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Meet the Neolithic!
What's that one language? You've always wanted to learn a spaniel for say deutscher well, with Babel, you can be speaking your new language within weeks. The lessons are designed to get you speaking confidently and actually remember what you learn. That's what makes it the number one selling language learning app in the world. Go to babble dot com. That's b. a. b. b. e. l. dot com and use offer code curious to get fifty percent off your first three months that's offer code curious, bay spite. Have you loud and clear. Welcome. That is the same physics medicine nature brain the universe. This week, we go back in time to meet the Neolithic people to find out how Ron on sisters changed the world and how Oculus a- digging up the secrets, Georgia mills, and this is the naked scientists. Naked scientists podcast is powered by UK. FOSS dot co don't UK. Each week on the naked scientists. We talk about the most exciting technologies uninventive of the day humans a managing to three d, print organs, glossed rockets into the sun and make rowboats who can play football. Some of those things I'll move. I told another's, but all of our current technology know-how lies on the foundation of thousands of years of innovation, and I'll be the most important period of innovation in our history was the Neolithic. Neolithic literally means new stone. It was the final period of the stone age, beginning around twelve thousand years ago. It brought with it. Some of the most important developments of our history stone tools control over fire and the advancement of farming. So this week rather than looking to the future, we're taking a trip through history to try and find out what the Neolithic of ever done for us. Professor Esca Willis love is a geneticist on an expert in human evolution. While the new league people seems to be a group of people who have invented agriculture coming from the Middle East and near east becoming farmers basically. And then they're moving up through Europe, bringing that new lifestyle with them, right? So they started in the Middle East, but they spread across the world bringing their ideas with them, and they were. They weren't separate species from us. They know it's also an atomic modern humans. Basically, of course, they have different genetic composition than the Honda galleries that are living in Europe at the time when the insuring and this is why which knitted can observe the entrance into Europe. How do we understand that movements from that genetic? Well, it's because as I say, they have a different ancestory from the Honda galleries. And therefore when when you sequence the genomes. Of engine individuals there you can see that some of them are completely different from the contemporary hunter gatherers. And some you can say, mixtures between hunter gatherers and these newly farmers. So we can see we can basic observe genetically how they're moving across euro approximately what time injuring the different parts of Europe. And to what extent they have genetically influenced the local hunter-gatherers they brought within the advance of agriculture. What else made them special? Well, I mean they had both aquiculture. They had to mystic animals and they were living in a different way. You can say that this recites included more people than super cool, hunter, gatherer groups, which were probably something like twenty twenty five people most of the year. So these were you can say, had real settlements. They also were none mobile to the. I mean. Didn't have a mobile lifestyle to the same extent as as the Honda gallery. So so they had a very different way of life, but also at different food source. Of course. I mean, you know the people in Europe that they were meeting giving from mainly hunting animals and fish, and berries, and nuts and things like that, what you would call it typical Palo tired I today and these hunter gatherers were basically living from something much more similar to prison. They muesli. And therefore the also we can see that this is a very drastic change in lifestyle. I mean, when we're going from hunter gathering to farming, it's potentially the most severe change in lifestyle that we have undergone as humans. And we can see that the Vic Shen even in the genome in regards with things that associated with diet. So for example, these fats regions of the gene that I involved in transforming shelter fatty acids into long-term. Fed as this is something we need long chain fatty acids. For example, our brain, and we're getting them rectal through and fish. But if you are doing bread and carbohydrates unique to basically change the show chain, fatty acids into long chain, fatty acids, and the fats rich of the genome is involved in that, and we can see has been selection on those parts. So it's something that that transition also effected not only in terms of admixture with new people, but the it's also affecting, you can say, biologically, if you want and the starting to live in these sort of large static settlements in fact, susceptibility to disease as well different. I mean, we don't know yet with a these agriculturalists pro diseases with them. We have some suspicion that this might be the case, but it certainly you can see at least during that time or slightly after that time. Where we start seeing the first day makes plague, epidemics example. I mean, we see it already in the wrong sage, which is the period just following the cultural arrival into Europe. And so this change of lifestyle, of course, where you have more people to is creating the background Foale epidemic outbreaks such as plague. Why is important to study them to understand in many ways, the are providing the fundamental, the modern lifestyle. I mean, we see too many people would Accu you know that the agricultural revolution in Europe is really the creating the base for the creation of civilizations and our civilizations with the other. People have argued, of course that it's the worst thing that happens to humans because with the newly cessation, there's also a lot of problems coming with this change in lifestyle. I mean, people have occupied doing that are offering from diabetes and other lifestyle diseases is really result off the. The cultural revolution and that we are as a species still trying to tap to that change in lifestyle. But however you're looking at it was a positive nicotine. We've been, it's certainly an event that changed the way we are both living as humans. It's advent the chains, our ancestry in Europe, and it's been that that ultra chains infected our biology. That was professor escape. Willis left from Cambridge University and the university of Copenhagen. As I said, the Neolithic spread all around the world, but to get to know them intimately. I'm going to team up with a group of archaeologists and spend some time with just one settlement, an extremely exciting site that made the headlines. And of course, the naked scientists last year. Really have earliest evidence of wine production in the world. The expedition, which is the great project aims to find out about the origins of wine. And the sites in question are shoot vary and gotta truly in Georgia, which is a country squeezed between Turkey and Russia by the Black Sea straddling the east in the west. And if you're a knock eulogised whom to some of the most well preserved Neolithic sites, I went along with the project to that dig site to find out more about the Neolithic, but also find out how to be an archaeologist. I mean after watching Indiana Jones who hasn't wanted to donate a bull whip and fedora DOJ ancient traps. Well, kicking the occasional Nazi. But well, it turns out that's almost no time for that as a day in the life of knock eulogised is pretty full on. It's an early start at five AM. So if you're a student or an excitable reporter, you wastefully regret drinking Chacha the night before and get on the bus to the dick site. You about the tops, protecting the dig site and stock at into work and forget a hat and a whip. The tools of the trade, a little less dramatic or most important tool is our trowel. That's an Italian Hunchback, a PHD student at the university of Toronto, and of course a trial. This is slayer. You're welcome to wield her today, and this is your child's nickname, is slayer. It is. Yeah, we've been through some stuff together. She slayed some things for me. The second tool that we use quite a bit is a small pick not just to break up the soil, especially when we're I starting to dig the whole thing that is very important to us as a brush. It's important to be able to see what you're digging because you're moving onto dirt off of looking at this point to keep the old dirt off the new dirt. Keep all your separate. We follow what's called a probe in peel method. So what we do is. We start in a small area of the square and bring it down until we find a change in the soil, some new architecture, something along those lines. So we're not digging blind across of five by five meter space, just maybe a ten centimeter by two meters space. Once we find some of that information, we then extend that small holy made across the whole square because soils build up over the millennia. Each layer of soil represents a different point in time. So this in peel method excavates a bit by bit. So you don't miss anything, but it certainly no easy. Little bit the ankles and the knees and the back and for long periods. You don't find anything except the occasional rock. The terminal is at a rock. It's an artifact. Over all the creepy cruelly. On the brick. Do they bite. Maybe, but I'm bigger than but every now and then. Oh, wow. Look at that. Now. That is a huge look at that. You hit the jackpot tool Bonaparte and then you extract it very carefully and it's all time Jim banked for its long trip through science and as well as the artifacts in sleight like this, you'd also keep lookout for big bits of Choco. Yes. So these are all sort of carbonized wood, which is awesome because it tells us that there was definitely burning here, but it also is what we hinge our carbon dates on, which is how we put the site in an absolute time. So a lot of the artifacts just do their characteristics. We'll tell us that their meal thick based on whether on the ground, but also how they relate to other sites in the area, but are really big question with the excavations here at got a truly and over at Shula. Very is, where does actually fit on a real time scale? How far back are we talking about when we say origins of wine people using. Hi, it's possibly domesticated dogs. Like, what does that actually mean? And book him buckets of soil, the are removed to Somboon and sifted to collect any Snoopy's that may have escaped cheap all the while as you go, you record draw and photograph everything you can every single time we move even just like a speck of dirt. We are technically destroying something that sat in place for anywhere from ten thousand years to a couple of months, but we are very much disturbing everything that we touch. So it's very, very important for us to make sure that we maintain meticulous notes because as soon as it's gone, it's completely gone. At the end of the day, they even take a photo of the whole site using drone Parni in pre drone days. They tried everything from to Sophie six to get this done and often many hot hours of graft. It's back to h keyed. The students start drawing labeling and sorting that fines ready to go into the lab for analysis all under the watchful eye. Of project mascot looney. Others go out on a survey walking over wilderness, looking for anything that might indicate an interesting place today feature all the while of waiting the local snakes, which I'm told a liable to coil up in spring. You terrifying slinky's. I don't know whether to believe this once again, finding genuine faxes pretty rare. I uncovered some Soviet metal one livid school in and you guessed it more rocks. Return ably call it interesting. Turkish xanada. Pretty stone stone tools Moebius like right then names on them. Then it's back to base time for a quick dinner and off to bed ready for another five AM start trying to get a good night's Kip through the thunderstorms allowed enough to shake your bones and the order quake. Apart from the snakes only a passing resemblance to Indiana Jones movie really set up false expectations for me. You just can't trust Hollywood that was Natalia Jack with day in the life of an archaeologist. What about the people whose lives that taking up the artifacts? All tell stories. But the first thing you notice on the dick side, all the remnants of the houses. Stephen butterick is an with the great project from the university of Toronto, and he's been digging Shula very for a number of years and gave me the tool. This is your standard truly reddish show move village. So what you have is a series of circular structures, varying incised from one meter to our largest one is close to seven meters. They're clustered together. Sometimes you have buildings that are clustered in a figure, eight pattern, these two large ones over here so that you have the figure eight pattern or you'll have the MIR by. And you'll also see circular walls that will join them as well. And they'll form sort of small clusters almost a little like a household area where you have a couple of structures in an enclosed courtyard if you will. That's sort of. General pattern that you see and what you're looking at two in these squares. You can see that some of them are different levels. You're looking at different phases of construction. So what the lowest one would have been built first and then later they build that on and then add on overtime. So these these families, if you will would have been expanding over time and what would the houses themselves made out of? Well to Mancini is an archaeologist from Italy also working with the project. Is sample of a break from the lower level of the site so that these French mudbrick expert can analyze it and Telus you know something about them right. Mudbrick has what they've been building. These. The people here left head. What Bill everything over. Looks like the clay brick and there are sunbaked in see the Luzinski's here inside the clay. This is definitely mudbrick. And all these holes legal that you can see here are pretty much the Cade organic material like plans which are funding the clay and makes together with the clay to compact rematch demont brick and making more more solid as well as plant material like wheat, the mud bricks, mixed together with poop on occasionally bone to make them stronger. It may not sound like the most enticing to build your house from, but the Neolithic knew they were doing these things could really lost most this giant wondering about this. It looks like a non hill just slightly told them me behind me. What is this? This is one of the earliest structure that we have on the side and he's one of the most well preserved and what we did last year was to Beeld a sort of colder with clay. But fortunately collapse. Here. So maybe we didn't get the right amount of clay or the right proportions. The ten thousand year old structure stood up in one guys made fell down. Newfound respect for the Neolithic for sure. I've got to say, I've been on the full good Indiana Jones hot. Some haven't seen any vetoes is closest to congratulate you on your hot game. Thank you so much so fast. I, I concerned fashion icon wall to Monchy Nida. So they had these study houses, but what was life like in the village to Steve? Well, it would have been pretty tight clustered houses. So people would have been pretty much on top of each other as you can see, the houses aren't that large, they would not be doing a lot of their activities inside. They'd been doing them outside specially in those courtyard areas around the houses. You would have had agricultural fields that would have been immediately around, and it also seems that they would have had vineyards around here as well. Some of the work while the Georgians have done. We have an excellent palynology who works at the Georgian, national museum where she's been collecting soil samples from either outside. Courtyards inside the buildings, and she's been able to actually find great pollen if vine polling sensually. And she's also done other studies with modern vineyards and realize that the great pollen doesn't go very far. So for to be in these houses, the vineyards had been either close or they're collecting the flowers or whatnot and bringing them nearby. So they're probably were vineyard within the immediate vicinity. And then couple that with the motif of the grapes, the sorta led to the idea that they were probably drinking wine in here as well. So it would have been simple agriculture village, growing wheat, barley other legumes, but also undertaking horticultural practice. This evidence full coach, I'm wine is what makes these sites so important loss shit. They found with a residue containing a combination of acids which indicates wine, which have been dated to around eight thousand years ago, which pushed the date back for the Elliott winemaking Byron, two thousand is and that's not to viticulture going vineyards would have been the main things. And then also it now seems based on some of the new evidence that we have APPA cultures. Well, basically they would have been caring for bees, if you will. This is one of the things that we're presently working on is we also have the evidence earliest evidence for Honey foam. Does that take? It's the same person are pollen specialists. She was looking at a sample from its comes from the site of Shuai where we're also working. Basically it's a trash Pitt from hearth. And so somebody's been cooking and cleaning all the ash and everything like that. And so she was looking at it and is the sample that she had had this incredible. Well, this clustering of pollen of a very diverse variety of basically meadow plants and also our boreal flowers according to Pullen specialists like this is a signature of Honey because I should also add that they were also insect legs like Honey legs that were still caught in this as well. You will not have such a diverse collection of of pollen like that. If it's from. If it's an enter genyk thing because we can't collect that. We normally collect that diverse of pollen or flowers if you will, but Beezer going from flower flower. All across the please within. I think it's a seven kilometers range. They can collect that great variety and that's represented. That's the signature if you will, Honey of having that great variety of pollen. So they didn't have much space to move around and they had wine and they had Honey site life. My been quite good wouldn't have been that bad. I imagine is the site one singular sort of settlement over time or is it several? Well, this is actually one of the interesting things that we've started to understand just really sort of this year. But you do have is if you look across the landscape, you have our Mt. You can see another amount over there. That is the humidity's Gorda. It was also excavated in the nineteen sixties. Then off over there to Colombia's away is the opponents of Shula vetted Gortat which had been excavated in the nineteen sixties. Bye bye. The Georgians and what you seem to be looking at is a cluster of sites, but they're all occupied at different time periods over the two thousand years of the Shula berry show. Culture is seem to be a total mystery. The Neolithic people would building these perfectly good mudbrick houses staying for a couple of hundred years and then suddenly taking leaving forming a new settlement if you kilometers away. But why? Well, the onset may light with a key bits of information. We know about farming, how it griffis is professor of plant ecology at the university of Cambridge. So when farmers crop land for too long, you tend to get the one crop uses similar months nutrient year on year. So you tend to get progressive impoverishment of the soil and also tend to build up pathogen. So the two things tend to mean the progressively yields tend to decline with time, right? So if I'm having a field of wheat that I wanted to run through year after year, the wheat would eat the same nutrients. Again, and again, out of the soil that wouldn't have any way of replenishing them on the same diseases that like the wheat as well would building up on you. Actually, what we see in East Anglia hit where we have a Tikal which progressively reduces wheat yields, and that's why we have to rotate crops. So what's protection? Well, basically, it means under the current example, you grow a single crop perhaps for two years at most before switching to another crop to allow the soil to recover, how does the soil nutrients back? Well, to is really one is that the increased weathering brings in more nutrients from the bedrock and not physical helped by the roots, which actually helped to digest some of the Roques with the acid waters going down through otherwise through fertilizers that come in some naturally as a result of lightning, bringing nitrogen others, of course through manures, and that's where progressively early man probably would have learned fairly quickly that some form of manure would. Would aid crop productivity, and if you replaced wheat with something else than also the bacteria or whatever it was that was feasting on the week top, nothing to eat and hopefully disappear as well. Yes sounds the general idea yet. So it just gives a break and so then the land is healthier and more nutrient rich ready for the crop when you replant it, how long does it take for soil to recover between wheat's? Well, as a currently, I think it's in the region of between a about a year or so or year or two following intensive cropping. Although I believe in the in the eastern England, there are some farmers that are able to get through this kind of rather impoverished time on grow wheat continuously, but it tends to result in lower yields, and this is exactly why the Oculus just think the settlements moving around the landscape. They had only just started to come hit on this idea of probation, but they would finding a yields unless unless each year, so. After using up all of the land around a settlement, it was time to move on. We'll kind of things. Were they falling back to Howard? Okay. We'll the evidence suggests that we, we started to select early weet varieties as at one verdict on unkown, which has it sounds like it just as a single grain in its. We quite surprising because if you look at wheat and I guess you don't realize you can turn into tasty tasty, bread and pasta. It doesn't look sort of immediately useful. I'd much rather something I could eat straightway well, like all of these things. One does how much of this was found by accident in conjunction with leaving grains near the fire and so on. But we we do know that the Neolithic man had breads had found ways of grinding grains to to make flour. So rapidly became adopted as a staple. We have weight and Bali early domesticates, but also things like poppy and flax and some legumes as well. So lentils and vetches and so on. Those are the earliest crops how have themselves been changed by repeated foaming of them have they would? Would they be recognizable? I suppose it's an interesting question. So the accent is whether the the seats actually increase what we, what we certainly have managed to do is select grind with increasing yields. But at the same time, we've been able to build on a number of chance hybridization 's whereby to grosses accidentally merged genetics genetic basis, and that led to this hybrid effects with increased yield and not ultimately is let us to with the characteristic waited that we now recognize. Whereas if you saw one of those early weeks, you'd scarcely recognize it as a a crop that we'd recognize as we today and in terms of the foaming itself, how's that developed sin? The last ten thousand is I imagine quite of it. Well, indeed, I mean, there's a lot of debate in in the UK about the send. The forest were initially cleared in what's what's the stone age, but. I think in the UK certainly we think that the choke was cleared. I, which would been the uplands because of the lighter soil. So it's easier to plough with early early sort of stick Prowse and so on, and that would have been cultivated. Initially, the argument is that it was only later. About. Thousand years base e also the on showed plow, came in from Belgium, Belgium and so on, and that then that to the heavy clays being tilled what is telling well, basically it's a question of having cleared the basic forest. It's then at question of creating a seedbed because what what growing crops is all about his creating a monoculture and in fact funding some of the earliest Neolithic sites have seeds of weeds very characteristic as well. So I'm sort of speed wells that we can't really find it all flowerbeds and so on today, presumably they were weeds that were growing amongst the crops, the Bali and wheat that being cultivated by those earliest color pharma's how Griffith that from the university of Cambridge, the naked scientists cost is produced in a sociation with Spitfire cost-effective voice, internet and engineering services. UK businesses find out how Spitfire can impel you'll company at Spitfire. Coach k.. This week on the naked scientists. You'll with me Georgia mills, and I'm probing the pasta and finding out will the Neolithic have ever done for us. We've built up a strong a picture of life. If he years ago they were living in secular houses may largely from us with a little hint of poo and bone. I'm with farming the surrounding lands, enduring bread, Honey, and wine for dinner. But to find out more, it's time to move place. Lee at some of the artifacts team has been finding and was one that caused considerable excitement in the square Natalia Hunchback was supervising and apologies. Archaelogist have potty mouths. Look at that. So even to my very untrained I, I can tell this is something. It's it's thing leanness really. So what we're looking at here is a large obsidian blade and obsidian is volcanic flow that dried very, very quickly. So it has the appearance of glass essentially. So these are essentially used as blades as knives sickles, and we pull up quite a few of these from the square. This is our second or third one from this whole right now. And as you can see the edges look a little bit serrated they've been reworked telling us that this blade was probably used quite a bit and the way that there is this dividend. The edge also tells us that it was most likely used at some point before it was buried next to this wall. These obsidian blades turned up quite a lot with various different markings indicating they might have been useful. I'm perhaps the best way to understand how the Neolithic made and use these is to try it for yourself. Shawn Doyle is the projects, resident, Napa, which is not as I initially assumed because he slept too much. Napping k. n. a. p. p. i. n. g. is the general term used for the production of chip stone tools. But generally it's the tools that are made with solar material. Seditious the it is a very salacious rock actually, obsidian as a very high silica content solicit stone is stone where its main main component is silica. On obsidian is the thing that I'm on the day. We found lots of tools made of obsidian and massive roof of it hit and it's dock and black and shiny, and very beautiful. And I also know this is the thing that in game of friends very excited about the dragon gloss. So this is to me quite mystical object actually. Is it. First of all, I'm a big game of thrones fan, so I love me some dragging glass and if I can kill a white Walker one day twenty in our world, obsidian is a a stone that's formed in volcanic eruptions. You need a lover that has a really low viscosity, which means it's very fluid and liquid and it super cools very quickly. So quickly that the the elements inside don't have time to crystallize. So you end up with very homogeneous, natural glass material, the crystallization process kind of ruins predictability. So the more glasslike it is the more predictable it is and the more easily you can flake it into the tools that you want. Other Cilicia stones are Flint and various types of shirt, like Cal Cetinje or Opal, or some courts team between napping then how how would I go about tending this big. Rank into a nice lead in a knife. Basically just stare at your stone a lot until it speaks to you. Oh, wow. Very scientific. Yeah, that's the easy way to put it. But really it depends on what you're trying to do with the stone. If you're if you're just trying to take a flake that you can use to cut something with, you're just looking for an angle that's under under ninety degrees. This one hears about seventy and you're just looking for a flat strong platform that you can hit with the stone that will withstand the strike and allow the shock wave to travel through the piece. China like this. Eureko lots of really nice one. Nice, thick flake. You know, it's such a versatile material that you can pretty much shape it into anything you want. Once you know what you're doing once you know what you're doing. Being the operative phrase him that didn't stop me from demanding a guy, and I don't know why you'd have large chunks of obsidian lying around your house, but please don't try this home. I found out it's very easy to cut yourself. I have a few scars for my learning days. But every scars lesson, that's what I say speaks to me. Nice. He'll call the end. Well, it exploded a little bit. That's part of the learning process. Okay. What did I do wrong? A couple of things. Sorry, mentioned game before Valya. Could you make a sued out of this stuff? Would it what? Well, I could make a sword, but it probably wouldn't be the most practical thing. It would probably break in half the first time you try to hit something with it. It may be, but what it looks studying at makes up for in its edge, which I would say was raise a shop, but really it makes a raise look like a crown. Yes, obsidian is so sharp. It. A sharp edge can be something like two nanometers in thickness or something like that. So it gets so thin that you can cut between blood cells. Actually, obsidian is still used in some modern surgeries for that reason, but also because you can sterilize it really easily. It doesn't have the same pours as surgical or modern steel does, so you can sterilize release. The Neolithic faithful were using a physician. You know what they probably might have been. They used it for all sorts of different things, including scarf occasion, bloodletting maybe tattooing even yet it's a very versatile material. They even made mirrors with it. The person in the world were made from obsidian. You'll be pleased to know none of the team used at to any bloodletting, but one, George, knock eulogised Dima did actually manage to shave his bid with a blade again, please don't try this at home, but obsidian as well as giving insights into how the Neolithic lived. Can also tell us a bit about that movements, YouTube city and sources unique in in its in its chemical signature. Actually, that's why it's it's used very effectively in sourcing. So we can use various lab instruments like x Ray diffraction and others to addenda FAI. It's trace elements so that you can match artifacts in the archaeological record to the obsidian source that came from. Right. So people were trading with this, you'd know how hard moved. That's right. Yeah. And because it's such a homogeneous material, it's much easier to do that with then with safe Flint or church. Art. So you can tell exactly how far material was traveling in the past will help city. Then. All city. It's my favorite thing in the world. Me too. Now. Sean, Doyle, that Anapa thoughts with a k. and a dragon gloss wheel to so pot from these stone tools or litho cts an important group of evidence all the remains of animals, Steve Rhodes and the project to archaeologist for grape and what is a zoo. Oculus I study animal bones and essentially you human subsistence based on that we've got, we're in the lab now. It's lots of boxes, various things, and there's a lot of bone. So what kind of things have been have people been finding? Well, predominantly in terms of food animals, there are a lot of cap Brian's, mostly sheep, few goats, lot of pigs, a lot of cows. And then we also have wild versions as well as domesticated. So we have domesticated sheep and goat, but it looks like we have some some wild like found a very large. Horn core of what looks like a wild goat. And we also seem to have wild oryx which are wild oxen, progenitor of domestic cattle, very much larger and even possibly bison, which were native here many years ago. Some other interesting things. We have a very large catfish to the Wels catfish is the common name and they can get up to two or three meters long and have these bead objects here that were made from them that we're kind of curious about whether they were, you know, decorative beads or possibly years pools, or even been suggested they might have been spindle worlds for making fibers from wool or flax. Right? So it's it's kind of like a little bone doughnut, tiny thing from a catfish. Yeah, that's our best guess right now is catfish, it looks the most like. That, right? So these guys were having a lot of animals to eat and animals like the catfish which may be happen used in some kind of auto decoration. And then what else would they using animals full huge amount of their their technology, like their tool kit was made from animal bone, and it's more so than in other parts of the nearest that I've worked in the Levant where they have Flint and they make a lot of tools Flint. But here in eastern Georgia, there's no, there's almost no Flint, and it's all obsidian, but which is great for making some things, but it's not great for others because it's so fragile. So making a lot of tools out of it is problematic. For example, like we don't see any obsidian arrowheads and you know what I was thinking was that you know, maybe it's because when they hit the animal, they shatter inside it and fill your potential meal. With lots of shards of tiny little glass. So the people probably figured that it really quickly and what they do have our bone marrow heads which are quite uncommon and other places, but seem to be typical here. They also they seem to have been doing a lot of hide processing. So we have a huge number of all piercing tools that were made. They seem to have had a real consistent technique. So they have this really standardized, like hide production industry looks like across through at this whole culture. That's quite interesting. What hides pennies pencil predominantly flow? -thing, I would assume at this point because it doesn't seem like they were doing any weaving because we don't have really much evidence of that, and this would be very early for that. Probably using it for containers a lot. You know, for carrying water and things like that. Or you know, just general transportation of goods to hide survive. Long could could we have uncover one theoretically in this environment. It's not likely they have been found in places like bog deposits in northern Europe, Denmark, Ireland, places like that where mummified no in places like Egypt or high altitude sites and South America, places like that. But that's very different environment than what we have. So it's highly unlikely wherever gonna find that here not content to merely look at these binds at the great project. They really wanted to get inside the minds of the Neolithic. Case. There's a table covered in tiny sheep legs, students covered in blood. I wouldn't say covered what is going on. We are replicating some of the bone tools that we're finding. At the sites of Gada shrill Lee and Shula Varis that were excavating as part of the learning process. We're trying to learn how Neolithic people made their tools. Right. And so you're using an obsidian played today? What? Exactly I'm the sheep legs came with the skin on, so I, we have to remove the skin and the Becerra, and then we have to disarm late the meta podiums from the Lange's from the toes. 'cause we're not using the toes. We're just using this partier. And then after we've done this, we're gonna start breaking the bones because we have to break these bones in half in order to replicate the tools here. So we're going to be after we've got all the viscera off, we're going to be scoring them with a stone tool to guide the fracture when we break it and then breaking them open with stones with like a hammer an anvil technique and then finishing shaping them with with other ABS hitting leads. Go rework. I guess in one in one sense. But you know if you're Neolithic person, this would be nothing to you because you're used to living in the natural world. There were no butcher shops, you know, no restaurants that did everything yourself. Steve writes that with some gruesome experimental archaeology. And while we using the present to understand the past, I wanted to find out more about the discovery that made this site famous winemaking, because winemaking in Georgia is quite unusual, which may be tradition they've kept from the very start. Alexander tried site is the managing director at KT w group, which is one of Georgia's largest winemaking companies. So we're an interesting country in terms of why making because not only do wind by traditional way of European way. But we also do out on traditional way which is making wine enquiries, which are clay vessels, huge ones starting from maybe from. Litters going up to a couple of thousand liters. We pick the grapes and after hand baking out graves, we trust for it to our Maraniss where we have queries. Marini Maroney's a wine cellar in Georgia, very widespread than national treasury award for us. On the running up Moroni Merimee. Do you have a Maroney hit? Yes. Okay. Look through. Fantastic. There's a beautiful building, massive, Chet appearance. Wow. And now it's just opened up into this massive seller. Full of wine bottles of wine. You go ahead. What are these? What are these traps in the ground designed for people to fool down threats. We call them quivers these coverage. I'm going to stick my head one that only gush. You can probably tell from the sound just how big these and they act being kept underground fees, poor, and I guess you put all the grapes in the and then seal it up. And so putting wine and Kev that's quite a different method to the rest of the world. So what impact does that have on a flavor. Oh, it gives us throng flavored than regular method of making wine, but quiry is so different that I've never heard an instance where somebody tried quivering says, oh, that reminds me of something because it's just so different. It gives its clay like flavor, which is weird because we don't eat clay, but we, we have smelled it. We have experienced it than there is a saying that we use in Georgia that Klay makes wind better and almost as important as the wine making traditions all the wine drinking traditions our, yeah, our Supra, which is a fist is very interesting phenomenon. It's late by guy named Thomas who people choose before the feast. Even someone who leads the table Ritz the table by saying the toasts where he says a toast. Everybody has to say that toast maybe they can just. Sate come jobs, which means cheers, but they can also Ed something. And usually when we drink town says something, and then all of us just said something about that toast. It's not only drinking process. It processed goes into communication and you become close to each other after Joe JR face because you opened up about many things and you talk about different stuff is not like tears to tear sent drink. And sometimes we have a thing called the different when we introduced some weird stuff to drink out of kind sometimes be a huge clay jar or vase or. I don't know some people to encounter forgive Tara's well. Or a shoe. We don't do that kind of stuff mostly just something drinkable vase or huge glass or two like Ed, some kind of. New flavor to the fist flav, especially from a shoe. I don't like drinking from shoe. Alexander chide, say on George drinking traditions that so all the rest of us are less likely to drink it from shoot. Wine is incredibly popular across the world. But why really does it matter wherein when we invented it, why should we spend time and money digging up the pas like this Matala humpback tells us a lot about ourselves today. Yeah, absolutely. Especially as you get more into asking questions of the past, you realize that you're really asking the questions that are important to us today. So the questions that were asking might not even be relevant. People who live ten thousand years ago might not be something they think about the fact that is something that we're thinking about today tells us a lot about what it is to be a person in the twenty first century. So archaeology is fundamentally figuring out where humans came from and why we are the way we are today. So the materials that we look at, especially things like ceramics and plaster where investigating the first time humans made synthetic material. Title and synthetic material is a big part of our existence today. But Furthermore, things like ceramic and like obsidian are still used as components in tools we use today, which is very cool when you looking at things from United hundreds of years ago, de feel kind of connection with the post, absolutely pulling something out of the ground that hasn't been touched in ten thousand years gives you a really close and intimate connection with the last person who touched it, you might not know who that person is, but it's a kind of connection through time and a little bit through space between yourself. And essentially people who came before that made us who we are today. And I've been here for just under week, and so I haven't been getting up his Elliot's guys sort of five AM stars, backbreaking labor. What keeps you doing it because it's not easy. Is it? No, it's not an easy pursuit, but it's one that is incredibly rewarding. And part of it is that we work with people to get the work done. So you're forging human connections with people who you wouldn't. Necessarily work with daily. We are very, very lucky to work with incredible Georgian students, for instance, but also the experience of pulling something out of the ground and really revealing parts of the puzzle that you might or might not be able to put together in a coherent way sort of like catnip. It'll just keep going and keep you coming back for more gambling a little bit like camping. Natalia act then. So how different really always from on Neolithic on sisters back to Cambridge university's escape his lab. Those some some evidence suggesting the hunter gatherers. The originally came into your old appearance was quite different from today. I mean you had they had much stock skin. The had do agree ice so they would have different from from prison. They Europeans, they would have language, put. It would have been the hunter gatherer Lang, which was most likely be very different from the language we speak today because you know the UPENN which is I really getting coming into to Europe during early prongs with the United stanchion. They have Elise said boy in only innovations, but we know these days we know about farming. We have these sort of scientific reason behind, but they wouldn't have known any of this. How did they make so many innovative. What made the pharma so successful? Is that for some reason, you know, they must have had more children that survived. Basically. I mean, so the population growth of the farmers seems to have been Nacho then among the hunter gatherers. And it's kind of ironic in the sense that if you look at the health state of the farmers, it actually looks like the the health state is poor up among the farmers than it is among the hunter gatherers. So you can say in some ways, you know it was. It was probably and this. While they was this good life if you want. I mean, that's how it looks, at least from the skeletons. I mean, they have teeth problems. You know, the, the fantasy small, the backs are kind of affected. You know, by the line of lifestyle, the nutrition stage is not as good as as the hunter gatherers, but still they seem to be, you can say, in terms of numbers more successful than the hunter gatherers, the innovations they made. Like, for example, if you leave grapes out for while mates wine with this have been intentional accidentally while it's a good question. I mean, it's it's, it's not very clear exactly how to mystic Asian happened. I mean, those different theories on this. I mean, some believe is kind of very gradual thing. You know, while you're start nursing a little bit some wild crops and turning them into two mystics long period and something that happens vanish. Slowly others have accurate that it's much more focused and I don't think that's really resolved. But of course, when they're getting into Jural they to some extent Mazda this new way of life, at least to an extent way you can say it's successful and the make possible the sprit of that lifestyle and lifestyle. We have to thank from what in life today, the good and the Bod to brutally. If anyone went ask, we'll have the Neolithic have done for us. Just take a look around. Thank you to escape. Willis left from Cambridge University and to all of the guests this week. Alexander chide, say Natalia, Hanseatic, Sean, Doyle, Steve, right? Stephen butterick and Howard Griffiths and also a huge. Thank you to undo Graham and the rest of the great project. Do join us next week for look, the invisible substances that make the world go round from Jijel getting food to running out. 'cause we're taking a look at catalysts. The naked scientists comes from Cambridge University is supported by Rolls Royce on the SEC. I'm Jemil's and thank you very much for listening to. What's that one language? 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The Naked Scientists