40 Burst results for "University College"

Fresh update on "university college" discussed on WTOP 24 Hour News

WTOP 24 Hour News

00:36 min | 2 hrs ago

Fresh update on "university college" discussed on WTOP 24 Hour News

"P F and on Alexa It's 1 21. Now some good news. We have this afternoon about the troubling covert variant out of Britain. New study. Finding even though the variant is more contagious is does not cause more severe illness Study conducted by the University College London and published in the Journal Lancet, appears to contradict earlier findings that had linked the variant with higher rates of disease and even death. CDC says the British variant is now the dominant strain circulating in the U. S. An update now on a legal fight over abortion medication, CBS correspondent Jim Chris Sula Federal health officials now say women wanting an abortion pill won't have to visit a doctor's office or clinic during the cove in 19 pandemic. The announcement from the Food and Drug Administration is the latest reversal at an ongoing legal fight over the medication of medical group had sued over the restriction that was imposed by the Trump Administration. Change clears the way for women to get a prescription via tele medicine and get the meds through the mail. And again. We continue to follow breaking news today, the CDC and FDA calling for a temporary halt on vaccinations using the single dose, Johnson and Johnson shot this, the agency say out of an abundance of caution while they investigate if a rare blood clotting disorder found in six women who got the vaccine. Were caused if that disorder was caused by this nearby, the vaccine that is nearly seven million doses of the Johnson and Johnson vaccine have been administered Infectious diseases expert Dr Anthony Fauci explains what the pause means it really allows both the FDA in the CDC to further investigate These cases to try and understand some of the mechanisms of what it is some more details about the history of the individuals who were involved. That might Shed some light on looking forward what will happen and what we will do. The White House Cove in 19 director says there are enough vaccines from Fizer and Moderna to meet the administration's goal of 200 million vaccine doses given in President Biden's 1st 100 days in office. Coming up next and money news NASDAQ RALLIES Today Fidelity is bringing a lot of jobs here. I'm Jeff label. It's 1 24 I'm.

Food And Drug Administration Jim Chris Sula Anthony Fauci CDC CBS Trump Administration University College London FDA Nasdaq Six Women Britain U. S. 1St 100 Days Today Alexa White House Cove Fizer 200 Million Vaccine Doses This Afternoon President Biden
Dr. Theodore Belfor on Cranial Facial Development

Functional Medicine Research with Dr. Nikolas Hedberg

02:17 min | 1 d ago

Dr. Theodore Belfor on Cranial Facial Development

"Very very excited today to have dr theodore belfour on the podcast. I heard about dr bell. Four in james ness doors. New book called breath. And we're gonna be talking about all of that today on the show and dr belfour. He's of new york university college of dentistry and a senior certified instructor for the international association for orthodontics in the nineteen sixties. Dr bell was sent to vietnam to work as the sole brigade dentists for four thousand soldiers of the hundred ninety six light infantry from the jungles of vietnam to park avenue in manhattan upon his return opened his own private dental office in new york city and has been private practice for more than forty years and dr belfour specializes in the treatment of the cranial facial system. And that's what we're gonna be diving into today. So dr bill for welcome to the show. Thank you for having me. It's my pleasure excellent. So what are we. Start by talking about how this all began and go back to. You know what happened. That change the cranial bones the cranial structure our skulls that led to this epidemic of of airway issues breathing issues at all of the health issues. That come with that well How we develop. How would grow and develop is based on how we breathe Aloe and we chew so just looking at how we chew. According to the us department of agriculture today in us sixty three percent of diet is processed and refined foods so without the proper stimulation to the body. We are not fully expressing on jeans when not developed in to offer full potential because that particularly when off jaws do not grow forward enough Do you re trues. Those jaws helps to push the tongue backwards into the airway and down to throw sanal. We have compromised sleeping breathing.

Dr Belfour Dr Theodore Belfour Dr Bell James Ness New York University College Of International Association For Vietnam Dr Bill Manhattan Us Department Of Agriculture New York City United States
Fresh update on "university college" discussed on WTOP 24 Hour News

WTOP 24 Hour News

00:55 min | 3 hrs ago

Fresh update on "university college" discussed on WTOP 24 Hour News

"Until 2022 w. T O v 12 21. CBS News Special Report, the director of the CDC told the nation's governors during a call, she hopes a pause and administering the Johnson and Johnson Corona virus vaccine will last days to a week. Acting FDA Commissioner Janet Woodcock agrees. Time frame will depend obviously on what we learned in the next few days, however, we expect it to be a matter of day for this pause. The pause follows concerns about blood clotting. Dr Anthony, she told governors rare, but severe cases have been found in recipients to the vaccine. At least one woman died and another is in critical condition the C D. C s and shook it following the science Ensuring transparency into providing regular updates. Going to tell you what we know when we know it and what you can do to protect yourself. The FDA and CDC jointly recommended the pause this morning CBS News Special Report. I'm Wendy Gillette. I'm Bruce Allen. One point of interest to investigators will likely be how the Johnson and Johnson vaccine is delivered. Dr Joshua Sharfstein of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Says the J and J shot chairs. What's called the identifier is vector as a delivery method with the AstraZeneca vaccine, which is not yet approved in this country. This kind of rare blood clot has been associated with the AstraZeneca vaccine. So I think the question is whether the identify iris vector, maybe in part responsible service. The overwhelming majority of the U. S. Vaccine supply comes from Fizer by on Tech and Moderna. And neither of them are affected by this pause. Bruce Allen. W T. O P. News some good news. Now on the troubling covert 19 variant out of Britain, The Journal Lancet is reporting a new study that shows even though the variant is more contagious. It does not cause more severe illness. The study, which was conducted by the University College, London, appears to contradict earlier findings that had linked this variant with higher rates of disease and even death. The CDC says that variant is now the dominant strain here in the U. S. Stay with us coming up next, the NASDAQ is gaining ground. Are you better off or worse financially now? I'm Jeff Global. It's 12 24..

Wendy Gillette Bruce Allen Anthony Joshua Sharfstein Britain Jeff Global CDC Janet Woodcock Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School Cbs News Astrazeneca Nasdaq FDA Moderna This Morning University College, W T. O P. News London Johnson And Johnson 19 Variant
Dermatology for Skin of Color

Short Wave

01:33 min | Last week

Dermatology for Skin of Color

"Want to talk about the field of dermatology. That's the one treating hair skin nails Yeah it's an amazing field. So skin is the largest organ of the body. We shed more than pound of dry skin throughout the year. And it's a really visual field. Okay so dermatologists. Like dr jeannette. Acquai- rely on pictures to get a sense of what a disease looks like so they can recognize it in the moment where freely scanning the patient from the minute we walk in the room and many of our diagnoses. We actually know them from the door. Because rote memorization of what things look like as such a big part of our training. Jeanette is chair of the department of dermatology at howard university college of medicine and like a lot of dermatologists paying close attention last spring when covid nineteen was giving some patients. A skin rashes. Do you remember that. yeah i do. There were reports of covid toes. Like people's toes swelling up usually showed up with more mild cases. Yeah it was considered kind of covid red flag but ginette was noticing. The pictures clinical papers about cova. Toes and other skin manifestations were overwhelmingly of light. Skin historically black skin. Brown skin is not represented in literature appropriately. So it wasn't a surprise. It's just that on the heels of all the things that were going on in the country last summer we thought that it was worth calling it out in a way that we hadn't called out our colleagues in the past

Dr Jeannette Acquai Howard University College Of M Department Of Dermatology Ginette Jeanette Cova Brown
Fresh update on "university college" discussed on WTOP 24 Hour News

WTOP 24 Hour News

01:19 min | 6 hrs ago

Fresh update on "university college" discussed on WTOP 24 Hour News

"All in women. Aged 18 to 48. They happened a week to 13 days after similar rare complications involving the AstraZeneca vaccine led European regulators to change their guidance on who should get that job last week. They're also investigating the Johnson and Johnson vaccine. Infectious disease expert Dr William Schaffner worries more will die if they avoid vaccination. Whenever something like this happens, it enhances the skepticism and hesitation of many people, so we will have to continue to earn And the confidence of people who have not yet been vaccinated. Not clear how long the Johnson and Johnson rollout would be on hold or which states would be most affected. CBS NEWS Special Report. I'm Vicki Barker and the FDA is going to hold a press conference at 10 o'clock this morning. About seven minutes from now You can watch it. Live at w t o p dot com and stay with us here on the air and w T. O p for the latest on this developing story. In other news, we're following two women have died. Another is injured and a baby is in the hospital after a shooting. In southeast D C. Firefighters responding to an apartment fire discovered three women suffering from gunshot wounds. They contacted D. C police department to respond That same time they put out that fire executive assistant chief of police A Sean Benedict said. Two of the women have died. It happened on Good Hope Court in Southeast D. C around 7 30. Police say a three month old baby was also found at the scene and was taken to the hospital for observation. Police say it appeared that the whole thing started as an argument. It appears that the suspects Out of the fire. Battery Bank. W T OBY NEWS. There's some good news this morning on the troubling Cove it variant out of Britain. The Journal Lancet is reporting a new study that shows even though the variant is more contagious. It does not cause more serious illness and patients. The study conducted by the University College, London, appears to contradict earlier findings that had linked the variant with higher rates of disease and even death. The CDC says that variant is now the dominant strain circulating in the U. S. Coming up in money news without starts lower than as that higher possible merger for a big.

Vicki Barker Britain University College FDA TWO Southeast D. C CDC 48 Three Women William Schaffner Two Women 10 O'clock This Morning 13 Days Last Week U. S. Johnson And Johnson Three Month Old Good Hope Court Astrazeneca DR
VR, AR and XR in Human Factors- In discussion with Prof. Bob Stone - burst 02

1202 - The Human Factors Podcast

01:23 min | 2 weeks ago

VR, AR and XR in Human Factors- In discussion with Prof. Bob Stone - burst 02

"That walls doing psychology undergraduate degree at university college. London and i even though i enjoy things like clinical psychology and social psychology. I was always. I was always more attractive. Worse than the occupational psychology side of things. And then i discovered by absopure chance that literally across the road from garrett street was the original economics unit is remote more governors and rachel belichick bombers most rachel benedict today and went over there initially to ask if i could to ask him a barrel their their their police breathalyzer because i was doing a study on the effects of alcohol on 'em second-largest skills dr in other words dark throwing an incredibly popular student experiment. Believe you mean talking to an harry. More absolutely inspirational. I'm thinking and they did things like control panels. You know going back to jerry anderson and it just seems like cheap chains and go to go to and coalmines and some of the courses were held at the institute. What was the baby. Manson army personnel research dente. Fauveau this is. This is the do so i i took the nfc down then. Never looked

Rachel Belichick Rachel Benedict University College London Jerry Anderson Manson Army NFC
Fresh update on "university college" discussed on Morning Edition

Morning Edition

02:04 min | 8 hrs ago

Fresh update on "university college" discussed on Morning Edition

"Is W N. Y. C. 93.9 FM and AM a 20 NPR News and the New York conversation. Live from NPR news in Washington. I'm Dave Mattingly, The Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are calling for an immediate halt to the use of Johnson and Johnson's single dose Covert 19 vaccine in the U. S. Officials cite a rare disorder involving blood clots that develops roughly within two weeks of vaccination. Six women between the ages of 18 and 48 have developed the clocks. One woman died. Johnson and Johnson's Cove in 19 vaccine is one of three authorized for use in the U. S. New research suggests a Corona virus variant first detected in Britain does not cause more severe illness. Here's NPR's Michaleen Do Cliff scientists first detected be 117 in the UK Now it's the dominant strain in the U. S strain is about 50% more transmissible, and preliminary research suggested it may also cause more severe disease. Now a small study, but one that uses more rigorous methodology finds no evidence of that in people hospitalized with Cove it scientists at University College London carefully followed 341 patients. After accounting for their sex age. In several other factors, the researchers found that infection would be 117 did not worsen symptoms or increase the chance of death. The study is published in the journal Lancet, Infectious diseases. Michaleen Do Cliff NPR NEWS? This is NPR news. This is w. N. Y. C in New York at 7 32. Good morning on Michael Hill, 44 mostly sunny today and then going up to a high of 63, The newly formed commission charged with regulating cannabis sales in New Jersey, met for the first time yesterday since New Jersey and New York legalized adult use cannabis within weeks of one another. There's been speculation over which state will be the first to begin recreational marijuana sales. Cannabis Regulatory Commission Executive director Jeff Brown says he'll focus on working on long side New York to create regulations for the industry. We're going to rely on doing this together, we're going to rely on, you know best practices, whether they come from Oregon or Colorado or New York or New Jersey. The panel overseas existing medical marijuana dispensaries in New Jersey, which you're likely to become the first to get the green light to sell recreational cannabis to consumers. New Jersey Governor Phil Murphy has said he expects marijuana sales to begin over the summer. Andrew Gang is drawing criticism from progressive activists and rivals in the race for New York City mayor after he suggested there should be more enforcement of unlicensed street vendors. Advocates revenges say they're hardworking immigrants unfairly targeted by the police. Fellow candidate and city comptroller Scott Stringer. Wait in How can you claim to love New York City and want to throw hardworking New.

Dave Mattingly Oregon New Jersey UK Colorado Scott Stringer Andrew Gang Centers For Disease Control An 341 Patients Michael Hill Britain Michaleen Do Cliff Washington Food And Drug Administration Jeff Brown Michaleen Six Women 48 New York City University College London
Goodhart's Law in Reinforcement Learning

Data Skeptic

04:11 min | Last month

Goodhart's Law in Reinforcement Learning

"Student at university. College london minds researches mauka manipulation if you have self trading algorithm does it learn to manipulate markets. And then going from that. How'd you stop it for many players in the market on cutting more generally how do you tell algorithm which runs a policy. How do you tell it. The certain things are illegal. Should be done. So it's kinda taking me on more security journey than i thought it would because of going into the world of experimental psychology lower because not market knows very interested in intent lieutenant and they're also interested in coz -ality my work at the moment is trying to establish will Like for an hour them and the what the beginning to be talking about today is connected to quality so is an area that really came up in my kinda full mold machine learning education and it was only probably just over a year. When i read a book by judy. Appel will the book of why a restarted get interested in the subject to causality and realize that it's something but isn't tool on isn't handled while a machine learning at all. And if you read the book. Paul is very adamant about the importance of alexey. In housing types of analysis simply can't walk without taking into account so it drew a question in my mind is wide or how machines machine learning techniques reinforcement dining. what when there's no explicit treatment of causality. it's all so that led to the dog brought to pipe official quoted by fulminate cool cool combo good health law enforcement butting so a reinforcement learning should be all about causality. You have an agent. He chooses actions that she's actions. That somehow changes the world. They receive some kind of award the world changes and so on so you think that reinforcement learning calls aleksey guy well together and actually if you to believe bill. They can't walk reinforcement. Dining should be able to work if causality isn't explicitly treated. But if you look at sutton a barter which is the canonical text on reinforcement. Learning a search for the wet causality. Causal anything like that pays exactly zero times in the book. So someone's gotta be wrong. Eva wrong in saying that actually k. nikon generate any kind of policy to solve a problem or reinforcement dining extremely lucky so far in the Questions that they've studied have contained any kind of interesting causal structure. I agree that the word causality is suspiciously missing from most of the reinforcement literature. Books and papers. I've encountered but it almost feels like it could be there implicitly. Could this just be a matter of semantics. Well that's the great hope from deep reinforcement dining. I guess that ye somehow by involving date neural network in order this somehow in that your network which is unknowable. Mysterious does the job of analysing causality. It doesn't automatically so you don't need to think about it. And it's done you don't need to worry about to me fulfillment dining works. So let's move on. And i guess there is an element of that because reinforcement dining does work. But it just made me think about if you look in science. In general there's a long history of humans discovery techniques which work with before actually understanding why they work so i was thinking about i on the on age was five hundred bc even saudi arabia and to make land. You need to take on all you. Smelted with coke and the coke burns in the air that produces carbon monoxide to carbon monoxide displaces. The oxide in the side which then lacey with real on so at what point in human silenced. It be realized that was happening. Probably two years lights may be seventeen eighteen. Hundreds ole is time. We still had on tools. Said he didn't really matter that we didn't know why what it did kind of walk on. I like bit to reinforcement learning. Maybe the process. Which does what. It's a bit mysterious. Maybe ego to do things to get it to work. But the actual understanding as to white wax isn't diane. I think without an understanding of sally cardi understand. Why rainbow sledding works. I can pull out a textbook or maybe go

Appel Alexey Aleksey Judy London Sutton Paul EVA Nikon Saudi Arabia Coke Lacey Sally Cardi Diane
Fresh update on "university college" discussed on WTOP 24 Hour News

WTOP 24 Hour News

00:52 min | 8 hrs ago

Fresh update on "university college" discussed on WTOP 24 Hour News

"Coleman says their motion to the special Court of Appeals to reconsider his conviction on involuntary manslaughter. Was denied outright last month. This is the same court that in January overturned backwards conviction of depraved heart murder in the death of 21 year old Askia Kafra, who Beckwitt hired to dig a network of tunnels under his Bethesda home. Firefighters found conference body in the tunnels in September, 2017. Coleman says she's filing appeal in a higher court. Now, as she believes the appeals court assumed incorrectly, the jury's decision to convict was based on the wrong modality or type of involuntary manslaughter and that it wasn't instructed to distinguish between them. Meghan Cloherty. W T O P. NEWS. There's some better news this morning on the cove it variant out of Britain. The Journal Lancet is reporting that a new study shows even though the variant is more contagious. It does not cause more severe illness and patients. Study, which was conducted by the University College. London appears to contradict earlier findings that had linked the variant with higher rates of disease and even death. The CDC says that variant is now the dominant strains circulating in the U. S. Staffing up a mass vaccination center is a big task. And now one side in Northern Virginia is asking for some help. Volunteering at the you know of a stone Bridge Vaccination center in Alexandria. You show up it a. We do safety briefings. We do tours. Each group sort of meets with the leader, whether they're clinical or logistical support teams. Michelle Vous alla Within over health system. Everyone gets assigned their individual roles, and then we try and start the clinic actually, before nine AM, get people in early assed possible..

Meghan Cloherty Askia Kafra September, 2017 January Northern Virginia Coleman Alexandria Britain University College Last Month CDC Bethesda Beckwitt Michelle Vous Alla 21 Year Old Each Group Before Nine Am U. S. Staffing Stone Bridge Vaccination Court Of Appeals
Capitol Police warn of extended March 4 – 6 militia threat against Congress

Monocle 24: The Briefing

02:05 min | Last month

Capitol Police warn of extended March 4 – 6 militia threat against Congress

"The trump cult cunanan having failed to take the capital on january the sixth or hero roundup the deep state. Satanist cabal secretly controls the world on inauguration day had lately drawn a red circle around today march the fourth on which they believe. Donald trump will return to the white house and resume his presidency spoiler alert. He won't nevertheless fbi intelligence about another possible plot to storm. The capital has resulted in the implementation of extra security on joined with more on this. Jeffrey howard political philosopher. University college. London jeffrey with old you acknowledgement of the perils of taking any of the cunanan and associated. Nonsense seriously. why were they excited about march. The fourth march the fourth has a particular role to play in the broader cunanan story and the short version of it is that marched. The fourth was the original inauguration. Date for the us presidency so george. Washington's inauguration was scheduled for march the fourth seventeen eighty-nine as it happens it didn't actually occur in fact due to bad weather and so it had to be postponed to april. But for nearly a hundred and fifty years marched. The fourth was the inauguration date for the presidency until the twentieth amendment which was enacted in nineteen. Thirty three changed. The inauguration date a january twentieth for the reelection of franklin roosevelt. And so it's part of a broader aspect of cunanan ideology which very much anchors it at as in the american past in particular before nineteen seventy one cunanan followers believed that the. Us government has been wholly illegitimate Since the presidency of of ulysses s grant for very complicated and bizarre reasons we could get into. But it's that idea of march the fourth as the original. The right inauguration date for the american presidency that has given it such prominence in the cunanan ideology.

Cunanan Satanist Cabal Jeffrey Howard Donald Trump University College FBI White House Jeffrey London George Franklin Roosevelt Washington United States Us Government
European Scientists Create First Light-Up Tattoos For You and Your Avocado

Kottke Ride Home

05:08 min | Last month

European Scientists Create First Light-Up Tattoos For You and Your Avocado

"A team of scientists in europe have created what they say is the first light emitting tattoo using oh led based technology which is like the kind used in newer televisions and smartphones especially the folding kind. And well of course. This sounds totally awesome. If a bit frightening the team mostly propose practical uses like alerting an athlete when they're dehydrated or indicating when someone should get out of the sun to avoid getting a sunburn and tattoos for medical use are not unprecedented. I know a couple of people who have replaced their medical bracelets for conditions like diabetes with permanent tattoos on their wrists and radiation therapy often tattoos. Small black on cancer patients skin to use as reference marks for the machines and a handful of in the us tattooed kids with their blood types. During the cold war thinking it could facilitate blood transfusions in the case of a nuclear attack. And that's a real thing that happened. I'll put a link in the show notes if you want to read more about it and sort of grim as that sounds to our modern ears. There are still proposals around to people including children with their medical information. A team from rice university. A couple years ago developed fluorescent quantum dot tattoos that would only be visible through a custom smartphone app. At which time they would show a person's vaccination history something particularly crucial in hard hit rural areas. Where people sometimes don't have paper or digital vaccination records then no one's actually a pretty good idea even if it sounds a little big brother that the offset and unfortunately because of that. It's gotten pulled into a lot of covid nineteen vaccine conspiracy theories even though it's a tattoo not in any way an implant a microchip and not in any way related to the covid nineteen vaccines. It's being cited by conspiracy theorists as evidence that the covid nineteen vaccines are implanting tracking microchips into people. It doesn't help that. The original study was proposed by the bill and melinda gates foundation a lot of conspiracy theorists love to say that bill gates engineered the corona virus. Or something. I only bring all of that up in case you hear about it in relation to this vaccine history. Quantum dot tattoo study. So now you can. Debunk anyone spouting that false claim but anyways back to the light up. Oled tattoos in addition to some practical wellness related uses. The team also expects that they could be used for fashion purposes. Like having a light up tattoo or even fingernails and they could even go beyond humans to be used on produce. The tattoos could go on packaging or on the fruit or vegetable itself to identify when it's gone bad now. If you're imagining how impractical it would be to take a tattoo gun to a tomato. I should clarify that. These tattoos are applied more like a temporary tattoo is quoting university. College london the oled's are fabricated onto temporary tattoo paper and transferred to a new surface by being pressed onto it and dab with water and quotes now as gizmodo notes. Quote the idea of personally augmenting. One skin with glowing. Art isn't new either. But previously this has involved bio hackers implanting technologies like led's beneath the skin and the results don't have much practical use besides attention grabbing or inviting questions about why someone would do that to themselves. This new approach to light emitting. Tattoos is easier to apply more practical and temporary without requiring surgery to have it removed and quotes. So how does this one work well. The flexibility of the oled display is key so that it can move and bend along with the human or fruit skin beyond that quoting again from gizmodo. The electronics of the light emitting tattoos made from an extremely thin layer of electro luminescent polymer that glows when a charges applied measure in at just two point three micrometres thick which according to the researchers is about one third the diameter. A red blood cell. The polymer layer is then sandwiched between a pair of electrodes and sits atop insulating layer which is bonded to temporary tattoo paper printing process. That isn't prohibitively expensive. The tattoos can be easily washed off when no longer needed or wanted using soap and water with a current applied the led tattoos in their current form simply glue green but eventually could produce any color using the same rgb approach that oled screens. Us and quote won't professor franken says saline lead author on the study notes that they've demonstrated a proof of concept that d- tattoos can be made cheaply and at scale. There's still a number of kinks to work out. Like normal temporary tattoos these ones degrade pretty quickly especially when more on a moving human and they still need figure out how to integrate them with a battery or super capacitor in the lab. They're currently hooked up to an external power source so oily tattoos might not become into the public too quickly but the technology is there and it will probably happen before

Melinda Gates Foundation Rice University Diabetes Europe Bill Gates Cancer United States Gizmodo London Franken Saline
Science FAIL! Why it's good to do

Science Friction

05:25 min | Last month

Science FAIL! Why it's good to do

"We've all made mistakes right. But sometimes i can make us fundamentally confront who we are and who we want to bay beck in twenty four eighteen neuroscientist. Dr been to has had a damn good reason to be excited. It was it was such a shalit's basically there was years of work at prestigious scientific journal current biology had just accepted a paper by humidity supervisors based on his phd project but not without rigorous peer review. I of course reviews as good and tough questions and lots of extra analyses. I did when finally the email arrived and said yes. The paper is accepted. it was just. It was a very happy moment. A piper in a high impact journal. That's a big deal for. Young scientist then investigates how we perceive the world visually. So as your brain stitches together sane in front of you what you see is rematch spatially. Onto a part of your cortex at wrinkly atalaya of brian. So if you think of the cortex is old crumbled up that if you would flatten it out like a sheet could see on this flat surface neighboring points on the critical surf representing neighboring points in the visual field in the scene in front of us then put people in an mariah scanner to see what happened to the map when he distracted them using different visual cues. He came up with a k. For design for study and think we scan a total of twenty seven people which was at the time by far the largest study using this type of method and the method was kind of knew. He said there was a lot to figure out. It was computational so there were some analyses that literally took weeks every weekend machine would run through that stuff when it crashed it would send me an email which is a dangerous thing to do because when you get an e mail on sunday saying oh your coaches crashed in your very tempted to go back to the office and start to fix it. That lots of careful data crunching and analysis lighter and he'd found something significant and surprising this aspect of the brain of the visual brain which part of the scene a given neuronal population of marin response to seem to be more malleable than we thought and it was surprising that it seemed to change with attention. Just through your attending a given power to seen more than an condition. There's a lot to this week but the shorter the long of it is. This was a robust finding worthy of journal. So fast four now to six years later it's june twenty twenty and bins running his lab and tame remotely in the middle of a pandemic lockdown in germany. He's home is three. Kids is a lot going on right and he gets an email. I received that email. And i have to say at i. If i'm honest i i. Wasn't that worried that something was wrong. Really wrong only been didn't understand what yet and he would have to make a career defining choice about what to do next today on science fiction. Something we can all relate to filing and why it's good to do especially in science but also wants wrapped up in a whole lot of stigma and shame again especially in science you know great successes are trumpeted and things. That are not successes. You don't want people to know about however failure is so normal to the day to day working of science we need to move towards a culture where we are actively embracing failure. We all know that air is human and assigned as you know we have to ask why and behalf to ask how and way we fe often leads to the next question we are asking and so does this theory much part of scientific process. It's very great suits of inspiration in many ways the into no signs. That's not the way it looks and sounds in science when a journal pulls or retracts a paper the stuff of nightmares for scientists. But he's angst about scientific integrity scandals scaring scientists away from talking more openly about making mistakes back to that email bend has received at the uselessly. Big university in giessen. It was from susanna stole. Who is doing pay at university college. London under the supervision of professor sam schwarzkopf. Now sam had been a post doc in the lab been had done his pitch in and susanna was building on original. Study when i first read and paper thought. The design. They've chosen was really beautiful and was impressed. Ben included a very extensive stepney mandatory material conducting analyses infect around thirty pages of supplementary data for just a two page paper. Susannah was impressed with half farah was but then she went to do her on experiments and she noticed something odd she was getting. The same results has been even with different experimental conditions. And that shouldn't be high s-. I really had no clue

Prestigious Scientific Journal High Impact Journal Shalit Beck DR Big University Giessen Germany Susanna Sam Schwarzkopf University College SAM London BEN Susannah Farah
UK Scientists Trial Instant Immunity Antibody Drug Treatment For Covid

First Presbyterian Church

00:20 sec | 3 months ago

UK Scientists Trial Instant Immunity Antibody Drug Treatment For Covid

"Therapies being tested in the United Kingdom that can not only provide instant immunity to those exposed to cove in 19, but offer hope for people who cannot take the vaccine because of a compromised immune system. Scientists with University College London hospitals are trialing the antibody treatment. treatment. Studied Studied Dub Dub Storm Storm chaser chaser boxes. boxes. SUIT SUIT

United Kingdom University College London
Erdogan calls on Turks to boycott French products

Monocle 24: The Globalist

05:40 min | 5 months ago

Erdogan calls on Turks to boycott French products

"Talks president recipe type Erdogan has called for a boycott on French goods as tensions between the two countries rise after President Emmanuel macron called for a French Islam. This follows the beheading of teacher in France after he showed his class caricatures of the Prophet Muhammad published by the Satirical magazine. Charlie. Ever. Let's cross to Istanbul to join the journalist I login Yuck. Leeann also on the line is Philip Malia professor of French and European politics at University College London. Island let's start with you. Why is Turkey so upset? Well the magazine this week published a cover that depicts a caricature of president are due on and suggesting that he's a bit hypocritical about his religious beliefs. He's drinking a can of beer and he's lifting. The skirt of an Islamic garb. So that is Let us set off a firestorm among our close circle They're accusing them accusing the magazine of insulting and have actually sued the magazine for libel. It is a crime in Turkey publishable a punishable by up to four years in prison to insult the president. So that has been the latest twist. In this in the spat, but they've also putting a ban on French goods. That's correct that stems from President Macron's a recent pledges to. Ensure. That Islam does not affect the French way of life and French values describe that as a relaunch of the Crusades an attempt to Spread like cancer the Islamic phobia that already exists in Europe according to Don So there, but the dispute doesn't just start there between Turkey and France on they are at odds over a number of issues including the war in Libya and including the search for hydrocarbons in the eastern Mediterranean as well as the conflict in Nagorno-karabakh. Absolutely, and we'll come back to those in a moment. I just want to bring Felipe here to talk about what my chronic said. I mean he's saying that he's been misquoted. Yes I think that that's what he says and to to be fair in this Ongoing Saga Domestic Saga in France that is around the shaggy bill cartoons the latest of course, the latest terrorist attacked a couple of weeks ago. This teacher who was beheaded in France by terrorists the the trial shall you do are all taking place as we speak, but there's a lot of things going on and to be fair my call has always been has has never been the hotline in this. In this debate about the cartoons is a bit more of a solo rather than. So in a sense, it's been unsound aim to be to be branded suddenly the most Islamophobic person in fraud I don't think used to be fair but the issues for sure it's been misquoted in a sense i. think he said, yes that they were issues with Islam. which probably was a rather undiplomatic way of putting things to wealth stage. I think he's presented essentially the new bill on socal separatism, which is quite controversial in France and probably. Is, yes implicitly targets in the Muslim population in France but it's true that if French I'll probably surprised how at ten suddenly the sued relationships and and how the sort of tension has related between the two countries of late. To. Be Fair that the two men have been at loggerheads for a long time so it seems on the train side. For advil hand, it's almost protects the those at the story of the call tunes because inside the being as your guests. Until you have just said, there's been real geopolitical issues and disputes between the two countries for one now. Yes. Well, I wonder how much of this also has to do with Turkey's domestic politics I mean we know that there's a huge economic crisis is this a diversionary tactic? It certainly helps distract people from the issues surrounding the economy and our one has been accused of using any number of foreign problems to distract his voters This in particular might resonate because the fact that it's religion and this is something that people hold. So close to their hearts on think that people are filing necessarily know every twist and turn. Of the issue. But when they hear of Charlie Hebdo, the satirical magazine, they might recall the images of the Prophet that the magazine published previously and that. Sir. Association. So when are two one talks about insulting Islam that's what comes to mind. Not The fact that published an image of political leader on the cover and so if bob he does have an impact. You know anything to get people's minds off of the fact that the jobless rate is soaring. The currency in Turkey has lost about forty percent of value this year against the dollar There's real economic pain here. So the certainly can help can help change the debate now.

Turkey France Satirical Magazine President Trump President Macron Leeann Felipe Charlie Hebdo Philip Malia Professor Of Fren Istanbul Muhammad Erdogan Europe Advil Fraud University College London Nagorno-Karabakh BOB Mediterranean
U.K. Moves Toward Ethically Controversial Coronavirus Vaccine Trial

PRI's The World

06:07 min | 6 months ago

U.K. Moves Toward Ethically Controversial Coronavirus Vaccine Trial

"Vaccine Trials are happening all over the globe today. The UK government announced funding for phase. One of something called a human challenge trial for a corona virus vaccine. The process will require young healthy volunteers to be infected with the virus in an effort to speed up vaccine testing a company called H Vivo and Imperial College London. Have the contract is set up the first part of that process. Here's more from the world's caroline dealer the idea itself sounds wild intentionally infect people with the very virus returning our lives upside down to avoid. People hear about these trials. Many people's immediate reaction is, how could it be ethical but Oxford bioethicist deb Yom row gic says, it's possible if certain conditions are met one of those conditions is that the expected benefits of the research outweigh the risks. In this case, how many infections could we prevent if we developed a vaccine sooner? For example, in a typical clinical trial thousands of people are injected with a test vaccine and sent out into the world to see if they still get infected naturally that's happening now with several corona virus vaccine candidates, but Andrew Catchpole. The, chief scientific officer at H., Vivo the company launching this human challenge trial says that takes time normal traditional trials involve many thousands of subjects take many many months to complete in human challenge trials, which HP VO has been running for decades. A small number of healthy volunteers would be intentionally infected with the coronavirus after getting jabbed with a trial vaccine to see if it works. What happens is because everybody is given the disease, you're able to determine efficacy in a matter of weeks. These types of tiles have been used for centuries and in the recent past have. Sped up the development of typhoid and cholera vaccines. The agreement announced by the UK government today is just for the first step of this contract to manufacture and test Raina the virus to use in trials it still has to be approved by regulators and an ethics panel. If it is between thirty and ninety volunteers could start being injected with just the test virus, not yet any vaccine as soon as the beginning of next year so far nearly three thousand people in the UK have signed up to volunteer for a challenge trial. One of them is allaster frazier ORCA. White indefinite convinced. The Human Josh all has essential to advising Ovalles, scenes, population way more quickly lift on them on opinion the risk is small enough to travel participants that we need to take that risk frazier ORCA put off going to university for a year to work with one day sooner, a nonprofit group advocating for human challenge trials and signing up volunteers. He says the Tom Channel some of the fear of living through a pandemic into something that feels productive grandma custos. My Dodd might catch his out his risk. So kind of on a personal level the. Volunteer volunteers will be paid somewhere around five thousand dollars insurance cover healthcare costs. For any complications they will quarantine in a special nineteen dead unit at the Royal Free, hospital in London for an expected two weeks after virus exposure. Again, Andrew Catch Paul from h Vivo. A first priority was doing these studies is the safety of the volunteers. So for that reason, we go very strict criteria about those who. Will be eligible to participate. Volunteers must be between eighteen and thirty healthy with no pre existing conditions. But there's a more controversial criteria that scientists are wrestling with right now whether to exclude volunteers of color because there is data suggest that there is a potential for increased risk. The UN says Kobe nineteen is disproportionately affecting racial and ethnic minorities around the globe including in Brazil the UK and the US. K. Government figures, black men in England and Wales are more than two and a half times more likely to die of cope in nineteen than white men. Some of that is explained by socioeconomic status in pre existing conditions. But Dhillon David Kumar, a physician and professor at University College London says it's more than that. They're also other underlying causes racism discrimination for example, being an underlying cause which are not easy to count foreign. Announces such as this Dave Qamar said, he's the health impacts of racism and xenophobia. He says, well, it's important to note that raises a social construct, not biological. The effects of racism in tells in ways that can be hard to identify. So you can't hold constant the discrimination someone's face throughout their life. You can't hold constant the environment someone grownup in the levels of air pollution kinds of housing that they've lifting throughout their life. So. There are differences in outcomes amongst racial groups. David Kamar isn't familiar with this specifics of this study proposal, but he says he can understand the reason for picking volunteers who are at the lowest possible risk for getting really sick. Charles cordray chief officer for the Caribbean and African Health Network sees it differently. It's really disappointing people of Color. In clinical trials that's partly due to legacy of racist medical experiments. By white doctors and kwok-wah dray says the idea of excluding people of color from this trial would add to the distrust mistrust and the lack of trust has come about as a result of decades of sometimes how we need to respond so quickly but what is meant is that there's a whole section of people. Fair much. whose voices are not being head HBO is still making a decision about whether and how to include people of Color in the first phase of this trial when they're testing out the safest way to infect people with the actual virus the company hasn't designed protocols yet for the actual vaccine-testing in hopes quickly follows the volunteer criteria for this stage of the study will be finalized and handed over to UK regulators and an ethics panel by

UK Andrew Catchpole Imperial College London Chief Scientific Officer London Kwok-Wah Dray David Kamar Frazier Orca Typhoid Royal Free Caribbean Hp Vo Dodd University College London Tom Channel UN Dave Qamar Dhillon David Kumar
Neanderthal DNA May Be COVID Risk

60-Second Science

02:05 min | 6 months ago

Neanderthal DNA May Be COVID Risk

"The risk factors for covid nineteen are many old age obesity, heart conditions. But early genetics studies have identified another trait that some people who developed severe cove nineteen seem to share a cluster of genetic variations on their third chromosome and that DNA sequence likely derives from neanderthals says Hugo, Siegburg of the Max Planck Institute it is quite striking that S-. This veterans has lingered until house years fifty thousand years ago is. The approximate time humans and neanderthals interbred, and over the Millennia, those neanderthal variants have become more common in some homo sapiens populations than others for example, about sixteen percent of people of European descent carry at least one copy of the neanderthal stretch half of South Asians do and nearly two thirds of Bangladesh's, and that's kind of fascinating is so high that points towards that it must must've been beneficial in the post. I mean it's much higher than we expect. Undone. It's totally expunged in east as shown in China. Some something has happened driving the frequency often certain placing removing a token, the other places they details are in the journal, nature. See Bergen is colleague right that perhaps the NEANDERTHAL DNA happens to boost the risk of developing severe covid nineteen and they point to the fact that in the UK people of Bangladeshi descent have twice the risk of dying of cove nineteen than the general population. But as Epidemiologists Neil of the University of Nottingham pointed out in an email people of African descent in the UK are also being hurt more by the virus. Despite, having hardly any neanderthal genes instead, it's social factors like crowded multi, generational households or working frontline jobs that are more likely to be driving the trend seen in the UK that's according to Andrew Heyward Director of the Institute of Epidemiology in Healthcare at University College London, and as both epidemiologist pointed out, it's worth remembering that you can only develop severe covid nineteen if you're exposed to the virus in the first place.

UK Max Planck Institute Andrew Heyward University Of Nottingham Hugo Bergen China Institute Of Epidemiology University College London Director Bangladesh
Prof. John Flood, Professor of Law and Society at Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia. - burst 01

Scientific Sense

59:58 min | 6 months ago

Prof. John Flood, Professor of Law and Society at Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia. - burst 01

"Welcome to the site of accents podcast. Where we explore emerging ideas from signs, policy economics, and technology. My name is Gill eappen. We talk with woods, leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest. Scientific senses at unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation. Be Color a wide variety of domains red new discoveries are made. and New Technologies are developed on a daily basis. The most interested in how new ideas affect society. And help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation. V seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide unaided content of conversations bit researchers and leaders who low what they do. A companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense. Dot. com. And displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense dot net. If you have suggestions for topics, guests at other ideas. Please send up to info at scientific sense. Dot Com. And I can be reached at Gil at eappen. Dot Info. My guests today's facade John. WHO's professor of Law and society at Griffith University in Brisbane Australia. He's also adjunct professor of law at Queensland University of Technology and Research Associated University College Under Center for Blockchain Technologies, he who suggests on the Bloomberg professional globalization of law and the technology in law. But come John. Hello. Thank you. Sure. Yeah. So I want to start with one of your recent people, professions and expertise hog machine learning, and blockchain redesigning the landscape of professional knowledge and organization. In invite you say machine learning has entered the world of the professions. The different impacts automation will have huge impacts on the nature of work and society. Engineering architecture and medicine or early and enthusiastic adopters. Other professions especially law at late you say at in some cases with leptons adopters. could you talk about you know sort of the landscape all? Of Law, profession and. They today in terms of opting these technologies. Certainly Louis interesting because it's a very old profession is. Often considered one of the. Original traditional professions along with medicine and the church. And in a sense law has used different kinds of technology might say I mean does it? Based around writing. And then the printing press and So on yet that. It's always being based on a craft. A skill which the individual person is that enables them to do, whatever is quote if you like and. said, there's never been a lot of room for any kind of automation. Certainly, the has been space for using. A people who are not fully qualified as low as about as paralegals, people like that, who will do a lot of repetitive work document checking and things like that and so on. But what will get into now is the situation where automation through machine learning. There's other kinds of artificial intelligence. is able to start constructing documents example contracts. Check dollop a documents for particular clauses and things like that mature they're up to date and this incense is. Replacing now, the kind of work that noise will do. So I think in some ways more more of of the profession of law is gonNA be subject to automation, but distinction I would many because I think it's quite important here is that A lot of what lawyers do. Is actually quite. Active that that that that the drafting contracts overtime or or they're reviewing documents to some sort or another or they're getting through particular. Negotiation. And so you know a lot of it is the same, but they build up the expertise through doing these same kinds of were over and over again and What we're now finding is that instead of having young lawyers coming in and doing what you might call the grunt work of checking documents and going through discovery applications where he goes through the size boxes of evidence to decide. which are the appropriate documents you want the emails, the invoices order, this sort of stuff that is the kind of work which is lending itself to automation. And, and so that his taking away a lot of the work which is used for trading purposes with young lawyers and is just doing it much quicker. will quickly I mean More efficiently in many ways and probably expensive much much expensive a Lotta. This work is being outsourced to you know legal process outsourcing India or Philippines South Africa places like that. So yeah, that's that's right and so in some ways, the group of lawyers who do the work which requires the skill, the judgment. Is Reducing in some ways. That pool is getting smaller. Yeah Yeah it's it's interesting. The the distinction that you make between automation. And in my job and let's call it decision making right which is you know a lot of work in the business side of this. So for example. in the nineties in large pharmaceutical company So you think about you know rnd. People might think it has really complex selection of programs that design of them, portfolio management, risk management, all those decisions. Genuine companies be say well, senior managers with lots of experience and intuition make those decisions really well right and so that's statement would automatically implied that machines can really do much there. But what we find in the mid nineties says that is systematic analysis of data make those decisions. Don't better. Actually, I've Tom to humans humans. Always seem to make decisions. These are typically bonding the decision. So if you go back and look at it, alternative experiment has not been wrong. So we have no date to say it was a good decision at typically. So human scaffold, fifty percents of making good decisions So do you know just throwing a coin or letting monkey make those decisions so? Yup We found that even complex decision making that humans hold. you know close to their you know kind of domain I'm not necessarily. So we have machines That could do that much better than I. Don't know there's an analog of that in in law I I. Think The may be actually I mean Two three years ago the royal. Society in England decided to arrange a working party on machine learning. One of the things that they put together a a roundtable on machine learning professions resolved to talk about that night and I talked about the history of professions in technology and. and. I think one of the peculiar things that came out to in relation to law is that law. Has always been a sort of on its own. If you think about medicine, for example, medicines always had the teacher hospital institution that sort of straddles the academic quilt and the practice walls and brings those people together and as a result. INCORPORATES loss of, scientific, work. Engineering work as well computing work and things like that. And that's been the first teaching hospital king into existence in in the French revolution in Seventeen eighty-nine. A long history of that. If you look at law, there was nothing equivalent to that whatsoever and there is in fact, actually a big gap between what academy does on what the practitioners in your do so that As a result as before law has come to this a quite late but what we are. Finding I think is that Certainly the management consultancy finding is that because of the nature of a lot of what goes on in legal office a remarkable amount of it can be automated. So what we are getting now is companies setting themselves up to do this automated work. So. We have companies which do nothing but contract our instruction formation sort of company. The typical lawyer would would say to a client Do you WANNA contract classes. Yes I want this for this. And loyal galway draft contract back with it, and then in the con- comes back against as I need another contract, you go through the same process. which is good for the lawyer but not necessarily good kind. What we're finding now is the company's not can think of a few of them that will, in fact, go into the company's show order contracts. Let's see the entire. Corpus of contracts you've got there and they will analyze them. And basically say, all right. We can create a new contract in automated way fairly easily it may need some modification according to special circumstances but on the whole, it's fairly standard and and they can do that INNOVA systematic world meaning the contracts are reviewed that checked. If they're going to expire marketing, you want an unable just the system will cope with that if you're. Yeah. So yeah. No No. No so I was just going to say yes. So that the distinction you make, you know in terms education sort of systematic graduate level education that because as you say, it is low in one sense of soft proficient. You say in called professions like made it to text reengineering this team has a strong concern ensuring that expertise applied in the public interest when as low little bit different from from bad and economics in some sense sort of in the same same vein we have now made economics at really odd. of mathematics you know north of analytics there. Whether they are actually useful from policy making perspective is left to debate but at least it has been an attempt to make this make economic video hard. So so I don't know A. Fascination has been in in law I very much that will happen in law. Oh there things are beginning to happen I mean let me just boob. At. One example I learned in that workshop that I mentioned the Royal Society held. With somebody from the engineering profession talking about. The difference in skills between people who above forty I'm below forty he said. If he he was about Forty Years Austin design an aeroplane, takeout pen and paper Pencil, and paper and. I don't know anyone under forty could do that would know how to do that go onto a computer program undecided there. So you can see that the incorporation of technology into the academy through to the actual. Occupation. Than phones and things is is already a standard and they're in law. It isn't law. As you said, it's still very much a soft skill although I will argue that there is a difference between the way nor is viewed in different parts of the world. So in the United States A law is I think more tilted towards the sciences. So low in economics is one of the big things in the. US. So you got a lot of people working in the of lower economics who might go onto antitrust work no competition work and things like that which across a lot of economics, mathematics and Statistics and so on. In, say a Europe Australia and so on. Law is more allied towards the humanities. And the classics. So it doesn't have that kind of scientific underpinning in that way. So anything that's going to change in these parts if you like is going to be something that's going to be imported from outside. And is going to have a very dramatic impact when whether it does An and I think that's yet to happen. I don't think there's been sort of Cambrian explosion. If you like in in law, the will be one I'm sure but but law has an advantage over engineering economics or the other areas you might. That's With the nature of the rule of law and absent justice is since law as a a way of ordering society is absolutely crucial to everything else. Then, Law and lawyers will say will look you know we have a special status here is different amid leave engineer. We certainly want to make sure bridges stay up. We don't want down but we can design different kinds of bridges. We can design different kinds of legal bills, but they're also the fundamental rules If you want to you know if you're an engineering company and you want to build a bridge in a different country, you're going to have to do it on the basis of the legal rules, which will be just vise by the lawyers according to the country's there in so on. So in in that was what? I might put in a special category if you live. Yea. Yea. Let me let me push NBA John. So. The. The conference that you mentioned you know the Internet is under forty and engineers at. So so one could argue you know from an engineering perspective could argue e- It sexually dangerous. To not use machines to build aircraft the goes you know all the technology that cap today actually help us make the trap lot safer. granted. If you sit down with a blank sheet of paper and Pencil, you might get the principal right. But, but the technology has advanced so much that you really have to use. Technology to do so in some sense, engineering is pushed back. that. I argue this myself then they were naive engineering school. I had a V exposed at my daughter bent to school. She used the same physics book. Twenty, five. meter. I argue that that is sort of backward because data speed no need for an engineer to really learn Newtonian physics anymore because it is prescriptive, it's deterministic can make machines, learn it very quickly and so why spend all? Right. So so then you know if you think about the the law field. I wonder if there is a senior argument that is to say Dan and tape really good lawyer casts lot of intuitions dot expedients to crap something Contract or a discourse, but then maybe the machine scan actually do it even better We haven't really tested that hypothesis yet. Right be almost have this idea that humans are always dominant. Or machines but that the not be true as technology lancers. So what do you think about that in the in the? It's a very important point actually because the. American bosses. being modifying its ethical rules recently to say that lawyers have a duty and obligation to keep up to date with technology. So we already know the technology is now a an important part and I have to say when when I say the word technology, I mean this at all kinds of levels from what you can do with Microsoft word for example, it strays plug ins all the way up to artificial intelligence IBM, Watson, or something like that So that if if lawyers become. A. Uses of technology whether this small firms or big firms or what have you a under the Aba now they they actually have an obligation to make sure that they are up to date. They can't just say we didn't know what we were doing. So I think in that respect, there is a there was a move. The other move that is taking place is actually the push from from the clients. Now, this you have to look into ways one is with corporate clients. The corporation seen US lawyers have to use noise if you'd like want their work done. PHILOS- money on Chiba they wanted to more efficiently They don't want the best piece of work every time they want something that works and they want officiant. UTA A and so on. So it was interesting I think a few years ago. The General Counsel Cisco. Actually made a speech. Saying that he expected his. Lawyers Law firms who worked for the company to be reducing their fees year on year. Now, that's the opposite of what lawyers normally do, which is to raise them year on year. So say that that's one push which is. Very profound push now, coming from the client himselves who are using the beginning to use their procurement departments in in the companies and things like that to help purchase legal services the other aspects which is just as important in this is if you look at the role of lawyers and individuals. So if you is what access to to legal services, it's expensive lawyers are not cheap they charge our money We don't know how to judge the quality of their work and so on. because. There was a credence which we just know that So. On this is where technology can begin to step in and provide services which are. Efficient and often quite. what very well for the individual saying that this. Technology can be seen to be improving access to justice a Lotta people. Yeah. Yeah yes. I want to come back to this. John. I think this is a very important point. So bent on put has a lot of uncertainty. Uncertainty maybe not not the right term, but it's called deterministic. It shows beatty ability and so the determination of quality it's not as easy as hard media India nearing or. Right business economics legal all sorts of well foreign that category and the application of technology sort of a different different meaning there but I want to touch on one of the things that you say in the paper, and that is you mentioned this before and that's about training training the next generation. So you savior regulating bodies professions are involved in the collection and reproduction of knowledge intended to be used by the entire body professionals, and so there was an expectation here that you know seeing it professionals. Is Providing the wisdom that knowledge mission to train the next generation now in a technology driven. regime. discuss vacations right. Our expert is going to be a computer engineer in the future. And so so how does that work from from cleaning and knowledge Asian will I think this is This is a crucial issue in it's one which the profession hasn't. Really. Got To grips with yet I think because you think of technology in terms of Predictive analytics a document review and things like this most law schools are not preparing students for this they may be a a a a causal to on some aspect of technology, but it's not something which lawyers themselves are learning. So I think what is going to happen is we're going to find a blending of skills occurring. So law firms will be sense having to bring in a range of technologists who perhaps have. A scales a straddle, both sides of the lines, the lawyers like this too I think I think we're going to find an avangard Who will begin to develop skills that allow them to talk to both sides of the line, the tech people and? Below people if you likes and there will be people who will acquire develop these skills as well but that's that's still some way down the line I didn't think we're anywhere near there yet, and part of the reason for that I think is that you know law is still a very highly regulated profession and and the regulators themselves are in the same situation they are unsure about what is going to happen and they also feel they have an obligation to. Not only ensure that. Customers clients and consumers are protected but in some ways, the profession is protected to if you like so. You know it's it's a it's a fine balancing. There I. Think. It's a fight balancing act and you'd say if the changing changing things. So going back, you know you care as an individual eighteen status of expert. Some form of encapsulation of knowledge and analysis occurs enabling professional experts, derived diagnoses, decisions, and conclusion wrapped late. and you make some distinctions. Type of learning that. Human? Beings. That the distinction between doing drive and become a gift and laster Yes yes. Yes I think that's important. So the the the the principle behind this is that Individuals can acquire a lot of knowledge in in various areas. So as I say learning how to drive a car, you learn how to change gear you though with the speeds. Braking different rates, conditions, and things like that. So. If you WANNA take that further and become a formula one drive or something like that. Then you have to undergo a very different kind of training and that kind of thing becomes a lot more collective rather than individual because you start to you're you're going to be in a group that is gonna be doing a particular kind of our driving. If you like everybody in the group has to understand what each other is doing that group, you can't have people going right a racetrack at two hundred miles an hour or thinking individually feel like they have to have a collective consciousness. About. How to drive in that situation? That's nothing like how? You and I might drive. I'm not saying we bad drivers just saying spreading very different. So I think professional work is not. That different from this in a way. So once you you can go through school and you can do your law degree and you can learn your low. We can learn you engineering's this applies to or professions really. But in order to become a professional in order to become somebody who can operate function within that. Group if you like you then have yourself have to develop collective consciousness and and one way of thinking about it is that we we can kind of tacit knowledge. This assorted knowledge you learn on the job from people, which is not always articulated in a precise formulate kind way but it's something you pick up from the way. Somebody does something you just recognize aw that that's how they've done that might not be. Written down anywhere or anything like that. But you know that's different from now exiting differently from the way that wise doing I think X.'s doing it better I and you and you just, and you can absorb that. That's what I mean by this kind of tacit knowledge and that comes about from the professional context. As how the professional context develops becomes absolutely crucial to how you introduce new ways of doing things new my daddy's new skills new outlooks if you like and I. Think this is where we're on the cost of of this beginning to develop I mean we we know it's got to be done quite how it's going to be done. is yet to be. So. So let me make a statement John and I want I want your reaction to it so eat in hard sciences eight years against again medicine. Expertise has about a consistent happy of remorse. Whereas enor- economics and business in general, let's say expertise is not about the ability to apply rules but to deal with. and at and if that is true, it has lot of implications rate. It has implications as to how we might divide work. Between. And machine in the future. And the skills that universities need to impart on on on new graduates are also quite different. So I always argued in the business. engineering contexts that universities having changed the dog they get mentioned before they're using the same. Using the same. Out Thirty four years without asking the question are those skills relevant, anymore or more importantly watch. Really relevant for a human being in the future rate. do you agree with that that expertise assert more about dealing exceptions apply? Putting it actually. I. I can see the logic behind what you. Saying I think what distinguishes? A good professional whether it's a good engineer good architect or good lawyer or doctor is is somebody who has a certain? This may sound strange but it's the. Imagination. Creativity. about. Kind of flare that allows them to function on the nausea they they've got and developed over the years and the experience. Gathered from Nova pitching what they'd be doing over the years and so on, and it allows them to see around things in ways which they perhaps would. I can give you an example if you like a law. So I'm in in Germany and some other countries. For example, there's a particular way of bundling together mortgage securities I I won't go to detail about this, but this statute that enables you do it. And then you can sell these securities and get money. In certain countries, the UK, the US, and so on. This, NICI. So in a sense to put this kind of a a deal together it. Couldn't be done if you live. So a bank came to one of the large English law firms and said, look we wanted we want to replicate this in in the UK, want to set a market this we're not the statues off there. What can you do and what was interesting was that the law firm then went back to first principles lawyers who were looking at this went back I suppose they looked at some vape basic areas of law matter your trust. And contract from what have you? I'm from that they constructed elite supplement that looked very much like the one in Germany, but without stat sheet and they tested it and it worked. Out To be credibly successful. So much so that the German government started German legal profession started to complain because they said. You can only do this by statute and these we find a way of doing it three. I suppose using law and there it is an they were vowed shops by but that was a particular example if you like of of what you were talking about, they took the exceptions they went back to first principles and said you know or How would we get? This is where we gotta get to, and this is a way right at the beginning what are the steps we need to take and and? And that's what a good loyal will do if you. Right right? Yeah. So that's very important point. So you in your paper dawn as the DREYFUSS and rice note that the proficient performer immersed in the world of skillful activities sees what needs to be done. But decides how to do it. So as we move into a and other technologies, I think it's important point it is. Right from Dad benefactor culture we have been using humans as you mentioned before in lots of with meted activities big not designed for humans I would I would contend enjoy doing things over and over again, and if you had thought of doing that, yeah, because they have to do it for living right and so so we should be moving to word It would where anything that is with pita on delegated to the machine at automation in the bottom of that and Appealed autonation you can have intelligent automation you can have you know reinforcement learning those types of things you have some aspects of intelligence into the into the two. And deploy humans Don't Miss. They're really good at in some case. I'm. So you know we've been studying the green for ages be our no close. It feels to understand mother. Heck it does You know it's not neat learning it. Oh, BBC of. thirty years ago as see that person again, you could see you could you could have a feeling. Then you've seen that before and and what the brain has done actually not only as he that pattern but also age that matter intuitively for thirty years and say, yes, that face I, guess before. and. So there are some superpowers the brain has reaped have been applying the all all. So for a technology might allow. Look I. Think Technology will allow us to incredibly complex things without having to think about too much I. Mean if you look at the way a port functions, for example, any major port these days they've got millions of containers and ships going through them all the time. So there's a lot of paper going through the you those charter parties, bills of lading guarantees. So the lot of legal work that's being done it, it's all quite standard stuff. I mean everybody. KNOWS, what needs to be done and so on. Now, some people are beginning to think while the best way to handle a port if you like I for everybody should know is to put everything that's going on in the poor into a blockchain so that you can see the whole supply chain. You see when something comes in, you can determine when the goods are being offloaded. When they're being shipped, you can stop making the payments as a result of the. Operation of the smart contracts if you like, and the whole thing would be just one quite seamless. In some ways without that much human intervention really just need oversight Some bits of coordination so on. But at the moment is still a a lot of humans are vote in that shipping people, law people, all sorts of things which is. I think insane. That's a waste of resources. We know that there are people who have all kinds of problems that require that creative flair she like as so why waste money on the routine stuff when you could develop skills to the the real need if you like in that way? Yeah Yeah. So I, want that some that bit that John Blockchain, for example, as you mentioned. So so one reason especially in the professions like law and business humans have an advantage justice dimension of trust. and you know at least our generation we don't really. At eighty level, right. So so having that. Human human touch is still extremely important for us. Now, technologies like Blockchain, for example, actually allows that trust to be tensely decoupled, right? Yeah, and I think I think you're right. Look I. Think I mean one of the reasons we make contracts is because We, don't trust each other. So we we devised these documents with all the conditions in them. Something goes wrong. This is what will happen things like that and so on. What are the interesting things? You know people really rely on contracts are met you. You draw up a contract. And the to business people stick him in the drawer I never look at again less something really really fundamental goes wrong but they know sumit doesn't that never look at that again. So you say value of the contract, what did it actually do if you look at some of the Asian countries say like Taiwan or parts of China, you have a assistant coach Guanxi, which is where people developed effective relationships by knowing each other over a period of time around business that allows them to develop trust it. So You know there are different ways of of handling trust, but we we seem to spend a lot of time on trying to minimize something You know which we don't really do a lot of if you like. So I think one of the advantages of of blockchain is that it just it removes a lot of this from from the equation if there's certain things you know that can happen. as a result off if this thing that systems. Lead happened And you know. As, long as you've got oversight and you can see what's going on than. You don't need to be too concerned about it. It will just do what it needs to do in that way and So. Again. That's still very much in the early stages, but we are seeing situations where supply chains A shipping goods from one country to another can actually be done under smart contracts through a blockchain. Technology if you live. That that is now happening I associate goodful dealing with things like gum counterfeiting if you're. Producing. Particular high-quality could site move our phones or particular pharmaceutical products and so on you know it's one way of guaranteeing the quality of the product is you couldn't I say look you can examine the whole supply chain or the data is there. And you know his Eq- code look at it and you get the whole thing going all the way back The. Again, issues around that if you're dealing with the digital. Is Much easier once you start dealing with physical products then you have. A question of how do you get that first initial digitization of the physical if you'd like to goes on so though some people I know here in Australia who? Run A company called Beef Ledger, which is trying to export beef straight beef to China using the blockchain supply chain, which will. Guarantee the security, and the quality of the goods to the Chinese consumer APP because having problems with this before. But I will tell you now do doing something like that does require that the people you are dealing with. You're going to set this up with You have to have a trusting relationship with you before you can set up a technology that will do away with the So we're still in that. That's really early days. I think another a lot of time way to go right Yeah, but the technology works it. Clean potential one could argue contracts exist because they probably known performance if you have a technology that drives that probably the of non-performance zero, then you can actually get rid of for contract. Yeah limit. It is. Not. Goes back to that earlier point I made that. Most most contracts are fairly standard. You know a routine things they're there to. Record a series of transactions payments that have gone on between people without the to do much. If you like you know once you you're you're doing the business, the contract just kind of records that in perpetuity. So the small contract just takes that into a different area and an an actually does the whole implementation and execution without people to be involved in that too much and there's something goes wrong. But if it if it all goes right then back it is done you need to you don't you think about it Right. Yeah. Hasn't been jumping to another are forthcoming people globalization law at. A time of crisis in the? Global Lawyer and so in the say Nikolai Condom Nieve a Russian economists in the nineteen thirties believed the worst economy operates long sixty year cycles Then he called K. Braves. And you safeguarding coronavirus analysis, the fifth psycho young's from nineteen eighty to twenty thirty. It's you save twenty, nineteen forthcoming John You might have. I think so I think say because I, tell you off the what's happening this year I thought my good I couldn't My God. I was just. Owners because you know a contract device these waves up into into what he calls four seasons spring summer or winter at, and we're in the winter off this fifth cycle if you like this is. All the bad stuff happens and he's news war. Famine Disease I think wait a minute that sounds Yes yes. That's exactly right. A. But one of the interesting things about contractors was that you know he he a because he's A. Solid economists are installing a dip executed. By the way you know he he got fed up ninety that was the end of Nikolai unfortunately but he. He said instead of know if you like the ownership of the means of production are being the determinate for changeover from system system, he said it's it's technology and and that the technology will drive you out of the downswing of the last cycle into the upswing of the new cycle, and and the way that works is the win. You're in this kind of winter period because of the kind of economic. Gloom pervades if you like people tend to hold back in subsurface vestment in terms of technological innovation of what have you and so a lot of energy resources, resources, money capital if you like builds up to a second point when people say we're GONNA go for this is this is it? And that's when if you like technology comes to the fall on, really drives it forward. So from that perspective, what he's saying is that you know come right about twenty thirty. If. Things are going slowly now regarding technology they're going to speed up. In. This period and that's when it will. You know really also take take off and people have looked back over our preceding cycles and they've you know it works if you like not just their. Fantasy theory there are also the people who do Cleo dynamics in history these the quantitative historians and they've done a similar kind of analysis of historical periods and said, yeah, you know there are all these citrical. Processes that take place even revolutions occur and big upset occurs and what have you and and. One of their Perspectives which I find quite interesting is that they say one of the reasons for revolutions come about is caused a lease beginning to compete with each other and and an an I look at say trump in in America and I look at the Democrats and I I I would say Modine, India I look she in China and different groups of elites who are engaged really profound struggle for the future of their countries if you live. Out which again is leading to this kind of potential eruption of activity and a new ways of doing things. Yeah. It makes a lot of intuitive sense gone. So one way to think about this also. There are a lot of excesses. So innovating go good their excesses in the system people to believe that invincible they changed assumptions about. because they don't see any. and. Financial markets to right. So these cycles and real real mass that uniquely talking about you can see the. Happening in the financial markets more clearly. But what he's saying is that he happens mortgage and you ask in this paper in two thousand, nineteen for in many ways go. Crystallization off the settling ketone economic forces lost throat ear Kublai doomed as populous. Separates nationalism and lead clients and I think they have that we have probably the answer to that. But you see I think. One of the points I was trying to make an in in this paper walls that Global Law. If you like is is, is the a kind of synthesis off chaos? How do we bring some kind of order to chaos now once you start seeing the undermining? Of his global institutions, you see trump was withdrawn from the W. H. O.. He's he's are criticized NATO he he won't have the do with the International, Criminal Court and so we've got this kind of real life tension now between a an international legal order that's being built up since the Second World War both Ekit economic and legal order is Global And so we can't just a radical globalization I mean even even with covert, we can't eradicate mobilize ation we've got to. Handle covert the Kobe pandemic on a global basis. Otherwise, we'll. We're lost it retreats to a national. Approach is not gonNA. Work? We'll be defeated in that race is going to be global. Might. Be One of my questions in in paper was will who are the people who are going to be doing this? Kind of bringing the the order to chaos if you like and that made argument that it's got to be the global lawyer. And this is a person who not only understand their national legal system but also able to communicate with lawyers and officials. From around the world if you like. To be able to develop a kind of common. Language common discourse that enables them to stop putting these things together are, and it's not just a simple massa of saying mathematically, it works this way or not. It requires the kind of pulling together of people, but it requires that sort of common understanding which. Comes out of what I was saying about this idea of testing knowledge you know as you got this kind of professional consciousness you know how people ought to behave and how they will interact with you, and then that enables you to be out of bizarre to predict how you can do things and so on and so on. That basis I think we can operate kind of global order. It had a a below the institutional level if you're not kind of private. As opposed to the public according and that will put three. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah you know I the limit John I don't know if you think this way I limit one could as. Want to stay need for. Countries what does the need for legal system differentials? We set this up with the premise that it's easier to manage small chunks. one could also argue with Edmund Affect. -nology that you don't need to segment this debate that we have done. which might make these types of issues you know. See where you're coming from and I'm going to say yes or no? Yes, I think the home range of of questions that can be handled by the technology the ones we got pay I don't chain, etc. I don't I didn't see any issues there but there are a lot of decisions that needs to be made a book in terms of putting things together and resolve disputes that can only function at a human level because it's not. These are not decisions that are simple binary decisions. If you'd like, it's yes or no it's it's often a lot more nuance than complex about I mean, one of the resources in the World Kiva Zero System, the world amendment which is being fought over if you like is water, a water is probably one of the most valuable resources anywhere and it's you often find that rivers and things like that sort of flow between countries, they form borders. And and you are you know people if you look at the Nile, ESL start stopping in Sudan throwaway down to the Mediterranean. So he goes to countries all three countries, east European and then into Egypt's and so unwell well, who has the right to put it dime at a particular place and things like that all of that has to be cooled in act. You see a not going to be done at a human level that that's what caused the skills in negotiation judgment interpretation understanding if you like of the other people, no machine can do that I got. Yes before we conclude, I want to touch on one other thing So in the paper, you say as technology and culture intersect more and more. Ethical conundrums will intensify these raising questions about the rights and obligations of robots. And go beyond as moves. Three laws of robotics in two issues of rights of all moon. Algorithm, stem serves. So this is this is an area that be Kevin babies even even really form some notions allowed rights of all modes at rights of a are. Sai, gets more sophisticated. Yes. Yes. I do. I, mean I think this is one of the issues we already know some of the problems with algorithms and and you know can we can be are they transplanted from you see what's going on the ethical issues around the construction and implementation of algorithms and things like that. But I I I think looking into the future we all going to rely on things like robots. And various kinds of machines so much more so that if you look at a country like Japan, which is a a an aging population such that it doesn't have sufficient younger people to look after the people who need looking often. So machines, I'll be part of that, and that means people will stop forming real relationships with machines and and so that's when I would say. Okay. So let's think about how we View a potential rights of machine that we give. We give rise to humans. Yes. We know that we give rights to animals. Now we've also given rights to viz in forest in some countries as well as so machines I think our. Next logical step you know do we do we treat them with respect Let me give you one. Very classic example yet the production of. Robots for sex if you like is a major industry at the moment, some manufacturers say they want to program them say that people can act out rape fantasies will do we want that I? Mean you know should we be at first of all? You know? We should be having people behave in this particular kind of way, but even an uncertain if you do it against another human being, you'll be punished for it and you say we'll a machine is a piece of property you should be you should be doing that but I'm getting to think that maybe a machines should be treated with dignity say that we are treat ourselves with. Dixie. This a kind of reflexive situation here what we? Do to machines we do to each other, and they may again due to US depending on how they evolve and and move forward in that way is a very contentious issue. A lot of people would reject that right out of hand I agree I think we've got to stop thinking about stop dining forward because I. think we're going to at some point again. I. Don't know when. But at some point we will be having to deal with that. It's a it's a very important point. Joan. So if I understand you correctly, you know that the rights to animals the rights to inanimate. INANIMATE things like Lubers The recent those exist is because of its effects on humans and can see video a clear link in the future we would see a very clear link between a algorithms and robots ended affects on human. So this is not me You know each not fantasy in the sense that yeah, robots should have rights, but rather it's a more conceptual question. Any fraud did not have rights each going to cabin negative I I think that's absolutely true. I mean just to highlight that if you like this firm called Boston Dynamics that produces. Robots and they produced these videos of these. Now, these robots are resistant being pushed over and things like that, and it was quite interesting because a lot of people say all you can't treat them in this way. This is awful and so what I mean that that's the answer for more fighting to to the extreme extent. But it I think you know on the basis what you're saying, you know how we Oakland. Hold human beings accountable to each other in an increasingly complex world machines have become part of that. We can't just have them all sitting on the edge as though they're not part of who we are, what we are and how we do things. Right. So. Incursion Johnny fuel sort of look forward five years. At. The intersection of law and technology. But you think people see sort of the biggest. I. Think you'll see it two wins. On the you know for the individual The individual, you're going to see a lot of them just interacting. With artificial Tennessee, say lost questions about what my rights for this how do I deal with a tendency agreement? How do I complain against a producer company or something like that or that's going to be automated? is fairly straightforward to do and and it will only need A. Minimal. Amount of human inside of. An intervention if you like. At the other end at the. In I think we're GONNA see more and more technology coming in because as those basic functions that are. Being, carried out by junior people or or paralegals or things like that are the ones which are going to be increasing, automating creasing. I'm. We will replace the humans and just let machines do that because there's no point in wasting human resources on that whether that means we need fuel or more lawyers That's an open question I think it will that we need different kinds of lawyers We will need Roy Moore to logically aware much more sophisticated. They don't it's be programmers or odors or anything like that, but they need to have a quite a a a a strong understanding and gross what's going on in technology in that way if you like so. Yeah. We can definitely see an. Yeah, so I, think you mentioned the so from a structure perspective in all forum DC law firm sprucing to word. It a group of equity partners. Around it by machine so to speak well, I. Think. I was in that paper or another one I. I'm S-. Forecast. Law. Firms. Being. Distributed decentralized we'll tournaments organizations running on a blockchain with with the various people. into setting when they will no I. Think the law firm is still a very strong and powerful is Shutian, that's not gonNA disappear straight away. But certainly the numbers of partners who control things will shrink. They'll that will get smarter as proportion and yes, they will be surrounded by machines and they surrounded by people who are servicing those machines. Your excellent. Yeah. Thanks for doing this weekend. John really enjoyed the conversation. Thank you very much. It's been great fun and very

Blockchain John Gill Eappen Eappen Queensland University Of Techn Blockchain Technologies Australia Griffith University India United States German Government Innova Bloomberg Inflammation Royal Society Brisbane John Blockchain Chiba
Shatter-Proof: How Glass Took Over the Kitchenand Ended Child Labor

Gastropod

05:36 min | 8 months ago

Shatter-Proof: How Glass Took Over the Kitchenand Ended Child Labor

"I am a Coloratura Mr Beast not Annette's. Well, whatever you are on record sal show Debra sent you over here. He didn't. You told me was your age. I nine and in spite of what you think. There are some professions where practice does make perfect. Julie Andrews pretending to be a man pretending to be a woman and still managing to shatter a wine glass with her gorgeous and super powerful voice at least in the movie Victor Victoria. But you know you can't believe everything you see on the big screen like breaking a wine glass with just a perfect flat yeah. I always been a long held ambitions. Break wine glasses of the sound. Some of you longtime gastropod listeners might recognize that Voice Zoe. Laughlin. Is none other than the star of our very first episode who said that mango sorbet tastes sublime on gold spoons hers is the voice that is inspired the purchase of a thousand golden spoons or at least a half dozen that we know about though is not just spoon aficionado. She's a material scientist and director of the Institute of Making at University College London, and this episode we were excited to talk to her again not about gold spoons. But about glass I mean even though I should've understand it on paper. Everything about glasses still sort of extraordinary mysterious like just the fact that is transparent when pretty much everything else isn't transparent is extraordinarily we have a lot of questions this episode for one. How did something? So seemingly delicate and breakable get to be so ubiquitous in the kitchen and also how come you could never put a drinking glass in the oven, but you can cook in a glass dish. What does the? Invention of the bottling machine have to do with a beautiful stretch of protected sand dunes along the shores of Lake Michigan or with the rise of Ketchup and Coca Cola and the abolition of Child Labor for that matter and more importantly can you actually shatter glass using sound did zoe pull it off by the way Cynthia you might not have realized this but this episode is dedicated to your mother glassmaker extraordinaire. Of. Glasswork on display in my house as we speak and I have at least five pieces of fused and stained Tama Graber, glass mom, this one's for you. What is glass? All glass everywhere in the world is at least seventy percent made of sand that's been melted down and it's mixed together in a way that the atoms don't have any kind of order them, and that's what gives rise to it being transparent. You've already heard from Zoe now it's time to meet our other two intrepid glass enthusiasts who will be inducting us into the mysteries of this material. This episode been Speiser journalist and author of a very enjoyable book called the World Grain, the story of Sand and how it transformed civilization and an Isa Ramirez, material scientist and author of another totally delightful. Book. Called the Alchemy of US humans and matter transform one, another Zoe and Isa and bins are all about glass. You cannot overstate how ubiquitous glass is and how important it is to the modern world in which we all live I'm just looking around the kitchen where I'm standing there glass bottles holding olive oil. There's glass windows they're glass fixtures around the glass lightbulbs to everything from you know salt shakers and I glass lenses to things like twenty ton telescope lenses in the world's most powerful telescopes. It's in the fiber optic cables that connect to the Internet fiber optic cables made it literally of Spun. Glass. So really without glass we wouldn't have modern civilization. So we've established that this miraculous foundation of modern civilization is made of melted down sand with a few other ingredients thrown in but to go back another step, and this is a strange question but what is sand and is all sand the same thing? The Word San means just any small pieces Greens right of any hard substance so sand can be. Anything, you know it can be flint it can be courtside anything any kind of stone but the most common form of sand. Most of the sand in the world is courts, which is silicon dioxide and to make glass. That's what you need. You need court sand and you need a specially high security court sand. This seems very fortunate. You need court sand to make glass, and that turns out to be what most of the sand is primarily because courts is so hard that it just outlasts all the other rocks is they're all getting ground down together. You do still have to clean the courts end. Up a bit and get out the last remaining impurities and you have to add a few other ingredients to lower the melting temperature of quartz, and then you heat it up, you need a huge amount of heat. So while I like one, thousand, seven, hundred degrees Celsius which mostly in Fahrenheit I mean it's over three thousand degrees Fahrenheit based bloody hot. Eventually the sand melts and then it re congeals and a weird thing happens when it turns into a solid again, courts is a crystal but glass is not what a weird structure because it's not a crystal crystals are actually made up of atoms arranged like soldiers. In rows but glass is sort of like picture of kindergartners at resets, atoms are all over the place, and so that's what makes it unusual but it's that chaos in the arrangement of atoms that actually gives rise to it having the property of transparency.

ZOE Scientist Debra Julie Andrews Mr Beast Coca Cola Tama Graber Isa Ramirez United States Lake Michigan Laughlin Annette Victor Victoria Institute Of Making University College London Child Labor Cynthia Director
Are You Putting on Enough Sunscreen?

BrainStuff

05:19 min | 8 months ago

Are You Putting on Enough Sunscreen?

"As I record this, it is August which here in the northern hemisphere means hours of outdoor time under the blazing summer Sun. But even though many of us do wear sunscreen to help prevent sunburn skin cancer and the kind of skin damage that the beauty industry calls premature aging recent researches found that we're not applying that sunscreen is thickly as we should hang its effectiveness by about forty percent. Sunscreen is rated for Sun Protection factor or SPF WITH SPF thirty able to block ninety, seven percent of ultraviolet rays, the higher, the SPF, the greater the protection although even SPF one hundred doesn't block one hundred percent of UV light. The problem according to this recent research out of University College. London is that few of US US enough sunscreen to enjoy those high levels of protection. Lead author entity young explained to US via email that to calculate ratings in the lab. Sunscreen is applied thickness of two milligrams of product per each square centimeter of skin. He said, an average woman has about one point, seven square meters or eighteen point three square feet of skin for a whole body sunscreen she will need about thirty three grams or one point. One fluid ounces with three whole body applications a day that's about one hundred grams or three point four fluid ounces. For reference, a fluid ounces roughly equivalent to a shot glass of sunscreen and a large tube of sunscreen holds eight fluid ounces of product. So a person spending a full day in the Sun should use about half a tube by themself. Are you using that much sunscreen probably not young and his colleagues estimate that our real life application of Sunscreen is closer to about point seven five milligrams per square centimeter at less than forty percent of the recommended thickness as a result or not getting anything close to the ninety seven percent protection promised on a bottle of SPF. Thirty. The good news from young study is that you can get away with using less product with SPF of fifty or higher. They found that even the real world application rate of point seven, five milligrams of sunscreen per square centimeter if using SPF, fifty provided considerable DNA protection compared to untreated skin. So does that mean that you should run out and buy the most expensive SPF one hundred or spread your regular SPF thirty as thick as cream cheese on a BAGEL. We also spoke with Ivy Lee a board certified dermatologist based in Pasadena California who explained that you could. But that the best daily Sun Protection Strategy is to keep it realistic. Lee, said I tell my patients to go for the highest SPF possible. That feels good on the skin for daily use. How do you know you're really applying two milligrams per square centimeter? No one knows we don't want to induce anxiety over this we want to build healthy habits. Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States and exposure to ultra-violet or UV. Light is a risk factor for all types of cancer including melanoma more than nine thousand, three, hundred Americans die for melanoma every year. UNPROTECTED EXPOSURE TO UV light damages the DNA and skin cells leaving them more susceptible to skin cancer DNA damage can result from either a few severe sunburns or a lifetime of cumulative sun exposure. Incredibly the American, Academy of Dermatology reports that getting just five or more blistering sunburns between the ages of fifteen and twenty will increase your overall melanoma risk by percents. and. Lee says that although skin cancer is less prevalent in people of color exposure to UV, light can also cause premature aging they sunscreen use will slow the appearance of wrinkles and age spots for all skin tones. Healthy sun-protection habits include avoiding sun exposure during the peak between ten am to two PM wearing a wide brimmed hat and sunglasses went outside and full sun, and of course, applying sunscreen on all exposed skin even in overcast conditions. For full coverage, Lee recommends starting the day with a cream or lotion type sunscreen preferably fifteen to thirty minutes before you step outside. Instead of measuring out of full shot glass of product, Lee tells her clients to think of applying sunscreen like a massage or can fully into the skin without missing a spot since body sizes vary and product spread. Differently there's no preset amount that works for everyone. Lease suggests reserving spray or powder type sunscreen for fast reapplication on the go the ideal is to reapply every two hours but lease as a more realistic plan is to reapply around lunchtime if you're going to be out all day. If you're heading out on water sanders snow more frequent applications are required because UV rays reflect off of those surfaces. According to Lee it's a myth that you can't burn the palms of your hands or the soles of your feet. Also, tablets and other hand held devices reflect UV light too. So pick a shady spot if you're going to spend some time in the sun scrolling.

Skin Cancer Ivy Lee United States Premature Aging Sunburn University College London Dna Damage California Pasadena Academy Of Dermatology
How Do Researchers Preserve Smells?

BrainStuff

03:35 min | 9 months ago

How Do Researchers Preserve Smells?

"Pardon me fragrances your book wearing researchers at university. College London suggests that the knows knows get it in an extensive study of smells heritage and Historic Paper published in the Journal Heritage Science. The authors argue the importance of documenting and preserving smells, but why the researchers realized that visitors at Saint Paul's Cathedral Dean and Chapter Library in London frequently comment on the aroma of the space, saying they feel like they can smell history now. Thanks to our LIMBIC system odors can make us pretty emotional especially when they evoked memories, sense affect how we experience different cultures and places and help us gain more insight into. Into and engage more deeply with the past since smells are a part of our cultural heritage, the researchers posit they have historical value and deserve to be identified analyzed and archived using chemical analysis and sensory descriptions. The study authors said about figuring out a way for scientists and historians to do so. In one experiment, the researchers asked visitors at the historic library to characterize the odors. They smelled more than seventy percent of respondents considered the library smell as pleasant. All visitors thought it smelled woody. While eighty six percent noticed a smoky aroma, earthy was seventy one percent and vanilla. At forty one percent were also descriptors. Visitors chose often. Responses ranged from musty, pungent and floral to rancid In another experiment, the study authors analyzed the responses of seventy-nine visitors to the Birmingham. Museum and Art Gallery in the United Kingdom to the smell of a historic broke from a second hand bookstore to capture the book smell. A piece of sterile GAAS was soaked in five milliliters or point one seven ounces of an. An extract of the book odor and placed in an unlabeled metal canister, screwed shut to prevent visitors from peaking the top three responses when the visitors were prompted to describe the smell, chocolate, coffee and old, the team even analyzed the volatile organic compounds also known as VOC's in the book and in the library. Most odors are composed of VOC's or chemicals that evaporated. Evaporated low temperatures. VOC's are often associated with certain smell types like acetic acid with sour, for instance, using the data from the chemical analysis and visitors smell descriptions. The researchers created the historic book odor. We'll to document and archive the historic library smell main categories such as sweet or spicy fill the inner circle of the wheel descriptors such as caramel or biscuits fill the. The middle and the chemical compounds likely to be the SMELLY source like Firfer all fill the outer circle. The researchers want the book odor wheel to be an interdisciplinary tool that untrained noses can use to identify smells and the compounds causing them, which could address conservatives concerns about material, composition and degradation inform artifact, paper, conservation decisions and benefit all the factory museum experiences.

VOC London Historic Paper Journal Heritage Science Chapter Library Saint Paul's Cathedral Museum And Art Gallery Birmingham United Kingdom Firfer
How is bias built into algorithms? Garbage in, garbage out.

Marketplace Tech with Molly Wood

03:44 min | 9 months ago

How is bias built into algorithms? Garbage in, garbage out.

"Does bias get built in facial recognition algorithms garbage in garbage out. From American public media. This is marketplace. I'm Ali would. In facial recognition and AI. Development computers are trained on massive sets of data. Millions of pictures gathered from all over the web. There are only a few publicly available data sets, and lots of organizations use them, and they are problematic vinay. Prabhu is chief scientist at the start up unify he and obey Babar honey. At University, College Dublin published a paper recently, examining these academic data sets. Most of the pictures are gathered without consent. People can be identified in them. There are racist and pornographic images and text, and even the idea of labeling someone, a lawyer or a woman or a criminal based on appearance will ultimately the researchers said. Maybe it's not the data. That's the problem. Maybe it's the whole field. Here's name Provo, the community has historically prior of basically put suing problems which are ethically dubious. A huge number of papers are published on ethnicity classification and generating human faces and a basically ranking people's faces as to how attractive it S. is it really a need to be solving these problems in the first place? Like what exactly it is that you're trying to automate, ask yourself. What is your technology eventually going to result like? How is it going to result in terms of like? The power in the society, the computer community has a deeply entrenched historical traffic are of basically you know increasing the rats of power on the minority groups, and if you're looking at the flagship applications, there are very few things that have ushered in a paradigm shift in the way that you know disenfranchised. Felt and entrance iced right I mean it sounds to me like what you're saying is. Don't just design a better image. Based data set the idea that you need an image based status that and that technology should be built on top of that data. Is itself flawed and will always be flawed. You hit the nail on the head. Women of Color have done tremendous work, but then every time they tried to do something. Something good in the tech, boys or bruise will invariably attack them as social justice warriors who are bringing in their canceled culture into academia us. We need to be more pragmatic. We need to be more science oriented. We need to be oblivious to all of these politics is what they're excuses. There are conversations about banning facial recognition technology that's being developed in these ways. Is this a problem for regulation to solve the? League required, but if you logistician, it's pretty easy to discover a loophole. I think one of the Silicon Valley. Cliches. And of melt for a long AMAS, if you don't allow us to the data from the public China's doing the same thing Russia is doing the same thing they will basically be. Superior to us, so these legislations I think will for the most part, put a small roadblock, but I am very confident of the ability of You know the powers to be enough, find loopholes and to kind of harness solutions. That will allow them to still stay within the legal grill. Day Prabhu is scientist at unify MIT operates one of the public data sets he in BARANI ND in response to their research. The school took it off line for good.

Scientist Prabhu ALI AI China Barani Nd Silicon Valley MIT Russia Babar
How Much of Our Food Do Moths Pollinate?

BrainStuff

04:53 min | 9 months ago

How Much of Our Food Do Moths Pollinate?

"Bees are not doing well. Since the mid two thousand colony collapse disorder has been taking out the world's most famous plant pollinator all over the world, these pont, one third of the plant's we eat from oranges, almonds a service worth some one hundred sixty eight billion dollars a year by the way, and their rapid disappearance is worrying farmers worldwide. But what if there a secret army of pollinators? Sneaking around the plants we rely on most it could be good news for food security, or it could be a neutral factor if these insects are susceptible to the same or similar pressures as BS. A study published in May of Twenty Twenty and the journal Biology letters has found moths playing much bigger part in pollinating plants than anybody imagined possibly visiting a bigger variety of plant species than bees, and doing it under the cover of darkness. Scientists didn't just realize overnight that moths pollinate plants. The problem was much of the research was limited to a few specific types of moths the. Spend a lot of time rooting around in flowers like hawk. Moths which have extraordinarily long tongues like fourteen inches thirty six centimeters long used for getting it hard to reach nectar reserves within a flower. However over the last decade investigations into how moths as a group contribute to the process of pollination found that your average moth tongue can be a effective tool for moving pollen from plant to plant. This knowledge led the study's authors to turn an eye to the rarely studied settling moths, which sit low and close to flowers and hide out in sheltered spots during the day. We spoke by email with these studies lead author Richard Walton of the University College London Department of Geography. He said our research has for the first time compared moth pollination networks with those of day flying pollinators such as bees hover flies to help us understand illustrate the wide ranging plant preferences. We discovered moths to have in an agricultural setting. We also found that malls were carrying most pollen from the flowers they visited on their furry bodies, which means the means of pollen transport from flower to flower by moths is very similar to bees, hover flies, which also transport most of the pollen on their bodies. Many social bees like bumblebees and honeybees visit lots of different types of flowers, but they also tend to target certain favourite plants that they know will provide plenty of their favorite kinds of pollen and nectar. As a result, some plant species get less attention than others. Walton said solitary bees often be more specialized visiting one type of plant while hover flies often visit flowers with a certain shape. We found that moths visit many different species of plant with a few different types of flower shape. If daytime pollinators do not visit a particular plant species often, but motte species do, and this results in pollination. This increases the chance that this plant would survive for another generation. So because malls are a bit less picky than daytime pollinators, but still get the pollination job done. Plants not preferred by bees persist, maintaining a diverse population of plants is essential to maintaining A. Resilient ecosystem that can weather threats like climate change organization. Conversely with plenty of plants to feed on moths, themselves can continue being an important food source for birds, bats and other insects. The research team observed and collected daytime pollinators as well as nocturnal moths around farm ponds the United. Kingdom and found moth food webs were often comparable to those of daytime pollinators in complexity, and in some instances had greater complexity. Walton said moths are likely providing a kind of resilience or backup to the food webs of daytime pollinators, if a certain species or number of species of bee or butterfly disappears from the landscape, moths potentially fill in that pollination gap. Taking this step further, it's also significant because moth populations are facing severe declines across the globe, as we realize that they're important contributors to the pollination process becomes even more important to protect moth populations because we might be placed ourselves at risk. The researchers found mauled were visiting plants belonging to families that are important to humans as a source of foods like apples, strawberries, pears, peaches, beans, and peas. Walton said this has exciting implications for mall. Being involved in crop pollination, it would help us to move past seeing moths as merely pests, but as important contributors to our own livelihoods.

Richard Walton Twenty Twenty Biology Letters University College London Depa
Scientists warn of potential wave of COVID-linked brain damage

WTOP 24 Hour News

00:34 sec | 9 months ago

Scientists warn of potential wave of COVID-linked brain damage

"Of of a a potential potential wave wave of of Corona Corona virus virus late late related related brain brain damage damage as as new new evidence evidence suggested suggested Cove Cove in in 19 19 can can lead lead to to severe severe neurological neurological complications, complications, including including inflammation, inflammation, psychosis psychosis and delirium. Researchers at University College, London described 43 cases of patients with Koven, 19 who suffered either temporary brain dysfunction, strokes, nerve damage or other serious brain effects. Covert 19 is largely a respiratory illness, but neuroscientists and brain specialists say emerging evidence of its impact on the brains. Eyes very concerning. After

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"university college" Discussed on KIIS 102.7

KIIS 102.7

01:46 min | 1 year ago

"university college" Discussed on KIIS 102.7

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"university college" Discussed on Power 105.1 FM

Power 105.1 FM

01:36 min | 1 year ago

"university college" Discussed on Power 105.1 FM

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"university college" Discussed on KTRH

KTRH

02:21 min | 1 year ago

"university college" Discussed on KTRH

"Hustle, like get the job done hustle, and get the kids out the door hustle. If you've got hustle. We've got your back university of Maryland University College a respected state university with ninety plus programs and specializations and more than seventy years experience, serving working adults like you. That includes rolling admissions to help you get started, and you can get credit for your career, experience affordable courses, and no cost digital course materials for most programs and the flexibility of online classes to fit your PC life. If you've got Hasso university of Maryland University College is maith for you. Our next undergraduate session starts June. Seventeenth our advisers can help develop the right plan for you to earn an in demand degree from a respected state university made for you. Get started today. Visit UM UC dot EDU slash radio. That's UM UC dot EDU slash radio certified to operate in Virginia by chef. GD IT mixed today, secure and tomorrow, smarter. Explore the art of the possible at GD IT dot com. Have you been dreaming event, new house or remodeling project? Then come see the dream facilitators at Bank of Clarke county, the fest in the area dreams will fill daily. Let's make it happen housing lender. Member FDIC. Get kingwood traffic and weather coming up at the top of the hour News Radio. Seven forty KTAR H Houston's news, weather, and traffic. Indepth story about the drive by media being fed up with tech media. The social media, it's night, do want to delve into that. Put that in the in the leftovers here to get to Monday. The problem is by Mondays seem like such old news. Can take discipline to remind myself that it was fresh on Friday, which I'll try to make happen. In the meantime, hope you have a great weekend, and we will be back on Monday, revved and ready for whatever awaits. When we show.

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"university college" Discussed on WMAL 630AM

WMAL 630AM

01:40 min | 1 year ago

"university college" Discussed on WMAL 630AM

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"university college" Discussed on News Radio 920 AM

News Radio 920 AM

01:41 min | 2 years ago

"university college" Discussed on News Radio 920 AM

"Out the door hustle if you've got hustle we've got your back university of maryland university college a respected state university with ninety plus programs and specializations and more than seventy years experience serving working adults like you that includes rolling admissions to help you get started and you could get credit for your career experience affordable courses and no cost digital course materials for most programs and the flexibility of online classes to fit your busy life if you've got hasso university of maryland university college is made for you our next undergraduate session starts june seventeenth our advisers can help develop the right plan for you to earn an intimate degree from a respected state university made for you get started today visit u._s._c. dot e._d._u. slash radio that's u._m. u._c. dot e._d._u. slash radio certified to operate in virginia by shave join g._d. i._t. and own career of possibilities apply now at g._d. i._t. dot com slash careers is an equal opportunity employer disability veteran four oh your vehicle care you need experience honesty and integrity certified female friendly meant curry's craftsman auto care rockstar technicians you can trust at craftsman auto care dot com fam- cruises up their game if you're thinking about maybe a romantic night out go ahead and enjoy the beautiful scenery of d._c. you gotta take out the wave redesigned their ships from the refinements in lighting and textures to the dance floor and bar space bar and not to mention minimizing fuel consumption and.

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"university college" Discussed on WTVN

WTVN

01:56 min | 2 years ago

"university college" Discussed on WTVN

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"university college" Discussed on 710 WOR

710 WOR

01:34 min | 2 years ago

"university college" Discussed on 710 WOR

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"university college" Discussed on 710 WOR

710 WOR

01:56 min | 2 years ago

"university college" Discussed on 710 WOR

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"university college" Discussed on KOA 850 AM

KOA 850 AM

01:38 min | 2 years ago

"university college" Discussed on KOA 850 AM

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"university college" Discussed on WRKO AM680

WRKO AM680

01:38 min | 2 years ago

"university college" Discussed on WRKO AM680

"The door hustle. If you've got hustle. We've got your back university of Maryland University College a respected state university with ninety plus programs and specializations and more than seventy years experience serving working adults, Mike, you that includes rolling admissions to help you get started, and you could get credit for your career experience, affordable courses, and no cost. Digital course materials for most programs and the flexibility of online classes to fit your busy life. If you've got hustle university of Maryland University College is made for you start the new year with a new you resolution now is the time to start earning. Your degree at university of Maryland University College a state university founded for working Dulce undergraduate classes start January fourteenth, visit UM UC dot EDU slash radio. That's UM UC dot EDU slash radio certified to operate in Virginia by chef. For all your vehicle care you need experience. Honesty, and integrity, certified female friendly. Matt Curry's craftsman auto care, rockstar technicians. You can trust at craftsman auto care dot com. Good news, upgrading your phone. Online is now easier than ever just visit best buy dot com to choose your phone pick your carrier, and we'll deliver it straight to your doorstep. You don't even have to leave your house. Best buy. Let's talk about what's possible. This new year before you make a generic resolution making genetic one with twenty three and me order your helpless ancestry DNA kit at twenty three dot com. And learn how your genes can impact your health and more explore over ninety personalized reports on.

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"university college" Discussed on WTVN

WTVN

01:48 min | 2 years ago

"university college" Discussed on WTVN

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"university college" Discussed on KNST AM 790

KNST AM 790

01:42 min | 2 years ago

"university college" Discussed on KNST AM 790

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"university college" Discussed on KLBJ 590AM

KLBJ 590AM

01:44 min | 2 years ago

"university college" Discussed on KLBJ 590AM

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"university college" Discussed on Talk 650 KSTE

Talk 650 KSTE

02:30 min | 2 years ago

"university college" Discussed on Talk 650 KSTE

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"university college" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

01:35 min | 2 years ago

"university college" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"University College Dublin's peac naps peac is Irish sprouting but also stands for program for experimental atmospheres and climate, and it's here that scientists attesting plants resilience to feature climates is this lab about five years ago, this twenty one plant growth chambers, and they're super high tech because they can control atmospheric composition as well. As light and climate. They're obese swanky looking chambers about the size of a garden shed or painted blue with with does on the front and in one of these you can set any atmosphere. So if you want to say, we create the atmosphere that the dinosaurs would breathe in then you can do that. Yeah. Absolutely. So with fossils, we can estimate how high carbon dioxide. It was in the geological past this facility allies to check our calibrations experimentally and another really important aspect of this lab is we can ask the question how will plants their physiology respond in the future higher CO two world in our very near future. We're going back into the age of dinosaurs. And this is the kind of questions we're asking this lab. I want to have a peek inside one of those big blue boxes, but I introduced myself to the scientists using it. My name is spent but I'm a research fellow at University College Dublin, she'll let open the door to introduce you to my God. No. Because it's.

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"university college" Discussed on The CyberWire

The CyberWire

04:12 min | 3 years ago

"university college" Discussed on The CyberWire

"Cyber security technology at university of maryland university college he's a popular public speaker and opinion writer and author of the book security leadership as i was visiting conference of the conference of finding that those first of all confusion about what the word cybersecurity means if you asked ten different people they would come up with ten different definitions there was no authoritative definition of able anywhere and the other thing was people were too focused on the technology pieces and they were forgetting about the people and the leadership aspects of it and so i felt like that is what i had done for thirty plus years i always develop my task tradegy around the people because the ultimate cybersecurity of any organization depends on the behavior of the people and if you cannot engage the people it doesn't matter how much you spend on technology at that time that i wrote the book and those starting to speak about it hardly anybody was doing it now seems like leadership and governance is becoming big and a lot of people have recognized that this is a very important field and maybe this is the most important field how do you suppose the various paths that people take to leak to positions of leadership how does that inform a how they approach leadership coming up different pathways do you think that what's the influence there you know that's a very good observation actually different pathways will probably influence if you're coming from a computer science background you think cyber security is all computer science if you come from the social sciences background which is what i did you then see that cyber security's mostly about business because the whole technology environment exists to fulfill in an organization's mission without fulfilling the mission to knowledge is completely useless so i have always focused on what is the mission of the organization and we have an roi for it and how do we justify the expenditures and how do we strategically see multiple years ahead of us so yes i think the way people enter the field may influence it heavily even right now the way it's taught at various schools so for example if cybersecurity is part of a computer engineering program or a computer science program you might find that all they're focusing on is the technology aspects and maybe even a very small slice of the technology aspects of the field whereas if cyrus security is housed in a business school or a school by itself dual frawley find people approach it from a more holistic interdisciplinary point of your cybersecurity is very interdisciplinary so it in my opinion should never be run out of computer science program because cybersecurity is not computer science that's let's stick into that tell tell me more what's your perception of that so you you probably saw in the very first chapter of the book it's all about cybersecurity and i talk about cyber security has three primary goals confidentiality integrity and availability those goals are fulfilled through the strategic use of three types of tools one our people then you have policy and then finally technology the other most important aspect if you saw the model over there where talk about that you have to look at the mission of the organization so cybersecurity strategy for let's say healthcare organization is going to be radically different from this ever security strategy off say a journal listrik organization or an educational or a mom and pop pizza shop definitely they're going to be very different so the mission makes a huge difference the data the information that each of these organizations are dealing with is also going to be different so so you're going to need to have the risk 'calculation on the risk calculation it's going to be different.

writer university of maryland univers
"university college" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

02:16 min | 3 years ago

"university college" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"Be selfreliant take care of yourself and i love being a part of that so it begins to seen that the people who decide to stay have a particular outlook in life so there is of course many reasons why people will decide to stay putt that's tally sharratt reader at university college london she is the author of a new book called the influential mind some people have nowhere to go and some people would want to stay with their pets there many many things but i think on top of whatever those reasons are on top of that there has to be optimism that they will survive i because if they don't believe that if they believe that the risk is extremely high they would decide to leave usually despite all the other reasons she also has a terry that an optimism biased is at work when people decide to stay put during natural disasters we don't know exactly what the risk is and you know in different places the rest can be different so i think i think we we shouldn't be judging but i think on top of all these other reasons that i said these biases that we have studied in a lab definitely come to play i think with outs the human tendency to believe that we can survive that we can get over all of these challenges even in cases and i don't know about this case but even in cases when reality and the data suggests differently without this biased the number of people who had stayed would have been lower staying put when a storm is happening is one pain but what if you live in constant threat of natural disaster we are in front of their 1991 lava flow kiera legal has been yard on the slopes of mount etna in sicily are meter eruption happened in 1918 one threatening the home where she and her family have lived for generations we are on the north thoroughness side of mount that now at seven hundred meters above the sea level and from an hour of the yard it's possible to see all the path of.

university college london kiera mount etna sicily seven hundred meters