20 Episode results for "University of California System"
China Drops GDP Growth Target for First Time in Over 25 Years
"The end of the article isn't the end of the story. The Journal podcast goes behind the scenes with reporters and covers everything from the Mormon Church's one hundred billion dollar fund to Corona virus. Listen to the Journal on spotify or wherever you get your podcasts. Here's your morning. Brief for Friday may twenty second. I'm Keith Collins. For The Wall Street Journal in Hong Kong stock index ended down more than five percent after Beijing signaled. It will impose new national security laws on the city separately. China has decided not to publicly said an annual GDP growth target for the first time in over twenty five years pointing to the pandemic and uncertainties around trade. The University of California System says it will stop using the sat and act. It will phase out the admissions exams over the next five years as a develops. Its own test. Critics of standardized tests say. They're an unfair barrier minority and low income students. The testing industry has long pushed back on this criticism and president. Trump's new arms control negotiator plans to meet with his Russian counterpart to discuss a proposal to limit U S Russian and Chinese nuclear warheads. The talks will mark the first time the. Us is opened negotiations on a deal to replace the soon expire. New START ACCORD FOR MORE DETAILS. Please head to our website wsj.com or the WSJ APP.
Tuesday, December 10th, 2019
"Hey this is David Green with a reminder that up I is what you need. What many of us need in this crowded news and information environment it's a way to quickly early and reliably get up to date on what's happening so that we can stay oriented day by day in a disorienting world up? I is made possible by your you're NPR station. So we ask that you support them before the year ends you can do that by going to donate dot. NPR DOT org slash up first and we really appreciate it. A lawyer for house. Democrats says this conclusion is inescapable president. Trump's actions are impeachable offenses today lawmakers revealed proposed articles of impeachment. How broad or how narrow could those charges be? I'm Steve inskeep with Rachel Martin and this is up I from NPR news the impeachment involves US aid for the war in Ukraine. President trump withheld that military assistance. Now the aid is flowing and the president's offensive Ukraine and Russia have agreed on a ceasefire. What's that agreement really do? And Will Russia ever give up land seized from country the US supports also what's the case against standardized testing a lawsuit challenges the University of California System to stop using it in the admissions process. Stay with us. We've got the news you need to start your day support for this podcast and the following message come from the capital one Walmart rewards card earned five percent back at Walmart online and two percent at Walmart in store restaurants and travel the capital one Walmart rewards card. What's in your wallet? Terms exclusions apply support also comes from Bayer. Her bare develops digital tools to help. Farmers use less water to grow their crops. From advances in health to innovations in agriculture bear is advancing science for a better life at bear. This is why we science quote. This is not a happy day. That is what reporters heard from house Foreign Affairs Committee. Chairman Eliot in English last night as he signalled plans by fellow Democrats to unveil articles of impeachment against President Trump. We expect to learn this morning. What those articles say? They are likely day to focus on the president's push to get Ukraine to make announcements that would embarrass Democrats. Daniel Goldman is a lawyer for a House Committee president trump's persistent and continuing effort to coerce a foreign country to help him cheat to win. Election is a clear and present danger to our free and fair our elections and to our national security joining us now. NPR senior political editor and correspondent Domenico Montanaro. Who listened into the hearing yesterday? Hey Domenico hither racial so so what did we learn from yesterday's hearing that could provide some clues about which articles of impeachment. We might see today. Well I mean the point of yesterday's hearing earing was for representatives of the Intelligence Committee to present the findings of their report to the Judiciary Committee. You had one. That was a majority report. You had one with a minority already parts that you had lawyers presenting this to the Judiciary Committee because the Judiciary Committee has a responsibility to write these articles of impeachment. And what it comes down to really is this. Yes I mean we expect. There'll be at least two articles of impeachment one related to abuse of power and bribery and one on obstruction of Congress. Democrats feel like they've made the case that they've presented overwhelming and compelling evidence that the president abused his power by pressuring a foreign country to help investigate a political rival to help us twenty twenty collection. That's essentially what it comes down to for them. Republicans think that that's just not true. They said that Ukrainian leaders say there was no pressure they aid was eventually released. And you know if you've been following every twist and turn. You probably didn't hear a lot. That was new yesterday but it was really a chance for them to boil down their arguments. So how did they go about doing that. Because because even though people have been following this incessantly may have heard some of these arguments. This is really a chance for them. To try. To create something really sinked to crystallize it in the public's mind right yeah and and you didn't have to go much. Further than the opening statements from our Congressman Jerry Nadler. Who is the House Judiciary Committee chairman? He opened the hearing got right to the point. He summed up what he sees. He's as the president's guilt this way. The evidence shows that Donald J trump the president of the United States has put himself before his country. He has violated his most basic responsibilities to the people. He has broken his oath. Yeah of course. Republicans did not agree with that ranking remember. Doug Collins of Georgia. He was pretty animated through much of the hearing. He accused Democrats of pursuing a personal vendetta. And here he was saying that impeaching president trump is all all about politics at the end of the day. All this is about is about a clock and a calendar because they can't get over the fact. Donald trump is president of the United States. And they don't have a candidate that they think can beat him so Dominica. You said at least two articles of impeachment about abuse of power and obstruction. But still we don't really have an idea of the scope of these right right. We expect to hear later this morning. What the exact articles will be a one sticking point with Democrats has been whether to bring an obstruction of justice article that hinges on instances of potential obstruction that was laid out in the Muller Russia? Investigation as a bit of turn because it doesn't have to do with this Ukraine mm pressure campaign but expect Democrats to say what trump has done as part of a larger pattern of behavior so we expect a vote in the judiciary committee that could take place by the end of this week. Then in a full vote in the House that Democrats are aiming to get done before Christmas setting up a Senate trial in January. All right appears a medical Montinaro. Thanks we appreciate it. You're welcome okay. So while the house is announcing articles of impeachment against President Trump for actions that ultimately benefited benefited Russia trump will be meeting with Russia's Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov Russia is throughout the story isn't it president trump delayed. US military aid eighteen crane. That aid is considered critical to Ukraine. Is it pushes back against a Russian incursion into its territory. That began in two thousand fourteen. Now Ukraine's President Vladimir is Linski and Russia's President Vladimir Putin met face to face for the first time yesterday in Paris and after that meeting they announced a ceasefire ear that is supposed to take hold at the end of the month we've got NPR's eleanor beardsley on the line shoes covering this historic meeting high on our. Hi Rachel so this is the first time these two the president's Alinsky and Putin have met kind of high intensity moment for these two leaders to just have like a meet and greet right absolutely and you know. The meetings went on for hours hours and broke up after midnight so they held a press conference after midnight. And you had this young neophyte politician meeting with the strong man who's run Russia for twenty years years and continues to create havoc in alinskyites country Ukraine. So everyone was watching faces and body language and right after host macron spoke Zielinski. The ski spoke and he and Putin far ends of the table separated by President Michel and German Chancellor Angela Merkel so Alinsky appeared nervous but what he said seemed heartfelt you can listen to him here Fugu ranging featuring cool your virtual so. He said he had all all of Ukrainians with him in Paris and felt their support he said he had truth with him. And the desire for justice and peace in his own country so that was very powerful. He said the meetings were long long. But they were concrete and important and that the dialogue had been on blocked and is Alinsky also stated that Ukraine was an independent and free country. And that its future we'll be decided by Ukrainians and he asserted that the Dawn Bass. That's the eastern Ukraine and Crimea part of Ukraine now remember Russia took Crimea away away from Ukraine. Five years ago. And it's still destabilizing the east. So how did Vladimir Putin respond to that well. He sat at the opposite end of the table. He sort of looked at his notes. He didn't give much facial expression he spoke at one. Point of the thirty eight million Russian speaking Ukrainians who needed consideration and remember Russia. It's in its research interests to keep a constant state of chaos and insecurity in limbo and Ukraine to make sure Ukraine doesn't go with the West get its act together you know and so Putin wants Ukraine in its sphere. But there's a new wind blowing Rachel Russia's very much suffering under the sanctions imposed after it took Crimea and analysts. Say That Putin may hey be ready to give a little to maybe get something back from the West interesting okay. So the ceasefire came out supposed to take hold at the end of the month. Other big decisions. Yeah well the ceasefire. Let's keep in mind. There have been twenty of them. So will this one hold probably one of the most concrete and important measures. They're going to exchange all of their prisoners before New Year's Eve as well. And that will that will be something that can really measure. And then by next March they said they will withdraw forces from three conflict zones and this crisis group will meet in four months months and keep going okay. Well we'll see NPR's Eleanor Beardsley in Paris. Thank you you're welcome. Anyone who's ever applied to go to college is probably familiar with this kind of dread mayangs Zaidi was really high in hard hard for me to calm myself down but I knew I had two comments don so that it connects on this test. Raina Edis is a high school senior in Santa Ana California and and the test she's referring to is the sat after taking that test three times. She's still is not sure that she's going to get the scores. She needs to get into College College as a Pre Med student plaintiffs in a lawsuit argue she should not be facing such anxiety. The suit to be filed today seeks to eliminate sat not and act test score requirements for the University of California system. We've got NPR's a list in studio to talk about it. Highly he reach. Oh Oh man that was bringing back my own name. I had to take that test at least twice so I feel for Raina who exactly is bringing suit yes. The lawsuits being filed by the pro bono firm the public council on behalf of students and a number of advocacy organizations. The complaint draws heavily on research that shows a much stronger connection between test scores and income rather than college success. And it's essentially saying requiring these tests in admissions. It's no longer a policy decision now. A legal won the suit. Claims by requiring these Tests the admissions process is illegally discriminating against applicants on the basis of race and wealth. And therefore it's denying them equal protection under the California Constitution addition because people with more access to resources to prepare for the test various. Yeah so I mean this really force the UC system to abandon the test that would be huge. Potentially really yeah. So what's interesting. Is that about fifty years ago. The University of California was one of the first schools to adopt. Sat as a requirement for admissions actually the companies behind the sat lobbied them pretty hard back then and in doing so in the late sixties. They signaled to other schools across the country to do the same so they sat this national president and back. Then there was a lot of debate within the System whether or not they should require these tests just last year. The president of the UC system ordered a task force to study the use of standardized tests in admissions. A few leaders have come out against against including these tests like the Chancellor of UC Berkeley a spokesperson for the UC president. Says they're waiting for the results of that task force before they make any big changes. What about the companies who make few standardized tests? I bet they have an opinion here. The folks say the test is not bias that blaming standardized tests for differences in educational quality and opportunities will not improve educational outcomes. The College Board which is behind the sat says grades and test. Scores are all pieces of the puzzle. College shouldn't take one metric in isolation so is the suit. It really necessary. Because aren't aren't there are schools already dropping the standardized tests. Yes Oh two thousand. Eighteen was a big year for schools. Going test optional. Nearly fifty schools announced announced new policies for going test if the University of California which is a big system with more than two hundred fifty thousand students were to follow suit. That would be a really big deal the test going test optional. It's just one piece so the entire admissions process is rife with inequality. A lot of it stems from K.. Through twelve we know that schools that served on white students tend to have fewer fewer resources and not as many AP or advanced courses NPR's a listen add Bernie. Thanks so much elissa makes And that is up I for this Tuesday December tenth. I'm Rachel Martin and I'm Steve INSKEEP. Join US here tomorrow. Subscribe to where you listen to podcasts. And rate and review us on Apple. Podcast we appreciate that each and every day you wake up with. NPR your NPR station makes up I possible every morning support them and support us at donate dot. NPR NPR DOT org slash up first and and just a reminder to get started with your donation to an NPR member station visit donate dot NPR dot. Org Slash up I or just text the word word up to the number four nine six four eight will send you a text message with a link where you can find your local station and make your contribution message and and data rates may apply you can visit. 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How the Student Debt Complex Crushes Students Potential with Caitlin Zaloom
"What is the hey everybody? Welcome to factually. I'm Adam Khan over and You might have noticed. There's an election going on right now. We've got one of those happening again again right on schedule and in the election. There's a debate going on in the Democratic primary about whether or not college should be free and if so for who or for whom depending on how grammatical you WanNa be now to some people free public college sounds like a radical idea. I mean college is more or expensive than ever so the idea that should be free instead. Seems like an out. Their fantasy like a Hobo dreaming about the Big Rock Candy Mountain but the truth is you might be surprised to learn. College actually used to be free in the United States or at the very least accessible see college attendance in the US exploded voted after World War Two and that was because we created a wealth of programs aimed at making higher education affordable and accessible I the GI. Bill made college cheap for a generation of veterans. It provided money for tuition and books along with counseling services and even a living allowance an rolled almost eight million people ten times more than we're expected so suddenly college wasn't just something for country clubbers with weird collars on their shirts. It was for everybody. Of course the word everybody in the nineteen forties and fifties overwhelmingly men and especially white men but then then in one thousand nine hundred eighty five President Johnson signed the Higher Education Act which promoted greater access for women and minorities as well ended voted government funds for things like tuition in grants guaranteed loans and work study and it wasn't as the federal government states kicked in a ton of money as well and as a result state schools grew explosively explosively. The University of California System for instance built four new campuses in the fifties and sixties and in nine hundred sixty eight college tuition at the University of California was free for California residents only had to be a three hundred dollar yearly registration fee which was less than four percent of household income at the time. So you could literally send your kid school for four percent of your income and the UC system became a model for state universities as engines of social abilities for the students in those states and many other states followed its example. The result was an America where college was cheap or nearly free for anyone who qualified to go and in the decades following calling the Higher Education Act American college enrollment would triple but sadly the generation that benefited most from this massive public investment and higher education and would preside over its demise states started reneging on the commitments that they'd made their own populations cutting funds devoted to public universities between between two thousand eight and two thousand seventeen states collectively cut spending the colleges and universities by sixteen percent just in nine years and sometimes those were dramatic. Changes is Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker ca two hundred fifty million dollars from the system in his State in two thousand and eleven but his policies were just an extreme example of a decades decades long trend that we have seen across the country and to make up for those missing funds public universities jacked up tuition will the UC schools are still some of the best engines for social mobility in the United States adjusted for inflation a year of tuition at the UC cost six times as much today as it did forty years. There's ago another way. They tried to make up the shortfall by admitting more and more out of state students who pay tuition so now the student body of public schools increasing looks more and and more like those of private schools privileged out of state students who can pay rather than the homegrown kids in need of an education that the schools were designed to serve the result. Is that tuition at public. Schools has increased two hundred and thirteen percent in just the last thirty years and private schools have gotten way more expensive as well at the school I went to Bard College. The cost of tuition has more than doubled since I went there in the early two thousands just fifteen years ago and hey remember those federal grants that made college accessible assessable or nearly free to so many in the boomer days well they have since been replaced by private loans which are now the main source of college funding for middle. It'll class and poor students and combine that with the fact that tuition is rising almost eight times faster than wages and you have the college debt crisis. We're living with today today. Our collective student debt totals almost one point five trillion dollars an amount that is burdening diminishing lives of adults across the country. We've gone from a world where college once basically free to anyone who wanted to go to a world where in order to go to college you have to saddle yourself with massive amounts of destructive debt. So how did we get here. How how does students and families traverse the challenges of paying for college in this world? And what can we do to fix it well to answer that question. Our guest today is Caitland Caitland Zulu professor at Nyu and the author of indebted. How Families Make College work at any cost? She has conducted extensive research in interviews news with folks out there. She knows exactly what it is like on the ground today and I'm so excited the Hafer on the show. Please welcome Caitlin Caitlin Halen. Thank you so much for being on the show. Great to be here so you wrote a book called indebted about the incredible burden that students and families are taking on and how how that affects their education and their lives going forward. Tell me about that work what you discovered and how you came to it. I came to it because my students brought it to me. I work at Nyu One of the most expensive universities in the country and and it kind of showed up again and again in my classroom and my office students would come to me to tell me about the challenges that they were facing both trying to get an education and carry the data they took on four that education. And how does carrying that amount of De de affect their education and their lives going forward it must be an enormous effect. It is an enormous effect in part they take on the the debt because they participate in building a dream with their parents. They want to go to a school where they can really explore their interests. Get to know what their talents are to kind of figure out who their people are going to be in the world but that is very very expensive today at it then puts limits on who they can become so they end up changing what education they pursue so as a result of the debt. They feel a lot of pressure to do things like major in business or in the economics or to do things that are you know quote unquote practically minded. Because they understand that they will graduate with tens of thousands thousands of dollars in debt that they will have to repay others sorta bracket that reality while they're in college but then face the consequences of that afterwards so the debt both puts pressure on what students feel they can study and then it also also puts pressure on what they feel that they can do with their education once they graduate. Seems like the changes. Our entire notion of what education was four. If we're looking at it that way absolutely it focuses us very closely on jobs and income and restricts six our ideas about education to a very narrow band which we haven't had traditionally in the United States. It's we've we've really thought about education in a much more expansive lens and that also doesn't even get into how much of the debt is for an Education Asian. That might not be worth the money. I assume if someone gets like if someone takes one hundred thousand dollars in debt to go to Nyu that's a good education or at least we can. We can debate exactly how good it is. But Hey it's right but there's also now you know private colleges or very much fly by night colleges that are we are receiving funds from the government and from from the tuition that students are taking out loans in order to go to these schools and Degrees Grease may not be very good And those I imagine that those schools are also exploiting marginalized communities as well absolutely absolutely one of the worst parts of the higher education sector are for profit colleges which essentially take the loans owns that students have available to them they deliver a very dubious quality of education. They have abysmal graduation rates. And they take hake the funds from the students and put them into the pockets of investors. And so you see people who are like. Oh I've got eight thousand dollars in student loans and I actually. We don't have a degree worth anything. That's that's right. I mean that is certainly Too frequently the case for for profit colleges. Now how for the kinds of nonprofit for year universities again if we talk about averages than a graduate from those schools will over the long run make enough money to payback those loans on average but again people don't experience Syrian their lives as averages and so the question for me and and what I spoke to students and parents about out for indebted was. How does the amount of money that parents and students alike are committed to paying change change their relationships and also how does that change young adults ideas about the future and future possibilities Because we we can draw averages that say that the over the long run that a degree will pay off in terms of income but also of course education education is about much more than income alone and the fact that we talk about it primarily as income is already kind of switch. That didn't and always hold true getting like change. Your view of what education means. Generally that the idea. Yes so we we have. We have really restricted. The idea of what college education is for when we debate college education publicly. It's about the value. Oh you of a degree and the value all of a degree almost exclusively so that the question is. Does this amount on of money that I am putting toward an education pay off in terms of my income later on. That is a really. We really narrow idea about what higher education is four and it also focuses primarily on the idea that that and education is a private benefit to a private individual now. That wasn't always the way that we thought about higher education in S. country and. I think that that's something that we should question rather than a public benefit that all of us derive some good from like if I'm if if the kid down the block is educated that actually does benefit me a bit because I live in a society with that kid and that kid is going to grow up and discover great invention engine or do whatever the fuck go work for NASA or do something great right is going to contribute to the world which I live and it's a worse world for me if uh I've I live in a world full of people who only have a high school or some high school educations. I think that having people with broad college educations does benefit us all this not only these kind of moonshot investors that you might that you might think about our that might come to mind kind of Silicon Valley model. Let's talk about teachers. Teachers have to go to college teachers. Here's come to our communities when they when they finish school and they educate our children and they also build the community. Eighty schools are communities. There are places where people come together to decide together how to raise the next generation and how to educate them we need teachers features and so when we talk about a college education as only a private benefit. We're ignoring that the whole contribution that people like teachers make right and so. I think you're drawing attention to is that we used to have more or that ethos in the United States that you know the history that I talked about in the introduction about how you know there's massive investment and public higher education that was made the GI bill. All the states. Did it was really about like. Hey it's a better world for every one. The more people have access to an education that was like a pretty bedrock American American. Believe for a hundred years and it led to really incredible social mobility and like a flourishing of what Americans were able to do you you said before we started rolling that you went to UC Berkeley. Right I got my PhD at UC. Berkeley got well Our guest we had on the show earlier FEW MONTHS GO Scott Galloway. I think I've even mentioned this before But he is something that he said really stuck with me which is that he said you know. He was the recipient of the greatest greatest gift that a society could give because he was like a mediocre students And a child of a single mother didn't come from money right and he was is able to get a world class education at I think he said UC Berkeley it was a UC school. Um for an affordable amount. He you know he was able to pay for it with with With a lower middle class of funds as so many people in California have been able to do and now it seems like that is is no longer our ethos. We no longer are investing in our own fellow citizens in that way the way that we used to. Why is that? You're completely right. That has been a major major shift. I mean for instance. Today the University of California Los Angeles gets seven percent of its funding from the state of California. And Wow so it is a public university in name. Only really yes so I that's just an illustration of where we've landed. And where's the rest of its. Where's the rest of? It's fun and coming from. It is a private donations tuition. You obviously need to the whole pie chart. Yeah it's basically philanthropy intuition. So so what. What we've seen is up for decades states across the country has been cutting and cutting and cutting and cutting higher education budgets? Let's now where our colleges and university is going to get the money to deliver the education. There are committed to from students and and from philanthropy. If they're the kind of school that can attract philanthropy and has wealthy graduates. You know luckily. UCLA A is one of those schools UC. Berkeley is also one of those schools. Another way that schools have Have come mop with funds is to attract out of state and out of country students who are paying very high tuition rates but this then squeezes says the seats that are available for in state students or it dilutes the student population at means that The the faculty are serving more and more students. So you're there. There is a real consequences to changing the way that that we pay for college and when we this is not necessarily how it had to go and that's changed the way that we think about college to write what the more the cost lost has been pushed onto the students. The more we see this as like as you said a private service that the students are buying for their benefit like one thing that strikes me is anyone who's followed my work knows that I've railed against NCWA for not paying athletes. That you know I honestly I find it I was just watching and NCW game with my dad over the Thanksgiving break. And I'm like these people are. I'm an entertainer I'm on TV. People are selling ads next to my face. I expect to get paid. These folks are doing the exact same thing. We're spending Thanksgiving spending two hours watching this game. We're watching Carl's junior ads in between. Why aren't the people providing the service that we came here to watch getting paid very basic right and what people say? The first thing they always say is well. They're getting a free education. That's what they get. They get a free education now first of all if you compare that to. What school are they going to right because if they're going to you know cal state versus Harvard? Then they're receiving a very different amount of money but but be. That didn't used to be something that we saw as what is what is included in the premise of that question included in. It is the idea that going going to college is a luxury good. That is supposed to be expensive. And you either need to be rich or you need to get like basically you need to accept it in lieu of wages wages. Where like that's a new idea like? We didn't use to think about education that way used to be something that no everyone should have access to. That was like good good for us and we're going to a public library or a public high school. We're going to like make something no one ever. No one ever says that about a high school player right about like why are like oh well. They're we're getting a free education. No because we expect that people get that education. So that's right. It's really changed our our psychic like orientation towards what this thing is in a way that and in other ways as well so when students have to take on tens of thousands of dollars Dodd Dad to attend college it also reorients how they think about their education while they're going through it so from my perspective as an educator. Are Those college years should be about experimentation. Yeah they should be about figuring out what you're good at what you like. You know who you want to participate in the world with and how you'RE GONNA change the world year to to make it closer to your vision when students come in with a heavy load of debt. Then what they see in their minds is whether or not this education is going to allow them to pay back debt. Then you have people coming into my office saying well. I would love to to major in anthropology but a business degree is going to allow me to pay down my dad right. I would love to think about history but I have two major economics because it's practical. So the pressure of the dut debt starts changing a calculus four students when they walk in the college door but it even works on families families before that to how does it work families for families that have the intention of sending their kid to college. They sometimes sometimes start thinking about the cost in the days after a kid is born so be it is one of the earliest weights that parents feel and it is a kind of goal that is eighteen years out now. There are many messages that that parents get about college particularly middleclass parents who are Presumed to be able to pay some of this enormous cost that we've been talking about Those parents who have jobs like teachers and nurses and social workers and career military people. These these people have to start figuring out how to both save money because that's what they're being told they have to do. Save money for the tons of thousand dollars. I'll have have to spend and then also to spend money on preparing their kid to a ready for college. Spend money on crazy things like a house house in a decent school district where their kid can get the best education that they can that they can afford and so they end up looking at it entirely economically though so they they the parents as well look at the education as okay. This is something that we are sinking money into and the kids kids are like this is I'm taking on debt for therefore this education must have economic output otherwise we've all wasted money or burdened ourselves dead. I mean that's not you know if you're in that situation you're not entirely wrong to say okay. I need to make a fucking salary or not going to be able to pay off this alone. So why shouldn't we think about education in that in those economic terms. What's lost when we do that? Well one thing that I found around doing the interviews with parents and students for indebted without they do think about the economics of it very carefully but there is this very clear other side to the issue which is that parents and students alike. Want those college college years to be about students. Finding their talents and skills so my focus on the importance of education and for developing talents and skills and for for bringing them to their communities. That is something that I got from the parents and students I. It was actually more concern on the economics side of it Before I did these interviews but it but it was parents students who really show to me that they wanted more than anything for these young adults to be able to figure out who they wanted to be in how they wanted to contribute and to not think so much About the finances. In fact many families would mask how much they were paying from the students because because they didn't want the students to be in college thinking about how much murder on their education was putting on their parents. Wow but I'm sure there are some folks who say though if you know if if your credit criticism is that this `financialisation pushes bushes kids towards economics degrees or business degrees or maybe law school. Although that's even more debt but maybe it pays off even more right Well some might say well. Those are the jobs that society needs done. The most. That's why they make so much money. Right it's supply in demand. There's more demand unless apply for these jobs and we need more economists and more NBA more lawyers. That's why they're paid more. So therefore a system that incentivizes kids take. Those jobs is doing its job right. That would be the very imagine a blunt economic view of it. What would be your answer to it? Well well I would say that for some kids. They would find that that is what they wanted to do. But again I would go back to teachers. One of the bedrock doc. Middle class middle class occupations have that does not pay particularly well. Teachers across the country are facing facing can not only constraint salaries but eroded it doesn't just not Paper daily well. It pays badly I was I was underplaying. It pays very badly given the level of training and the level of significance. Yeah how important it is. Tara live every single person in America. I think agrees raise. Teachers are very important right right so I don't know why we would take students. Who might be interested in becoming teachers and shuffle them off? off-tour business to me doesn't make sense. But for instance one of my one of my students who really brought this issue to me. Most Oh strongly was a was a young woman who was really interested in in politics and getting involved in our community and in organizing and who because of her dad ended up taking a job helping companies outsource I employment beyond the boundaries of the United States. Yeah she came to my office in tears and I was completely shocked. She was about to graduate and I thought that she was going off into the world. That would welcome her with open arms and there. She was crying on my doorstep because she'd been offered this high paying job that was going to allow her to pay down her debt but which was also going to undermine exactly what she wanted to do at her. Her family particularly her mother had had really rallied to try to make her education impossible so that she wouldn't have to face those constraints yeah They like the her family didn't want her job either. That or that wasn't the sort the future that they wanted for her. That was not the future that they wanted for her at all and that was not the future that she wanted for herself and more than anything. What they wanted was for her to you? be able to discover her talents to use them which is I think? That's what most people want their kids when they send them to college. Let me some not that shocking shocking parents. Some parents are like you're going to be the doctor like we. I you know. I went to school with kids. who had parents like that and that was a struggle for them but that's that's not really the the majority it's not necessarily the majority at at all but once we pile onto these young adults lives it shifts the kinds of decisions that they feel like they can make I mean we know Princeton's that young adults who have college debt delay marriage delay buying a home and make other kinds of big decisions in relation to whether or not they're going to be able to do it alongside paying off there. I mean it's one of those things that it seems utterly commonsensical but we need kind of reams teams of reserve report data to confirm what we should already know. Yeah I mean just thinking about the ways that that amount a student at I I know folks who are struggling with debt. You know. I'm I'm thirty six. I have friends who are my age and still have six figures gears of student debt in some cases and the way that that affects all of your choices in your life in ways. That are not optimal Komo right. Even if you're looking at it through a narrow economic lens right you end up making choices that don't maximize your productivity or your desires in the world or or that fulfil what you think of as a good life because you've got this albatross on your back Yeah have you. Have you seen that as well as that in your book as well. Well so but that is absolutely true. I mean there's no question that data is an albatross that young adults carry into their lives. Chiefs my concern and indebted is really about the years that lead up to the college decision because I felt like that. What was the time of life that was covered less? We we know in some ways about the Albatross that young adults have to carry and and what that does to them although sometimes we have to kind of restate it over and over to get ourselves to believe that but But it was these. These years is leading up to the college decision that I wanted to focus on more So for instance families have to deal with the pressures of this college costs from from very early on but it also extends this dependence on each other for for years afterwards. So this is a key condition that I call it mashed autonomy and it's kind of ironic because what college is opposed to do is to give of young adults independence. It's supposed to help help them figure out what they WANNA do how they want to shape their lives and give them the ability to go off and do that take their own path but when it costs not only them so much but also their families so much. What that means is that They're enmeshed with their families for many many many many years after a word. So so for instance now in their twenties There are more more young adults taking money from their parents from ever before that ever before. And that's on top up of the payments that those families will have made to get them to college and living with their parents. That's a trend. We all know about that. More and more young adults are having into after college. Move back in with their parents So yeah so they become basically it continues that dependency relationship relationship for For a long time as though. Is that the argument. Yeah that's that's that's definitely one of the arguments and it actually pushes off the biggest best potential problem too because parents themselves are spending so much money on college educations nations that are redirecting money that could be used to secure their own retirements now. Why why it is an entirely different financial crisis the retirement crisis That is coming Because of all the boomers are getting very old and don't have any money WHO ARE GONNA be living off of a combination of Medicare Medicaid and social security? But it's it's not enough to have the life that most people would want And and Yeah that's an entirely different issue that this is exacerbating. You're saying exactly exactly it's very much playing into it. I would actually even say hey. It's the same issue That that the parents who have to direct so much money to supporting their children her and and do it at the cost of their own future security Going to be part of this retirement crisis as we as we call it but again I feel like it's a shock that we shouldn't be so surprised about in the first place that parents want to support their children. I Yeah Yeah you talk about this idea in the book on Social Speculation Can you tell me about that. That's that's sort of enmeshed with the social mobility That's what we've counted on on colleges to do is provide social mobility. But Yeah you've there's this related concept you've introduced. Yeah so social. Speculation is the idea that parents parents and students have to commit money now for an uncertain future now. That is a really different kind of idea that then social mobility or or something that you know feminist scholars have called social reproduction. Like the idea that you can be pretty much flake your parents were. And what we've seen is that is become actually more and more difficult for people to be you like their parents were and that college is essential and even trying so in order to take a shot at either getting to the top of our incredibly unequal society or even to remain in the middle to tread water just to tread water. People have to put money down now in order to take their shot. Yeah and we've seen that over the past couple generations. I believe I don't remember an exact statistic but that you know the the young people now are one of the first generations that is Not doing better than their parents. That social mobility is working backwards. And that's new and bad yes it is. Invalid wasn't clear as bad but it is also very very particular alerts so if you are a middle class parents and you WANNA raise a middle class kid not only is your job job and your life probably more precarious than your parents. You might make a similar kind of income that they do but there are things like healthcare care and education that will simply cost way more than anything parents ever had to pay so that results in a kind of precarity four for the middle class that we have to think of as the kind of baseline from which they then also have to pay for their children's college education for for trying to allow their kids to have opportunities. So yeah just to give you just to take that example personalized a little bit like my grandfather was in World War Two And really reaped all the benefits that that we've talked about My mother Is He is he's got a PhD etcetera a middle class life but the costs that she has to pay like college like like retirement like healthcare are so much higher than my grandfather had to deal with that even if she's able to prosper and exactly the same way or have the exactly the same the amount of income the costs have gone up so much that That that we've still backslid in a way right and for and how are they going to be for me. Parents who might be your age. That's going to be another enormous break. I I mean that's what I found in my interviews with. Parents are indebted that they oftentimes were really taken aback by. Hi How much college was going to cost they were. They found themselves really kind of shocked by it because their own experience had been so very different. Yeah well everything you've been saying puts me in mind of a question that I've been struggling with myself about my own life my own history. My own college experience That I would really love to put to you. But let's take a quick break. I give it to you after the break is right now I gotta read some ads so right back with more CAITLYN's Aloom all right. We're back with CAITLYN's aloom talking about college college debt. So here's the here's the question that that I've been having. I went to my fifteen year college reunion earlier. This year. I went to a really wonderful school called Bard College Private College one of the most host expensive in the country. But I had the experience that when you've been talking about here's what we would like our students to have like. That's the experience experience that I had. You know my I was so thankfully able to graduate with no death because my folks. My Dad's a college professor. They saved up like the exact amount that that they needed. took out some mid sized loans. But you know it was only in my thirties. I started realize how much they lived beneath their means in order to save this amount for me and my sister to be able to go and so I was able to. You know while I was there not have that pressure on me of Oh I have to figure out what my career is going to be. I can explore you L. and I remember having the experience of you know the first year trying to choose my classes and they had this really crazy ass system hardware like instead of like signing up online all the professors behind tables and you had to run to the table to like sign up for the class and people like make lines and stuff like it was it was like black black Friday of signing up for classes. It was really weird. I hope they don't do it that way anymore. But in any case so so I missed a couple classes. I WANNA take a in a panic. It was like sign up was ending. I ended up. I was like I'll take a philosophy class right and I fell in love with that philosophy class. I fell in love with the discipline and I was like. Wow I just WANNA learn everything and I can about this. And that's what I ended up spending the rest of my college career studying and that. Hey that sounds like oh you know it sounds useless. Sounds like a poetry degree or not that poacher culture. Degree is useless but it sounds like the Ark Typical you know airy liberal arts education but really that led me to doing comedy right that Comedy is so similar to philosophy in that euros asking. Why Euros undermining what you think you know? You're rose asking why or why do we do things this way. You're always looking for the ideas that underpin our actions and so that ability to explore blur is what led me to the career that I have And that was so so formative to me so when I was there for my reunion I was walking around the campus going. Wow Wow this is. This was so incredible to be here. What incredible experience I had and the question that came to my mind was what was this? Experience was this something that you know because I was there with of another friend of mine. Who's a college teacher now? She's a college professor at a at a smaller school. And she said man at this. That's not what it's like for my students. My students aren't having the experience that we did going to this school. And that made me ask well. This experience that we had was this the educational educational equivalent of a first class seat. Right of First Class seat is really nice when you sit in a first class seat on a plane you wow. This is so super sweet. Everyone everyone should get to fly like this but the fact is they can't because the first class seat exists because the first class exists. Everybody in the back is more cramped and is is more jammed in you know and as an has worse access to everything etc the first class seat actually make stuff worse for everybody else and ideally we should get rid of the first class seats and just make sure everybody has enough room. You know what I mean. So was this education like Obviously I was lucky and privileged to have it and I can go to my reunion and wish God I wish everyone could have that experience But is that an experience that that we can provide to everybody In Education Asian system is that a pipe dream or or not. Oh we're really lucky in the United States to have a lot of different kinds of colleges and universities cities I mean Bard is definitely one kind of campus based here Really intensive liberal arts experience. AGREEANCE that is amazing informative obviously but there are many many different kinds of college education. Or now what you're talking about in terms of Learning how to think learning how to question learning how to take part in idea yeah and also to consider like why do we do things this way and how might we do them better. That's not a Bart education that's just education right and it is something that is absolutely available to everyone. It should be available in all classrooms everywhere everywhere and it's not a luxury to be able to ask those kinds of questions in fact it should not be a look it right right sorry. It should not be a luxury to have space and time to not only ask those questions but to understand Dan that confronting how we do things today and questioning how he might do them differently and better is part of what it means to be a participant in our democracy and that is a part of an educational philosophy that goes all the way back to the Early Twentieth Twentieth Century that is a foundational idea about what higher education is in this country. John Dewey taught us yes those lessons in the progressive era right and we had them out in fulfilled them to a large extent. Yeah and so. And and we and and that has been a continuous part of what educators and students have been committed to together as a project. Now it was. It really wasn't until this kind of idea. A A very specialized idea of education. I'm came came in with With with the Cold War and the need for kind of more scientists and engineers on the one hand and then in the eighties when we started to say education occasion isn't really about this questioning thing. Education really is a private benefit that we can measure in income that we kind of sideline that lesson about the importance of Higher Education for democracy and also the lesson that hi education is a public good provides a it it provides the materials that people use out in their communities to help build communities. It's it isn't something that is that you know we only take home to our little suburban house and use it to generate dollars. I yeah that actually really helps me answer my question because because it's as though like you know the the the sort of rarefied ride experience that I had right. Obviously not everyone can go to the very same school that I did. And obviously we can't just create a lot more schools like that I think anyone who works at Bard would tell view the president would tell you this sort of education should be available to everyone. It's a little bit like a country club right like if you go to a country club that is very expensive to get into. You gotta be really rich to go to the country club and say well am is so privilege that I have access to an open space with a with trees and clean air. you know. We can't let everybody in the country club and not everyone can be rich. So what's going on here like no. Everyone should have access to that space. We should have parks. We should have public parks right. That's something we all agree that we should have. And that doesn't mean country club can exist necessarily To as long as it's not to the exclusion of of public goods as well but you're saying that component of it is something that you know. The component of the education itself really is something that Sh- can and it should be a public benefit and has been it has been in American history and it is only in recent years that it has become not that that's right and it absolutely has been a part of American history and even continues to be and I think it's so important to recognize all all of the ways in which educators parents and students together commit themselves to this project every single day and in their classrooms. I mean I'm here in New York City and this happens at the City University of New York at the at City College at Brooklyn College at one in places where I had one of my first jobs borough of Manhattan Community College. These are all places where where students. And and and teachers together work to create environments where where they question the status quo where they take apart philosophy and and learn to think about concepts and new ways to to think about how we can do things differently. It is it. The the issue isn't that we've completely changed. My education exists or even that there is a commitment to it. I really saw how committed parents students are to to education For for indebted. The issue is that now in order to get that education and we have saddled people with tens of thousands of dollars in debt and this incredibly high costs that their parents have to pay so that they they now have to think. Almost I about how they're going to pay back the loans that they that they've taken out rather than to exercise all of these new muscles that they've built through their education here so I'm sorry I didn't mean to overstate it. It's not that that that educational culture and commitment is extinct in America. It's just that the structural we've added the these structural burden that gets in the way of many many people experiencing I was so I was so fortunate and privileged as to not have that barrier between me the education and to not have that burden placed on me but it is being placed on so many people in America today and it should not be it should it should not be. So what's right. What are the what can we do to make sure that it isn't what? What should we be changing in order to make sure that the education that we all that I had that I want so many other people to have that people want for themselves that people want for their children that it's accessible right so the first thing that we need to do is to focus on the cost of the education? I mean as far far as I'm concerned. Tuition public colleges and universities should be free. It should be free for all four years and it should be free for People whose families make twenty five thousand thousand dollars and it should be free for people whose families make two hundred and fifty thousand dollars is I believe that it is a public good. We should think about college. Education turn as an extension of the public education system that we all agreed should exist in K.. Through twelve and we we should think now about K.. Through sixteen right like education that is such a good way to put it just call Occa- through sixteen like everyone understands. We've we've we've built an economy where you need more than the twelve in order to prosper and honestly there we we end up with better educated gated citizens with better voters with with With better communities when we do that sixteen so let's just extend it and he had this idea that this is the is the most L. Ever Wade into contemporary politics on this. Show the idea that like oh we should not make that available to everyone that that It's going to be a problem if if rich people are able to benefit from it that is so that is not the essence of a public. Good we don't say like hold on a second. You can only go to central park if you don't have a backyard you know could we. Don't we don't test it that way. Because the point is a public good is for everyone and that is one of the ways that I can buy books. This is still go to the library because I get a lot of benefit from the library because then I'm with other people and because I'm introduced to books I wouldn't encounter otherwise and because they have programs like It it it it a good that benefits. Everyone is better than a good that only benefits a few and it safer from being destroyed by political critical interests that want to destroy it. Exactly are you know the other alternative would be to set up little boos at the entry to public parks and say. Excuse me uh-huh I need a copy of your tax return right exactly thank you. That was a really good heightening of my joke. You're you you should consider a career in comedy writing Yeah I I absolutely agree with that but let let me ask you a question about the cost of tuition. Like how much should should we be blaming the schools themselves because a lot of these schools will tell you and I've spoken to folks from my own school saying hey the cost of the school has doubled doubled yet. You say the administration of the school that you are committed to reducing the cost of education yet the sticker prices doubled right and one of the things. They'll tell you as well. That's it's just the sticker price right. We discount it. We have aid. We have benefits. That's just that is just the starting. Now that's kind of weird because what if you don't qualify in your end up you know if you're a middle class person you end up getting stuck with that higher bill but is there is is their validity to that argument and is are the people running the schools to blame or is there another source here. There there are. There are parallel developments. That have happened Bendon colleges and universities. I is the tenure track faculty has gotten squeeze and squeeze and squeeze. There are many fewer of us now than there used to be and and more and more and more students are now taught by adjunct professors now. Adjunct professors can be completely committed to their students. They can be excellent instructors but they are paid a pittance of what tenure track faculty make. They make they make money per class and they're much cheaper for universities. There's even a unionization movement among adjunct professors at some schools. I remember correct. Yes there are. There is a movement for For unionization among adjuncts and I think that makes a lot of sense at the same time that that universities universities have been going toward this more precarious teaching labor the administrative tier and universities. The kind of highly paid sort of executive level. People have created more and more and more positions that are filled with others like themselves selves. So so while the teaching staff is getting paid worse The the administrators are getting paid more and there are more of them. Is that though. I mean. That's a bad trend but when we're talking about a how much tuition has gone up. It still seems to boggle the mind again my school more than doubled since I graduated in in two thousand and four which is not that fifteen fifteen years ago right now the number of staff has doubled the cost of keeping. They haven't they haven't built that many new buildings. You know what I mean. The cost of heating the buildings hasn't doubled like you know I went to the reunion. I'm like nothing around your looks twice as expensive as it did in two thousand four. And you know I'm sure. Hey Uh let's let's say. They doubled their administrative staff. Well that's not a doubling of tuition either. So what is driving this cost going. I mean what else has doubled in fifteen eighteen years in American society. Almost nothing. What is driving it Well I mean there are a lot of different. There are a lot of different inputs into this into the shirt. Do but the reason that I went to the expansion of Of Administrations as because Labor is almost always the most expensive ticket get. There are other issues. Like the fact that colleges and universities feel the need to compete with each other for ratings and Dan and for attracting high paying students and that pushes toward fancier gyms is and and all that kind of thing and and that's a that is also a real concern there must must also be a a a lack of federal investment as well and state investment. That's causing as you said earlier Probably answers my question as well. The the pushing pushing the burden onto the students when it used to be covered by Our tax dollars instead right. I mean public colleges and universities When they feel the need to compete for out of state students and out of country students who are going to pay high tuition they need to have facilities that will? Oh you know match that that that kind of population So it isn't only confined to you know fancy schools that are like small liberal arts colleges When the when the model for funding the University depends on high paying students than you get into that game for sure okay. Well we're we're getting close to the end here. I WanNa make sure I touch on a couple more points. You wrote a really fascinating piece recently. About how stem education is overrated. was that was your That was the headline at any race. And I found that really fascinating because you hear so much. Oh stem stem stem. We gotta get kids. Started on stem. We gotta get girls started on stem We've we've got a steam. Sometimes they extended to steam in order. That aren't as well but walk us through that. Why do you feel stem education as overrated? Right Yeah that that headline gave all my astronomer friends fan. Tom I am. Of course. A complete proponent of science and math and engineering I think that we should have all of those things yes side. I believe that the focus on stem education is part of a political game that we also have to understand as such when we hear about stem education. Shen what it usually means is that we need students to train themselves for the jobs that Corporate America currently has right and they're plenty of students who are going to want to go study the Big Bang and the formation of planets and God bless them. That's fine but but what concerns me. Is that the education be reduced to serving corporate interests And now this is also a very long standing debate in the United States. I mean going back all the way again to the progressive era and John Dewey. This was something that he was writing about in the early twentieth century. You know he said you know. I don't want education to be. You can find to serving the industries of the time I mean he. He made statements that sound completely applicable to today today And even on its own merits. If you train people for the jobs of today those jobs may or may not be there and another rive ten years. Those are the kinds of jobs that are currently being targeted targeted for elimination and replacement by artificial intelligence. Right I mean just just having a more even talking about the the Hatfield. When I was in college? You know computer science was the field that Oh if you wanna a computer science will get a job right away right. But when we're talking about a is that can write their own code or Cetera like that's a that's a skill. The old can be really really replaceable. And also you know I took some computer science. Everything I learned in the specific computer science classes I took DOC is no longer applicable forms of coding right. I could not get a job with the. PHP and Java script skills that I would have gotten in those years. Now hopefully I would have also gotten some general purpose computer science That would have you know enabled me to continue with the Times. I'm sure many people have but like your point is well taken that that narrow technical Nicole Education is is is pretty limited if you only know how to repair a certain brand of air conditioner when that when that company he goes out of business or when we're all using different forms of climate control because climate change is here You're you're going to need to be retrained. But is the argument Thatta more general education that teaches you how to think how to think nimbly how to pick up new skills how to make your way in the world how to think in complex ways is is going to serve you better and serve us better as a public good absolutely and to be able to take that education and contribute back into the process that you work on so I am. I'm for technical education. But I want those technical educations to also A. B. Within systems that allow you know refrigerator repair people to figure out what's a better machine right. Not just whether or not they can fix this whirlpool in front of right. That's the value of a in some places called a liberal arts education. That if as you're learning to your age back repair you're also learning some math. You're listening to some engineering. You're learning perhaps how to you're doing some creative writing writing because writing is a general skill that will benefit anyone in their lives You're getting all of these other. You're being elevated Mentally Salihi and all these different ways that's going to serve you better than just that narrow focus that's right and it does require a kind of broader vision too because does the the kinds of companies that were then hire those people would have to be open to hearing their input and to actually helping them participate and that is a giving up control. That many companies don't want want to do which is why when we start talking about education it's so quickly becomes as bigger political issue because if all education is four is for this kind of narrow job that someone might give you tomorrow than than we've really reduced what education is for and how people can participate and we've limited the horizons of what participation means to simply doing a job job in in front of you instead of becoming part of the process of creating and reimagining what corporate corporate life might be like. Yeah I mean it doesn't prepare you to come up with a new job for you to come up with new ideas or to innovate evade or to analyze or to to be a critic of the of the systems and it just it only trains you to to do a better version of of sorting widgets for For a big machine in a way whereas what we want is people who are empowered to look at the machine and say hey. Maybe we should do this differently. Maybe we structure society differently. Maybe we could make changes that would benefit anyone. That's the promise of a real education. Yes at Minimum Emma. How might we make a better widget? Well so let's let's return at the end of this too talking about what a better future or a better education system might look like you've already said that public college should be free and I agree wholeheartedly with that or I'm in in favor of any policy that increases access and reduces costs for education of any kind absolutely on board with that being our you know with public education in as good in that way. What are other programs? We might pursue. That'll that'll help. Make that reality. And how will it benefit our society to do also to increase access and to reduce those burdens. How and individuals how will benefit Individuals as well so many beneficiaries. Yeah I really I really loaded up this last question. I'm sorry well one thing that I am very concerned with is that students have to work so so many hours at the same time that they're taking classes now I am Very happy to have students working. I think that it benefits them in all sorts of ways as Both educationally and in terms of building their careers but when students are working twenty hours a week and more in order order to make ends meet while they're in school. It is a clash with their ability to get the classwork done. Then they're also also committed to So one thing that I think is really important is to have a loan system. Bat students can go to to support art themselves while they're in college so that they don't have to work so many hours and that means having a loan system on reasonable non and punishing terms. Because even if you have a free tuition you have plenty of other costs that are going to come up during during college and you have to be able to cover those at the same time that you're focusing on your education right. We could have a so. So you're talking about loans for like incidental expenses like for for living expenses beyond it tuition cost of yeah cost of living and you make a good point that like we could have loan. We structure these loans in such a way that they're easier to pay back and that they're less punitive like we've kind of done for mortgages we've we we have a terrific system. I mean you know housing crisis a whole other issue right but you know. We've got the mortgage interest deduction we've got these various federal agencies agencies that work to make sure that mortgages are accessible. That's a value that we've had. It's not something we've had for student loans in the same way. Even though education nation is as big a public good as housing. Yes one of the issues in fact that we should think about out is how mortgages and student loans are actually often part of the same thing for families that families buy buy houses not only to get a roof over their head but to get their kids and education in a school district so mortgages are education loans. uh-huh student loans are education loans. We're paying education that across decade Iran. And just the Oh my God the way. Hey that you have just illuminated the fact that yeah people are taking on mortgages in order to go to a specific school because what school you go to is determined by where you we live in terms of our primary education which is the most bizarre distorted system. Possible that we literally pay for schools with property taxes axes and not with any other form of tax so that it's rich areas have better. Schools is so bizarre the worst system. If you had to come up with one that you possibly could. Yeah it's a very it's it's a system that puts enormous stress on families because of course families want to buy into the school district or to rent in school districts that are higher cost that stretch what they can afford because those school districts are often times better than the ones that have A lower tax based to draw on that kind of fundamental me a reality. Study of what. I've what raising children in the United States is like today but in terms of the college education Loans you know we do also have a completely weird system for instance the the standard repayment schedule wall for student loans is during the first ten years after college graduation that is the most vulnerable decade of any adults. Also Life Right. Why is that that that is the standard repayment block? Yeah now you can get into other programs But then they have. They've proven to be extremely difficult and also punishing like the Public Public Service. Loan forgiveness program which teachers should be easily eligible for as obvious public servants but right which is That program is now being sued by the American Federation of Teachers for denying to public service. Loan forgiveness Oh two do teachers who have been in their jobs for years and years. Wow there's also income based repayment options but those things have to be certified and recertified and And and the issue of how much interest you're going to have to pay or when on and it's also extremely complicated. What we need is a simple and clear system where people can understand what they're going to have to pay make it it over many many more years establish a threshold where people who make less than say thirty thousand dollars don't don't have to start paying his only when you cross that threshold? That repayment begins. Yeah I mean look here here in Hollywood right in my industry. There's there's so many entry level jobs that pay absolutely nothing that pay minimum way try There's currently a labor movement among Hollywood assistance called Hashtag pay up Hollywood. Would which is really incredible because these jobs you know these are some of the most intensive jobs in the industry. These people are working. You know eighteen hour days but They're being paid you ten dollars an hour that sort of thing and the and what they're told is well. You're making that little money because these jobs will lead you to make a lot of money later right you'll become a big time. I may agent. You'll become a big time producer and then you'll get the big house so you'll get the big salary now if that's true right as a if we take that promise at face value which is is a another issue right but a lot of industries work that way in comedy. I do open mics for ten years before I ever got paid right I Etcetera lots of industries work that way entry level doesn't pay well. Well then. Yeah delay when people have to pay their student loans because the fact is that Those folks who are making in that low wage while they're running to get coffee are also paying loans back There this is the time at which the loans are coming in the most full force so it only makes sense to say. Hey let's let's delayed a little bit in that way right. And of course I mean what you're describing only reinforces on equal access to those jobs in the full. Yes looking because look forward to make ten dollars an hour while they're paying their student loans. Oh and also live in Los Angeles. It's it's people people whose families have enough money to help support them during those really crucial years building a career. So if we I I think that that making for instance like Hollywood more diverse as a goal than changing those structures is actually really really important. Absolutely well so again. What are the benefits to society? If we remove these barriers right I just WanNa know what is your what is your utopia look like right like like what is your. What is your pitch to you? Know you can go talk to You go talk to anyone running for president And you can say hey look institute these programs I told you about and let me tell you how great it's going to be like wha- why you're going to get reelected whatever well I mean. There's a reason that young people really care about this issue and is that right now the education that should be giving them freedom that should be enabling their independence. Candi- is the thing that fetters their development now so my utopia is pretty simple. It's that young people should be the free to figure out what they WANNA do. And to go out into the world and and find the job that they want figure out how they want to participate in their communities. And do it without having to worry about paying back exorbitant loans. I think that that enabling young people to to experiment and to figure out who they are both individually and then also together with each other that that's how we're going to move the country forward it is also true that when people feel like they are being invested in that they have more our inclination to participate in Civic Life Like for instance the Gi Bill. That that your grandfather participated and When the guy came back from the war and of course this is really for mostly male white? She is when those is is came back from the war they got education. They got access to inexpensive home. They got the tools that they needed head to launch themselves forward into the into the middle class and that was together kind of partnership partnership with their government with the government that they had served in the war and those g is generation also had incredible levels calls of civic participation. You know they joined clubs. They worked in schools. They really saw themselves as part of our democracy and I think that is incredibly important. Yeah and if we are able to invest in our fellow citizens in that same way or in other folks living in this country I don't want to just say I don't want to just limited to citizens I wanna you know. Fellow members are a society Then they'll be inclined to to Repay the favor. And that's that's part of what a strong society is is people who feel that way about each other and feel that they have a collective goal investment investment in each other. That's right they're paying it forward. Yeah well I thank you so much for coming on to share that vision with us into and to tell us all these incredible stories. Thank you so much much thanks. It's been fun. Well thank you once again to Caitlyn's Aloom for coming on the show. Her book once again again is indebted. I hope you pick it up and that is it for us this week on. Factually I wanNA thank our researchers. Sam Rodman our producer. Dana wiccans our engineer Brett Ed Morris Andrew W K for our theme song. You can follow me on twitter at Adam Khan over you can sign up for my mailing lists at kind of dot net and until next week. We'll see on factually. Thank you so much for listening.
No Spin News, December 17, 2019
"Welcome to the no Spin News. Tuesday December seventeenth two thousand nineteen fight for your freedom when we from today. Christmas e I came came up fast Li thanksgiving this year. I'm ever pretty good season Pretty good Christmas Hannukah season things under control except for holly the Tara Dog who's sick all night. I'm going to be run outside every two minutes with her as well. veglio bleary eyed. That's why but I've I've been thinking about the country and I'm not so optimistic about America right now. So today is the seventy fifth anniversary of the battle of the bowl role. Which is what most vicious battles ever fought on the planet? And if you WANNA know more about it my book. Killing Patent goes into great detail on it but but the signature point. I took away from the battle of the Bulge in my message of the day which she had posted back. Then Americans were for united against Hitler against Tokyo and Japan and we were under threat and we had to fight for our freedom they say at the beginning of the broadcast five freedom and Americans ninety percent of us were really in a place where we cooperate with each other respected descent. I wasn't this craziness. We have now so in my message of the day. I cite the fact that even though it was deprivation during World War Two and people are gonNA have a lot everybody's sacrificing. My father was a naval officer my mother was back in New Jersey. Dewey she could for the cause and that was pretty much what everybody was doing now. It's Sir we are descending tribalism and you're not gonNA get much repechage on this but when you go into tribalism able ism that means each group believes itself superior to the other group and is fighting the other group MM tribes historically sometimes they have detente and get along but wasn't time they fight over. Whatever may be territory food you half would have you? So we're descending into the tribalism now impeachment is on display this week once again tomorrow. Vote in the house. And and plus he's got got the votes so and Vassar Senate where the Republicans will shred it and now happen January tomorrow or Thursday the vote. It'll go onto to the Senate in January. Come back from Christmas break. They'll McConnell get rid of it as Willie should by the way because we need to move ahead in this country in solves problems. This is ridiculous and I'm saying that as an American not as a Republican because I'm not a Republican independent nine hundred a trump supporter. Because not not I watched them all. I vote for the best person. The best problem solver and they never say vote for but I am very distressed about how the media has conducted itself by promoting hatred. And you see it every night on television every single night and the kids picked us up you know. We reported the story of the fourteen year. Old Boy in rural Florida was beaten up because he supported Donald Trump. I mean come on so this is happening. The media is driving it in you know. Personal trump's polarizing guy. I'm going to give him a pass. And he's tweets polarizing his rallies polarizing. He feels he has to do that to defend himself. I understand but we are living in an age where Americans are at each other's throats politically. You are listening to a free excerpt from Bill O'Reilly dot com no spin news broadcasts where you can actually see he made. We'll be right back after this message. She goes state which is University of California system. This this is unbelievable. I couldn't believe it but we checked. It is true so they have a faculty a Faculty Group Faculty Chico State Faculty Association. They came out with two public states. Here's here's the first one quote. We Want Students Staff Faculty of Color as well as members of any other groups that have been targeted by white supremacist premises insults ridicule and other forms of oppression to know that C. F.. Ed She goes to eight faculty sees the harm that is afflicted when we all subjected to witness such abuse are so apparently in Chico California rural part of the state is a huge white supremacist problem on the camps. I I just don't understand. Here's worse all right. Faculty puts out this statement quote displaying banners and signs. Supporting the reelection of the sitting president can be experience variance as an act of racist provocation. That unbelievable so the Faculty Chico University of California Museum salaries being paid by taxpayers. They're basically have taken all constitutional rights away from anybody who would support president trump on the campus. Because it's a racial provocation. Of course if it's a racial actual provocation Nulla do it on Chico state it's just staggering. Where where are the board of trustees for that university where the president of the university this garbage Chico state? Remember that if you're out in California L. former anywhere else they'll send your kid their grandkids. There you are listening to a free excerpt from Bill O'Reilly Dot Com. No Spin News broadcasts. Where you you can actually see me? We'll be right back after this message. Okay Chris Traditional Americans give money Johny to where the clauses at Christmas and Hannukah Okay New Cherry CODA vets dot com code of. That's one word DOT COM. So what they do. Is they help veteran families in a variety of different ways so go to their website holiday for vets dot Com holiday for the number four events dot com. You can adopt a wounded after the holidays. I mean it's a good thing that's Kota vets dot com second on Sunday night at the understanding trump. Sean Long Island. We gave away tract here. We gave it to sergeant. Might Bernard Losing Union Beach New Jersey. All right he was severely wounded in Iraq. Lost two legs and an arm. I was on a recon mission for the Second Stryker Her Cavalry Regiment north of Saint City and bagged at. I've been there and it was just a great night. So the sergeant can now now go to the beach hunting. He's mobile detract. Share Costs fifteen thousand dollars. I've donated a few this year myself. we have given away almost three thousand track chairs over the years. Three thousand but there's waiting lists so that's independence Independence Fund Dot Org Independence Dot. Org are the charities that donate to the Haitian Health Foundation desperately poor people all Telethon Money Sean Penn.. Bill Clinton stolen made no improvement. The Haitian Health Foundation's run by the guy named Jeremiah. Lowney Connecticut fixes kids teeth. Just him and his squat. I support them responsibility. This is a charity based in San Diego that helps Mexican children who work in garbage dumps. The poorest kids in Western Hemisphere was a moment of magic. These are college students who go to hospitals. Those were the kids have cancer dressed up as Cinderella snow white all of that and they play with the children a moment of magic agic. Now I give money to the Fordham University moment of Magic Cherry and we give money various others. But I wanted to give you an idea so that if you do have some discretionary funding and you know a good gift is making a donation to a worthy charity in someone else's name. Somebody just did that to me and I was very pleased. I don't need anything I got all kinds of. There's no need presence right so anyway. There we are Christmas is coming. The geese are getting fat. Holly the terror dog jazzed. Has She will be here. Special guest on Thursday. We'll see you tomorrow Wednesday.
Chancellor of the University of California San Diego Pradeep Khosla
"Welcome to ovation a weekly conversation with people who are shaping the technology landscape. I'm Peter Hi. President of Meta Strategy Advisor Technology Technology Executives Forbes columnist book author and your host each episode of technician features insights from top executives thought leaders at the intersection of business technology and ended notation. If you like what you hear we'd be grateful that you give us a rating on itunes or through. Whatever other sources you use for podcasts? Please subscribe so you. Don't miss a thing. Thank you weakest pretty closely pretty the Eighth Chancellor of University of California San Diego a public university nearly forty thousand students and revenues roughly sleep five and a half billion dollars becoming chancellor in two thousand twelve pretty his roll down the first ever spooky to plan for the university further. He's worked to expand college college access and affordability for underserved populations and enhanced the university's relationship with the community prior to joining UCSD. Pretty was the dean of the College of Engineering Hiring and Philip and Marsha Dowd University professor at Carnegie Mellon University in this interview pretty details the strategic plan. He's lead while he cites that he founded Great University when he arrived he knew it was destined for even greater things he set out to create a vision to realize that goal. We also discuss how the University of California system schools in Iraq racked and share best practices. Why pretty preferred at eight wor strategic plan over a longer form plan why he misses being a professor and a variety of other topics chancellor appropriate to speak with you today? Thank you thank you sir. It's a pleasure so You are the East Chancellor University of California San Diego that's in the role in August guest of the two thousand twelve just for context for those were listening at University of thirty nine. Forty Thousand Sheldon's and rising Twenty thousand employees revenues roughly five and a half billion dollars six undergraduate colleges five academic divisions graduate or professional schools. A University of growing influence and I wonder if you could take a moment and described university you found seven years ago and some of the details tales of the initial strategic plan you put in place soon thereafter right so the university I found seven years ago when I got here was to begin with amazing place. It had a billion dollars. Research Portfolio a twenty twelve. It was only fifty two years old. We were born in nineteen in sixty fifty nine years old. It had more research than some of the top Ivy League schools in the country It had more national cabinet members Uh the many topless country It was about twenty five. Twenty seven thousand students thing Maybe twenty eight thousand zooms in like nearly forty thousand so it was a blaze that had intrinsic strength it was primed for greatness US united said this in many of my talks This university was destined for greatness. It did not become great. It was destined the way this was created. Ruspoli had had to be drained. And why is that because it was created forced to fall for the first couple of years as a graduate only institution and windows created created. The criterion for Hiring Faculty was Nobel laureate or National Academy member of anything less than that wouldn't cut it in we have have the DNA has just propagator child We hire people with the great care to quality I know many any departments would leave. The line's open. If they don't find the right person the right quality and they were not finished for the sake of filling it and I just don't take these lines back act. Just because he didn't fit the repatriates. I think which recycled here. It's really interesting. So Quentin ambitious beginning and an end the dishes in terms of the kinds of the caliber of professors that the organization brought in. I would imagine that any university would love to have that and you've got some some Just before where we start rolling Taking a look gorgeous campus that you have here right on the Pacific Ocean. You've got some good structural things that others can't replicate I suppose. But what what's it whereas I would imagine as I say the university's mission to hire only Nobel laureates or were at the top of their fields. What is it about this university? That's been able to realize condition so I think initially this university game out of a scripts institution of which now griffey which is like if not the top the top due to an certainly the oldest ranked Graphic Institute in the country Director Roger Revile who was the visionary behind the creation of displays. I wanted an academic institution because scripts which not Griffey was primarily. A research institute is like. Sri So he wanted something like a caltech behind it These that's where the story goes into. It was created with that vision in mind so that was a sense of quality that somebody had in mind Mike when this was created a moment to go to the fact that not long after you ride you put together the first ever strategic playmate I keep talking about some of the substance of that right so when I got here like I said this is a great place But it was obvious to me that it was destined for bigger greatness In what I thought was already a very strong platform that we arrived at without any planning it was not clear to me the whereas all the world around me at that time that we could keep on going without planning An end up in the right place so my idea of creating a strategic plan had several components to it one was to provide guiding rails. So that the property of ending of the right place was higher that that if it was a random walk secondly I thought if we could villa plan which people could buy into. They will be energized. More they were they were already energize enough. But in I was gonNA write because the more they got energize. The more focused on doing the right things Anson Anson Last seven years a research has gone from nearly nine fifty million to one point four billion. So we've added more than research in seven years that most students have as their total research budget right and this is no work work. There's nothing I did anything about this. This is all the faculty hiring great people. Great people working hard in writing programs and really projecting a great vision So the whole strategic planning process so the third part of this process was for me to open a window where I could create a very very safe space for people to talk about their dreams or aspirations there's deductions there you know. What are the unhappiness? I could see in this window in about ninety days. I had knowledge were ten years working out here but I held it against. That's nobody I just learned Then I forgot who said what but I just remember the facts that happened to be true right and that has given me I think personally a a great ability to navigate this complex California Public University landscape it also. Uc San Diego as a campus Your role is chancellor. You have the ability to influence end end the part of an ecosystem that has influenced instead. It is really multi headed you mentioned the University of California system arguably the greatest stuff up set Ably Yeah Yeah I forgive to me at all right and of course you have the renowned faculty Russian you have the students you also have a wide ecosystem of donors owners of one of the reasons. Why this institution has done so incredibly well in terms of fundraising and I wonder how do you think about each of those constituent groups in how to divide your time Spending time each of them so first of all anything in everything I do including this interview to me is propagating the message passage of the intrinsic strength in the greatness of this place that's auto and I do it shamelessly Greek prime and once you do that and it is supported by facts and it's supported by a passion of people around you it becomes true and when people perceive it to be true. They WANNA support you because everybody wants to bet on a winning horse And I think It would. We had not done talk about why we were winning all the time. We just assumed that was a case where it was but the world is not that way. So that's amazing. And it sounds seems as though there's really a virtuous cycle that's been enacted here. You talked about the remarkable research and faculty that date back to the arrestees founding We've already talked about the one point. Three five billion dollars e sponsored research as I understand that the seven worldwide for public universities. You must super proud You also second only to UCLA in terms of number of applicants and so in the country in the entire country right United States. In so as I say this virtuous cycle that seems to be spinning round and round right improving with each turn each of those impacting the other to imagine yet there is. I think there are many reasons for the cycle of but I think I may want him inject one point which I think is kind of responsible a little bit too immediate the scientific plan most institutions Van It's like a forty page document. They might make a twenty pages but nonetheless. It's multi attends pages just document it is goals ABCD And some of these goals might be aspirational but nonetheless. The goals like we would be a number of top five in the next ten years or something like that. When we did this plan I decided less was more so the plan was gonNA be more a framework in not a twenty thirty forty base document And the plan was condensed into eight. Words student centered Research focused service-oriented of the university. And the interesting was that everybody who came to work read these. He's eight words. They decided what they meant. The words meant to them in their job and they did the right thing that day that month that year and there there was no top down mandate of students centered means You gotTA manage a fifty every year or interact with forty sorts today. None of that. That stuff right This empowered the staff and the faculty because there was no top down mandate it has become your responsibility to make this better blaze which is a much tougher proposition than me telling you if you work nine hours it will be a better place. Check the box and that's it right. Yeah so this was the uniqueness about this strategic plan in their many institutions that have copied are quote unquote framework. Because this from what I can tell was never done on. Before we're less was more words. Describe the plan and few words so like today if you ask me. What's your vision? It's one word destination so that he's a with a second. What does it mean destination It means for students for patients and for the local community so the first everybody understands what people don't understand what does is it needs to be a destination with the local community and then the answer is a destination for art culture entertainment for broader Sandiego as rich as people think San Diego is in terms of natural beauty and the dollar wealth. It's not quite that rain dollar wealth so I want us being a public institution. Russian doogie accessible significant underserved population out. Here they have never been to opera. They have never been to a dance. They've never been to a music show. I want them to be you you Enjoy all of this on our campus free of cost that's where it really compelling I WANNA go back to the UC system generally only speaking. I'm curious how do the different chancellors of ten universities work together to what extent they are influenced drawn from one another best practices share versus competition between the the the other night all of the above. So every month. We meet We spent a whole day together every month. First Wednesday of every month in Oakland convened by the the president of the system. And this is where we talk about the what's going on in the exchange best practices. It's not just US meeting the executive vice chancellors meet the CFO's meat and all of this is enabled by the president's office and that allows us to share best practices from the chancellor down to the director of admissions multi strategy of sharing practices. Very interesting I I want to also talk about your past. Prior to this role. You were the dean of the College of Engineering in the Philippine. Marsha Doubt University professor at Carnegie Mellon University On the shortlist of one degrees universities in the world and certainly in the discipline of engineering and your specific surprise of electrical engineer. Regan Computer Science Eddie. Eddie reported robotics as well particularly famous. They're all sending Just a remarkable university from a technology perspective. What what did you? What did you bring? Obviously you had administrative experience as a result of being deem you'll set academic credentials were top notch as well. I'm curious what you drop your experiences. This is a professor especially as a professor technology in your in your current role so what I have drawn is the ability not to look at large amounts of information complex situation and extract the problem on say statement and a problem strategy from there so instead of just thinking deeply about issues My view is we think deeply about issues and then we were deeply to solve the issue. We just keep on talking right and I think that is really engineering education especially Carnegie Carnegie Mellon for my PhD. So that's what I learned It was problem. Assad expanded Jesus and understanding how to articulate complex issues into problems that are solvable condense solving that. Yeah it's been quite some time since you were just a professor you vis those days after the do so. When I was a professor I used to teach freshman in and that was the most enjoyable? I used to teach freshmen introduction to electrical and computer engineering and then I would teach graduate. Students Robotics and it was a two extremes creams I am. I actually enjoyed both but I really enjoy teaching freshmen. Because I think it's the greatest pleasure to take somebody buddy fresh out of school and ability to teach them complex concepts that everybody thought dot is impossible to teach impossible to make it easy. That's interesting I know that you've also speaking of Ecosystems I reference or you personally have a strong on consistent in the venture community in startup communities. Well you sound audible organizations and no doubt drawing bass expose ZAC DEMOC and somebody who's involved involved distance world. I'm curious how you remain abreast of developments from that perspective. You must be so pleased that so many of your former students have gone to remarkable things starting some of the great companies. So they've done really well so A. It's not quite as easy to remain abreast on mytalk clan. But having said that I try and let me tell you how I try the first on this campus a joke. But it's actually serious. I have more than two thousand people. Top people in areas willing to give me free tutorials on any topic. I want and I used that very shamelessly I mean I have. I run into faculty s questions. I'm asking asking questions not because I'm doubting their doing. I'm asking questions with Prang alert. They're saying and what they're doing and why they're doing it and because of that From somebody who did not care about biology growing up or did not like organic chemistry if you look at this place. These are the two two significant strengths of the space and life sciences. And I have a lot of these areas very Muslim. Be At that at least understanding understanding the issues in the areas So that's one. Secondly I go to conferences. I meet people the Alumni I get I get engaged with some some one way or the other. One needs to be abreast of developments. But not as deeply as I would like we talked without the university bound seven years ago. Some of the things you've enacted in the results of striking results say many cases actually ahead of schedule or plan address. Progress progress up. Where would you like? Let's say seven years. Hence where would you see the university if you were to accomplish what you so. You're not seven years hands I I think I don't know how to qualify this. But here's what I would like this to be at where I would like it to be. At at a point where the alumni the community own visa who we are intellectually emotionally And physically I can interpret that multiple different ways but when I see that ownership of our our existence from somebody else's point of view then I know that we have grabbed the mindshare That we wanted to grab over time. We become a awesome. Well Chancellor pretty cost thank you so much for joining tech innovation today. It's inspiring to hear all that you've accomplished from your years as an academic damage from your your leadership positions as Dean now as Chancellor Universities Congratulations Invest which thank you and thank you for doing this. Thank you for this the opportunity thanks for tuning in. Please join me next week when my guests will be Steven Schwartzman the founder and CEO of Blackstone and his twenty nineteen comes to a close. I wanted to give a heartfelt thank you to all of our loyal listeners. We recently named feed spots list of top ten must-listen Cio podcast of twenty nineteen. And this would not have been possible without support if you found are content to be valuable. I greatly appreciate it if you give us a ratings on apple podcasts. Or wherever you listen to podcasts. Thank you again and happy holidays.
Happy Friday: Your SAT scores really dont matter anymore
"I believe every there we go. That was the signal. I'm ready and good when he starts here. We go everybody. I'm Kai Rozelle. Welcome welcome back. I hope I hope we've got repeat listeners to the Friday edition. Personally my favorite edition of this podcast Make Me Smart. The daily show We make you help make you. Do this really only two sips in my beer. We helped make the day make sense as what we do. It is me and not molly would. Today she's off. It's her birthday tomorrow. McRae's is here. She is the host of marketplace. Podcast called this is uncomfortable. It's about life and how money fundamentally will screw it up. I highly recommend it. They tell great stories there. It's one of those narrative long-form things you know it's cool anyway high walker podcast coming on. Thanks for having fun. Yeah you bet you bet you bet. Every look every everybody needs to turn in the barrel. That is the smart daily Joe. That's what I'm saying. We rotate everybody on marketplace through this thing and then the Okay this is the Friday edition which means I have a beer in front of me. I don't know what your choice of Libation is but share would Ya. I Yeah I do not have a beer in front of me I have. I'm representing the nondrinkers this. I have a spicy Chai. I could see this. It is I have a glass in front of me here and maybe I put somebody in there. I made the drink last night. The most ambitious drink. I've made yet really you like Chai. Yeah I didn't. I wouldn't proud of myself. I had this bookmarked for awhile. From a colleague shoutout to Elisa Mills and I kept putting it off and then I was like wait. I actually have to make a drink for work. Why don't I just make this? Is illustrated is a flavor child. Or is it just straight up? Child is it. Yes so let me tell you acting like McCook or CHEF HAIR. But it's got like clothes it's got cardamom. Pods some tea bags cinnamon stakes it. It it it has the descriptive aroma of something. Very Fall. Like I would have. That is true. It is the wrong season but I'm happy that is that is all the matters. I just for the record. I've got another Elision spaced us. Here I went to the to the back of the fridge. Dug It out was I was GONNA say something. Oh Yeah so making Chai actually will will clue into my little Make me smile Installments down at the bottom of the program. But anyway let us do the news. I and I'M GONNA do mind I just because it super-quick and yours is actually much better than thought provoking but go for. Excuse me no no it really is. It's actually more more like society. Significant mine is just an indicator. And that is this Piece in the Financial Times today pointing out that oil production in this country has fallen way faster than anybody thought it would and that makes a difference because number one remember when oil was negative. A month ago right was negative. Thirty seven dollars a barrel But number two Own means jobs and got people in the Permian Basin in Texas where production is down and in the buck and oil fields in North Dakota where productions down those folks are losing jobs and oil is really capital intensive and even though oil is now at thirty seven dollars a barrel. That's not enough to make it worth pulling the stuff out of the ground and so I think it's an interesting challenge For I mean we are now a petro economy. Right I mean yes. We've got lots else going on. And we're not like a petro state but we were at one point not too long ago. The biggest oil exporter the oil producer rather in the world And now we're not producing as much and I think that's something to keep an eye on. Which is the point of our news items and also mortar point of yours. It's whatever we might be missing and so let's get the yours because well look I a listening to the guests clear they will. They will linger on my news items. I just kind of blow by him. I'm like here read this. Look it up. This is what it means. Boom Molly likes to talk more. Look she talked target of of the two of us so all right so what's yours. Mine is all about education. So I've been thinking a lot about higher ed as a as a lot of people have. This is where I insert my shameless plug on. This is uncomfortable. We had an episode that published yesterday. Where chided with three high school students were grappling with really tough choices right now with the uncertainty of what the fall semester may look like and so that's been on my mind and I will get back to that in a minute but the news item that I saw is the University of California system. It voted to phase out the sat and act as requirements to apply to. It's ten schools which is huge We've seen there have been smaller. Liberal Arts colleges have done that in the past but like you know. The University of California is not small They've got like you know. Up to three hundred thousand students be pretty influential and have some big ripple effects But yeah and we've already heard that colleges weren't going to require students entering the twenty one twenty twenty one like a lot of the more but this is obviously a level. Do Me do me a favor and and sort of explain the levels right because this matters in a deeply significant way for access to higher education right. Well yeah I mean they're basically phasing this out over the next five years and the thinking well let me explain so like the argument. Is that you know this will make it easier for low. Look the argument is that. Act have made it harder for low income for students. In rural areas for students of color it puts a disadvantage rate is research to show that like students who come from wealthier backgrounds tend to do better because presumably. They are in school districts with better funding more resources and they can take the they can take prep crosses More often than other folks can. So yeah I mean I think a lot of colleges will probably follow suit There is the argument that by doing this. Maybe they'll be more inflation for. We'll see more inflated GPA's or like work arounds to to yeah or like scandals there could be other other ways that students can try to sort of flag their applications and get ahead. But yeah I mean. They said that they're still gonNA use it. To award scholarships sort of figure out course placements and assess out of state students but yeah it's pretty big and obviously like a huge go for new. I was just going to say so. I've got four kids as I think I've said before and pod and the whole Stress Level of the college application process is insane and anything that we can do as a society to reduce that stress on our on our up and coming young adults. I think I'm in. I am in favour of. I don't think I am and if they don't have to prep for this test or worry about or Oh my God do I have to take it again. I'm all in favor of that because it is stunning. Nana's that stress level. You Know Times I think did you re. Oh my God and the thing is that each time. I pretty much got the same score. I just waste money but yeah my brother. He's in college right now and he saw that firsthand to he was also very stressed. So it sounds like the University of California GonNa come up with its own test. Possibly they're going to try it out. Yeah but we'll see if it happens There's I think they just want to test it out and see what that could look like. Yeah I think I think he's actually huge and honestly Ju just because that's the way things go these days. It's not getting enough coverage right. I mean yes. Got A story in the New York Times and Blah Blah Blah but. I just think it's got not getting enough and I'm glad you brought it up. It's really smart smart. Well it's also I mean it'll be interesting to see what hit it could take data there that billion dollars in. Yeah let me. Just say for those listening at home if you can hear that wood chipper from my neighbor. There's nothing I can do that. I got the dog yesterday today. I've got the wood chipper and that's just kind of the lay of the land here broadcasting from my garage anyway. Okay so dad said What do you have? That's GONNA lift our spirits. That's what I wanted to know. Oh Man Ooh I saw a couple things and I saw one news article from my home state the best state North Carolina arguably yes. Yes that's right that's right so there is this There was this news report. Feel good story of A guy at a car wash who found a stimulus check twelve hundred dollars in a trash can and and they give it back to the person Yeah and it made me happy. I was like all. That's a nice thing and I think as someone who also loses her stuff. relies on the kindness of strangers. I appreciate it. The story Similar thing to me. I'm sorry I'm just googling million dollars side of the road because a couple of days ago there was a story out of Virginia family goes for a drive finds one million dollars sitting by the side of the road. What's Yeah Yeah Yeah it's They saw there was a bag in the road. They ran over that bags on other ones. Fifteen feet away loaded them but both into the truck out whole got home counted up a million dollars in cash Yata Blah Blah and. Then they gave it back. They went to the sheriff in the back. So there you go good good deed done. Good the able gun seriously because we're in North Carolina but donate looks bucks. It's a lot of money. Okay fine right now. Exactly mine is along the lines of your Chai a piece in the Wall Street Journal today actually on. I'm snobby about two things. One is beer which I think everybody listening to podcasts. The other coffee like for instance. My wife will take her morning coffee and like it. You know ten o'clock in the morning microwave and finish it off right and I'm like you. I handle that so I'm kind of. I'm kind of put my coffee about me. Make a anyway piece in the Wall Street Journal. Today news you can use. There's a chemistry professor at the University of Oregon who does coffee assistance on the side. And there's a whole thing in here which I think I'm actually going to try because I've got a burr grinder and I've got beans and we have because we've we while so we started on the sour dough thing so we have like a kitchen scale that measures in Graham's son start weighing out my coffee and I'm actually going to get it to temperature and I'm going to do it and we're going to see the difference and I and I will report back. I am I am not the only coffee now but mark place I will. I'll tell you so. Stephen Scholar who does not get a lot of airtime around here. But WHO's The guy responsible for me being able to broadcast from my garage Sculler? So not only. Is He coffee snob in that? He measures it out like in grams and he tests the temperature of the water. And all this. He roasts his own coffee beans. That's a whole new level. I know I know that's what I thought when I found out I was like man I did not have paid for that but anyway so I will not be roasting coffee beans but I will but I will be measuring my coffee and adjusting the temperature of the water just goes I can. That's it anyway. If you WANNA see it. Instead in the Wall Street Journal was updated this morning. by Joe McGinty is all about Coffee in how you make better and and you know what much like your Chai I think. We all need. A little treats these days. It makes me so happy only little treats on Friday. Yeah Yeah I think I think on a Friday. We're done. I'm going to finish my beer. You should finish your Chai. We're back on Monday were. Are we back on Monday? Are we not taking Memorial Day off? I need to have a chat with the producers of this podcast because I'm reasonably sure we're taking Monday off. Let me just let me just say that one more time so everybody listening down the line. I'm reasonably sure we're taking Monday off so we're back on Tuesday. Shall we with that thoughts comments questions? Make more margin placed data work. Oh my goodness explosion are explainers on your smart speaker this weekend. We've got molly telling you all about NASA's Mars Rovers. I will listen to that one goody record device and just say make me smart and that is what does it with that. Let me say this again. Everybody who's in a producer role in this podcast. We Are we are said yes there. We go jody. Becker taken Monday off Sam Anderson Digging Monday. Okay good anyway. So make response producing directed by Sam Anderson Digital Producers Tony Wagner our senior producers. Jody Becker bedhead to our video. Guy Or video intern. Ethan Parents Erica Phillips Retro Newsletters. Also those smart speaker skills. Today's program was engineered by Ben Tolliday. Our theme music was composed by Ben Tolliday. Daniel Ramirez the executive director of on-demand is my boss attorney of us and the Senior Vice President and general manager is Debra Guard. Boss who is all of our bosses. That's right that's right. Oh my God let me give one more plug here before music expires This is uncomfortable in a great podcast. Removed does a really nice job Guiding those conversations About money and how people think about it in this economy and it's Check it out. Obviously available wherever finding finder. Podcasts are available thanks thanks guy.
Ep. 327 Janet Napolitano
"And now from luminary media, and the university of Chicago institute of politics, the accident with your host David Axelrod. Janet Napolitano is most impactful public figures. I know she was elected attorney general Verizon a- and twice elected governor of Arizona state not easy for Democrats elected by a landslide in her second term, because she proved herself to be a pragmatic, thoughtful leader, who could reach across party lines. She came to Washington as secretary of homeland security in the Obama administration dealt with everything from terrorism to immigrate to natural disasters and is currently the president of the university of California system, a, the largest state public university system in the country, she's also just written a new book called, how safe are we homeland security since nine eleven? I sat down with her in Chicago recently to talk about all of this, and her extraordinary career. Here's that conversation. Janet napolitano. It is such a pleasure to see you again. It's good to see David in through a lot. Gather, you know I wanna talk about your new book, but I before we get there. I wanna talk about you and your journey through life and through politics, your New Yorker by birth by the raise Munin. You weren't raised there, your dad was the son of an Italian immigrant. Tell me about your family, so my dad was as you said, the son of talian, Emma immigrants, and he was raised in California. My mother came from hardy, midwestern stock, and was raised in Saint Louis. They met when my dad was going to Saint Louis U med school. And mom was working there in the lab, they moved to New York. Dad had a post, doc at Cornell Medical school. So I was born in, man. Hatton? We spent a few years in Pittsburgh, and then we moved to Albuquerque New Mexico when I was six years old. So I really view myself as a new Mexican by. I didn't I didn't airs on it. I just briefly kind of go through went to college in California before we get there because of the turn that your career took. I thought it was a noteworthy that somewhere along the line. You were moved by the and it seems timely the Watergate hearings. Yeah. And some of the women who played so prominently in those hearings. Absolutely. I was mesmerized by them. And, and this was the Watergate hearings was when it was, you know, three networks and PBS was all that was on television. And they broadcast the hearings live. And I remember just sitting in front of our black and white TV watching, and there were such impressive members on the house side. You had Barbara Jordan and. Elizabeth Holtzman and, you know, something just kinda clicked on, like, you know, boy, that's a, that's a really good. You know, a key role and, you know, they were you know they were just exciting in, in, in, in their own ways. The fact that they were women resonated with you, would you not have seen yourself in that role if they had not been, I don't know. That's a good question. This was in the early seventies. And there weren't very many women in political office at the time. So, yeah, I think you could look on them as early role models. And the Watergate hearings themselves as kind of turning me onto the whole notion of politics and government in and how important they are our country, you went to Santa Clara university, and ultimately, you, you deal stint in Washington. Yeah. I did. It's the Senate budget committee on the Republican staff got the job through Senator Pete Domenici, who's an old family friend, and so I like to joke that it's the Republicans who taught me how to round to the nearest one hundred million dollars. But there's no way better to seek government than to actually go through the budget and to see where the money flows. So I had a really good experience and then headed off to law school. Yeah. Did you know what were you did? You know, this was an interesting that you were headed to law school. I knew I was headed to graduate school of some sort. I kind of decided while I was on the hill. You know, I looked around and, and I looked at who was heading all the committee staffs and who who were actually the elected 's. And so many of them had law degrees that I thought pick one up so I did. And you and then headed to AirAsia I did. I got a I wanted to head back west and I applied for clerkship, on the ninth circuit, which is the federal court of appeals that covers the far western states and got a clerkship with judge Mary. Schroeder her chambers are actually in Phoenix, and I. Remember, so distinctly loading everything I owned fit into this kind of two door hatchback five on the floor, Honda Accord, was my first car driving across the country. Getting the Phoenix late on August afternoon. Heat waves coming up from the Valance dry heat dry. He you know, I just said, oh, my gosh. I'm so glad I'm only going to be here for a year. Well. So do when you got sign when you got this clerkship. Did you get to choose the judge replying to or did you apply to the ninth circuit? And I don't know how that works had gotten through college. No. So you apply to judges. So, you know, I just went through the judges almanac, and identify judges who were in the ninth circuit. And in do the fact that she was a woman appeal to you, not, not I wasn't applying to her, because she was a woman, but she obviously became a great mentor and, and remains a good friend, and mentor you, you went into private practice after that. And one of the things that is striking about it is that one of your very illustrious clients was Anita hill. Yeah. Yeah. Tell me how that came about. So the. A senior partner at my law firm was a man named John, Frank. He'd been a professor of law e AL had moved AirAsia, because he had terrible asthma, and he was an expert on prim court nominations, he'd been involved in Hanes worth. He was involved in Bork. He wrote a book about it. And when the Senate Judiciary committee decided to actually, hold a hearing on professor hills allegations, people around are recognize that she didn't have anyone on her immediate team who had actually handled one of these contested supreme court nominations. And so they reached out to John for help, and he reached out to me. And we took a red Ida Washington on a Monday and met our client on Tuesday. And by the end of the week, we were in the midst of, of the hearings. So tell me about that because it's obviously. It's resurfaced doesn't issue lately. Right. What are your recollections of it, and particularly how she was treated by the committee? You know, she was she was treated terribly. And, you know, there were no rules, right? It wasn't like going into court where you could object, where you could insist on a particular order of witnesses or the like so, for example, we had been told that she would be the first witness, and we were literally in, in the kind of green room or whatever the waiting room, and they came in and said, no Thomas wants to go. I just totally things like that were happening all the time. And then the questions were. Just so out of bounds and the, the tone, taken by, particularly the Republican members of the committee was so disrespectful, and, you know, and she held up really well I mean she was a very, very good witness and a credible witness. And what's interesting is when she finally went on was in the afternoon. And she did very well. And kind of had the story for the six o'clock news casts, and I think the Thomas team recognized that he needed to do something so that it could flip the story by the ten o'clock news. High lynch. Yeah. So, so all of a sudden they decided that he could come on. And they would have an evening session, and what was kind of interesting about that is I was in the hearing room, most of our team had left to go to. Inner and then all of a sudden the doors open and the Senator start coming in, in, in comes Boyden gray would Clarence Thomas until this was before they were phones or anything like that. There was no way to get a hold of the team. So, you know, I was I was I was there and they were having dinner, you know, I have to ask you, you, you're a very busy woman. Now running the university of California system, so you may not have had a chance to watch the Cavanaugh hearings. But what you're describing sounds a little bit like what we saw, which is Christine, Blasi Ford, testified, and then all and she was very credible and impactful, and then all hell broke loose in the afternoon. It, it was deja vu, all over again. And. It was if. The Senate as institution had not evolved at all in terms of how you address serious allegations of sexual harassment. So when Anita hill, testified is a nineteen ninety one it was really the first time sexual harassment in the workplace became kind of popularly known or discussed. And as as the aftermath, there were lots of changes in the law, lots of changes in workplace policies training and the like, so, you know, things continue to evolve not, not perfectly as the metoo movement from it straits. But nonetheless, places, you know began to make make some movement. The Senate, obviously made no movement, and, and the cavenaugh approach was almost identical to the Thomas approach. So unite. I both know vice president Biden. Well, we both worked with him, you probably were to them in various ways, during your public life. He was a chairman of the committee at the time. He's come under some criticism now that he's running for president, which, of course, is endemic to writing for president for the way he handled that hearing how culpable was he for the, the way in which the thing was conducted. And how fair are the criticisms of him. You know, I think he, he himself has acknowledged that. He, he, he did not control the hearing, the way a chairman can. I think he would do it very differently. If the hearings were held today, you know, I think we have to evaluate the vice president in light of his total record. You know, his were you at that time it started were up were you at that time were you, you said, witnesses kept changing and the scheduled kept changing and so on where you aggravated with him then. Oh, sure. I was like who's running this railroad? And but there were other members of the committee that could have spoken up as well. And been more active the Democrats were remarkably silent and you know, I can only speculate that impart. It was because Thomas was a African American Rome. They didn't want to be seen as tacking him. But, you know that kind of vacuum, allow the Republicans on the committee, just drive through their counter narrative, and, you know, try to depict professor hill as a not a credible witness. Did you do think? Dr hill said that she was not satisfied with her conversation with the vice president. She just say I blew it. I'm sorry. You know. Look, I don't know how to advise the vice president on this. I think I think he's tried to explain his role in the hearings. I think he's tried in his own way to apologize. I don't think his apology has gotten over the goal line yet. I love how you handle that question. You're not you're no longer a practicing politician. That was very deft way. Handling that question. So speaking of being a practising politician, you decided, in, in two thousand to run for attorney general, or I guess, ninety eight nine for attorney general right of Arizona. That's a big decision to. Yeah. To, to run for public office and exposure, self. I mean, everybody was always telling politicians what they should do. And so on. And so when you put your name on a ballot that's pretty raw stuff because people get the vote, Yay or nay on you and you have to have a pretty thick skin to do it. Especially as a democrat in Arizona. Yes. So I'd been serving as the US attorney fares ONA, President Clinton had nominating. I was confirmed and serve during his first term. And, and I'd been in that role for four. Plus years. And I was going to be turning forty in the attorney general ship of AirAsia was gonna be an open seat. And, you know, already always had this little, you know, kind of it, I guess, that I'd like to run myself and, and I kind of thought you know, if I don't do it now, I'll never do it. And I'll always wonder, you know, the woulda coulda shoulda aspect. And, and you're right. It's a it's, it's a big jump, although I should say parenthetically apropos our previous discussion when you're you got a little taste of politics, when you reported US attorney because the Republicans in congress held you up for a year. Yeah. Because of your involvement with Anita hill. That's right. And fortunately at the time you could go in as an acting. So I went in as an acting US. Attorney. But yeah, confirmation went all the way to a cloture vote in the Senate for a US attorney position because I had the fortune or misfortune of being the first person associated with Anita hill, who had to come before the Senate Judiciary committee, for confirmation, and the and they had a memory of that. And hey back is held. Yeah. So, but Meanwhile I was in the job. So it was like okay, come on. And so that, that made you obvious candidate for attorney general. What was it like making the transition to, to campaigning to raising money to doing the things that politicians have to do? So it was interesting because the Democratic Party at the time in Arizona, was almost non-existent. So there was no kind of structure that I could feed into. So I, I had one campaign worker, young man who'd worked with me at the US tourneys office. We had this dumpy little office in a very CD part of Phoenix, you know, to card table, some folding chairs a couple of phone lines and I would literally go in there and make cold calls to raise money, you know, five six hours a day. And then we try to set up house parties. And, and then I you know, on the weekends I'd go do parades and county fairs and all those kinds of things and, you know, slowly, but surely, you know, we built an organization and we're able to raise enough money in order to win the race. How? Talk to me, a second about money and fundraising, you know, the biggest lament you hear from members of congress, for example. Now is how much of their time they have to spend raising money and, you know, you're right for an office, like attorney general, which is a kind of it's a down galleries. And but also, it's a, you know, the authority your law enforcement person, you're asking people to support support, you, but just generally because you openly ran for governor how how much did you dislike having to sit on that phone and raise money all day? Oh, I don't think any candidate really enjoys that part of that job. But you gotta do it. Maybe Chuck Schumer. Maybe. It's and you have to discipline yourself to do it. I think most candidates procrastinate they find something else they have to do at cetera. But in the end if you don't have the funds. Needed to your, your your, your staff in the media buys and all the rest. Yeah, you're toast, and then four years later, you ran for governor Zona. I remember this very well because everybody was so excited that there was a viable candidate for. Of Arizona, and you won you won narrowly you ended up winning re-election by a landslide which says something about about how you conducted yourself there. But, you know, you were very much someone who was, you know, you, you had a lot of vetoes, but you also were someone who would negotiate across party lines. There's this, there's this big debate now about about compromise about the kinds of things that one has to do in a democracy that you and estate that was, you know, obviously, you are democrat. He had to deal with Republicans in the legislature. You must have some strong feelings about that. The sort of. No compromise run over the opposition. Kind of theory of government that has been exacerbated by these battles in Washington, right? That's what we're seeing now. Yeah. But how does it work if you're not in Phnom betraying, my own view of this, if you're not willing to if there's no give and take, you know, when you're elected attorney general or governor, you're not the attorney general just for the Democrats? You're not the governor just for the Democrats. You're the governor of Arizona, and I think with those kind of roles comes responsibility to understand that there are people have different different views and understand that if you're the executive and the legislative branch is under the control of the other party. If you wanna get any part of your programme adopted, you gotta have to give and go. You gotta have to give them something in order to get something that you you've you as a, a larger good, and so I'll give you an example. I wanted. Of free all day kindergarten for every era as a child. We had a burgeoning population of families with young children. They mostly came from a lower socioeconomic status, you know, we wanted to catch them up by the time they got to first grade so that they were reading grade level by third grade, which is one of the kind of standard metrics and the Republicans in the legislature were opposed to that. But they really wanted private prisons. I don't like private prisons. I don't think prison's should be operated by for profit industries feel that way because I think that in imprisonment is kind of a core. If you're gonna do it, it's kind of a core function of the state and beyond that the record of the private prison industries, not a good record and, and they didn't want. To take the most difficult prisoners. Right. They wanted to take the easier to control populations. This is the this is sort of the difficult thing about privatization in, in all realms of government. You know including, you know the debate about infrastructure. Well, yep. Private investors are gonna be eager to do infrastructure, but not in the places where you most need them and under served areas. And sunk as there's not money to be made. Right. Right. You're not going to be building a toll road rare. Yeah. That that's right. And so long story short. We made an agreement that they would fund all day, kindergarten and that for every public prison. We built there would also be a private prison. Not ideal. But a compromise a workable compromise. And, and got us where we needed to go on, on all day. And, and that historically has been kind of how progress has been made in American history. What we're seeing now in Washington. DC is a total paralysis of that process. We saw a little I mean this. Administration. Yeah. When, when President Obama took office, as you know, I think one of the reasons I mean you were one of his early endorsers and I think one of the things that probably attracted you to him was. He was a believer in trying to work across party lines trying to rise above the partisan differences. It was really hard. When we got there, I think, in part because Senator McConnell who was there, then as he is now made a strategic decision that, you know, what we're not going to give them anything because otherwise that validates his message that, you know, that, that he could somehow harmonize everything. Right. I think it wasn't McConnell who said that they're cheap priority was to make sure he didn't get a second term. Yes. And I really thought that was an outrageous comment like year. United sta-. Dates Senate and your chief priority is to be to try to defeat the incumbent president. Meanwhile, the country was teetering on the verge of depression. And we had all these large looming issues some of which, like immigration still loom in our country. It, it just, you know, I it's just not the way it ought to be in my view of reaction creates a reaction. And that's why you have this debate within the Democratic Party of people who say you know what they're not gonna work with us. Right. So let's work with that, right. Yeah. Yeah. But that seems like a that seems like we're spiralling into a kind of really really treacherous place. You know, we're in a place now where everyone has retreated to their corner of the ring, and there's and there's. No positive engagement, there's engagement, but but mainly for point scoring. Yeah. Yeah. And, and so, meanwhile we lack a coherent immigration policy. We lack a coherent climate policy. We're not dealing with these issues of income inequality, which underscores so many other issues in our country. These are big kind of extant risks to, to the United States, you, you rarely hear about them. Yeah. It's amazing. Let's talk about immigration of for second, and I won reserve a bunch of time to talk about your tenure as at the department of homeland security, and, and the book that you've just written about where you think we need to go, but immigration is something you've been dealing with. Long before you ever got to Washington. You're a border state governor and, you know, you, you were viewed as, as relatively tough on the issue, you, you spoke off in about the need to secure the border. You, you know, there were various debates, including about fencing along the border, which you ultimately compromise done. Tell me tell me what, what you see today, relative to immigration, and, you know, which has become a real. Kind of flare point in our politics, part, because the president has made it such right? It's been a real theme of the Trump presidency and the wall has become kind of the, the, the, the picture. He's painting and I'll just say this David a wall is a symbol. It's not a strategy. The border is a zone. It's nine thousand nine hundred forty miles some of it's private land, some of its public land, some of its sovereign Indian nation land. It is dotted by ports of entry through, which thousands of trucks and cars travel, every day Mexico's our third leading trade partner. It's responsible for hundreds of thousands of jobs in the United States. And so to me real strategy. Requires having twenty-first-century ports with the best technology, properly staff to facilitate that lawful traffic flow. And then between the ports of entry a combination of manpower technology ground sensors tunnel detection, equipment air cover drones to enable you to find those who are crossing illegally. That's, that's a strategy, and that's really the strategy we use during the Obama administration and we drove illegal migration down to forty year plus lows in the current administration despite the rhetoric and the kind of shutting down the government over funding for the wall at cetera. You're actually seeing the numbers come back up again. So whatever they're doing. Certainly not having the effect of deterring any illegal migration, and it's not helping solve the problem. A couple of things you, you were one of I said, you were tough as a governor, you at excuse me, a concern about violence in communities along the border. That is what the that is the specter that the president has raised that violent immigrants crossing the border bands of marauding, immigrants, and so on, what is the what is the truth of that? And how concerned should people be? So when in the early two thousands and, and this is when I was attorney general and governor by then the federal government had put something called operation gatekeeper in place in San Diego to wanna and they had put something called operation hold the line in the past. Oh, warez area. And those two operations had the function of driving. Funneling it right into what's called the Tucson sector, right into AirAsia. So that in two thousand and three I think it was over half the border patrol apprehensions in the country were in that one sector. It really was overrun. It was not under control under the Obama administration and and building on some of the work that had been done by President Bush's administration. We actually shutdown that Tucson sector, and we had it under control so that the same dynamics didn't didn't apply. And we completed all, but about fifty miles of structure, wall or fencing that had been identified by the experts as to what was necessary along the border. That's. There's a big difference between that and saying, you got to build a nineteen hundred and forty mile wall. And I used to say as governor, you know, show me a ten foot wall, and I'll show you an eleven foot ladder. And, and so, again, the notion that a single physical structure is, is sufficient, it just it just doesn't match without the border works. Yeah. Do you think Democrats make a mistake though speaker Pelosi called the low wall? Immoral back. I picked up, I think she was speaking about the symbolic. Yeah. Symbolic wall that you're talking about. But. Do crafts run the risk here of, of being positioned by the president as looking insufficiently strong on this issue. I you know, I worry about that, you know, I think the democratic message should be we want border enforcement, too, but it needs to be smart. And it needs to. Matched the need for the lawful traffic and trade to be able to traverse through the ports with our need to make sure that illegal crossings are kept to a minimum, and there are strategies that have been demonstrated to work. Those are the strategies that ought to be funded. Not not a wall. We should point out that one of the elements of the Obama program that you helped administer a DA just an ice were was under your Egypt was a pretty aggressive deportation program for people in this country. It's controversial among some Democrats, but you substantially increase the number of people who you deported, you prioritize them differently we right? We had real priorities. So, you know, it was those who had committed a serious felonies while in the country, those who are known gang members or security, risks, and those, we apprehended right at the border, we actually put them into deportation proceedings. And those had the, you know, those priorities had the effect of driving the numbers up and you know it was controversial. And I remember when the president was called a deportable and chief, and I don't, I don't think he appreciated that comment, but I also think that comment overlooked. Well who is it? That's being deported and overlooked that under the president. We did DACA deferred action for childhood arrivals. We stopped the practice of workplace raids, you know, we did other things to try to make the administration of the immigration law, better and more fair while. Advocating for immigration reform. What do you think about those who advocate the dismantlement of ice? Yeah. I think that's a mistake. I is a law enforcement organization like any law enforcement organization, it needs priorities on how it's going to expand its resources needs direction. I think one of the differences between the Obama administration and the Trump administration is that important fact that they have kind of erased any of those priorities. So any anybody in the country illegally is fair game, regardless of how long they've been here. The community ties they've established, you know, and what the real risk is to the safety of, of Americans. What about the issue of refugees, which seems to be as you point out the flow of, of immigrants from Mexico coming, actually, as has been the other way? Yeah. But. But you have this, you have the steady flow of refugees from Central America. How should that be dealt with? We've seen the family separations. Yeah. So I you know, I think we would be much better advised to try to deal with that at the source and try to me in the country, so origin in Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador to fund gang of violence prevention programs to support civil institutions like judiciary like the law enforcement functions in those countries. And that's not peer. Idealism one Columbia was an ARCO state, the United States had something called Plan Colombia and over several years, investing resources and working with Colombians who didn't wanna. Live in Marco, and in ARCO state. They actually turned things around so that now Columbia is a terrorist destination. You know, people don't leave their homelands and make that treacherous journey to the United States with without being motivated by a sense of desperation for their lives and the lives of their children. And then we have to understand that, and I think we can, and we would be better advised to invest in efforts at the source of the migration, as opposed to building a wall at the output of, you're probably aware that the president has suggested that he on the family separation. He was just following on a policy. That was a policy, the Obama administration. Yeah. That, that's just not right there were times when children were separated from the adults. They were traveling with it was when we had indications that they were actually being trafficked. Or they were physically at risk from the adults. They were traveling with. But there were certainly nothing that approach to policy and nothing that approach zero tolerance policy that the Trump administration pursuit, and really treating criminalising every border crossing. Yes. So let's let's a backup the bus and, and just remind people that deportation is, is a civil proceeding prosecution is a criminal proceeding. And when the attorney general announced zero tolerance, he was saying anybody caught crossing illegally would be prosecuted meeting. They were put under the criminal jurisdiction of the United States, and that required. Then that children be separated from their parents and meanwhile, all those law enforcement resources the system. The US attorneys the investigators courtrooms at cetera along the border are filled with prosecuting what most our federal misdemeanors, just a real mistaken allocation of, of law enforcement along the border. I'm going to come back to the department of homeland security in your book, but I just want to touch briefly on what you do you're doing now as, as president of the university of California, which, as you point out has a much three times the budget that you had, when you were governor governor of Arizona and has its own. I'm sure daily complexities. Absolutely one of them that I'm interested in is this whole issue of free expression, free speech. It's something that we deal with at the institute of politics. And you know, the university of Chicago you've written about this. Has been a fulcrum of this debate, but every academic institution is dealing with it. And I, I know you've written on this subject, but how do you how you deal with it? And how do you know my just to set it up for you? My view van Jones, who you probably know was was at our place shortly after Corey Lewandowski had been there following the nineteen two thousand sixteen election, and there was a protest when Corrie came, which is part of democracies protests. But the event went on student, ask van about this a week, later and van said, you know, our job is to keep you safe from physical harm. It's not to keep you safe from ideas, you dislike or may even hate in our job is to make you strong and resilient so you can contend with these ideas. And you know, this is the Jim this is. Where you learn how to contend with these ideas, I sort of subscribe to that. And I, I suspect you do, too, but how do you do that, and still respect that in a diverse society, and particularly with more diverse student bodies, there are there are line somewhere that one has to respect that goes beyond? What is? What is tolerable? Well, you know, I think speech is speech and when you know, when there's something that arises to a risk to physical safety, then I think university can and should act, but short of that, I think the response to speech is more speech, and I think the role of educational institutions much as you said is to equip students with the tools, they need to be able to engage and to respond and to be resilient. I think we have to recognize that students who are from groups that are under attack by particular speakers that they, they are under attack and reach. Out to them and provide them greater support greater tools with which to engage with that. But I by no means think that the role of the university is to make students safe from ideas as one of the things that plagues us as a society right now is that we can create these virtual reality silos in which our views are always affirmed echo chambers. Yeah. And, and I think it's one of the reasons why we talked past we talked past each other. It's also true. I think you, you know, these kids say, will you're giving people a position of power when they come you're, you're endorsing them. My view is that if, if they're willing to come and submit themselves, the questions, then power actually shifts to these young people who are very capable, and I've seen it time and again, of challenging views that they don't agree with in ways that are really provocative and interesting. Right. And, and the other ways when you have a speaker who's just deliberately serving as provocateur isn't isn't really trying to contribute to an academic debate or anything of that sort but is, is, is, is really there to provoke and to anger another way of dealing with them is just not to go. Right. Not to provide them with that, right. Kind of. And there are speakers who who do that. And provide what I should note. No nutritional content. So, you know, it's up to the institutions to end the in the inviting parties, too. Side that and it's kind of what it was a Justice Stewart who said about pornography. I'll know it. When I see it. I mean, there is an element of that. Two quick political questions, and then I wanna get back to security. One is what why what did cause you to endorse Barack Obama in two thousand seven because. It was a hard thing. You know you were a prominent female. Executive politician in the country. Hillary Clinton was running to, and she would have been the first female president, there must been enormous pressure on you not to mention that you were pointed by President Clinton in the first place. They must been enormous pressure on you to at least stay out of it. You know, I, I met Obama at the two thousand and four national convention in Boston. That's where he really speech. He gave the keynote, he lit the place up. And the, the one thing I'm grateful for is that I was the speaker right in front of him. Yes. Being right after. Oh my Lord, but he reached out and I remember meeting him for what was supposed to be a, you know, a thirty minute breakfast in, in Washington, and it stretched to over an hour, and I just, just something clicked that the way he thought about government and politics was the way I thought about it. And, and then he made every effort to, to stay in touch, and to show that I would be, you know, part of his team. And, and, you know, so when it came time to making a an endorsement, it was pretty easy choice. It was it was a big boom for him to get your endorsement than I remember how excited people were. How excited people were to have it. Are you out of the endorsement business now that you're in your current role pretty much? Yeah, that's good. Yeah. Whereabout. Arizona is, you know, there's a lot of talk about AirAsia is Arizona a purple state now is Aaron ah in play. What what's your sense of that last time Hillary Clinton vessel out of resources, Nares ONA may more than she invested in Michigan? Turned out to be a miscalculation. Yeah. Is it fool's gold or is it real? You know, I think it can be real Trump carried on by three three and a half points. Wasn't an overwhelming victory in eighteen. You saw democrat take the secretary of state position, which is, we don't have a Lieutenant governor there. So that's the second charge the superintendent of schools. We took the US Senate seat that was vacated by Jeff flake Kirsten cinema won that race. We flipped a house seat. So. It's it's definitely in play. I will say that it it will be largely dependent on who the Democrats nominate make sense. Right. I think that Amazon's will favor if I can use kind of the traditional spectrum someone who is viewed as perhaps more moderate than far left. But I think the state can be in play someone you might say in the polygon tradition. Yeah. You can't say it, but I can say so you, you, you have this new book called how safe are we? And so I guess the appropriate question is how safe are we? And how things changed since you. You took over in two thousand and nine when the there was this. You know, we were still dealing with in a very real way, this the threat of, of terrorism. Yeah, I think in some areas, we are certainly safer than we were before nine eleven. For example, it's virtually impossible to think that a plot similar to what we saw nine eleven where people take over commercial aircraft and weaponize, them and fly them into buildings that really can't happen anymore. But one of the reasons I wrote the book was. To argue that risks to our homeland security continued to evolve and, and if we kind of miss allocate, misjudge, what risks are real versus those that are kind of theater Lee Ann in essence put the country in greater danger. So and you you, you make very clear that the action is shifting to cyber right in a big way. It's sifted to to cyber. It's shifted to the risks associated with global warming. And the, the increasing incidence of mask gun violence, the border in contrast is not a safety risk to Americans. It's a zone to be managed it's zone to be secure, but it not it is not in and of itself, a safety risk. So talk about. About these, these individuals issues of cyber talk. I think that, you know, one of the things that we deal with is that technology's churning at such a rapid rate that's hard to get your arms around all the impacts of it. But the job of certainly euro department in government has to be to be up to date on these risks and stay one step ahead of them. What are the risks and are we staying one step ahead of them? So the risks take many forms. They can be hacks. They can be the theft of personal information. They can be denial of service attacks. We actually shut down an electrical system or a water system or telecommunication system. And how hardened are we to that, you know, not hard enough, and we know that a lot of our nation's critical infrastructure. In private hands. And so this is something where the public and private sectors are gonna have to work together. You know, I think there needs to be much stronger kind of national standards that owners and operators of critical infrastructure need to adhere to. They shouldn't be voluntary as they are now. And, you know, I think that, you know, we, we have to continue to anticipate that our foreign adversaries, I'm speaking of Russia are good continue to attack our democracy, itself through the tools. They have on in the cyber world. Do you think you know, it's hard to tell from the outside because the president has been steadfast in denying that this is real and that this is a threat. But then you hear from the director of national. Telling and the director of the FBI and, and, and, and others including homeland security. Yes. It's this is real and they're still doing it and ju- have confidence that enough is being done to combat that. No. And it was interesting. So former secretary Nielsen gave a state of homeland security speech not too long before she resigned. And she listed cyber as kind of the top risk. It's an extraordinarily complicated topic because the technology continually changes you've got public and private. You've got any number of federal agencies who have some jurisdiction in the cyber arena. So just kind of organizing them and clarifying, their roles and responsibilities is kind of task number one. And when you think about our election system elections are managed by local officials. County recorders and the like, and there are no national standards that they have Ron mail to been what saved us from having the actual vote totals hacked, because he had fifty individuals systems, and that one system that was easily reachable. That's right. But nonetheless, there is enough. I think evidence and I think it's, it's clear from the Muller report. The Russians were all over our two thousand sixteen election, and there's no indication that they've stopped Trump can't simply say to Putin stop it and assume that he will, and although it'd be good if he did say that it would that would be a start winning. And you know, it's the kind of thing where you really need presidential. Leadership. If you're going to bring all these disparate parties to the table and hammer things out, you really need leadership. He's not having a national Security Council meeting that he's months on, on anything. But, but on this apparently never. Yeah. And that's amazing to me. But, but the whole national security decision making apparatus seems to have kind of dissolved in the Trump administration and that's that's dangerous too. Because, as you know, from from your time at the White House things are going on all the time and they're not things easily susceptible to just doing a gut response. They need you know thought consideration and evaluation. You mentioned climate as a as, as a threat. Yeah. As a security threat. Explain that. So in a couple of ways first of all, climate is changing my Gration patterns around the world, and we need to be thinking more globally about that wishing a really massive movement of people from the southern hemisphere, the northern hemisphere, by way of, example, their areas of the world, where climate has already caused massive economic loss, for example, drought in, in Syria in Yemen, killed the local agricultural, economy means got lots of young men, roaming around no work, no hope ripe, for terrorist recruitment political unrest. So that's one area. Pentagon has consistently name this as one of their national security. Right and correctly. So and then from. A homeland security perspective. If one of the functions of homeland security is to keep people safe. Well, we've lost more lives due to extreme weather events, traceable to global warming than than we have to terrorist events in the last years. We're seeing more landfall hurricanes. We had four in not twenty seventeen alone. More tornadoes, a greater intensity of tornadoes drought in the west drying out the forest leading to massive wildfires with the. Life than a loss of property. And so we need to be focused not only doing our part to reduce the rate of global warming. But also at app tation to the global warming were already experiencing. You mentioned you mentioned the, this epidemic of mass shootings and a gun crimes, generally, you, you issued a report or your agency did on on extremism, on, on the right. And you took some heat for it at the time, but that is coming into sharper, focus, now, isn't it? Yeah. It turns out the report was very prescient. We were criticized for the report because there was some language in a footnote that returning veterans were, particularly double and the veterans community guy. Very angry about about that. And it was not meant to denigrate all veterans or the military or any warning probably in some ways to veterans as well. Exactly. And, and really to, to Pentagon think about how. They handle when people leave the service, but nonetheless, as you know, it, it caused a bit of a political storm. Yeah. Yeah. Well, I have to say you are a great public servant. It was a privilege to work with you. You continue to be a great public servant. You've had many different incarnations public impulse life, but you've written an important book here. How safe are we? And I hope that people in positions of responsibility, read it. Thank you. Thank you. Thank you for listening to the acts files presented by luminary media, and the university of Chicago institute of politics. The executive producer of the X files is Matthew, Jaffe. The show is also produced by Pete Jones, Zane Maxwell Samantha Neo and Allison Siegel for more programming from the IOP. Visit politics dot EU Chicago dot EDU.
Hong Kong in Danger / Colleges vs. the SAT
"Social distancing slows the spread of corona virus. So stay a minimum of six feet away from others and stay home if you can more info at Corona Virus Dot Gov. Let's all do our part because we're all Hashtag alone together brought to you by the Ad Council from the opinion pages of the Wall Street Journal Potomac. Watch China threatens Hong Kong's autonomy the University of California system drops the sat and Joe Biden's game of veeps continues welcome. I'm Kyle Peterson with the Wall Street Journal sitting in today for Polish go. We are joined today by my colleagues bill. Mcgurn High Bill Hacker and Jason Willett. Happy Friday Jason. Good to be here. Hongkong has long been an outpost of freedom in China. And it's Tommy was supposed to last for fifty years after the British handover in nineteen ninety seven. China has been trying to nibble away at that and I take it that we don't have detailed specifics. About Beijing's latest proposal but bill I mean many observers are saying that I mean could this be the end of One Country Two Systems if Beijing gets its way it certainly will be. Look the what they've done now is they're making clear they're going to pass a national security law that would include provisions such as no disrespect for the Chinese anthem and so forth. This is this is very alien to the Hong Kong tradition and before this last summer there was a provision trying to get through that was fought and that was for extradition because people in Hong Kong feared. I'm going to be arrested in Hong Kong for something and end up in China. No one wants that. So what this latest move is it is? It is a huge move because they've taken some questionably legal maneuvers to To get here but it's part of a twenty year operation to get something like this through. They want absolute power over Hong Kong. They don't care how much it costs a Hong Kong people the Hong Kong economy. And they're going to do it. Look a reasonable person now that the protests from last year of died down would say okay. Let's let's see. We can work out some accommodation. Let feelings cool. But they've they've escalated and they're probably going to get their way so bill. What what do you think are the Immediate consequences though. I mean it's it. Seems likely to reignite those protests but what about an exodus of people in capital from Hong Kong and do you think either of those could be powerful enough to change anybody's mind in Beijing? Let me answer the last question. I now because I think they've taken the these are all absolutely obvious things you mentioned Re-igniting protests the harm to the economy. I think said we're willing to pay that price To make sure that they know in Hong Kong that we're the boss so that's the real problem that we're up against and we don't have too many tools that would discourage The Chinese from doing this. We're not gonNA land the fleet there so short of that There's not. There's not that much we can do. We can complain. We can probably sanctions some people for things. But I'm not sure. We have anything strong enough to dissuade the government in Beijing. From doing what it's doing on the point about economic damage Part of the story may be just that. Hong Kong is not as large of a fraction of the economy as it used to be but on on sanctions. I mean there are some senators including pat. Toomey who are are saying that they'll offer legislation to put sanctions on Chinese officials. Who enforce any of these new rules on Hong Kong President Trump Jason on Thursday said that. Here's his quote quote. If it happens will address that issue very strongly so I mean even if you doubt the ability to change. Beijing's mind here what what is in the Americas toolbox while I think the flouting of the Sino British Joint Declaration which is basically what Beijing's doing by usurping Hong Kong's economy before the fifty years are up Sort of goes to the heart of some of president. Trump's complaints about China. Which is they haven't been honest. They weren't honest about trade. They haven't been honest about the coronavirus and here's a clear example of them flouting an international agreement So I think it gives them more ammunition to argue about those issues that he's historically have been more close to him than the Hong Kong issue. Well what about is just some specifics? Bill so one one. That's kind of been in the mix for while is a congress passed a law last year telling the State Department essentially to examine whether Hong Kong is still sufficiently autonomous to justify the special treatment that it gets under. Us Law Secretary of State. Mike Pompeo has said that he's delaying the report So we don't know immediately with the answer but these new security laws would certainly way on the No side of the ledger. You know possibly raising the question of whether the United States could come to treat Hong Kong just like it does the rest of China right I'm very ambivalent on that act For for this reason the logic is impeccable if Hong Kong is no longer distinct from China in how it treats foreigners how treats itself? It's not really a distinct entity as promised under the the joint declaration. Then why should we give it any advantages? So the logic is impeccable. The problem with that is that the tool. The enforcement here is sanctions. Which would on Hong Kong would affect Hong Kong we mean raising the tariffs and so forth to China levels and. I'm not sure that achieves what we want to achieve because it seems to punish Hong Kong more than China. I would say if we have to look at this. Jason mentioned some of the other violations. You know they. They cheated everything all international agreements. I think we have to step back and look at the totality of our relationship with China on this and Hong Kong as an example and to me the priority is How do we contain this? This growing beast in Beijing the human rights violations are appalling with the Tibetans. The Christians are the Hong Kong people and again. I don't think there's much we can do. That would get them to change course because they're willing they're willing to have. Hong Kong burned to the ground so long as everyone knows their boss but we could do things like strengthened Taiwan. I think Taiwan is watching the this you know. Beijing is complaining that falsely at the Hong Kong people want independence. It's not what they've been asking. But I think this increases the mood and appetite for independence in a place like Beijing Taipei and one of the things we have to do is help Taiwan stay independent and be able to protect itself other things we could do to increase pressure on China. I know Donald Trump didn't like it because it was multilateral but the TPP trade agreement that would unite a lot of other people in the region with us would be another vehicle for doing this. I think we have to. We have to look at building an architecture to get China to behave itself and Unfortunately in the short term I just don't I really don't see a lot of hope for persuading them otherwise on Hong Kong. What about the issue of Taiwan Jason? The United States sells weapons to Taiwan but still maintains the sort of polite fiction of One Country Two Systems and does not have formal diplomatic. Relations is is you know taking a more intense diplomatic Relationship with Taiwan. Something that could be useful here or would that sort of escalate the situation? Do you think I think that could definitely be useful Like you said sort of the US language around. Taiwan and China is we want both parties to to you know come to mutually agreed upon terms. we paint ourselves sort of a A neutral arbiter. Meanwhile Taiwan has been this sort of outstanding ally for many decades and You know there's all sorts of things we can't do because we don't officially recognize them Militarily diplomatically and. I think that that you know the question bill talked about. How do you impose costs I think that's one way one concrete way where you could actually have. Some leverage against Beijing are hang tight. We'll be right back you'RE LISTENING TO POTOMAC. Watch from the Wall Street Journal social distancing slows the spread of corona virus. So we should all stay home to lower the risk for everyone more INFO at Corona Virus Dot Gov. Let's all do our part because we're all Hashtag alone together brought to you by the Ad Council from the opinion pages of the Wall Street Journal this is Potomac. Watch welcome back. What about one more specific idea bill? You hear thrown around. Which is this idea of barring. You know maybe the children of Chinese officials from studying at American universities or maybe barring Chinese students altogether I mean you can see how that could exert some pressure but you can also see another side of the argument that maybe some of those people that come here are really talented than stay here and contribute to a science and progress here and You know maybe are able to send a little bit of democratic values home. Yeah I'm partial to doing something especially for children of Party members. I mean there's more than two hundred thousand Chinese students here so I I'm partial partly because I think it would have put some pressure on shape. I mean if you're if you're a Chinese parent and your kids going off to Yale nor Dartmouth the University of Washington and then all the sudden can't go because of the government it would put a lot of pressure I think on them. The problem is it has everything has its cost. The advantage of the students is. I think it inflicts the Least Harm on the economy as opposed to tariffs and so forth. But you know China would likely respond by saying. None of our kids can go to school in America. I think that's what president she would prefer and kicking out all the American students. So everything has its cost and again Going back to the initial problem. Even if there are costs impose I think China's decided that we can ride out whatever the costs are even if it's trashing Hong Kong and so forth and I don't think I don't see anything that's going to get them to reconsider this what I see as we should put up. We should build an architecture to deal with China. Has IT'S GROWING HELP. Taiwan. The other thing Jason Sort of alluded to it but didn't Spell it out but In addition to sort of punishing China for these actions. I think we can. We can encourage other folks. The good actors in the region like we could expand we could say twenty five thousand more college visas for Hong Kong students. How about maybe another twenty five thousand for Taiwanese students? So there are a lot of Carrots we could give out to the other people and I think that would That China might get the message from there primarily. I think the the priority has to be to make sure that Taiwan doesn't go through the same experience a few years down the road. I wonder if this is a an interesting moment for some of these ideas to get traction in ways that they've not been able to before. I mean it does seem like there is growing bipartisan agreement about the threat that China poses and this week Jason the White House issued a report about the US strategic approach What what is the gist of that? Report the gist of that report is basically that the. Us has treated China for for decades as sort of an aspiring stakeholder in the community of nations and now we recognize that that didn't work out. It's it's sort of totalitarian regime at home. Exporting values abroad mercantilist imperialistic. And we're GONNA look at China differently. It uses the word fundamental reevaluation. And says we're going to have an approach of great power competition with China. It doesn't say we're GONNA have a Cold War with China that we're in sort of an existential fight to the death but it says we're going to be competing in it outlines the various ways we're going to compete in what interests we're going to try to protect the. I'll I'll read a quote from the beginning. It says quote since the United States and the People's Republic of China established diplomatic relations in nineteen seventy nine United States policy toward the PR was largely premised on a hope that deepening engagement would spur fundamental economic and political opening in the PR. See lead to its emergency a constructive and responsible global stakeholder unquote. I mean bill that I mean that hasn't happened yet but still I mean is there. Is there any hope for that yet? Do you. Think Kyle I was one of the people who believe that I was living in Hong Kong and I watched Dictatorship in South Korea democratize. I watched the same thing in Taiwan again China's different it's totalitarian and it hasn't worked out the way those of us who had had some faith in that wanted to. I think now look I think it has been a total failure. China was very poor and the people are eating better and living better than they did before we shouldn't discount that I mean there's week we couldn't have a policy designed to just keep China poor wind of work than it wouldn't been right but I think the key now and I think that this is what Secretary Pao's is hammering at is China's cheating Hong Kong's only one part of the Chinese cheating and lying and failure to live up to its obligations all across the world just to name one in the WTO. I mean China's admitted as a developing nation so it it had lesser rules and violating that. I think the key now has to be. We have to hold China to it's obligations to the degree that we can and instead of giving them a pass on so many things all right switching gears a little bit on Thursday the regions of the University of California system voted unanimously to phase. Out The use of the sat and act college entrance tests and Jason. That's that's being presented. At least they're presenting it as a victory for equity that's right There's an idea that the that the sat and the act that standardized tests are discriminatory against minorities the UC actually commissioned Faculty Senate Committee to study. This look probably one of the most detailed looks at the data on the sat ever because they have the data available tens of thousands of UC students and they found there was. No discrimination. Wasn't bias the biggest obstacles For minority students to get in were mostly due to completion of of courses. Poor school districts and so on But nonetheless this idea took hold and and the sort of regions are patting themselves on the back for advancing equity. When there's no evidence that's what they're doing and in fact in my view it's more likely the opposite because this was actually a way to find people who didn't come from privileged background who might have a performance in a good chance of succeeding. Yeah that was the quote from the reporting on this this Faculty Task Force Study. That really stood out to me. So here's a quote from that. Report says quote. The original intent of the sat identify students who came from outside a relatively privileged circles. Who might have the potential to succeed in university? This original intent is clearly being realized at UC UNQUOTE END. The alternative without a test. It seems to me. Bill is if there's no objective measure of student aptitude even if it's imperfect if you give up on the idea of that totally it sort of just muddies. The waters admissions departments. Have a free hand to do whatever they want and to not be questioned about a Harvard has been sued for allegedly discriminating against Asian Americans. In part of that argument is that they have Those applicants have better overall test scores. But if you don't have test scores for everybody on file on record it makes a makes it harder to make the argument that the admissions process is unfair or rigged. Yes I say Bingo Kyle because when you make system more subjective I mean college. Admissions is already a very murky process for most students and parents to go through. You make these subjective considerations powerful and I think actually give advantage to the people that they're trying to take the advantage from wealthier people that have contacts. You know you look at the Varsity Blues Scandal. How they exploited. The wealthy people were able to exploit different loopholes and so forth with athletes. Now they cheated at some of it but it just opens the door to that kind of thing when you don't have an objective system you know it used to be a lot of people thought per year example before that objective tests for example ended discrimination against Jewish students who did very well but were kept out. Because of all other subjective considerations this gave them a path in on merit. So there's a lot of arguments here in a one is whether the sat's are good indicator of college performance or some debate over that the College Board itself says that the best indicator is grades plus their entrance tests Again the the argument here seems to be equity. But it's just interesting that the answer is to throw a test rather than say give kids in these crummy schools that are applying. Give them an option. Go to a good school. You know charter school parochial school or start. Having the state offer some college prep courses itself to help. Give these kids The same chance that the wealthier kids have instead. We're just saying let's eliminate the standard because we don't like the outcome well the the UC Faculty Task Force report. I think I think they took a stand on whether it predicted. Success Right yes so it's interesting that the UCLA is sort of overruling. Its own faculty expert. Advice there But Jason I wonder I mean the. Uc system is huge. There's a lot of students a lot of professors a lot of administrators there and I wonder whether there are other schools around the country. That may be looking at this in taking their cues from this. I mean I know I believe. The University of Chicago has gone to a test optional for applicants or their other schools that are you know maybe following suit here or at least considering it. There's a lot of schools that have gone test optional as you said but going test optional as somewhat of a different different beast because some schools kind of do that so that you know kids with better scores will then submit their scores. But they're still using it for the vast majority I think with Chicago. They said eighty to eighty five to ninety percent had still submitted scores with the. Uc is saying is they're saying we're optional Next year and then we're basically dot you know were eliminated. We won't consider it even if you submit it So I don't just because I think schools find it important tool for their value proposition. They're saying we want to let people in who are likely to graduate and likely to succeed and this is an important tool for them to help discern that and so they'd have to be very sort of politically motivated in under a lot of political pressure. Like the you see in order to go all the way. I I doubt that other schools will follow all the way. But but who knows right one last thing The public tryout to be Joe Biden's running-mate continues and the latest news. Is that Amy Klobuchar the Minnesota Senator is reportedly going through some formal vetting bill. How do you think that she stacks up in terms of the possible? Picks I think she's she stacks. Well look one of the dilemmas. They have the choice after make. Are we gonna get someone that's really going to solidify the left and get them out there or are we going to get someone? That's more traditionally in the you know the democratic middle that might appeal to the Mid West where there are a lot of battleground states. And I think that Amy. Klobuchar probably fits that ladder bill pretty well especially if Joe Biden is comfortable that he's going to do well with African American Support. It might make sense to kind of shore up that Middle Look it also in the in the in the contest against Donald Trump. I think the vice president has made some mistakes in that he seems to be opting to out trump trump which. I don't think he can do I don't think it's possible. I think led to a bunch of gaffes. I think what he wants to do is say I offer something really different. A return to civility Reasonableness and so forth. I think that's Amy Klobuchar might do. I think she did pretty well in the debates in the sense of she may not have carried all the arguments but I think she carried herself. Well was pretty forceful and an actually would fit in comfortably with the within a Biden Administration. Yet that may be true though. I suspect that the Progressive Wing of the Party would be pretty upset at that choice. And it's it's interesting to see some of the other maneuvering here. So Elizabeth. Warren is a good example She spent the whole campaign Basically talking about and then defending Medicare for all and this week. She was talking to some students at the University of Chicago. And here's a quote from her. She said quote. I think right now. People WanNA see improvements in our healthcare system and that means strengthening the affordable care act unquote. I mean. Maybe I'm wrong but to me. That looks like a clear attempt to align herself. Jason with the Joe Biden Agenda. Here I think I think everyone's Joe's veepstakes in part because Joe Biden is unlikely to serve two terms. He even said he was even considering or reported to be considering making a one term. Pledge at one point so I think whoever is the vice president a Joe Biden administration is automatically the front runner. And I think that's part of what's Driving a lot of the interest and I think you know just on the point of is it better to pick the left or to pick sort of traditional Democrats. I mean not that anyone cares about my advice but it seems to me. Biden is leading in the polls. Why make a risky pick if he is so far ahead in the polls pick somebody non-threatening don't don't sort of create new lines of attack and that would seem to me to be the wiser course you? I think that's a reasonable point. Do No harm Even if you end up picking somebody who is bland and is not adding much the ticket that applies to anyone specific that. I'm talking about no offense to miss clover but Bill do you buy that argument? Look I think the is going to be very mad? I think I mean this is a problem. He has to deal with Bernie. Sanders is keeping his delegates. He wants a lot of say over the Over the final platform. The question is how many costs Does a Bernie Sanders impose on Joe Biden? Joe Biden moved a long way in the Progressive Direction and Bernie. Sanders didn't move an inch from his positions on this and Ken Joe Biden really campaign the reasonable alternative if he's going to abreast embrace the entire progressive agenda while we We may find out here shortly but Thank you bill and Jason. Thank you for listening. We'll be back next week with another edition of Potomac Watch.
TAKEOUT OUTTAKE ESPECIAL: JANET NAPOLITANO
"From CBS news. This is the takeout with major Garrett. That's me, welcome back with Tenley bar and grill for your Tuesday, take out take speciale continue our conversation with genitalia Tahoe. Former secretary the department of homeland security, currently, the president of the university of California system, that means us for university of California Berkeley, UCLA, my hometown of San Diego has a UC school. An excellent scientific college university of California, San Diego, lots and lots of other universities. That's a massive massive job. I wanna ask you, two questions about that job. What is your interpretation of the college admissions scandal? Number one. Number two. There have been recent reports state, Penn State many, many years ago, UCSE of prominent individuals in those institutions sexually abusing students, help bigger those two issues. And when you are university, president of the system is biggest university of California. How much of that those issues take up your day-to-day brain space? So the cheating scandal, actually, we had a now former soccer coach at UCLA who took a bribe and student was admitted pursuant to that, that's in your backyard. So that's right, there UCLA's, one of our schools. And so we're doing our own internal. Audit of admissions. We'd hundreds of thousands of applications every year. We don't do donor related emissions. We don't do legacy admissions, but we do have a category special admissions for athletes performance artists, and the like, we wanna make sure our campuses have appropriate checks and balances to make sure that those special admits are indeed qualified and it looks to me from the outside. If someone looked at that thought of something kind of clever and thought of something that you didn't, or those broadly overseeing this didn't and game the system. Well, look, you know, there was criminal activity, and as far as we can tell at the UC, it's an outlier and, but we want the public to be confident that we turned very square corners on admissions. So we're doing our own internal work to make sure that. If we need to because people have got to believe that system is on the up. That's right. And, and I believe, fundamentally it is, but I think there are probably some areas that can be tightened up a little bit. So we can do that. When you look at the Ohio State, USC Penn State situations institutional problems of sexual exploitation. Yeah. So, you know, you've got to have systems in place where Michigan state also as part of that. Oh, yeah. Michigan state for sure. So you have to have systems in place in a culture. That's that says, when someone is a survivor of a sexual assault. They know how to report it they'll be supported as they reported, they'll get counseling. They'll get advice that. The there will be escalation to the right levels of the university, so that the respond we call the respondent beat a faculty member or another student or what have you. So that appropriate action is taken fairly, but swiftly in those instances, so and the university system writ large behind the times on them. You know, you know, I actually think the Orissa California is a bit ahead of its time, but we had to play a lot of catch up and we're still not perfect. We're still improving in the law keeps changing as we go. So sitting volving landscape that we're operating against right. Very good. So this is the fun game. So there's a little heavy but I there does big issues relevant to your current job. And I don't wanna make sure people know that you're doing heavyweight work now as well as work, you did it to harm of homeland security. So this is the fun games part where we lighten up a little bit and. One of the ways that I do that. And one of the ways that my audience gets a real sense of who sitting across from me at the table is our three threshold questions. Every every guest gets them and the answers are great because they tell a lot about a person, so in no particular order, the most influential book in your life, your favorite movie, or one of your all time favorite movies. And if you're on a long flight or a long drive, what kind of music genre or artist. Are you most likely to listen to? Most influential book. I would. I would say, simple Justice, which is history of Brown v board of education, you know, it also encompasses of the early years of the civil rights movement, and for my audience Brown versus board of education, the landmark supreme court decision that, that disallowed segregated in public separate, but. Yeah, oh overturned Plessey versus. And it's it's a book I read in in law school. It's why I stayed in law school. And. Good book. Yeah. It's, it's a great read. So simple. Simple, Justice favorite movie of. One of the ways I help people with, that is if you're at home, and you're flipping through and you see it, you stop CASA Blanca. We had a lot. Yeah. I bet you do you know. Donna chalet lake identified that favorite movie on this program as well. Gosh, I came to CASA Blanca with the waters cost Lanka's in the desert, I was informed. Give us a dramatic rendering. Well, Janet Napolitano, okay? Book movie what was the third one using oh music fighter long drive? What are you listen to flight long drive? You know what I love opera? Do you hear that occasionally? Yeah. I really do. And. A long drive a little call them in. In my residence, we call it Joe green, which is just. Sepe. Verdy. So we'll, we'll just put a little Joe green. I was not expected that when you when you went to opera is not expecting Joe green, but I see how you got there. Operas sensually as opposed to more popularized operatic versions of plays and things like that. Yeah. Yeah. Classical op. So I when I talked to people about opera I tried a couple of times in my life to get into it. I'm sort of still working at it. I don't find it captivating. What is it about opera that moves you? Oh, it's such a great art form. You know, it's, it's, it's music, it's, it's drama comedy. It's orchestral its voice. Beautiful. Staging. It's, it's all the things that go into a wonderful performance when I've been transported in. It's been very rarely it is a place where you can, if you are of the proper frame of mind, and maybe it's just me. You can't get lost in it in a very pleasing way. Yeah. Oh, yeah. But for me, it's very hard to get in that frame of mind. I'm maybe I'm to just eighty or something I don't know. Yeah. Tickets slow and. You know, if you if you're beginning oppor-, there's there are some that are. Yeah. Suggests are approachable I would say, LA Boheme or Madam. Butterfly both by seeing. Form live at the Kennedy Center it was amazing. Yeah. Yeah. Cozy find to Tabei Mozart might be another one Toscano. Of course. So those are very good. See, that's what we do here, the takeout especia- we have fun games. And we layer it with more information. So now I'm gonna go back and I'm going to jot down some of my notes on opera and try yet again, it'll be the third or fourth time I've tried to penetrate, the what seems to me, emotionally, impenetrable world of opera, but people who love opera say, it's exactly the opposite. It's the most emotionally welcoming place in, in the field of music. Yeah. Yes. And you know I started getting into opera in, in high school. Guests, I guess earlier than most. Yeah. And but I also love classic rock to so I'm not a total nerd. Just just let the record show, but I didn't wasn't able to attend live opera until I was out of college. So I was a little older. There you go. That's Janet Napolitano or special guests this weekend. It's been a pleasure. Thanks so much. Thank you. Made your pickup next week. New episodes of takeout or available Friday mornings, wherever you get your podcasts takeout is produced by Arden Faris. Kateyana Crescenzio, Jamie Benson, and Sarah cook CBS end production by Alexander. Eric SU Sonnen and grey Segers, follow us on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, takeout podcast. That's at takeout podcast. And for more, visit takeout podcast dot com, the takeout is a production of CBS News Radio.
Takeout Outtake Especial: Janet Napolitano
"From CBS news. This is the takeout with major Garrett. That's me. Welcome back with Tenley bar and grill for your Tuesday, take out take a special continue our conversation with Jen and Apollo Tahoe. Former secretary the department of homeland security currently the president of the university of California system. That means us university of California Berkeley UCLA, my hometown of San Diego has a UC school. An excellent scientific college university, California, Santa lots and lots of other universities. That's a massive massive job. I wanna ask you, two questions about that job. What is your terp relation of the college admissions scandal? Number one. Number two. There have been recent reports state, Penn State many, many years ago, UCSE of prominent individuals in those institutions sexually abusing students how bigger those two issues and when you are university, president of the system is biggest university of California. How much of that those issues take up your day to day brain space? So the cheating scandal, actually, we had a now former soccer coach at UCLA who took a bribe and student was admitted pursuant to that, that's in your backyard. So that's right, there UCLA's, one of our schools. And so we're doing our own internal. Audit of admissions. We get hundreds of thousands of applications every year. We don't do donor related emissions. We don't do legacy admissions, but we do have a category. A special admissions for athletes performance artists, and the like, we wanna make sure our campuses have appropriate checks and balances to make sure that those special admits are indeed qualified and it looks to me from the outside. If someone looked at that thought of something kind of clever and thought of something that you didn't, or those broadly overseeing this didn't and game the system. Well. Look, you know, there was criminal activity, and as far as we can tell at the UC, it's an outlier and, but we want the public to be confident that we turned very square corners on admissions. So we're doing our own internal work to make sure that if we need to because people have got to believe that system is on the up and up. That's right. And, and I believe, fundamentally it is, but I think there are probably some areas that can be tightened up a little bit. So we can do that. When you look at the Ohio State, USC Penn State situations institutional problems of sexual exploitation. Yes. So, you know, you've got to have systems in place where Michigan state also part of that. Oh, yeah. Michigan state for sure. So you have to have systems in place in a culture. That's that says, when someone is a survivor of a sexual assault. They know how to report it. They'll. Be supported as they reported, they'll get counseling. Get advice that. The there will be escalation to the right levels of the university, so that the respond we call the respondent beat a faculty member or another student or what have you. So that appropriate action is taken fairly, but swiftly in those instances, so and the university system writ large behind the times on them. You know, I actually think the university of California is a bit ahead of its time, but we had to play a lot of catch up and we're still not perfect. We're still improving in the law keeps changing as we go. So sitting volving landscape that we're operating against right. Very good. So this is the fun game. So there's a little heavy but I there does big issues relevant to your current job. And I don't wanna make sure people know that you're doing heavyweight work now as well as work, you did it to harm of homeland security. So this is the fun games part where we lighten up a little bit. One of the ways that I do that. And one of the ways that my audience gets a real sense of who sitting across from me at the table is our three threshold questions. Every every guest gets them and the answers are great because they tell a lot about a person, so in no particular order, the most influential book in your life, your favorite movie, or one of your all time favorite movies. And if you're on a long flight or a long drive, what kind of music genre, or artists, are you most likely to listen to? Most influential book. I would. I would say, simple Justice, which is a history of Brown v board of education, you know, it also encompasses of the early years of the civil rights movement, and for my audience Brown versus board of education, the landmark supreme court decision that, that disallowed segregated in public separate. Yeah. Oh overturned plus versus. And just it's it's a book. I read. In in law school. It's why I stayed in law school and a good book. Yeah. It's, it's a great read. So simple. Simple. Justice. Favorite movie. Oh. One of the ways I help people with, that is if you're at home and you're flipping through and you see it, you stop CASA Blanca that we had a lot. Yeah. I bet you do you know Donna chalet lake identified that as her favorite movie on this program as well. Gosh, I came to Casablanca with the waters cost Lanka's in the desert, I was missing for. Give us a dramatic rendering just if well, Janet Napolitano, okay book, movie, what was the third one using oh music fighter long drive? What are you listen to long drive? You know what I love opera? Do we hear that occasionally? Yeah. I really do. And a long drive, a little we call them. In my residence, we call it Joe green, which is just be Verdy. So we'll, we'll just put a little Joe green. I was not expected that when you when you went to opera is not expecting Joe green, but I see how you got there. Operas sensually as opposed to more popularized operatic versions of plays and things like that. Yeah. Yeah. Classical op. So I when I talked to people about opera I tried a couple of times in my life to get into it. I'm sort of still working at it. I don't find it captivating. What is it about opera that moves you? Oh, it's such a great art form. You know, it's, it's, it's music, it's, it's drama comedy. It's orchestral. It's voice. It's beautiful. Staging it's, it's all the things that go into a wonderful performance when I've been transported in. It's been very rarely it is a place where you can, if you are of the proper frame of mind, maybe it's just me. You can't get lost in it in a very pleasing way. Yeah. Oh, yeah. But for me, it's very hard to get in that frame of mind. I'm maybe I'm too just ADD or something. I don't know. Yeah. Take it slow and. You know, if you if you're beginning opera, there's there are some that are. Yeah. Would you suggest are approachable I would say, LA Boheme or Madam? Butterfly both by seeing. Form live at the Kennedy Center it was it was amazing. Yeah. Yeah. Cozy find to by Mozart might be another one Toscano. Of course. So those are very good. See, that's what we do here, the takeout especia- we have fun games. And we layer it with more information. So now I'm gonna go back and I'm going to jot down some of my notes on opera try yet. Again, it'll be the third or fourth time I've tried to penetrate, the what seems to me, emotionally, impenetrable world of opera, but people who love opera say, it's exactly the opposite. It's the most emotionally welcoming place in, in the field of music. Yeah. Yes. And you know I started getting into opera in, in high school. Guests, I guess earlier than most. Yeah. And but I also have classic rock to so I'm not a total nerd. Just just let the record show, but I didn't wasn't able to attend live opera until I was out of college. So I was a little older. There you go. That's Janet Napolitano or special guests this weekend. It's been a pleasure. Thanks so much. Thank you. I made your it's been the tickets next week, new episodes of takeout or available Friday mornings, wherever you get your podcasts takeout is produced by Arden Faris. Kateyana Crescenzio, Jamie Benson, and Sarah cook CBS end production by Alex, Eric SU Sonnen and grey, Segers, follow us on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, takeout podcast. That's at takeout podcast. And for more, visit takeout podcast dot com, the takeout is a production of CBS News Radio.
Los Angeles Times 11/17/20
"It's tuesday november seventeenth. I'm kyle sour hoffer. And here's your local news from the los angeles times presented by the salvation army in a year with fewer red. Kettles help rescue christmas for the most vulnerable to give ask your smart speaker to make a donation to the salvation army or joni that salvation. Army usa dot org today will be mostly sunny but cooler with a high around seventy six degrees and a low of fifty five our top story as corona virus cases blank across california. Governor gavin newsom dramatically. Move nearly half of the state's counties into the most restrictive to your status yesterday. This means that many businesses and those counties will have to suspend or severely limit their endure operations last week. Thirteen of california's fifty counties were in the purple tier signaling widespread transmission on the virus. Newsom announced twenty eight more counties were regressing though and now roughly ninety four percent of californians are in the most restrictive tier among the counties that have newly fallen back into the purple tier are orange. Ventura santa barbara kern and san luis obispo counties in crime news. The university of california system. Pay seventy three million dollars on her proposed settlement in a class. Action lawsuit filed by seven women. Who accused of former. Ucla gynecologist of sexual abuse. James heaps is accused in the civil litigation of sexual assault and sexual misconduct from one thousand nine hundred eighty three to two thousand and nineteen. The class action lawsuit could also eventually include more than sixty six hundred patients. Currently heaps his facing twenty felony counts in the criminal case. Meanwhile the civil agreement filed yesterday requires ucla to undertake seven reform measures. Ucla has been accused of keeping heaps his misconduct secret before his arrest in two thousand and nineteen in environmental news sequoia say hundreds of the towering giant trees were killed by the castle fire earlier this year in california the fire swept into the alder creek grove in the western sierra nevada on september thirteenth the towering trees had grown for well over five hundred years and lived through many wildfires and droughts but the castle fire burned through portions of roughly twenty giant sequoia groves on the western slopes of the sierra the only place on the planet they grow the castle fire is just the latest in a string of wildfire since two thousand and fifteen than a fried monarch sequoias trees that nature designed to not only withstand fire but thrive with it and finally the los angeles dodgers announced that they will host a drive through festival to celebrate their world series win and the holiday season. The rain will open on november twenty seventh and will feature a christmas light show. Led video screens artificial snow elves dressed as dodgers and santa claus. The right will be installed in parking. Lots ten and eleven at dodger stadium. Admission tickets prices will vary depending on entry. Time fans will also have to wear face masks and will be able to get out of their cars during the entire tour for these stories and more visit l. a. times dot com.
Mexico Developing Payment System with Amazon - DTH
"Real protection means having a safe and smart home custom fit to your lifestyle with ADT. You can set up automations unique to your home to automatically do things. Like lock the doors and set the thermostat when you leave even close your garage door from virtually anywhere. That's real protection with the AT go app SOS button, the safety net of eighty t is always with you. Visit ATT dot com slash podcast to learn more about how ADT can design and install a secure smart home. Just for you. And then these are the daily tech headlines for Wednesday March six twenty nineteen. I've read struggling. Reuters reports that banks Akot the central Bank of Mexico is working with Amazon on a new government back payment system. The system will be called Cody and allows users to make in person and online payments via QR code banks. Icho plans to roll out pilot trial later this month, the central Bank hopes Cody can help bring more Mexican citizens into the former financial sector where more than half of the population doesn't have a Bank account and only three point nine percent of retail sales were made online last year. Spotify announce it has added more than one million users in India across both paid and free tears since launching last week. India has a population of one point three billion with more than four hundred million smartphone users. Reuters reports that the ten sent back to Ghana service leads the Indian market with eighty million monthly users. A report by the sabre security from I defense claims twenty seven universities were targeted by Chinese hackers in an attempt to access maritime military research the attacks appeared as phishing emails from partner, universities and included a malicious payload once opened the report states the group behind the attack was likely the same group that breached a US naval contractor last June. The report listed MIT and the university of Washington as among those acted with sources telling the Wall Street Journal that Penn State and Duke were affected as well. Universities and academics have been pushing for open access to publish research for years as internet makes it easier to search and excess. Peer reviewed research journals have been pushing back as open access is seen as a threat to bottom lines. The university of California system made open access provision for its research as a requirement for renewing subscriptions to journals from Elsevier Elsevier agreed to the terms. If you see authors paid large publishing fees as a result, the university of California system, and it's ten campuses have decided not to renew subscription with Elsevier national library consortium in Germany, Hungary, and Sweden have all made the same decision. UC? Researchers will rely on pre-printed and scwhab to obtain copies of hard to obtain research. Bloomberg. Sam Kim reports that Samsung is working on two new foldable phones. According to sources, the company plans to roll a vertical clam shell foldable in late twenty nineteen or early twenty twenty possibly with the second screen on the outside of the vice when folded and outward folding device similar Dewa always make X design would follow. The company will reportedly include an increase fingerprint reader, and is still working on improving the durability affordable panels specifically to prevent a crease from carrying after ten thousand folds. John Bain general manager at glass manufacturer. Corning told where it is company is working on a bendable glass version of gorilla glass that could be available within two years. According starting a three to five millimeter bend radii for its point one millimeter thick glass, while increasing damage resistance. According mixed bendable, willow glass, but it's manufacturing process. Recurs a dip in salt solution that would corrode English transistors needed for displays Samsung and always bendable phones use plastic screens, which are likely less scratch resistant, coincidentally apple invested two hundred million in Corning in two thousand seventeen in order to support research and development. IDC is now including ear buds and headphones that connect to a smart assistant in its wearables number. Apple still leads as air pods and some beats headphones models attitude. The apple watch for total of forty six point two million in two thousand eighteen Jami came in a strong second at forty five percent with me ban. Three the best-selling. Wrist worn fitness tracker in the world. Fitbit's fell by ten percent to third while we meanwhile jumped one hundred forty seven percent, fourth and Samsung took fifth IDC notes, the disappearances of headphone jacks and the rise of inner ear, biometrics, and smart assistance. As the reason it's eas- your warned wearables as the next product. Battleground speaking it, but they announced new wearables the versa. Alight? Smartwatch starts at one hundred seventy dollars comes in a variety of colors, and retains the dimensions of the original verse device that is offer sleep at exercise tracking. But has some significant losses, including wifi NFC music playback and swim laps and floor counts. The company also officially announced the inspire and inspire HR trackers designed be bought through health insurance plans. After listening them on its website last month. Finally, there's the ace to a child focus fitness tracker that starts at seventy dollars and features a monochrome display with kid friendly animations the as two is built off the same body the inspire devices and can be firmer updated to the adult version when the child is ready, the versa, light and inspire. Devices are available for preorder. The stew will come out this summer and finally, according to an internal apple document obtained by macrumors the company will now allow devices with batteries installed by third parties to be eligible for genius bar and other authorized repairs previously apple guidelines called for denying services to devices with third party batteries, regardless of the circumstances. Remember for discussion of the tech news of the day. Subscribe to daily tech new show, a daily tech new show dot com, you can find show notes and links to all our headlines there as well. Thanks for listening. We'll talk to you next time and from all of us here at daily tech headlines. Remember have a super sparkly day.
May 22, 2020: U.S. bets big on British coronavirus vaccine
"Good Morning I'm Taylor Wilson and this is five things you need to know Friday. The Twenty second of May Twenty. Twenty here are some of the top headlines. Laurie Law Flynn and Maasim. Ojea plead guilty on Friday for their role in the Varsity Blues College. Admission scandal the University of California system is dropping. Sat and act admissions requirements and China is set to pass a national security law for Hong Kong. That the city's opposition lawmakers say could plunge the territory into major turmoil. Before we get going I want to remind you about our twitter feed at today. Podcast the best way to stay up on all things five things. If you're not already check us out and hit that follow about it. That's at USA Today. Podcast on twitter now onto the show. The US is betting more than a billion dollars on a vaccine. That doesn't exist yet. The federal government has pledged to pay as much as one point two billion for early access to three hundred million doses of an experimental cove nineteen drug being developed in England. The vaccine is in early clinical trials at the University of Oxford and licensed to British pharmaceutical giant AstraZeneca. The vaccine could be delivered as early as October but would still have to go through clinical trials before being administered the pledged money from the US as part of Operation Warp speed and effort to make a vaccine widely available by twenty twenty. One vaccine. Trials are happening around the world record paces but as George Washington University's Dr Leana Wen told the Associated Press. You could only move things so quickly. It's important that we have many different types of accion candidates because this is a new disease. We don't have previous experience with developing a specific vaccine. That's been effective against this type of coronavirus because it is new before a vaccine arrives. Americans are trying to figure out what balancing act will be needed to safely return to normal life. A huge part of that equation is widespread access to testing and federal regulators are investigating Texas lab for potentially invalid. Test results micro. Jen was recently. Dropped by Adven- health's four hospitals due to concerns about the validity of some sixty thousand tests. According to an advent health statement micro. Jen left test results at room temperature for days. The specimens should be refrigerated and frozen. The company is also selling a saliva only test without an emergency use authorization from the FDA Micro Jen CEO Rick. Morton said that. He doesn't believe the company needs one but he added that micro. Jen has begun working with the American College of pathologists on testing requirements after the advent health announcement meanwhile and Eighth Amazon employees overall has died from corona virus and Wisconsin. Health officials are worried. After thirty two workers at the Amazon campus. In Kenosha Wisconsin have contracted the virus in the past two months. Kenosha county health officer. Gen Fry Height said that the company has not fully cooperated with public health officials. Trying TO TRACK CASES INFORM WORKERS. Who MIGHT BE AT RISK? We're offered testing and other safety measures. There have now been just under nine hundred five thousand deaths in the US from corona virus as part of more than three hundred thirty three thousand around the world. A news conference is set for Friday at the Georgia Bureau of Investigation. A day after the bureau announced the arrest of the man who filmed the shooting death of Ahmad. Aubrey fifty-year-old Roddy. Brian has been charged with felony murder and criminal intent to commit false imprisonment. The arrests marks the third in relation to the fatal shooting of Twenty Five Year. Old Black Man Ahmad armory in February previously sixty four year. Old Gregory McMichael. A former police officer and is thirty. Four year. Old Son Travis. Michael were arrested all three men or white and the shooting has led to protests demanding justice. Like this one on Ahmad Birthday earlier this month. Meanwhile the latest man arrested Roddy. Brian says he did nothing wrong. Truthfully needs to be cleared of this because I had nothing to do with it I'm trying to get my life back to normal and it's been smeared but the district attorney who previously led the investigation into Aubrey's death said that Brian joined the two suspects in hot pursuit of who was shot and killed while jogging just two miles from his home near Brunswick Georgia attorneys for Aubrey's parents said that they called for Brian's arrests from the very beginning and the family is reportedly relieved. Macy's closed up at stores in March during the coronavirus pandemic but the chain is slowly reopening and will open the doors to eighty locations on Friday ahead of Memorial Day weekend stores. Reopening can be found in Connecticut Florida Hawaii Minnesota Missouri Pennsylvania and Virginia most other locations are offering curbside pickup. The chain also previously announced changes to its shopping experience including it. No touch consultations in butte apartments and the suspension of alteration services. Macy's expects losses of more than one point one billion dollars for the quarter. The annual travel season is officially here but travelers and the businesses that cater to them face unprecedented uncertainty in the time of Corona virus many major attractions and vacation destinations remained closed. Flights have been cut. Dramatically and international travel is next to impossible to many locations with closed borders plus even if a destination is open for business and points A and B has lifted stay at home mortars. Many people are weary of travel with a deadly virus. Still out there and others are thrown off by new safety precautions like mandatory mask use and temperature checks once you throw in massive job losses. Summer vacation at least in the first couple months might be canceled this year. The woman behind the pseudonym Jane Roe the landmark Supreme Court case Roe versus Wade is challenging the narrative that she changed her mind about abortion due to religious realization but a new fx documentary. Airing on Friday Cold Aka Jane Roe also looks beyond that at Norma mccorvey complex. Life my deathbed confession. It was nineteen sixty nine. I was pregnant and I was scared. These two attorneys looking for plaintiff to help overturn the Texas abortion laws with Roe versus Wade. normal corvee. Aka Jane Roe. I came from a rough childhood. We were poor Berles but my mom told me wears dirty. She was an abused. When I was sixteen. I got married. I said I'm pregnant. And he hit me. A lot of people are Shaw. I've never had an ABORTION NORMA. Mccorvey became embodiment of the pro choice. 'cause I'm not a demure perfect white lady. You can tune in at nine PM Eastern and Pacific on F X or. Check IT OUT ON. Hulu beginning on Saturday. Thanks for listening to five things. A reminder you can subscribe for free and rate and review on Apple podcasts. You can also catch US wherever you get your audio Monday through Saturday. Thanks as always declare Thornton for her work on the show five things is part of the USA. Today podcast network.
Thursday, February 20, 2020 - The Christian Science Monitor Daily
"Welcome to the. Monitor daily podcast. It's Thursday February twentieth. Thanks for joining us. I'm Linda Feldmann and I'm nate Richards. Last night's democratic debate was fantastic. Not because any particular candidate won or lost but because the candidates took the gloves off and went after each other in the process we the people learn something Senator Elizabeth. Warren showed us. Her fighting spirit is back as she went after Michael Bloomberg on his nondisclosure agreements and past coarse language about women. The former New York mayor reminded us that debating is not his forte as Senator Bernie Sanders and former vice president Joe Biden went after him on. Stop and Frisk. The mega billionaire Mr Bloomberg appearing in his first presidential debate and Senator Sanders A self-described democratic socialist brought to life the class warfare afoot in the Democratic Party. And we learned that Senator Amy Klobuchar and former Mayor Pete Buddha judge to mid Westerners who scored well in Iowa and New Hampshire. Don't like each other much by attacking each other. They only helped Mr Sanders. The Democratic Front runner grilling candidates on their pasts including financial and medical records and surfacing differences in thought or what political debates are all about and a service to voters debates are not exercises in finding common ground. One of the six people on stage in Las Vegas will go up against president. Donald Trump in the fall and whoever that is will face. The Battle of a lifetime. Wednesday night was just a warm up now to our five stories which explore the rising political influence of American Latinos electoral disillusionment in Iran and life in an increasingly overcrowded refugee camp our first story the first primary contests a majority minority state. Saturday's caucuses in Nevada could also offer clues about the role. Latino voters will play in the fall. Democrats are working hard to organize knowing high. Latino turnout will be necessary to beat. President trump this year for the first time ever Latinos are expected to become the largest racial or ethnic minority eligible to vote in presidential election. How many of them will do so. And whether they will tip things one way or the other remains unknown but Saturday's caucus and Nevada where Latinos make up. Nearly a third of the population will provide some early clues Bernie Sanders campaign started targeting the Latino communities in Nevada last June. In recent weeks the senator from Vermont has been outspending all but billionaire. Tom Steyer in Spanish language. Advertising here experts say Senator Sanders grassroots. Organizing helps explain why the self-proclaimed democratic socialist is leading among likely Democratic voters in Nevada. And the nation. He's using a lot of Latino youth to connect with other Latino. Youth Says Mindy Romero an expert on the Latino vote at the University of Southern California. Still he's struggled to win support among older voters. Anybody but Bernie says one spirited octogenarian exiting a town hall sponsored by the For United Latin American citizens. He's lying to young people. She says filling their heads with unrealistic ideas. This story was reported by Francine Keefer in Las Vegas Nevada for the Monitor. Voting represents more than making a choice. It's an affirmation of faith in the system been in Iran this year and increasingly dejected citizenry and insecure. Leadership are lowering projections for turnout. Iranians vote in parliamentary elections Friday and officials from the supreme leader. I A- Tola. A Li hominy on down have all but begged citizens to show up. So they can equate high voter turnout with continued popular support for. Iran's nine thousand nine hundred seventy nine Islamic revolution. But after a year of setbacks for the country voters disappointment and anger at the ruling system and its inability to improve their lives have led to one of the most lacklustre campaigns in recent memory. The candidates ranks have been purged of thousands of moderate and reformist voices and turn out is expected to be at record lows. I did vote in the past but not anymore. How can I give a seal of approval on this regimes? Performance Asks Yasser a taxi driver in Tehran. His cellphone business went bust increasingly Iranians. Use the word hopelessness regarding their economic plate and disdain for politics many Iranians want the regime to reform itself but they are realizing it cannot says one Iran expert so hopelessness is precisely the right word. Because you're stuck in a system you don't know how to impact in a positive direction. This story was reported by Scott Peterson in London for the Monitor. How does Greece still an economic recovery handle being host to its largest influx of refugees since the peak of the crisis almost five years ago our reporter visits the choke point the island of Lesbos as his two year old stops around the mud and blows kisses Caralis abry explains how he and his family fled fighting and Taliban repression in his native conducive province in Afghanistan traveling through Pakistan Iran and Turkey? They reached the Greek island of less bus like thousands of others. The savary family lives in a box shaped shack covered with plastic sheeting and the huge overflow area that sprawls across former olive groves. The original Mariah camp named for the town nearby was designed to hold two thousand eight hundred people. There are now close to twenty thousand and about a third of them are children. The United Nations says nearly two thousand unaccompanied youths are spread across facilities on five a gene islands. Here in Greece. Athens announced a plan to dramatically. Speed up the processing of asylum requests deport failed asylum seekers back to Turkey build new camps and transferred tens of thousands of refugees to the Greek mainland. But adding to the new conservative government's challenge our islanders protesting the planned new camps and mainlanders objecting to the re locations when the first refugees arrived we welcomed them with love says Afro De de de Leonie. Who says her grocery shop had been broken into six times but now things have changed. This story was reported by Nick. Squires in Greece for the Monitor how should US colleges convey fairness and gain the public's trust as they look for ways to have more inclusive campuses? Some schools are considering whether to keep legacy admissions. Johns Hopkins University started the year with a big announcement. Since two thousand fourteen. It has no longer been using family alumni ties as a factor in admission to Baltimore. School joins a cluster of notable exceptions to the use of legacy admissions including the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of California system. The announcement revitalizes the debate over legacy policies and comes amid a growing call for elite institutions to regain the trust of a skeptical public by prioritizing equity and transparency with lower income and less educated families representing the fastest growing supply of students. Many campuses are starting to rethink longstanding practices and as the public gains more insight into how admissions have typically worked at Lea- institutions through the Harvard admissions trial last year. For instance selective colleges are facing more scrutiny about legacy and other admissions categories that have tended to favor the wealthy Johns Hopkins reports that legacy students have fallen to three point. Five percent in the two thousand nineteen freshman class from twelve point. Five percents in two thousand nine. Just before a phase out of legacy admissions began the number of pell grant eligible. Students grew from nine percent to nineteen point one percent in the same period. It makes me proud of my Alma. Mater says Hopkins Alumna Pre. Sarah Gupta Chair of the Massachusetts Alumni Group and makes the process a little bit more fair. This story was reported by Stacey. Hi Shir Carroo for the Monitor. Most of life on earth goes unseen. It's too small out of you or simply overlooked by humans. Scientists like Jennifer mackel lady worked to bring it to light. This story is part of beyond the microscope. An occasional series on the people and stories driving discovery deep in the use of subterranean caverns microscopic life thrives. No sunlight reaches it and it's out of sight and out of mind for most humans but not for Jennifer mackel lady. She Studies Cave. Slime probing the biggest mysteries of biology within unexplored diversity of microbes. Those underground ecosystems offer a broader view of what life can look like on earth and might hold clues about extraterrestrial life to in her office at Pennsylvania State University Dr Michael Lady Points to photos of white feathery specimens and hot. Sulfuric Caves two Fuzzy Brown microbial masses that are like being on the inside of a teddy bear and to a stretchy white substance in hot cave that she calls silk in a field. Where so much is still unknown? Biologists estimate we've identified less than one percent of microbial species there's plenty to explore and the terrestrial subsurface she says is arguably the least explored habitat on the planet. There's a tremendous amount of potential for humanity for understanding life on a planet. Just picking away at this blackness. That is microbial life on Earth says Dr Michael Lady. This story was reported by Amanda Paulson in State College. Pennsylvania for the Monitor now commentary on charity in China. From the Monitor's editorial board the magnitude of the Corona virus outbreak in China has triggered a remarkable magnanimity in January after doctors who bay province made urgent please on social media for supplies. Chinese citizens poured in massive donations in fact the level of charity has been so overwhelming that the Communist Party has tried to put a stop to it or at least redirect it. The private generosity has become an embarrassing sign of a rising distrust in the ruling party and its to the health crisis. The distrust burst onto social media with stories of official cover-ups of the outbreak and the inefficient distribution of medical supplies. People were angry that donations to party control. Charities were simply handed over to the government and not given directly to hospitals one professor posted an article saying hospitals and individuals. Enjoy the right to receive donations as in nature. Love abhors vacuum of love. The Chinese people have risen up with loving hearts to fill an absence of trust in their leaders. One way or another the high level of charity in China will reach those laid low by the corona virus. That's a wrap for the news. You can find the full length versions of these stories in today's issue or see US monitor dot com slash daily. Thanks for joining us today. Come back tomorrow when we'll take you on the road with poems on wheels a program that enriches the lives of homebound seniors with a bit of poetry. Today's Christian Science Spiritual Perspective contributor shares. How sometimes qualities of good leadership can seem elusive? But a humble desire to follow God's leading empowers us to demonstrate more trustworthy wise and grace filled leadership you can find the column in today's issue or at CS monitor dot com slash daily. We want to give a quick thanks to our staff. Including today's audio production team Samantha Lane purpose and Jeff Burton. This podcast is produced by the Christian. Science Monitor Copyright Twenty Twenty.
Episode 221: Americas Undocumented Students
"Student can be stressful enough. But when you're an undocumented immigrant there are many additional hurdles in your way from figuring out what if any financial aid you qualify for to navigating the university administration undocumented immigrants can often feel unsupported and excluded on their campuses so who are the undocumented students on America's campuses and what exactly are there experiences like at our country's colleges and universities what more can university administrations in faculty do to support them. And what's the role of Dhaka and all this and lastly with the Supreme Court soon to vote on the future of the program? What could happen to these students? Hi I'm Lizzie. Getty Erlich this is the scholars strategy networks. No jargon. Each week we discussed in American policy problem of one of the nation's top researchers without jargon on this week's episode I spoke to say you'll Camacho. She's a post doctoral fellow at Vanderbilt University and former scholars strategy network postdoctoral fellow. You're with us. She's also currently working on the policies for Action Research Hud funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Here's our conversation. So you'll thanks for coming on jargon. Thank you for having me. Always happy to speak to an old friend and colleague and of course you study among various things the experiences of undocumented students in the US so you know just start out by giving us a lay of the land. How many undocumented students are there in America? How many are at the k? Through twelve level and then how many are currently in higher education or beyond that now? Because you know I think the timelines for when this policy began are a little confusing and people's ages actually matter in this case yeah the topic of undocumented people in the United States is an American story and by that I mean nationally more than sixteen point seven million people have at least one undocumented family member living with them and of those families Nearly fifty percent are you born or naturalized citizens so while there's an overall decline right now of undocumented people queue anti immigrant rhetoric policies and practices the United States has more immigrants than any other country in the world. And so I'm saying this because immigrants immigrant origin families undocumented. People are part of our fabric of society in the same way that you are perceived to be regardless of documentation status so specific to undocumented youth A. R. K. through twelve student population. There's an estimated one point one million undocumented children that are currently in the United States and approximately one hundred thousand students graduate from high school every day every year who are undocumented. So as it pertains to the post-secondary population I think the most recent estimates indicate that approximately four hundred fifty thousand undocumented immigrants students are enrolled in two to four year postsecondary institutions for the first time pursuing a post secondary degree and they make up two percent of all students enrolled in US higher education. Okay so not not a tiny amount of people and in fact Someone that you may know. Even though you may not know that you know it you know it's pervasive enough that that sounds like that's the case for a lot of us and tell us a little bit you know what learned from your research which you've done a lot of interviews folksy pretty intimate knowledge about people's lives what's it like to be an undocumented college students in general of course and then also right now You already very briefly mentioned that we have some pretty anti immigrant policies and attitudes. That are kind of gaining traction here. So I imagine that's changed how people feel and then of course we're also recording this interview while the covid nineteen pandemic is still very much a thing in everyone's lives and and we understand that the way you might deal with that is different for college students and then is different for undocumented. College Students You know just tell us some more about what kind of challenges an undocumented college student in America right now is facing. I think it's important to frame this conversation by just remembering that. The well-being in socioeconomic gains of undocumented. People is our collective well-being socioeconomic progress as a nation so to offer a counterpoint to the current anti immigration sentiments policies in rhetoric It's important to remember that a documented humidity is inherent S. not for debate. Least in this conversation I can agree to those terms so I think it's also important to consider how just a status of being immigrant origin means that you're inherently one ruble so children of immigrant origin regardless of status are more likely to live in poverty remain uninsured and not complete a secondary or tertiary education and have worsened health outcomes. These things called dimensions of immigrate marginality. And I'm going to review them. This is jargon so what it means. Is these additionally vulnerable in society so being of immigrant origin and if my parents have low levels of education or unemployment that makes me more marginalized if my parents were. I have newcomer status. Meaning we have less Social Economic Employment Capital right any sort of language barriers that you experience being racialist in being a visible minority research studies demonstrate that right now the term Hispanic Hispanic is problematic so I prefer determined next. I'm just quoting the study. Being Hispanic is now associated with illegal illegal is associated with bad right In this is due people's perception of you and your ethnicity and your education and your status in society all of those things come into play in the that you perceive me and you perceive my place in society so you can imagine how those are more compounded if you're undocumented there's this really great by His by sent us. It's titled Growing Up in documented and she does a really great job of illustrating how the stress of crossing the border the uncertainty and fear that you live with about your status being found about your status or the possibility of being separated from your family the trauma that is family separation if if you do have to experience that in how anti immigration efforts disrupt appearance ability to parent so undocumented. Children in general have inadequate to nutrition healthcare. Care in this field type of toxic stress In the definition is the strong unrelievable activation of the body stress management system in the absence of protective adult support. So all of that is to say that these effects are cumulative trauma anxiety and fear are not insular or one time experiences the ongoing trauma and uncertainty of affects your brain development and health and education outcomes for yourself your family in the communities that you inhabit Speaking of communities that you inhabit to does the experience of an undocumented college student who's dealing with all those various kind of intersecting traumas based on their own lives their parents lives. You know so many different things going into that does it vary by location. Is this something. That's really universal for everyone who is undocumented right now in the United States are because states have different laws and policies or levels of enforcing federal policies is a different for someone in California versus someone in South Carolina. It is different. It's the SALIENCE place without meat. Policies at local state levels really make a difference in terms of what is accessible to me whether it's a you ability to get a license and that means that I can have car insurance and get to and from work safely or a the ability to pay in state tuition rate and so maybe a possibility of obscuring that post secondary education is more possible. These are all things that states determine And then even more locally is organizations in the places that we work at sort of policies or procedures they have to make sure that undocumented people feel supportive and safe in the post secondary institutions are inclusive spaces so generally undocumented students face a lot of challenges. The process of coming to terms with their documented status happens typically in high school in. What we know are coming of age processes. So when you and I will I'm former undocumented persons who we had different experience but possibly when you were in the process of thinking about college or thinking about getting your license of driving for the first time. You're coming of age experiences that socialize. You what it means to be. And what are the possibilities are our dreams that are within reach as a former undocumented person you know when I was undocumented I? I couldn't enroll in the class that prepares you to drive because I knew I couldn't get a license and before graduating high school I had to return to Mexico to hope my papers and that was really terrifying moment because I had grown up in the United States might entire life wanting to go to college at being a straight a student in seeing myself in college but not knowing if that was going to be an actual possibility at the time. We're GONNA talk about this assure. Dako in place the undocumented and unafraid movement didn't exist being documented whiz very much like being in the closet and so all of this is to say that the things that you experience isn't undocumented person as a child are compounded more so the older you get and in Highschool your life becomes very limited in terms of what you can or cannot access in these policies that really make a difference in terms of what's possible and I mean in some ways I recognized that the kind of coming of age process is very intertwined with rights and Citizenship. Which is again as someone who's never had to question that or have that enter my own. Life wasn't something I thought about. You know when we talk about learning to drive buying alcohol or something for the first time like all of these kind of milestones. That typically means that you have. Some form of government issued an invitation. You know or were able to enroll in certain programs or get financial aid for school. Those are all things that are difficult enough in their own right. When you have all the paperwork that you're required to we don't really think about how intertwined with your actual personal growth in aging. He known what that would be. Like if you didn't have those so that's that's really interesting to remind those of us who have never had to question our citizenship status about what that's like and of course to take it back you know specifically to undocumented students in universities you've focused on some of your research on the University of California system. I mean. Tell me a little bit more about that. What specifically were you looking at? What did you find out? So I'll start by sharing a story and then I'll dive into the research because the story touches on the dimensions of Marginality Aka. How difficult it is to to grow up documented in the US in the started challenges that you experienced within and beyond school so my ssn plug scholars strategy network postdoctoral fellow. I worked with rubber inside on the national undocumented research project and we recently published the long term impact of Decca forging futures despite Dhaka's uncertainty. Its policy report that synthesized. Longitudinal data of Dhaka recipients from two thousand thirteen to two thousand nineteen and I had the privilege of interviewing in working with Ramiro an immigrant rights activists in extraordinary human being who story we include in the report. So Ramiro is a survivor of a household dysfunction neglect and abuse he suffered neglected abuses a child And by the age of ten he and his sister were orphans. He had siblings though that lived in New York and they offered him alone when he was a child for him and his sister to cross the border income to the US so they are what we would refer to as unaccompanied minors when they crossed the border and who was it that offered the loan. It was his own family or who eats siblings in New York and And so they decided that that was their chance of homes Survival so when they came to the US Thirteen years of age and he couldn't go to school because he had to assume financial responsibility as a child pay back the loan so he worked in the informal labor market in. Imagine right your child. You don't have documents. Who is going to hire you And what are the things that you're going to have to survive in the workplace environment? So he experienced a lot of exploitation and abuse within the workplace but was able to payback. His Loan. Survive as soon as he could. He went back to community college in since he didn't have K. Through twelve education he completed a remedial education and then associates degree and he had dreams of being a doctor for people like him and people who didn't have access to Kelp Healthcare of course is brilliant accepted to top public university completed his undergraduate studies and is currently working to research related jobs in the medical field in studying to take the end cap so. I'm sharing his story not to Romanticize grid or resilience but to give context to the quote. It's the report about the importance of policy. Work Policies have a huge impact on individuals for my own experience. Being a person who works hard. Who doesn't give up these kinds of opportunities and these kinds of policies helped me go onto my next step. They are extremely important. There's lot of people like me. Who are out there doing amazing things in accomplishing the impossible. Just with a little bit of help. From these policies many many of us have become teachers. Many of us have become doctors. Many of us have become organizers. Social workers you name it. Even business entrepreneurs it has had a huge impact to benefit society as a whole so definitely urge politicians in other people who have a voice to stand up to Xena phobic and racist policies because that is affecting a lot of people who are trying to good for this country so my immigrant story is different in immigrant. Stories are diverse. But when I started my graduate school experience journey path at University of California Los Angeles The School of Education and Information Studies. I understood how transformative in how a courageous people like Ramiro were. That came out about their study. Came out about their status and really changed the narrative and I felt a huge amount of debt. Even though at that time I was a permanent resident to make sure that higher education institutions were spaces where people like Ramiro could feel safe and supported and could realize their dreams because I could very easily had to overcome a circumstance in more so as a graduate student. I was very involved with May Union owes a union steward Andersen opportunity to expand rights for undocumented graduate students at the University of California. So here it's important to say this a lot of the work as it pertains to equity diversity and inclusion for undocumented. Students is actually one on the backs of student activism in so for a long time undocumented students had been pushing for their equitable participation at the undergraduate level. By the time I was in graduate school the undocumented graduate population was growing it was it was. It was small for all of the reasons that we discussed the challenges that you have to overcome. There was an obvious need to develop policies and systems to support their participation. In one of the things that prevented their participation was the issue of teaching assistant ships so at the University of California. A teaching assistantship isn't just a type of job. It's a professional experience that is tied to your ability to secure a job in the future. It could be tied to a requirement for the program that you're in or it could be part of your financial aid so by not allowing undocumented students to BTA's undocumented students were essentially shutout of pathways into Pursuing a graduate degree at the University of California. So that's one example of a policy that if a school system has that in place repealing it and allowing that to be possible would be something that would really open up the doors for hardworking people to pursue higher education in a way that we sort of unquestioningly allow folks who are documented to. Do you know what more can universities and colleges be doing to support these students? Are there other concrete things that either happened while you were in the University of California system or just ones that have become clear to us through? Your research would have an impact so something that came out of the study is that it was clear that faculty and staff needed to engage in undock. You ally trainings undocumented trainings. Come from the organizing tradition in the nineties. Where the LGBTQ plus population basically created a process for people to understand what it means to be a member of a marginalized group. How you could be a an ally to the population sort of systems policies in processes that prevented equitable participation in society in how you could make marginalized identities affirmed in spaces that really didn't support their identities and I say that it should be mandatory for faculty and Staff Academic Excellence necessitates diversity. In undocumented students are part of academic spaces and universities have these commitments to equity diversity and inclusion in their mission statements and part of that is knowing how to work with marginalized groups. Another one related to this just having transparent communication practices so making sure that objectives and deadlines responses to policy changes are transparent in in developed collectively So that the bureaucracy is mitigated by the university and undocumented. Students can participate to the best of their ability. It's important to set aside funds for this type of work. This is arguably soon affairs work. This is arguably part of the diversity. Work that the university not just assumes but it's how they promote themselves so it should be should be paid labor and then also access to progressive legal team undocumented students in their participation in higher education are essentially reimagining a space that wasn't develop for their participation in mine and we have to re imagine new systems processes where they can equitable participate. We know that immigration reform were long ways away from that. But that doesn't that doesn't mean that. Educators can educate and. That doesn't mean that we can't change things. At institutional levels to mitigate some of the additional challenges that undocumented students navigate while trying to pursue post secondary education. Yeah well thank you. Those are all really concrete actions that I think other activists student groups and faculty and administrators. Who Care about this could work towards putting into place places where they're not already But we WANNA focus on now a smaller subset of the population of undocumented students and that students who were part of the DACA program. You've mentioned this. You know a few times during a chat so far but we really WANNA talk about deferred action for childhood arrivals a little today because you know by the time this episode airs. Either there will be about to be a ruling from the Supreme Court on the constitutionality of continuing ending. Daca or there will have already been one. Um So we'd love to get more information from you about you know once again. What is this program you know? How does it work? And what's the status of it right now? Well I I I wanna just reference player versus doe in Nineteen Eighty two the US Supreme Court found in player versus though that because undocumented children are in the United States through no fault of their own they entitled to the same K. Through twelve educational opportunities that states provide two children who are citizens or legal residents so this decision recognizes percentage in going to get to that. When we talk about a deferred action for childhood arrivals in the Supreme Court so deferred action for childhood arrivals an executive memorandum by the Obama Administration. That went into effect in June. Two thousand twelve. This administrative policy offers eligible youth temporary work authorization in temporary protections from deportation related to our conversation about undocumented students even though it wasn't conceptualized as an educational policy Daca provided communities not just daca recipients with increased socioeconomic agency and. How did. How did it do that you know how did that work for communities of we're only talking about people under a certain age? Who would either be in school or working? What does that mean for the other people around them so one it allows you the opportunity to work in two incentivizes your completion in high school. We know that high school graduates earn better at earn or More wages and so then. I no longer enforce into the informal labor market. I know my high school diploma will be recognized by the former labor market where there is a minimum wage in there are more workplace protections. So I need be the only documented worker in my household. Something else that we know. Is that a lot of times. These DACA recipients in undocumented children who grow up in the US because they are they're referred to as one point five generation meaning. There's a duality in terms of being American immigrant in growing up in the US they understand systems and processes that have immigrant parents don't in they often assumed Translating documents a for the family or representing the family in anything from a illegal matter to you know perhaps a follow up with an educator so the status of being recognized Having Your Person Hood formally recognize provides you with more opportunity that permeates into your family structure in when families do better communities do better. When I have more socioeconomic agency as a society we progress. I guess you know that also seems you spoke earlier about getting a driver's license. You know if you have parents who are undocumented and they can't have one than you're the you're the family driver under Dhaka and that can really change people's lives exactly exactly earlier. We talked about how immigrant parents you know can't really parent because in so then that leads to worsened. Healthcare education outcomes so as undocumented parrot if based on the current anti immigrant rhetoric and if there are if there is a ice rate happens for example. I am much more afraid to take my son or daughter to work. I am much more afraid to make that necessary appointment. We currently working for a the policies for action. Research have steady at the funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and we interviewed service providers in Morristown which up until then was the largest immigration rate at a meat packing industry that happened in speaking to service providers they spoke about how regardless of immigration status people were pulled from school that day and in subsequent days in people weren't answering calls from healthcare or educators. Because they were afraid and that had an ongoing impact both for the community but then also the school climate in perceptions of racial as -Ation and who is illegal and who is who is legal in. So that's just an example to just illustrate the multidimensional aspects of legality. And how when we're talking about DACA. It's not just temporary relief. We're talking about Socioeconomic Agency for communities beyond that person what would what are the ramifications of the Supreme Court Decision? Going to be right So just to you know background. History Dacca's never intended to be the permanent immigration reform solution. It was offered by President Obama in hopes that the legislative branch would develop vote in realize a bipartisan. Comprehensive Immigration Reform the trump administration arguably in my opinion was successful by promoting anti immigrant agenda for limiting who immigrated into the country to the whole bill the wall rhetoric and in two thousand seventeen. He announced the end of the DACA program. So since then The trump administration has prevented new applicants from receiving DACA and we're currently in the process of contesting whether there was a sufficient protocol to to establish Daca by the Obama administration to begin with so since it's been in the courts at at its peak. Eight hundred thousand eligible DACA recipients with Dhaka status in now the numbers are closer to the low. Six hundred six hundred thousand and right now while we wait for a decision communities not just daca recipients terrified They're living in fear similar to being on the edge of a cliff. It's been described like being on a roller coaster because they've outed themselves to the government in hopes that they're person hood would be recognized and I think with sort of important also part of this conversation is that the pandemic has really demonstrated how much undocumented immigrants are part of our fabric of society right now. Six million immigrants are considered essential workers. That's the most recent update from the Policy Institute and we've heard the six could be higher for undocumented. People one in three are essential workers in New York where we've been hit. The hardest immigrants compromise thirty one percent of essential workers and seventy percent of the state's undocumented labor force works in essential business so a small will line is that there were contributions will be part of the Supreme Court record in time for the decision but I think that the pandemic also is a reminder of just how much is at stake for for everyone Definitely in that is You know I think this is going to be really really useful background to those of us who are following along with the courts from home you know. Thank you for providing that. Thank you for your research and your activism. You will thank you. Everyone for listening for more and CEO Camacho's worth check out our show notes at scholars dot org slash jargon. No jargon is the podcast of the Scholars Strategy Network a nationwide organization that connects journalists policymakers and civic leaders with America's top researchers to improve policy and strengthened democracy. The producer of our show is dominant. Durham honor sound. Engineer is jammed visas. If you liked the show we subscribe and rate us on Apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your shows you can give us back on twitter at no jargon. Podcast order email address no jargon at scholars dot org.
Elizabeth Warren's Ancestry; Racial Preferences at Harvard
"Technology today has never been smarter. But smart only matters when you put it to good use together, we can build a smarter future for all of us. Let's put smart to work. Find out how at IBM dot com slash smart. From the opinion pages of the Wall Street Journal. This is Potomac watch Senator and maybe presidential candidate. Elizabeth Warren releases results of genetic test to mixed political reviews. Plus the case of Harvard, Dan, racial preferences opens in federal court, and the movie GAAS now opens in theaters welcome. I'm Paul zhigo and with me today to talk about these issues as Wall Street Journal, columnist, Jason Riley, welcome Jason. Thanks for having me Paul. So let's talk today. I about Elizabeth Warren. She famously had said she was native American heritage. Donald Trump famously challenged her on that dared her to get a test. And meanwhile, calling her by the name Pocahontas, which he did not mean as a complement and mocking her sincerity. She did indeed. Also Jason put down that she was a native American. Heritage on her Harvard law and pin law files. So she used it. One would assume for a job application purposes, though she claimed that it had no, she was not a beneficiary of racial preferences or affirmative action. Now she has taken the test and to much fanfare including a new website in video. She says that she had the, she has a expert who says that there is a likelihood that she had native American ancestry, some six to ten generations ago. What do you make of that? What's hard to know what? What to make of it Paul? I mean, I think she could have stopped talking about this and it would have, I think, gone by the wayside. She's continued to keep the issue alive. Obviously, President Trump hasn't let it drop either. But she felt that this was a move that would help her politically. Obviously, the speculation is that at at that she's planning a presidential run and somehow putting this information out, there will help her in that regard. I'm not so sure. I think she could be setting herself up for some significant backlash among the public. Generally, as you mentioned, having such a tiny percentage of of native American and you hardly distinguish as you in this country and or what may distinguisher is how little. Native American ancestors. She she, she can claim, but also among her fellow progressives, we do know that they sort of marinate in identity politics on that side of the aisle or of the idiological spectrum and being progressive isn't enough right now, it's very much in vogue to be a minority progressive. So Elizabeth Warren is looking at the Cory booker's and the Kamala harasses and saying, how can I compete on those grounds, but it it's a very, it's a very dicey situation when people who appear white make the sorts of claims of kinship with with real racial and ethnic minorities, and she might get some backlash for trying to tag along here. Interesting point of view. I don't know. I mean, I think that just for the record, her Heritage's somewhere between one sixty fourth. And one one thousand and twenty. Fourth, as you say, not really much at all, but I wonder if this is a real liability on the left. It's interesting identity. Politics is so significant there that unlike a lot of Americans who particularly on the right, who don't like that kind of politics on the left, it's it's kind of it's celebrated. Yes. So the extent to which she says, okay, you're identifying with us. Maybe maybe it will be a benefit and give her more publicity in particular because Donald Trump is attacking her again, and there's nothing better to gain fame and and in influence among Democrats, particularly in the party base that is the nominating electric for presidential nominees than being attacked by Donald Trump. Yes, yes. It's better than being ignored attacked. Donald Trump is better than being ignored. I also think this somewhat an informed. The debate over affirmative action in this country. This episode with Elizabeth Warren, she someone who supports affirmative action. Sure. Very much. So believing that this is something that racial and ethnic minorities need to succeed in in society academically or in the workforce and so forth. Critics of affirmative action. I include myself among them have pushed back against these policies for many different reasons, but one of them policy stigma that that a stigmatised, no one wants to walk around campus or a work place with a cloud hanging over the head being the token minority higher and so forth. And when Elizabeth Warren has been challenged on this, she has said, I, I was, I got where I got a based on merit alone. I was I was not promoted ever. For for being a woman or for for for being a native American as some people are claiming. I deserve every promotion I got, which raises the question Jason, then why use it? Why? Why cited? Why make it so prominent even mentioned herself in recipes from Indian tribes book of recipes? Yes, I think she signed herself Cherokee. I believe, identified herself as Cherokee, but but it also tomato is a certain hypocrisy. What she is acknowledging Paul is that there is a stigma attached with affirmative action and but but it's something that she doesn't have to worry about it. She shouldn't have to worry about, but it shouldn't. Those other minority shouldn't concern themselves with the stigma problem. They should just get over it and accept these policies is necessary to get ahead in America. Let me let me read you a statement coming from the Cherokee nation, secretary of state, Chuck Hoskin, junior. He issued the statement in response to the Warren announcement. He said, it makes. Mockery out of DNA tests, and it's legitimate uses while also dishonoring legitimate tribal governments and their citizens whose ancestors are well documented and whose heritage is proven, Senator warn is undermining tribal interest with their continued claims of tribal heritage. And that is, of course, relates to the fact that American native American tribes, they believe that they are the Terminator's of who belongs to the tried, who has that heritage. They don't want everybody in the world claiming that heritage and they're not alone in that what what the left has created in this country and nurtured is a is a racial spoil system. Paul. And so identifying as native American or black or Hispanic, or woman or whomever brings goodies are or brings the opportunity to demand goodies, government goodies. And so. Fourth. And so these groups become very protective of their status, and they don't want pretenders among them who might jeopardize or dilute the status that they have under these racial spoil systems that we've created. So it it's unfortunate on on many levels, but we'll have to see how how Elizabeth Lawrence fellow progressives deal with this before we realize how the general public will deal with it. And I think a key issue for her going forward, we'll be the one that Donald Trump tweeted among other tweets, attacking her on Tuesday, which was phony the word phony. Does she appear to be a phony with this identification? And now we have the actual facts or will she get credit on the nominating electorate? She needs for identifying with identity politics, and it's going to be fascinating to watch because I think this is going to be one of the key dynamics in the in the democratic presidential nomination fight as a cast of thousands lines. Donald Trump as a desperate attempt to distinguish herself in that in that in that field. All right. We're talking about the politics of Elizabeth Warren and identity politics, and you're listening to Potomac. Watch from the Wall Street Journal. The Wall Street Journal podcast are brought to you by American Express, no matter what you do from business and finance to a podcast about business and finance. It's easier when you don't go it alone. The powerful backing of American Express don't do business without it. From the opinion pages of the Wall Street Journal. This is Potomac. Watch, welcome back. I'm Paul zhigo here with Jason Riley, and we were talking about Elizabeth Warren and her native American ancestry so-called. And now. It happens. This is the same week in which much discussed legal case a challenge to Harvard University's racial preferences. Admissions practices is now being litigated. Harvard issued a very pronounced defense of its practices in federal court. This is a suit on behalf of Asian Americans who believe that they are being discriminated against in violation of federal law and the Civil Rights Act of nineteen sixty four because they are doing very well on all of the standard merit based measures of what Harvard considers important standardized tests grade point averages extracurriculars and so on. And yet they are being discriminated against so is the charge and not being admitted to the numbers they should be based on those those achievements? Yes. And one of the great things about this case. However, it turns out Paul I think is is bring it. It's brought more public awareness to what goes on at these institutions. A lot of people were simply unaware that schools were doing this last fall. I co taught a seminar at Harvard at the Kennedy School and had lunch with some of the students in and ask them about this. This ongoing case they were completely unaware of several of the students were Asian. And I said, do you know that this, that the plaintiffs in this case are Asian at Harvard's accused of holding Asian students to higher standards? Are you okay with that in the name of diversifying the student population and they were, they were completely unaware of what is going on. The press coverage, I think is bringing about more public awareness of just what what these practices are. And I think that in and of itself as a good thing. It's gonna be fascinating to watch how this plays out legally. Of course, the supreme court has laid down strictures on this that are far from clear, they Fisher case that you're well aware of the Michigan case there they allow for race to be taken into account. It just simply cannot be the dominant or the only factor, but that leaves an awful lot of room for how shall we say discretion. Right, right. And I think that one of the things that Brad Kavanagh in replacing Anthony Kennedy at this poor could bring some clarity on this now they may not get the so this case may be a case that goes all the way up to the supreme court. Yes, and I and I hope so because the court, the supreme court has an art with particularly with Kennedy there before him. When O'Connor, when Justice, Sandra Day O'Connor was the swing vote on this issue has continued to punt essentially, as you said, you can take race into account as long as you're not too obvious about it. It can be a factor, but not the factor in deciding if the student, what does that mean the schools you're right. What does that mean? And and I think they should provide more more clarity to these schools. I think Harvard problem here is, is that it wants a racially balanced student population or at least a freshman class, and but the ways it has gone about doing that. Are to, again, hold agent students to higher standards. And we know this in part because schools that use race blind admissions have seen. Elite schools have seen their Asian population skyrocketed in recent decades as the Asian population of America has grown in recent decades. So if you look at a Calgary Caltech, even Berkeley, because race based admissions are banned in the university of California system. So at Berkeley UCLA many elite schools have seen their Asian populations grow as the American population of Asians has numbered somehow at Harvard at stayed right about the same year after year after year. And the dilemma they have is that you have to reconcile equal treatment of individuals with group preferences and those things are just fundamentally irreconcilable, and it'll be an increasing problem going forward in this in this affirmative action. Debate where we've in the past, talked a lot about blacks and Hispanics and whites. But now Asians are being brought into this mix and it's it's actually encouraging. I think, to see a lot more Asian groups standing up for themselves in this regard, knowing that their students are the ones that are being punished essentially for being the brightest kids in class. Yeah, I think it's a, we'll be a revelation to an awful lot of of Americans. All right. So let's finish up today with a brief cultural note, the movie GAAS now which you writing about in your columnist week, Jason about the abortion doctor who is now serving? I believe life sentence in Philadelphia. He was practicing in Philadelphia. In violation of the law was some of the most abusive practices. Why did you decide to write about this? This movie about an admittedly, very difficult subject. And I imagine it's it's difficult movie to watch. It was a difficult movie to watch, and it was based on a book that was very difficult to read actually. And I went to see the movie on Friday and pretty much had the theater to myself and I, I wanted to write about why that might be the case. And part of the reason I think has to do with the same reason, the the media was so reluctant to cover the actual trial itself back in in twenty thirteen. The movie had difficulty finding a distributor, then several news outlets would not allow advertising of the film, and then we see critics film critics also ignoring the film. And I think is that just because the subject is is so radioactive. I mean, you've got hardened views on both sides. The views of the public haven't shifted all that much on on the underlying view of whether it should be abortion should be legal or not. But in this movie is not about that. This is really about somebody who was practicing late term abortions and often worse the most abusive cases with real damaging impact in many cases on the health of women, right? But ultimately, I think what you have here is a mainstream media with a an interest in idiological interest in preserving abortion rights for women and what this trial did and what this book does, and what the movie does in many respects is cast a very negative light on abortion, and they were more interested in avoiding that from happening. Then they were telling the story of this. This really monstrous individual who went about the practice of terminating pregnancies in this way and needed to be brought to Justice. All right. J.. Jason. Thank you. Please catch Jason's column on WSJ dot com. Slash opinion. Thank you all for listening. We'll be back with another addition of Potomac. Watch later in the week.
WHO Funding Cut, College Testing Changes & Peacock Debut - Wednesday, April 15th, 2020
"Today is Wednesday April Fifteenth. What to not about President Trump's decision to make good on a threat involving the World Health Organization? And there's new research. About how long social distancing might last also just as one presidential candidate backs out another comes in. Maybe we're talking about a potential third party candidate plus sat requirements are changing and yet another new streaming service hopes. You'll want to binge-watch Welcome. Welcome to the newsworthy. All the day's news in less than ten minutes fast they're fun and on the go America Mandy. Thanks so much for being here. You're ready let's do this. It seems president. Trump is following through on his threat to cut funding from the World Health Organization. The president announced the US will stop paying the W. H. O. He accused the UN organization of mismanaging and covering up the spread of the new corona virus. Trump said in his view. The new corona virus might have stayed in China if the. Who was more skeptical of China's statements? He says they also push back on. Trump's efforts to put travel restrictions on China in January but remember the president himself has faced some criticism about not doing enough in the early days of the pandemic. Some say he didn't take action early enough to avoid shortages of vital testing kits and other medical supplies either way cutting this funding to the W. H. O. Could have a big impact. The Wall Street Journal says the US provides more than a fifth of the. Who'S BUDGET AND THE NEW YORK? Times says America's contribution was five hundred fifty three million dollars last year for now trump did not say if the US would permanently stop funding or if this would be a temporary move. One trump administration official told the journal. The money could be diverted to other health programs instead as early this morning. The WHO has not responded but the United Nations Secretary General did speak out against trump's decision. He said we can all evaluate who fell short and win later but he says now is not the time to cutback resources from organizations trying to fight this virus the US is still working on plans to reopen the economy. Both at the state and national level and a couple of plans were released yesterday. I The Washington Post got a hold of a ten page back to work strategy from the CDC and FEMA. It's apparently just a draft for now but it includes everything from manufacturing more testing kits by mid-may to gradual reopenings based on local conditions. But even then this document says people need to still follow strict guidelines for handwashing and wearing face coverings while in groups. President trump apparently wants a final plan within days so he can authorize some states reopen as soon as May I still. It's not clear if governors really need the go ahead from trump expect to hear more in the weeks to come. Meanwhile California released its own guidance. Governor Gavin newsom highlighted six key indicators for easing up on the stay at home order. They include being able to monitor and track. Potential cases develop therapies and make sure schools businesses can still support some sort of social distancing and the last one the ability to reissue a mandate if necessary but the governor did not actually give a firm timeline according to one recent study. We'll be doing some kind of social distancing for quite some time Harvard disease researchers said the. Us might need to follow guidelines here and there into the next two years. They warned against lifting measures all at once saying that would risk just delaying the peak of the pandemic instead of avoiding it. And of course there's a lot we still don't know about cove nineteen right now like how much might change with the seasons. And how long might someone's immunity last for now? It's just going to be about learning to adjust as needed cove in nineteen has now killed more than one hundred twenty six thousand people around the world. It's a milestone. No one wanted to reach but on the bright side at least four hundred and ninety four thousand people have recovered from this virus in the United States. New York City's death toll has surpassed ten thousand and now the CDC released the first national data on how this is impacting healthcare workers. The report shows more than nine thousand healthcare professionals have contracted cove nineteen as of April ninth. It cautioned the real numbers are likely much higher since some states are doing a better job reporting this data than others. The AP looked at just the states with the best info and said it's likely ten to twenty percent of all cases are healthcare workers that said they have lower hospitalization rates. Meanwhile we're hearing from celebrity about what it actually feels like to be infected with cove in nineteen actress Rita Wilson told CBS News. She felt tired and Achey. She also had a fever with extreme chills and lost her sense of taste and smell those feelings. She said lasted for weeks. But Wilson did recover and so did her husband Tom Hanks she says now. Both of them are feeling great. The global economy is now on track for the sharp downturn since the Great Depression in the nineteen thirties. That's the word from the International Monetary Fund or IMF. It predicts a partial rebound in twenty twenty one but that of course depends on the course of this pandemic and a quick reminder here in the US today April fifteenth is usually tax day but the federal tax deadline got pushed back to July fifteenth. This year so if you haven't filed yet don't worry you have three more months. Although some state deadlines can vary and by the way as many as eighty million Americans should have received a direct deposit from the federal government by today. The IRS started depositing money in Americans bank accounts late last week. As part of the economic relief package passed by Congress former vice president. Joe Biden has now secured a new key endorsement. It came from his old running mate and former President Barack Obama during a twelve minute video announcement. Obama said choosing Joe Biden as his right hand. Man was one of the best decisions he's ever made. Obama said Biden helped him rebuild economy after the great recession and also help manage to epidemics. H. One any BOOLA and remember. This is by second big endorsement. This week he also got the backing of Senator Bernie Sanders on Monday. And just when we thought it was down to a two-man race Biden and trump. There might be a third party candidate. Congressman Justin Amash from Michigan. Says he's considering running for president. A Mosh left the Republican Party last year and said he would seek reelection for his house seat as an independent still. He's conservative so some analysts say in a mosh candidacy could pose a real threat to president trump. Since it might split up some of the people planning to vote for trump for now though there has not been an official announcement. Stay tuned. We have more news ahead but first let's take a quick break to thank our sponsor this week. Rossi's especially in these uncertain times. Rossi's hopes to brighten your day with beautiful sustainable products and content and style and sustainability can exist. One Shoe Rathi. Shoes are not only incredibly comfortable with zero break in period. They are also crafted with ECO. Friendly Materials Rossi's has kept fifty million single use plastic bottles out of landfills and transformed them into their signature thread. My entire experience and feeling ordering Roth shoes was great from choosing the right style and color on their website to getting my red. Rathi shoes directly in the box with no unnecessary packaging and of course wearing them. I agree with the Yahoo Editor. Who recently called them. The most comfortable flatts I've ever owned plus Roth. These always come with free shipping and free returns so check out all the amazing shoes and bags available now at RAF dot com slash newsworthy. That's Rossi's R. O. T. H. Y. S. rockies dot com slash newsworthy. Now back to the news. General Motors is delivering. Its first batch of ventilators to fema this week and it's how does schedule. The automaker is making them through a partnership with a Medical Tech Company. They plan to build thirty thousand ventilators for about four hundred ninety million dollars. The first batch is ready now more than six thousand should be done by June. First the rest will be delivered by the end of August. Remember ventilators are a key piece of medical equipment needed to help the most critically ill cova? Nineteen patients breathe and timing is everything since hospitals in the hardest hit areas are facing potential shortages. Now not later so. Nbc News reports. Hundreds of workers have been working twenty hour days at an Indiana plant to get them. Built quickly by the way forward is making medical supplies as well. It's producing ventilators and face masks and making reusable medical gowns airbag material. A big shakeup with college admissions for now some universities are letting high school seniors skip standardized tests like the act or sat CNN. Reports about fifty schools have made the temporary change including Boston and Tufts University's as well as all nine schools in the University of California system. Some are waving the requirement for just fall of twenty twenty one while others are waiting even longer to bring it back of course. The reason is those companies behind the tests are not even administering them during this pandemic as they follow social distancing guidelines so some high schoolers may be off the hook depending on where they WanNa go speaking of college some universities are thinking about suspending all in person classes until two thousand twenty one. Nothing is set in stone yet. But they're working up a plan in case. This new corona virus continues to be a problem into the next school year. Universities are especially impacted. Since many college students have to travel to different states to attend today yet another video streaming service is making its debut. Nbc universals peacock just launched. It includes an on demand library with shows like thirty rock and law and order as well as movies like Jurassic Park and Shrek. Before the end of the year peacock will have original programming as well including reboots of saved by the bell and Punky Brewster for comcast customers. It's available now commercial. Free does not cost anything on top of your regular bill for anyone else. It will be rolled out July fifteenth for five dollars a month with ads or ten dollars a month ad free. And that's it for the main news today but now it's time for work Wednesday where we break down one interesting career or work related news story every Wednesday and today we're talking about how the corona virus pandemic is taking a toll on people's 401K's The Wall Street Journal reports some major companies are cutting their contributions to save cash. But keep in mind. Some companies are choosing to cut back in this way in order to avoid reducing health benefits right now or even cutting jobs and experts say just because companies are holding off on matching your contribution. It doesn't mean you should stop putting money into your 401k and saving for retirement even with the market up and down right now experts. Say if you're still getting a paycheck and can afford to make those contributions you should continue to do so it will likely pay off in the long run all right. Thank you so much listening today. And a quick note the newsworthy is proud to take part in Potter Palooza. It's a virtual podcast festival to raise money for cove in nineteen relief. You'll hear our special episode. And you'll get to discover other amazing podcasts offer. Good 'cause pop. Palooza is happening in a week and a half so you can learn more and get your ticket at P L Z. A DOT ORG again. That'S P L Z. A Dot Org and as always you can read more about any of the news stories mentioned today at Newsworthy. Dot Com slash. Show notes. We'll have more news for you tomorrow. Have a great day.
Coronavirus Threatens a Minnesota Community's Economic Engine
"Social distancing slows the spread of corona virus. So stay a minimum of six feet away from others and stay home if you can more info at Corona Virus Dot Gov. Let's all do our part because we're all Hashtag alone together brought to you by the Ad Council Covid nineteen hits a meat packing facility and a whole community suffers ones instruct the plant then. It just skyrocketed. We'll take you to Worthington. Minnesota to understand the full economic effect of the pandemic on smaller areas Hong Kong stocks wither after Beijing Announces Plans for National Security Laws. There we will explain why this move is so important plus cutting ties with the. Sat Big University System makes a decision with major implications for high school students and their parents. It's Friday may twenty second. I'm Mark Garrison with the Wall Street Journal and this is what's news. President trump visit a Ford plant in Michigan. Yesterday that started making ventilators during the pandemic. It was his third trip in three weeks to the swing state which one by under eleven thousand votes in two thousand sixteen. He praised workers called for a swift reopening of the economy and expressed support for flood victims. Americans are praying for Central Michigan. We're going to take care of your problem. The governor had a great conversation this morning and at the appropriate time. I'll go and see the area that will be fixing. The president has frequently sparred with Democratic Governor Gretchen. Whitmer over reopening plans and criticize the state on its moves to expand voting by mail. The trump administration's new arms control negotiator plans to meet with his Russian counterpart soon. The talks will mark the first time the. Us has opened negotiations on an agreement to replace the soon to expire new start accord which limits Russian and American long range nukes the US says it has a proposal to limit all Russian Chinese and use nuclear warheads. Senators were unable to make a deal to extend the time. Companies can spend loan money from the pandemic relief program. The Memorial Day recess means the likely passage of revise. Small Business Aid. Rules won't happen until next month. The University of California system is dropping. The SAT and act will phase out the standardized tests over five years potentially replacing them with its own test. College admissions tests have been under fire for some time with some critics saying they're unfair to minorities and low income students. The testing organizations have pushed back the College Board which oversees the SAT said. The test allows low income students to showcase their abilities in a moment behind. Today's market meltdown. At Hong Kong. We'll explain why the global financial center is deeply worried about China's plans for new national security laws stocks in Hong Kong. Close down five point six percent today far worse than in the rest of the world this after signals from Beijing that it will impose new national security laws on the city. This is potentially a major problem for the global companies doing business there are Asia markets editor. Quentin web is in Hong Kong to explain why investors are so worried. There are three concerns here. I think wrapped up into one. The first concern is simply that will see a resumption of the widespread civil unrest that we saw before. The Corona virus emerged if you recall in two thousand and three an earlier attempt to introduce anti sedition rules in Hong Kong brought huge street protests. And we are now of course already at a point where there's a lot of discontent in the city. The second concern is a deeper one about Damage to Hong Kong's rule of law and its standing as a special center that stands between Mainland China. And the rest of the world is kind of financial gateway with reliable courts. And the third concern. I think is a broad one. Which is that you know. This is a fresh irritation that will worsen relations between the US and China. We've already seen in recent days. Some sort of uptick in the tensions between those two nations and this is provoking some fresh irritation. China's breaking a quarter century precedent by not sitting public economic growth target for twenty twenty the move to scrap. Gdp targeting comes as the country faces the enduring impact of the pandemic which is scrambling economic forecasting around the world. In the first quarter of this year China reported its first contraction and more than four decades. Six point eight percent drop from a year earlier global business activity is recovering those slightly and very slowly manufacturing labor data from the US Europe and Japan point to a more positive outlook but there are serious challenges to the economic recovery market reporter. Caitlyn Ostrov explains so an April. We saw business activity completely fall through the floor as people really were not going out of their homes per the coronavirus containment efforts and businesses. Just were not seeing much traction and what we've seen in the last month. Is that some of that? Fallen activity has started to recovered. Still a little bit and it seems potentially we might have hit a bottom but that still is dependent on whether we got a new wave of infections. It all depends on whether people are able to continue employment because if jobless claims keep staying in the millions that's more people losing their jobs with less money to spend but it is apologizing. Sign that maybe. We've seen the worst of the economic hit so far and that potentially we could be on the votes for recovery after a short break. How a corona virus outbreak at a small meat packing? Plant tour the fabric of an entire town. And what they're doing to recover to social distancing slows the spread of corona virus. So we should all stay home to lower the risk for everyone more INFO at Corona Virus Dot Gov. Let's all do our part because we're all Hashtag alone together brought to you by the Ad Council. There's a place in Minnesota that pulls together a number of important themes in the pandemic story the challenges small towns face the threat to the meat packing industry and the impact the viruses having in minority communities correspondent Joe Barrett found all of this in a place called Worthington where the infection and shutdown of J. B. S. meat packing plant had sweeping consequences. Here's this conversation with Charlie Turner Joe. How widespread was the outbreak? J. B. S. There's about twenty two hundred workers at the plant and they did Extensive testing they had about seventeen hundred people. Come in for testing and about half of those head cove. Nineteen according to the mayor so the plant shut down for two weeks. Describe the impact on the region. People weren't really taking things that seriously from what I'm hearing from business owners. They were still kind of out and about and going around without masks. And then when the plant shutdown and people really started to see it in their community You know they were. They were wearing masks. They were taking it much more seriously. You know they were just too concerned about being out and about at that point. Father Jim Callahan. Has Usually about a thousand Hispanic worshipers that his Catholic Church in town on Sundays and so he really has a handle on a lot of the workers and the families that live with them. And here's what he had to say. Once it struck the plant then it just skyrocketed and people were told to go home isolate but many of the people who are especially within the on some of the immigrant communities they lived two or three families live together so when they went home there was really no place for them to isolate so some of the other family members of course were infected by the disease. Joe You talk to some business owners in Worthington. Tell us about some of the struggles. They've had yes of course haven't been able to open and You know some of them had to set up their own their online business because they've never done that before they were doing curbside delivery Some some places that we're allowed to stay open like a cell phone shop. People weren't coming in any more than there were Restaurants where they could do take out and business was down probably twenty five percent for some of them. Carry a owns a A Spanish bakery with her husband Juan. It's called Penatta Maria Mattera. She is optimistic that once she can have people back in her shop to sit down and have their coffee in the morning and things will pretty much back to normal. Here's what she had to say. Once they released the restrictions. I think he'll be back to norm. Because most of our people are still coming in and I think the coffee I think of some of the different guys and whatever they'll they'll probably be back in come in for years and the wouldn't be some of the church ladies I think of and then just think different people that they've been here everyday for years. I'm sure they'll they're probably anxious to get out of the house just like everybody Joe. Worthington is remarkable in that it's a ethnic enclave with dozens of ethnic businesses. Yeah it's true. I mean there's twelve cultures represented in the town and there's more Minorities at this point. Then there are a non Hispanic whites. It's really taken off as an enclave. Jp J. employing so many so many people from other parts of the world some of these people have extraordinary life stories. Miguel Rivas who owns this cell? Phone shop came from El Salvador when he was eighteen years. Old you know. He'd been threatened by gangs down there. He didn't have family really to support him so he came to California and picked Worthington Map. He just decided to show up one day. He started working at a meat packing. Plant he then worked at a dairy. He did Online work until he could master computers and he opened a computer repair shop about ten years ago. When that business was no longer of interest the started selling cell phones and he his business right off right now is down about ninety percent and he's concerned about his health but he's not worried about his business because he's been through so much. This is what he had to say. Know I I am somebody who grew up with nothing so I'm always ready and that's how people should be always ready Joe Worthington in the county that it's in we're really hit. Disproportionately hard compared to the rest of the state in Nobles County is only the forty fourth largest county in the state and they've got the fourth highest number of cases and more than half of those from the meat packing plant. So it's really been a dramatic impact on this one community. How proactive was the plant? And making sure. It was safe to reopen after two weeks shutdown. What kind of safety measures did it put into place? Yeah the mayor and the Union both Praised the an amount of work they did. They put in plexiglas bearer barriers. They added a an extra four. They put in a new sort of temporary building where people can eat their lunches You know there's Infrared thermometers in the hallways. They they screen everybody before they come in so you know they. They've really been been praised for doing as much as they can. But workers are still anxious. Because you know it's such a mysterious disease and In the plan has been hit so hard. They're they're still very concerned about it. What is the feeling about J. B. S. reopening? The plan is a lifeline but there are risks. The mayor said it's a huge gamble to be opening the plan. I mean the president has ordered it. So you know we need meatpackers to be Producing food But it's a big gamble and And there's a lot riding on it because this place has been so important to the local economy there and they wanna make sure that it continues to be going on into the Future Wall Street Journal Senior Midwest correspondent Joe Barrett. Thanks a lot Joe. Thank you for. Many Americans. Pandemic isolation has driven them to get a puppy. Doing so is a big responsibility and requires commitment in time to be a good parent. It also requires money. The American pet products association estimates that families spend around thirteen hundred dollars on their dogs annually. Our personal finance team ran the numbers. Which you should definitely look at before you get a dog and if you do. There are tips. They're on how to save money while still doing right by dog. That's on wsj.com. And that is what's news for this morning. If you like our show please rate and review US wherever you get your podcast. We are back with another up-to-date episode. This evening I'm Mark Garrison with Wall Street Journal. Thanks for listening.
The Hidden Costs of Science
"Major funding for the pulses provided by leadership gift from the Sutherland family, the Sutherland Support Whyy, and its commitment to the production of programs that improve our quality of life. This is the pulse stories about the people and places at the heart of Health and science I'm Mike and Scott. The botanical garden on the tropical island of Saint, Vincent's reds over about twenty acres of land picture lush growth in every shade of green winding paths ponds with water lilies, right flowers, and birds. These gardens were started in the eighteenth century when the island was part of the British Empire and they were supposed to support the growth of the empire discover new plants that would be useful for medicine or industry, but also to find new cash crops. That's Denise Williams, she is a historian of modern Britain and Mellon Fellow in the humanities center. At Stanford University, there is an attempt to try to start up a spice industry and the British West indies, and this was done by transplanting cloves and nutmeg things of that sort to the botanic garden to try to see if they could grow in these environments. The botanic garden was run by superintendent men who were passionate about science but not rich enough to be gentlemen scientists who did science merely as a leisure activity if you weren't educated person and you did not have the means to fund your own travel and support your own herbarium. You might end up taking a job with governments. In the Empire in which case you would get your travel funded. But. Most of the actual work in the garden was done by enslaved people they came from sugar plantations on the island and broad their knowledge and skill to the operation. One of the Superintendent Alexander Anderson wrote back praising how the the slave gardens were beautiful and lush and just green whereas the private gardens of the planters were just desiccated and dry and bear in research. Denise kept seeing references to the contributions of the enslaved workforce but only from the perspective of the Superintendent and on another occasion. He laments that a one particular slave leave the house run that Mazarin was sick and he'd almost lost him but they nursed him back to health and he wrote back government saying how thankful he was that Mazarin had recovered because he was a very useful man and so you get these tantalizing clues about how important particular slaves were to the garden in it because they must have had some kind of skill or knowledge. But because of the nature of the Archive, we only get these clues never the full story. For All of the scientific is of acknowledged that came out of this botanical garden that was documented in countless letters and journals of superintendents. There is a whole other aspect of the history that is mostly undocumented and hidden from us not just the contributions and knowledge base of the enslaved workers but the conditions they lived in the price they paid for this work. In this period, the death rates in the Caribbean were still incredibly high and most of a lot of that was not just disease, but it was probably also due to the malnutrition that a lot of slaves laboured under. INSCI- we tend to focus on the destination, not the journey, the discovery, the breakthrough but for every one of those, they're all the contributions we've forgotten about the lives that were lost in the pursuit that hours and years wasted on a wrong path. The people who gave up because they didn't think they would ever get their. Today's episode is about the hidden cost of science. Let's start with what it takes to become a scientist. A lot of graduate students balanced their own coursework with research and teaching responsibilities which can get overwhelming a survey from two years ago found that almost forty percent of Grad students showed signs of anxiety and depression, which is much higher than in the General Population Alan you looked into the mental health toll of being a scientists in Grad school and what students and universities are doing to make things better. In Two thousand twelve Nicole Cabrera Salazar was studying for an exam that was going through the side her immediate future. It was a qualifying exam for her PhD in Astronomy, a six hour written exam. Then an oral exam in front of a panel of professors passing means moving on with a PhD failing means one more chance before she has to leave the program. In the months leading up to the exam, Nicole's entire life consisted of research, classwork, teaching, and studying, and the pressure to do well in this exam was intense when I was studying for it. I started noticing that. My handwriting had changed. It was a lot more messy like I used to have really neat handwriting and I could no longer write in a straight line after just a few minutes of writing my hand would cramp up really painfully and I couldn't it's like I almost forgot how to hold a pen in my hand. Even typing was hard. She went to talk says got an MRI even when only Rawla just they said it's just stress she started going to therapy It felt like so much was at stake. Future and her success in a few she wanted to get into ever since she was a child. Nicole grew up in Miami and she was always curious. Would go to the fair and there was this right couple gravitron and it spun around really fast. You stick to the wall and I was like I wonder how is this possible? She felt answers to her questions in her first physics class in high school. Her family was poor and the coast of out going to community college then transferred to a four year college. Finally, she got into a PhD program. But she did not find the environment. They're very supportive. She felt like people treated her differently and she wanted if it was because she is a Latina there is an instance in which I was accused of cheating. By Professor It was like myself and my colleague who's a white woman and it was for a homework assignments and our answers look very similar and the assumption was that I had cheated off of her when in fact I had finished my assignment earlier and she had asked to look at my assignment. The professor was really living in like did not want to hear anything about this food she questioned what she had done. Wrong maybe it was something I did or maybe it was something I said you. Know maybe it's me somehow, there were so many aspects that environment that were telling me that I was wrong or they were telling me that I just wasn't fit to be a scientists despite the stress that had built up over the years Nicole past her PhD exam she moved on with a research but the stress and those hints that she didn't belong in science never really went away in her fourth year she herself the if this was something she wanted to do I started to really. Hate my research, and even though it was my dream really my dream to become an astro physics professor and I was really committed to the career path and everything it came to a point where I just it was not variable anymore she told her adviser about her doubts and my adviser said, Oh you know I'm not surprised because I don't see that you have a passion for astronomy and I was like, what do you mean and he was like, well, you put more passion. Into your baking than you do your astronomy baking was a creative outlet. She would make cakes for people in her department who had birthdays I didn't know what I could do because I literally had planned. My entire life had been planned around becoming an astronomy professor in the end I did decide to finish my PhD if nothing else because maybe because I'm a release stubborn person but the stress kept building, she took four months of medical leave I was so depressed that I couldn't. I couldn't leave my bet you know every every single task felt impossible. She had already been in therapy. Now she worked with a psychiatrist and it was a really long process to get on the correct medication until I was finally able to Kinda feel like myself again. When I took a medical leave of absence, it was really hard to come back to school because everything that you know that I had all the negative experiences I had had. You know my brain associated that with my office with my desk with my research. She threw the graduate with her PhD and she won the didn't really have to be like this. It's like you're trying to walk through a door frame, but you don't fit through it because it has very specific shop. And so in order to walk through, you have to cut away parts of yourself. I told to a lot of scientists from different backgrounds in different stages of academic careers working in a variety of disciplines they echoed in their way wanting the coal one through even if they might not have experienced all of it, a common narrative is that you know science signs of science and we don't. We don't need to take into account our personal identities and I don't think that could be farther from the truth. That's Jasmine childress. She is an ecologist in the sex year of a PhD at the University of California Santa Barbara. It seems like that philosophy of science being based on observable facts can sometimes lead to a lack of understanding that science is done by humans not robots to experiments. Which means universities department heads half who support those humans. Jasmine is biracial. Her mother is white father is black and she and some fellow students of color wanted to improve the academic work environment couple of years ago myself into other graduate students of color decided that we wanted to start a diversity equity inclusion in Wellness Committee in our department that sort of looked at a different demographics of folks in our department, as well as their wellness be at physical and mental wellness and. When we took it to the department, they told us no, we don't need a and the one person who thought would be the best to sort of introduce. This idea said that if I spent any of my time talking or thinking about D. I issues, I would get no science done. That's not my job and Simone Stewart a PhD student in Mechanical Engineering at the same school says there on people who find those efforts literally laughable I, say, could you imagine a graduate world? Where we hired people where we accepted students based on the empathy that they were able to show the interview their desire to collaborate their desire to make education a safe place for everyone to say that like everybody here is valuable and we have to make it. So everyone here can thrive in you know I tell people that and the irony is that they laugh and they say, Oh, well, you know that's never going to happen with this is because of culture. Grad students in science students. The also teach and do research and a lot of them work long hours in labs when they graduate, they often depend on lettuce or recommendation from the advices if they want to get anywhere in their field. So if that same person also hugh to spend long hours and weekends in the lab, how are you going to say no, there's no issue department you can go to and their supervisors the researchers who teach young scientists who run the laps or grass students work they get their jobs mostly based on their success in science they don't get funding or major awards for being a good mental health or supportive teacher. Even though a big part of that job involves mentoring students, leading people that aspect on the job is not always part of why people are hired. But scientists are talking about the lack of support and the stress of graduate school more open the now I reached out to Russell White. He was Nicole Cabrera Salazar's PhD advisor. He's a professor of astronomy, and now he's also that the of graduate studies for the Astronomy Department at Georgia State University he says, first of all his upon has changed the qualifying exam that's the exam that was so stressful Nicole noticed her handwriting change. Her experience was probably like the experiences of many students in the program going through the qualifying Zam is definitely one of the more stressful. Moments. Russell says it's no longer a six hour written exam. Now, it's about writing a research report and presenting their work like they would at a scientific conference. It's in some sense encouraging them to get started with research early, and if that's really what we're training them to do why not test them during the qualifying exam the idea is that learning those skills is more productive than having them take a long exam on material they have already proven. They know he says, he also recognizes that it's important for soon as few comfortable talking about what they're going through. Their department is doing a survey to see how students feel about mental health resources, how inclusive that apartment is and walk be improved. Students. Suggests that that idea based on similar work at the University of California Berkeley? And schools overall Armel open when it comes to talking about mental health. Jen Hime Stra is an associate professor of chemistry at Emory University. It started by just saying if you were starving meeting to remind people that your health, your motion, physical mental health, and wellbeing are the most important thing. You know we're here to do research none of that matters if you don't finish your career as a healthy individual now that is a part of a lab policy manual along with sections on taking time off for health concerns, personal emergencies, and work life balance. It's an open document and other labs have adopted similar policies. Nicole. Ended up not becoming a professor of astrophysics off getting her PhD. Now she spends her time helping students who are going through what she went through. She started a consultant company to make scientific places Spencer for people in marginalized groups everywhere I go everywhere every place that I visited every single one I have students coming up to me and telling me their stories and telling me about the people who didn't me get an who left there's institutional memory of them ever being there right and so the department just gets to continue as it always has but the people who leave their lives are. Completely impacted I like to think about it more in terms of like what those people have lost, not just their time but their hopes and their dreams. That story was reported by Alan You. We're talking about the hidden cost of science right now about the toll that becoming a scientist can take on people's health especially during graduate school. Antinoro hinton junior thought that the journey toward getting his PhD was going to kill him during the time hours writing my dissertation actually almost you know stroked out to be perfectly honest I had a blood pressure of over two hundred at one point note has a genetic form of hypertension, but it was getting way out of control because of all the stress He. Felt he started to take control of his schedule. He sought advice for mentors. He met with his PhD committee to come up with a plan for him to balance time for studying and research, and he had to learn a very important skill saying, no actually started to practice by myself in front of a mirror because I felt like I was on the very. Bottom of the chain I would tell myself that I'm worth something that I have something to contribute to science and that I needed to be able to have all of myself in all my health intact in order for me to be successful. So this is what I would tell myself in front of the Mirror, and then I had this nice little mantra that. I chanted I. Know it sounds a little crazy but I needed a confidence booster and so once I've developed that then I started to practice no with mother size say okay. Mom like let's practice and she would let me practice and sometimes she would also let me be able to give me some critiques that would you know kind of boost myself esteem? and. Nora is now a post doc at the university. Of Iowa Carver College of Medicine he researches diabetes as a black scientist. He is also heavily involved with a lot of diversity initiatives at the university and he says knowing when to say, no is as important as ever my mentor taught me to organize myself to figure out what was important from my career advancement. So what we decided to do was actually put them into five boxes so teaching. Mentoring diversity, work research, and potential grants that are GONNA lead me to my job, and so if they didn't fit in these five categories and they were not things that were going to get me towards my goal of getting a faculty position like I have now then we wouldn't do them. But then sometimes, there are a lot of opportunities that came about for diversity because I'm also the academic and Career Development Instructor at the College of Medicine and so. We had to be strategic about when I would go recruiting, for instance, when our in the lab doing research and how to balance that and two nurses, students, and Faculty of Color shouldn't be expected to shoulder all of the work of making universities more inclusive. It's very important that everyone take a cut at this diversity thing because if we do it along. The way feels too heavy but if we're inclusive in what we're doing and provide equity for everyone else to have space to contribute to this, then it becomes not a burden but a responsibility that we all can take on as a means and in terms of saying, no, does it get easier the more you practice and it feels less wrong to do it. Our guys this is like this is like the million dollar question. It always feels bad to say, no one reason I say bad. Instead of anything else is because you have this commitment inside especially when you're a minority the say oh my gosh I think they're going to judge me for saying no, but if you do not get your bearings down now. They're gonNA take advantage of you in post docs I'm telling the graduate students in challenging them to be able to form groups, kind of like the hashtags that are out on twitter where there's like a black and sell them elected developmental biology or black in neuro or they formed these groups and their these self help groups where they all work together for common goals specific to scientific interest and they help feed each other meaning that they boost each. Other up to help them with their work they make critiques let each other you know, practice their presentations, their qualifying exams, find these groups that are going to give you this voice that you've never had before so that you can be empowered to say, no strategically because there are times where you should say, yes because people may be watching and you may be the only individual of color school and it's important to show people that people of. Color belong. And to know hinton junior is a post doc research fellow at the University of Iowa next year, he'll be teaching at Vanderbilt University natural. A lot of people are strongly opposed to the use of animals in research. I, remember I once interviewed an animal rights activist and she had rescued so many rats from different labs they were all over her house they were crawling all over me while I was to her and she felt that not a single animal should ever die to benefit research. Now many scientists are also passionate about the use of animals in their work they feel empathy for the animals but they think this work is necessary and that it serves a greater purpose still doing animal research is often complicated for them. Jets. Lehman has the story. One of the first things you learn when you work with animals in the lab is how to wrangle them out of those cages. Yeah. It definitely takes like maybe up to ten minutes like the first time you know and then maybe five and you eventually start to. Predict their behavior as they're moving around. So you can do it much faster. Actually, Janette is a neuroscientist who's worked a great deal with rats and mice. Some scientists will catch them one handed by the tail but actually says, she sound using both hands works best. She's gotten pretty good at Roden scooping over the years. Yeah. I mean they kind of like stay to the outside of the cage or they'll often try to run other under the bedding you know to try to hide things. Yeah now, it takes me like maybe ten seconds. Learned early on is that not everyone likes the fact that you work with animals there's an awkwardness in. So what do you do conversations other times? There's protesters outside your job I think like an animal awareness week or something not sure what it's called, but they would like lockdown the Salk Institute, and so you were very aware as a researcher that you know this was happening. The salk institute is a bio lab actually used to work at and your San Diego protesters used to show up. It actually wasn't with pictures of mice and rats. oftentimes, they have really visual images of of different types of experiments typically primates, for example, primate chain to some draconian machine. The sort of experiments that aren't really done anymore. Certainly, not the type of experience actually has ever conducted, but still their message comes through and it feels kind of personal. You know you feel. This backlash, and then as a result, you feel like you need to keep what you're doing. You know a little bit like close to you and I often won't explain thanks to friends or family because it feels like it's a bit You know like too much for them to handle or something actually knows work is important though in studying the brains of mice and rats, her work could help unlock solutions to very human problems like addiction and pain management a lot of what you. Find a neuroscience textbook. She says someone I learned from a mouse. I. Know I think it can be startling to people who haven't really thought about you know how we know what we know or how we know that medicines work and things like that and a lot of people can you know go through life without thinking about the nitty gritty because they're not doing the research even if research has come a long way to become much more humane, the reality is that the vast Majority of animals that Inter a research lab will die there. Fortunately, we can't take like all of the animals with us at the end of the day and it can be expensive to keep them alive. So I think that's the main reason why most labs will euthanize them at the end. It's a heavy cost of doing business in science I. Remember of there is a couple of rats that were like really docile and Nice, and so it was like Oh you know like these are. the, good rats and yeah. So it can be it can be tough at the end of that to to say goodbye and there's another caustic comes with these mice and rats a more literal one, the effort and cost involved in breeding them most lab rats and mice are not the kind you get at the pet store or find going through your trash. Those are generic mice think the Walmart brand type scientists use our designer, pick a disorder, an illness. There's a mouse model for that a mouse created specifically to study that disease. So wherever disease you can think of. Epilepsy Obesity Metabolic Syndrome. We have a mouse model that you can genetically engineer to recapitulate that particular disease. The very aptly named cat. Let's is director of the mouse repository. At Jackson, labs, they're nonprofit we're many labs get their founder mice start colonies of their own for research. The Jackson lab has some eleven, thousand types of designer mice cryopreserved in their repository eighty percent of them don't exist anywhere else. Mice found the rains labs by way of so-called mouse fanciers. Keep mices pets, and they would also select those mice that had spontaneous mutations, for example, in co color or ears or creamy facial long tails kinky tales whenever they could see you know maybe spotted my shirt things like that and they would start inbreeding them. Mice breed very quickly and very often. So mutations spring up fairly regularly fanciers rafter aesthetic mutations but scientists quickly found the fanciers could provide mice with more utilitarian mutations this mouse with Kinky tail it can develop diabetes or colon cancer or this rare neurologic disease that has no cure in between mouse and Human Sajid Conservation, incredibly high at the level of the Cudi sequence and so it was really. Quite translational. Mason people share about ninety eight percent of genetic code that mutations that you would see the mice would often translate to the patients that you see in people, and so you really mice have become being model organism for for humans. So if you can cure cancer a mouse, that's one step closer to curing it in a person research mice are precisely genetically engineered in thousands of ways to test thousands of treatments. It's why pet store mouths costs a couple bucks while a research mouse can run hundreds or thousands of dollars. A pop cats favorite mouse is this little white one. Announced called Delta Seven. It was announced that we used to study very devastating neurological disease council muscular atrophy. Seven mice were engineered to develop this Human Disease Sa. It's a bit like LS as in the ice bucket challenge, but it presents in babies. They're boring small, very weak and they don't live very long cat worked with Delta seven for years and years, and I'm happy unhappy say that don't work on it anymore because Delta seven eventually led to some real therapies. Lots of them estimate is largely treatable today in large part. Thanks to those little white mice. Kids when diagnosed early, enough actually go onto live quite normal lives than or writing bicycles at the age of three. When researchers euthanized mice at the end of experiments, they have a term for it sacking when I first heard that I thought it was in reference to the little sacks they put them in before they freeze them and dispose of them, but it turns out sack short for sacrifice as in for science for the greater good. You know the number of experiments I've done in the number of mice that I've used and the output you know like. So you're constantly, you know I'm constantly assessing like. For these experiments like has it been worth it? Right and am I am I am discovering the things I was hoping to discover. That's Ashley. Again, the neuroscientist when experiments are coming to close, she makes a point to remember the living creature that made it all possible. I. Think I typically just try to take a moment to like mentally like thank you know the animal for giving its life science, right so I think I I I try to do that at that moment. Jets. Alan you contributed reporting for the story. What do you do when you want to contribute to solutions but then you realize you're actually part of the problem. Grant Hill has the story about the impact of doing environmental research. Stephanie Burrell isn't a colleges to study seabirds, and sometimes that involves figuring out how they died, and in this process she found something alarming. I would cleats bids from the beaches as they get blown from storms and when we dissect them, they were full of plastic, the little pre-production pellets that plastic bric a Brac, a Coca Cola bottle rings. Now, this wasn't exactly a new discovery researchers first observed the ingestion of plastic marine animals all the way back in the sixties and subsequent studies have shed even more light on the impact of plastic pollution in the ocean the ocean is full of plastic human most. Dictate to plastic material in an underwater Paradise Plastic Nightmare. But despite reports and studies experts never really set a target limit for global plastic pollution. So Stephanie and a team of researchers set out to discover whether our current efforts, including international resolutions and initiatives to phase out plastic production and reduced waste could successfully scale down marine plastic pollution back to what it was in two thousand ten, an estimated eight million metric tons per year. That's eight. million. Small cars worth of plastic ocean litter a year that was the goal I couldn't believe the results for a long time. The short answer is no and by a wide margin. Stephanie. Study showed that by the end of this year alone twenty four to thirty five, million metric tons of plastic will find its way into our waters and if nothing changes by twenty thirty, that number could jump to nearly ninety million per year. I just couldn't. Fathom Dash. That was reality but I don't even know how to. Give you an analogy that can. Make easier to comprehend. It is just an enormous amount of plastic in the face of such a seemingly insurmountable problem. Stephanie realized that even her own scientific work had contributed to this issue I used a lot of plastic and kind of unavoidable. I was collecting samples from islands than having to stole them into small plastic containers and I. I did my base to sort of reuse them as many times as possible but. There's only so much you can do. Yeah. It was kind of awful to be honest I felt really guilty about it. The problem is that the same physical properties that make plastic so harmful to the environment also make it really useful for conducting scientific research. You know they can be rigid, they can be flexible via really durable so they. Melt will degrade. And another thing plastic is cheap which makes it disposable everything's like single use single use single use. You like Preston Manages Developmental Genetics lab at the University of. Pennsylvania. In Labs, you want it to be sterile and you want to save time that means it's usually easier faster and cheaper to just break out a brand new plastic pipette rather than Cleveland. That's dirty ally was frustrated by how much plastic trash was piling up I just wanted to cut down on. The huge amounts of waste that our lab produces. So ally set out to convince researchers at their university to make a change, they created a program to purchase reasonable glass petri dishes and produced a video showing exactly how to clean them while allies initiative garnered attention from people all over the world other labs at their own university have yet to sign on Felix scientists can be really m they're really focused sciences hard and they don't. They don't want things that might. You know slow them down or just be a change that they don't know about. Sometimes moving the needle, even a tiny bit seems next to impossible and other times you're in for a pleasant surprise, take the high tech freezers that scientists used to store their samples another staple in labs, they're huge energy hounds and can account for up to a quarter of all energies on campus. You cannot turn freezer's off their, their required twenty, four seven, but some initiatives. Early on that, we worked on was the temperature choice of the freezers that's Catherine. Ramirez regular. I managed the Green Laboratories Program at the University of Colorado Boulder Catherine. Started thinking about scientists sustainability problem over a decade ago, and she was surprised to find out that sustainability just wasn't on many researchers radars. At most there were stickers on light on the light switch is asking us to turn off the light and that was a problem because research labs use a lot of energy even when no one's using them and that's mostly because of all those freezers they're always on and the technology has gotten so good they can get so cold that many researchers just began turning the temperature way down because well, they could. So, Catherine and her colleagues started asking scientists. Can you sample survive at negative seventy degrees Celsius or negative sixty or negative fifty? Rather than negative eighty? We created a freezer challenge. 'cause we. we wanted to create competition and we wanted to have competition between our institutions be idea online more and more research institutions began signing up, and in the past three years, the challenge has saved enough energy to offset the carbon emissions of driving over fifteen million miles. That's like eight years worth of NAS car erased and the companies that produce freezers are taking notice the market for freezers especially, oil temperature freezers has shifted so quickly because. The pressure is rising to do that on those industries for Awhile Plastic pollution researcher Stephanie. Burrell was also hoping that the market would shift to reduce plastic trash that armed with research like hers global leaders policymakers would recognize the rising tide of pollution and all the bird bellies full of trash and turn course. But now she's moved on from hope I think about hype is being a very passive wit. It implies that someone else is GonNa come and fix the problem that we. We don't have to do anything else whereas I sort of feel like when when I've lost heart is that it's actually now manifested as determination. and determination to me reflects action for Stephanie that means continuing her efforts to quantify the problem. So Science and citizens can do something about it. Every action that I take makes a difference. Every action the tykes makes a difference every conversation that we haven about this issue. Shine a light on us and attention to insert it how movements happen. It's how things change. That story was reported by Grant Hill. Coming up, we look into a hidden costs that literally comes with a million dollar price tack accessing research papers across the entire University of California system we spend we think over fifty million dollars a year on Journal subscriptions that's next on the pulse. The. Post come select Greater Philadelphia. Gene therapy development companies, Greater Philadelphia is where the field started and continues to thrive more at discovery starts here DOT COM? Supporting whyy Penn Medicine's primary care services are now available at over forty locations with most offering same day appointments and extended and weekend hours. Now, accepting new patients, Penn medicine, dot org beck slash primary care. This is the polls I mike and Scott were talking about the hidden cost of science. Researchers published their findings in journals and they used these journals for their own research. In many ways. These academic publications are the Lifeblood of science. There are the big name ones that even non-scientists here quoted every once in a while like the annals of Internal Medicine Lancet or nature but there are so many more share Geophysical Research Meteorological Monographs Journal of Biochemistry Annual Review of Marine Science annual, review of Fluid Mechanics Journal of Computational Physics, Journal of Biotechnology. Carolina Respiratory Medicine Journal Journal Psychiatry. Each one is highly important to its own subset of scientists. Now, many of these are only accessible to subscribers and the subscriptions whether it's print or online cost a lot. The Berkeley Library alone spends about twelve million dollars a year on Journal subscriptions that's Jeff Mackie Mason the librarian who is in charge of the University of California. Berkeley's twenty four libraries across the entire University of California system we spend we think over fifty million dollars a year on Journal subscriptions. There's another twist. To this, you can typically only subscribe to these journals as packages kind of like your cable TV you have to pay for all the channels, not just the ones you really want many universities and researchers see this as an unfair and inflexible system and they're pushing back Liz tongue picks up the story from here in Tony. Nineteen the University of California system made a bombshell decision one that no major school in the US, had ever dared to make the canceled their subscription to elsevier. Here's Jeff Mackie Mason. We're not paying any money for journals at all and that really shook up the world elsevier is one of the so called big four academic publishers along with Springer, Nature Wiley and Taylor, and Francis the big four published more than fifty percent of all articles along with thousands of the important scientific journals. Used to be that people said. Whatever happens you have to subscribe to Elsevier? You have no choice and that's why they could raise prices so much because everybody thought they had no choice. This is what Jeff and the University of California are trying to change their part of a growing movement called the open access movement. Let's demanding that academic publishers give up their role as gatekeepers of research especially, research that's been funded using public tax dollars. Most of the cost of research they don't bear they don't pay for the research in the first place, they don't pay the authors to write the. Articles. They don't pay the reviewers for the most part to review the articles. So most of the costs are paid largely by public funds according to Jeff that means academic publishers have been making bank the big four publishers I mentioned earlier have higher operating profit rates than either apple or Google do in percentage terms, universities pay for the subscriptions, and then there is article processing fees or ABC's these are the fees that researchers or their universities pay you to make their articles open access, which means that anyone can view them even if they don't have a subscription. So just repeat you're already paying for your subscription but then if you want the rest of the world, does he what you've published you pay extra and these fees can be pretty sizable Jeff says they account for about one fifth of the fifty million dollars. The University of California spins each year on academic publishing. That's forty million on subscription fees and another ten million on open access fees. We call a double dipping says the publishers are getting both reading money and publishing money from us and it doesn't make sense. This is one of the many issues that have been fueling growing resentment against academic publishers in twenty sixteen that anger culminated in a historic meeting institutions from around the world got together and decided to try and make true access at a much lower cost for universities a reality. The settled on a shared negotiation strategy designed to fundamentally change the role of publishers. Here's how it would work under the University of California's proposal. Instead of paying yearly subscriptions, they will pay a fee for every one of their articles that elsevier publishes that way it'd only be paying publishers for. Publishing, and once we've paid you to publish, we want you to make the articles available for free reading. This is part of what the University of California started negotiating for two teen is their five year contract with Elsevier drew to a close when they couldn't agree the University of California decided not to renew their subscription with elsevier. We have been cut off from access for now over a year. And it is really impeding our progress. That's Peter. Walter needs a molecular biologist at the University of California San Francisco who along with his colleague Dyke mullins who's a professor of cellular molecular pharmacology has been outspoken against elsevier years dyke. They become almost like a public utility but not answerable to any sort of governing body other than their own shareholders. So with the flip of a switch, metaphorically, they can turn off the taps so that we can't have to all of the scientific literature that you know we have contributed to without access to Elsevier Jeff. The librarians researchers are mostly relying on getting pre copyright versions of studies either from online servers or directly from authors. There's also Inter library loans with other schools and when that doesn't work simply buying individual papers as for Publishing Dyke and Peter. Say A lot of their students have been turning to what are called pre print servers online archives where researchers can post papers that haven't yet been peer reviewed the and frankly some journals have just fallen out of favor I think people are reading on sending their work to some of these journals less than they were in the past a. What is elsevier have to say about all of this Elsevier is strongly supportive of open access. We would absolutely describe ourselves is an open access publisher that's Jemma Hirsch tease the senior vice president for global research solutions at Elsevier, and also one of their negotiators different customers think about open access in different ways for elsevier open access mostly seems to refer to the article processing charges we mentioned earlier is an option for researchers or universities to pay more on top of their subscriptions. So that anyone can read their work. What universities want is to basically get rid of subscriptions altogether and only pay these article processing charges. One of their points is elsevier's simply doesn't need to be charging or earning as much as they do especially research that they didn't pay for. Elsevier is a for profit organization we are for profit. We don't make any secrets about that. I think there are a couple of key things though the first is what our prophets enabled us. To do and that is to reinvest in tool services. Products that support researchers, support healthcare professionals, support nurses, and clinicians to make better decisions to improve their research. I'm generally to bring and take signs forward to find out a bit about how journal Shape Research I talked with John Van. He's the editor in chief of cell, which is part of the elsevier catalog. It's one of the most prestigious journals in the world which means on yearly basis they get tons of submissions, John. Four thousand this year alone. Do you have to sift through all of them? Are there any that you can just look be like? All right. This is crap. we could, but we pride ourselves not doing that right I. Mean we want to provide the highest service we can to the people who are doing this incredible work. It takes a good amount of knowledge and training to be able to make those calls, which is why John along with the other dozen or so editors on his staff are all. Trained scientists who've done their own bench research the not only read the submissions they choose peer reviewers and work with authors on revising their studies for final publication and Johnson's now more than ever the feel the weight of their responsibility working at an influential journal Excel Review it as a huge huge responsibility. It's it's we are sort of guardians right where safeguarding where making sure that science is rigorous as a case in point John about a covert related reprint the got reported by the media before it was peer reviewed, the result was a flurry of panic over the study's findings. So it sounds like the concern here is that this virus is changing to become more contagious. Am I getting that? Right so that is what the Los Alamos they said that a variant was spreading faster that was making people more susceptible to secondary infection second infections, and that it was, it could be like resistance to the therapies that are now being developed to fight the virus. So then that paper was submitted to sell, we reviewed it during that process pretty much every aspect of that paper changed the title chains. The abstract change introduction chains results changed figures change conclusions changed by the time it was ready for publication the scary findings at disappeared, and so had whipped up a press release to help journalists process. It's findings. This was a example of this process working and doing what it should so that. The information that gets out there solid and that can be built upon when the pandemic hit elsevier along with the other big four publishers made all of their covid related research open access. Jeff Mackie Mason University of California Librarian says that move has furthered their caused by light years. So the major publishers basically acknowledged, yes. Open access help society at Helps Science. It helps us solve problems faster that are really important. So they've now publicly admitted that open access is the right answer for moving science forward and we don't think the genie will ever go back in the bottle. There are still some unanswered questions. For instance, will publishers be able to do the same work of filtering? And revising despite reduced from universities will parties may be meet somewhere in the middle. Over the past eighteen months, the University of California has signed five open access agreements including this past summer their largest one yet with springer nature. And just recently, they've resumed negotiations with elsevier. No promises but jeff for one is optimistic. We think that as these contracts become standardized, we're we're reaching tipping point where we're going to see the whole industry flip over and just you know a few more years. That story was reported by list ton. That's our show for this week. The pulse is production. Of whyy in Philadelphia you can find US wherever you get your podcasts, our health and science reporters are Alan. You list hung and jets Lehman. Charlie Kyler is our engineer etxabe. Your Lopez is our associate producer. Lindsay, Lazar Ski is our producer I might and Scott thank you for listening. Behavioral. Health. Reporting on the pulse is supported by the Thomas scattered good behavioral health. Foundation an organization that is committed to thinking doing and supporting innovative approaches in Integrated Healthcare whyy's health and science reporting is supported by generous grant from the public. Health. Management Corporations Public Health Fund Ph MC gladly supports whyy and its commitment to the production of services that improve our quality of life.
Chuckable Cheetah - DTNS 3481
"Real protection means not having to be your own twenty four seven monitoring expert with AT. You have best in class monitoring professionals there for you at times, you need it most wherever you go the safety net of eighty is with you eighteen thousand employees, safeguarding, you and direct connections with first responders. That's real protection. No matter. How you define safety. Eighty is their visit ATT dot com slash podcast to learn more about how ADT can design and install a secure smart home. Just for you. Chris Rocco has supported independent techniques directly five years be like Chris become a D S member. At patriot dot com slash DT. NS? This is the daily tech news for Tuesday, March fifth twenty nineteen in Los Angeles on merit and consider the feline, I'm Sarah lane in the show's producer. Jane, we have got cooking news. We've got welding news. We've got kitchen where news and glass news, and and video doorbell news, very excited about today's show for those people are like all you ever talk about his Google, Amazon and Facebook will this is the show for you today. Let's start with a few things, you should know. The national security agency shut down a system of logs of US domestic calls and text. This is according to Luke Murray, the house US house minority leaders national security advisor, this halts a program that's involved disputes about privacy and the rule of law since the September eleventh two thousand one attacks Edward Snowden disclosed the program's existence that can twenty thirteen in contributed to awareness at how both governments and private companies harvest and exploit personal data wealth modifies been around in India for about a week now. And they say they've added more than one million users across both they're paid and free tears now for perspective. India has a population of one point three billion with more than four hundred million smartphone users, so there's still room to grow. Reuters reports that ten cent back to Ghana G A N A leads the Indian market with about eighty million monthly users. Well, we promised you kitchenware. And this is the first one Carell brands which markets kitchen where under the Cornyn where pyrex brands announced plans to merge with instant brands instant brands, the makers of instant pods instant brand CEO Robert Wang said that it will help expand product-development he'll stay on the as the as as the company merges as chief innovation officer an instant brands will continue to operate out of its offices. In Audubon, can I didn't realize the instant didn't. I did not either some nice polite. That's why it works. All right. Let's talk a little more about video doorbells. August August, by the way owned by a lock maker in Switzerland, not owned by Google Amazon Facebook or apple August, introduced the aug view doorbell. It's video doorbell for two hundred thirty bucks available in the United States. Starting March twenty eighth. The view has a shape that could fit more easily on your. Door frame than the previous model, and it's also battery-powered now before they only sold a hardwired model, but some people wanna prefer because then they don't have to change the batteries out. But if you don't have hard wiring, this means you've got another option view it in a lot more places. It also comes with a remote doorbell. Chime a rechargeable battery and a micro USB cable. Well, Tom as a person who has recently purchased a home. This would be something that you might look into as a renter. I kind of read these stories, and my and I'll move soon, you know, I don't want to go through the trouble. Does this sound good you? Well, I throw it back at you after I answer I will won't refuse to answer. But the fact that this is a battery powered one makes it a little more of a possibility for you is true. Right. Because you can just unscrew it and take it with you. When you move verse hardwired one, which I guess you could still in and take it with you. But you know, it just makes it that much more that much easier to pop on and off it is. It is definitely attractive to me. Although two hundred thirty bucks is not the cheapest. In fact, I just bought a ring which I even because Amazon's them, I was like, I really wanna rang. I put it off put it off put it off Eileen my wife really wanted one. So I finally got it because it was on sale for one hundred sixty bucks. It was and it had they threw in a free a free was it. They threw in for free. I want to say it was pre battery. But it wasn't a free battery. What did they they threw it something for free? I don't remember where it was cable. Wasn't. He goes became anyway. They they threw ends up for free. And so it was like, okay. That's pretty good deal. Two hundred thirty bucks, though is not outlandish. And honestly, if I had known that they were updating this view video doorbell last week. I might held off because. Yeah, I would like to diversify outside of these ecosystems. I try to keep some of my stuff and Google and apple Amazon, it'd be nice to be in August, which isn't related to any of those. Well, and I totally understand what you mean by that at the same time. We do see stories in role talk about a few of them later on the show of smaller companies that shut down because they aren't part of that big ecosystem. So if you are I don't know if you're going to throw two hundred dollars plus into something there is a part of me that saying, well, you know, if it's on my Amazon could probably not going anywhere. Well, it is a little bit of that. That's actually the nice thing about August is owned by a lock maker like a lock maker that's around for a long time. So it's. Probably not going anywhere either. Because it has a nice traditional, you know, well established company behind it. It was the door chime extension that I got which is probably not something. I would have bothered paying for. But it's kind of nice you plug it into the wall connects by wifi, and then it's not just ringing on your phone. You can also hear it in the room. If you don't have your phone nearby. That's kind of nice anyway. Yeah. I think that's I think the reason you're seeing a lot of buzz around this right now is because it's from from August and not from one of the companies that everyone accuses of spying, which is an important thing for a lot of people these days ASA, a blow is the parent company. It's a Swedish sorry, not Suisse Swedish lock manufacturer formed in nineteen ninety four. When ASA a was separated from Swedish security firm Securitas aby. So then, and if this is something that you've bought or you're planning to buy, and you've got a good reason. Let us know. All right. John Bain general manager at glass manufacturer. Corning told wired that his company is working on a bendable version of gorilla glass that could be available then in the next two years or even sooner Cornyn is targeting a three point three to five millimeter bend raid. I for its one point one millimeter track. I knew I was going to get the strong meter thick glass. Well, increasing damage resistant, so pretty cool stuff. Corning makes bendable willow glass, but its manufacturing process requires a dip in salt solution, which would corrode in glass transistors needed for displays that Samsung and always bendable phones use plastic screens, which are less likely to be scratch resistant, so coincidentally apple invested two hundred million dollars in Corning back in twenty seventeen in order to support research and development. Yes. So the upshot here is that we could get the. Durability of gorilla glass in a bendable screen right now. It's one of the other you can get durable girl a glass, or you can get the bendable screen Sam like you said Samsung and always bendable screens or plastic which is why there's a lot of worry about tempered glass covers and and things like that. And Corning thinks that it can balance the durability with that thin glass that you would need for bendable, which would be amazing. And and like you mentioned apple really doesn't want to do plastic screens. They've made that very clear over the years. So that's why you won't see an apple bendable phone is my guest until there's a bendable glass version of this. Well, and it looks to be the case that apple has invested in exactly that. Yeah. Or something that might be exactly that some somewhere down the line. I mean, it does does still leave the question open. Do you want bendable screen, right? But even if it's not about a foldable phone, right? A lot of people like a foldable ipad foldable, iphone, maybe an apple has some patents out there that indicate they've looked into that sort of thing and how they would do it. And maybe this is another time when apple comes in and says, oh, yeah, they're all doing foldable phones. But let's show you how you should do it a foldable phone. That's the old apple magic of the past. Maybe they can pull that off again, or it may just be different form factors. It may be devices that that aren't necessarily necessarily foldable but have wrap around screens or something like that. Yeah. Yeah. Or something that I don't know if you put in your back pocket, and it sort of folds into your person, in whatever way, depending on how tight jeans might be going to get into that. But that's the sort of thing where it's like, okay. Maybe not foldable, but something that actually just works better day to day. And it might not be an might not be, you know, this this this. I don't know something that that that that changes the landscape, but actually just works better. I'll just think you like what if they upgraded the the watch to aband-? Wait across the band. That's that's like a little little flexible. Oh, what are they those called the snap things that you live the snap on the bracelet? The wedgie gift from snap bracelets. Yeah. Oh, who loves those? Roger does. Okay. Ankles. Bengals I'm thinking now on in a similar vein. Scientists from Heriot watt university Edinburgh have developed a system that uses PICO second pulses of infrared light in tracks along materials in order to weld glass to metal the team is welded courts Boro silicate and sapphire glasses to metals like aluminum titanium and stainless steel the welds held at temperatures from negative fifty up to ninety degrees celsius if you're one of those Fahrenheit people in the US nineties close to boiling negative, fifty is fifty below freezing glass and metal. I'll have different thermal properties, which makes them very difficult to weld. So most of the time when you see glass and metal put together in your devices. It's adhesive that it. He saved can slip overtime it often out gases. A lot of the yellowing of screens is thought to have been adhesive that his outgassing over time in any case adhesives usually reduce product lifetime. So this would make for more durable devices the process, it will have direct applications. According to the scientists in aerospace defense, optical, technology and healthcare. So it's biggest us may not be in your phone or your consumer device, but in more industrial applications, but it's still a big advance. Well, and I think that so many I if you're talking about a device, for example, and yeah that kind of yellow in or something's weird at how how did these? He's work. Most of us don't really understand this. So the technology under the hood as it were is is actually really cool. Yeah. There are bright days ahead considering that they we the the way that the way the metal and glass might work together going forwards are is actually just a lot stronger. Yeah. When you talk about tough books, durable phones hardened for for for Dutch. Royal use out in the field or military use this. This makes those a lot tougher than they are. Now right now a lot of that that sort of durability factor in devices has to do with casing putting some kind of shock absorbent casing. I I actually use an ex Doria case that's a mil spec. Case the defense case on my phone because it's got that shock absorption. Right. That's your best defense right now, if however you can make it so the device itself just holds together more than that a shock is not going to loosen the adhesive. But this thing is welded tight. It's not like you get rid of those shock cases. But they they have to do less. And so it just toughens up the entire device, I'm curious of people out there who who know welding, and I know you're out there. What do you think of this? What are the parts that we're not thinking of right now that are going to be huge benefits for for devices that can be made with this process because from everything I've read we got the story from phys dot ORG. But but I looked around and saw a few other places picking it up a lot of people think this is a significant advance that's going to have some some pretty great repercussions if they can advance it. So the temperature. Threshold is broader you could use it in aviation, right? You wouldn't need to necessarily create a when you have a window. You know on the on the fuselage of the plane. I mean, you got to essentially both it there to keep it together. But if you can well, then it maintains the same strength. You could use a significant amount of weight. Yeah. Crucial in aviation because every pound you add means burnt fuel that that doesn't, you know, give you money. That's a great thought. Because those bolts add up over the course of a big jumbo John. I mean, this is the thing like when before welding with big ships, they go should liners. They riveted them together. The problem is to get very heavy. And so when they find when they discover or you know, when they not discovered, but when they invented welding, they start welding ships, it's allowed them to create a ship that was significantly lighter. Because you didn't have all these bolts and rivets. I mean the same thing with aviation. They may jets they riveted them. Together. And then they can't we just weld this reduce all the Ritz. You know, you lose. Maybe fifteen percent of the weight makes the plane lighter use less fuel Mexico faster than the rest. So I mean, if they can if they can this is just the beginning of they can browse the thermal properties and do use different, you know, thicker more precious brush pressure is at the glass, the awesome. Well in wearables news heard me, I dec- is now including ear buds and headphones that connect to smart assistance in its wearables number. Apple still leads with air pods and some beats headphone models out outed to apple watches for a total of forty six point two million in twenty eighteen Xiaomi came in second at forty five percent with me band. Three is the best selling wrist, worn fitness tracker entire world. Fitbit's fell ten percent to third while way jumped one hundred forty seven percents to fourth and Samsung took fifth place. RDC also noted that this appearance of headphone Jackson, the rise of any year, biometrics, and smart assistance. As the reason, it's ease. Your warned wearables as the next product. Battleground just be the fact that they called it your Warren wearables. Include this. But, but yeah, I I think it it is legitimate to say having a voice assistant in your job or your air pods. Or whatever you're wearing is is is a wearable. Now, that's not just headphones. It's not just an extension of your phone. It's it's a separate thing. And some of these can even have some some onboard processing for voice recognition that can do a few things on their own. So if you're if you're apple watch can be considered a wearable, even if it doesn't have a built in not connection of its own. Certainly your buds could. And if anybody doesn't realize we started a program called live with it where Sarah is taking a device and spending three months just living with it to give us a more long-term view of products in the first product our job, right? Ear buds. So this this is right. You're right on trend with those Sarah. I thank you. I I would definitely call them whereabouts. Yes, they're airbeds. But it's this is something that is it is Amazon assistant in able I can use it as my phone device issue. Right. You know, if if I get a phone call while I'm out and about or play music or podcasts, or you know, there are so many different facets of it that it's like, yeah. It is a wearable. It definitely is a wearable it there is a form factor that may or may not work for you. And that's actually something that I I have some thoughts about as as do many other people because it's a very personal thing. I think even more so than something that you would wear on your wrist. But, but yeah, it is a wearable, and it should be included as such and these numbers. Yeah. RDC's total is one hundred seventy two million smart wearables shipped in two thousand eighteen half the number of personal computers that shipped. Glass half full glass half empty that number and say, well, you know, personal computers have been stagnating. So that's not it's not a great number of. It's only half of that. But this is a growing market versus a stagnating market. So, you know, this this is a this is a significant market that is only showing that it's getting larger and larger and an IDC thinks that the ears are the next, you know, the wrist is kind of well played out. Right. It's not that we won't see that continue to grow. But we kind of know it can be done on the wrist right now the ears seem to be where the next frontier for this for for companies to make new stuff is. Yeah. I mean, it's it's the way that a speaker can now be a smart speaker. Okay. Well, what can I do it can play things? But it can I it's interactive. If there is a certain amount of interactivity, I think that that's a wearable, and that's very valid universities and academics have been pushing for open access to published research pretty much ever since the internet began if not before. The internet makes it easier to search and access peer reviewed research. There's things like scwhab an archive with an ex that make it easier to find data than ever before. You don't have to plow through the stacks. You don't have to dig through the library cards anymore. The Dewey decimal card catalogues all of that stuff. But it threatens the bottom line of journals journals for years have been the caretakers of what gets published and how you access it. And they've made a lot of money doing that. So they're pushing back as open access threatens their bottom line, or at least they see it as threatening their bottom line while the university of California system, the whole system, not just one campus has made open access provision for its research a requirement for renewing subscriptions to journals and their first negotiation, which it was with the journal publisher Elsevier Elsevier agreed to terms if you see authors paid publishing fees to get published in the journal. They said fine will allow anything that gets published from UC to be open access. If you pay extra as a result, the university of California system, and it's ten campuses have decided not to renew subscriptions with Elsevier journals. It's about eleven million dollars that the journal publisher is going to lose out on it makes billions of dollars. So it's not a huge percentage. But it's not nothing. They followed the national library consortium in Germany, Hungary, and Sweden, however who have all made the same decision. And if each one of those is taken even just a couple of million that's going to start to eat away. UC researchers will rely on pre prints of journal articles as well as sei hub where you can sometimes find these these articles anyway to obtain copies of the research that they would otherwise get from Elsevier. And I think the most significant thing is the UC system doing this. Now will encourage other systems to say, well, wait a minute. Maybe we got some leverage. Now, the all ten campuses and California are doing this. Maybe we can jump on board. And and change the way this works. Yeah. The UC system is is for anybody not familiar with California. I mean, it's it's it's it's it's a huge system. So this is significant in that sense. If I if I were to be kind of that Lehman sand, but Tom what does that mean for research? Am I going to get more a great research papers that that? Get get dropped into my lap. Or am I going to get less like is this good or bad? It's good. The people who lose out or the journal publishers. Now the journal publishers argue that it's going to make it more difficult to publish research. But honestly, most people agree, and I know some people don't, but most people agreed that you don't really need the journals anymore. You just need a good peer review system. And there are starting to be good models of open publishing that include valuable peer review. So if the journals aren't going to play this is the kind of thing that signals they make it the rug pulled out of the way, the music industry in the video industry and print have in other kinds of print have had the rug pulled out of them because of the internet model. And so there are some journals out there that are adapting to this. But you really do need to adapt to it. And Elsevier doesn't seem to be doing that at this point. Well, have I got a great story for everybody on IT's many cheetah robots? Yes. You heard me, right. A mini cheetah robot as a very cool skill among other things it can achieve three hundred sixty degree backflip from a standing position. Researchers claimed that the mini cheetah is virtually indestructible and can recover with little damage, even if a buck whip doesn't land even if you don't stick the landing the cheetah is a twenty pound quadrupeds that can bend points legs wide, enable it enable in its walk either right side up or upside down, the robot can also traverse uneven terrain about twice as fast as an average person's walking speed, so cool room, the cheetah also has a modular design. So each leg is powered by three Motors made of off the shelf parts. So if a motor is damaged it can be easily swapped out for a new one. The researchers will present the many cheetahs design at the international conference on robotics. And automated thing that happens in Maine. They hope to build ten of these. And then loan them out to other labs next up figuring out a landing controller. So you could toss it and have it land on it's feet still. Yeah. Part of this is just while they can do that. Right. That that is an amazing advanced robotics. But I feel like those some pretty practical uses for this. When you say, oh, you can throw it in a lands on its feet. That sounds like you're torturing the thing because you wouldn't do that to your cat or your dog. But if this is a. That you're like the first thing that always comes to my mind with these robots. These days is rescue situations. And you're like this is a burning building we need to see if anybody's in their throw the dog or the cheetah in through the window. And and you know, it will land on its feet me able to maneuver through uneven terrain, and and give you a view, maybe even do some other manipulations to help the fire or or whatever. Right. Like, that's that's incredibly useful. Yeah. That's a great use case. And I know we were kicking this around before the show we were talking about the strike because I was sort of like, this is so great. But who cares? I mean, we'd need a back flipping robot. But yes, when you talk about something like that that is a perfect use case for something like this where. Yeah, it things there might be debris, or, you know, the the stairs aren't in, you know, in shape for a human or dog or an animal or a any living creature to be able to safely be able to Trevor. This. So in that sense. Besides the kind of wow factor. The implications are really cool. I think sometimes the movies make us overestimate what robots can do robots in real life or pretty fragile. They usually usually have to be on a flat surface those robots that they have in airports delayed. You around can't go up and down stairs. Very well. So this kind of thing is important for robots being able to move into different situations even outside of emergency. I mean out side of search rescue. You can do maintenance for example, throwing down. A manhole run down the length of the sooner. You don't need to have three guys run a camera on the end of the of a line and run it down. You could just have go through. Or if you're like doing research am looking at this rare bird species. I don't want to freak it out with a six foot guy with a camera. Rummaging through the brush, I can put one of these put a high in HD camera on the back of it. Let it, you know, very quietly surreptitiously get you know, any kind of. Mr. that way. Those are great folks, if if you are someone who's knows the practical use for this kind of maneuverability for robots share your expertise with us feedback at daily tech news, show dot com. Also, don't forget you can keep up to date real fast. If you're short on time. It's good to have a backup subscription to daily tech headlines at daily tech, headlines dot com. And thanks everybody. Who participates in our sub read it because you help us uncover stories like robots can do back flips at summit stories and vote on others daily news, show dot ready dot com. If you wanna hang out on Facebook. We've got good news. We're there to Facebook dot com slash groups slash daily tech news show. Article about the the induction heating from from yesterday came out of the suburb at Derek Silla sent that way long. So. We also love the mail the emails sent him along and then we'll check him out in the mail bag. We absolutely do end. We often say, hey, if this story resonated with you, will you let us know. And Ben did exactly that Bensaid. I really excited when I heard you cover excels new ability to take a photo and make it a spreadsheet I handle printouts of spreadsheets daily in my job as a low voltage electricity. Electrician we use them to lay out connection pathways at the data center. I work at filled with panel and device and port information the ability to take a photo of that sheet. And then have it become an edible document is great for me as than I can make changes as needed to update the master that my forming has also I work with some pretty old school guys that just want the paper. So I often take a photo of the document for my own use. But that photo can be difficult to navigate sometimes this would make it easier to highlight a row and easily identify all the connections that I need in one run just thought I'd give you another use. Case other than photos of spreadsheets in word documents. This is great. I love the Ben's. Like, I got really excited about excel any other really good reason. This is telling the thing is that we've got an electrician in the audience. He's like me I'm excited about this. Let me tell you why. And it and it makes perfect sense. So thank you so much, Ben. We also got an Email from Beck's forton a patriot support. Thank you boss says I bike to work daily and most places on the weekends. I would be happy to see delivery butts in the bike lanes. For one simple reason. The more the bike lanes get used the more drivers will respect them and more cities will be incentivized to build them. Reasonable speeds in a bike lane range from seven to fifteen miles an hour. So the robot should be able to get where they're going safely and on time. I'll be honest when we talked about the robots in the bike lane. I expected to get a bunch of bicyclist telling me why that was a horrible idea. So it was very pleased to see Beck's going. Actually, I think it would be a good idea. Thank you back. Yeah. Yeah. I think that's a really good point Beck's that if you liken it to more bikes in the bike lane bicyclists, it'd be like, yeah. Because, you know, this this is this is a necessary thing and drivers should respect it. And and this is some. That perhaps is not respected enough now. So throw some robots in there. They all get along. Well, you know, going going roughly the same speed why? Yes, good thing share the road with a robot. All right. Thanks to everybody who supports us at daily tech news, show dot com slash support. There's so many ways to support the show you can buy some urchin our store, we have some some stocking caps, aka tooks, aka beanies, whatever you call their warm. They're going your head perfect time of year to get one. We also have hoodies and t shirts, and and onesies and all kinds of cool stuff. So if you haven't check that out, go to daily technician dot com slash store. There are other ways to support his to and the best way and the way that supports us. The most the people we are answerable to are the people that patriot dot com slash DT NS to thank you for sticking. With us patriotic is testing a merchandise program where we reward you with merchandise. So if you are at our top. Tears right now. And you stick with us for three months, you can get either a D T S mug or a poster with Len Peralta detain S five year anniversary art, this is a limited edition thing. So if you are at that tier stay there, if you haven't been on that tier, and you think may I could do that go to patriot dot com slash DT NS slash merch. To check out the details, reminder, our Email address is feedback at daily tech news, show dot com. Right us early and often we're live Monday through Friday at four thirty pm eastern twenty one thirty UT see, and you can find out more at daily tech news, show dot com slash laugh. I'm traveling tomorrow, but Sarah will be here with Roger and Scott Johnson. They will talk to you. Then. This show is part of the broadband network. Get more at frog pants dot com. I'm in club. Always enjoyed this, bro. Meet the next generation Samsung galaxy to demonstrate how the new wireless power share works pay close attention on this side, the new galaxy on this side your friends phone by just putting both phones together. Your new galaxy starts moving energy from your phone to your friends phone extending the battery just like that the Samsung galaxy s ten s ten plus preorder by March seventh and get free. Galaxy buds limited time only terms apply.