35 Burst results for "Unix"
Singleness: Burden and Gift
"Join us today as we talk about singleness as well as what it means to be single and life in the church join us in having the conversations that shape us greetings tobin. Welcome to another conversation. Come listeners this amount of baptist. Podcast how you doing tobin. I'm doing good. How are you doing doing all right. It's been a tough week for for us. Say you recently lost a loved one in your family anthem. I'm mourning the loss of a friend. So you know different times during cova de wouldn't you say oh for sure. It's definitely a tough time to lose somebody during covid because you don't exactly get to see them funeral plans start looking different and there's a whole bunch of other different support. Networks are starting to look differently than they did before hand right. I was even thinking we talked about death last week. And then it kind of hits you personally so it's very interesting right. It's it's just part of our lives and when we don't think about it don't deal with it sometimes for caught unawares but yeah it's good to have to have that background and even as we are recording this we are almost at where death also plays a central role in the story and to defeat of death. Of course as well so yeah. It's very interesting. Yeah very much so. We had one of our recommendations to talk about singleness this week from a listener. Yeah it's quite the switch from death and there's quite a few ways we can take this conversation right so we'll kind of see how it unfolds. We'll see how the cookie crumbles but we could talk about singleness as an experience of individuals within the western culture right. We're probably talk about in our second half singleness as it relates to biblical values and and and culture and what the bible says there right and then we can also talk about a little bit in the beginning now about how singleness in psychology relate to one another. Yeah that's a good idea. Why don't you start us off with that Even as you're talking about it's interesting to even think about what is singleness right because singleness can be so many different things depending on how you define singleness and not being singled. So what do you think right. So single head is if we were to come up with something like a working definition here i would say. Single single hood is defined by not being in relation with another person. And i think the traditional idea of cygnus is in a romantic setting okay and you had some statistics on singleness in canada. As well which. I found fascinating i did and when i read these statistics. They're not exactly using the same definition. I am right and from what i understand. These are talking about single households so in canada. there there was an article in twenty nine thousand nine that wrote that compared to nineteen eighty six in two thousand sixteen. We had approximately double the amount of people who lived alone and so that means that we have about four million canadians across canada. Who who are single. Who who live alone and now with someone who provides that romantic so seventy percent of the four million have previously been in a relationship which would include widowed divorced or separated by any other means twenty percent of this four million are currently in a relationship with somebody but they just don't live in the same household right and then fifty percent of these individuals also have a child. Roughly speaking two million canadians live in a single parent or guardian household and are pulling triple or quadruple duty in order to support and care for the children or the dependence and simply don't have the same resources that we do with having an extra person there right fascinating. So when i asked you about the definition singleness you talked about not being in a meaningful relationship or romantic attachment to someone but then as you're giving us each statistics you already seeing a little bit of a clash with how you defined versus how perhaps canada or society defines it right because society defines this as just romantic attachment. I was just thinking about singleness before we even we even talk today and How we just assumed that you have to be part of a meaningful. You have to report a meaningful romantic relationship or attachment in order to not be single whether that's married or living with somebody or at least being boyfriend girlfriend whatever we wanna do whatever we want to call it but the experience of singleness goes beyond just that right. I mean The i was reading some articles about this author deborah hirsch. She's a christian author. She's a little bit out there because she talks about sexuality but she talks about homosexuality is not just a sexual expression within a sexual relationships ship between two bodies but that sexuality transcends also into every relationship we have because we we can't just separate parts of our being. We can't just say this part of me sexual in this. Part of me is relational. And this part of me is spiritual we are one hole and so it transcends. I heard a talk by her. And so she talked about what that means for single people and and celebrate people people who choose to be celebrate in that setting. And that doesn't mean that these people don't need community or meaningful relationships of attachment even if they're not romantic attachments over shirt and i like that idea of the embodied whole as you can't we can't segment like like you said sexual the the spiritual whatever that it all comes together as one person right that being said there are individuals out there who would find they can be in a non sexual relationship. That'd be classically to find a single but aren't troubled by that Right so you're looking at the asexual community where relationships with out that sexual component still fulfilling and meaningful right right and the flip side to that is you have people who have this meaningful community. Who who have lots of deep meaningful attachments to other people but are longing for would consider themselves being single and lonely and longing for a deeper expression for deeper romantic and sexual attachment to someone exactly while there are some that. Do not need that romantic or other person attachment to the same level. There's other people that crave and need it and desire so talk to me a little bit about what that means in terms of how how you live life and how you engage life as a single person. Well okay so growing up in canada as this as a single person who is wanting a relationship and can't find it what is what is that. Psychologically like and i would i have. I think i have a few friends who would fit this category and i just from conversations with them it's not a enjoyable experience Even in my own past bake as someone who from eighteen onwards wanted to have like girlfriends and wanted to be in those in in in relationships with other beings who felt that long. I've had a taste of how powerful that loneliness and that drive four relationship can be right and then there's a certain amount of feeling of rejection and isolation loneliness from not having that being fulfilled so as you're talking my question comes up. What's the. I am trying to word this but where maybe i'm using the wrong words but where does longing turned into obsession or or need so so what i mean by that is can you have that long. Can you desire something and still be content. With present circumstances. I mean that comes down to how you define contentment I would say that if contentment means you're all right with the circumstance. Then no because you still desire that relationship okay We talked quite a number of episodes back about the dark night of the soul right about longing for something how You desire of reality of presence to be with in in my circumstance was to be with god and how reality circumvents that there then becomes a conflict between what is felt. And what is known. That being said you've already touched on this with the obsession component right but then there is also that danger of it becoming an obsession of turning that pain right into something negative such as is found in some communities such as the involuntary salvator the in self community online right and then what you find in those communities is that a lot of this pain and turmoil gets turned outwards against other communities where they start blaming other people and other things for their own loneliness and rejection and in doing so their reactions become a negative coping mechanism an unhealthy behavior to try and alleviate the discomfort or rationalize it so then that goes back to my original question so because because my worry is that that we're kind of setting up a binary in the sense that i want to be in a more committed relationship of one sort or another. Let's call it romantic for for better for lack of a better word. So i want to be under romantic relationship. I'm either in the stage of wanting that and the more i wanted to do the closer i get to it being an obsession in my life or i get it and then i'm fine but there is no room to to to live a. Is there no room then to live a life. That says hey i would really desire this but i will also be content. Happy with where i am right now and and live into that to the fullest. And that's that's tricky because we don't have a lot of social narratives that kind of give us that framework to experience singleness in a healthy way. So if i were to break that down a little bit when we watch movies in rome these romantic movies and stuff. It gives us a lot of even you even say it's either healthier unhealthy. That's not me to judge right now but it still gives you those narratives to kind of go and say oh. This is what it's like to be in relationship. This is how i can experience relationship and and dating and being with another person. We don't have movies about what it's like to be alone at least not popularly right right or if they are they're fairly depressing right. There fairly depressing. It's all about not being in that relationship and own. Maybe i'll get into that relationship. There's the whole trope in the late. Two thousands of the manic pixie dream girl where it's all about these writers hollywood writers that use women and relationships to give men character growth in arcs in the movie right so it's all about being relationship pure like it's not about the expression of singleness as healthy in itself. It's about relationship as fixing your problems so that not then create problematic relationships as well. In the sense that i'm finding all my fulfillment than in that relationship once. I do find a relationship where i where i haven't grown as a person or don't have enough emotional intelligence to be content with the person that i am because the person that i was always looking for someone else to to complete me exactly. It creates problems both in relationships expectations for relationships and for people who also want to enter relationships. Right and even individually it creates a learning process or provides an opportunity for a healthy learning environment. Where you start to empathize with your partner where you can put yourself. In their shoes and learn that your flaws also have to be negotiated with their flaws and that there's a balancing act and interpersonal dynamics. Come in and i mean that turns even so now. We're talking about dating but that that that's the same thing with with friendships as well right. If you're i can see a scenario. I've seen lots of scenarios where where you're not content. You're not necessarily content with who you are and so you're you're expecting a lot of out of that friendship relationship for your happiness for your contentment even for your self esteem for the way you Assess your own value that kind of stuff And that can even come out in familiar. Familial relationships as well right where you depend. It's about on another to define who you are and to give you that esteem right and so i mean maybe we're getting off track but that's kind of what singleness conversations are in the sense. Is that the healthiest relationships in our lives are are where we have Some sort of independence isn't it. Yeah yeah independence crates freedom. Authenticity for who you are. In relation to the overall relationship that being said we also live in a society that needs us to be in relationship so to further expand on this point there is there has been studies. I was just scrolling passively I love read it i. I'm on it all day while just pathway scrolling on read it and they were talking about how people live longer when they're in hell in healthy relationships. Oh interesting and lots of articles in the medical community about how people who come in with their partners rent have better treatment results and partly to have somebody to talk to and somebody else to gather information. Yeah whatever the reason is another person there right even just as a tax bonus is is beneficial. So we have. We live in a society that set up for couples and yet the dangerous. become too codependent. And while there's this whole codependence piece talked about but then how as a single person do you live right right so if your approach this as as a single person you see the i live in a society that needs couples that needs you know somebody to stay home and clean the house or look after the kids while somebody else needs to go work. How do i be both people. Yeah or even attach detaches. I think in our society we attach maturity to to relationships as well right so a part of adulting is to be in a meaningful relationship. I always found that whole areas adulting if being an adult but somehow of verb but anyways You know like you are considered writes so you are considered to be a more mature adults in comparison to other people your age if you're in a meaningful relationship and on top of that if you do certain things if you have a certain job if you have a house and if you have kids right over sure i even feel that in school like what. I'm twenty five now. But because i'm married all of a sudden that puts me in a whole nother brand right of society all of a sudden i'm more mature i'm responsible and i'm sure if i had kids out even put me in another bracket above 'cause now i'm looking after little right little little children but as as we're talking i'm just wondering if we wouldn't have a healthier society if we we would learn what it looks like to live healthily in singleness for a time of our lives even just a how we talk about singleness it would be helpful for the individuals who are signal Because we are seeing a rise in people who live alone or who aren't conventionally married or unconventionally being with somebody else and just to harry healthier narratives for them to us and to understand themselves and even understand ourselves with. Kate will greatly benefit us as a community as a as a broad social community as christians and canadian. A do well. Let's transition a bit into the bible here. where So where have if. I'm a single person. And i wanted and i'm and i'm just lonely as all can be. Have you found that. Most people find their strength. I think were most people go in terms of the bible. At least we can talk about how we talk about church. How about single isn't church. And how we treat single people insertion. That's a separate thing from how the bible talks about singleness. I mean jewish culture. Very much thought that you had be married that that's just you know that that's the purpose of your life is to be married if you're mad at your purposes to have a have a wife so that your wife can have children and and your family line keeps going and if you if you were a woman you know your goal was that for your family to find to find the man or family who would take you i mean as a patriarchal society is but there is no. I don't know if there's a real allowance The only time there is conversation is about widows right and how you treat widows and so in that sense. The old testament is much more progressive than the surrounding cultures of its time and makes allowance for widows and treats them well and in that sense even relationships are still political. Yeah in that. It's not about so much being with somebody else. As it is a way to further your lineage as a way to get some gain right and not saying that there isn't a component. Alright love between why. Perhaps there is some counter cultural stories even embedded within the old testament to see the story of of ruth and her mother-in-law. Ruth naomi. i mean ruth's story restoring does end in marriage but it's very much naomi who makes it happen and they owe me you know. She kind of becomes a mother kind of surrogate mother to son that ruth bears. I mean that's how the story ends in the bible. Were supposed to see that image. Even though she's not married so it's a fairly counter cultural story there is rahab the prostitute who becomes part of israel. There's the story of tamar who forces kind of what we would call a constitutional crisis. It's not a constitutional crisis but it's a crisis of the law for for for one for for one of the for one of the men that was supposed to marry her. Her father in law's supposed to marry her according to the law because her husband has passed away but he refuses and so eventually she she forces her way into this. There's the story of astor who who kind of becomes part of this abusive kings. Well she's the she becomes the queen to disabuse of king and rescue the people of israel. I think all of those are somewhat counter cultural in the sense that that they're describing to us non normative relationships within that paradigm but also some of these women become not all of them that i mentioned but some of them are part of the story of jesus right so matthew mentions for women in the genealogy of jesus and even though clearly there had to be men for those four women to have borne children has not the men that are identified. It's the women that are identified. And so it already kind of focuses more on the person under relationship that that they were in jesus himself never married according to the gospels. All of a sudden you have these single people doing things right. i mean we. We don't we don't know of mary. Martha lazarus or married. We never find out. They are just people right. The assumption probably is that they would be. But but even when lazarus dies. we don't hear about his wife morning right. We we hear about his sisters. Mary magdalene she married. We don't know right. I mean you go down the list of all these characters and somehow we don't often find out about their familial relationships and isn't there a passage in there somewhere about how it it in summary. It's like get married if you want to. But you know your your relationship with the lord is i and you gotta serve that primary. I corinthians that where it is. I post writing. Yeah i mean. Paul paul is also single. There's a hint there. in first. Corinthians read the passage wrongly sometimes. But there's a hint there. In first corinthians step maybe at one point paul was married and he considers himself a widower. I've never heard preached in church but there is a hint there because he's talking to the widows and widowers and he's co counseling them to stay single and he says be as i am so he identifies himself with them. He doesn't leader. He talks to to what he calls the virgins which would be the single people who are potentially also engaged to be married which is different than the widows widowers and so there he doesn't say as i am because he's not. He doesn't see himself like that. He sees himself like a widower. So but in that passage. Basically what paul is saying. Yeah Marriage is a good thing and if you want to be married be married and if you don't wanna be married you have a gift to bring to the conversation as well and the way the we paul seasons in that conversation is gift that single people bring is is an attachment to church and into the work of god. I mean this comes out of paul of paul paul's idea anyways is that jesus coming back soon. You know. And so he saying why. Why waste your time getting married. We have so much stuff to do. Let's go get working and proclaiming. Jesus christ but that's the gift that single people that that's the gift that he sees himself bringing to the church as well right. I'm single so i can go and serve god and i can go and proclaim and so So he very much kind of trying to tell people. Stay in whatever situation you are. Don't get divorced if you're married. Stay married and have sex. He literally. I mean literally what he says. Don't don't all of a sudden now because you think that you're that you're christian. Stop having sex. If you're in a marriage you know. There's no you're not holier if you're in a celebrate marriage with somebody then if you're in a sexual relationship with somebody and so That's kind of his frame of mind right and so what. I take that passage. Don't i think what we should take a passage is that there's legitimate calling and gift to singleness within our congregations and we haven't really acknowledged that ever or very rarely and as as you're talking here. This is reminding me of a story that. I read quite quite a quite a few years ago when i was taking a family and marriage class. I believe that was the course. I was in for this. Where was talking about An evangelical preacher who was off doing missionary work off off in the boonies somewhere and then his daughter right was or his family was having trouble and distress and their daughter. I think even commit suicide over his lack of involvement. Yeah this is a story that i read in a book called sweet surrender by dennis hiebert and the question raised is what becomes more important family or missionary work right well. My critique on this was that he shouldn't this this preacher guys should not have even gotten married in the first place if he couldn't have committed to the relationship as a whole right right. And you know. I i mean before we talk. Today i went and reread some of this stuff. And i corinthians seven and you you can go and read yourself there paul saying that. If you're married you are committing to that relationship and you need to give it a significant amount of energy. That is your calling by god within marriage so you you know the the the calling that god puts on you cannot supersede that calling that god has put on you for that marriage. Because you're asked to be in this relationship of mutual self giving love so you have to kind of buy into that but if you don't need to be in a relationship like that then you can give some of that energy to the work at hand or two one way to one way to to translate it. There has to present necessities. Paul says And so that's that's how paul would put would address it. I don't think paul would understand. I don't think. Paul understand our fascination with saying hey To be to be a good human. I need to be part of a relationship. I need to be in a marriage any to have kids. And then i'm going to dedicate all my energy to my work or to my church. You know for pastors or or to this and ev- this relationship that i've committed to is going to take second place to another relationship i've inserted into it and then using jesus own words to kind of To support that is weird. I don't think paul would ever do that exactly. And i think we put this pressure on missionary work that It becomes the one and only calling for a christian to be part of god's works in the world. Yeah and what. Paul is trying to say i think is hey. If you're single now you can do mission or missionary work. You're not attached to the work of your marriage covenant relationship so why not not stay the way you are. He's trying to tell these people in corinthians why not stay the way you are and do missions work. If that's what you feel like god is calling you to see in our mind. We have turned completely around. We often how we are. We have such distrust of single people especially single men that we say. Hey no-no before you can do ministry worker before you can do missionary work and this is very much agenda conversation because it's not the other way around. We don't distress single women we asked him. and then. So that's an noticing this even as we speak right here. I've been hesitant to talk about this call. That paul has and says. Hey you're single and you can work for the church because to me. It sounds abusive. Make single women do often. We send them out to be missionaries. We asked him to serve. You don't have children. you can do this right. We don't do the same thing for single men or very scared of single men and if want men to do any kind of ministry. We want men to be married and have children because that safety as so. That's that's even the gender dwayne which we approach singleness right. And i think you're in a very unique position at thirty to even speak about that because of your work now with Generation rising coming up and with your older work at in out of town or you did that sort of abroad. Work right where you've seen students and individuals who either as a couple or who are dating or who are single going off and doing this work in in in africa or or wherever you sent them thinking of even thinking about who hires churches in terms of pastors right. It's okay for youth pastor. It's okay for a youth pastor to be single sometimes right because they're young Oftentimes if men right they're young. That's alright we prefer a single woman or a married woman to our children's ministry because they're just more approachable to children. Once you're past you get into a more. An associate pastor position or a lead pastor position. We really want that pastor to be married whether they're a woman or a man we really would like them to be in a committed relationship because that to us is the highest ideal. The highest value within the congregation. Right i mean. I don't think i've been to a church where we've had a single lead pastor. I have. I have not attended a church like that anyways. No i'm trying to think. I don't think i've ever had lead pastor as a single person. i've had associate pastors. Who were then in a divorce relationship or in a separate relationship right and that could be a whole nother podcasts. But yeah yeah. And i can't speak to their experiences. No no but within at least within the evangelical world that i've grown up in yet it's marriage seems to be this high ideal and so any time we talk about singleness and we talk about singleness even as a calling or as an opportunity We tend to think in our minds we tend to think about singleness calling opportunity for women not so much for men and we also tend to not put enough support around single people So we're tend to not give them the same community and while we say. Hey we value your singleness and if that's what god calls you to. Do we want to embrace that and you you can. You have something to give to us. We still want to celebrate mother's day and church and get frustrated when we celebrate we. Don't we still want to celebrate. Father stay in church and get frustrated when we don't and I can just. I mean i make a point of saying something to that effect every mothers and fathers day and i can just hear the roles you know i know the is aren't actually rolling but i can just hear that there's that pressure on you with the congress within the congregations like there there goes rafael again. Trying to be all politically correct not politically correct. It's an acknowledgment that our humanity is not just defined by our roles as fathers and mothers in within that attached relationship And committed relationship of of of marriage. I mean are not the only vision for for humanity not even in the bible. You know i mean. Let's talk about men. That aren't that that we wouldn't consider being fully men. I mean there's daniel and his three friends there most likely unix. Because that's what would happen in the bible. Once they were once they were taken as prisoners in palace. We have a whole book stories that we love to tell our kids about daniel right and we talk about the end times. We love to go to daniel and talk about you know that kind of stuff. There's there's a whole church in ethiopia that today still claims and traces their lineage. Back to a conversation with an ethiopian eunuch on-road from jerusalem Who's who has converted and baptized than an the ep ethiopian. Church still says. That's where we come from because he goes back right but somehow we've said that the highest ideal value is marriage is is being committed marriage with two children and suburban suburban right. Right right. I mean even within our culture. We do not have father's day and mother's day and a far saying on mother's day or a single people's they right we just don't either and so i would say for maybe the if we were to sum everything up that there's a really deep call. Or there's a really deep spirituality to being single and that there is special and it's needed and it's not any worse of a calling that being said we also need to adjust start cultural narratives and what we say in how we talk. And how he fee with people that needs to shift so that they can also feel that calling especially this has been another episode of the modern anna baptist. Please join the conversation by emailing us. At conversations that shape us gmail.com or joining us on twitter at modern anna baptist. Either way we'd love to hear from you and grow with you and continue to have fantastic conversations.
Zero Trust: Fast Forward from 2010 to 2021
"Our guest today and greece pay attention. This is important is junkin the rug at onto it formerly at forrester fame and palo alto networks who was the first to define the concept of zero trust in two thousand ten. Think about it. Two thousand ten eleven years ago paper so we have a few questions mostly focuses their trust. And of course it's past and the future so let's start from a somewhat painful but necessary question. Let's defines zero. Trust perhaps contrast how you define it then and how you think about it today. So zero hasn't changed right. It was still a fight against the old trust model. Where we had trusted parts of the network and untrusted parts of the network as we would see implemented in say an old cisco pix and so you had to define policy based upon a trust level so the internal interface of a picks was trust level. One hundred the highest level and the external interface was trust level zero the lowest trust levels. So you could go from a high too low trust level without any policy and i thought having that variable is painful and it means that. There's no album rules and it's highly insecure and we allow people to have access because of this trust model and so trust is just a human emotion that we've injected into digital systems for no reason at all and people confuse all the time human trust digital trust. I mean going back to nineteen eighty-four can thompson who we all know is the co creator of unix in his turing award speech. That year talked about the problem trusting. Trust so trust is something that shouldn't be in digital systems and that was the main thesis of the report and then it led to. How do you build systems like that. But mostly it was about thinking that this concept of trust actually incentivized bad behavior because all data breaches and almost all negative security events. That have ever happened. The root cause is the trust model. You'd think it was a spam email but it exploited the trust me think it was ransomware it exploited the trust model snowden and manning were insider attacks who exploited the trust model. So that was my fight. And then it's led to a lot more stuff.
Practical Advice On Using Python To Power A Business
"Interviewing christopher about how python is used to help manage business needs and processes in his work to share advice on this topic practical business python so chris can you start by introducing yourself. Hi tobias somebody. Was chris moffet. And i blog at practical business python which is dedicated to sharing examples of how you can use python to solve common business problems. I've been using python for probably a dozen plus years and was formally trained in electrical engineering in computer science but never actually been a computer scientists and most of my career has been on the business side. So that's where i've really enjoyed combining that business experience that python experienced. And that's a lot of what i'm trying to share at practical business python. Do you remember how you first got introduced python. I do maybe like a lot of other people had used some other languages. I did a little bit of work as a unix system administrator and did some scripting in pearl and exposure to other programming languages in the past and someone that i was working with said. Hey you might want to check out this python thing. It's pretty cool language. This was probably in two thousand one two thousand and two so relatively new. And i looked at it a little bit and thought you know this whole white space thing. It just didn't really resonate with me. I didn't think it was that good fit. So i passed fast forward about six or seven months and i was working on a windows system and needed to do some scripting and took another look at python started. Play with it for about half a day or so. Suddenly it just kind of clicked in my brain. Made a lot of sense and i've been using python in some way shape or form ever since. Then you mentioned that you've been using practical business python as an avenue to help educate people on some of the ways that the language is used to solve different problems within the business context. Motoring if you can just give a bit of an overview about your mission of practical business python and some of the back story of how you got started with it and what keeps you motivated after multiple years of blogging and writing resources to that particular segment of the system. So like i mentioned. I i got exposed to python this. Pre data science hype. If you will this was even probably before. Django was really getting started in the web space. So i use it a little bit from an administrative perspective. I also did a little bit of django work and then over time. I just stopped using thought so i didn't have a real good excuse or reason to use it on a daily basis. I wanted to find an opportunity to continue to use python explore the python ecosystem and maybe share some of that with people. So i thought you know maybe it would be a good idea to start a blog. And that's the genesis. A practical business python so i had this idea in middle of two thousand fourteen and i originally thought that i would maybe spend more time talking about things like raspberry pi so i was interested in that and i thought that would be a fun thing to learn in learning blog about but then i started to do a little bit more research to figure out what i wanted to write about in. That's when i discovered pandas started getting more involved with the data science world and is i continued that discovery process of learning about all these tools and figuring out how i could apply to my own problems. It just naturally flowed into blog articles. Where i could share that with people. And then what was really interesting is the feedback. I would get from people so once. I would post an article. I'd get feedback. All this is really helpful. This really clarified some concepts for me and that kind of creates that feedback loop that encouraged me to continue to create content and improve over time and to be honest that's really what sustains me now with the blog i guess two things one. I enjoyed learning. Enjoy learning more about what's going on in the world and how you can use all these really sophisticated tools that are out there and enjoy presenting it to people in a way that hopefully simplifies it and brings it down to the types of problems that they're dealing with and the feedback. I get from people when they say. Hey this is great. Here's a problem. I had or you help me save hours of work in my day job because if i thought and so i think those are the types of things that really sustain me going forward and you mentioned that you have a degree in electrical engineering and computer science. So you're familiar with the programmatic aspect but you also mentioned that your actual day to day is more on the business side of things. I'm wondering if you can just give a bit of context about some of the specifics of your role and some of the ways that you actually end up using python in your day-today so my specific day to day role is i work doing strategic pricing for a medical device company. Here in the us and what that means is it's a lot of data analysis taking a look at maybe third party or external data as well as our internal data in trying to figure out the most effective way to price our products in discount our products in the market. So i use python ally to build repeatable and scalable data analysis processes for myself. And the way i think of it is a lot of people would use excel to may be modeled. The data do the analysis in. I try as much as possible where it makes sense to use. Python and pandas in jupiter notebooks to do that ad hoc analysis in building in a way that's more repeatable so that once i've done in analysis one time it's easier to replicate for another product or another scenario. I wanna
"Mary frank johnson. Welcome to technician. It's great to speak with you. Thanks so much. Peter i always enjoy talking with you. I do as well so please on the record at this point. I'm i'm as somebody who is a luminary ao space. You do not need a big introduction with my audience. I don't imagine but you are perhaps best known. As former editor in chief of cio magazine the the moderator of the cio leadership live broadcast which is just a phenomenal phenomenal series of interviews with with leaders in the tech space x os with a healthy dose of course of chief information officers as the name suggests and a prolific writer. Somebody who's wisdom. I know my team. And i have have gained mightily from across the years as well so i'm so pleased to to have this more formal conversation after many many informal ones with you okay. Well thanks very much peter. I we've got a lot of great stuff to talk about indeed indeed wipe. We begin at the beginning at least as relevant to the cio space. You're not somebody who grew up with immersed in technology You are somebody who The written word came the more easily to the dentist too many others. Perhaps and and you were focused on journalism. I wonder what was what was the genesis of your time In focusing your skills on the cio. Space okay thanks. Exxon question and i love telling the story because i think that it reflects so much of how many of the it leaders cio's that we both know today ended up in the positions that you know they were music majors or they majored in english literature and history and then they got really interested in data side of things for me. I had started out. I spent ten years at daily newspapers. In florida and ohio in washington state and i reported on everything from city and county commission beats to k twelve education to police even state politics when i was two bureau chief for gannett news service out in columbus ohio and then we were moving to the boston area in nineteen eighty nine. My husband was an atmospheric scientist and he was taking a job in cambridge and so naturally i went reached out to the boston globe and to the boston herald and the it was. Nobody was hiring. So i was. We were arriving in the boston area. And i had heard about a very vibrant technology publishing world here and so i had examined it somewhat and made some phone calls A lot of this was so far before the days of regular emails. And you know we weren't living on our phones. Then so i was just applying my reporter skills to it. And i ended up getting a copy of computerworld mailed to me and sat there. I remember sitting there in my living room in ohio looking through it and feeling somewhat reassured that i could understand about what have the stories were about And then on the drive from ohio to massachusetts. I basically grill my husband One side down the other about the computer industry. Because i was coming into it only knowing that ibm made typewriters and the rest of it was kind of a big mystery. But i had been using some of the very early unix. That was vi editor on unix. That you could use to do work on. He had some sun workstations and very early versions of sun and unix workstations at our house and so i used that a little bit. And i remember when i was in my interview for the computer job with The executive and executive editor in the editor chiefs of computerworld. I think they were very impressed. That i was referring to things like vi editor in youth so but computerworld at always hired. They hired reporters who could learn the beat. And i think that's pretty much the way almost everybody on the tech journalism side got into it. They were journalists bite training. Then they do. They dove into their beats. Because one of the things we discovered trying to hire people over the years if you try to higher in a technical person and hand the technology beat they wouldn't know the story angle with fell on them so it was really important if you were genuinely out there reporting And then i found enjoyed it. I just enjoyed it so much and by the time i was a couple years into my job at computer world when the boston globe was to interview people and hire all. But i wouldn't left for anything at that point it just it was such a. I just enjoyed the way. The story kept changing and advancing and moving forward.
Higher-Order Thinking and Personalized Systems of Instruction (PSIs) in Higher Education
"You i got interested in the idea of kind of looking at higher order thinking and sort of personal systems of instruction when you yourself were a student and that led me to the question of what was personalized systems of instruction especially computerized ones from beyond. You know i. I think today everyone sort of thinks about all you can do all this stuff online. You learn online. Everyone's an online program. But if you go back maybe fifteen years you know. Maybe even ten years it feels like one of these technologies that couldn't have existed but we know. Psi original work was from well before computers. Were something that everyone had seven of in their house and you know in in the form of a phone so could you tell us a little bit about what. Psi's were like when you were starting out in higher education. You were starting to use them as part of your doctoral program. Sure well can. I use a way back machine to tell you another little tidbit secret. Of course you can do right if we go way back to me being in grade one and then i realized this later that there were reading. Labs and reading. Lab was the self paced set of there. Were these big boxes at the back of our room and you could go through these little reading vignettes. I remember reading about brown bears and things like that. Like that. Just stuck out to me because i love reading about them right like what were they. Where did they live what they eat so forth. And then you would answer these questions and if you'd have to get them all complete and correct and then you could go on to the next one so there was kind of this. It was all mastery based and i realized later this. Psi in like k. Through twelve right like in this really popular back at the time that i was in grade one and you know as students we kind of love this we could go at our own pace and get immediate feedback on whether or not we're right and we keep going on and on and on on these things and there's a little bit of competition among us rate because like you could be finished all of this work in your reading and language arts like whenever it was up to you you could get it all done and then go into something else so that was kind of exciting or are you could help other students in the class so i think that i never thought about it until recently but i think that when i when i was introduced to computer aided psi which was topped by joseph parrot the university of manitoba but this is probably why i love this system so much because it is self paced but the early early psi if you go back to the work of fred keller when he published his seminal article and nineteen sixty eight rate and the journal of applied behavior analysis goodbye teacher based upon a rhyme and he's introducing people to assist them that he's developed and he introduced in brazil as well as the united states. Psi was you know these units of study that you could you know master hopefully in about a week or so and you would go in and you would take a test when you're ready to take the test and then you either pass or you've gotta re study and if you've gotta re study you could go over the task with the proctor or the professor and then you could come back and retake it when you're ready to do so after you know some amount of kind of time out to re steady So if you think about that like things that there's an instructor right like if you have ten units that you have to have students take tests on. How many different tests do you need for them. You know if they get a reset and one you don't just give them the same test you have to have like a whole bunch of questions and different forms of big zam right for each unit so imagine the administration of that right like just can you imagine like panel versus thirty students versus three hundred. What would that be like a lot of tests a lot of grading more file cabinets right basically all the file cabinets right. Yeah file cabinet. Imagine carrying all the tests to and from the classroom and keeping them organnized. And you know. And we didn't have and they didn't have computers back then either right so when joe pair computerized this he actually made it. So that you could go in and you could request a-tast online and this is before point and click okay. This is before we had windows right in the we actually had to learn how to type in commands into the computer. And i never think of myself as somebody who programs but i did. I had to learn programming to be able to do this. Because you have to give the computer commands to get into your account and then to call up a test and then tell it to add more lines if you wanted to add more information to your answer or are you. Talking like a dos. Prompt or more like an old like early. Eighties looking kind of you know unix mainframe mainframe o wow absolutely yeah rob. It's definitely a mainframe computer right. And so so we did that and you know we after you master to test then you could sign on to be a peer reviewer or printer for student who had not yet passed that unit. So i mean think of it right like if you love this stuff and you're and you just go in and on a weekly basis at least on a weekly basis you pass one unit a week or more you can be peer reviewing a whole bunch of them and the peer reviews were great because they were bonus points in the course you and and the final exam where something like sixty percent because it was in person and they that was the quality control you had over the online course was making sure that people were who they said they were and you know that they weren't just doing things open book so you know it was nice being able to pat up though the the bonus points just in case but he bit. But here's here's the track right like when you do that and you're actually going and you're taking your test and your peer reviewing other students test. You're actually
pisode #35 Le voyage initiatique de la maternit et parentalit avec Bianca Thuot - burst 3
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Little Nightmares II/Initial release date
"On february eleventh we had little nightmares to from band dynamical entertainment on the twelfth. Of course. Super mario three d world plus browsers fury from nintendo and on february twenty third will have curse of the dead gods from pass tech games and focus home interactive plus persona five strikers from sega and peace studio and rogue heroes ruins of tasos from heliocentric studios team. Seventeen on february twenty fifth. We have ghosts and goblins resurrection from capcom on twenty six. We have bravely default to from nintendo at some point in february. We don't have the exact date yet. But we will have capcom arcade stadium and on march fourth. We've got see of solitude the director's cut from jeremiah. Games and electric arts on march ninth. We have apex legends from electronic arts and on march twelve. It's crash bandicoot four. It's about time from toys for bob and activation and on march twenty third. We have story of seasons pioneers of olive town from marvelous and finally on march six. We have both balan wonderland from square unix and monster. Hunter rise from capcom
Cyber Security News Round-Up January 19th 2021
"The threat actors who stole covid nineteen vaccine documents appear to have altered them before releasing them online. The european medicines agency says the material stolen. Ama says included internal confidential email correspondence dating from november relating to evaluation processes for covid nineteen vaccines. Some of the correspondence has been manipulated by the perpetrators prior to publication in a way which could undermine trust in vaccines emails about the vaccine development process. Where altered to give the appearance that this process was less credible than it might otherwise have been believed to be and ema standby the effectiveness and credibility of its reviews the corrupted alter data thus appear to have been emails about vaccine development and not data collected in the course of the development or evaluate of vaccines symantec reports another discovery in the salora gate threat actors armaments. Barium raindrop a back door used to drop. cobalt strike. raindrop bears some similarities to teardrop now where earlier identified as having been delivered by the sunburst back door both load cobalt strike beacon but raindrop uses accustomed packer. Cobalt strike raindrop also appears to be used to propagate across networks and may have been used selectively against high interest targets. Various sources are warning against seven vulnerabilities in the widely used. Dns forwarding client for unix based operating systems. Dns mask vulnerable. Systems could be susceptible to dns. Cache poisoning seven. Vulnerabilities are being collectively tracked. As dns spook jas off has a page up. Devoted to dna spook and users of affected systems are advised to apply patches as they become available on friday the us fbi renewed and updated a december warning about an iranian campaign. Enemies of the people intended to exacerbate us domestic mistrust and division by quote threatening the lives of us federal state and private sector officials using direct email and text messaging and quote. The operation also involves menacing dachshund. The bureau's warning says quote the iranian cyber actors have sought to intimidate some of the officials with direct threats including an image of an apparent text communication between the eeo teepee actors and an unidentified individual in the united states purportedly supporting the operation individuals. In the united states' intent on disrupting the peaceful transition of power potentially may be inspired by an act upon these influence efforts to harass harm threaten tack individuals specifically identified and quote enemies of the people represents an extreme form of this tendency and influence operations cyber scoop reports seeing a us intelligence assessment that claims russian and chinese services are using the capitol hill riot as an occasion for propaganda and disinformation. Those two nations styles have been consistent with that on display in past campaigns. Russian disinformation has been negative and disruptive concentrating on producing red meat conspiracy theories about the capitol hill riot. Chinese disinformation has been characteristically positive. That is not positive in the sense of or optimistic but positive in the sense of persuading its international audience of a particular position more accurately two positions. I the united states is a power in decline. And second this is what happens when you tolerate democratic demonstrations you get anarchy which is why in beijing's line. It's a good thing. They cracked down on hong kong at the end of last week. The fbi also issued a private industry notification warning of increased rates of fishing aimed at theft of corporate remote access credentials with a view to furthering privilege escalation. A common gambit is an invitation to log into a bogus. vpn page bleeping. Computer observes that this is the second such alert. The fbi has issued since the onset of the pandemic the fbi sees. This particular warning is calling out a new style of criminal activity quote. Cyber criminals are trying to obtain all employees credentials not just individuals who would likely have more access based on their corporate position. The alert says once they have some initial access even relatively lowly access. It's then the criminals task to work their way into other more sensitive precincts of the organization's network and finally the fbi is investigating whether pennsylvania woman identified as riley. June williams stole a laptop or a hard drive from. us speaker. nancy pelosi's office during the capitol hill. Riots with the intent of selling it to russian intelligence services. The washington post says. The suspect has now turned herself in and been arrested politico which broke the story over the weekend calls. The charges bizarre by which they mean startling not inherently implausible. The fbi says it was tipped off by a source identified only as a former romantic partner of the suspect. The ex-boyfriend as the new york times describes the tipster said that ms williams intended to sell the computer device to a friend in russia. Who then planned to sell. The device to svr vr russia's foreign intelligence service the transfer of the device to the russian middleman seems to have fallen through for unclear reasons if indeed there was any actual plan to do so and ms williams is believed to have retained the laptop in her possession. Investigation is continuing the laptop speaker. Pelosi's staff reported stolen is said to have been used only for presentations. But it's unclear. What if anything. Ms williams may have taken and what if anything hoped to turn over to the espn
"unix" Discussed on Back From The Future Podcast
"With no disputed files and uc berkeley would have to encourage network released to licensees to switch secondly unix system laboratories under novell now would grant a three-month grace period for users of disputed files to make the switch third certain files distributed by the university would actually have to carry a unix system laboratories copyright notice but intern number five certain files distributed by unix system laboratories would actually have to carry a b es de copyright notice and number six uc berkeley would have to actively assist in legal attempts to challenge unix system laboratories right to certain files ultimately only three files had to be removed from the b. s. d. and seventy files had to be modified to show a unix system laboratories copyright notice one last condition of the settlement was that unix system laboratories could not file new lawsuits against users and distributors of the new version of. Best that would be released. In terms of the new settlement not long after the lawsuit the group with uc berkeley would actually be dissolved and development of bst at berkeley would halt since then the version of bsd we have today is based directly or indirectly on the last version of best four point four and that list of distributions includes free best net. Best open best and dragonfly best. But little did these computer. Scientists in large organizations know a student of computer science studying at the university of helsinki would soon be disappointed with all of them and soon make a new kernel. that would put all of their hard-fought work in jeopardy. If you enjoyed this look back in time. Let us know linked in personally. I would be especially delighted if you drop by our discord and gave us a shout out or put something in the show feedback channel and let me know what you thought these types of stories. Well they take time to write and any feedback would be all the payment. I need to keep going well researched. I learned a lot about b. s. d. that i never number four especially. All of the lawsuits was apple. Involved in any of those they were not involved in the lawsuits. But they actually did make a unix operating system which they called a u. x. back in the eighties that was abandoned by the nineties. But it was. After steve jobs had departed in the eighties. I believe and isn't darwin based off of best which is the underlying architecture for os x. So we all know in this industry that. Osx was derived from nextstep and nextstep because it was aimed at universities was derived from a b. s. d. colonel. So in a sense what has not been rewritten. If anything is not been rewritten. And i'm sure it has. It was at least a derivative of best which was an offshoot of unix so similar to lennox which was based off. Mannix everything eventually leads back to unix very true everything well everyone thank you for spending time with us. Could we ask you to rate our podcast on itunes google or spotify if you take a screen shot of your review and share it with this on social media or our discord. We will mentioned it on the next show. Dj take us away. The quote of the day related to the language of see actually is from beyond strap and he said c makes it easy to shoot yourself in the foot. C. plus plus makes it harder..
"When it comes to computers the actual hardware and software only account for part of the full story. Now don't get me wrong here. Hardware is a really interesting and important. Part of what i cover. The same thing goes for software. As i always say harbor is actually pretty useless without some kind of code to run on it. But you can't fully explain the history of computing with just blinking lights and stacks of code. That would turn to a pretty dry story pretty quickly. You need to also look the messy part. That's the human element and for me. This is problems usually crop up. You see there's a certain kind of person that's drawn to computers enthusiasts programmers engineers and researchers all seem to have at least somewhat similar motivations. Why do they work with computers. Well computers are just neat by us. Solve problems is fun and finding inventive solutions is rewarding in itself. And how this kind of drive is really great for the discipline at large. It can also make researching the development of technologies. A little bit annoying. Why did can thomas. And dennis ritchie developed a unix. Why did text based adventure game start to show up all over the place sure. They're really good technical reasons but partly it was just for the fun of the project. Once mass produced computers introduced more people into the fold these kinds of traits and motivations they kind of become omnipresent at least to appoint those working on large shared mainframes quickly turned from teams of researchers into groups of friends and once networking starts to link of computers. These groups of friends form into a larger community. So we start to see a large group of people with shared ideals practices beliefs and a common cause at their core. Now that sounds an awful lot like a culture. This is usually called hacker culture and like any other culture. It has its own folklore. Welcome back to advocate of computing. I'm your host sean. Hannity and this is episode forty-six hacker folklore now. This is a project that i've actually had in the works for a while. So i'm especially excited to get to share it with you. All today's episode is going to be a little bit different from my normal fair. I'm not going to be talking a specific computer technology or even really a series of events. Instead we're taking a detour through some fun. And i think pretty funny territory. We're going to be looking at a section of the jargon file in the print edition. It's appendix a hacker folklore. Hopefully you'll excuse me but you're in for a bit of a long preamble here. I put together a mini episode on the jargon file way back in the archive mainly talking about the files origins and its history in short. It's a dictionary of terms used by the more computer savvy folk. The file began in one thousand. Nine hundred seventy s at mit artificial intelligence lab and it spread pretty quickly from their versions moved from coast to coast over the arpanet and nine hundred eighty three. The first print edition was published as the hacker's dictionary. This isn't really a dry treaties. On terms and technical language jar file is a lot closer to really humor. The files mixture of some pretty low brow jokes jabs at corporate employees and actually useful definitions for its creators. The jargon file was fun pastime with an actual purpose it captures a slightly filtered view of the culture around computers in the seventies eighties and the latest version. V four point four point seven up on cat be dot. Org was last updated in two thousand and three. Well it makes the jargon file so important is that it preserves something normally hard to come by. There's been endless. Amounts of ink spilled over big events in the history of computing figures. Like bill gates. Steve jobs have multiple biographies covering their life. Stories to that all the actual hardware and software lying around and it's actually somewhat easy to chronicle all the big events all these things are essentially preserved. So you don't really have to go hunting for that. One scrap of a note. The bill gates wrote in the mid eighties. Instead you can just go grab both the focuses on microsoft in that era when we get below that high level of visibility. We can run into some serious issues sourcing. Computer science as a field wasn't developed by a handful of people it took masses but those masses aren't usually chronicled in the same way as high profile figures. Most researchers donate their notebooks to university. Archives user group minutes were usually just thrown in the recycling bin and online forums and messages. Don't really start being relevant until much more recently. This means that trying to put together less well known stories can get kind of difficult and a lotta. The culture around these stories is either lost or really really difficult to find information on. That's where the jargon file sweeps into saved the day well at least somewhat. It gives a picture of the hacker subculture during a pretty wide span of time. I guess this may be a good time to actually address the terminology here. Hacker didn't originally mean some malicious actor that broke into computers although breaking and entering was sometimes part of it. The jar file has a few different definitions for the term. I think the most relevant here is quote a person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities as opposed to most users who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary r f c one three nine to the internet users. Glossary usefully amplifies this as a person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the internal workings of a system
Ever Hire The Right Person For The Wrong Job
"So this is a quick shout out. One things. Look I'm hired a lot of people. You've heard me mention that. I've hired some amazing people in my career. And some. Not. So amazing right. But The ones that stand out in your mind you know when you look back over it. Everybody's got a story right? You have a story, I have a story. I remember some great stories of being hired on some impossible tasks in pulling it off. I I don't recall if I mentioned. I was a consultant at Lexus Nexus. I was hired in as a business analyst. As working for actually software consulting firm. In they got me a role at Lexus Nexus near Dayton Ohio. In there was just an amazing adventure but. During the interviewing process. My immediate superior had another candidate. That he preferred or SOM- told. In the. His boss. was very pleased with the woman who was leaving the role and she was trying to we call backfill. She's trying to back fill her position with me because we worked at the same consulting for. Him The. The boss, the project. The highest level that I was interacting with he looked at my skill set and he said, well, you know, I don't see all the. The seashell Bourne Shell the. UNIX. now called devops, the UNIX system administration, the programming I you know I don't see that strength on. On his resume. In. The person who is trying to get me back filled was like ill, it's here. You know it's Kinda hidden under the covers you know because of this role he can do X. because a y you can do z. kind of thing and was making the argument for me. And, that's that's why you as talent trying to get hired is you have to have a conversation with the hiring manager. It's that simple if you're going through the HR department to get a job. It's it's like you going into fight with your hands tied behind your back as not a fair fight by any means. So. I said all that to say. What can you do if your talent to get hired as you can put your best foot forward? How do you do that? It's not with the resume. You send him a resume its going into an applicant tracking system. I'd say nine out of ten times. If not more, it's almost guarantee in the ATS is Ben Tuned to the point where It's told give me the top three or four candidates for this position. and. If there's any reason to eliminate you say a mommy gap. You. Raisin a kid or apparent gap taking care of a parental unit Keva lemonade yourself. You WanNa, send your linked profile your linked in profile. Your chance to say, Hey, here's what I can do. Here's what I've done. Here's why I'm the best person for that position. and. If you hiring manager look, you need somebody that can hit the ground running right? Hr was put all these lofty ideals into the job requisition. You know we'd like it. If you had a Nobel peace prize would like it. If he had six PhD's, we'd like it if Yada Yada. Yada. In the hiring managers like look I promise the company that might division, my department, my group would produce X. and we're nowhere near there because we're down a man or two or three. Me and being a species not sex. And so. Hiring managers you need to reach out so I can put you in touch with talent. That makes sense for what you're trying to accomplish says making some sense.
Pro-Trump youth group enlists teens in secretive campaign likened to a ‘troll farm’
"In the race for the White House with a pro Trump youth group enlisting teens to place messages online National political reporter Isaac Stanley Becker takes a closer look for the Washington Post and talked with our Bill O'Neill. Isaac. What do we know about this campaign and how it works? So what we know is that teenagers in the Phoenix area, including some miners, some folks under 18 18. Were enlisted this summer in an effort to plaster pro trump messages across social media, so thousands and 1000 tweets and Facebook comments with identical content nowhere in any of this, disclosing that people posting this material we're being paid to do so is part of a centralized in coordinated operation. Now, Of course, there are groups that link themselves to all kinds of ideologies and various candidates. What do we know about the group behind this campaign in particular? So what we know that it's it's over? Seen by a group called Turning Point Action, which is sisters before of better known turning Point USA, both led by Charlie Kirk, a 26 year old conservative activists. Very close to it that the Trump family he opened the Republican National Convention give the opening address there has been called a great friend by president That's the sort of group behind the scenes, and there was a more specific also, if UNIX based digital firm that was brought in to oversee the day to day of the posting in the vast, urging the coordination have we've seen anything like this in political circles before, So, of course, there are parallels in terms of political activism, You know, Astro turf ING efforts to Make a campaign or cause anymore grass roots or viral than it really is. But what is unique here and what experts are really tryingto understand and describe is the way in which the tools of social media and you know it's technologies are allowing users to do this in a way that you know, as I said, it makes it seem as though it's genuine. Um, sentiments of these young people when, in fact, it's being coordinated behind the teams in a way that's unseen because of the lack of disclosure that was going on here, so and that's why it's been like into the kind of troll farms that were run by foreign After is, you know, we get up to the 2016 election where you have paid people. Working from an office posting spam like material on Twitter and other platforms here. Of course, this is happening domestically in the U. S. Has there been any reaction from the online platforms such as Facebook and Twitter? There has been so both Facebook and Twitter responded when we brought this material to them and ask them questions. They've already removed a number of the account involved in it. And we're waiting for more answers about possible further action. And has there been any any reaction from the Trump campaign or even the Biden campaign at this point, not the campaign that I have seen s so this is a pro Trump organization. But of course, it's formally stepping from the campaign. So you know there's there's many share interest and there are You know, associative figures, But this was not being operated by the campaign per se. That's Isaac Stanley Becker read more online at washingtonpost dot com. That's almost villainy All common news time. 10
Understanding Early Muslim History and Sectarianism, with Dr. Ali Ataie
"Elliott I. It is a rental student in researcher WHO's been involved in interfaith activities for over two decades. He holds a Master's in Biblical studies with a focus on. New. Testament and Biblical languages. He also holds a PhD in cultural historical studies in religion from the graduate. Theological. Union his doctoral work focused on Muslim Herman UNIX of Biblical texts especially, the Gospel of John. And he lives, in Santa, cinnabon California with his wife Royer and three daughters. So welcome to the show Dr Ali tight. Thank you because local good to be back for a third time. Yes. We're always excited and I know in the past we've had you You know on the show to Kinda talk. About Christianity. Were of sort of interfaith conversations in the audience as well as US. We benefited him immensely from those on. So I thought this would be a little bit different. I know something that you would probably consider a little bit outside of your wheelhouse or area of expertise perhaps but I would contend that you know i. if you are perfectly suited in a sense that not only given your background that you touched upon on the first episode but to really kind of have a conversation a, that is related to an intra faith. Issue of between kind of the she and the Sunni tradition and I say that. Because Dr your background actually your family background has something you had mentioned the first time we had this conversation you come from a she background your family is or remain or is still short she yes might my parents or practicing Shiites to use the Latin sort of suffix please them or she I guess we can say. So Yeah mink growing up. We were like I don't typical sort of Iranian so. No religion really anywhere and freedom to do whatever we wanted. Think. However, we wanted but as my parents got older, they rediscovered their. Roots their Shiite woods. So there you know they may have two, thousand, six and they're. Very, devout Shia now. so for me growing up however. I actually, never really considered myself. a Muslim until I got into. College. and. Then the brothers I met initially were so knee and they sort of against to enter the wing and and copy. Islam. In an over the years, of course, with I've had. Great conversations with my parents on on certain things and. What's the significance of this event in history you? How do you interpret this verse? What about this Heidi Eve? Things like that So that's that's where a standard now. Yeah, I mean you off air you made the caveat This isn't sort of an area of study or expertise for you on, but not only just given the family background but I would I mean as someone who is really a deep student of history I think that a I think some of the the touch points that we wanNA focus on in today's conversation on it'd be really nice to hear your thoughts on because essentially couple I wanted to make to clarifying points and then kind of dive right in, and that was related to the last episode of the two parter we did with the amount weenie. Is that for the listener someone some heard my question or my line of questioning as. Kind of questioning Sunni orthodoxy around some of these historical issues and I wanted to clarify that wasn't the case I mean I'm not I wasn't sort of trying to place. Any doubts on the Sunni narrative were the Sunni approach to these the historical events that we touched on but rather it was really as I said at the outset of the conversation with the Amati 'cause Weenie that this was not meant to be a debate. We weren't there to debate a Sunni points at the allergy were a Sunni the Sunni approach to some of the historical of historical events that we talked about. So it was more of being able to be deferential. To our guest and give him the opportunity to really essentially lay down the narrative of early. Muslim. History according to the cheese sources. So I, wanted to clarify that from some of the questions that I asked not for you professor Italian but rather listener Number two with regards to this particular conversation where things more meaningful to you is that the purpose of this show is not to have you on to serve offer the Su Ni reputation, right to the points that were raised in the last episode. This is not a polemic, a polemical conversation. Again, we're not here to sort of do that. That's not the approach that at least i WanNa, take I imagine all three of us don't WanNa take it's more of a deep dive or as deep as we can get given time constraints and so on on into kind of the Sunni perspective on some of the issues, there are some of the events that we focused on last time. Good. Bremer. Great. Great. So I think or if you had any thoughts or any comments you wanted to make otherwise I'd be happy to kind of dive right into it with. A tiny. No I just want to echo that like I decided emptying Irwin Cup of understanding and just trying to understand and learn in that conversation we weren't coming with their own. Ideas to the table. They were not that we were undermining ideas. We just put them to the sites we can learn.
"unix" Discussed on Artificial Intelligence (AI Podcast) with Lex Fridman
"unix" Discussed on Artificial Intelligence (AI Podcast) with Lex Fridman
"It clearly, timing was good now, dentist, I, wrote the book in Nineteen Seventy seven on the stretchy right and at that point UNIX who is starting to spread I, don't know how many there were, but it would be dozens to hundreds of UNIX systems and see was also available on other kinds of computers that had nothing to do with Unix, and so the language, some potential and. There were no other books on C. and bell labs was really the only source for it and Dennis. Of course, was the thorough tape because it was his language and he written the reference manual, which is a marvellous example of how to write a reference manual. Really, very very well done. So twisted his arm until he agreed to write a book and then we wrote a book and the virtue are advantage least I. Guess if going I is than other people have to follow you if they're going to do anything. And I think it worked well because. Dennis is superb writer. He really really did in the reference manual in the book is his period. I had nothing to do with that at all To just crystal clear prose, very well expressed and then he and I I. I wrote most of expository material and then he and I started the usual ping pong back and forth of. Refining it, but I spent a lot of time trying to find examples that would sort of hang together and that would tell people what they might need to know what about the right time that they should be thinking about needing it And I'm not sure it completely succeeded, but mostly worked out fairly well. What do you think is the power of example I? Mean you're? You're the creator. Of At least one of the first people to do the Hello World Program, which is like the people if aliens discover our civilization hundreds of years from now, it'll probably be hello world programs. Just a have broken robot communicating with them with a hello world. So would and that's a representative examples. The what would he find powerful about examples? I. Think a good example will tell you how to do something and it will be represented vote of you might not want to do exactly that, but you will want to do something that's at least in that. Same. Vein into a lot of the examples in the seat book were picked for these very, very simple straightforward text processing problems that were typical of UNIX. I. Want to read input. And write it out again, there's a copy command I wanna read putting do something to it and write it out again, there's a grab, and so that kind of fine things that are representative of what people want to do and spell those out so that they can then take those and see the core parts and..
"unix" Discussed on Artificial Intelligence (AI Podcast) with Lex Fridman
"unix" Discussed on Artificial Intelligence (AI Podcast) with Lex Fridman
"It. I don't know where else that could have existed in the world I've been given how they came together would. How does that? Make you feel that that's what little element of history. Well I think that's very nice. But in sense it survivor bias and if it hadn't happened at Bell Labs, there were other places that were doing really interesting work as well. Xerox. Park is perhaps obvious ones. Eric's part contributed enormous amount of good material in many of the things we take for granted today. Today in the same way, Cambridge Xerox Parc experience, I don't think they capitalized in the long run as much. Their parent company was perhaps not as lucky in capitalizing on this who knows. But that would that certainly another place where there was a tremendous amount of influence. There were a lot of good university activities. MIT was obviously no slouch in this kind of thing and and in. Others as well. so UNIX. Turned out to be open source because of the various ways that Dante operated in sort of a hat to It was the focus was on telephones. I think that's a mischaracterization. In the sense. It absolutely was not open source. It was very definitely proprietary licensed, but it was licensed freely to universities in source code form for many years, and because of that generations of university students and their faculty people grew up knowing about UNIX and there was enough expertise in the community that then possible for people to kind of go off in their own direction and build something that looked UNIX like the Berkeley version of UNIX started with that licensed code and gradually picked up enough of its own. Code contributions notably from people like bill joy. That eventually, it was able to become completely free of any at code in other words, an enormous amount of legal jockeying around this that in the late. Early late eighties, early nineties, something like that and then Not, some I guess the open source movement might started when Richard Stolman started to think about this in the late eighty s and by nineteen ninety, one when tour bolts decided, he was going to do A. UNIX. Like. System there was enough expertise that in the community that I. He had a target. He could see what to do because the kind of the UNIX system call interface in tools and so on. Were there. Until, he was able to build a an operating system that at this point when you say, UNIX. In many cases, what you're really thinking is Lennox Lennox Yeah..
"unix" Discussed on Artificial Intelligence (AI Podcast) with Lex Fridman
"As quite surprising and you ask earlier but prediction, the answer's no, there's no way you could predict that kind of Lucien and. I, don't know whether it was inevitable or just a whole sequence, a blind luck. I suspect more the latter and so I look at it and think, Gee, that's Kinda neat. I think the real question is, what does Ken think about that? Because he's the guy arguably from whom it really came tremendous contributions from Dennis Ritchie and others around in that billups environment. But you know if you had to pick a single person. That would be can save written a new book UNIX, a history, and a memoir. Are there some memorable human stories funnier profound from that time to just kind of stand out? Oh, there's a lot of Minna sense and again it's a question of, can you resurrect them a? Way. Memory. Fails. But I think part of it was the bill at the time was a very special kind of place to work because there are a lot of interesting people and the environment was very open and free was very cooperative environment, very friendly environment, and so if you had an interesting problem, you go and talk to somebody and they might help you with the solution. And and it was kind of a fun environment to in which people did strange things and. Often tweaking the bureaucracy in one way or another. Rebellious and in certain kinds of in some ways. Yeah. Absolutely. I think most people didn't take too kindly to the bureaucracy assured the bureaucracy. Put up with an enormous about that. They didn't really want to. So. Maybe. To Lindgren a little bit. You have a sense of what the philosophy that characterizes. UNIX is the design, not just the initial, but just carry through the years just being there being around what's the fundamental philosophy behind the system? I think one aspect, the fundamental philosophy was to provide an environment. Made it easy to write her easier productive to write program? So it was meant as a programmer environment. It wasn't meant specifically as something to do some other kind of job. For example, it was used extensively for word processing, but it wasn't designed as a word processing system was used extensively for lab control, but it wasn't designed for that was used extensively as a front end for big other systems, big dumb systems, but it wasn't designed for that. It was meant to be an environment where it was really easy to write ramps..
"unix" Discussed on Artificial Intelligence (AI Podcast) with Lex Fridman
"UNIX started being developed fifty years ago. It'd be more than fifty years ago. Can you tell the story like you describing your new book of High Unix was created? If I can remember that far back. It was some while ago. So I think the gist of it is that at bell labs in nineteen sixty nine, there were people who had just finished working on the multi project which was. itself a follow on to CPS S. so we can go back sort of an infinite regress in time, but the CSS was a very, very, very nice time. Sharing System was very nice to us. I actually used. That summer I spent in Cambridge in nineteen, sixty six. What was the hardware? So. What's the operating system was hardware there? What's the CPS look like? So see says, look like kind of like a standard time sharing system. Certainly, at the time, it was the only time sharing if no, let's go back to the basic time for. Okay in the beginning was the word and the word is. Time sharing systems. Yeah. If we go back into, let's call it the nineteen fifties in early nineteen sixties most computing was done on very big computers physically big although not terribly powerful by today's standards. That were made and in. Very large rooms and you use things like. Punch cards to reg programs on talk them. So you would take a deck of cards. Right you program on it, send it over a counter handed to an operator and some while later back would come something that said Oh, you made a mistake and then you'd recycling so very, very slow. So the idea of time sharing was that you take basically that same computer but connect to it with something that looked like an electric typewriter. They could be a long distance away. It could be close. But fundamentally, what the operating system did was to give each person who was connected to it and wanting to do something a small slice of time on do a particular job. So I might be editing a file. So I would be typing and every time I hit a keystroke. The operating system would wake up and said Oh. He typed character..
Russian agents have been hacking major email program, says NSA
"Russian military hackers are accused of hacking into a major email system a piece my grass he has details the National Security Agency issued an advisory Thursday warning that Russian military hackers have been infiltrating a major email server program since last August or earlier the NSA says the intrusions of the extra mail transfer agent have been carried out by the Russian military group known as sandworm that's the same hacking group that interfered in the twenty sixteen U. S. presidential election and carried out a twenty seventeen cyber attack targeting businesses that operate in Ukraine X. M. which is widely used mostly runs on unix type operating systems hi Mike
NSA: Russian agents have been hacking major email program
"Russian military hackers are accused of hacking into a major email system a piece my grass he has details the National Security Agency issued an advisory Thursday warning that Russian military hackers have been infiltrating a major email server program since last August or earlier the NSA says the intrusions of the extra mail transfer agent have been carried out by the Russian military group known as sandworm that's the same hacking group that interfered in the twenty sixteen U. S. presidential election and carried out a twenty seventeen cyber attack targeting businesses that operate in Ukraine X. M. which is widely used mostly runs on unix type operating
NSA: Russian agents have been hacking major email program
"Hi hi Mike Mike Crossey Rossi a reporting reporting the the largest NSA union says for Russian meatpacking agents workers have says been hacking over forty of major have email died from program the corona virus the National Security the United Agency food and issued commercial an advisory workers union Thursday says warning at least that forty Russian four military meatpacking hackers workers in the have United been infiltrating States have died a major from email cold in server nineteen program while since last the union August estimates or another earlier three thousand the NSA workers says have the tested intrusions positive of the for ex the virus the mail transfer its director agent of food processing have been carried and meat out packing by the says Russian the military actual numbers group are known likely as higher sandworm than the estimate that's the same the union hacking says group thirty that interfered meat packing in the twenty plants sixteen were closed U. S. at presidential some point due election to infection and since carried March out a twenty hi seventeen Mike Rossi cyber up attack targeting businesses that operate in Ukraine X. M. which is widely used mostly runs on unix type operating systems hi Mike Rossi up
NSA: Russian agents have been hacking major email program
"Hi Mike Crossey reporting the NSA says Russian agents have been hacking of major email program the National Security Agency issued an advisory Thursday warning that Russian military hackers have been infiltrating a major email server program since last August or earlier the NSA says the intrusions of the ex the mail transfer agent have been carried out by the Russian military group known as sandworm that's the same hacking group that interfered in the twenty sixteen U. S. presidential election and carried out a twenty seventeen cyber attack targeting businesses that operate in Ukraine X. M. which is widely used mostly runs on unix type operating systems hi Mike Rossi up
"unix" Discussed on Advent of Computing
"Came to it I could never. Honestly. that. My opinion was what they generated was erased producible from the manual in quote. And just like that coherent was in the clear without the source code for comparison or testimony from Ritchie at and T. could not build a strong case while coherent was saved from ruin this time, it would only be a reprieve. Mark Williams company continue to develop coherent in through the nineties. Eventually, it's price will be cut back to ninety nine dollars making it by far the cheapest to get access to a UNIX like system by the ninety s the computer market had once again changed considerably Mark Williams had done well in the shifting and turbulent nineteen eighties software like coherent was almost tailor made for this type of interim period. However, the company never really struck at huge ultimately coherent would lose market share to more true blooded unique experience. Being one that comes to mind without the backing of a huge company like eighteen. Or an institution like the University of Berkeley, the smaller company wouldn't be able to make it through the lean times and in one thousand, nine, hundred, five other towards announced this well. Is My sad duty to announce that Mark Williams company has gone out of business. There are many reasons for this decision summer due to mistakes that we've made some to changing business conditions but the bottom line is that we must shut our doors. With that I think it's time to wrap up this episode. This has been a bit of a long one, but I think the story is more than worth. The time coherent would have a fifteen year life filling a very specific niche. During that time, it stood as testament to some wicked programming skills are acting as a bridge between the larger computers and emerging. Nine hundred ninety s brought about some big change in the world of computing and especially when it came to UNIX like systems. Ultimately coherent was just one player but I think it's a unique important one. I want to close this out on this snow. Digging up information on coherent heavily on archive usenet hosts basically a popular Internet forum in the Eighties and nineties. During that time, there was a whole board dedicated to coherent fittingly called COMP DOT dot coherent. So startled me to come across this post from Nineteen ninety-two. This is a blatant plug for my own UNIX kernel. As I'm always interested in more Beta testers, it should be self explanatory although interested persons should note that version zero point one, two, still Beta be out in a week or so and. That was posted by Tourelles while he was still working on early versions of Winnick's IT turns out. He was somewhat active on the coherent board during the one thousand, nine, hundred, Ninety S. Even. Some post very helps coherent uses with their migration to Lennox now most Lennox users wouldn't have been pitched the system personally but over time mexx would win out and become the most widely used UNIX like operating system. It interests me to really see this process going on in the microcosm of these old form posts coherent and Lennox are ultimately similar those accomplish the same goal of replicating UNIX without using any of eighteen coat. A both of a very different philosophy. In the end coherent did make a huge difference. If for no other reason showed, it was possible to replace UNIX. Ultimately, it fell out of favor but I think it's story gives us an insight into the turbulent period of computing's past. Thanks listening to add compute. I'll be back in two weeks time with a new piece of the story of the computer and hey, if like the show, there are now a few ways you can support it. If you know someone else who's interested in computing then why not take a minute to share the show with them you can rate and review me on apple podcasts and if you wanna be a Superfan, then you can support the show through astronaut of computing merch or signing up as a patron on. Patriot. Patrons get early access to episodes holes for the direction of the show and sorted.
"unix" Discussed on Advent of Computing
"Versions re compiled for the IBM. Since everything wasn't see moving to a new platform was relatively easy I can't find an exact year for the PC release, but it was somewhere between late eighty one and early eighty three. Initially user couldn't by coherent instead of computer manufacturer with licensed coherent ship alongside their new computers. This was similar to the arrangement that companies like my soft had regarding their early releases of basic. They didn't sell direct to consumers but workable this is a pretty limiting sales model. So in one, thousand, nine, hundred, three went fully. And for the first time, users could bring home their own copy of the UNIX clone for their existing computer. The first public release of coherent was for the IBM at or the Bevy of one hundred percent compatible clones that came with hard drives. License would set you back about five hundred dollars or in today's money hundred. That's not exactly cheap. But let's try to see that in context competition such as Microsoft's Z Knicks came in and I watering one, thousand, three, hundred, fifty dollars. That's just under thirty five, hundred dollars today. A license from at and T. also wasn't cheap. So actual ports of UNIX were priced accordingly. We also have to keep in mind that neither Mark Williams or Microsoft were targeting their UNIX like software at everyday consumers. These were somewhat niche products. So what exactly did you get for five hundred dollars? The package deal is friendly in the realm of other personal computing software coherent came on set of seven floppy disks and had a comprehensive user manual. All software was already compiled for the PC. So you didn't get any source code. Installing. It was just as easy as installing more traditional operating systems like Microsoft dos just. I and disk and follow onscreen prompts with a little bit of help from the manual. Anyone who had used a computer before could have been up and running with UNIX in under an hour. Coherent wasn't exactly myth for any computer user just like X. Y. Basic. It had a very specific niche. PC magazine ran an article called a good. Bye on UNIX that gives us some insight into coherent. Quote. Those who already have a stockpile of UNIX. Applications rate compiling go are in good shape with coherent however for the rest of us, the question of how much application software is available arises in quote sure a new user could jump right into coherent, but that wasn't really the best fit. Was a much better option for existing UNIX users. Say you needed to use UNIX at work or school, or you were running business that used Unix for just five hundred dollars. You could be up and running with coherent, which for the most part would look and feel similar but it was accessible for smaller computers and it was a lot cheaper than the competition on the base level. That's a pretty good offering. But the PC magazine article brings up another big plus coherent didn't just look and feel like UNIX it could run. UNIX software or we secured with a little bit of coaxing. This is where I think some of the Strangeness Incoherent Really Comes Out a big part of any UNIX installation comes down to the programming tools and the coherent build is no different. It comes packaged with C compiler, Assembler, and everything you need to build your own software. Just, as an aside like a coherent, this new c compiler it was built totally in house that's nothing to sneeze. That's also a massive feet of programming in and of itself. Normally, you don't really by Eunuch soffer this comes down to the tradition of source offer that I mentioned earlier. In this episode, it's vastly more common to either find repast some source code for the program you want instead of running an installer, you end up needing to compile that code into something you can run on your own computer. But here's the thing. All of coherent software was distributed precompiling. Was a commercial product after all. So it was totally closed source. At the same time you could easily compile existing open source software for use with coherent. This type of compatibility was definitely a big draw for users can use all the same programs us with Unix at the same time I think this really shows the strange split brain nature that we see. Incoherent. One other important feature. The coherent brock to smaller computers was the idea of a shared multi user system. Like any other variety of UNIX coherent had time sharing its core. It, was able to run multiple programs simultaneously even unlimited PC hardware that consumers had access to. Complete the package coherent could run with multiple users simultaneously, this was mainly done using serial terminals with a reasonably specked out. Up to three users of months to over terminals in one local. Some practical limits imposed by Ram size. But in general this, let you get much more use out of your hardware investment. This type of operation was common on mainframes. So once again, it's a feature being reduced and revamped for smaller systems. Coherent. Made for a compelling product for those interested in UNIX who didn't have access to expensive hardware or software as coherent was catching the attention of the press and computer users. They were also catching a little bit of unwanted attention. Really, it was only a matter of time before the wolves would come knocking at the door. Now, we don't have an exact date at has been guests of eighty, three, eighty four. But sometime around that time, a delegation from bell labs would make their way to Chicago. At, the head of this party was none other than Dennis Ritchie, one of the original programmers behind UNIX. Now. Eighteen hundred was concerned that Mark Williams company was their software and they had good reason to be suspicious. COMPATIBLE UNIX like system gets released and the company producing it doesn't have an agreement with eighteen t it looked like an open and shut case of intellectual property theft from eighteen perspective at least after some back and forth behind the scenes it was agreed the bell labs could come to mark Williams for a demo but it wouldn't have access to coherence source code without a court order. So at and T. went for the next best thing, Ritchie was extremely familiar with UNIX that maybe a little bit of an understatement he and Ken Thomson had written the majority of the code for the operating system they knew it. Out, and then some if anyone could sniff out stolen code without seeing the source, it would have to be one of the two. But that's not to say that richie was a very eager participant. He recalls the visit like this quote from their point of view we like the IRS auditors coming in from my point of view I felt the same except the playing that role was a new and not particularly welcome experience. But I actually did was play around with coherent and look for peculiarities, bugs, etc that I knew about in the UNIX distributions of the time. It was undoubtedly a stressful and uncomfortable situation for all parties. swertz knew that he was in the right coherent was as clean from at code is he could make but a lawsuit from at and T. win or lose would mean disaster as for Richie, it's clear. He wanted no part of this. He definitely didn't like the prospect of being a software sheriff. Luckily situation was diffused according from Ritchie Again A. I concluded two things. First is very hard to believe that coherent and it's basic applications were not treated with considerable study of the code and details of its applications. Second that look at various corners convinced me that I couldn't find anything that was copied. It might have been the some parts were written with our source nearby. But at least the effort had been made to rewrite if it.
"unix" Discussed on Advent of Computing
"With the rising of bail ability of smaller systems at the end of the seventies and into the eighties has become impossible for smaller companies to buy into industrial control systems and the x Ray basic was positioned to slot right into that new market. Brought features usually associated with and more powerful hardware too much smaller machines. You can even see this kind of thinking it work in the systems x Y. Basic was compatible with. For the most part, any computer with an intel eighty, eighty processor, and a good amount of Ram could be turned into industrial control system x y basic was only the beginning for Mark Williams but it set a pattern that they would play out in larger way later on. And now we arrive at coherent the march larger project that was brewing at the time. Just, a note this is where we venture into slightly spars territory there really isn't a single comprehensive source I'm working off for the section. What follows is a best as I could put together story from archive usenet posts, man pages, source code listings, and accounts from ploys of the Mark Williams company, there's not that much contemporary data to go on. The timeline for the early development of the system is also a little foggy most accounts. I've seen stated initial development started in nineteen seventy seven but I haven't able a track down if that was while sports at the University of Waterloo or just as he took control of Mark Williams company. Goal was to Africa here, and as an alternative to UNIX that retained a level of compatibility. So why exactly did towards want to bring a product to market? Well, we've already looked at one possible angle in X. Y. Basic, and that's partly applicable to coherent. It was positioned to fill a new niche UNIX was firmly a big iron type of product something that cost a lot of money and could only really be used on expensive computers but with the oncoming tide of personal computers, a market for something like UNIX just on a much smaller scale was about to open up share most users wouldn't need a multitasking multi user. Operating System. Of businesses and some home users would definitely be interested a version of UNIX or smaller computers could go along way towards bringing features for mainframes onto the desktop. The other side of the coin came down to practicality a license for UNIX from Eighteen T. was prohibitively expensive. And there would be some red tape around Mark Williams, getting a license to the code and the turning around and selling it to consume. Around this time, there were companies attempting to do just that notably Microsoft and their unique experience called Cenex but that was Microsoft a relatively large company with some money and leverage to play around with. A Soda Manufacturer Turns Software House on the outskirts of Chicago couldn't really throw around the same kind of weight. Bill. Gates could. So the most readily available alternative would be to make your own unix without using any of eighteen code. If, you think that sounds like a lot of work. Then you're absolutely right AH. Project coherent is ambitious on a massive scale and would take a lot of time and effort to bring that to market. Another big reason to copy UNIX came down to exposure. Remember that starting as far back seventy-three the source code for UNIX was being used as a teaching tool in computer science courses. It's very likely that Schwartz and his fellow students at the University of Waterloo had seen the inner workings of the operating system during their degree programme. Adding credence to this theory is the fact that the University of Waterloo was on one of the first mailing lists for an early. UNIX user. Coherence targets were home computers, but it wasn't feasible to develop directly for that quite yet the market and seventy seven was fractious to say the least and even the more capable systems at the time weren't really powerful enough to get much use out of UNIX they'd have to bet on the future. So work would start on a more usable machine development again, initially on a mainframe and worked its way down from their. Machine, of choice was a deck PDP eleven and it was a reasonable pick as a starting point for one. The PCP eleven was a popular and imminently available mainframe at the time. Since most of the early members of the Mark Williams company came directly from the University of Waterloo, it's extremely likely that they were familiar with this machine also. The other big reason to target the PDP eleven is that historically this computer has been the homeland of UNIX. If you use the UNIX in this period than more than likely, you're on a deck mainframe. In fact, there wouldn't be an official eighteen release for any other hardware until nineteen seventy eight. But these factors together and the PD eleven really becomes an obviously good place to start. The early phase of developments are place that I really wish I had some more information about since UNIX source code was widely available and the crew behind coherent had to have been exposed to it. At some point making a legally defensible product would be tricky to say the least the problem comes down to how to clone software without using or referencing any of the original. Source Code. Most. Well documented case of this camp development has to be compact to clone the IBM PC's bio software. This is something that we've talked about multiple times on the podcast. So I'll keep it brief. The gist of the story is the Compaq, use a method called clean room reverse engineering. This is where you have one team workup a specification for the program you're trying to reverse engineer than another team won with no prior exposure to the code base uses that SPEC to implement a clone. The idea here is that the process gives you a little bit of legal freedom with the proper paper trail. You can prove in court that you haven't stolen and sold someone else's code. I can't be one hundred percent, but I'm pretty sure that Mark Williams wasn't quite as rigorous as compaq as a heap hammering home. The source code for UNIX was everywhere specifically in academics would probably be hard to find a good see programmer who hadn't seen in eighteen code at this point. The other reason for my suspicion comes from Tom Duff, a programmer who worked at Mark Williams company very briefly and looking back in his time with the company he had this to say well. Arrived, it was pretty clear that the colonel was pretty much taken care of though it wouldn't be running well enough for daily use. Until after I'd left but nobody was working on user space stuff. So I opened up the six edition manual to page one and started implementing commands in the three months that I was there I think I did a through 'em. In quote. So I think it's the most likely case it coherent was built using a more fast and loose version of clean room reverse engineering instead of writing a SPEC in house and keeping a clean team isolated from any proprietary code programmers just sat down with some referenced docs and got to work out include all the core components like the UNIX kernel as well. As every utility program, you'd expect to get with a normal install of UNIX. Now, as duff alludes tune that passage coherent would take about three years to get up and running. This would still have all been done on the PDP eleven version, and now this is where we get to one of the big advantages they coherent had over UNIX at the time. The crude at and working towards a portable system since the early seventies but the first official port of UNIX wouldn't be released until seventy eight. Part of the reason for the slower rollout was the UNIX is just plain big and replacing all the computer specific parts of the system without breaking anything take a lot of time. Schwartz's rewrite. Didn't have that legacy issue at. All the code was new. So as teams able to build from the ground up with these types of considerations in mind. By one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, coherent was available for the PDP, eleven ports round the horizon pretty quickly. Mark Williams. Stars Shipping.
"unix" Discussed on Advent of Computing
"But the fact remains that these systems weren't all that capable for that reason, UNIX would stay in the realm of academics research and business for most of its first decade of life. It happened designed for mainframe computers and consumer grade hardware didn't come close to that level of sophistication. UNIX was made for systems. There were shared between many multiple users at once it was built to run more than one program at once simply put there was no need for something like UNIX for personal computers at least not yet as the eighty started things would change considerably, computers would find the ring to homes and every day more businesses adopted computers. The market for smaller computers had existed before don't get me wrong, but it expanded considerably in the nineteen eighties. Besides just plain more computers in the wild these newer systems were a whole lot more powerful. Now on this podcast, we've talked a lot about the IBM PC and with good reason, it's a really important part of the heritage of modern computing. But as with all things, there is a much larger context play here the PC was part of a line of computers manufactured by IBM in fact, it was the lowest end model of that line on the higher end of the family was the IBM PC. And I think bat system is a much better example for our purposes today. Most home systems in the seventies rebuilt around eight processors. Now, the bitterness of a processor has a lot of implications, but one big one is the memory address space. An eight bit processor can only operate on eight bit numbers, and since each location in memory has to have an address, the result is that an eight bit processor can only access a small amount of Ram. There are some tricks to deal with larger amounts of memory doesn't really help a whole lot the IBM. At came with a thirty two bit processor the Intel Eighty two, eighty, six older systems may have had kilobytes ram to work with a t could top out at sixteen megabytes. That's not just numbers more memory more space for running programs. The other factor at play was the radio ability of hard drives. Earlier systems relied heavily on floppy drives for all their storage needs. You could get hard drives as add ons for machines in the seventies, but it was expensive and pretty limiting technology. Batee. Twenty megabyte hard drive instead of shopping discs to load new programs. Everything could just live inside the computer available for use at any time better storage more memory and a larger market Mathu lot of opportunities to innovate at wouldn't be released until nineteen eighty-four but it's emblematic of the direction that things were going in the eighties more powerful machines with capabilities much more in line to those of mainframes were making their way out into the wild. So, we can get to the main course. This has been a lot of work to set the stage, but the main character is finally arriving. One of the many groups that was writing the tides into the nineteen eighty s was the mark Williams company. They weren't one of the usual suspects as far as computing goes they weren't an apple or an IBM or a Microsoft. In Chicago in Nineteen Forty Nine by William Marks swertz original name was the Mark Williams Chemical Company and they weren't initially offered company. In fact, the original product was a drink called doctor enough a quote dietary supplement contained in a delicious lime and lemon flavor. Yeah. It's not really the bona feed as the most computer companies tout. It wouldn't be until nineteen, seventy seven, the Mark Williams company would transform itself into a software house. By this point company had largely passed onto. William's son Robert Schwartz. But it seemed like the younger man wasn't so much interested in soft drinks and chemistry as he was in computers, he had recently graduated from the University of Waterloo Computer Science Department where he had been one of the many students exposed to UNIX. But that wasn't the extent of is in. The younger Schwartz was an early convert to the wonders of the personal computer and Hollywood have had a background with larger systems from college. He saw the promising future of smaller in-home systems. With the reforming of the Mark Williams Company swertz brought along a group of college colleagues. Also, CS grads shared a similar vision they knew personal computing was where they want it to be but the time period they were in was a little bit of a strange limited space. The real explosion of personal computing systems was just on the horizon for the time being the market for software in the home wasn't all that huge while businesses would have either had no computers at all or it they'd be on mainframes. So on the smaller end, you have simple machines like the al-Tair Eighty, eight, hundred in the hands of mainly hobbyists on the exact opposite end you have large companies and institutions they're rocking expensive deck or IBM behemoths. There was some early crossover of personal computing in smaller businesses, but in general, the market for software was broken into two large categories. This is all to say it's Watson. Company found themselves in a very interesting time Mark Williams would be soundly on the personal computing side of the fence, but they didn't totally ignore big iron I think one of the first products X. Y. Basic can shed some light on the space that they were working in. This program would hit shelves in one, thousand, nine, hundred, ninety seven targeted at the Intel eighty eighty based computers such as the altar hundred. At first glance, it be easy to discount this as a clone of existing software. I mean, just two years prior Microsoft became an overnight success in the hobbyist community with the release of all basic sure Mark Williams did right version of basic for the same system but there's a little bit more at play here just below the surface me quick passage from the manual for X. Y. Basic. Congratulations you're about to discover the unique -em powerful properties of x y basic. The only basic interpreters specifically designed for process control data acquisition and real time applications with eighty eighty based microcomputer systems in quote. It's basic but with a twist Microsoft's early version was targeted squarely at the hobbyist or user but X. Y. Basic was a slightly different beast. It was designed for process control systems. In other words, we're looking at a more industrial product. So you get all the standard basic instructions for math printing to the screen taking input some flow control alongside more advanced niche code blows me away is the fact that X. Y. Basic has software interrupts and events. These are two key features for any industrial control system or any computer system that. With other. Physical. Harper. Essentially, a software interrupt tells your computer to wait for a certain signal. Say a reading comes in over a sensor and then once received a pre specified chunk of code. Usually interrupts are handled on the lowest level of computers. Hardware. Even today it's common write interrupt handling code in Assembly language. But here in nine hundred, seventy, seven, x y basic can handle a very similar type of functionality in a clear and concise basic program suffer interrupts plus a bevy of other features put ex white basic in this interesting space where it's able to handle more direct control, the underlying hardware than its competition could. The other interesting factor is the most process control systems used specialized computer hardware. Normally, a factory would have something akin to a mainframe tricked out with expanded interface hardware. Obviously that kind of harbor come cheap. So computerization had only really reached larger factories and industry or some larger research.
"unix" Discussed on Advent of Computing
"The gist of the situation that I gather is the bell which was owned by a t and T had an almost complete monopoly of phone systems in America. During the nineteen forties they conspired with Western Electric, the company that manufactured most equipment used by bell to. Maintain that. Monopoly. And turns out that is a legal. It's a violation of long standing US antitrust laws. So the Department of Justice came down pretty hard on the companies involved. There were two big stipulations to the suit that matter for us I moving forward at and T. was only allowed to carry out business directly related to. Common Carrier Communications Services. They can only make money on telecom and no matter how you split hairs UNIX isn't really communication software or services. Secondly at and T., was legally obligated to license its non telecom technology to anyone who asks. This led to a strange situation where eighteen couldn't really turn UNIX into a big part of their business, but they also had to license it to anyone who wanted. For the team at bell things got a little bit complicated to this. The overall result was the UNIX became almost free software lease for some users in seventy three bell labs start ship copies to universities and research institutions that asked on an at cost basis. If you could afford a taper at this the shipping, then you buy into a copy of UNIX, this decision was partly spurred on by Nineteen seventy-three talk on the operating system there was published by Ritchie and Thompson. Up, until then UNIX had been relatively unknown outside of Bell but with knowledge of the software getting out, it was only a matter of time before bell got requests and thanks to the Department of Justice they. Could not refuse those requests by the end of the year a dozen copies of UNIX have been shipped out according to some folklore Ken Thomson would put together each package himself complete with a thank you note signed love Ken. But what's crucial here is the NISQUALLY AT and T. wasn't shipping out ready to go install disks for UNIX instead each of these packages contained a full copy of UNIX source code. This was either due to the earlier antitrust suit or simply a product of convenience I can't really tell either way. If you're one of the lucky ones to get a copy of UNIX than you, I had to figure out how to compile that code into a workable program and loaded into your computer of choice to further complicate things. Eighteen gave users no support. Once he got the code, you were on your own. This. Obviously. Within the reach of a consumer, but for researchers, it was definitely attainable. Some of the early adopters of UNIX in this era were universities, like UC, Berkeley, the University of Toronto Yale and the University of Waterloo just to name a few. The strange release of UNIX ended up targeting a very specific type of user most early copies made their way into computer science departments at universities. That's where the main interest was early on just to get UNIX up and running you had to be a programmer since invariably there'll be some of the code that you'd need to tweak to work properly with your department's specific computer setup. This leaves you with a user base of computer science students who in general tend to be avid programmers and insatiably curious. And with access to the full source code for UNIX and all the programming tools, they could ever want while it's easy to guess where things go from here. Pretty quickly, new software and improvements for UNIX would start to Papa computer enthusiasts of all stripes given that they were on a university campus at least turned out a lot of new code. This ranged from new commands to games to fixing bugs present in UNIX itself. And as academics like to do this new code was shared widely. there. Were even ambitious efforts to move UNIX onto new systems that it wasn't initially designed for the source code for UNIX would even become a teaching tool in classrooms further pulling in new and eager software developers. A new community was starting to form composed of UNIX users. It's the root of certain traditions of we still see today principle among those. Idea of free and open source software, I can't stress this point enough starting from the very early days of precedent was set the UNIX like systems were home to open source software. But. Like I said, the circumstances around licensing UNIX very complex especially. So in these early days. Paul some able to get their hands on you versions of the software at and T. would still sell some licenses. Starting with the release of version six, nine, hundred, seventy, five companies able to a commercial license for UNIX. As near as I can tell, this became possible. Thanks to the looming breakup of at and T. into multiple separate companies starting back in seventy four. The Department of Justice filed a new antitrust suit against at and T. They really just can't catch a legal break here. This would eventually end with the company breaking into nearly a dozen smaller firms eighteen agreed to this under the condition that the restrictions brought on by the earlier antitrust suit dropped. The case did result in eighteen now being able to get into the computer business, but the overall timeline is somewhat contradictory. Other are records of UNIX being licensed as a commercial product as far back seventy seventy-five. The break-up wasn't finalized until eighty two. It may have been the case that the ongoing suit just gave the company a little bit of wiggle room, but I'm not totally sure on that. The legal caveats aside, UNIX would hit. The ground is commercial product in seventy five. What was essentially free for universities industry was a whole nother story. A Commercial License would run you twenty thousand dollars. That's nearly one hundred thousand dollars adjusted for inflation. It's. Very, cheap product your hands on. A. Whole lot of money. But at the time, the only customers that could really use UNIX would already be invest in mainframe computers. So price may not have been the largest problem for them. However, this leads to really interesting situation. If you're an education, you could get a copy of UNIX for basically a song and since nineteen seventy-three, the entire source code for the operating system had been floating around in the wild. It was only a matter of time before at would see competition. One of the earliest and still surviving spin off of UNIX is the Berkeley Standard distribution more commonly just called BSD. In Nine, hundred, seventy, seven, a group of programmers at UC Berkeley started passing around their own distribution of UNIX. The court system was composed of code directly from at and T. with some modifications. Added on were newsouth packages like text editors in new command line. Interface Games now working utilities and much more. All these additions that have been developed at Berkeley, the story D- deserves its own time in the spotlight. But I bring it up here to show the precedent being set. Best was free software anyone a copy of the source code and it was freely pass around within the community. Latter part of the seventies that universities or labs big enough to have mainframes as time went on interest would grow outside of this niche, the appearance of competition and eventual expansion outside of academia would turn into what today we call the. UNIX wars. So. Now let's change gears and talk about home computers. So personal computing had existed in the nineteen seventies machines like the apple two were paving the way towards getting a computer on every.
"unix" Discussed on Advent of Computing
"So there's no reason not to get your car computer up in crunching data today it's a silly way to look at it, but the point is that Lennox has unified. A once fractious field in a very interesting way. There are a lot of reasons for an Lennox's success. It would take told podcast just to cover everything, but this is a computer history podcast. So I personally think a key factor Liza computing's past. Lennox was modeled after a much earlier mainframe operating system called UNIX Lennox was able to bring the functionality of UNIX assistant designed for large computers to basically anything with the processor. But. Wasn't the first person to attempt this feat. That honor goes to coherent up proprietary UNIX like on written in the nineteen eighty s by tiny startup on the outskirts of Chicago. It brought UNIX power to Hong Computers over a decade before Lennox hip, the scene. But it would take a very interesting in very different route to get to that point. Welcome back to add of computing I'm your host Sean has this is episode thirty coherent is not UNIX. Today, we'll be talking about a relatively obscure topic. One that I think deserves to be better known. That's the story of coherent a from the ground up clone of UNIX that was written in the early nineteen eighties and it would survive in a very particular niche until the mid nineties. Looking at the story from her vantage point today makes it all the more interesting I think. This episode takes place right in the middle of event known as the spores. It's a bit of a dramatic name, but you know US computer nerds tend to be a little bit dramatic anyway if you don't know much about the night, highly recommend pulling up the show's archive and checking out episodes four and five, they come into the earliest origins of UNIX if you don't want to brave early episodes of astronaut computing, then let me give you a quick summary. UNIX is an operating system. It's basically offer that manages a computer's resources, and ideally it gives you a useful environment for other programs to run on top of. This. Type of software is very important because it makes a computer actually usable without an operating system. You'd have to use a computer by poking together wires and flipping switches that really the best experience I can think of. Operating Systems are also weekly complex programs developed in the nineteen sixties. UNIX wasn't the first offering not by a long shot, but it has become one of the most influential. It was originally written at eighteen bell labs to run on mainframes, but it's spread out pretty quickly and UNIX is important today because with the exception of windows PC's almost every computerized system runs something very similar to UNIX maximum phones all run an operating system that's descended directly. From UNIX, android phones nearly every server runs Lennox, an operating system developed to mimic UNIX very closely. So the history of UNIX plays a big role in understanding the origins of a lot of modern software. Coherent fits a strange spot in the UAE field of UNIX related software. It's kind of the odd one out coherent is probably most similar to Lennox both operating systems were designed for a high level of UNIX compatibility but US none of the original code from UNIX itself. They're like disconnected branches on a family tree, they're similar to UNIX but not directly related. The similarities between Lennox and coherent though they had in their Lennox's open source and free software whereas coherent developed as a commercial product coherent was produced by the Mark Williams. Chemical Company Lennox is maintained by community of software developers and hobbyists. Coherent also predates Lennox significantly. So today we're looking at what I think is the most interesting UNIX like systems, but to talk about here and properly will I need to get to know it's competition a little bit better. To understand what makes coherent interesting. We need to talk about the UNIX wars a little bit. The nineteen seventy-three release of at's UNIX before was a huge deal. In fact, huge a little bit of an understatement. On the surface, the new operating system was a feature rich and incredibly useful piece of software. Over the years UNIX has earned a reputation as a great environment for programmers and that started really early on the system was originally developed by Dennis Ritchie and Ken. Thomson to computer scientists working at Bell Labs at the tail end of one, thousand, nine, hundred, Sixty S. The early development of UNIX was informed heavily by their personal tinkering, as well as experience working on similar mainframe software to be more specific. The two previously contributed to an operating system called MULTIDEX, which was designed to securely share a mainframe between many multiple users all at once but UNIX had more to offer than just its core functionality. This certain deal to the system, some call it, the UNIX philosophy, each command and program bundled with the system does one simple task. This can be something like just listing the files in a directory or even counting numbers of wines and a text file on their own. These aren't really that useful but UNIX is built in such a way that it's easy to chain commands together, the outputs from one command can be turned into the inputs for another. Feature called pipes combined with the glut of programming tools bundled into UNIX from day one made it a fantastic system for programmers and just from the get-go we get a sort of feedback. We've programmers like UNIX. So they write a lot of software for UNIX and that makes the system bigger and better and more enticing to other pro gamers and two businesses. Version four would bring about some massive changes and these updates would set the stage for the UNIX wars. The new version was at least mostly written from the ground up in c a brand new language that Richie developed specifically for UNIX. There's a whole lot to be said for C.. It's been one of the most popular programming languages for decades at this point, and it's influenced just about every other language that came after it in one way or another. What matters for our purposes is that C code can be easily adapted to run on just about any computer. Language makes very few assumptions about the underlying hardware that it's running on. UNIX was originally written in assembly language in which just about every line has to be tailored for its host computer but now that the entire system and all. Were written in see it was possible to port UNIX to any suitably powerful computer. Portability was a big part of the update. There are some side effects that can't be overlooked. The biggest implication is that it was relatively easy to modify UNIX the entire thing sands some harbor driver code was written in c compared to earlier systems written assembly language. This was easy to understand easy to change, and since UNIX has all the tools to write and compile see that makes modifying any of the. Just, just super easy and super convenient. The other reason V four was a milestone is because this is the very first version. They would find its way outside of bell labs. Previous iterations ebben exclusively used within bell releasing UNIX to a wider audience wasn't exciting prospect, but there'd be some major problems with the rollout. You, see at and T. wasn't exactly allowed to sell UNIX at least not legally this goes back to an antitrust battle that started all the way back in nineteen, forty nine and to be honest the legalese part here is a little bit confusing.
Final Fantasy VII Remake Spoilercast
"Are going to begin the segment that you have been requesting for the past couple of weeks normally. This is where we were talking about what we've been playing but what we've been playing animal crossing which will talk about next week has been final. Fantasy seven remake. Thank you do square UNIX for providing US copies of final fantasy seven remake disclaimer? Out of the way. I don't even know where to begin with. Spoiler cast for final fantasy seven remake. Maybe with the spoiler warning full like Joe in case it wasn't clear that this was the spoiler cast and we're going to be spoiling the game It's going to happen. If you have not finished. Final fantasy seven enrolled credits. You may want to press pause on the PODCAST and come back to this after you have or if you like. You know what I'm good with it. You just get on this ride with us but now you have been properly warned and on that note. Britney to you. Oh God okay so I think the best way to start this off is by dissecting the ending because I think that will help us have the conversations about things that happen and maybe who some characters where I need to have a little a little discussion. Come to some mutual ground here so what I okay so I think it's obviously okay to talk about the events that transpired in the first file fantasy game and that that run parallel with this game however there are certain relationships like between cloud and stiffer off and era that. I think we shouldn't dive into because I think there's a lot of new people who are just have been introduced to the series. I don't want to spoil those pivotal moments now. Granted as we know going forward. We don't know what's going to happen in the next installments of final. Fantasy seven remake. Were getting them getting them. That said I think the way things are lying out in the way that the events unfolded and beginning actually for the majority of the remake. A that leads me to believe that. A lot of cannon who cloud is who suffer out that those things are all the same and I don't WanNa spoil that okay that's fair because I also yeah okay. What of my major pet peeves actually like granted? This was what third thirty hours ish but I was actually a little more irritated that they didn't dive a teeny tiny. Bit More under who suffer off is like I don't need. I didn't need them to do a lot with him but I wanted them to do more than just be like. Oh He's bad like he's he's he big evil man big sort than you do. I'm like what give me any sort of shred of information because clearly cloud you know him. You're having weird flashbacks you. You're clearly not okay. Which is a whole separate issue. Keeps saying you are. You're not which maybe a metaphor for all of us who knows. Maybe we'll have whisper stranding. That's okay so right so let's kind of like talk about the first thing that I think is important for. We dive into the ending. And that is the whispers the arbiters of the protectors of destiny. Now these dudes or girls or whatever these robes there's basically mentors that you look like the mentors for sure they are number were they. Those were in the first game. I don't at all okay. Well yes so. These are not in the original game and you can kind of think of these these figures as a rabid foul fantasy seven fans. Who Don't want any changes to happen to the story as it was back in one thousand nine hundred eighty seven and what I mean by that is they. They're exempt their purpose is to keep destiny and fate on-track it. An example of this is toward the end where Barrett gets tablets separates Mezzaluna or one of his big spear right. It's big old sort sore. That he constantly shows off and his leg look at. My lungs pointed at the camera. It's lung and you see how big this is my Soroush anyway. Yeah so in the original Game Barrett does not die there or maybe he doesn't die at all who could say but that's not his time today which is even though you see him get stabbed Wade. Barrett didn't die because of Britain's getting two. Okay so think of whispers are trying to hold up the main events of the original file fantasy seven. Make it a little. Mehta here but stick with me. Let me know if you have any questions okay. So yes when Barrett gets stabbed. He should have died from that right but the fact that he did. It is because the whispers interfered or like now dog. This isn't how it goes down. We're GONNA make sure you're still alive. Think about in the Church with era in cloud any original game era cloud flee the church and in this game you see the whispers literally pick them up and shove them through the door to get them out and then they escape they like literally force them to fucking move and another example is wedged when you guys sector seven wedge originally dies there as those big Asda's Jesse but in this game wedge survives that whole scenario and then towards the end though we hear him we see him getting shoved out of the building. And all you hear Glass Shatter. And then you're left to assume that he did fall to his death rate because wedge was supposed to die. He was not supposed to live. Is this making sense? Yes one hundred per okay. Wonderful the whispers. I was like okay once once. They finally explained what they were supposed to be. Obviously until that point. They don't explain it until you're almost dead at the game but once that explanation throws like all right but I didn't i. I'm glad you did the comparison with the original because I didn't know like I couldn't remember all the details of what had been happening. Yeah I have questions about that but I'm going to hold them until you're with your explanation. Okay cool because yeah. If you had never played original file fantasy seven you wouldn't know how the events specifically are to unfold right for me. I had a feeling I knew what was I were when they were surrounding Jesse in sect when she's in sector seven and she has the grenade in her hand right and she's like I never miss and she went to throw it but the thing like detonated a little early and that's where she died because she was getting through the whispers interfere like dog. You have to diet here and same with biggs when you see him kind of slouched against whatever metal. He was slouched against you. See the whisper circling him like okay. We've done the thing like this is what's supposed to happen to you and this is why we're here at this point like oh so it was kind of cool watching the rest of except he's in like a hospital bed at the end. Yeah that's a whole nother thing. Okay Super Weird because the thing collapsed on you right like all the whole damn case in explosive flame like there's no way the bigs would have survived. There's no way really that Wedgewood have survived like there's a heat at least a little bit more of a plausibility because he was on the ground. And it's possible that he it on what they think. They are looting to he tripped and fell into this whole. That's I should find your. And he did survive that encounter but then when he's in Chinnery member he kinda gets force out the window rate by the whispers at the very end and I think you said like I just wanted to make a difference and you hear the Yeah Poor Baby Squirrel. We don't know about him so I agree with you with that. Whole big theory. Let's hold onto that for a second. So I had this recap the vice dot com just because I think could be a good refresher so. The game concludes with a battle against stiffer but to challenge him to characters have to first defeat the whispers fates and the moments leading up to this the characters witness flashes of the original game storyline cloud sees Eric. Die The entire group watches red thirteen in his children running through the ruins of the old world. They make the conscious decision to fight. Fate vanish banish the whispers into their own course and with the whisperers defeated. They're able to do so. The characters are outside of mid Garden and fast and open world uncertain of what the future holds. The unknown journey will continue. The screen reads as the Camera. Pans up into the clouds implying that the future is open to change that continent. Continuity isn't as important as telling a good story. Now the tool secretes have okay. So that moment for me was pretty fucking crazy because when they were fighting. The crucial accrue across the whispers. All of the Big Harvard or harbinger were harbinger. Whatever the fuck they were you got the three little boys and you've got the very very big boy. Yeah and you're seeing the flash red thirteen running up that mountainside which is kind of like an iconic scene from the end of the original fantasy seven. You see her death scene. She's trying to summon holy email. Which is I can't go into that. You see these things happen and then when I you but are you telling me that the final boss fight. We got at the end of final fantasy. Seven is actually the final fight of the whole game of the original. No she's saying that the when you when you had those flashes when you were fighting him those were some of the ending. Parts of the original game like those were some of the ending scenes so that part of the game. But not of the whole game right. Kerr so okay. I'll try to explain this again in a better way. Okay I mean it's it's admittedly very confused girl. No it's fucking confusing as hell. Okay so you have all of the characters. And they're all I think this is before they're getting ready to fight all the the big whisper bosses. They're seeing flashbacks that you see. The flashback of red running you see the flashback of air dying or of rain. You see other little flashbacks and this is the quote. Maybe this will help you remember. Remember someone asked what the Hell Oracene probably bear it and read says this is what happens if we fail today. Yes and that was before all the final bosses but what that because I've played final fantasy seven and I've seen that Indian when he said when we're seeing all of those scenes that I know are the South China Sea seven and he says this is what happens if we fail today immediately. I'm like this is an alternate time line. And that's what my mind just fucking ball. I had anyway Andrea. Are you following or is it still confusing? I mean admittedly going to be confused. Okay but I think like there's there's more questions I have than just that stare continue. Continue on okay. So we'll cover some more of the ground here so you have the the whispers the big boy and if you use your assess material on the big boy it says this guy appears when someone tries to alter destinies course and then for us the assessment Syria on the small guys says they are an entity from a future timeline that has manifested in the present day. They protect the future that gay shape to it. So like right there shows that you're fighting essentially against these things that are trying to prevent alternate timelines or prevent fate from being changed. So that was making me do while we want to go and watch original final fantasy like information. Because I don't remember I played definitely had read thirteen when I was playing seven whenever I did like ten years ago. But that's as far as I got. I had him for a little while and then I didn't play again. I never made it to the ending. I never made it through a lot to these pivotal moments and so to know that now. Theoretically they're trying to alternate timeline it and I want to kind of compare like okay. Well what was the beginning of that game again because against a really long time to the beginning of this? And what would they be fighting against? And what are they fighting for and like trying to map? These things out I think is interesting. Yeah so the Andrea in simple terms is that you have original final fantasy seven from nineteen ninety seven right and I gave us people know it. Is You have cloud and Tika and back then areas and separate off the big bad guy and everyone knows that areas in that game dies.
Final Fantasy VII Remake demo is the first step in a very long journey
"The final fantasy seven remake demo is now available exclusively on PS and right now. The final fantasy seven remake demo leaked a few weeks ago but now the thing is real and officially playable on playstation four according to the demos description on the playstation store it covers the first chapter of the original game or cloud and his new friends bombed the Mako reactor. It's worth noting that downloading and playing the demo gives you access to an exclusive final fantasy seven remake. Ps Four theme which will be available on April tenth as long as you download the demo before May eleventh twenty twenty the easiest way to remember that date is that you will want to download it the day before my sister's birthday or if it's even easier to remember grab it from the store at least two days before. Piccolo Day which we all know is may thirteenth. The description also has two important qualifiers content in the demo may differ from the final retail version and progress made in demo will not carry over to the final game which is disappointing squirt UNIX is under no obligation to let the save file move forward. It's not an assumed thing when it comes to game demos at this point but I love when it's an option. I like checking out. Demos like this but when final fantasy seven remake actually releases. I'M GONNA be bombed that I will have to play through that whole section again. I am super thankful that this demo exists and by the time this podcast is on the Internet. You can actually go and find an archive. Were streamed it for an hour on twitch. I played through the whole thing might handle his kyle impersonator but I have to admit I'm a little surprised that the demo exists at all I think square INEX- basically committed millions of people to buying it just by announcing it was working on it. I don't think a demo will necessarily change anyone's mind but I'm really. I'm not complaining. I promise maybe outside of square just wanting to let people get their hands on it a bit after waiting for so many years for its release they they just WanNa set some expectations for how different. It's going to be for the original game so maybe the people download it. The super fans won't be blindsided by the changes when they take on the full game. Maybe that's the intention of the Demo narrowly sure by the way just Some quick impressions for the Demo. I really liked it. I wasn't pessimistic about the game by any means. It looks great and all the trailers and people that I trust that have played the remake have all had really nice things to say about it but even with high expectations going in. I really got into combat. It really feels like an action game but there is enough opportunity to pause things and slow everything down that there are still a lot of room for tactical decisions. Which is nice. It's also fluid moving into combat and out of combat scenarios. It really feels at least in the demo like a very smart middle ground between final fantasy. Fifteen and kingdom hearts as combat and. I like the combat in both of those games so Mike Excitement for final fantasy. Seven remake has only grown since playing the demo. And I I really don't have any install job for the original game. I missed it when it first came out and every time I've tried to go back and play it to make sure I've filled in that important blind spot. In my gaming knowledge is always been a
"unix" Discussed on The Talk Show
"Unix with a nice gooey on top some people who love unix love max people love of max love unix and they'll be will love both love them and both of those realms are seeing changes and to be fair. This happens in unix outside of the maxwell where unix does change over time but like to make that kind of change like this thing you're gonna do. We wanna have system integrity protection. You want there for there to be things that route can't do a unix way to make that that change a more unix away would be to define new super user. That's rudy your group so that you would keep the model the same but that there would be a unix way to you know if you sue commute for some some flag you can become the super duper route and you can still do everything like in other words change range unix but change it in a way that still feels like unix you just added one more layer of stuff and production is like the answer is like rebooted with an offer whatever like i understand why they did it the way they did it because security feature and if you could just bypass at that easily but entering your password as it all makes sense. I'm just saying like it's it's. It's feels uncomfortable to take a well established. I keep saying culture but like that's really what it is. Well established culture of a realm of computing and start modifying it in ways that that fly in the face of of history like a well integrated with the whole like you. You expect pseudo l._s. to always list the files in the current system. You don't really expect. It's not a very unique see thing to say. We'll go find terminal app or or the go-to your system preferences hip plus button and choose it from a gooey picture to to grant full off. I can't delete a file change at any of your a._m. Setting and reboot and then you've it doesn't it doesn't really fit either the other thing so i'm torn.
"unix" Discussed on Security Now
"Um i had an experience that i'll share um a f g our seas level three a as service um i played a round with free nass on unix and digging that it was like some a magic amazing thing and i soon realised that it was just a thin little coding on top of all on top of um just standard eunuchs which already supports all of these various um network attach storage protocols i mean you you have out of nfs an samba there are a deal an aide de ace servers for for unix so um and what i really wanted was e f s i mean i am so impressed with z fs that it's it's what i'm standardising on moving forward for my unixbased machines and so my feeling is taking any machine a means of so so i guess i would i would separate dick by by user type certainly drove gives you a sponsor of the of the network gives you a simple to use you know no muss no fuss drop in solution with features that nobody else has not even you know busy fs allows you to arbitrarily changed the size of one of the drives just on a whim and the system serves as old look we have more space and then a reich reallocates at you know with this this whole amazing raid based system that dead the drobush sports but if you're more ticky and you're like the idea of taking your own retired pc and bringing up a us a solution i would look it.
"unix" Discussed on KKAT
"From esquire it's the equivalent of law been off your knob it is called a bro robber i'm not even don't even know i'm not even it's basically a man onesie it's a robber a one piece rahm per for men it's a robber but they call it a him because everything stupid and apparently they're selling them you know what a robberies right it's the shorts and the shirt but it's all one piece like a onesie for babies it's like a baby onesie but for men adult men this is the quickest way to become becoming a unit i mean unix agree this is fantastic i mean for real that's the quit is anybody if i if a man came up to me wearing a robber i think i'd vomit i don't know this is that this is what babies where babies where onesies toddlers and don't even like i like overalls on anybody but babies and farmers i mean the only people the only people to wear overalls babies and farmers the only people to wear onesies babies that's it the only people to wear a bow ties if you're selling fried chicken or your toddler that's it nobody else should wear bow ties oh no wearing a jacket esquire has this whole thing and they're like they're like for instance apparently a man were loafers and a one z with a pink jacket no he looked at that's it is it makes my ovaries one a curl up into my throat it so awful i've never seen anything that is so the opposite of sexy in my life than this it does that sound that you're hearing listen those are women's ovaries everywhere curling up into their throat because it's so unattractive to wear onesie if you never ever want to get late again and you're a man where onesie a promise you you'll never have to worry about that pesky lady coming at ya it is the most atrocious thing i've ever seen in my life and what's equally atrocious nikola to rob him that they're trying to push it off as though people everywhere wearing know the no one's wearing them no one is wearing them only unix are wariness you know what would you know the only wreak from game of thrones would wear this came doesn't even know that reference but he still thinks funny i've just you know.
"unix" Discussed on Mac Power Users
"I don't i i really don't think she knows split screen i certainly haven't told her because i think all would do was mess her up and she would complain to me about it so it is so it's and i think automation is the same way i think split scream was done very well it's it's almost impossible to inadvertently bring up a split screen thing it's it's a very intentional sort of thing that you have to do and automation is even more intentional it's all hidden people use macs for years and years and years without knowing that apple script sitting there in the background and since since medical a less ten days started which is now in seventeen years ago underneath the mac was this incredibly powerful unix sub system while system is sitting there where you could do all sorts of things scripting lies in automation wise their most people use used their maxed never knew it was there it didn't get in their way and i think on apple could do that on the i parent and it wouldn't get in people's way and i think using ex you are all schemes and work flow is all very nice but it's it's not like having something that apple itself made an integrated with the system it really is a question what the future of automation is for iowa devices and and the the the reason why it's such a question as because apple hasn't been clear about what it thinks it should be or whether even thanks automation should exist.