in from from extraterrestrial sources. Okay extraterrestrial we're talking stuff from outside Earth or the atmosphere in Richard. Can I just say the fact that somebody thought thought about measuring cosmic dust to figure out the passage of time sixty million years ago is objectively awesome. It is and when you think about the dust coming from asteroids colliding with each other. It's even cooler and they were looking for particular stuff and In particular if we look at an element. That's rare on on earth but common in meteors in an element. That's rare on earth but common in asteroids Guess what we're talking about Matty I'm going to take out style and I'm GonNa say radium. Guess Excellent guests. Thank you are we. But what's the role of the dust here right well. Louis was operating unreasonable unreasonable assumption. which is that? This dust from meteors rains down on the earth. More or less constant rate. It's dust of course enriched with iridium. So I figured if they could measure is your how much iridium had built up in. This transitional layer. They would be able to tell. How long taken to accumulate? So I'm thinking sort of figuring out how much snow fell over a period of the time. If you know the rate at falls and how much is on the ground except this is tens of millions of years ago Roger Dodger tens of millions of years ago and the iridium doesn't Milton the sunlight so it sticks sticks around you can still see at sixty five or sixty six years later so so it didn't rate when they ran those calculations with the Alvarez's found was stunning. The results were so so extreme. That just just a the passage of a long time would not really explain this. It was many times greater than the amount amount of radium in this layer than expected just from this gradual accumulation so the conclusion they drew was that there had been some huge pulse of extraterrestrial Oriole's Joe Matter and the obvious conclusion that they quickly came to was that it was a large impact a large impact. We're talking to you asteroid did we are an asteroid They think the asteroid smashes into the earth destroying so much of life on earth and throwing up an enormous muscle mass of dust into the atmosphere. The dust itself caused mass extinctions but it also had iridium in it and it spread around the Earth so they realized this collision is a big one and and the conditions that resulted you know reasonably enough they thought they theorized killed off. These won't bring dinosaurs. You know what you're nobody ever thinks about that other life. I feel like it's always dinosaurs. Dinosaurs dinosaurs. I know you don't get little plastic models of marine for him. And if we're talking to you as I mentioned in this paper was published back in one thousand nine hundred eighty and back then. A catastrophic end seemed to mini scientists pretty far fetched because evolution takes place over millions of years so so a lot of scientists were expecting to see gradual changes. and and Paul Rennie says when the Alvarez has proposed this meteor theory created quite a stir in the community it did. Yeah I mean. It was originally not widely accepted but acceptance sort of came in waves and the biggest confirmation team win in the early nineties. There was the discovery of the crater on the northern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. A study published in. Today's issue of Science magazine appears to add weight to a theory that a giant media or struck the earth. Sixty five million years ago and what is now Mexico many scientists. This is the Intro to my story that aired in NPR back in Nineteen ninety-two. Some scientists. See this as evidence that helps prove their theory that the dinosaurs were wiped out by a giant asteroid or comet but as NPR NPR science correspondent Richard Harris reports the theories baby Richard Harris Science reporter even covering this story for a bit. I have indeed actually packs into the early nineteen eighties but that no dinosaur drug please and a really big asteroid could scatter iridium dust. Globally the question was. Where's the crater that a huge asteroid like that would make take a look and listen to all that? Join Your Voice you know I know well what what can be more fun than dead dinosaurs. Really Okay So. This study found the point of impact for the giant asteroid. Yes it was a crater one hundred ten miles across called Jiffy Lube and it was created by this asteroid that had a tremendous amount of explosive power. As you can. Well imagine sure so. When these geologist tested the age of the materials from the crater it turned out to date very closely to the mass extinction by the way? Dating methods. have been recalibrated calibrated since that paper. So scientists now say that catastrophe happened. Sixty six million years ago. Not Sixty five million. What's a million years among friends? Yeah yeah yeah absolutely so Joe. Yeah but the point is of course the impact and the dinosaurs demise lineup perfectly and for that nineteen ninety-two story. I talked to Carl Swisher at the Institute of Human Origins which at the time was in Berkeley Berkeley Berkeley Berkeley no even much larger when we went across the street to the UC. Berkeley and told Walter Alvarez the ages we're getting I think he was quite excited because he spent What the last Ten fifteen years trying to find a crater of each throughout the World Team Alvarez for the win absolutely yes for the most part. There's a lot of evidence but there will always be some skeptics in the scientific community. And you know it's also important maybe to mention that at the same time about the same time there was a whole lot of volcanic activity we also on the earth. So there's always people thinking one two punch. Maybe you're saying definitely came. But was it the absolute Khuda Gra for all these dinosaurs. That's still that's still debated. Yeah astroid touch volcanoes low bit of mix maybe so okay Richard Radium helped us figure out our dinosaur extinction mystery. You mentioned earlier that it could also help us potentially prevent the next global catastrophe. We're not talking another asteroid here. No we have Bruce Willis For Asteroids if you remember the action movie Armageddon No no no actually. We're talking about climate change climate change. How does a radium help? Well what we really need to do to. Combat climate change is to have clean fuel. That's cheaper than fossil fuels. If we could get such a thing in other words would quickly switch to the cheaper fuel and we'd stop dumping all that carbon dioxide said in the atmosphere. I don't know about quickly but sure. That's the dream. Richard Yeah Fair enough. So what's the link between clean fuels radium. Well we really liked to capture energy. She from sunlight and turn that into liquid fuels now. Plants figured this out long before the dinosaurs were even around. Tho- sent this says that's right and the first step in this process is to split a water molecule. And the problem is this is not so easy to do in the lab what chemist need is a catalyst so the chemicals that that speed up chemical reactions out there getting stuff done. You got it and I'm guessing you can see where I'm going with this. A radium is a good catalyst. It is a great catalyst for this purpose and imagine turning sunlight into hydrogen fuel or liquid fuel. You could put into an airplane. Of course there's one eighty problem with the scenario. Iridium you will recall. Aw is one of the rarest elements on Earth's crust because of his scarcity's one of the most expensive metals as well. So he does complicate our Laura Research so is the Mother Nature through that us. That's Guanghui Wing. He's a chemistry professor at Boston College. And he's trying to develop an iridium catalyst to make fuel out of sunlight and he's trying to get around this issue of how little of it. We have our ideas that we wanted to utilize this catheters to his maximum. That is we wanted Khimik every atom conce and since iridium is so rare he wants to make sure every single atom in a catalyst is actually at work speeding up reactions even so oh it's probably a stretch to think about building industry around iridium right so he and his colleagues are also hoping that once they understand how iridium does this magic they can find something else that will work as a catalyst as well or nearly as well and ideally something. That's abundant on the earth. So iridium or something like it could potentially help save the day. That's

Walter Alvarez Louis Alvarez Louis Alvarez Walter Berkeley Berkeley Berkeley Berkeley Ber Geologist Physicist Richard Yeah Joe Matter Cretaceous Richard Walter Trump Richard Radium NPR Radium Berkeley Ju- Chronology Center Nobel Prize University Of California
"walter alvarez" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

01:50 min | 2 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on KQED Radio

"An asteroid what do you think we need to know why do we need to know about our origins well if I were to turn the question around and say why do we need to know about American history what with the on city I think it would be that we need to be able to place all self in a story isn't that right one of the one example of this one wonderful example about this is is my friend Walter Alvarez a geologist he's the person who moreless proved that it was an asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs with an asteroid had been on a trajectory five minutes earlier five minutes later it would have wiped out the dinosaurs and the dinosaurs would almost certainly still rule the planet and we wouldn't be here it's a simple sign so it's a story that in one sense makes us feel very small and very little we inhabit a obscura planet in obscure will galaxy around at obscure close I bought on the other hand Morton human society represents one of the most complex things we know I'm not still the side of the story that makes us look pretty interesting humans appeared about two hundred thousand years ago now what makes humans different is human language we are blessed with a language a system of communication so powerful and so precise that we can share what we've learned with such precision that it can accumulate in the collective memory from that means it can how lost the individuals who learnt that information and it connects you relate from generation to generation and that's why as a species we so creative and so powerful and that's why we have a history we seem to be the only species in four billion years to have this gift I.

Walter Alvarez geologist Morton human society five minutes two hundred thousand years four billion years
"walter alvarez" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

01:50 min | 2 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"An asteroid what do you think we need to know the story why do we need to know about our origins well if I were to turn the question around and say why do we need to know about American history what with the own city I think it would be that we need to be able to place yourself in a story isn't that right one of the one example of this one wonderful example about this is he's my friend Walter Alvarez the geologist he's the person who moreless proved that it was an asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs now if that asteroid had been on a trajectory five minutes early or five minutes later it wouldn't wiped out the dinosaurs and the dinosaurs would almost certainly still rule the planet and we wouldn't be here it's a simple slot so it's a story that in one sense makes us feel very small and very little wind habit of obscure planet in obscure will galaxy around at Schiphol saw bought on the other hand Morton human society represents one of the most complex things we know and that's still the side of the story that makes us look pretty interesting humans appeared about two hundred thousand years ago and what makes humans different is human language we are blessed with a language a system of communication so powerful and so precise that we can share what we've learned with such precision that they can accumulate in the collective memory and that means it can how lost the individuals who learnt that information and they can accumulate from generation to generation and that's why as a species we so creative and so powerful and that's why we have a history we seem to be the only species in four billion years to have this gift I.

Walter Alvarez geologist Schiphol Morton human society five minutes two hundred thousand years four billion years
"walter alvarez" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

01:50 min | 2 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on KQED Radio

"An asteroid what do you think we need to know the story why do we need to know about our origins well if I were to turn the question around and say why do we need to know about American history what with their own city I think it would be that we need to build a place of self in a story isn't that right one of the one example of this one wonderful example about this is my friend Walter Alvarez the geologist he's the person who moreless proved that it was an asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs that asteroid have been on a trajectory five minutes earlier five minutes later it wouldn't wiped out the dinosaurs and the dinosaurs would almost certainly still rule the planet and we wouldn't be here it's a simple as that so it's a story that in one sense makes us feel very small and very little we inhabit a obscura planet in obscure will galaxy around at obscure close for out on the other hand Morton human society represents one of the most complex things we know on this thing on the side of the story that makes us look pretty interesting humans appeared about two hundred thousand years ago now what makes humans different is human language we are blessed with a language a system of communication so powerful and so precise that we can share what we learned with such precision that it can accumulate in the collective memory from that means it can how lost the individuals who learnt that information and the connection like from generation to generation and that's why as a species we so creative and so powerful and that's why we have a history we seem to be the only species in four billion years to have this gift I.

Walter Alvarez geologist Morton human society five minutes two hundred thousand years four billion years
"walter alvarez" Discussed on Heartland Newsfeed Radio Network

Heartland Newsfeed Radio Network

01:48 min | 2 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on Heartland Newsfeed Radio Network

"Of an asteroid. What do you think we need to know this story? Why do we need to know about our origins? Well well if I were to turn the question around and say why do we need to know about American history. What would they own Sabih? I think it would be that we need to be able to play so self in a story. Isn't that right. It one of the one example of this wonderful example about this is my friend Walter Alvarez. The geologist he's the person who more or less proved you've that he was an asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs now if that asteroid had being on a trajectory five minutes earlier or five minutes later it wouldn't have wiped out the dinosaurs and the dinosaurs would almost certainly still rule the planet. And we wouldn't be here. It's as simple as that. So it's a story that in one incense makes us feel very small and very little we inhabit a obscure planet in an obscure galaxy around an obscure son but on the other hand modern human society represents one of the most complex things we know. And that's the other side of the story that makes us look pretty interesting. Getting humans appeared about two hundred thousand years ago. Now what makes humans different is human language. We are blessed with a language. A system of communication so powerful and so precise that we can share what we've learned with such precision that it can accumulate in the collective memory and that means means it can outlast the individuals who learned that information and it can accumulate from generation to generation. And that's why as a species. We're so creative active and so powerful and that's why we have a history. We seem to be the only species in four billion years to have.

Walter Alvarez geologist
"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

03:31 min | 2 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"Have left near the town of trip to Mexico it's a crater about a hundred and twenty miles in diameter that's about a hundred ninety kilometers St the created this crater was about six miles that's ten kilometers wide earth sixty five million years ago in spite of these comments measurements the crater is hard to see even if you're standing right on its ram to get a good map NASA researchers examined it from space ten years before the nineteen ninety discovery of the trip to the crater this is Louise Alvarez a geologist Walter Alvarez a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it they noted increased concentrations of the element radium in sixty five million year old clay medium is rare on earth but it's more common in some objects from space like meteors and asteroids the cover is a massive asteroid hit the earth blanketing the world in a medium our particles wasn't the only effective the collision impact caused fires climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time dinosaurs which until then had managed to survive for a hundred and eighty million years died out Doug Robertson of the university of Colorado at boulder theorizes the impact heated atmosphere dramatically because in most big dinosaurs to die within hours this mass extinction definitely happened also evidence shows that about seventy percent of species living on earth at that time became extinct the massive die off marks the border between the Cretaceous and tertiary periods of earth's history which are also known as the age of reptiles in the age of mammals respectively today scientists call the extinction B. K. T. event after the Germans spellings of Cretaceous and tertiary the KT event had an enormous effect on life on earth but what would happen Astrid had missed would have led to a world where people in dinosaurs would co exist or one in which neither could live in a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with the force of a hundred million tons of TNT life could have progressed much differently sixty five million years ago some of the animals and plants are coming today were just getting started these include placental mammals which are mammals to develop inside a placenta in the womb in angiosperms which are flowering plants insects that rely on flowers such as bees were also relatively new many of these life forms thrived after the KT event and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way it may not sound ecological niches to fill in this scenario today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals including people but even if the asteroid hadn't had them stores other cases life forms come to think anyway sometimes our species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid impact led many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story other global catastrophes like massive volcanic eruptions in what is now India most likely played a role also the changing landscape as the supercontinent Pangea broke up into today's continents probably had something to do with it too there's another argument that the check to let asteroid hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction researchers Greta Keller and markets Harding both concluded the impact took place three hundred thousand years before the end of the Cretaceous period Keller theorizes Chicxulub impact was one of at least three massive collisions Harding argues that the regulator didn't come to the church let asteroid from another event such as a series of.

Mexico sixty five million years three hundred thousand years hundred ninety kilometers sixty five million year eighty million years hundred million tons seventy percent ten kilometers ten years
"walter alvarez" Discussed on TED Radio Hour

TED Radio Hour

10:05 min | 2 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on TED Radio Hour

"Hey It's guy here so today. Show is all but the evolution of our species where we come from and where we're headed and with all the advancements in gene editing technology we can now modify our very own DNA faster cheaper and more precisely. So could we be evolving into a different species or even several variations Gary Asians of species well this episode first aired in October of twenty fourteen. But we've reinterviewed our last speaker to get an update on where this technology is headed. He's a futurist who says evolution is no longer driven just by nature but also by human choice. This episode is called how it all began. Hope you enjoy. This is the Ted Radio Hour each week round breaking Ted talks technology. Entertainment Design Design. Is that really what. I've never known. Delivered at Ted Conferences around the world. If the human imagination we've had to believe in impossible thing. The true nature of reality beckons just beyond those talks. Those ideas ideas adapted for radio from NPR. I'm Gyros a couple of weeks ago. I got a small package in the mail and inside there was a kid. It was a couple of plastic test tubes or a few plastic scrapers some ziplock bags eggs and my instructions were to scrape the inside of my cheeks up and down for about thirty seconds. And how was that were. I was great and And then send those sticks back to this guy. My Name is Dr Spencer Wells and a card carrying explorer the National Geographic Society. And I'm the director of the geographic Graphic project. They're the geographic project. At National Geographic has collected cheek swabs from about seven hundred thousand people around the world and in each of those swabs embedded in the DNA. There's a story so So which find who like. What do I come from well? I'm looking get your results right now. And so we're analyzing several pieces of your genome on your mother's side you're type is t one B three It's mostly found in South Eastern Europe in the Middle East and your subtype is more common in Turkey than elsewhere. Wow in on your dad's side you also have a group. That's more common in the Middle East so your particular combination is closest to Lebanese Romanians Asinine so again pointing to kind of the region around Turkey. So your ancestors would have encountered the neanderthals in the Middle East between forty five and fifty thousand years ago and they bred with them you today or carrying two point point seven percent neanderthal DNA. Wow just slightly higher than average Average is about two point one percent. You know it's funny. You say that because I I do to have some characteristics that I think would concern. So we're all curious about our roots right and they seem so so personal but Spencer's chasing a much bigger story. A story that connects every single one of us to a common origin. You you know this is one of those basic human questions you know like Einstein said I want to know the thoughts of God all else's detail. This is one of those deep. Human questions is that I feel like we as a species should be trying to answer is the only species in the history of the universe. As far as we know that has ever evolved all the capacity to start to answer these sorts of questions by God. We need to be trying to do it. Okay challenge accepted our show. uh-huh today how it all began stories and ideas about our origins who we are what came before us and where we're going as a species. Later in the show Spencer Wells returns to explain how in a very short period of time we left Africa and spread out across. Ask The planet but I my name is David Christian and since nineteen thousand nine. I've been teaching courses on the history of the universe and the place of humans inside that story and I call them history. David Christian is in story and and his idea. Big History is really about our our place in the universe and how small are part of the story actually is here you are you exist around this star you you exist on this planet you a member of this species and all of these apart of knowing what you are eventually. Of course you'll get to say you were brought up in Australia Australia or in America all of those stories we need but we also need this big story and as long as we don't have this big story it's GonNa be very hard. I think for us to understand ourselves as humans so the story David Christian tells begins thirteen point eight billion years Zeo pitch black darkness. Here's David on the Ted stage around us. There's nothing there's not even time or space base. Imagine the darkest emptiness thing you can and cubit a gazillion times and that's where we are and then suddenly unle universe appears an entire universe and we've crossed our first threshold. The Universe is tiny. It's smaller than an atom. It's it's incredibly hot. It contains everything that's in today's universe it's busting and it's expanding at incredible speed and at first I it's just a blur. But very quickly distinct things begin to appear in that blur within the first second energy itself shatters into distinct forces forces including electromagnetism and gravity and energy does something else quite magical it congeals to full matter Kwok's that will create protons and leptons that include electrons and. All of. That happens in the first second so now we move forward. Three hundred and eighty thousand years. That's twice as long as humans have been on this planet and now simple atoms appear of hydrogen and helium. Gravity is more powerful with us more stuff off. So where you get slightly denser areas. Gravity starts compacting clouds of hydrogen and helium atoms. So we can imagine the early universe breaking up into a billion clouds and each cloud is compacted. Gravity gets more powerful as density increases. The temperature begins to rise at the center of each cloud cloud. And then it lists intravenous cloud the temperature crosses the threshold temperature of ten million degrees. Protons start to fuse. It does a huge release of energy and we have from about two hundred million years off to the Big Bang. stobbs begin to appear all through the universe. Experience of them and the Universe is now significantly more interesting and more complex and all of that wasn't even half half a billion years after the big bang it would take another eight or nine billion years for our solar system in our planet to form and nearly another another billion before the first signs of life for most of that time of life on earth living organisms have been relatively simple single cells but they had great diversity and inside great complexity then from about six hundred eight hundred million years ago multi celled organisms appear. You get fungi engage. You get fish you get plants you get amphibia you get reptiles and then of course you get the dinosaurs and occasionally only there are disasters. Sixty five million years ago. An asteroid landed on earth near the Yucatan peninsula creating conditions excellent to those of a nuclear war and the dinosaurs were wiped out terrible news for the dinosaurs but great news for our mammalian million ancestors who flourished in the niches left empty by the dinosaurs and we human beings are part of that creative. ATV pollution repulse that began sixty five million years ago with the landing of asteroid. What do you think we need to know the story? Why do we need to know about origins? Well if I were to turn the question around and say why do we need to know about American history. What would be? I think it would be that we need to be able to play so self in story. Isn't that right one of the one example of this one wonderful example about this is my friend Walter Alvarez. The geologist he's the person who more or less proved that he was an asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs now if that asteroid had been on a trajectory five minutes it's earlier or five minutes later it wouldn't have wiped out the dinosaurs and the dinosaurs would almost certainly still rule the planet. And we wouldn't be here. It's as simple as that. So it's a story that in one sense makes us feel very small and very little we inhabit a obscure planet in an obscure Whoa galaxy around it obscure son but on the other hand modern human society represents one of the most complex things we know and that's the other side of the story that makes us look pretty interesting..

Dr Spencer Wells David Christian Middle East Ted National Geographic National Geographic Society Turkey Walter Alvarez NPR Australia Einstein Africa Yucatan peninsula Kwok Eastern Europe America
"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

03:30 min | 2 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"The town of trip to Mexico it's a crater about a hundred and twenty miles in diameter it's about a hundred ninety kilometers during the created this crater was about six miles that's ten kilometers wide hit the earth sixty five million years ago in spite of these comments measurements the crater is hard to see even if you're standing right on its rim to get a good map NASA researchers examined it from space ten years before the nineteen ninety discovery of the trip to the crater this is Louise Alvarez a geologist Walter Alvarez a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it they noted increased concentrations of the elements radium in sixty five million year old clay medium is rare on earth but it's more common in some objects from space like meteors and asteroids the cover is a massive asteroid hit the earth blanketing the world in a medium showers particles wasn't the only effect of the collision the impact caused fires climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time dinosaurs which until then had managed to survive for a hundred and eighty million years died out Doug Robertson of the university of Colorado at boulder theorizes the impact heated atmosphere dramatically because in most big dinosaurs to die within hours this mass extinction definitely happened also evidence shows that about seventy percent of species living on earth at that time became extinct die off marks the border between the Cretaceous and tertiary periods of earth's history which are also known as the age of reptiles in the age of mammals respectively today scientists call the extinction B. K. T. event after the Germans spellings of Cretaceous and tertiary the KT event had an enormous impact on life on earth but what would happen Astrid had missed would have led to a world where people in dinosaurs would co exist or one in which neither could live in a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with the force of a hundred million tons of TNT life could have progressed much differently sixty five million years ago some of the animals and plants that are common today we're just getting started these include placental mammals which are mammals that develop inside a placenta in the womb and angiosperms which are flowering plants insects that rely on flowers such as bees were also relatively new many of these life forms Dr after the KT event and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way it may not sound ecological niches to fill in this scenario today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals including people but even Astrid hadn't had them source other cases life forms come to think anyway sometimes our species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid impact led many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story other global catastrophes like massive volcanic eruptions in what is now India most likely played a role also the changing landscape as the supercontinent Pangea broke up into today's continents probably had something to do with it too there's another argument that the check to lab asteroid hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction researchers Greta Keller and markets Harding both concluded the impact took place three hundred thousand years before the end of the Cretaceous period Keller theorizes particular impact was one of at least three massive collisions Harding argues that the regulator didn't come to the church let asteroid from another event such as a series of.

Mexico sixty five million years three hundred thousand years hundred ninety kilometers sixty five million year eighty million years hundred million tons seventy percent ten kilometers ten years
A journey into the Chicxulub Crater

Part Time Genius

03:31 min | 2 years ago

A journey into the Chicxulub Crater

"The town of trip to Mexico it's a crater about a hundred and twenty miles in diameter it's about a hundred ninety kilometers during the created this crater was about six miles that's ten kilometers wide hit the earth sixty five million years ago in spite of these comments measurements the crater is hard to see even if you're standing right on its rim to get a good map NASA researchers examined it from space ten years before the nineteen ninety discovery of the trip to the crater this is Louise Alvarez a geologist Walter Alvarez a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it they noted increased concentrations of the elements radium in sixty five million year old clay medium is rare on earth but it's more common in some objects from space like meteors and asteroids the cover is a massive asteroid hit the earth blanketing the world in a medium showers particles wasn't the only effect of the collision the impact caused fires climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time dinosaurs which until then had managed to survive for a hundred and eighty million years died out Doug Robertson of the university of Colorado at boulder theorizes the impact heated atmosphere dramatically because in most big dinosaurs to die within hours this mass extinction definitely happened also evidence shows that about seventy percent of species living on earth at that time became extinct die off marks the border between the Cretaceous and tertiary periods of earth's history which are also known as the age of reptiles in the age of mammals respectively today scientists call the extinction B. K. T. event after the Germans spellings of Cretaceous and tertiary the KT event had an enormous impact on life on earth but what would happen Astrid had missed would have led to a world where people in dinosaurs would co exist or one in which neither could live in a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with the force of a hundred million tons of TNT life could have progressed much differently sixty five million years ago some of the animals and plants that are common today we're just getting started these include placental mammals which are mammals that develop inside a placenta in the womb and angiosperms which are flowering plants insects that rely on flowers such as bees were also relatively new many of these life forms Dr after the KT event and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way it may not sound ecological niches to fill in this scenario today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals including people but even Astrid hadn't had them source other cases life forms come to think anyway sometimes our species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid impact led many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story other global catastrophes like massive volcanic eruptions in what is now India most likely played a role also the changing landscape as the supercontinent Pangea broke up into today's continents probably had something to do with it too there's another argument that the check to lab asteroid hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction researchers Greta Keller and markets Harding both concluded the impact took place three hundred thousand years before the end of the Cretaceous period Keller theorizes particular impact was one of at least three massive collisions Harding argues that the regulator didn't come to the church let asteroid from another event such as a series of

Mexico Sixty Five Million Years Three Hundred Thousand Years Hundred Ninety Kilometers Sixty Five Million Year Eighty Million Years Hundred Million Tons Seventy Percent Ten Kilometers Ten Years
"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

03:35 min | 2 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"Death Lauren vocal on here coast of the Yucatan peninsula near the town of trip to Mexico it's a crater about a hundred and twenty miles in diameter it's about a hundred ninety kilometers St the created this crater was about six miles that's ten kilometers wide earth sixty five million years ago in spite of these comments measurements the crater is hard to see even if you're standing right on its rim get a good nap NASA researchers examined it from space ten years before the nineteen ninety discovery of the trip to the crater this is Louise Alvarez a geologist Walter Alvarez a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it they noted increased concentrations of the elements radium in sixty five million year old clay medium is rare on earth but it's more common in some objects from space like meteors and asteroids I'll risk theory a massive asteroid hit the earth blanketing the world in a medium showers particles wasn't the only effective the collision impact caused fires climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time dinosaurs which until then had managed to survive for a hundred and eighty million years died out Doug Robertson of the university of Colorado at boulder theorizes the impact heated atmosphere dramatically because in most big dinosaurs to die within hours this can definitely happened also evidence shows that about seventy percent of species living on earth at that time became extinct die off marks the border between the Cretaceous and tertiary periods of earth's history which are also known as the age of reptiles in the age of mammals respectively today scientists call the extinction the KT event after the Germans spellings of Cretaceous and tertiary Katie event had an enormous effect on life on earth but what would happen Astrid had missed would have led to a world where people in dinosaurs would co exist or one in which neither could live in a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with the force of a hundred million tons of TNT life could have progressed much differently sixty five million years ago some of the animals and plants they're coming today were just getting started these include placental mammals which are mammals that develop inside a placenta in the womb and angiosperms which are flowering plants insects that rely on flowers such as bees were also relatively new many of these life forms thrive after the KT event and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way it may not sound ecological niches to fill in this scenario today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals including people but even Astrid hadn't had other cases lifeforms might become extinct anyway sometimes our species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid impact this led many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story other global catastrophes like massive volcanic eruptions in what is now India most likely played a role also the changing landscape as the supercontinent Pangea broke up into today's continents probably had something to do with it too there's another argument that the chip to let asteroid hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction researchers Greta Keller and markets Harding both concluded the impact took place three hundred thousand years before the end of the Cretaceous period Keller theorizes impact was one of at least three massive collisions Harding argues that the regulator didn't come to the trickle of asteroid from another event such as a series of.

"walter alvarez" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

09:24 min | 3 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"To the planet earth. Seventy five percent of all the species living there wiped out what caused this catastrophe has until recently been turtle mystery perhaps the time it deteriorated becoming too hot. Or seventy two. To dry millions of years later in the second half of what we call the twentieth century, a theory started to emerge that the mass extinction, which took out the dinosaurs might have been cold by a huge asteroid hitting the F would not have been a good place to be. We would have had this extremely bright fireball for few seconds. And of course, there's a shock wave progresses over some distance and then a very powerful explosion. Wave in a wind in the atmosphere millions of tons of rock thrown up into the sky. They rain down through answer all over the planet. Alan held a brand is associate professor of geosciences at the university of Calgary different research has it been coming up with variations of the asteroid impact theory since the nineteen fifties and nineteen eighty father and son team Luis Walter Alvarez had published a paper about a thin layer of sediment, that found in the geological record which could all over the world and contained unusually high levels, the rat adamant iridium often found in asteroids. They believe that entered the atmosphere a meteorite and then choked life on earth as the dusted at thrown into the atmosphere at blocked out, the sun, the repeal saying, look, you're saying there is this big impact all you're showing me. This in Claire. There's a big impact it's going to be someplace with a big impact crater. And if you back and look at some early papers, you can see impact sites suggested all over the globe. Anything that was extraordinarily happen to vote sixty five million years ago. People say, well, maybe that's an impact site. But as it turned out the impact, crater had already been found in one thousand nine hundred seventy eight two years before the Alvar is published iridium theory, young geophysicist cooled Glen penfield have been working for the Mexican state oil company PEX on an era, magnetic survey of the Yucatan basin scanning the seabed looking for magnetic anomalies, which indicate oil starting about two hundred kilometers, two hundred fifty kilometers or so north of the Yucatan, we're flying east west lines about four kilometers apart five hundred foot altitude one day in early April. I see in the middle of the lines are very, very, very flat free of high frequency signal. There's no magnetic sources there and then all of a sudden. In the middle of one line. There's a bunch of this, this hash, the little anomalies that are like, maybe two to five Nanno tesla, which is really tiny plan and his colleagues kept going and kept finding more of the unexpected magnetic traces after about ten days. We suddenly came in the center of this group of high frequency, as we suddenly came to a very large amplitude anomaly, maybe a hundred times larger big bump. So at that point, we had a very symmetrical kind of a half bullseye with these weekly magnetic features on the outside at a massively magnetic central core. He wasn't the person working for PEX. Tonight, just the bump. But everyone else had interpreted. What he thought was a crater as volcano. I've been looking at volcanoes intimately for the previous three years, and this was not like the magnetic signature of anything volcanic that I'd seen this looked like a hundred and eighty kilometer impact feature would look just like the stuff I've been looking at as an amateur. Strontium or for years on the moon and Mars, he told his colleagues that he thought he'd found evidence of an asteroid impact, but they just kind of joked about this and said all this fact, Tony Camargo one came up with this era lethal, Glenn, the Skyrock of land, and everybody laughed about it. We kept on working spent three or solid Mexico learning Spanish married, a wonderful Mayan, partly by Indian young woman. We've been married forty one years now eventually penfield, converted his project manager Antonia Kamoga, his theory. And they started trying to convince the scientific community to didn't want to publicize the findings because the data could have been commercially sensitive, but in one thousand nine hundred one penfield in Kamanga got permission to give a paper, the society, expiration geophysicist in Los Angeles. There were about sixty to seventy people in the room when I gave the paper, maybe half full or a third full that was in November in December the science editor of the Houston chronicle wrote a front page article on this on the Sunday paper must have been the slow news day, but the theory didn't go any further than that. They were all pretty dismissive. The people at Berkeley, the Alvarez people, the people have NASA, what's this twenty five year old guy telling us that it's a huge impact. Crater. Instead, what does he know? So. That's where things sat until almost a decade later, I came along looking for impact sites in the region between north and South America, those days and held a brand was a PHD student at the university of Arizona. And he was looking for the crater by working backwards from clues. In the geological record the reserve a big impact the ocean. It's gonna make big ways truly the sort of thing you get into Hollywood movie of the ocean as four or five teeth way should initially, Tom high. And there was no deposit from a giant wave and Denmark, wasn't Texas. So maybe that's something to do with the impact site. That was another clue in the sediment of Jeter wrong, thrown up by impacts sicker in Haiti that other excavated sites. Then from the position of this objective here in Haiti you can just draw a circle on a map and say, the crater has to be around here somewhere. He presented his theory at a conference in the Houston area in March nineteen ninety. Well, after I gave this presentation, a reporter who had covered the meeting for years in carlin's buyers from the Houston, chronicle said, well, I covered the story back in nineteen Eighty-one someone in town here who found what they thought was a big very crater on the peninsula of Mexico. Person was gone penfield. And I literally looked up in the Houston telephone information. Phoned penfield and held LeBron's started to work together to prove that the site wasn't the crater from the asteroid that killed the dinosaurs. Combining the data Glenn collected PEX with, Allen's 'calculation where the Cray, tissue be from the geological record, but they were struggling to find the proof. They need it in the form of rock samples until they got a tip off that previous PEX exploration in the area at sent samples to the university of New Orleans decades earlier for different piece for such then went to visit went through a closet full of samples about six hundred samples still in the original bags from the website. Five hundred ninety bags and stuff that looked like the white cliffs of Dover, and then these ten or fifteen bags these bright green brecciated things from the layer I sent those samples down to the people at the university of Arizona. Helen Hildebrand professor Boynton is professor, and that's where they pretty easily identify that this was multiple shocked quartz, and several different directions. Coats proved that had been an asteroid impact in the area. They gave the crates, the Mayan main chicks lube. We submit this paper to nature. I and one of the reviewers said of the paper, the only thing original about this work is the unpronounceable name just shift lube. Of course. I picked that name with my wife because we have called it, the mariner crater. We could've called it the Yucatan crater, but we particularly pick chick shalhoub, which is a good mind named because after a decade of making fun of being just totally blowing this thing off this will cause the Berkeley people and the NASA people, a little bit of agony. The pipe it was finally published in nineteen Ninety-one and the general geology still to controversy. You know, people were still insisting wasn't a crater volcanic censure. But everybody interested enough. Everyone started investigating it started doing other tests. So by the time you say in nineteen Ninety-three trip shillue was for many people accepted as the source crater of. This disaster. Alan Hildebrand, and Glen, penfield speaking to Lucy Ben's is still researching Meteo impacts, and Glenn is still working in oil exploration next to examine an issue, which almost universally strikes note of horror, but which despite that had been on the rise in recent decades for this disturbing moment in history. We're going back twenty years to may nineteen ninety nine aimed Bangladesh and the founding of the acid, survivors foundation, the first organization, dedicated to treating and trying to rehabilitate, the survivors of acid attacks for Honda, hi there has been speaking to one of its founders Baena Rodman. Creates a huge damage, not only just in the skin, but, you know, it goes underneath the skin and sometime affects the booms I was shocked. I was horrified. I couldn't understand how a human being can do that to other human being in the nineteen ninety s acid attacks on the ruins in.

Glen penfield Glenn penfield Yucatan crater Luis Walter Alvarez university of Arizona Houston Alan Hildebrand mariner crater geophysicist NASA Mexico Berkeley Yucatan Haiti Houston chronicle university of Calgary South America PEX Claire
"walter alvarez" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

09:24 min | 3 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on KQED Radio

"To the planet earth. Seventy five percent of all the species living there wiped out what caused this catastrophe has until recently been a total mystery perhaps the time it deteriorated becoming too. Or seventy two wet. To dry millions of years later in the second half of what we call the twentieth century, a theory started to emerge that the mass extinction, which took out the dinosaurs might have been cold by a huge asteroid hitting the F would not have been a good place to be. We would have had this extremely bright fireball for few seconds and courses shockwave progresses over some distance and then a very powerful explosion, wave and wind in the atmosphere millions of tons of rock thrown up into the sky. The rain down who answer all over the planet. Alan hailed Brown is professor of geosciences at the university of Calgary different research has it been coming up, variations of the asteroid impacts airy since the nineteen fifties and nineteen eighty father and son team Luis, Walter Alvarez had published a paper about a thin layer of sediment, that found in the geological record which could all over the world and contained unusually high levels, the random and iridium often found. In asteroids, they believe that entered the atmosphere is a meteorite and then choked life on earth as the dusted at thrown into the atmosphere at blocked out, the sun, the repeal saying, look, you're saying there this big impact, but showing me is this in Claire? There's a big impact there's going to be someplace with a big impact crater, if you back some early papers, you can see impact sites suggested all over the globe anything that was extraordinarily happen to vote sixty five million years ago, people saying, well maybe that's an impact site. But as it turned out the impact, crater had already been found in one thousand nine hundred seventy eight two years before the Vars had published their iridium theory, a young geophysicist cooled. Glen penfield have been working for the Mexican state oil company PEX on an era, magnetic survey of the Yucatan basin scanning the seabed looking for my netted anomalies, which indicate oil starting about two hundred kilometers, two hundred fifty kilometers or so north of the Yucatan, we're flying east west lines about four kilometers apart five hundred foot altitude one day in early April. I see in the middle of the lines are very, very, very flat free of high frequency signal. There's no magnetic sources. And then all of a sudden, in the middle of one line. There's a bunch of this hash little anomalies that are like, maybe two to five Nanno Tesla's, which is really tiny Glennon, and his colleagues kept going and kept finding more of the unexpected magnetic traces after about ten days. We suddenly came in the center of this group of pie frequency anomalies. We suddenly came to a very large amplitude anomaly, maybe a hundred times larger big bump. So at that point, we had a very symmetrical kind of a half bullseye with these weekly magnetic features on the outside at a massively magnetic central core. He wasn't a person wagging PEX tonight. Just the bump. But everyone else had interpreted. What he thought was a crater as volcano. I've been looking at volcanoes intimately for the previous three years, and this was not like the nag medic signature of anything volcanic that I'd seen this looked like a hundred and eighty kilometer impact feature would look just like the stuff I've been looking. As an amateur, astronomer for years on the moon and Mars, he tells his colleagues panics that he thought he'd found evidence of an Esterel impact, but they've just kind of joked about this and said all this back, Tony Camargo was one came up with this era lethal, Glenn, the Skyrock of glam and everybody laughed about it. And we kept on working I spent three years in Mexico learning Spanish, Mary, a wonderful Mayan, partly by Indian young woman. We've been married forty one years now eventually penfield, converted his project manager Antonia Kamoga to his credit theory. And they started trying to convince the scientific community to didn't want to publicize the findings because the data could have been commercially sensitive, but in one thousand nine hundred one penfield and Kamoga got permission to give a paper, the society exploration, geophysicist in Los Angeles. There were about sixty to seventy people in the room when I gave the paper, maybe half full or a third full that was in November, December the science editor of the Houston chronicle wrote. The front page article on this on the Sunday paper must have been the flow news day, but the didn't go any further than that. They were all pretty dismissive of the people at Berkeley. The Alvarez people, the people have NASA, what's this twenty five year old guy telling us that it's a huge impact. Crater. Instead, what does he know? So that's where things sat until almost a decade later, I came along looking for impact sites in the region between north and South America in those days and held a brand was a PHD student at the university of Arizona. And he was looking for the crater by working backwards from clings in the geological record a big impact in the ocean is gonna make big ways truly the sort of thing, Hollywood movie, move the ocean as four or five kilometers teeth away, should initially kilometers high, and there was no deposit from giant wave and Denmark, wasn't Texas. So maybe that's something to do with the impact site. That was another clue in the sediment of ejecta. Wrong thrown up by impact thicker in Haiti than at other nations sites. Then from the position of this layer in Haiti you could just draw circle on a map and say, the crater house to be around here somewhere. He presented his theory at a conference in the Houston area in March nineteen ninety well, after I gave this presentation reporter who had covered the meeting for years and Carlos fires from the Houston chronicle said, well, I covered a story back in nineteen Eighty-one someone in town here who found what they thought was a big very crater on the peninsula of Mexico. Person has gone penfield. I literally looked up in the Houston telephone information on penfield and held LeBron's started to what together to prove that the site, wasn't the creativity Estoril that killed the dinosaurs. Combining the data Glenn collected PECS with Alan calculations where the creativity be from the geological record, but they were struggling to find the pre. They made it in the form of rock samples until they got a tip of that previous PEX exploration in the area at sent samples to the university of New Orleans decades earlier for different basic research, Glenn went to visit whip through a closet full of samples about six hundred samples still in the original bags from the wealth site, five hundred ninety bags of stuff that looked like the white cliffs of Dover, and then these ten or fifteen bags these bright green brecciated things from the layer. I sent those apples down to the people at the university of Arizona. Helen Hildebrand professor Boynton is professor, and that's where they pretty easily identify that this was multiple shocked quartz several different directions shocked coats print had been an asteroid impact in the area. The gave the crates at the Mayan, chick Chalupa. We submit this paper to nature. I and one of the reviewers said of the paper, the only thing original about this work is the unpronounceable name. Shikha palu. Of course, I picked that name with my wife because we have called it, the mariner crater. We could've called it the Yucatan crater, but we particularly pick check shalhoub, which is a good Maya name. Because after a decade of making fun of being just totally blowing this thing off this will cause the Berkeley people and the NASA people, a little bit of agony. The paper was finally published in nineteen Ninety-one and the general geology still to controversy. You know, people were still insisting wasn't a crater was volcanic censure. But everybody interested enough. Everyone started investigating it started doing other tests. So by the time to say in nineteen Ninety-three chip, shillue was for many people accepted as the source crater of this disaster. Alan Hildebrand, and Glen, penfield speaking to Lucy Benz island is still researching Meteo impacts, and Glenn is still working in oil exploration next to examine an issue, which almost universally strikes note of horror, but which despite that had been on the rise in recent decades for this disturbing moment in history. We're going back twenty years to may nineteen ninety nine in Bangladesh and the founding of the acid, survivors foundation, the first organization, dedicated to treating and trying to rehabilitate the survivors of acid attacks for HANA Haida has been speaking to one of its founders Manera Rodman, acid attack creates a huge damage, not only just in the skin, but, you know, it goes underneath the skin and sometime affects the bones I was shocked. I was horrified. I couldn't understand how a human being can do that to other human being in the nineteen ninety s acid attacks on the rise in.

Glen penfield Glenn Alan Hildebrand penfield Yucatan crater Houston chronicle Walter Alvarez university of Arizona geophysicist mariner crater NASA professor Berkeley Mexico Haiti Yucatan Houston university of Calgary Antonia Kamoga South America
"walter alvarez" Discussed on No Agenda

No Agenda

09:38 min | 3 years ago

"walter alvarez" Discussed on No Agenda

"The nineteen twenties during the depression, the owner of the store gave credit to local neighbors, so they could get through the depression fashioned very old fashioned that man's grand sons still runs. The same grocery store in the prices are probably twenty percent higher than the nearby Safeway. That's two blocks away and Safeway sells the same stuff cheaper. Well, my wife and I go to the star grocery store, we have for thirty years, we'll always and we know the owner. We know the checkout clerks we know who's who we get together. Friends of ours, that we talk with their can. To meeting hole in the way that the Safeway isn't in Safeway of meeting whole having. Goods delivered to my doorstep. Certainly not you don't even see the person who drops stuff off if I want or rich community, or I know the people around me, and I'm invested in them, and they're invested in me necessarily going to have to go meet them. Someplace times. I did not understand that. Twenty thirty years ago that this really was a rather rather silly, rare thing to ask of people people can you, hey, I'd rather save save money into specially rather have it delivered to my door rather than go out and walk along in island. Yeah. Pick things off grocery store off grocery shelf. Yeah. I was wrong point was I wrong. And then you can't it's I was way. The wrongness of it is always is always a variable and what it might mean by that is that if, if it wasn't for Amazon, and the genius of Jeff Bezos insane genius. You don't know that wouldn't have caught on. I mean, the differences structures were there for it to go either wis. Sure knows because I've been writing about technologies efficiency economic efficiency is as powerful, powerful entered and online online ordering and personal delivery is damned efficient and more. Power to it. Turn good. At the same time. I'm rather I guess I live in acquaint world. Never is looking from looking around. Quite what are you looking across? What I see also some old wallpaper that seems to have been from the nineteen twenty see ritual wallpaper. Yes. Yeah. It's jello, but it's quite attractive. I of like wallpaper general people. Say. Oh, that's the house when it was. Yeah. What was built in this guy right there? He's a member of the lobbies international workers of the world. Oh, yeah. Remember that group and about okay, okay. Don't broadcast shop though. Sure. Seem silly. Well, let's see. Storytelling. So about thirty thirty five years ago, nineteen eighty four or so. I'm Berkeley, working at Cal the Lou put the physics department and bicycle by this house house, sign houses for sale this house greater house for sale by owner. So I walk in there's hundred people crowded in house costs costs, a fortune. I walk out and say, though way I go to buy a house this don't think anything of it next to bicycle by. There's a guy sitting on his porch looking over for tonight yell out to the guy. Hey, Mr. did you sell your house guy you'll spec? Yes. Sold off my bike walk up to start talking. See I sold three offers. Well, what do you do? He says, I'm a labor lorries your labor ler. Do you know about the ideally w actual workers world? He says, boy, do I, I'm ready to book about it, really, I say, tell them, you must know songs of Mr. block, and he says, I sure do and he starts going over stir block. You were born guy mistake, you take the cake, you make the aches I joined, and I take the next verse. He takes this verse. We're seeing all these old labor organizing songs from the nineteen tends to each other. Yeah. And it's going back and forth paddling. And we're talking about the national workers the world there heaved into. And half an hour. Hour goes by. Geez. I gotta get to Callan post doctor. You gotta get the guy SIS to be you. Can't go yet. You got it by my house. No, seriously. No. I want you to buy this house. I say, I got three offers second. I can't afford it. I'm just a post doc. They don't pay me nothing third. I got department downtown Oakland cheap. He says the house likes you everybody else who wants to buy it as an investor. Okay. Oh by it. Pay. You whatever anybody else's shakes hands sold one hundred sixty thousand dollars. Yeah. But look, I ain't got that kind of brand says, I don't care. I like you true story. So what was the year that this teen eighty three eighty four? Guy says, so we go sky mortgage world could he laughs at me? Post doc in physics lords Berkeley labs. They pay me twenty thousand twenty two thousand a year. He's gonna have to make thirty five thirty six thousand to afford that kind of mortgage. Boss. Boss, Louis, Alfred Nobel is famous. So, you know Louis I went to Cal. Yes. Cook to Louis and say, hey, of Howson kinda make thirty five thousand in you, you're never complicated or some of area. I want five dollars for out, okay for next six months here. Get this paper site. So it gave me a race as a research, associate for thirty five grand like get this thing. Sign show it to the mortgage broker said SIS. You work from Louis Louis Alvarez. Wow. He's got enough money for he steps things, we bicycle over to Bank literally look, three months later. I own this house. I've never had it inspected. I don't even know how many bedrooms there are in it. I don't know. Other and being ripped off all I know is the guy who selling it and his wife are labor lawyers, and they're really friendly. And that. And so I moved in, in the guy was right. The house, light me, and I liked the house. That's what you see here. The original of the house, little embroidering that story. Well, things happen. It is actually pretty funny story. Sort of, if I had done at the right way talking to real estate that you wanna get in the house at Lincoln. You know, who is saying, this is the way to do things. But it works sometimes work. Since you were up at that one of the guys up there. One of the side, one of the researchers physicists up at the at the lab, and I don't can't remember which one it is. But he's got this theory that he brings out once in a while that the earth is on a collision course every something like seventy million baller is Muller Richmond. He goes the asteroids kills off yet. Yeah. Ritual, he's he sharp. He in fact, youth lovely students. Riches still up there. I'm sure I haven't seen him in three or four years. He's you want. Chat was just get ahold about that. He theory it makes nothing but sense and it seems, you know you can't it's almost it's on provable. But, but the white 'bout the. Yeah, yeah. Blue historic record going back millions of years to indicate rich on nemesis impact. Rich was one of the guys who? Figured out after. Louis, and Walter Alvarez figured that it was a giant meteor that hit the earth, wiped out the dinosaurs rituals. What are the people figured out? What happened? Oh, crud was put in the air that we had a climate change for few hundred years. That's what killed the dinosaurs were hit by the vegetation, couldn't guys needed big plants. Yep. Yep. Yep. Ended up in things turn cold because sunlight wasn't getting down. So it was a. Working with people like that with such a joy it was up. I'd say, don't get me started.

Louis Louis Alvarez Safeway Mr. block Cal Berkeley Guy Amazon Jeff Bezos Oakland Louis I Rich Callan Walter Alvarez Muller Richmond Lincoln Alfred Nobel Howson
What If the Meteor that Helped Wipe out the Dinosaurs Had Missed Earth?

BrainStuff

06:08 min | 3 years ago

What If the Meteor that Helped Wipe out the Dinosaurs Had Missed Earth?

"Today's episode is brought to you by smart water twenty years ago. Smart water, reimagined, what water could be from thoughtful bottle designed to supporting smart people who are changing our world through fresh thinking. Like, you smart water has added electrolytes for taste and great tasting water helps you stay hydrated, feeling refreshed and ready to take on your day. Refresh yourself with smart water. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, Lauren Vogel bomb here on the northern coast of the Yucatan peninsula near the town of chick. Love. Mexico is a crater about one hundred twenty miles in diameter. That's about one hundred ninety kilometers the asteroid that created this crater was about six miles. That's ten kilometers wide and hit the earth sixty five million years ago in spite of these immense, measurements, the craters hard to see even if you're standing right on its rim to get a good map. Nasa. Researchers examined it from space. Ten years before the nineteen ninety discovery of the chick fil crater, physicists, Louise, Alvarez and geologist. Walter Alvarez, a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it. They noted increased concentrations of the element iridium in sixty five million year old clay radium is rare on earth, but it's more common in some objects from space like meteors and asteroids, according to the Alvarez theory, a massive asteroid had hit the earth blanketing the world iridium, but shower of particles wasn't the only affect of the collision the impact caused fires climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time dime stores, which until then had managed to survive for a one hundred eighty million years died out, geophysicist Doug Robertson of the university of Colorado at boulder theorizes, the impact heated earth's atmosphere dramatically causing most big dinosaurs to die with an hours this mass extinction. Definitely happened fossil evidence shows that about seventy percent of species living on earth at that time. Became extinct. The massive die off marks the border between the Cretaceous and tertiary periods of earth's history. Which are also known as the age of reptiles and the age of mammals respectively today, scientists call the extinction decay t- event after the German spellings of Cretaceous and tertiary the t- event had an enormous effect on life on earth. But what would have happened if the asteroid hadn't missed would it have led to a world where people in dinosaurs would coexist or one in which neither could live. In a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with a force of a hundred million tons of TNT life could have progressed much differently. Sixty five million years ago, some of the animals and plants that are common today. We're just getting started these include placental mammals, which are mammals that develop inside a placenta in the womb and angiosperms, which are flowering plants insects that rely on flowers, such as bees were also relatively new many of these life forms thrived after the t- event, and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way they may not have found ecological niches to fill in this scenario. Today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals, including people. But even if the asteroid hadn't hit done stores and other Cretaceous life forms might have become extinct. Anyway, some dinosaur species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid's impact. This has led many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story. Other global catastrophes. Massive volcanic eruptions in what is now. India most likely played a role also the earth's changing landscape as the supercontinent Panja broke up into today's continents. Probably had something to do with it too. Then there's another argument that the chip to love asteroid hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction. Researchers Gerda Keller and Marcus Harding, both conclude that the impact took place three hundred thousand years before the end of the Cretaceous period. Keller theorizes chick fil impact was one of at least three massive collisions Harding argues at the iridium layer didn't come from the web asteroid but from another event such as series of meteors burning up in the atmosphere. He bases. This theory on ROY particles objected during the impact a most of these are in an older layer of the earth than the Katie iridium layer, according to both of these points of view the absence of the club. Asteroid strike may not have had a big affect on the k t extinction earth was a warm planet for most of the time that dinosaurs lived after the end of the Cretaceous period, the world got a lot colder and experienced several ice ages. Whether dinosaurs could have survived such change in climate is debatable. It's hard to come to a definitive conclusion about what the world would look like today without the chicks love impact. But the question of whether people in dinosaurs could have coexisted is a captivating won the ideas, president in everything from the Congo legend of mock lame Obembe to King Kong to the pervading kitsch of the Flintstones. Then of course, there's the prevailing scientific theory about the origin of birds that they are in essence dinosaurs that we are coexisting with today. Today's episode was written by Tracy the Wilson and produced by Tyler claim brain stuff is a production. Iheartradio's how stuff works to hear more from Tracy. Check out the podcast stuff, you missed in history class and for more on this and lots of other historic topics is that our home planet. How stuff works dot com. And for more podcasts from iheart radio is iheartradio app. Apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Jerry Lewis is dead. Sid vicious incurred. Kobe also did Amy wine-house Johnny cash and more disgrace. Them's rock and roll true crime podcast with stories about musicians getting away with murder and behaving. Very badly is available now hosted by me Jake Brennan, you can listen to disgrace of the iheartradio app. Apple podcasts or wherever you get your podcasts.

Walter Alvarez Gerda Keller Apple Fil Crater Lauren Vogel Marcus Harding Tracy Sid Vicious Mexico Nasa Cretaceous Yucatan Iheartradio Doug Robertson Murder Jerry Lewis Jake Brennan TNT Boulder