20 Episode results for "United Fruit Company"

The 1954 Guatemalan Coup Part 2

Stuff You Missed in History Class

45:41 min | 1 year ago

The 1954 Guatemalan Coup Part 2

"SMART is open open is smart. IBM is combining their industry expertise with the open source leadership of Red Hat. Let's unlock the world's potential essential. Let's put smart to work learn more at IBM dot. com slash red hat. Welcome to stuff you missed in history class. A production of heart radio how stuff works hello and welcome to the podcast. I'm I'm Tracy v Wilson and I'm holly FRY welcome to our two part episode about the time the Central Intelligence Agency orchestrated a coup to overthrow the democratically elected president of Guatemala in part one we even overview of US policy as it related to Central America especially in particular we talked about how evolved in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries we also talked about United Fruit company and how it came to be a major player in Guatemala and elsewhere elsewhere and then we took a very brief look at Guatemala's history up to the presidency of Juan Jose Array below who made just sweeping reforms in Guatemala after being elected president after the October Revolution. That was a lot to cover. I strongly recommend listening depart one before listening to this episode because that recap is just the tip of the iceberg for an episode that also is a tip slightly larger tip of the iceberg at this point. United Company was Guatemala's largest employer and its largest single landowner and it had a monopoly on the banana industry united through company also controlled the railroad in the port and the utilities and United Fruit Company thought all of these changes that the array below administration had made were threatening its business and we'll talk about today the CIA increasingly thought they were evidence of a Communist threat that needed to be dealt with as we mentioned in part art one Juan Jose at Lowe's administration started to struggle in its later years he faced increasing criticism especially from Guatemala's elite and he weathered multiple tokuda attempts one of his most vocal critics increasingly became Colonel Francisco Arana Arana had served in the military during the Biko Administration and had had been part of the coup that overthrew his interim successor General Federico Ponce he had also been part of the military junta that had temporarily run Guatemala during being part of the October Revolution from there he had become a rave lows chief of the armed forces but Rana increasingly disagreed with a lot Arabia's labor reforms. He finally resigned his position so that he could run for president wants. A rebel is term was up and he also threatens to launch a coup telling the president that he would be overthrown from office if he did not dismiss his whole cabinet and replace them with men on his choosing after he did this array below informed his advisors of this plot and they all agreed that are on should be exiled what happened next is actually not entirely clear but on. July Eighteenth Nineteen Forty Nine Arana was ambushed and killed at Avalon had given the order that he be apprehended and honest key rival for the Presidency Colonel Huck Akobo Arbenz Guzman also knew about the order but it is not clear whether a revolu ordered on a captured or killed who fired the first shot shot when it happened or exactly what our Benz knew about what was going on regardless there. This was an incredibly fragile moment for Guatemala's new democracy be an uprising spread through Guatemala City which involved around US military supporters about one hundred and fifty people were killed in two hundred were wounded before the government regained control the United States also became a lot more wary of Guatemala's government and of Huckabee Arbenz so did United Fruit company and the following May United Fruit company lobbyists. Thomas Corcoran held his first meeting to discuss a US overthrow of the presidency corker later became United Fruit company's liaison to the CIA on November Eleventh Nineteen Fifty Huckabee Arbenz was elected president of Guatemala. He got sixty five percent percent of the vote he took office in Nineteen fifty one and he started trying to build on April lows earlier work and to solidify the changes that had already been made his administration also started trying to get out from under United Fruit company's multiple monopolies by building a Newport and a new highway to it and a new you electric plant yeah so even though there had been a all of this questionable like possible assassination previously like the the the fact that there was supposed to be a democratic election and that it did happen there was a peaceful transition of power was still a really important moment and Guatemalan History Arbenz bins also started trying to make the land reform that array below had started go even further many of those new policies and programs had mostly affected the Guatemalan middle-class they had not as much affected the lives of the country's poorest agricultural workers. Arbenz thought the key to improving these people's People's circumstances was a land redistribution program which would put more of the country's uncultivated land directly into the hands of people who could farm it themselves selves at this point seventy percent of the land in Guatemala was controlled by two percent of the population of all the land that was being controlled by major landowners. There's only one quarter of it was actually being used to grow anything. United Fruit company was the largest single landowner in Guatemala controlling forty percent of the arable land but only cultivating ten to fifteen percent of it on top of that in retaliation for the changes in the Guatemalan government United Fruit company had started laying office workers and refusing to rebuild banana plantations that had been damaged in storms unless the government restored its earlier concessions in addition to being in Guatemala's single largest landowner. It was also Guatemala's largest single employer. Two thirds of Guatemala's population was involved in agriculture alter in some way as well so this whole pattern of land ownership where huge landowners were owning a lot of land but not growing anything on it was contributing you you all kinds of problems. Including poverty and malnutrition United Fruit company and others claimed that they needed this additional uncultivated land is basically a backup in case of a major crop failure but they're critics claimed that this uncultivated surplus was way more than they could possibly ever need our benzes plan to fix this was decree nine hundred which went into effect on June twenty-seventh nineteen fifty to land owners who had more than six hundred acres of uncultivated land were required to sell it to the Guatemalan government in exchange for twenty five year interest bearing bonds the tax value of the land as of May nineteen fifty fifty two was used to determine the selling price so smaller farms under two hundred twenty three acres were exempt from this and so we're farms that were between two hundred twenty any three and six hundred seventy acres that were at least two-thirds cultivated farms that we're fully cultivated were also unaffected. No matter how large the farm was is the terms of this law actually required Arbenz to relinquish some of his own land and someone else affected was gear theriault who became Arbenz as foreign minister canister government owned land used to grow coffee was also completely redistributed during this program as well the relinquish land would then be distributed to landless endless people in Forty two point five Acre plots either so they would own it outright or so that they would hold it for their lifetime in the latter case the land couldn't couldn't pass directly to their ears but their descendants would get preferential treatment when decisions were made about the land after their death people who owned the land outright would pay five five percent of their annual crop value to the government and people who held it in a lifetime tenure would pay three percents this law also established committees that people who thought thought they were entitled to Land Could Petition and the committee would review their case and make a decision every case had to be decided within six weeks of submission which was totally different from operating under the more dicta to`real government where you could ask for something and then it would never happen or be addressed. A subsequent law also established a National Agrarian Bank to issue fixed rate loans to land recipients to help them get their farms started started while this program was in effect one point five million acres of land were distributed to about one hundred thousand families in Guatemala. This was probably between twenty and twenty five percent of the people who were eligible the National Agrarian Bank and its newly established credit agency had approved more than eleven million dollars in loons an average of two hundred twenty five dollars per applicant in the fall of nineteen fifty-three the Guatemalan embassy reported that it's corn production had increased east by fifteen percent rice by seventy two percent and wheat by twenty one percent with much of the increase attributed to the small farms started. Thanks to decree cree nine hundred hits harder to track actually how this affected overall domestic crops and export crops because this this this did not last very long this program didn't so it does seem like that there were more crops that stayed in the country domestically and fewer crops crafts that were exported for that first year but some of that was also accounted for because of weather that affected coffee production like it's really complicated but overall it does seem like people were using this land for what it was supposed to be for which was growing crops for themselves in addition more than half of Guatemala's population relation was indigenous at this point with most but not all of them belonging to one of more than Twenty Different Maya groups and digital people made up the large majority already of landless rural people so this program was returning land Guatemala's native people for the first time since the Spanish conquest as was is the case with earlier new programs. This wasn't perfect. There were cases of people who wanted more land than they were allotted or who had not been allotted land commandeering. Liam they weren't entitled to there were also overzealous committees that seemed to want to settle the score after decades of being exploited by large landowners who allotted Moorland Orleans and was really allowed and it does appear that Guatemala's Latino population received disproportionately more land allotments than other ethnic groups overall. Although this system gave previously landless people the opportunity to try to become self sufficient farmers and in nineteen fifty four the Guatemalan government also rolled out a literacy Orissa program in these same rural areas hoping to help the people who had received this land become better able to manage it themselves long-term two-thirds of the lambs it was seized during all this belonged to United Fruit company which felt like it was being unfairly targeted by decree nine hundred on top of that the payment that was offered to united fruit was far less than the market value of the land sources reported as either six hundred and thirty thousand dollars or about a million dollars this was because the the company had been artificially undervaluing its land for tax purposes and reported tax value was what was being used to determine the payment nevertheless the the US government on behalf of United Fruit Company demanded a much higher payment of fifteen point nine million yes so basically United Fruit company when he was mad about a problem they made for themselves in this situation they finally there loophole finally got discovered and caught and exploited by someone else not even exploited uh-huh but like applied in another one and then and then it hurt yes so has had been the case with so many of the array below oh administration's reforms the United States and United Fruit company criticized this whole land distribution program as communism and to be clear this this policy was influenced by Guatemala's Communist Party which was called the Guatemalan Workers Party or which lines up with how that translates into Spanish one of the advisors who had helped draft decree nine hundred was Jose Manuel for -Tuni- who was our benzes friend and also the general secretary decree nine hundred had also been passed with the support of the Communist Party which are Benz had legalized after becoming President Arbenz maintained that the communist presence in the Guatemalan government was small all and that he himself was dedicated to capitalism and democracy one of the stated goals of decree nine hundred was to allow previously landless people to become part of the capitalist economy and to improve Guatemala's capitalist economy overall and it doesn't appear that the PG had connections to the Soviet Union Communism Awesome in Latin America at this point was more focused on upending dictatorships and getting out from under foreign capitalist interests not on becoming Soviet allies yeah the United States didn't really care about this nuance regarding being a Soviet ally. I is being influenced by communism though and that also complicating the US perceptions of this law in February of Nineteen fifty three the Guatemalan Supreme Court found one of the law's provisions unconstitutional the law outlined outlined a dispute resolution process that ended with the president of the Republic instead of with the courts so when the Supreme Court ordered that the land redistribution stop until until lower courts could hear the cases of land that had been allegedly expropriated illegally congress impeached the judges that had made that ruling and then they're replacements reversed the decision. Admittedly this was squirrelly critics in the United States pointed to it as evidence that are benzes administration was really a totalitarian N. regime regardless in the midst of all of this United Fruit company had started advocating for the US Central Intelligence Agency to overthrow the ARBENZ government and replace it with an administration that would be more sensitive to American influence and United Fruit company's business. We'll get to this whole. CIA situation relation after a sponsor break technology is becoming more open data more accessible and the world more innovative. IBM is combining in their industry expertise with the open source leadership of Red Hat to bring you more freedom more security more flexibility. Let's unlock the world's olds potential. Let's put smart to work learn more at IBM DOT com slash red hat and like we said back before the break a huge motivator for the coup in Guatemala was the idea that the quantum Allah was about to fall under a very sinister communist influence and a huge source of that idea was publicised and propagandist Edward Bernez folks folks have asked us to do an episode on him. We might at some point when folks I started asking one of our one of our other shows on our network had just done a three reporter and that seemed a little excessive have like that much on the same that work but that was years ago now his relationship with United Fruit company went back to about nineteen forty the and I he had been focused on trying to improve the company's image in the Latin American countries where it was operating because outside of the wealthy elite that we're benefiting being the most from United Fruit Company's presence people understandably did not have a very good opinion of it and called it a variety of disparaging nicknames including the Octopus Bernie's really wasn't all that successful it shifting ordinary people's opinions of United Fruit Company in Central America but he was masterful at selling the idea that Guatemala Tamala was under an immediate communist threat to the United States for example he brought journalists to Guatemala to conduct interviews with a handpicked selection of United Minded Fruit company officials who talked all about how the country was about to collapse under communism he hit arranged a whole press junket in one thousand nine hundred eighty one with all of the interviews views arranged through the United Fruit company they did none of the people here arranged come in to talk to anyone else they got all their opinions from United Fruit the CIA as first attempts to overthrow the Guatemalan government took place in nineteen fifty two under the administration of President Harry Truman Truman doctrine you might remember from are one it was known as Operation Fortune or operation. PB Fortune because of the little prefixed that goes on the beginnings of CA codenames this plan it involves collaborating with Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza to arm a rebellion led by disgruntled General Carlos Casteel our Mass Casteel Steal Armas had tried to lead a rebellion back in nineteen fifty and after escaping from prison after word he had become something of a folk hero. The CIA round up abandoning this operation afterward of it became public dwight. D Eisenhower was inaugurated as president of the United States on January Twentieth Nineteen fifty three and the next day he appointed John Foster Dulles Secretary of state. If you don't remember that name from part one he was one of the people who helped United Fruit company negotiate multiple monopolies he's and other concessions in Guatemala during the nineteen thirties while working for the companies law firm Sullivan and Cromwell this was one of many connections between between United Fruit Company and high-placed figures in the US government Dulles his brother Allen Dulles was director of the CIA between nineteen fifty three and nineteen nineteen sixty one and he had previously served on United Fruit's board of directors during the years that we're talking about today. Henry Cabot Lodge Junior was a senator from Massachusetts and then an ambassador to the United Nations. The Lodge family was a major investor and United Fruit company and he was nicknamed the senator from United Fruit read these are just examples so sometimes you'll see this whole thing framed as united fruit company got the CIA to overthrow the Guatemalan government but really the the United States was operating under the idea that if one nation in the region became communist all of its neighbors would follow something Eisenhower described in terms of southeast in Asia in his domino theory speech the same year as the coup in Guatemala so without the supposed threat of communism the CIA might not have gotten involved in Guatemala Allah and with the supposed threat of communism the CIA probably would have gotten involved. Even if United Fruit company had not been part of the equation it is is totally fair to note that a lot of the paranoia about communism in Guatemala was coming from public relations operations paid for by United Fruit. Though yes Jose Manuel fertility later said they would have overthrown us even if we had grown bananas which I think is accurate so the CIA operation nation to orchestrate a coup in Guatemala was authorized in August of nineteen fifty three and it was code named Operation Successor Operation PB success and it was led led by Colonel Albert Haney this time the idea was to create what looked like an uprising from within Guatemala but with the uprising really being organized and directed by the CIA with a fighting force that the CIA recruited and trained mostly from Guatemalans living in exile in Nicaragua the CIA established a dummy company to supply weapons to this supposed Liberation Army a dummy charitable foundation was also established to donate aircraft for Liberation Air Force also also organized by the CIA and flown by American pilots an anti-government radio station called the Voice of liberation started broadcasting propaganda and disinformation reinforcing the idea that there was a huge popular uprising in the works from inside of Tamala says basically psychological warfare warfare the voice of liberation broadcast claimed to be transmitting from a secret location in Guatemala but the only time it was actually doing that it was broadcasting from inside the the US embassy most of the time the signals were really coming from Nicaragua and occasionally from Dominican Republic from Honduras several of these other governments were also opposed to the Arbenz administration both because of the reforms that he was rolling out which sort of threatened the elite elsewhere and also because he welcomed exiled revolutionaries from these other countries into Guatemala the CIA once again chose Carlos Castillo Armas as the leader of this uprising they sneaked him into Florida Boorda to meet with the Western Hemisphere chief JC king where they went over the plan and what they expected in return basically that Castio are moss return all all of the land that United Fruit company had surrendered and rollback other policies from the Arbenz an avalanche administrations in January of Nineteen fifty four a Panamanian Etienne career informed Arbenz of this plot including handing over a bunch of Liberation Army documents on January Twenty Ninth Guatemala newspaper started publishing a lot of this material and at this point the United States denied all involvement and called the reports ridiculous and untrue but in reality the the United States was just waiting for a clear reason to start their invasion that whole progression of foreign policy that we talked about in part one had led up to the idea that members of the Organization of American States could interfere in and others affairs if it was under the threat of communism or any totalitarian doctrine to cover. It's basis the US needed evidence of that threat. Meanwhile the tenth the Interamerican Conference was held in Caracas Venezuela in March of Nineteen fifty four four on March twenty eighth the conference adopted the Caracas Declaration of Solidarity which condemned quote activities of the international communist movement as constituting constituting intervention in American affairs it also declared quote that the domination or control of the political institutions of any American state by the International for National Communist movement extending to this hemisphere the political system of an extra continental power would constitute a threat to the sovereignty and political independence attendance of the American States endangering the peace of America and we call for a meeting of consultation to consider the adoption of appropriate action in accordance with existing treaties this declaration was intended to single out Guatemala but without naming Guatemala and of the nations in attendance Guatemala was the only one to vote against it to the US this confirmed that Communists had taken control of Guatemala but it still wasn't evidence of an actual threat then on May Fifteenth Nineteen fifty four a shipment of arms arrived in Guatemala including rifles ammunition artillery and antitank weaponry they had been purchased from Czechoslovakia which was a communist country and part of the Soviet Bloc Guatemala had previously tried to buy arms from the United States which had had refused under the grounds that Guatemala had not signed the Rio Security Pact of nineteen forty seven from their Guatemala had tried to buy weapons from several other countries freezes well all of them had refused some of which under heavy pressure from the United States to do so there were figures Guatemala who felt like the US didn't pressure Czechoslovakia into saying no because they were hoping for this kind of evidence basically though Guatemala had gone to as a last resort US intelligence terrance had learned about the potential deal in nineteen fifty-three but allowed it to go forward hoping to intercept the shipment on route and use it as evidence of Soviet collusion allusion part of that plan involved using the shipment as evidence that Arbenz was arming a militia to fight against the Guatemalan Army Arbenz maintained that he was just just resupplying the Guatemalan Army but the United States cited this as proof that the Soviet Union was propping up a communist regime but the US did not successfully intercept this shipment on the way as they had hoped it basically lost track of it but also these weapons weren't that useful once they arrived in Guatemala a a lot of their rifles didn't work. There were not any tanks in Central America for these antitank weapons to be used against the artillery pieces needed an extensive network of improved roads to really be useful and Guatemala didn't really have that at this point none of that really mattered the fact that it had come from Czechoslovakia was the the evidence that the United States wanted to justify this queue and we're GonNa talk about all of this finally played out after we pause for another sponsor break. Let me tell you about Pete who loved hockey and always wanted to play in the NHL Pete played since he was three and begged his mom to let them stay on the ice by some nights he even slept in his hockey skates. Pete practiced and practiced until one day when he was forty seven. Pete realized he just wasn't isn't that good so he threw his skates in the trash but then you heard how Geico proud partner of NHL good save money on car insurance so he switched and saved a bunch so so it all worked out the United States stepped up this operation on on May seventeenth with Eisenhower Blockading Guatemala and the Liberation Army organizing from Honduras. They used as one of their base of operations United Fruit company any company town flyovers started on May twenty six with planes dropping leaflets warning the Guatemalan public of these supposed secret plans and encouraging urging McGuire Molin military to turn on the president the Voice of liberation broadcast false reports about an increasingly large army rebels that was taking on new recruits roots as it moved. Arbenz demanded that Honduras put a stop to the Liberation Armies Organization within its borders and the United States started using the pretext of sending military aid to Honduras and Mexico to funnel weapons toward this manufactured uprising by early June as ongoing efforts to destabilize allies. The Guatemalan government led to increasing unrest including plots against the government from within on June third military officers tried to convince our bends ends that for the good of the country he should purge all communists from his administration but he refused five days later our been suspended civil liberties. He's citing the national emergency throughout all of this government officials and the media in the United States were warning of an insidious communist threat in Guatemala Milo with John Foster Dulles calling the Guatemalan government a quote communist type reign of terror. The actual invasion began on June eighteenth nineteen fifty four four after all the ongoing propaganda efforts the CIA was expecting the Guatemalan people to rise up inside with the invasion but that didn't really happen. The Liberation Army faced repeated defeats. Three additional aircraft were deployed to provide more air support but two of them were shot down arbenz placed the army me and the police on alert but he didn't actually deploy them. He was afraid that if he did it would just look like the US propaganda was right about what was happening happening in Guatemala Foreign Minister Gero Toray. Oh recommended that Guatemala go through formal channels to address this he met with John Peripheral who was the US Sam Basseterre to Guatemala who of course knew exactly what was going on he also contacted the UN Security Council and the Inter American Peace Committee of the Organization Nation of American States for support. Pareo denounced the accusations that Guatemala had become a communist country and asked for a ceasefire and four Honduran and Nicaraguan forces to be removed from Guatemala on the nineteenth the US planes flying over Guatemala progressed from dropping leaflets. It's too also strafing and dropping bombs on Guatemala and buildings including gas and oil storage depots Guatemala didn't have much of an air force that could respond spawned all of its planes had been built before nineteen thirty six and our Benz ultimately grounded them out of concerns over whether the pilots were still loyal to him on that night of the Nineteenth Arbenz gave a radio address calling what was happening an armed invasion and he said quote our only crime consisted of decreeing our own laws and applying them to all without exception are crime is having enacted an agrarian reform which affected the interests of the united the fruit company our crime is wanting to have our own route to the Atlantic our own electric power and our own docks imports are crime is our patriotic wish to advance chance to progress to win economic independence to match our political independence. We are condemned because we have given our peasant population land at writes. The air attacks continued and our Benz Declared Martial Law on June Twentieth Guatemala continued appealing to the United Nations for aid where Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge whose family owned stock in United Fruit was head of the Security Council after a lengthy debate the UN Security Council determined that this was a matter for the Organization Nation of American States which as we noted earlier was heavily influenced by the United States the Soviet Union voted against this correctly concluding that the the US was involved in what was happening in Guatemala after days of bombings and attacks and ongoing propaganda both within and outside of Guatemala the United States started publicly supporting customer mass and the Liberation Army the Voice of Liberation started broadcasting reports of all kinds of successful attacks by the Liberation Abrogation army which weren't actually happening it also reported that Casteel Moss's force was growing at an astounding rate even though he was in command of about four hundred people people at the most the international news media also picked up these stories and reported them as fact in the midst of all of this an American plane bombed a British freighter at request of Nicaragua which claimed it was carrying gasoline to refuel are benzes military it turned out to be carrying only bananas and cotton and the CIA paid off its insurer as it became clear that the United States was backing Castillo Armas and the Liberation Army a wave of anti-american sentiment started started to grow within and outside of Guatemala including in numerous nations in central and South America and the Caribbean Argentinian Revolutionary Che Guevara Ara had traveled to Guatemala to see ongoing reforms that were going on there and he was actually there when this took place his first wife Hilda Ghia later later said quote it was Guatemala which finally convinced him of the necessity for armed struggle and for taking the initiative against imperialism by June twenty fifth Arbenz was losing the support of the Guatemalan military. He recognized that there was no way he could go up against the United States directly. He resigned on June twenty-seventh in his radio address announcing this Arbenz pointed out the roles of the United States and the United Fruit company in all of this saying quote I took over the presidency with great it face in the democratic system in liberty and in the possibility of achieving economic independence for Guatemala. I continue to believe that this program is is just I have not violated my faith in democratic liberties and the independence of Guatemala and in all the good which is the future of humanity one day the obscured forces which today oppressed the backward colonial world will be defeated. I will continue to be despite everything a fighter for the liberty and progress of my country. He took refuge in the Mexican embassy from there he was offered refuge in Czechoslovakia and then he traveled to several other countries before returning to Mexico and dying there in nineteen in seventy one are benzes speech was a totally different tone from the one that was delivered by U. S. Secretary of State Dulles on June thirtieth of nineteen fifty four and and that speech said in part quote they expose the evil purpose of the Kremlin to destroy the inter-american system and they test the ability of the American States to maintain the peaceful integrity integrity of this hemisphere for several years now international communism has been probing here and there for nesting places in the Americas it finally. HBO's Guatemala as a spot which could turn into an official base from which to breed subversion which would extend to the other American republics. This intrusion of Soviet despotism was of course direct challenge to the Monroe doctrine the first and most fundamental of our foreign policies later in the same speech Dila said quote quote it was not the power of the ARBENZ government that concerned us but the power behind it if world communism captured any American state however small and new and perilous front established established which will increase the dangers of the entire free world and require even greater sacrifices from the American people. There is continued to be debate about exactly exactly what role communism played the Ben's administration at the time the Guatemalan Workers Party was the nation's smallest political party and the number of Communist Party remembers in the Guatemalan government was also small for example of the fifty six members of Congress. Four of them were communist at the same time. Several of those positions positions were particularly influential including the president's personal secretary and the president of Congress. There were also members of the party in prominent positions outside side of the government including some of Guatemala's largest labor unions regardless though what was happening in Guatemala doesn't really align with the propaganda the became part of the justification for this intervention when he stepped down Arbenz handed over power to Colonel Carlos Enrique says he was chief of the Guatemalan Armed Forces of the Republic the as became part of a three man ruling Giunta with announcing he was committed to continuing his predecessor's work so the CIA started. I'm trying to figure out how to remove him from power as well. Ultimately disputes arose among the studio which was then replaced with a whole different three-man team. It was a very chaotic few days. This team traveled to El Salvador to negotiate a peace with custodio who ultimately became the next president of Guatemala. Allah Castillo Armas denounced communism and promised that he would not roll back the social gains of the previous administration then on October tenth nineteen fifty four or he was elected president while running unopposed once he was in power. He repealed the nineteen forty five constitution. He abolished the previous. Administrations is land reforms returning all the expropriated land back to the United Fruit Company and other landowners he rolled back the earlier expansions of voting rights and he restored the Catholic churches right to own property and teach religion in public schools. Castilla Emma's also outlawed Labor organizations and political parties as and restored goes chief secret police to his former position. Seven prominent labor organizers were also murdered on July first at the United added State's request Casteel or Moss also established a National Committee of defense against Communism in Guatemala in Nineteen Fifty Eight Castio are moss was assassinated by one of his own bodyguards. His successor was General Miguel. EDS tests a rebellion to overthrow his dictatorial regime in nineteen sixty was at the start of the Guatemalan civil war which lasted for thirty six years in spite of the ongoing civil rights abuses of the fuentes regime and his predecessor a circuit steal our masses and the abuses of the Guatemalan military the United States backed the military throughout this civil war through varying degrees through the various areas presidential administrations that were in power during the thirty six years than it went on this all circles back to the idea of it being acceptable to intervene and another American nation's affairs. If there's a threat with or without of Communist or authoritarian influence the United States made it a policy for decades to back these kinds of dictatorial L. regimes regardless of their human or civil rights record as long as those regimes were anti-communist more than two hundred thousand people were killed during the Guatemalan civil war four and that isn't a country with a population of only about ten million at the end of the war according to a nineteen ninety nine United Nations historical clarification commission eighty three percent of those killed were indigenous. Maya killed at the hands of the Guatemalan military or militia which were being supported supplied and trained by the United States. It's even though the war officially ended in Nineteen ninety-six violence and instability continued to be issues in Guatemala today. President Bill Clinton was then Guatemala not long after this historical clarification commission report was published and said quote it is important that I state clearly that support for military forces or intelligence units which engaged in violent and widespread repression of the kind described in the report was wrong and the United States must not repeat that mistake we must I and we will instead continue to support the peace and reconciliation process in Guatemala Guatemalan President Colom offered his own statement in twenty eleven been saying quote that day changed Guatemala and we have not recuperated from it yet it was a crime to Guatemalan society and it was an act of aggression to a government starting starting. It's democratic spring the ongoing economic social and political issues affecting Guatemala today are a direct result of all of this and like we said at various points on this show this kind of US intervention was not unique to Guatemala especially during the Cold War when the US made numerous other interventions in other Latin American countries as well including providing weapons training and other support to dictatorial regimes what was unique though to Guatemala was the direction in scope and overall success of all these reforms before the US intervened in other words the migrant crisis that is currently happening at the United States the southern border is directly connected to decades of US interventions in Latin America including this one also United Fruit company went through an antitrust suit and ultimately sold its land in Guatemala to del Monte after a couple of corporate transitions. United Fruit company is now Chiquita brands international the company's history page traces its roots back to United Fruit company but the time line of its history on the company's website skips the nineteen fifties entirely a few years ago there was a stuff you should know live show that was about the history not the history was about how public relations work. I think is what they called. It and I saw that live show here when they mentioned to Kina. Some people cheered. Josh Clark was like you're gonNA WANNA. Take that back. If you don't know any of this history Korea everybody loves the banana. You know what I mean like the little cartoon Banana Lady. I understand that impulse but it is made without the full picture absolutely Louis Yeah because the next thing that they talked about was this whole overthrow of the Guatemalan government at the Ham of the United States Central Intelligence Agency Agency not necessarily influenced but definitely strongly advocated for by United Fruit Company. He's policies. Were the start of the land reforms. What's that got. Everybody's attention in the first place anyway. That's a not the most fun episode though it is important information but I'm hoping when you have maybe slightly more delightful listener mail. I have listener mail that his from Lauren it does not her back to a more fun episode but its content is is interesting and cool so lauren writes dear Tracy and Holly. I just wanted to write and say thank you for your awesome podcast. I I love the quality and variety of your shows excellent presentation style and recommended you to a lot of my friends. I was really interested in your recent solidified shows. I'm a medical historian Rian and was previously a curator of Medical Museum where I cared for a large collection of disability prosthetics. We were working with Leicester University to discuss how we could better better work with the disabled community to represent their stories not just approached the collection from a medical model of disability as part of our project we hosted a performance of cabinet of curiosities how disability was kept in a box which was developed by the wonderful artist and actor. Matt Fraser who has induced Phocomelia Matt worked with medical museums and the UK to explore the disability histories which he brought out in the performance. There's a performance available on the museum. Association website. Learn gives us a link and it's well worth a watch. It is such a wonderful piece but the one part which struck me was the video matt shared of a child who was put in a pair of gas ask powered prosthetic legs and arms about fifty three minutes and their performance and the vulnerability of placing this young person in such a device. It really caused me to question question how I interpreted such prosthetic devices for audiences in the museum. Obviously there are people who thrive and rely on prosthetics however the medical model of disability attempting tempting to fix people can also create new problems the sea state of course in your show which was great to hear. I just thought you guys might find the show interesting. Thank you both again. uh-huh for such a great podcast. I'll be continuing to listen and welcoming any future medical shows in the future with very best wishes Lauren. Thank you so much for this email lauren. I I have not had the chance to watch this whole video yet but we are going to put it into the show notes for folks who may be interested to be able to check it out. Thank you so much for sending it and for sending this email I love to hear from museum curator's and other people who whose work involves similarly to what we do attempting attempting to put historical things in the context for the general public. Yes I also love Matt Frazier. I was introduced to him. He was on the season of American American horror story that was called Freak show and he was amazing and then I was like I wanna see everything he does because he's such a good actor so I'm glad that he's getting a little more love. I I watched that season of American horror story and I did not connect the person in the name even having started to watch the video. I didn't put it all together so thank you. Laurin in spite of the various op-eds that seemed to be written like every couple or three weeks start floating around twitter historians historians are doing a lot of work engaging with the public everybody historians museum curators archivists and all kinds of folks you're thinking about writing an op-ed about how historians are engaging with the public. Maybe like Google that raid three the things that people have already said about about it and then the many responses about how that's not actually all that accurate. I think some of that too is that people have one idea of what a historian is in their head and they think if that person isn't and somehow in the public eye that historians are out there doing the work We have an upcoming interview that I'm hoping we'll help dispel some of that on very happy happy about that. Yeah Holly. My work is deeply reliant on the work of historian. You are putting things out for the public all the time yes so you would like the right to us about this or any other podcast history podcasts at how stuff works dot com. We're also all over social media Mr History will you will find us there at facebook. Pinterest instagram twitter and you can come to our website which is missing history dot com the show notes for this episode. We'll include the link that we just talked about as well as all of the sources for this episode which include CIA declassified documents acknowledging all this stuff. We did not make it up. You can also subscribe to our show on Apple podcasts the iheartradio iheartradio APP and anywhere else to get your podcast stuffy missed in history classes a production of iheartradio's radio. How stuff works for more podcasts for my heart radio visit the iheartradio APP apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows we are living in complicated times. I'm seventy rule. MSNBC ANCHOR AND NBC News correspondent in my new podcast modern rules. I'M GONNA. It'll be spending time unpacking. Some of the hairiest of today's top decided. I was going to be a survivor survivor fights. He would board. They want new. It's America listen and subscribe to my new podcast modern rules on apple podcast the iheartradio APP or wherever you get your podcast.

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Preachers In Sneakers

The Ross Bolen Podcast

1:22:45 hr | 2 years ago

Preachers In Sneakers

"Welcome back for episode one hundred sixty nine of the Rose Bowl in podcast, otherwise known as Rb P one six nine I'm your host Ross Bohlin here on another beautiful spring day in Austin, Texas with intern-agency AJ what's up. Do you realize how big this weekend is is very big lots? You have the masters. We have the start of the NBA playoffs. It's true. We have the season premiere of game of thrones. That is three of arguably the biggest events of the year packed in one weekend. It's very problematic for me. Are you ready though? No question. Fuck. No. And we're gonna talk a little bit more about this later. Now, you know what let's get into now. Okay. The rockets scheduled just came out. We we're in the four seed we're going to talk a little bit about the NBA later on for those of you who don't watch the NBA play-off breakdown of the first round for you for people who don't watch the NBA if you wanna know what's going on anyway point being the schedule. Out. Guess what's it the exact same time as the season eight premiere of game of thrones? That game the first rockets game on the war disorder gonna do or the second one. I guess are you gonna do the dual screens meant it. It's a it's a really difficult decision for me. But at the end of the day, it has it had gained not it's game of throat has to be because of the podcast game of thrones. For me is appointment viewing now. Yeah. I can't not watch it when it's on because if anything gets ruined for me on never forgive myself, especially considering that it's the last season of the show. Yeah. I know Twitter and the internet well enough to know that it will get destroyed for me if I don't watch it when it's actually live. Plus, the rockets are playing the jazz also says not you're really missing no down on this game. One. Also, I think it's the second one. It might be the first, but we're gonna pound on them either way, it doesn't matter. So it really is an easy decision at the end of the day. It's gamma thrones. A watch it live. And then honestly, I'm probably just going to have to watch it back to back and do all my notes because as AJ just mentioned, I do a game at thrones podcast. It's the other podcast that I do outside of this one. It's called clams and cockles we've been doing it me and Barrett Dudley. My co host. Since season six before season six we started the podcast. So we did an episode of the podcast that would drop every Monday right after the new episode of game of thrones came out on that Sunday. And then we did that for all of season six we did it for all of season seven between season seven and eight. We decided to launch something called the knights rewatch on clams and cockles where we rewatch every single episode of game of thrones starting with season one episode one all the way through season seven, and we created an episode of the podcast specifically tailored to people who were rewatching in preparation for the final season for each episode. So that's all they will for you in all the same places that the Rose Bowl in podcast is available. Go listen, Deutsches, clams and cockles if you're a game of thrones fan and tell all your people who like game of thrones. If they're looking for a companion podcast to help them get through season, eight always clams and cockles fantastic option. And that's that though see shells to the clam Rb p one sixty nine is brought to you by Lisa. Everybody has the right to rest, but the key to getting your best rest. Of course is the right mattress. Meet Lisa with to Semaj successor is and basis for better deep arrest. The often Leesa mattress new and improved featuring cooling Alicea two hundred foam for enhanced pressure relief for side sleepers or you can rest on their superior. Their hybrid mattress is actually the one I picked the perfect combination of foam in spring pressure spring for pressure relief and edged edged support so comfortable could not more highly recommend the superior. If you're willing to spend a few more bucks, Lisa's fantastic as well. Disappear Abbas to be my personal preference. Love it. Best bet ever had could not more highly recommend it and Lisa's mission is to provide a better night's sleep for everybody from day one. They set out to create a company with heart. It's one of the reasons we love working with them so much. They actually donate one mattress for every ten. They sell to organizations that working causes like foster care prevention into date. They've donated more than thirty two thousand mattresses through more than one thousand nonprofits Rb gang. Get fifteen percent off any mattress. For a limited time at Lisa dot com slash Rb p when you use the promo code Rb p that's L E E essay dot com slash Rb p promo code Rb p if you're in the market for a new mattress or you're looking at your old bed, San I could do better than you. Definitely can. And you should go to Lisa. They've got the best in the world. If you're show the Ross bowl and podcast almost every episode is broken down into segments, which you can find below with time cues in the description, the idea being this makes it more simple. It's easier for you to digest this show on your own time. Right. Sometimes you got a fifteen minute commute instead of a forty five minute commute or an hour and a half or whatever depending on how much time you have to listen to the show you can break it out in the segments. Perhaps you're not interested in a segment like the NBA segment later on today's show. Let's say you have absolutely zero interest in sports even hear me talk about it for just a few minutes, you can skip the segment it's not that big of a deal. I mean, it hurts my feelings just a little bit. But you don't have to tell me can be our little secret you keep just between you and you. That I never have to know about. Now, some episodes of the show we're going to have special guests like Mia Khalifa, for example, where it's an exception to the rule it's not going to be all broken down into segments because it's more conversational. But you'll figure all this out as you listen and get caught up on the show. Speaking of which you don't have to listen to any of the preceding episodes in order to enjoy VP 169. But if you like the show, go back man there one hundred and sixty eight backlogged episodes for you to soak in and enjoy when you've got the time so have at it. I like to include a little personal anecdote in the intro to Rb p to say, thank you to the non skippers for not skipping through the intro, which contains very important information each and every episode so today actually yesterday, I was at the drive thru for smoothie place called juice land. AJ familiar with juice land that here in Austin in Austin, a local Austin smoothie thing. I'm not familiar, but I'm also not the biggest smoothie. Fernow the asking the wrong, you're in college. You you shouldn't be drinking smoothies. You should be drinking beers. Am I right anyway, it's a local smoothie shop here in Austin? It's that's a sentence that that my street reputation could have gone without probably, but I was sitting in the drive through with my window down. Right. Waiting on my order to come out through the window. I'm in a hurry. Sometimes I don't get to eat lunch before we do the show. So I'm like picking up a smoothie like three PM to try to get some sustenance into my body. That's not we'd yes continue to operate. So I've got the window down. I'm sitting in the drive through in the wind picks up. Right. It's gusting howling blowing about in a fucking shit. You not little piece of paper happens to blow through the window and land in my lap. And I looked down and grab it lo and behold, no bullshit one hundred percent, no cap. It's a rolling paper which cannot be mistaken or anything else when you hold a rolling paper. You know? It's rolling paper. Has all the features of a rolling paper. And if that's not a sign from God to roll one up in smoke it then I don't know. What is I'll probably the only thing. I could compare it to is this one time I was playing golf in Austin out at a Kaiser is the name of the course that we were on Jimmy clay, ROY Kaiser, ROY Kaiser's the very open. Anyway, that's doesn't matter. I'm not going to get into the fucking geography. The golf course the point is I found a little bag a weed on the fourteenth hole, and you kept it. Yeah. I didn't smoke it truth be told I ended up throwing it away. Because I was too paranoid about what could be planted in it. You know what I'm saying? It felt like a trap like somebody dropped a little bag a weed. Maybe they sprinkled some angel dust on it. And the next thing. You know, I'm getting wet, and I didn't even mean to. Well, you never know. I mean, as you never know AJ. Yeah. I mean, you literally never know when you buy from a dealer unless you unless you on this before planting the plant and picking the plant then. Yeah. How could you? Fuck it now. But I'm pretty sure that my guy that you know, I trust my. We do that I deal with I trust a lot more than I trust to the pavement on a golf course. Cart path to to provide me with drugs. Sure. Rightfully so. That's the only thing I could compare it to the only other time the universe is opened up literally been like you should smoke weed now. And so I did I didn't smoke that rolling paper because smoking street paper that the wind picks up and delivers into my lap is not a path that I plan on going down at least not anytime soon. But you don't use papers. Anyway, do no not not routinely. No. Although what you will on occasion. Oh, yeah. Oh, yeah. Now, I love a good joint. I see I thought you only took like Bong rips, and like blunts, I don't do blunts ever. I love that. You assume that I would though which is nice. No, I'm serious. That's I roll backwards. I want people to see me as a blunt guy without being a blunt guy because you're from Houston. That's probably automatically associate Houston with blunts BNO, rip a big ass Bong. That's my tool of choice on a routine. Daily basis or whatever. But if it's like ACO or any type of special not special event like special occasion out, dude. I would love joint. I just don't have the hands to pull off that type of. I assume you don't have the patience to take into joints. That too is a lot. If I get real stoned before I could sit there and roll all day, but it's just that's very time consuming. Also, re there's a lot of things that stand in the way of me and rolling joints regularly. You're just gonna have to take my word for it. Okay. But if I could and I had the skill set. And there weren't some other things like, you know, I'd like to join like on a table in the house or whatever because that's the easiest situation. Yeah, reeks and then I get yelled at. So if there weren't things like that. I would I would join smoke a more regularly. But it is just they're complicated. You gotta really love. We'd be like a joint guy all the time. Plus, you know, if you can people fucking get so good. Good at rolling those things up. They include filters in shit. It's crazy. Well, you have a buddy who does that. Who who roll? Like, I don't know like a dozen or couple dozen at a time, and he'll keep them in like this little case. Like a metal case the whole flip dope. Because the presentation who flip it open, and it's all these perfectly roll joints later box. Yeah. Yeah. He takes a lot of pride in that. Well, I need a friend like that. I got nothing going on with my anyway, those my personal antidote. I had a rolling paper land in my lap. Riveting fucking Forrest Gump style wind blowing things around right? Follow a show on Instagram at the Rose Bowl in podcast wherever you day. I'm gonna fill up the story. I'm gonna I do fill up the story with photos and videos Sinton by you guys, the listeners the Rb p gang. I pull all those photos and videos, by the way from Snapchat. I know that's a little confusing, but I'm on Snapchat at W R bolan on Snapchat. Okay, snapchat. So the easiest place for me to pull those photos and videos. So that's why choose to collect ninety nine percent of the ones that go into the Instagram's stories so snapped me your best shit. I'll take the ones I enjoy my favorite stuff every day. And although it up on the Ross Bohlin podcast Instagram story at the Ross bowl in podcasts were also on Twitter at Rose Bowl and pod. Where a lot of the same stuff that goes on Instagram is gonna go out every day. Plus, there's a lot more fan interaction some additional content, and we're on Facebook to allegedly I don't I don't care a neither do very many other people apparently. So we're gonna move on and talk about that announcement in a men's I Texas Tech bet update your member we. Talked about the dude who had a futures bet. He put down like fifteen hundred three hundred K on Texas Tech. If Texas Tech won the national championship. You'll recall Texas Tech did not win the national championship. That is true. So our boy did not win. That bet will turns out. He didn't hedge. He didn't know. Oh, wow. But it also turns out the reason he didn't head just because he had futures on Virginia as well. I think you talked about that. Right. When you're breaking down the different scenarios and the different may. I don't know like betting. I didn't. Yeah. I didn't know he had futures on Virginia though. Which what does that mean exactly when he heals? Wilbert his bed on Texas Tech was that Texas Tech would win the national championship. And he plays that bet before the season even started right future because you're betting on something that's happening way into the future. Sure at the same time when he plays that bet on Texas Tech. He didn't just pick one team. He spread his money around a little bit. So it sort of hedging away. But really it's like pick. More than one horse in the same race and Virginia is one of the others. Apparently, he had several bets on Virginia winning which were also future bits at least some of them were. So I don't know technically you could say hedged out. I guess, but the point is the whole story now isn't even that fucking exciting. And really who cares? Like, this is some psycho rich guy who's got this type of money to be thrown around. Clearly, it's just not nearly as cool as I thought it was the first time we talked about it. So moving on speaking of sports, the masters started today, and I actually went to the masters back in twenty seventeen in case, you didn't know I did a full segment on the masters title bucket list items for everyone the masters all about the tournament and my experience there back in episode twenty six all the way back in RB twenty six if you want to go back and listen to that if you're looking for some masters, some golf talk to get you in the mood in the mode in the moment for this weekend. There you go. Well, while we're on the topic. What's your prediction who do you think's gonna walk away with it this year, I put through a little something? Something on tiger for funsies. Just because I wanted to bet on who I'm going to root for about KEPCO. I mean, there's there's probably six or seven or eight dudes that I could see if I'm picking off the top of my head that I could see you know, winning. But the masters is insane. It's an insane tournament. You never know. The in. I guess the past what three or four years they've all been been newbies quite a few random mixed. Just a bunch of guys who just come up through the rank which is not nearly as much fun is it is when you have a superstar win like Sergio. I think was the last huge superstar. We had when I happened to be there that year was twenty seventeen. I dunno. If you if you knew that already, but I went to the masters. You went live in twenty seventeen a watched live. Oh, I'll tell you went live. You can't go fucking live from there. Take your cell phone out. A sniper will hit you, bro. Oca- can't take your you. Can't take your cell phone out there pretty strict about all the fuck you up. They will fuck you up. My buddy, Dan is feel you can be sneaky about it. I still on God, you will get tossed you. It's it cannot be done. Even sneaky, there's lockers out front people put their shit in because if you get tempted and take your phone out and start clicking. It's over for you son that takes the fun out of it. Because because you can't go live promise, you it's a million times better because every more on in the place. That would be trying to go live with AJ. You're the problem. You're why we can't have cellphones at Augusta 'cause you're trying to go live while Tigers on the fucking eighteenth green putting for two million dollars. I'm just thinking of clout, you just think content. Yeah. Team content. Exactly. Go to Ross Bohlin podcasts dot com to see the very first shitty. Iteration of our website that will eventually become a beautiful butterfly. This is like we're in the chrysalis stage of websites right now. What stage Christmas cocoon cocoon, we're in cocoon? Stay just say that because Christmas is another stage. Go Raddy gentleman dot com slash Rb p and you'll see the rowdy gentlemen Ross Bohlin podcast merchandise collaboration. We got a couple new iterations of the mugshot t valuable now we've got a soft for the weekend. It it's Thursday, which means you should be getting soft for the weekend. It features like a golden retriever yellow lab on it. I'm not sure which one it is. But it's a very cool shirt as well. As a lazy links shirt that's kind of a relic now because lazy links no longer exists in. Fortnight for those of you who are big fortnight fans. Use the code Rb p one five when you check out on ready gentleman dot com slash Rb p and you will get fifteen percent off your entire order a little bit of a men's there's only one very quickly the other day, we were discussing bad tattoos AJ. Yeah. We mentioned the barb wire tat. We did we mentioned, Pamela Anderson. Yes. I completely forgot about my man, Tracy McGrady who has a barb wire arm tattoo. Would you? Then Evan ran across my mind. Holy shit. It's really really really bad. And then it was kind of like exaggerated, by the fact that the rockets jerseys from his era from the Tracy McGrady Yao Ming era were the worst arguably basketball jerseys in any air in any version of the game, NBA minor college. They were so bad. They had like these mortal Kombat shoulders on them. So you were looking all. Yeah. Those are those are not zero or some shit. It was fucking awful. So it's shoulder pads. It made his little arm tat, look even worse. It really might be the thing that kept him from ever getting a ring. And I love you, Tracy, but that's fire that tattoo is just trash. Let's get into it. I segment of our VP one sixty nine preachers in sneakers. So we're starting off today's show with my new favorite Instagram account in the entire fucking world. AJ? Are you familiar with this? Have you heard about this this weird? I have never heard of go look at at preachers in the word the letter in preachers in sneakers at preachers and sneakers. This is an Instagram account that was shared with me by gang member. Okay. Picked up a lot of steam and attention over the past several days. And with good reason, it has a hundred and twenty thousand followers in the bio says this bad in buji more like God in Gucci. The Lord works in mysterious color ways, preachers and sneakers at g mail dot com. That is among the best bios I've ever seen on Instagram. So mmediately, I'm intrigued when you scroll down this hits on many, many, many things that I love, and that are entertaining, hilarious and awesome to me. It's photos AJ of preachers, pastors priests, and whatever all the other names are you can use for them wearing very expensive sneakers. Yeah. Like in the case of the very first post on here right now that was put up nineteen hours ago. Its pastor Mike Todd rocking the ultra exclusive European release off white Jordan one actually know Mike Todd I've seen some videos on YouTube noble shit. Yeah. He's he's didn't know that retail price on these was one hundred ninety dollars plus a plane ticket to Europe while 'cause you had to go to Europe to pick up on so many bottom resale. Oh, but yeah. I don't I don't know. What's going on here familiar with him? And he's always wearing tight kicks. No. That's kind of like part of his brand. I think like that. Cool hip pastor turns out there's a lot of guys going for that look. Yeah. That kind of like, you know, he connects to the to the youth right right to millennials. I guess it becomes problematic. When the shoes go for three grand resale in your in. You your pastor pan three thousand dollars for tennis shoes. How do you feel about the exactly all we're going to get into pastor, John gray? There's a photo of him here wearing some red October's the air easy twos. But you don't have the these resale for about six grand in my size six thousand dollars. If you wanna ten and a half, you had that bag would you drop it? I think we all know the answer's yes. I don't I don't think there's any sense in me trying to lie. My way around that AJ. I think we all know the truth is, yes. So this account goes it's just post after post, and I mean my God, it's incredible. And they don't leave women out either. For instance hill song, oh, this is not that's not a woman. Got you. Holy shit. Okay. It's like the third post on your hill. Song teaching pastor Nathan Finocchio this last names Finocchio. I'm not kidding. His last name Finocchio like Pinocchio with an F. Yes. Dude, his family hit Ellis Island. And they were like he tried to pronounce his name. It was probably like phenomenology or some some cool shit. And they were like, nah, now, we're gonna put Finocchio here, and that's your name now oddly enough, you looks like a Finocchio he does. Anyway, he has very long hair, and I'm still him for a woman because of the way he's dressed. I apologize. Mr. Finocchio put he's wearing some tiger slides. I believe they're made by Gucci or or Armani or I've seen those before. Or one of the like, the very expensive is the point those leggings as weren't they they might be like a pink plaid. They're like high pajama pants is what they look like I don't like him to me. But the whole account is still with pastors preachers in. The like wearing expensive designer shoes, which is very very funny. So there's a little bit in Houston chronicle that got published yesterday about this particular account written by MARCY, Delun a- that kind of sets us all up even better for you. I'm gonna read here just the intro pastor Keoughan Henderson of Houston. The lighthouse church owns a pair of designer kicks that retail for more than six hundred dollars. Pester Robert Matto of Dallas city of Dallas's city. I church has a pair of Balenciaga sneakers that sell for more than eight hundred dollars. Former Lakewood church pastor John gray who continues to preach at the Houston. Mega church. Owns a pair of hot red air yeezy to kicks that retail for more than five thousand dollars gray. Who is the current head? Pastor relentless church in Greenville, South Carolina, previously faced controversy after he purchased a two hundred thousand dollar Lamborghini for his wife in December other celebrity passers across the US wearing blamed out sneakers and price. Fashion items of the new focus of a new Instagram feed preachers in sneakers a little bit later. They go on to tell us about who founded this thing the founder who goes by the alias Tyler Jones, the alias grew up in the church, and it's still quote heavily involved in evangelical Christianity, he told the Houston chronicle this on Wednesday. He also closely follows sneaker culture, he said, quote, I never meant for it to be this massive church conversation, which it's now driving. There's been some harassment of the preachers. I didn't mean for that to happen. I don't feel great about it. I feel bad about it every day. You can't feel that fucking bad because you're still putting up the pictures. Second you doing the Lord's work here, sir? This is this is good people need to see this. And it's not just for the reason that if you see your preacher rock in red October's, you know, you don't need to give that dude anymore your money. You don't need a tide. Ten percent to that. Dude are about to go deep into the snow. I'm not gonna go deep, and I'm I'm not trying to offend anybody upset anybody. I'm just saying if my pastors were in. October's. He's not getting any of my money. Yeah. For any reason ever. And I don't care how much I have. Why would I give to a man who's clearly more interested in making sure he stunts with his feet, then he is in helping the congregation and the community that he's supposed to be helping out approach ties offerings from a different mindset. I know some of it does go to the pastor about to me out of the greater purpose of that musher. No, and helping the church or on the money that's going to help others. Also, he's my point AJ if you passed you don't wear red October's on stage. It's not that difficult. If you if you listen, I'm sneaker guy. I get it. I understand wanting to help people and wanting to have bad ass shoes. I completely understand. Don't wear on stage are at the at the podium, or whatever at the alter its that's not difficult to to be smarter than that. You know what I'm saying? You should should they also not drive their Lamborghini to the church. No, probably not like, I get that. It's pro. Oh, maybe it's not fair. Maybe it's a double standard against people in the in the ministry, but if you're number if your career is preaching the word of God other human beings. Then there's things you have to do and know about image in the way image works, like don't buy Lamborghini for your wife. If you're if you're a pastor don't wear red October's on stage, just where I'm at home in their saying just be more discrete about it. If you're gonna do that. If you really do if this is the listen, I believe that there's a balance to everything right? Maybe some of these dudes in order to be able to do what they do in impacting communities in the positive ways that I hope that they do maybe the other thing they need to be able to do that as bad as fly sneakers. I don't fucking know for all we know it could be their way of connecting to the youth. Like, I said earlier like I mean, obviously, this this generation's really connected sneakers for sure if it's between John gray like picking up a prostitute. Or picking up some red October's, dude, go with the red. Oh, yes. Obviously, the lesser of two evil. What I'm saying routinely? I think people have to pick a situation. Like there's for me. I have to have some vices. I'm always going to need some vices. We all we all have our vices for sure. But I'm saying like you have to pick the ones that are going to be the least dangerous or the least negatively impactful or whatever treasure. Yeah. Try to keep shit straight. All the time. I believe that could apply to some of these people. Now, others of them are just scumbags who. Don't give a fuck. I just don't like it's some of them just enjoy sneakers. I mean, some of them are just sneaker heads, and they just wanna flaunt their sneakers bad. Look, man. It's about the look in. It's it's I understand being the hip, cool, preacher, whatever. And I get that. Like, I if you're a preacher, wouldn't you wear your sneakers onstage? No, not on stage. Not if the cost six thousand dollars, that's just fucking. It's just something wrong about that. It's not morally wrong necessarily. It's just off. Even if you're the best dude on the planet and. You listen fucking. It's your money, man. Spend it how you want. If you wanna buy shoes by shoes. But it's about the message or giving off to the people who showed up literally to listen to you, tell them how to live their lives, and you weren't six thousand dollar shoes. Okay. That's just not responsible saying it's kind of a contradiction. Yes. I mean if conduct a hypocritical way of approaching a little bit. Yeah. It's I mean, I don't want to call it hypocritical. It's not even all that. I'm just saying from base level from fucking the highest view possible. It's not a good look. That's all I'm saying just maybe think about it before you wear your fucking red October's to go preach, bro. What are you doing looking silly? But it's funny that these people are getting called out now and the account I will follow forever. So I hope you never stops. And really, I hope the preachers and pastors never stop either because the account would stop, and then I won't be entertained anymore. So maybe I do want them to do the content. I will I will give it that also say this. I only have like one. One or two of the pairs of shoes that featured on this account. So maybe I'm just jealous and angry. Maybe I should have been a pastor instead of a podcast or it's not too late next segment stuff to Wikipedia when your high. So we like to do a little segment on this show called stuffed Wikipedia when you hi, it's usually about random cool fascinating shit that I didn't previously know about that somebody either sent me or told me about and now I'm sharing it with you the Rb p gang today's stuff that we Kapiti when you're high is the banana massacre. Okay, which is just an attention grabbing a sounds like to me for an event, right? Yeah. Right. But a no this is actually incredibly said it was a massacre of as many as three thousand United fruit company workers that occurred between December fifth and six in nineteen twenty eight in the town of CNN IGA near Santa Marta, Colombia. Okay. So there was a strike AJ. The began on November twelfth of nineteen twenty eight the workers of this. United fruit company said fuck this were out. We've got demands were not working anymore into region agreement. And you you give us dig. Defied working conditions. So several weeks pass no agreement. No terms. No work, costing the company severe financial losses, obviously. So the conservative government of Miguel Mendez who I'm assuming as the president of Colombia this time sins in the army against the strikers which results in this massacre. So officials in Colombia and in United fruit portrayed, these this worker strike as a communist thing with subversive tendencies intelligence to the United States Secretary of state as they were trying to portray exactly what was going on there to the US because as you know, we are team America world police so the United States government threatened to invade with marines if the Colombian government didn't act to protect United fruit's interests. Okay. Scan pretty serious things are getting super tricky in in. Maybe we actually did this. Spurted anyway. So the Colombian government was almost pressured by the United States to go in and take care of this strike. I don't think the United States or whoever was applying this pressure directly realized that it would result in the slaughter of three thousand employees of this company. But nonetheless, maybe they didn't consider all of the potential consequences to to to this pressure that they were applying. So the Colombian government is compelled by the United States to go in handle this shit. They're scared that the US is going to cut off trade of Colombian bananas. And they've got significant markets in the US and Great Britain that they want to handle so Columbia feels pressured and they go in and handle it. Here's a list of the complaints. Or the guest demands that the strike the workers had put out that were on strike. They wanted them to stop their practice of hiring subcontract. Hiring through subcontractors. They wanted mandatory colle-. Elective insurance compensation for work accidents hygienic dormitories in six day work weeks instead of seven increase in daily pay for workers who earned less than one hundred pesos per month. They wanted a weekly wage abolition of office stores abolition of payment through coupons rather than money. They were just getting handed fucking coupons and the improvement of hospital services, essentially, they were asking for the most basic ask version of like benefits. Yeah. I mean, every everything that you're supposed to get. We would like to not die on the job is essentially what they've said here plus and get paid for the love of God. Could we have a day off a week? That's and you and say to me because they're like, hey, let's work six days a week and not seven right? And like we complain here in the United States about working traditional five day, dude. It's funny. Our we we actually work more than than most countries though. Really? Yeah. Like in Europe, they get like eight months vacation. It's fucking nuts. Like, nobody in France at work. Not it's like, four months or something Razi. What do people do I shit? You not month's vacation months. Paid vacation. Yes, dude. It's fucked up, and then we're here like grinding our dick soft, but we also have. I mean, that's what we got. We got. That's what we got preachers running around in in red October's. Yeah. You don't have that shit in Europe. Maybe they do. I have no idea. Anyway, the strike turned into the largest labor movement ever witnessed in Columbia up until that point. It was completely out of control. According in the eyes of the Colombian government. Anyway, now in the eyes of the protesters and the strikers, obviously, they're trying to accomplish something here. The army got dispatched the troops set up machine guns on the roofs of low buildings at the corners of the main square. They closed off the access streets. And after only five minutes of warning, they opened fire into a dense Sunday crowd of workers and their families, including children who had gathered after Sunday mass to wait for an anticipated address from the governor come on, man. This is so fucked, and they just murked everybody. Yeah. I mean, every every country has its own horrible things in checkered pass in its own hit the worst things I've ever heard, but it's a really bad one point blank murdering somewhere. Between. Nobody knows the exact number. I'm. The somewhere between eight hundred and three thousand a your own people is completely completely unacceptable. Obviously if that even needs to be fucking said, the guy's name general Vargas who commanded the troops during the massacre took responsibility for only forty seven casualties when in reality. The exact number will now never be confirmed. There's a guy who wrote a comprehensive and detailed study of this entire situation. His name is Harare, Soto in he estimates that based on other estimates, given by contemporaries, and historians that it could have been anywhere from forty seven to his highest two thousand people who were killed survivors and popular oral histories and written documents give figures between eight hundred and three thousand killed adding by the way, the killer through them into the sea other sources claim the bodies were buried in mass graves is all part of the reason why we have no idea how many people were actually lost on this day. But man. One of the survivors is name was Louis Gamez. He later became a famous local figure he survived by hiding under a bridge for three days. Well in every year since the massacre, he delivered a memorial service over the radio for those who were killed. Guerrilla movements in Colombia such as the revolutionary armed forces of Colombia FARC argued that the growth of communism in Colombia was triggered by atrocities like these and they called it state terrorism. The banana massacre was one of the principal causes of the Boga Tiso and the subsequent era of violence known as level you never want an area in your country's history to be called Lah Violencia, the violence is what I believe somebody's make a movie called LA Violencia in it just translate to the violence. Yeah. Anyway, that's the banana massacre super fucked up, but you didn't know all those people died over that fruit. I'm never eating banana again United fruit company. You know, what's funny as the only thing I've had to eat today's a banana, you should you should feel terrible. I'm gonna go throw it up. Now, Rb P one sixty nine is also brought to you by manscaping. Let me tell you. A story about a man who didn't have the right tools. 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So you can call anytime of day any day of the week any day of the year in it's going to say leave a message after the beep or whatever the fuck it says, I don't know. I should actually go check. And then you leave your message. You could ask us a question gives a hypothetical trash or not trash segment recommendation some constructive criticism. If you must whatever the hotline is their disposal. Eight WR bolan we picked out a few calls to play for you today. Here is the first one. Hey Ross Minnesota podcast about a month. Now, really enjoy the stuff. So my name's Michael I'm from boulder, and I got into a little bit of a predicament last week. So about a month ago, I broke up with my girlfriend, and we haven't really been talking kind of a bad break up. She blocked me on everything whatever. And some of my boys are downtown thirty minutes away from me, and I get a call from one of them that they saw her downtown that she's trying to hang out some of my friends, and so they called me they ask those okay for her to hang out with them. And you know, I don't care at this point. I'm not going to try to control what she does. Or with my boys? Do so I told him I don't care. She ends up hanging out them all night and come to find out that she made out with one of my boyfriends or one of my boys girlfriends. So she's down there hooking up with one of my boys girlfriends. Weird situation. Man. I don't know if I should even be salty about this. Or if I should have a problem with by Boise. Hang out there in the first place just wanted to get some advice on this. Thanks. That's a weird turn didn't. It wasn't expecting him to say that. Can we spleisson the Konya excuse me, the Konya line girls kissing girls because it's hot right? I can't say that line. I won't say the next part. But anyway, Michael from boulder goes through a rough break-up dramatic young person's break up with the blocking on social media and shit. And then she goes out and hangs with his boys and his boys end up seeing her actually hook up with a girlfriend of one of his boys plot twists classic. This is always the most complicated. Part of breakup, though, in this does not change when you get older, by the way, the breakup are just called the voices, and they happened maybe slightly less frequently until you get into your late thirties. And then people start dropping like flies, but they hurt even more. It's just an epic cluster. Fuck of poorly thought out union, so you have that to look forward to his well, if you're young, but of course, every break-up is different. They're never easy. They're always complicated. And there's nothing worse than dealing with the fallout from break-up, that's ugly. Right. It sucks. But the advice is pretty simple. Just take the high road. Always don't ever ever ever ever get down in the mud with. Your ex or whoever in start slinging you're better than that take the high road, no matter what be respectful of your now, former girlfriend or boyfriend or whatever and just try to realize that everybody goes through this shit. It feels like the biggest deal in the world, and it's fucking not. It's not a big deal every human being goes through. Heartbreak breakup and everybody feels like their life is going to end or that. It's the worst thing that's ever happened to them or that they could never possibly recover, and then every single one of those people who is smart and strong enough to hold on for long enough to get past it ends up laughing at themselves. They you meet somebody else. Yeah. Get all about. It's just the way life is man, sometimes relationships don't work out that applies to friendships to it. Applies to family in some cases. Unfortunately, it applies to marriages and girlfriends and boyfriends it pledged to every relationship you can have men sometimes relationships just don't work out. Sometimes you have to tell your fucking barber. Listen, I'm out. I gotta find somebody else. You're not doing a good enough job, cutting my fucking hair the there's levels to that should've. Asleep? But in every relationship, there's a version of that where you can hit a breaking point where people have to go there fucking separate ways when it comes to friends, and how to handle your friend groups these things have a way of sorting themselves out. I know everybody freaks out like God. What about the fence that we share listen, it's going to sort itself out? It's going to hurt like a motherfucker don't pretend otherwise like everybody, always wants advice or fix to these situations that can help them avoid the pain and the suffering. Right. That's what there's no clear-cut answer to that. It's not that. There's no clear cut answer. It cannot be done, sir. Yeah. You the whole point of going through something like this is the pain in the suffering. Those are the things that teach you the lessons. Sure. Yeah. If you don't have those then you get nothing from it. So even if I knew how to tell you how to avoid all the pain in the suffering, which I don't I wouldn't because that's the point if you wanna grow, and you wanna come out the other side different than you were when you went in which you do or you should anyway. But yeah, man, if you're. Dealing with a difficult situation. Like this especially one where you girl friends off making out with chicks, which I know can probably be confusing. If you're just like a straight up straight, dude. Just try to keep your fucking head down and take care your own business. Don't don't be looking at what she's doing necessarily. That's that's she's got to do her own thing to recover. It will let's just the issue of her hanging out with his friends after they broke up. We didn't talk about that yet bidding college this is unavoidable. It cannot be avoided you're going to the same bars you're going to the same party as you're you're gonna have to share some airspace sewer your people now it's on your going. I'm aware that and I'm also aware that if she goes to hang out with his friends more than likely she's going to hook up or make out with one of them, which wasn't the case here. Thank god. Because of this plot twist. But but yeah, plot twist and in the normal in the normal world. I guess that's what you thought. It was gone at ten. That's what happens, especially when you're in the college atmosphere. This is actually like version of the story. Yeah. Like, she breaks with you. Okay. She's gonna go hang out with my friends. One of my friends is going to bang her. Of course, I mean that was just inevitable now then in that instance, it's uh. Of the argument of like, okay. Is it up to your boys or your girls diff the shoe's on the other foot to not hook up with that person? And there are people who believe yes, I happen to sit firmly in that camp at this point. And then there are people who believe not really I mean, it kind of is what it is. Like, you know, what I mean what if she does herself at one of your boys and your boys fucking wasted? Like, this is the type of thing that unfolds all the time. And this is why say no matter what no matter how complex situation just take the harrowed in be respectful and you'll be good. You really will it might take a little bit. But you really will be good next. Call whatever, it's your boys. Michael Austin neater shea, Kansas. So we're going to see what your opinion is on going home for Easter. When you're in college. Because we both live not very close to home. So we wanna see I if you're at university for each year Sunday, how important you think it is to go home on Easter Sunday even the class on Monday. Thanks rosh. We we love. So the gang tight. Okay. I only heard one voice, but those people. Yeah. Apparently, first of all live, two and a half hours from home. I don't live far from home only living hour and a half some home. So it's the opposite AJ, and I both with close to home. But to answer your question. I think it's it's very important to spend as much time with your people as you possibly can obviously. Now, I know in college it's lame shit to be the kid. That's going home constantly don't be that kid colleges. Time to spread your wings and fly Wailer in the the experience not back toward it constantly you pussy. Go hit the bars that being said family is among the most important things in life and Easter is a dope ass holiday. If you're a Christian, arguably the most impose. Or second most important by Christmas or whatever. But even if you're not religious, it doesn't matter any excuse to spend time with family is a good excuse don't take that for granted when you're young. And when you're in school when you're in college because I'll give you my personal experience. Once I got back to school long story short. I had to go home for year after my first semester. I've thought about this before to some extent once I got back to school. I was so happy to be back. Then I never wanted to leave again. So for shit like that for Easter like it was important, then my family to my family that I came back and spent time did Easter at my grandma's house. All my cousins would be there and shit, and sometimes I didn't go and I regret that because those are holidays that now on ever get back. And I know that sounds stupid, and I don't like sit here with a bunch of regret like hating myself. I've got plenty of other reasons for self loathing. This is not one of them. But that being said, I do regret not maybe keeping a little more focus on making sure I spend quality time with my family during college because all you wanna do is get fucked up and chase ask. And I understand that you're just chasing dig and pussy all over campus. But if you live close to home, don't go home all the time, but pick your spots do right by your parents, or whoever it is in your family, that's helping to support you even if it's just emotionally not financially even necessarily while you're grinding do college. Don't forget about those people. They wanna see if you live far shit, and it's a really big deal to get home. It's a different set of circumstances. I mean, clearly there's financial things that come into play there with the flights and the travel, and you have some kids that go to school out of country. Yeah. Go to school like in Europe or somewhere. Then you don't go home for you. So you have to be you have to feel fortunate and blessed that you have the opportunity to to go home. You know, you're in close proximity to your home family, and I'll say this fro the hate like the mainstream -ness of religious holidays gets. Yeah. Like people like us. Celebrating Easter United Christian. What does this come on? I like that. These holidays have been mainstream that everybody can have a little taste of Easter. Not just people who wanna believe what Christians believe not just people who wanna do the Easter bunny shit or hide eggs or whatever. Like everybody can get it on it. You know what I mean? Like you said it's about spending time with your fan. That's what the mo- I think at this point in the human existence. It's time to spend with their family. And I'm saying let's just have that be the bar you like there's a lot of things we could worry about. But let's just have like a let's try to get people spending time with the people. Yeah. I mean that would be that's not a bad goal. So now, you should go home. If you can now if it's a huge inconvenience it's gonna fuck your whole week up and you're gonna fail a final exam or something as a result, dude, stay home. I mean, stay at school. Don't worry about it. Not that big of a deal your people understand that too. But if you have the ability don't take for granted, go spend some time with people in enjoy enjoy Easter enjoy every opportunity you have with those people because those opportunities will not be there forever. And then when they're gone you may regret. The next and final. Hey ross. It's Travis from Kentucky. And I've got a little bit of a correction. This is from a couple of so ago. Don't exactly remember which one, but you said that if percent of marriages and force, and I'm not blaming you for believing the stat because everyone's the stat, but it is very much long. It's basically the result of a evil study from the nineteen seventies that was incredibly. And in reality the divorce rate for first time marriages currently sitting around thirty percent. Which is good news for you. There's a seventy percent chance that you were going to be married to your wife for the rest of your lives. And that's a good thing. And that first time doors rate it peaked the peak around forty percent in the early eighties, but has been in decline pretty much ever since. And at the end of the day. I think that's a good thing. You've talked about your parents divorce and how bad that was. I'm very thankful that my parents never got tourist and. Yeah, I just think that's a. Good thing that has happening in American site today. Thanks, gang, gang, gang. By the way. Your one shining moment is not good. It's. Yeah. That's my one disagreement with you right now. Thanks get excited to we've got a seventy percent chance baby. We're doing it. I appreciate the clarification you could actually go to like APA dot org. If you wanna find all the divorce stats on marriage in the void. There's a bunch of different resources for this. I don't look I don't know what the fucking current percentage. Number is. Maybe he's all correct with his numbers. Maybe not maybe not. I feel like is high though because there's a lot of people that get divorced like all the light. You see happen? So often nowadays I three percent. And he's breaking it down into first time. Marriages and shit, which is going to change up the number. Obviously, look, I'll say this for divorce. I've been married for almost four years or whatever. It's absolutely delete shocking thing ever how many people end up divorced because getting married marriage. As a thing is incredibly difficult is not easy. It does not make your life easier. It makes your life Horder. But the idea is that you struggled through it, and you work to build something that so much more meaningful than any other relationship. You could have possibly have on earth. That's going to benefit you greatly. For the remainder of your life. That's the goal now. Not everybody accomplishes that in fact, I would argue that very few people accomplish that even people who maintain their marriages through death a lot of them fucking hate each other. And they don't get the things they're supposed to get out of it because they don't manage their marriage. The way they're supposed to. Also, I'm not gonna come at further on the terrible nature of one shining moment. And I ask that if you for whatever reason are not seeing this quote unquote song for the trash that it is. I ask that you go. Check out Darren reveals Twitter feed and watch the video of him singing the song and then come back and fuck and talk to me. Okay. If you wanna if you wanna defend one shining moment, go watch the video of Vail singing it, and you feel we'll have a little chat sqi two to go back to the divorce thing though. I'm not Mary. I'm not married, obviously. By me. I still have a take on it. I feel like nowadays you see way to me young people just rushing into. I mean, I guess that goes without saying geographical though. Because like, here's the thing you say that because we're in Texas, but like my people on the west coast in the east coast like what the fuck you talking about. Because that's not the case. It's it's quite the opposite. In fact, like people in New York City in Manhattan, people in San Francisco, they're not running off to get married because a they. Have any fucking money and the cities that they live or the most expensive cities in the world. And then be because they're all workaho, Alex focused entirely on their careers, and then you know, drinking or whatever. So it's weird because we have a skewed version of it in the south that does not pertain to the rest of the country. And there's cause me I grew up in a in a military town and being in that area. You see a lot of young people lot young small. Yes, for sure they get married at a young age, you get more money. You get the be A H Q, forget, whatever. All. Yeah. The housing allowance rate, you get more money if you're married so you have these young soldiers rushing off to get married. We'll put hastily plus, dude. When you're when you're a soldier like, that's that's always been a big part of throughout every, you know era of American history. You when you're a private you get paid like it's not that much. Right. So it's like you almost feel compelled to do it. But you're saying you're running off to war. Like, there's a chance you could never come home. Sure. There's kind of fucking element to it where you're like. Let's. Let's get married. I didn't think about that aspect. That's that's the aspect of it. It's always been fascinated to meet that I totally relate to like if I was going to if I got drafted was going to Vietnam one not get married before. Hunter just your way to me stories being where I'm from. And I see it too young couples young soldiers getting married, the marriage doesn't work out, you know, their wife or husband cheat on them or they'll go off overseas to go fight in these wars or overseas. Yeah. You know, lo and behold their spouses spending all their money, you know, cheating on them with like another relationship back at home while they're the worst fucking stories about it's as bad, dude. Servicemen and women who have sheeting situations. Yeah. It's not good. But no, you're absolutely right. I mean, the younger that you are I think the more difficult that it can be depending on your circumstances. Now, some people are ready at a much younger age than others. Like, I I wasn't ready when I got married for sure. And Taylor would tell you that straight up. I don't know if she was probably more than I was. I was not ready to be married. Why did you feel compelled to make that commitment? If you if you sincerely felt like you weren't. Ready at that time your life because I'm love Taylor. And I knew I wanted to spend the rest of my life with you. But I didn't know. Early from the the marriage aspect of it like that. Yeah. You knew that you loved her, obviously. But no, I didn't know what what marriage was going to be like or what getting married was gonna be like though, and I didn't oh who does the amount of work that was going to go into it. Or like, I I didn't know that the journey speaking to the fact that when I got married I was still drinking. I was still really really fucked up. So I didn't have a good grip on my life to then be combining lives with someone else. And as a result the first year and a half, or so, I guess the answer would probably differ, depending on which one of your tail you ask of our marriage was incredibly difficult because I was so fucked up. So I think it just depends it it's totally up in the air like on 'cause Feroza very easily could ended in divorce. It could have been a situation where I didn't stop drinking or I didn't pull my head on my ass or whatever. And Taylor would have inevitably left me at some point before gently for me. I saw what was going on and was able to pull my head out and start this podcast, which really helped me. Me get through all of it. So so marriage was the best thing to ever happen to you really we I'm not going to disagree with that on the area. Wouldn't it? Yeah. Yeah. If I was like, no ninety four ninety five when the rockets won the championship was the most important thing that's ever happened to me that's gonna result in me never having sex again which results in the show being awful, which is going to result in getting cancelled. And then I'm unemployed then where are we saw another point? I just wanna make too is a like I say, I'm not married. I I really don't have plans to get married soon. But if you're married, and you're not happy, I'll say just get out or just I mean. Get out get a divorce help the divorce rate. Get back to where it once was make America great again, we can get back to fifty percent if we work hard at it. Well, not I don't understand why people in marriages they allow themselves the suffer will here so long. I guess for me as a single guy never been married is hard for me to wrap my head around. I'm gonna dump all over what you just said. Real quick. So like, here's an example. I put tape through at least a year of nonstop misery. If she left she would've left. I mean, why do you think she stuck with you through that tough time? You're like, I think she believed that I could turn sounds like true love right there. Like, thankfully. I hope it is. But that's the that's the the idea, right? Is that you never know until you're every circumstance is different in my circumstance unfortunate that she was strong enough to not leave and see the potential in me turning around. And and you know, believing that I was a good enough man to figure it out or whatever. But that's not always the case it just everything very so much situation by situation but one shining moment. Factually sucks, dick. It's an awful song one on that. Yeah. That's the end of the hotline segment. What was our number again? Eight WR bolan is our hotline number call it keep the hotline calls coming. We'll play some not every episode, but most episodes I'm going to try to work in at least a few. Okay. Next segment. NBA playoff matchups for people who don't watch the NBA. So as of last night Wednesday night, the Western Conference in Eastern Conference playoff matchups were set in the NBA. We don't spend a whole lot of time talking about sports on this show. But I'm a huge huge huge NBA fans. We're gonna spend a few minutes breaking down these matchups for those of you who didn't want any of the regular season NBA. Maybe you're not an NBA fan or you don't give a fuck. Maybe it's something that you're looking to get into or give a try for the first time this year. I would compare it to like giving a game of thrones breakdown before season eight. So that if you can if you wanted to get prepared and watch that you could or something I I don't I don't fuck in what a pro plug groin is. We're going to go through each of these matchups very quickly starting with the Western Conference, the number one seed, Golden State Warriors versus the eight seed, Los Angeles, Clippers clippers scrappy fun, Golden State automatic. Yeah. It's there the back to back champs powerhouse dynasty, the number one seed got five starting all stars. It's not even fair. The Golden State Warriors are still very much the Darth Vader the empire of the NBA. Okay. If you didn't know that because they're very much the the heal the bad guys are the people we hate. All right. They win every time. Nobody's gonna beat him this year. Probably this this series is going to be a fucking. It'll probably be a sweep maybe a gentleman sweep average point margin probably twelve or higher. You're not gonna be a fan. I wouldn't even fucking bother watching. It'll. Depressing slaughterhouse. You definitely don't need to watch this series, just pencil. The warriors into the second round. There is a negative percent chance at the clippers pull some kind of upset here. Yeah. Next. We've got the number to Denver Nuggets against the San Antonio Spurs in the seven seed, this is one of the more interesting series in the first round out. So so to you never wanna stumble into the playoffs. And while the nuggets did somehow retain the two seed during a ridiculously hectic night final night of the regular season last night. This is not what you want. If you're a Denver fan. I highly recommend because you have legal marijuana that you smoke yourself stupid throughout the entire course of what is sure to be an infuriating series for you and your squad. Coach pob is going to run in strategic circles around Mike Malone. No offense to my Malone. That's just what popped dozen the playoffs. No matter how few future hall of famers. He has on his team this one could be fun. See Denver has no playoff experience. Or they have very limited playoff experience on you. Remember the last time they're in the play very limited playoff experience. And. A bunch of young guns. And they just it's the stumbling towards the finish line that you never ever ever wanted. Never bodes. Well, I've seen it too many times hot for a while though. They very hot one of the hottest teams in the league. This ya. There are just right up there with Golden State like head to head for the number one spot. They were in the ones they're in. Yeah. They're yeah. They're actually in the one spot. So the players to watch in this series Nikola Jokic. He's the power forward for the nuggets. He's a kid. He's like twenty four. He's a Serbian seven footer. You can't miss him. He's the giant ugly white guy who will be on the floor probably the best player point blank in this series. I guess you could maybe argue rose. I think it's Joe Joe catch all you said in the series. I'm just men on their team. I mean on counting the Spurs. Let's how do you feel about the rose in liked to rose and he's good? He's very very good. But I think joke it is like a seven feet tall, man. He's a generational shoot to these Serbians fuck around you. Remember, a Thomas the bad ass little dude from the Celtics few years ago. I do how can I forget he seemed poised to kinda take over the league before an injury that at least a couple different trades kind of sent him spiraling into relevancy. Now. He's an afterthought. He's on the nuggets. So you can. Him in this get the I always forget that. And then the most important guy in the Spurs as internet Jay mentioned damore Rosen. He's the guy that the Spurs traded away. Leonard four he was once in Toronto on the raptors he was the face of the franchise at Toronto. Yeah. You remember him non MBA fan? You remember? And then lamarcus Aldridge, she'll be the really boring tall black, dude. That shooting fadeaways for the Spurs and getting cursed at by shea Serrano on Twitter the entire time. But again since United MBA fan the odds of you carrying about this series based on the franchises and players involved. Isn't great boring superstars, not a lot of drama or potential for fighting or anything like that it will likely just be depressing to watch pop pick Denver apart. So we're picking the Spurs, right? I think we should make a pig for each of the if I'm picking upset here yet. Okay. I'll agree with you. I'll go Spurs one would be the one I would pick as an upset in the west. If I was going to pick one next we've got what will likely be the most exciting series in the first round in either conference. It's the number three. Island Trail, Blazers versus the number six. Oklahoma's this is the one to watch. Yeah. This one is stacked with scoring power. We got Russell Westbrook. Obviously, we got Paul George you guys. Remember, Paul, George? You haven't been here in Weil non MBA fan. He was on the Pacers back in the day. You remember, Paul George? He could have gone to the Lakers because he's from L A actually this hold the buckle. And then he didn't you got Damian Lillard on the failures on the Johnson. Magic johnson. Oh, yeah. Lakers. GM? Yeah. Yeah. I was like magic is not on the team. Jay, this is you've trans you'd gone back players in the NBA. Yeah. He's an old, man. Just quit his job the other bras name because of that hold the Bockel with him. And yeah, I feel you juice if nurture. Yeah. Another one of these these guys CJ McCollum, and then Steph curry said little brother, Seth Seth out watch this purely for a the bad blood between Russ and Damian Lillard because you know, they're they've kinda gotten. Into it. A couple times Russ has gotten into it with every meaningful player in the league a love. That's why I love him so much. She's the best the fuck Damian Lillard though, no shit. He broke my heart one year on never recovered from that, you know, exactly what I'm talking about shoes. Damian's? Yeah hail. No, no. I saw you wear them before. Dude. You don't think I would know if I had Damian Lillard shoes. Trust me. I don't the the bad ass shoes. Just for the record. I really like him. He's in a d guy. Yeah. I just don't have any his particular shoes. This one could easily go to seven. I don't have a lot of faith in the thunder to advance. I think they all really know. I thunder won the head to head against them the whole season they wanted against the rockets to but I don't think that means much in the playoffs. I think they steal two or three with the just the sheer talent of Russ in PG thirteen but Portland de Lillard is pretty clutch when it comes to the postseason. He's made like numerous game winning shot back breakers. Yeah. And I think they have the more talented team overall. If you're a board non MBA fan in your China pick a series in the Western Conference that doesn't involve the Houston Rockets. The most exciting team in basketball because you James harden and his genius level play. This is the series. I would recommend for most people. So you're you're going with Portland for the first round. Yeah. I'm picky. I'm going with o'casey fair enough. So Casey will probably sweep Portland and make me look like a fool Harry Potter next. We've got the number four seed Houston Rockets my squad versus the. The Utah Jazz jazz the most important game finally for the show rockets jazz. Yeah, this is probably one of the best four seeds in the history of the NBA playoffs and the Houston Rockets. They've obviously got James harden. Chris Paul Clint Capellas they're very tall. A black singer who sign like an eighty million dollar deal off-season future Tucker. He's got like a he's got one of those splotches of his hair, dyed blonde. He's that guy. When you're you're non MBA ass is watching now, you know, PJ Tucker fucking love him. Erik gordon. Then Utah has Donovan Mitchell, who's terrifying. Joe ingles. Grayson allen. I don't like that guy. Very very anti grace now in Rudy Gobert. I'm just gonna go ahead and call this one gentleman sweep a gentleman sweep is where you let the other team have a game. So it's four one instead of four zero right? It's the best of seven series non MBA fan. So if you win four games a series is over because the other team can't win as many games you can at that point there. Only three other games in this. Series four plus three is seven you. See that's how mathworks so a gentleman sweep is when you let the other team have won because mo- many many many NBA playoff series. They would have been sweeps. If one team kept their foot on the pedal, the whole time like they're supposed to sometimes you get bored. Sometimes the other team catches fire one time at home, or whatever you give them one. It's a gentleman sweep I haven't thing is going to go deep into the series. I know you're saying this should air Houston fan. I'm hoping this is an unbiased take I'm a Houston fan. And let me talk a hater. And I genuinely believed the rockets are the best team in the league outside of Golden State. See I've been watching Utah throughout the season. Well, I'm sure you've caught some of their games to honestly, they're very like talented team. Donovan Mitchell, very underrated. Same with Joe Ingles. Like, he like Joe's. Underrated because he's white. But Donovan visually shooter anybody who loves the NBA knows. Donovan Mitchell is like a top fish is the next generation. He's he's generate. He's crazy. He's crazy towns. I'll would I would say this is going to go deep mad nickname, though the spider. Oh, yeah. That's that's our spider. Whatever it is. Dude. It's not good. It's not good. But I think it's gonna go to either six or seven, but still rockets on top I say rockets in five, but you don't watch the NBA inclosing for this. You none NBA fan not AJ Jay watches. Let me tell you a little bit about James harden. The best player since Michael Jordan. Shirley, your fruit of Michael, Jordan. Just think of this like this James harden is like the next Michael Jordan. Now, you know, everything you need to know about this series. And frankly, the playoffs in general, but we'll keep it going into the Eastern Conference here. Milwaukee Bucks got the one seed in the Eastern Conference. They finished with over sixty wins. The only team in basketball. They did that this year. In fact, they have the likely MVP in Jeon onto the Cuco his nickname is the Greek freak. He's like the seven foot six four hundred foot wingspan, you're gonna see him running around doing things. Nobody else is doing on the court. That's him. He's the Greek freak he's legitimately MVP worthy. He would run away with that trophy this season any other season in if James harden didn't exist, he'll probably still get it. Anyway, because the NBA MVP is among the weirdest awards in sports. Do argue that a Russ's in that conversation out to all these triple doubles. He's not though, you could argue he should be. But the trip the triple double is a meaningless statistic that is basically been I mean, if what do you say that the well, okay. For instance, Russ is clearly I have nothing that's an incredible feat to do it has done all wrong. It's an incredible feat. But it is not what it once was to average triple double. He's done at three seasons in a row or whatever. And I know it's the mundane. What we've already seen this? Now, we don't care. What have you done for me? Lately. Do something else. Exciting. I understand that in Russia's all time. Great player. I don't I'm not trying to take anything away from what he's accomplished. All. I'm saying is that triple double mindset that we got into his country back in what twenty sixteen whenever he won that MVP. Yeah. If the whole the whole thing 'cause you had guys like averaging what point four rebounds less? So they weren't quite averaging triple double in your acting like that's like significant, but they're averaging fifteen more points per game. It just the whole thing gets so skewed by you. Having the hit that ten ten ten barrier. I can see what you mean. Because it seems like nowadays all about you can do all this. But if you're not getting the dub for not getting a winner in. No, it's about winning winning at the end of the day is the most important thing. You're exactly right. So that's where it's like, I appreciate Russ. I appreciate the high energy that he's able to play with every night, which I do not think is rivaled by anyone else in basketball. But nah, you cannot give it to that. Dude. This year. There's like four five guys I would pick including one of his own teammates. I'd put Paul George in front of him this. He's been pretty close this season. So yeah, I don't I don't I don't know about all that. But anyway, John will likely get the MVP award. If you're wondering who's gonna win it this year? I would be surprised at this point. If he didn't I don't think they're gonna give it the James harden again now, I don't know dick about the pistons. I don't really know much about the east at all. Frankly when your team the Blake Griffin he plays for the pistons true, they have. Oh, yeah. About the so we'll get to see Blake Griffin and Andre Drummond, get dunked on by John for at least four games, which will be fun. But when you is in the west, you don't you really you have too much bullshit to worry about already. So we don't really look over to the east much. It's no offense know, the west is way more competitive than the Easter my opinion. It's a higher higher level of Cairo. Yeah. I'll I'll say so because the matchups are more exciting and west than the east and the and it's been that way for some amount of years now non MBA fan, but the bucks of the real deal. They won sixty games with a superstar carrying the nickname Greek freak that does not bode well for posing teams. I believe that probably get bucks and five or six year. I dunno. I dunno clean sweep maybe maybe more. Right. Like, this is this'll be too, easy, light work. The next one is the number to raptors up against the seven Orlando Magic, another easy one. Yeah. The raptors have Leonard formerly of the San Antonio Spurs. He's very very good has the personality of seashell. They also have Kyle Lowry. Mark assault. Danny green and shit. There. The problem is if you had to pick a problem, it's the Toronto Raptors playoff basketball is like kryptonite, but Orlando who plays for Orlando. Aaron gordon. Okay. He's he can dunk real. Well, I couldn't name like. I really don't know. I don't know how they squeeze their way into the playoffs. See I was looking through their lineup. And they have quite a few. Good dunkers. Yeah. That's an exciting thing about their team. They've got guys who throw it down. You know, what do since we're on the Eastern Conference? I really wanted Miami to get the eighth seed because I wanted to see d- way go out and blaze glory. It was it was sad. Yeah. We'll get a little more out of him. Yeah. Yeah. I would've liked to see one more place. So you can kinda rubber LeBron's face to just the fact that he would have made the playoffs when the Brandon I just like playoff D Wade so much that I would have enjoyed one more one more year even just one more series. Even if they lost that series would've been cool shits, but they're gonna him. Did you see the Budweiser commercial with him yet? Fuck and re tweeted, I quote, we and you wanna talk about maybe maybe cry is on my ram line. Yeah. L is really. I I like that. Anyway, I'm getting bored. Thinking about Toronto Orlando candidate and five the next one's Philly at the three seed, Philadelphia, seventy Sixers versus the six Brooklyn. Nets de ngelo, ROY. Russell is on the nets. He was a Lakers player back in the day. Now, he's the best player on the Brooklyn nets. He led them back to the playoffs this season for the first time since like the early two thousands or some shit. But what you must remember about the ngelo. Russell is that he's a rat bastard. He's a snitch to do aired out swaggie p for cheating. Swaggie is a total piece of shit. Rules are rules, and we don't talk to police G coat. Philly has Joel Embiid. He's a seven foot tall Cameroonian, dude. Who trolls harder than anyone else in the NBA in for that reason any series featuring Joel Embiid is watchable at the very least non MBA fan. You should keep that in mind. They also have been Simmons who days. Ru KENDALL Jenner believe there will be jenner's court sat. I'm all in for that. I'm all in for little Jenner handle. Yeah. Yeah. I'm there for that. This could be a good match up. I don't really know. These aren't teams that I tune in for no offense. If you don't watch the NBA, you're not missing shit here unless you're from Philly or from Brooklyn, of course in which case watch every game loser. That's how it works. If you're from one of these places, you watch the games you support your squad. That's how it goes. And then finally in the east we've got the Celtics in the four slot versus the Pacers in the eight slot. God, this is this is not an ex do how many times we even have them any. I'm not excited for any of these matchups really these first round matches. The problem comes for me when it comes down to the NBA playoffs, even as a huge, huge huge guy. If one of the two names on that fucking piece of paper that shows me your matchup, one of the two team names does not feature a team that I deem to be a realistic championship threat. Then I don't really care about the series. You'll still watch it though. I'm assuming right? I'll watch most these games I'll probably bet on most of them to. But but for the purposes of like, really really caring you need to have a championship contender for me to care in in the age of Golden State. There's there's really only like three four everybody's saying. It's going to be books and warriors at the end of the day. That's that's what most people were predicting. We'll see that's not exactly going out on a limb. You know, but we'll be back in November overweight. No. We haven't even finished this fucking. Oh, except Kyrie Irving Hayward. He's the white guy who snapped his leg a twig and game on last year. Did you see that when it happened in real watching alive through those gruesome coup, Jason Tatum, Marcus smart, Jalen Brown, Al Horford, that's an incredible lineup? And yet, I still don't really know what to make the Celtics. There have been very inconsistent. Extremely inconsistent. Lots of struggles over the course of the season. They're the clear threat to Milwaukee outside of Toronto in the east and yet it wouldn't shock me. If they somehow choked away this first round series, even with all that all star power. Kyrie Irving is a fucking weirdo. He believes the earth is flat. If you're looking for some reasoning here, also Bill Simmons the Pacers are weird bunch. Victor depot is their superstar. He can throw it down. He can fill it up. Great off into play a very fun to watch. They have Croatian guy named beau. John bogdonovich who balls hard? Yeah. There's a lot of these dudes in the league in. Twenty nineteen like six of them. These white European dudes who ball anyway, Boston fans. I got Boston though, you probably gonna take this one. If I if I had to guess, but keep your shit your fucking head on swivel y'all been known to fuck up stuff like this. Are we going to revisit this like as each round progresses? Yes. We will be back in November to discuss the second round. Once this first round wraps up in several months, and that will do it for P one sixty nine. Thank you very much for listening before you go though, it is time for some very important announcement. I as I mentioned the top of the show game of thrones season. That's Z in kids is here starts on Sunday. Episode one of season eight airs on Sunday evening, unfortunately at the exact same time the rockets play the Utah Jazz. What the fuck why why can't you schedule things better MBA that being said as I said earlier, I will be watching game of thrones live why I have a game of thrones podcast. It's called always tres clams and cockles it's going to drop the next morning after season one episode or season eight episode one airs, and it'll help you digest everything that occurs in the season premiere of game of thrones. All right. It's going to help you understand as much as you need to understand to make sure that you can enjoy season. Eight to the fullest extent of your abilities. I host the show with my good friend Barrett Dudley. New episodes are going to come out every Monday and Wednesday during the game of thrones six week run that starts April fourteenth through may. Okay. Always clams and cockles is available all the same places that Rb p is available out to the clam is actually hilarious AJ like Hasso during between seven and eight seasons. Seven and eight right. We knew the listenership was going to be much smaller than it was during season seven during season. Six shows like a down period. Now, the show grew to two enormous heights very between seven and eight even they got huge during season seven. We were blown away like holy. Fuck a lot of people listening to this podcast. It's actually what gave me the opportunity to eventually start this show. Yeah. Was the great success voice. Clams, and cockles OCC is also ranked a saw that article you posted on Twitter. Frank number two out of the gamma. Thrones pock will. Yeah. Is ranked number two. It was really engine mode from Israel, a number one been on us. It was behind bitch mode from the ringer, but come on man, you putting me and my buddy Barrett signed the ringer sitting in a room competing with these motherfuckers got Bill Simmons and millions of dollars in access to the actors and shit. Like, okay. If you want to give that to them, that's cool. But we'll take them any day of the week. Our show is just better. I'm I'm not going to be like humble about the hard work. We've put into this. I mean, thousands of hours into game at don's fucking nuts. But was seen the rundowns early. A book we have a lot of fun. We got featured on BuzzFeed a few days ago, which was cool as one of the best game of thrones podcasts in in the world. Or whatever. That's the ranking AJ was referring to number two n. Anyway, tell everybody, you know, who loves game of thrones that there's a companion podcast out there for them. Call the wasters clams and cockles where every day after the new episode of a game of thrones airs on Sunday on Monday will release a new episode of oyster, clams and cockles it helps you understand everything that went on. If there's any confusion, we will explain it for you. We're gonna walk through episode. We're gonna walk through in the Monday episode. We will walk through the entire game of thrones episode seem by seeing almost to give you everything you need question. Are you going to be live tweeting or live streaming during the premiere episode for those are wondering live tweeting? No because not enough people will get to watch that game or watch the watch that show, right? When it airs as a result of the games that are going on at the same time. I think so I'm gonna try to be respectful of people on Twitter the same cannot be applied. Elsewhere like I could go live on Instagram or some shit to discuss right after I don't know. I might I just might bitch. You can't stop me. Always. Clams and cockles subscribe to episodes a week during the six week run to help you understand everything in the world game. Jones hit Ross Bohlin podcast dot com. You have to legal obligations as a result of having listen to this entire podcast, whether you realize it or not you've been saddled with these two legal obligations, the first one is that you must rate in review specifically on apple podcasts. I don't mind if you listen on Spotify soundcloud, or wherever, but I need you to rate and review specifically on apple podcasts. Hit us was five stars right two or three sentences about why you liked the show. Why you think other people would enjoy it boom. It takes like one two three minutes, you're done. You're Secondly, globalization is to tell one person whether it be a friend of family member coworker. A neighbor just share or BP with one other human being that you're suspicious might enjoy the show this week. 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There Will Be Bananas

Throughline

56:44 min | 1 year ago

There Will Be Bananas

"The brand new news are so ubiquitous in our lives that we can't imagine life for those but I don't think there was anything magical about the banana in and of itself that made it such an entrepreneurial success. I think it was a lot of luck. Changing culture brutality people willing to practice that an all these little pieces come together to create this market. That probably probably never should have existed for task. I'm repeating at Bluey and on this episode. How One entrepreneur made bananas big business and changed the world for better and for worse on most days I spent at least part of the morning preparing my four year? Old Son's favorite breakfast a banana and there are few things more fun than cutting it up putting on a plate and watching enjoy every bite so a few months ago when I heard about a disease that's been tearing banana plantations in Asia Africa and now South America obviously got concerned. I thought is. Is it game over. No more bananas my son No more chances for me to watch him eat them but then run deny started asking some questions like. Why do we even eat bananas? And when did this become such a big part of our diet in America and around the world so to answer those questions run decided to travel to the place where it all began. This is the birthplace of the banana empire the port city of Leeann which sits on the eastern coast of Costa Rica. My Name is Sergio. Will I news actually Sergio. Oh has been giving walking tours of Leeann for the past five years. I went on this tour with Sergio early in the morning and we started the tour athletic. Give us but the main attraction was across the street from this park. Now this is the palace I like to call it a bothers by the way it's It's like the head of the United Fruit company outside of the United States headquarters of the minnow like the biggest take. The building is harnessed. It takes up nearly the entire block and whereas one is filled with Victorian style buildings usually made of wood or concrete on Crete. This building is very boxy minimalist and made of steel American steel. It's two stories but seems bigger because the ceilings are really really high a row of big red windows with green framing lines. Each floor story different looks like a train station right okay. So what exactly is. Is this United Fruit company. That he's talking about okay. United Fruit is the company responsible for making bananas and international commodity. And that distinct stink te kind of bold industrialist vibe of its headquarters is a perfect reflection of the company's practices and Sergio says the mastermind behind the company. A guy named Minor Cooper Keith. Had A corner office from there. He had a perfect view of the ocean. The poor there used to be the at train station over there and at one point the actual train station. Actually the train was the project started everything for the moment no train Noli Ma When when we come back how minor keith manage to bring a city to life and in the process built an empire This is hundred river from Rochester. New York. And you're listening to to run around. This message comes from. NPR sponsor. Better help the online counselling service dedicated needed to connecting you with a licensed counselor to help you overcome whatever stands in the way of your happiness. Fill out a questionnaire and get mashed with a professional tailored to your your needs. And if you aren't satisfied with your counselor you can request a new one at any time free of charge visit better. HEALTH DOT COM slash through line to get ten percent off for your first month. Get the help you deserve with better help. NPR's life wants to help you make changes that actually stick this New Year from how to do dry. I January two how to start a creature of habit. We've got new episodes all month to help you start the year off. right new episodes every Tuesday and Thursday. Listen and subscribe. Subscribe to lip kit part one. Welcome to the jungle. There's there's a story I heard over and over. When I was in Lima? On a kind of local legend it takes place in fifteen to the year. Christopher Columbus set sail on his fourth fourth voyage across the Atlantic as Columbus was sailing down the Caribbean coast the winds blew him towards Costa Rica and he happened upon upon a small island just off the coast of Layman. Today it's called you Vita island or little grape island. Legend has it. Columbus was so taken taken with the beauty of this place and the seeming hospitality of the indigenous people who had appeared on the shore that he anchored at Uva Island. Columbus was suffering from Gal and couldn't get off the ship so his son got off instead. He traveled into the jungle and spent several days with the indigenous people. There when he returned to the ship to reported that he'd seen advanced cities in the most unlikely place a place seemingly impossible to conquer and that he was treated with the utmost respect. Columba's asked what this place was called and maybe it was the way his ears process the indigenous name or maybe he just thought the please least deserve to be called the rich coast whatever it was his son replied Costa Rica and Columbus and his crew set sail once more continuing their journey towards the indies and for centuries after the eastern shores Costa Rica remained mostly untouched by western powers. Then came minor Cooper Keith. This was a time when rugged men went out to make the name in the world a time when the American entrepreneur was king. Teddy Roosevelt era is the era of McKee's Mo of doing things. Women were excluded people of color excluded but man like minor keith. The world belong to them It was theirs for the taking minor Keith had grown up in Brooklyn New York and he had become a cattle rancher in Texas. You know it's a very common motif in America for for sort of patrician or types to sort of become cowboys this is writer. Dan Kabul I sometimes pretentiously like to call myself a thing biographer for a right by the histories of objects I'm best known for writing. A book called Banana the fate of the fruit and the change the world. Dan says the shift shift towards aggressive. Entrepreneurship started around the time of the civil war. When communication and transportation networks rapidly expanded thanks to advances in mining an agriculture which entice people develop new lands railroads began moving people? West in the world seemed right for the taking their gold rush. People basically all these American business people were trying to find some form of gold so any business. That could make them a lot of money. Right and minor Keith. The city kid kid from a wealthy family who had tried his hand at running a cattle ranch at being a cowboy was at heart a budding entrepreneur. He wanted to make it really big to be among the Carnegie's Rockefellers of the world and he thought railroads might be that business for him. In the United States there's a railroad roadbuilding boom but it's controlled by by moguls by conglomerates by by people who are already rich is not a lot of room for entrepreneurship is not a lot of room for a Brooklyn Brooklyn born Texas cattle rancher to sort of become a big wheel so keith decided to look beyond the US for opportunities. His his uncle was working on railroads in Chile Peru and Costa Rica and invited him to come there at at the time there was very little infrastructure in Central America these villages with dirt roads but people were determined to find a way to the Pacific through Central America. We'll Columbus had wanted to do. Why Central America because of the unimaginable or imagines let's say riches? That might happen mirror. Things like coffee minerals may be actual gold and even though Keith new pretty much nothing about Costa Rica. He figured hell why not I can do this. This is my chance to make it. Big whatever challenges may come but on the flip side he probably thought if I built this railroad. Then I'll have access to all those riches. I think what minor Keith understood. was that if view build infrastructure in these places where there is no infrastructure and you make the right financial deals by Hook or by crook honestly or dishonestly. You're we're going to get very rich and you're GONNA get very very powerful and Keith. Had another more lofty goal though says it was looked at as almost bringing civilization bringing progress to these poor souls who who otherwise would be living naked in the jungle. That was the way it was seen. So there was this element of mission and manifest destiny Depth that we really don't understand today or that we understand better whereas as being quite an you know not very good thing if you're wondering why a government would open their arms to a fairly inexperienced agreeance foreign businessmen. It's pretty simple. They needed the help. They wanted to find a way to export their coffee crops. The country's main export to Europe and and to do that they needed to tap into their eastern coast and it was the jungle the jungle so up until the eighteen seventies most of Costa Rica east of the capital San Jose. It was completely undeveloped. Just miles and miles of nearly impenetrable rainforest. The Spanish had made few inroads. There they'd killed and resettled some indigenous communities but they didn't actually manage to build much now minor kief would attempt it and I have to say when you're actually there you realize how far fetched this must've seemed I imagine it's just like endless trees animal's brain. Yeah it's very it's beautiful but it's very rugged terrain and every square inch is basically green. I mean dense beyond belief. You look up. And it's just webs of winding finding branches and leaves so many different ecosystems forest mountains wetlands beaches huge volcanoes drive three hours in any direction and you'll probably experience all of them. They're monkeys everywhere plus all sorts of other animals some deadly. I actually saw tarantula and a snake while well I was there I mean no. I don't play that affirmative this no. I don't do scary actually. Wasn't that far off off that Keith Keith. Wanted to build a railroad through all of that stretching one hundred miles from San Jose to Leon wasn't it wasn't a cheap desk. We'll have to say that. This is Victor Kunia Ortega. He's a professor emeritus at the University of Costa Rica. He faced allergic challenges. I'm Linda Challenges. I'm finance I mean this was really really crazy Eighteen seventy two. He began construction action in the Mont.. At first he recruited Costa Rica's population to build the railroad which at the time was very small but as the project got underway many began to realize just how difficult and dangerous it was. They're tearing the jungle down with with with hand tools. They were very very hard because the claim because they talk about yellow fever malaria you of dysentery. You know everything you could die of al deadly wounds trees would sometimes fall on them. It rained a lot of the time so they were often working in mud if they got any sort of cut or wound could easily become infected and mosquitoes were everywhere. Some I'm carrying diseases. So after a little while Costa Ricans laid down their tools. We're not GONNA do this because no job is worth dying for construction. Stalled and Keith was back at square one. He had to find workers somewhere else you know luckily or unluckily there's this huge immigrant population in the United States so keith returns to the US and and hires a couple of thousand. Italian immigrants is anti tempts them. You know he says we're GONNA pay a lot of money We're going to give you a lot of work. He also brought workers from China and parts of Europe and once they get down there and what's happening and they see what's happening and they they see how dangerous they begin going awol adult faster. They were dying at levels equivalent to deaths on the beaches of Normandy Hundreds died then thousands in part because these men had never been to the tropics so they weren't used to the climate or it's diseases and the work. It was just really grueling among the workers who died on this project were accused two brothers. You know so so this was deadly not just for the poor souls who were sort of suckered into coming in working on it but the guys at the very top as well progress was slow and money was tight a few years into the project. They were thirty miles from their end. Goal San Jose but kief remained determined and desperate for workers. He decided to recruit prisoners hopeless prisoners people in jail in New Orleans people who have no way out and he basically costs for volunteers and he says anybody who volunteers housing built my railroad to completion. It's going to get a pardon. Seven hundred prisoners volunteer but only twenty five prisoners survive to get their pardons hardens twenty five out of seven hundred. I mean absolute persistence and scrapping on Keith. Part like bringing in group after group even prisoners his nurse so many deaths including his own brothers is like both horrifying but also like Daniel play view from there will be blood inspiring. You know what I mean like like absolutely hell bent on dislike getting this done. It's like that scene in. There will be blood where his they discover oil and it causes huge huge fire and his son gets hurt and like goes death. But all you can think about is like the money that basically discovered. It's exactly what this is. I mean this guy minor he he was ruthless right like it was. It was just the process of trial and error for him. People would die heat find more they died more came. He was relentless eventually minor. Keith figured out that if he brought Jamaicans over from the Caribbean they would have an easier time working on his railroad since they spoke English. And and were you said. The climate thing is by this point minor. KIEF had another problem. He'd burned through millions of dollars and was nearly out of money. And the Costa Rican government which is sort of funding. This thing partially also goes broke. I mean at this point most people I would just throw in the towel and go home. That's the logical thing to do. Probably but instead Keith goes to England and he borrows one point two million pounds switches. I think about the equivalent of maybe one hundred fifty two hundred million dollars today Then he goes back to Costa Rica and proposes a new deal to the government. This sort of a crazy deal. He says bill the railroad for free in return. You give me at ninety nine years Concessional on the route. I have eight hundred thousand acres because of land tax free alongside the tracks and I have full control of the port of Lamont not a great deal for the Costa Rican government. But they were in a pretty bad position at this point and just needed to finish the railroad. I don't know I don't know what popped the president to accept it but but I'm going to guess that you know these guys also wanted to modernize the country. They saw railroads as as as needed and and and people are building monuments to themselves. What greater monument than a railroad in a place that was all jungle Keith probably understood that he seemed to know which cards to play when and he knew how desperately the Costa Rican government wanted to build that railroad to export coffee when it gives he was a richardneer and he wants to very able to negotiate he was able to put himself. Somebody indispensable for the Costa Gobert was capable of finishing it. Also so help. That Keith was tight with the political leak in Costa Rica so close that he was able to marry. The daughter will put a business. Visiting will to Reunite Century the Americas Jose Maria Castro mattress had served two terms as president of Costa Rica. He himself in in Costa Rican society. By marrying the president's daughter he was able to became apart of the ruling class INCA CERIGA. Ah He knew how to win people over those elites loved minor Keith. And he was their patron really so work on the railroad continued at this point Keith. Had like really managed take himself out of a whole absolutely. I mean now. He had the support of the country's elite a workforce that could handle the climate total control of the port of Lemon and eight hundred thousand acres of tax free land. And what he did with that landed I was. He grew bananas and he didn't grow them to make money them to feed his workers The ones who are dying by the dozen two dozen as an American Keith had little experience with bananas they weren't really available available in the US since they only grow in tropical climates. But around this time some people were beginning to experiment with ways as to bring bananas rare tropical fruit to the United States and after planting a few banana trees alongside the railroad minor. Keith realized Y it's real easy to grow you get a few banana trees and from those few you can grow a farm in from those farms. I you can create a plantation with rose after row of banana trees and from that plantation you could create a nation of banana trees. And and that's when the light bulb went off. He had a lot of land at his disposal and soon he would have a railroad and a port all all to himself so minor cooper. Keith set his sights on another potentially much bigger business. Opportunity Bananas Hi this is pretty wine from Denver Colorado and you're listening through line on NPR. I just WanNa say I absolutely love. I love here so I can't wait to see what comes next week support for. NPR comes Thomas from Newman's own foundation working to nourish the common good by donating all profits from Newman's own food products to charitable organizations that seek to make the world world a better place. More information is available at Newman's own foundation dot org. If you start your weekdays with I now can start your weekends with us too two. I'm Scott Simon and I'm Lulu Garcia. Navarro stay caught up with. NPR news six days a week up first. NPR's morning news podcast weekdays at six eastern eastern and now with weekend hours two Saturdays at eight eastern part to everyone goes bananas or bananas in the mid. Eighteen eighteen. Eighty S. A sizable banana market was beginning to appear in the US. Thanks to a company called Boston. Fruit the for them. The banana was known known in the United States but it was considered a rare weird outing. One call a delicacy because it wasn't you know if you look at some books from the eighteen hundreds for example one of the things. That's interesting about the bananas was taboo because of its shape when a banana is mentioned in early. Early accounts pre banana industry. A lot of attention is paid to how to properly disguise the banana shape so a banana has to be served in a crystal so ball with with foil around it and sliced into certain ways you know anything to avoid that beck very suggestive shape I mean like I get it. It looks weird I media and especially like the eighteen hundreds. They're like probably just traumatized you can. This company bought the fruit. They had to find a way to market and immoral fruit breaking that Tabu is is critical to mass acceptance of the banana. Imagine having to be the person to market. I know this is really a phallic fruit. You eat well. I I at Boston Fruit company. Who was responsible for just that His name was Andrew Preston and he began. Chipping away at that taboo he. He starts issuing these postcards and these postcards. Show these Victorian ladies. I'm sitting under trees at picnics. And they're holding bananas and putting bananas in in their mouths to break the taboo. That lady could not hold or touch a banana. He knew that Americans would only buy bananas if they saw them as good healthy healthy and cheap cheaper than any other fruit and that last part is where minor keith had the upper hand he had cheap land and lots of the rent ended. He doesn't have to pay for it. Plus a cheap workforce and cheap transportation. He owns the railroad. So there's no middleman and he had control of the port so minor kief could could build a business in which he'd control every step of the production process at very little cost to him and low cost to consumers while still making a lot of money the pieces of the business model have fallen into place and make this emerging business models possible so the railroad that was intended to expert expert. Coffee for the Costa Rican government was now mainly exporting bananas for minor Keith and the ships docking at the port of Limon. We're being filled with bananas. Descend to the US. By the time the railroad was completed in eighteen. Ninety Minor Keith. Life was officially in the banana. Business A few years later minor keith was in financial trouble. He lost a big chunk of money when one of his investors when broke so he traveled to Boston to meet with Andrew Preston. It's interesting because in a way the kind of meet each other. Yeah I mean Keith. Controlled control cheap production line right on. The one hand and Preston was really good at marketing. So he could raise demand for bananas and if you combine the two it's sort of a match made had an entrepreneur heaven so it makes sense that in eighteen ninety nine they struck a deal. They formed a new joint company called united in the business model for united. Fru built on the one Keith. Had devised is if you control every step of the process and control the narrative you can control the market. This is like Amazon. A lot of ways this this idea that you can control all aspects of the chain from the import to the distribution to the marketing to the sales and centralize. A business is really really really radical especially because bananas are perishable. They don't have a long shelf life every time. The bananas pulled off a tree. There's a two week at the most this clock ticking and it's really a seven o'clock because you wanna have about seven days in the store from green to Brown you really have to move fast and the world which was not a fast moving place seven days seven days and this is how they might have done it. They won Keats. Workers and Costa Rica picked the bananas Nana's from his eight hundred thousand acres at the exact right time when they're still green day to the bananas. Get transported to the coast on the railroad heath built through are- transferred onto refrigerated ships. The first of their kind that united fruit owned at the port of on day four taken up the Atlantic to the port at New Orleans five live distributed to cities across America by the fruit dispatch company. A gigantic railroad network operated by United Fruit Monstrous Spider web of banana trains. That delivers banana quickly. All over the United States Day six the bananas are delivered and put on shelves. Seven customers can buy those bananas at a low cost in their local store. Okay there's so many moving parts to this whole process like this should have been really expensive and time consuming and they're still managing to make the cheapest produce in the supermarket right. It makes no sense on the surface and the only reason they could do that is because they managed to monopolize is every step of the process. Right going back to kice business model. They could bend the process to their will maximize how much money they were making because they owned every step step of the process so everything they did was designed to squeeze profit out land and transportation costs were more or less fixed right but labor was where they could really increase their margins. Ns Keith was focused. On streamlining the production process. Preston launched a a massive marketing campaign to generate more and more demand for bananas in particular one type of banana. That wasn't too big or small wasn't too sweet or a bidder. Select a goldilocks banana. Good nickname But but the variety of banana was called grow Michelle and so it's think name became same. Big Mike he put ads in magazines. Got Doctors endorsed the health. BENEFITS OF BANANAS FOR BABIES PUBLISHED COOKBOOKS WITH BANANA recipes. In this is a commercial united fruit made decades leader. You can put them in any way you are with them. You can still hear pressings influence since they are so good for baby. Point is his marketing strategies will really effective. I see and bananas went viral. People loved them. Demand for bananas is a weird miracle. Everything seemed to be falling into place for United Fruit. Soon the amount of money coming in is beyond remarkable markle. It was the oil industry of its day. And many people are getting really really rich and there is this assumingly inexhaustible demand on the part of the American consumer for bananas and Preston and realize and Keith realized. They've got to get more bananas all they really needed to meet. This demand was more land and more labor so Keith began traveling to other countries in Central and South America Guatemala Honduras Colombia making deals with their governments. He'd helped them build infrastructure like he'd done in Costa Rica Gaza if they gave him land and they agreed so the model of Costa Rica. It sorta starts to regionalize Keith. had his hands in everything. He ran the postal service in Guatemala. He set up a telegraph communications. That worked throughout Central America built rail lines between Mexico and Guatemala Guatemala and El Salvador connecting in cities across the region and he controlled ports all along the Caribbean coast of Central America. People in these countries gave United Fruit. The nickname L. Poobah the octopus and Keith sort of became known as the uncrowned King of Central America the United Fruit was wildly successful and minor. Keith had achieved his dream of greatness but there was a dark shadow looming over all this success we already on the land already on the means transportation what you have to own also the workers. There was a ton of pressure to work quickly because demand grew very mary fast. They can do you know what would be back breaking work for about fourteen hours a day and end. If there was a rush people had to work sometimes twenty four hours a day to get some of his accomplished. This is sue portio Viera. I am an associate professor of Chicano touchdown on Latino Latina Transitional Studies at Pitzer College in Claremont California beyond the long hours. A banana plantation was a really difficult difficult place to work. It was then and it is now but Anna's have to grow where it rains so a lot of these regions It rains every day There's a monsoon season where it rains for days and days out Workers had to work in the modern of wet environments sounds very muddy environments. Banana bunches are heavy. That meant human labor. People would carry one hundred pounds or more of bananas on their backs. And it's dangerous. There's actually a type of snake that lives on these banana plantations known to workers spot about money. And it's a very poisonous snake hides under all the fall. Then many workers getting mm-hmm the actual life expectancy of the average male in Central America starts going down because so many people employed by the banana industry and are dying From what we can tell minor keith. And the people at United Fruit weren't all that bothered by this. It's probably too simple to say but it. It is pretty simple. The money was there and so the rationalizations came to keep that flow money. A A In the banana world. The workers workers are slips. I mean that's really the only way to put in a it's an era of sanctioned slavery with the support of the United unsuited government workers lived in dorms the company provided which were small dirty. They were paid in company currency currency not actual money and could only use it to buy food clothes. Whatever else they needed? AT THE UNITED FRUIT STORE MM-HMM UNITED FRUIT CREATED A universe and the universe began to develop its own culture for for the first few decades of the nineteen hundreds. It was mostly men with the exception of a brothel or to the life in Manila station. Awesome deal been like delighted with of we'll see to Sion mm-hmm they self medicate with alcohol. So as a there's this rise of alcohol the some in the regions and there were people from different countries working alongside with one another and they tended to divide themselves by ethnicity and race so there were all these racial tensions constantly and bitter fights you know the the chat they define them to find their masculinity their ability to survive so they all were very proud and carried their much with them everywhere. So if a fight ensued that would have these battles that were pretty bloody. This way to other said I was working in condition is Nobel by this means that unite. Many people mentioned this book to me while I was in the it's considered to be a landmark Costa Rican novel and the title. Mamata unify is how a lot of Costa Ricans refer to United Fruit mother. United them used Spanish. Mom meet that United Mother. Yeah so they might me like a mother boss. The boss fifteen. This is Danny sterling famous the famous because we made the carnival. Aaron Portland I. When does that happen over? I'll come back for that. Yeah I met Danny at the Domino House in downtown Lee Morton next to the old railroad yard. It said that the Domino House popped up. Real road stopped running in the one in in the Nineteen Ninety S. Almost everyone in here was of Afro Caribbean descent. Over the age of fifty male spoke English and was very serious about domino's us. So why did you talk to Danny. Danny's grandparents like a lot of the folks. There came to Costa Rica from Jamaica to work on minor keys. Railroad did Noah a lot. Was that note to read and write on the sign manner. Titcombe truck them to come from Jamaica and his dad worked for united fruit. You transporting the bananas to the docks and getting them onto the ships. He said his dad was grateful for the job because it was much better than working in the fields on the plantations. Shins where the US treat the mule but at and Work and then Danny broke out in song. Do do the coma. One Go. Chop recognizes the banana boat song. He called it the anthem of the banana. The plantations go mom me a- mine were checked say though when we come back the worker strike strike and united fruit strikes. Back out that my name is Katy. And I'm calling from Anchorage Alaska where I reside on the ATHABASCA man and you're listening to through line from NPR support for this podcast and the following message come from the Walton Family Foundation. We're opportunity takes root more information is available at Walton Family Foundation Dot org part three three the empire strikes back in the nineteen tends as minor Keith and united fruit continued to see enormous prophets pockets. The resistance began cropping up among workers throughout Central America. The banana workers were not dumb. Obviously and they know that they are the weakest piece of this business. They know that they're being exploited. And so do they begin asking for their rights. Basic rights in the workplace or eight hour days. A healthcare to have a hygienic backwardness or dormitories for men In on that waiting a month to be paid but being paid at the end of the week. And you've got to remember. This is also happening after the Russian revolution. So there's you Jio that the ideal of socialism back then is is coming into play of communism. There are workers movements beginning all over the world in America to see united workers began to strike. These are mostly workers who are not educated and so their attempts to gain their freedom really are very limited and are suppressed over and over again with bloodshed But the company had one weak spot. Remember how united fruit was only producing one kind of banana to big Mike. Mike like that left them really vulnerable. To one thing the thing that's hardest to plan for disease But none of diseases would kind of just a radical. Not just one banana tree but a whole think of them. If a banana plantation gets infected the soil becomes useless for thirty years. Yeah it's a really long time and so so if you have a plantation and it gets sick. You're done there. You will never grow bananas there again. And in around nineteen ten a disease cropped up in Panama destroying every banana tree in its path. They're rotting away and nobody really knows what this disease is. But it's rendering these plantations fallow very quickly. Nobody knows how it spread. Nobody knows what it is whether it's a fungus S. bacteria something else but what is for sure. Is that once. It appears it moves very quickly and it can wipe out entire district or even a country in a matter of months soon. This Panama disease began seeping into the soil throughout Central America. Killing banana tree after could banana tree after banana tree. The disease happens chases the bananas out of this one field out of this one district out of this one country and into another the disease comes again mm-hmm and every time it comes you've got to take more lamp. The story the banana guys. See it because your demand is growing and growing and growing and the places that you can grow. Bananas are shrinking and shrinking and shrinking united fruit. Had to spend a lot of money developing these new plantations but they needed to keep making a prophet and bananas had to remain the cheapest fruit and store so something had had to be squeezed. The workers the workers The disease is both a reflection of of the business model and it is what makes the business model so deadly. This disease is not just sort of a hindrance it is a driver for the ugliness that happens In Colombia the government started to grow frustrated with united fruit for how they were treating their workers so in Colombia the initial Columbia is actually maybe beginning to sort of like say you know maybe we should take care of our people. Maybe the banana companies are getting too rich united. Fruit workers in Colombia began to organize and demand basic rights. They are asking for a healthcare. A little bit of money The ability to live better lives so in October. Nineteen Twenty eight thirty thousand banana workers go on strike. It's a big strike and when the higher ups that United Fruit Corinna verse. They panicked because there seems to be some government support and and the united fruit prompts their their supporters in the government of Colombia to go and occupy Magdalena Meanwhile US officials. They're trying to figure out how to deal with the situation. US officials Columbia are communicating to the US State Department. These are communist he served so versus. So you know this was sort of these. Communists are are going after sort sort of the belly of the beast if you will and they must be stopped so there was a lot of thinking in premeditation that went on between the company the US State Department and and the Colombian government on how to bring the strike down based on Sunday December sixth nineteen twenty eight in the town of CNN. Banana workers assembled at the church in town square as these workers are in church with their families machine gun Nassar set up at four corners of the square. So these workers don't know what's going to happen because they're all inside the church I think for the worker was another day. You know another day striking not that. They didn't expect the military would come in and divide and conquer. I think they were mostly used to is seeing sort of divide and conquer strategies from both the state and the company I don't think anybody saw this coming machine gun positions Shinzo set up the people get out of church and they're told you must leave the square within five minutes or opened fire. Will you can't leave a town square with two thousand. Some people children in the square so they can't disburse more than three thousand people. Workers Women and children spilled out of the open space in front of the station. Repressing into the neighboring streets. Army had closed off with rose machines. Five minutes countdown. Captain gave the order to fire and they opened fire in in throwing about ms against the grid that little by little was being reduced which epicenter as the edges were systematically being cut off like an onion repeal insatiable methodical shares to the machine this was like a massacre. A A total massacre. Yeah Gabrielle Garcia Marquez. Would go on to describe this massacre in his novel. One Hundred Years of solitude the estimated deaths that day range widely but it suspected that at least a thousand people were killed the. US Ambassador Masseter reported these events to superiors in Washington. I the honor to report that the Bogota representative of the United Fruit Company told me yesterday. Today's the total number of strikers killed by the Colombian military exceeded one thousand. The honor to report you know. What can you say? It's terrific war Minor Cooper Keith. died a year after the Columbia massacre but his business lived John. United Fruit remained ruthless in its mission in partnership with the US government. It would go on to overthrow the government of Guatemala in the nineteen fifties and in the nineteen sixties participated in the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba an attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro which led to the Cuban missile crisis. mm-hmm united fruit continued to control much of Central America until the nineteen seventies when it became Chiquita and merger those countries. The trees are known to this day as Banana. Republics Okay Hey this is quite an amazing view. That's Because Monet Regan flat and then there's only one hill and if I we're minor cooper Keith. That's where I put my house. No doubt you can oversee the port. You can see retire land and you can see Practically the whole town. That's the way that's island in the distance where Columbus would've landed. Yes that's where his fourth trip to deny drove up to the house house. Were Minor Cooper Keith. Used to live from up there minor. Keith would have been able to look down on the universe. He created today. A man named I'm Don a non Castro lives their own done and his two dogs came out of the House to greet us at the TIKI. And then he took us into the house to the show around. It's a one story house mostly made of wood on a huge plot of land that stretches for miles four kids running horses certain eating fruits that ticket had planted commandos commit tools and there were ca-car for Cacao plantations. Did you have any sense of minor. Keith was like heavy Eddie. Your stories about him growing up well. He said the spirit of Keith filled the house and that he was told he was a great businessman. Who built the railroad? And what's interesting interesting. That donner nuns. Father was a politician in Costa Rica for forty years from the nineteen thirties. On just after keep died Taylor then took us outside to shows the fruit trees that keeps had planted slur droid inquiry and and picture. I mean you have a very Very positive opinion him and often these people are very complicated right and things always come at a cost and so I wonder. Do you see any negatives to that sort of Entrepreneurship that he demonstrated. I don't see negative only positive things that he did. He had money he had. He worked hard for it but he's decided by people that think different private enterprises exploiters but for me. It's it was a good man and maybe we could have more more people like him. The country would be better. You're not worst. Buddy would be better. Costa Rica minor kids is of fundamental fiew A. B. Because the national you're observing. Yeah my kid's mirror and they got the mirror. Cost Rica Build. It's better than against by looking at the same time for the read my negate rem as. He's somebody Berry Simpler I. I don't think he's seen as a hero or whereas a fill in. I think he's probably seen as an historic figure. Figure he's an outsider. But maybe one way to look at it is the way we might look Thomas. Jefferson held slaves yet was responsible for a lot of our democracy and they're sort of seen in a way that that is probably nuanced but the banana industry itself has a sort of invisible memory. They're still great problems in the banana industry. The business model is still hugely problematic. Black workers are still exposed to amounts of pesticides that are unhealthy and so minor. Keith may or may not be forgotten But the business model he created silhouettes And that's it for this week's show. I'm not Louis I'm Rhonda and you've been listening to live from NPR. This episode was produced by me and me and Jamie York Lawrence. Woo Lane Kaplan Levinson new sqi Niger. Eytan backtracking for this episode was done done by Kevin Vocal. Thank you to J. Davina Glassy. A- Hannah Hagman and Isabella Gomez Sarmiento for their voice over work and a special. Thanks Tevita Vodkas and Austin Horn also on your grandma. Our music was composed by Ron Teen in his ban. Drop Electric and a special shout out to my tour or guidance Sergio Bolanos and his band Cucolo for providing the song. You're listening to called the Sun United Companies. If you like something you heard heard you have an idea for an episode. Please write us at through line. NPR DOT ORG or hit us up on twitter at through line NPR. Also we'd love up to hear from you. Send us a voicemail. Two eight seven two five eight eight zero five and leave your name where you're from and save a line you're listening to through live from NPR and tell us what you think of the show. We might even feature voicemail on a future episode. That number again is eight. Seven two five five eight eight eight zero five. Thanks for listening breath.

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Attack on the National Palace in Guatemala - Oct. 19, 1944

This Day in History Class

07:49 min | 2 years ago

Attack on the National Palace in Guatemala - Oct. 19, 1944

"Hi, I'm Daniel and I'm more and we're here to tell you all about our brand new podcast. Daniel and Jorges explained the universe in this podcast. Gonna talk about a lot of things, mostly my physics and the universe in all those big mysteries scientists. A lot of things left to figure out even pretty basic stuff like what is space? What is time? What is stuff made out of which movie gets time travel. Right. That's an important question scientist. Are we alone in the universe? What is a black hole anyway, with inside a black hole, that's bad. It's mostly me and hor horrific on stuff. We find fun and fascinating and hilarious. Look for Daniela more, hey, explained the universe. We'll try to cover just about everything in the universe, everything every dollar shebang. The whole shebang from cats do planets to black holes and tiny parties. Welcome to the stay in history class from how stuff works dot com. And from the desk of stuff you missed in history class. It's the show where we explore the past one day at a time with a quick look at what happened today in history. Hello and welcome to the podcast. I'm Tracy v Wilson and effect Tober nineteenth members of the military attack the national palace in Guatemala on this stay in nineteen forty four during the Guatemalan, it revolution. This revolution had started earlier in nineteen forty, four as students and young military officers rose up against president hor hate Biko. He had been elected president in nineteen thirty one and his early presidency had included a campaign against government corruption improvements to public health, an overhaul of Guatemala's infrastructure and helping to stabilize the country's economy, but by nineteen forty four. He had gotten rid of all political opposition and he was governing as a military dictator, his policies that also increasingly favored elite landowners and corporations, especially the US based United fruit company, which owned a lot of the land in Guatemala. It wasn't actually using most of that land beginning. It wasn't available for anyone else to use either. He had also implemented things like decree eighteen sixteen, which exempted landowners from prosecution, if they used violence to defend their land up to including murdering someone, he could also abolished a series of forced labor laws, but then replaced them with vagrancy laws that were very similar in these really amounted to indentured servitude in a lot of cases, the so-called vagrants who were being forced to work. We're from Guatemala. Maya peoples. UB coup also developed close ties with the United States in the United States was providing Guatemala with armaments and with favorable tariff terms. This whole situation though was not unique at all to Guatemala other nations and Central America had various similarly, unyielding dictators and control with similar social and economic effects. Similar reliance on one food crop for. Most of the economy similar connections to the United States and United States based business interests and one dictator. Maximiliano as Martinez was overthrown in neighboring El Salvador in nineteen forty four. This overthrow became an inspiration for a similar campaign against you. Biko Ingui Tamala not just inspiring the students and other young people to rise up, but also inspiring in Ugo a fear that the same thing might happen to him. So he cracked down on civil liberties. He put people who were loyal to him in charge of the university. He basically tried to do what he could to ensure his own power. This had the opposite effect of what he wanted a series of protests followed with students at Saint Carlos university petitioning for changes to the university teaching staff and other reforms. Lawyers were petitioning for biased judges to be removed from the bench. Teachers were demonstrating for pay increases and. All these initial demonstrations were non violent. They included things like boycotts and strikes. The Guatemalan government responded to all this by deploying tanks and troops and using tear gas on the demonstrators placing the capital under martial law. But the demonstrations spread even as the government was placing participants under surveillance and deporting foreign supporters of the movement. Finally, at the end of June, tens of thousands of demonstrators were gathered at the capitol and Biko's support was really eroding. He resigned on July first nineteen forty, four place to the government under the control of military triumvirate. Although he allegedly remained in charge. The national assembly elected one of the triumvirate general Frederico Ponte Vitus president. He promised to their free election was going to follow, but by October, it was obvious that it just was not going to happen and Wata Malla was sliding farther and farther away from democracy. The protests continued students and teachers called for a general strike. On October sixteenth students and members of the military began taking control of the capital on October eighteenth, and there was an attack on the national palace by members of the military. As I said, at the top of the show on October nineteenth, violence spread through the capital the presidential guard rebelled and the general finally surrendered on the twentieth this didn't put a total into the violence or the rest. But new elections did follow in December and they were one of the freest elections that Guatemala had seen in decades. A new constitution was drafted in nineteen forty five. This constitutional rule lasted for just less than a decade before president Cobo Arbenz was elected in nineteen fifty one, and he had been part of the revolution. He instituted a lot of land reforms including redistributed. A lot of that unused land that United fruit company had been buying up the United States in the like that the United States was. Also threatened by the fact that he legalized the communist party in Guatemala. So so the CIA helped overthrow the democratically elected government of quantum Allah and nineteen fifty four. Thanks to Jeffcoat for her research work on today's podcast and tar Harrison for audio work on this show. You can subscribe to this day in history class at apple podcast, Google podcast, and wherever you get your podcast contune in tomorrow for a political purge. Over three hundred twenty five years ago, the community of Salem, Massachusetts was rocked by something few ever thought possible. It's been called an outbreak a wave of hysteria or the perfect storm at the confluence of seemingly unrelated ideas, events, and beliefs, whatever we try to call it though we always seem to miss the Mark. What bothers me so much so many people say how ignorant people were back. Then that's historian Emerson, Baker professor of American history at Salem state university. How could they possibly believe in witches and that they were? Well, I remember in sixteen ninety two which were real. Everybody believed in university ministers, doctors of theology, governors pope's, which are real. The Salem, witch trials are equal parts universally known and barely understood by most people. That's why this series exists new episode. Of this twelve part series air every Wednesday, learn more and find links to subscribe over at history on obscured dot com.

Guatemala United States president Biko Ingui Tamala Guatemala United fruit company Salem Daniel scientist Jorges Salem state university Frederico Ponte Vitus Guatemalan government Daniela Central America UB Wata Malla CIA Saint Carlos university
Reframing History: Bananas

Throughline

58:12 min | 10 months ago

Reframing History: Bananas

"Hey everyone we're doing something a little different for the next few weeks we've been thinking a lot about what history is taught in school and how it's time school yet it's one of the reasons this show even exists, but we wanted to do is fill in the gaps and reframe the things we learned in history class. So a few months ago we started asking teachers for some of their favorite through line besides that do just that and that they liked their students to hear before returning to school our hope was that through line was of use to teachers and we heard from many of them who said it was this week this is. A message for three line hi, this is alleged Schumacher. My Name's Jeremy. Kellerman is a world history teacher in I'm wro Wisconsin Professor at Oregon Tech and falls Oregon I'm just calling to say that your episode there will be bananas has been used in my class to teach colonialism I recently used you have to in my course on sustainable human ecology looking at history of the fruit and banana is a great place to start when you go into the store why are they still cheap and that's of course, the legacy of everything talked about and I find it extremely useful as a tool to teach the unintended or the unrecognized consequences of colonialism. For, everything you do. Bananas are so ubiquitous suitor livestock. But I don't think there was anything. Magical about. The banana in and of itself that made it such an entrepreneurial success. I think it was a lot of luck changing culture. Brutality, people willing to practice that. And all these little pieces come together to create this market that probably never should have existed. Fast And on this episode, How one Entrepreneur Made Bananas Big Business and Change The world for better. And for worse. Feel. On, most days I spend at least part of the morning preparing my four year old son's favorite breakfast a banana and there are few things more fun than cutting it up, putting on a plate and watching them enjoy every bite. So when I heard about disease that's been tearing banana plantations in Asia Africa and now South America obviously I got concerned. I thought this is it game over no more bananas from my son Not Chances for me to watch him eat them. But then run I started asking some questions like why do we even eat bananas in? When did this fruit become such a big part of our diet in America in around the world So to answer those questions. Run. decided to travel to the place where it all began. You've? This is the birthplace of the banana empire, the port city of Lemon which sits on the eastern coast of Costa Rica. You. Will I news Sergio has been giving walking tours of lawn for the past five years. I went on this tour with Sergio early in the morning. And we started the tour applaud gave Gus. But the main attraction was across the street from this park. Now, this is the palace. I like to call it a bothers by the way. It's like the headquarters. Of the United. Fruit company outside of the United. States. Headquarters of the, you know the biggest company ever. The building is hard to miss. It takes up nearly the entire block and whereas. On filled with Victorian style buildings usually made of wood or concrete. This building is very boxy minimalist and made of steel American steel. It's two stories but seems bigger because the ceilings are really high a row of big red windows with green framing lines each floor story different looks like a train station. Right, okay. So what exactly is this United Fruit company that he's talking about? Okay. United Fruit is the company responsible for making bananas and International Commodity. And distinct kind of bold industrialist vibe of its headquarters is a perfect reflection of the company's practices. And Sergio says the mastermind behind the company a guy named Minor Cooper Keith had a corner office. From there, he had a perfect view of the ocean the poor there used to be a train station and at one point. The actual train station, actually the train was. The project started everything. No train newly mom. When we come back how minor keith managed to bring a city to life and in the process. Built an empire. This is Hundred River from Austin New York you're listening to tree. Line? This message comes from NPR sponsor capital one welcome to banking reimagined capital one checking and savings. Accounts have no fees or minimums and a top rated banking up that lets you manage your money anytime anywhere check on the account balance deposit checks, pay bills, and transfer money on the go. This is banking reimagined. What's in your Wallet Capital One NA member FDIC. With civil unrest, the pandemic and the economic crisis you want to know what's happening right when you wake up and that's why there is up I the news you need in about ten minutes from NPR news listen every day. Part One. Welcome to the jungle. There's a story I heard over and over when I was in Lebron a kind of local legend, it takes place in fifteen o two, the year Christopher Columbus set sail on his fourth voyage across the Atlantic As Columbus was sailing down the Caribbean coast the winds blew him towards Costa Rica and he happened upon a small island just off the coast of layman today, it's called you to island or little grape island legend has it columbus was so taken with the beauty of this place and the seeming hospitality of the indigenous people who had appeared on the shore. That he anchored at ubt island. Columbus was suffering from gout and couldn't get off the ship so his son got off instead. He traveled into the jungle and spent several days with the indigenous people there. When he returned to the ship to reported that he seen advanced cities in the most unlikely place, a place seemingly impossible to conquer and that he was treated with the utmost respect. Columbus asked what this place was called, and maybe it was the way his ears process the indigenous name or maybe just thought the police deserve to be called the rich coast. Whatever it was his son replied Costa Rica. Columbus and his crew set sail once more continuing their journey towards the indies and for centuries after the eastern shores of Costa Rica remained mostly untouched by western powers. Then came minor Cooper Keith. This was a time when rugged men went out to make the. Time when the American. Entrepreneur. Kim. Teddy Roosevelt era is the era of McKee's Mo of doing things. Women were excluded people of color excluded but. Man Like Minor Keith. The world belong to them. It was theirs for the taking. Minor Keith had grown up in in. Brooklyn New York. And he had become a cattle rancher in Texas. It's a very common motif in America, for sort of patrician or Herbin types to sort of become cowboys. This is writer Dan Kabul. I sometimes pretentiously like to call myself a thing biographer I right by the histories of objects in tone writing a book called banana the fate of the fruit and change the world. Dan says the shift towards aggressive entrepreneurship started time of the civil war when communication and transportation networks rapidly expanded thanks to advances in mining and agriculture, which entice people to develop new lands. Railroads began moving people west in the world seemed right for the taking their gold rush people. Basically, all these American business people were trying to find some form of gold. So any business that could make them a lot of money right and minor Keith, the city kid from a wealthy family who had tried his hand at running a cattle ranch at being a cowboy was at heart a budding entrepreneur. He wanted to make it really big to be among the Carnegie and Rockefeller of the world and he thought railroads might be that business for him. In the United States, there's a railroad building boom, but it's controlled by by moguls by conglomerates spy by people who are already rich is not a lot of room for entrepreneurship is not a lot of room for a Brooklyn born Texas cattle rancher to sort of. Become a big wheel. So Keith decided to look beyond the US for opportunities. His uncle was working on railroads in Chile Peru and Costa Rica and invited him to come there. At the time there was very little infrastructure in Central America these villages with dirt roads, but people were determined to find a way to the Pacific through Central America will Columbus had wanted to do y Central America because of the unimaginable or imagines let's say riches that might happen there things like coffee minerals may be actual gold. And even though Keith new pretty much nothing about Costa Rica, he figured hell why not I can do this. This is my chance to make it big whatever challenges may come. But on the flip side, he probably thought if I built this railroad, then have access to all those riches. I think what mine are Keith understood. that. If you build infrastructure in these places where there is no infrastructure and you make the right financial deals by Hook or by Crook. Or dishonestly, you are going to get very rich and you're GONNA get very very powerful and Keith had another more lofty goal. Those says it was looked at as almost bringing civilization bringing progress to these poor souls who otherwise would be living naked in the jungle that was the way it was seem. So there was this element of mission and manifest destiny depth that we really don't understand today that we understand better as as as being quite an unusual not very good thing. If you're wondering why a government would open their arms to a fairly. Foreign businessmen, it's pretty simple. They needed the help they wanted to find a way to export their coffee crops, the country's main export to Europe, and to do that, they needed to tap into their eastern coast and it was a jungle. The jungle. Up until the eighteen seventies, most of Costa Rica East of the capital San Jose was completely undeveloped just miles and miles of nearly impenetrable rainforests. The Spanish had made few inroads there. They'd killed and resettled some indigenous communities, but they didn't actually manage to build much. Now. Minor Keith would attempt it. And I have to say when you're actually there you realize how far fetched this must have seemed. I imagine it's just like endless trees animals, green yeah. It's very it's it's beautiful but it's very rugged terrain and and every square inch is basically green. I mean dense beyond belief you look up and it's just webs of winding branches and leaves so many different ecosystems, forest mountains, wetlands, beaches, huge volcanoes, drive three hours in any direction, and you'll probably experience all of them. There are monkeys everywhere plus all sorts of other animals some deadly. I actually saw a tarantula and a snake while I was there. I know I wouldn't. Know. Don't play that for this. No, I don't do. That far off from the trail. Keith Keith wanted to build a railroad through all of that stretching one hundred miles from San Jose to Lamont wasn't uneasy Basque. At, this Victor Kunia or Tak-, he's a professor emeritus at the University of Costa Rica. He faced thing the logic challenges I'm the challenged and financial. I mean, this was really really crazy. In Eighteen, seventy, two, he began construction in Lamont. At first, he recruited Costa Rica's population to build the railroad, which at the time was very small. But. As the project got underway, many began to realize just how difficult and dangerous it was. They're tearing the jungle down with with hand tools there working conditions were very, very hard. Because the claiming. Because they took about. Yellow fever malaria. dysentery. You know. Everything. You could die out there the guy of wounds. Trees sometimes fall on them. It rained a lot of the time. So they were often working in mud if he got any sort of cut or wound, it could easily become infected. And mosquitoes were everywhere some carrying diseases. So after a little while. Costa Ricans lay down their tools. We're not GONNA do this because no job is where dying for. Construction. Stalled and Keith was back at square one. He had to find workers somewhere else would luckily or unluckily there's this huge immigrant population in the United States and so Keith returns to the US and. hires a couple of thousand Italian immigrants and he tempts them says, we're GONNA pay a lot of money We're going to give you a lot of work. He also brought workers from China and parts of Europe. And once they get down there and they hear hear what's happening and they see what's happening and they. They see. How dangerous it is, they begin going Awol. About. Disaster I mean they were dying at levels equivalent to deaths on the beaches of Normandy. Hundreds died then thousands. In part because these men had never been to the tropics. So they weren't used to the climate or it's diseases and the work was just really grueling. Among the workers who died on this project where Keith's two brothers You. Know. So so this was deadly not just for the poor souls who were sort of suckered into coming in working on it, but the guys at the very top as well. Progress was slow and money was tight. A few years into the project, they were thirty miles from their end goal San Jose. But. Keith remained determined and desperate for workers he decided. To recruit prisoners hopeless prisoners people in jail in New Orleans. And he basically? Calls for volunteers and he says anybody who volunteers housing built my railroad to completion. Is going to get a pardon. Seven hundred. Prisoners. Volunteer. But only twenty five prisoners survive to get their pardons. Twenty five out of seven hundred. I mean, the absolute persistence in scrapping is on Keith Part Blake bringing in group after group even prisoners so many deaths including his own brothers is like. Both horrifying. But also like Daniel play view from there will be blood. Inspiring you know what I mean yeah. Like like absolutely hell bent on just like getting this done. It's like that scene in there will be blood where his they discover oil causes huge like fire and his son gets hurt and like goes death but all big about is like the money that basically discovered. It's exactly what this is. I mean this Guy Minor Keith, he he ruthless right like, yeah, it was it was just the process of trial and error for him. People would die he'd find more they died more came he was relentless. Eventually minor keith figured out that if he brought makings over from the Caribbean, they would have an easier time working on his railroad since they spoke English and were used to the climate. Thing is by this point minor Keith had another problem. He'd burned through millions of dollars and was nearly out of money and the Costa. Rican government, which is sort of funding distinct partially also goes broke. I mean, at this point, most people would just throw in the towel and go home. That's the logical thing to do probably. But instead Keith goes to England and he borrows one point two, million pounds which I think about the equivalent of maybe one, hundred, fifty, two, hundred, million dollars today. Then, he goes back to Costa Rica and proposes a new deal to the government. This sort of crazy deal he says, I'll build the railroad for free. In return, you give me ninety nine years concessional on the route I have eight hundred, thousand acres of land tax free alongside the tracks and I have full control of the Portland. Not a great deal for the Costa Rican government. But they were in a pretty bad position at this point and just needed to finish the railroad. I don't know I don't know what? Prompted the president to accept it but but I'm GONNA guess. That You know these guys also wanted to modernize the country's they saw railroads as as as needed an and people are building monuments themselves what greater monument than a railroad in a place that was all jungle. Keith probably understood that. He seemed to know which cards to play when and he knew how desperately the Costa Rican government wanted to build that railroad to export coffee. When it gives he was. Regular trip. Ere, he wants to very able to negotiate. He was able to put himself. Somebody. Indispensable for the Costa Rican government. was. Capable of. Finishing. Also helped that Keith was tight with the political league in Costa Rica. So. Close that he was able to marry the daughter who? was. Reunited. Century the immediate gusto maladies. Jose Maria Castro Madras had served two terms as president of Costa Rica. He sconces himself in in Costa Rican society by marrying the president's daughter, he was able to became a part of the ruling. INCA. He knew how to win people over those elites loved minor Keith and he was their patron. Really. So work on the railroad continued, and at this point, Keith had like really managed to dig himself out of a whole. Absolutely I. Mean. Now he had the support of the country's elite a workforce that could handle the climate total control of the of Leeann and eight hundred, thousand acres of Free Land and what he did with that landed I was he grew bananas. And he didn't grow them to make money. He grew them to feed his workers the ones who are dying by the by the dozen or two dozen. As an American Keith had little experience with bananas. They weren't really available in the US since they only grow in tropical climates. But around this time, some people were beginning to experiment with ways to bring Bananas Rare. Tropical. Fruit, to the United States. And after planting a few banana trees alongside the Railroad Minor Keith realized why? It's really easy to grow. You know you get a few banana trees and from those few. You can grow a farm from those farms. You can create a plantation with rose after row of Banana? Trees. And from that plantation used to create a nation of banana trees. And that's when the light bulb went off. He had a lot of land at his disposal, and soon he would have a railroad and poor all to himself. So Minor Cooper Keith, set his sights on another potentially much bigger business opportunity. Bananas. Hi, this is pretty wines from Denver Colorado and you're listening to a through line on NPR. Just want to say I absolutely love your show I can't wait to see what comes next me. Support for NPR comes from Newman's own foundation working to nourish the common good by donating all profits from Newman's own food products to charitable organizations that seek to make the world. A better place more information is available at Newman's own foundation dot org. Good question that's a really good question. Crank questions is free therapy. Thank you for asking me that God. That's such. A good question. That's an interesting question. But what fresh air interviews are really about the interesting answers listen and subscribe to fresh air from whyy and NPR. Part to. Everyone goes bananas. For Bananas. In the mid eighteen, eighty s a sizable banana market was beginning to appear in the US thinks to a company called Boston fruit. Before them, the banana was known in the United States, but it was considered a rare weird. I would even want to call it delicacy because it wasn't. You know if you look at some books in the eighteen hundreds, for example, one of the things that's interesting about the bananas it was taboo because shape. When a banana is mentioned in early accounts, pre banana industry, a lot of attention is paid to how to properly disguise the shape. So a banana has to be served in a Crystal Ball With with foil around it and sliced into certain ways, and you know anything to avoid that very suggestive shape. I mean like. I get it like it. It looks weird I mean yeah and especially like the eighteen hundreds there like probably just traumatize. On your. And this company Boston fruit they had to find a way to market and immoral fruit breaking that Tabu is critical to mass acceptance of the banana imagine having to be the person to market I. Know this is a phallic food you eat. Well the guy at Boston company who was responsible for just that. His name was Andrew Preston and he began chipping away at that taboo. He starts issuing these postcards. And these postcards show these Victorian ladies sitting under trees picnics. And they're holding bananas and putting bananas in their mouths. To break the taboo that a lady could not hold her touch a banana. He. Knew that Americans would only buy bananas if they saw them as good healthy and cheap cheaper than any other fruit. And that last part is where minor keith had the upper hand. He had cheap land and lots of enough to rent it. He doesn't have to pay for it plus a cheap workforce and cheap transportation. He owns the railroad. So there's no middleman and he had control of the port. So minor kief could build a business in which he'd control every step of the production process at very little cost to him and low cost to consumers while still making a lot of money the pieces of the business model have fallen into place and make this emerging business models possible. So the railroad that was intended to export coffee for the Costa Rican government was now mainly exporting bananas for minor. Keith and the ships docking at the port of one, we're being filled with bananas to send to the US. By the time, the railroad was completed in eighteen ninety. Minor Keith was officially in the banana business. a few years later minor keith was in financial trouble. He lost a big chunk of money when one of his investors broke. So he traveled to Boston to meet with Andrew Preston. It's interesting because in a way. The kind of need each other? Yeah. Keep control the cheap production line right on the one hand and Preston was really good at marketing. So he could raise demand for bananas, and if you combine the two, it's sort of a match me an entrepreneur heaven. So it makes sense that in eighteen ninety nine, they struck a deal they formed a new joint company. Called United Fruit. The business model for united fruit built on the one Keith had devised. If you control every step of the process and control the narrative, you can control the market this Amazon in a Lotta ways this this idea that you can control all aspects of the chain. From the import to distribution to the marketing to the sales and centralize a business is really really radical especially because bananas are perishable, they don't have a long shelf life every time the bananas pulled off a tree. There's a two week at the most clock ticking, and it's really seven o'clock because you WanNa have about seven days in the store from green to Brown. You really have to move fast and the world was not a fast moving place seven days seven days. And this is how they have done it. They won Keith's workers and Costa. Rica. Pick The bananas from his Asia Thousand Acres at the exact right time when they're still green day to the bananas, get transported to the coast on the railroad keith built Dave three transferred onto refrigerated ships. The first of their kind that united fruit owned at the port of Limon Day four taken up the Atlantic to the Port New Orleans Day five distributed to cities. Across America, by the fruit dispatch company gigantic railroad network operated by United Fruit Monstrous, spider web of Banana Trains that delivers bananas. quickly. All over the united. States Day sex, the bananas are delivered. Put on shelves. Seven customers can buy those bananas at a low cost in their local store. Okay. There's so many moving parts to this whole process like. This should have been really expensive and time consuming and they're still managing to make the cheapest produce in the supermarket. It makes no sense on the surface and the only reason they could do that is because they managed to monopolize every step of the process right going back to Keith business model they could bend the process to their will maximize much money they were making because they owned every step of the process everything they did was designed to squeeze profit out land and transportation costs were more or less fixed right but labor was where they could really increase their margins. Keith was focused on streamlining the production process Preston launched a massive marketing campaign to generate more and more demand for bananas. In particular one type of banana that wasn't too big or small wasn't too sweet or bitter select goldilocks banana. Good nickname but but the variety of banana was called grow Michel and so it's sink name became big. Mike. He put ads in magazines got doctors endorsed health benefits of Bananas for babies, published cookbooks with banana recipes. This is a commercial united fruit made decades league. You can put them in. Any way you are there. You can still hear prestige entities. Are So good for baby point is his marketing strategies will really effective. And Bananas. Went Viral. People loved them. The demand for bananas is. A weird miracle. Everything. Seemed to be falling into place for united fruit soon. The amount of money coming in Is beyond remarkable. It was the oil industry of its day and many people are getting really really rich. And, there is this seemingly inexhaustible demand. On the part of the American consumer for. Bananas. And Preston realized and Keith realized they've gotTa get more bananas all they really needed to meet this demand was more land and more labor. So, Keith began traveling to other countries in central and South America Guatemala. Columbia making deals with their governments. He'd help them build infrastructure like he done in Costa. Rica if they gave him land. And they agree so the model of Costa Rica it sorta starts to. regionalize. Keith had his hands in everything. He ran the postal service in Guatemala. He set up a telegraph communications that worked throughout Central America built rail lines between Mexico and Guatemala Guatemala and El Salvador connecting cities across the region and he controlled ports all along the Caribbean coast of Central America. People in these countries gave united fruit the nickname L. Poobah the octopus and Keith sorta became known as the uncrowned King of Central America. United Fruit was wildly successful and minor Keith had achieved his dream of greatness. But there was a dark shadow looming over all this success. You're already on the land or on the means of transportation what you have to own also. The workers. There was a ton of pressure to work quickly because demand grew very fast. They can do you know what would be back breaking work for about fourteen hours a day. And a rush people had to work sometimes twenty four hours a day to get some of this accomplished this Jaba. Viata, I am an associate professor of Tacona to financial betting all. I've been transnational studies at Pitzer College Claremont California. Beyond the long hours, a banana plantation was a really difficult place to work. It was then and it is now. But Unas have to grow where it rains. So a lot of these regions it rains every day. there's a monsoon season where it rains for days and days out So workers had to work in the modern wet environments, very muddy environments. Banana bunches are heavy that meant human labor people would carry one hundred pounds or more of bananas on their backs and it's dangerous. There's actually a type of snake that lives on these banana plantations known to workers spot about a mighty. And it's a very poisonous snake- that hides under all the falcons. Then many workers get bitten. The actual life expectancy of the average male in Central America starts going down because. So many people are employed by the banana industry and are dying. From. What we can tell minor Keith and the people at United Fruit. Weren't all that bothered by this. It's probably. Too simple to say but it it is pretty simple. The money was there and so the rationalizations came. To keep that flow of money. In, the banana world the workers are slips. That's really the only way to put in. An era of sanctioned slavery with the support of the United. States, government. Workers lived in dorms. The company provided which were small dirty. They were paid in company currency, not actual money and could only use it to buy food clothes whatever else they needed at the United Fruit store. UNITED FRUIT CREATED A universe and that universe began to develop its own culture. For the first few decades of the nineteen hundreds, it was mostly men with the exception of a brothel or to. The live in Manila vision was Bit like deny to wire which. Violence of. Bush itution they self medicate with alcohol. So there's this rise of alcoholism in the regions and there were people from different countries working alongside one another and they tended to divide themselves by Mississippi and race. So there were all these racial. Tensions constantly and bitter fights. The chat, they would define them to find their masculinity, their ability to survive. So the all were very proud and carried their much head the with them everywhere. So if a fight ensued, would these battles that were pretty bloody? There is way to said. I was working. Condition. Is. By Kennedy's this. Let me tell you night. Wake. Many people mentioned this book to me while I was in the. It's considered to be a landmark Costa Rica novel. And the title Mamata unify is how a lot of Costa Ricans refer to united. Fruit. Also mother United Building Spanish. Meet that united. Is modeled. Me like a mother boss, the boss putting in. This is Danny Sterling famous. Yeah. Well, I'm famous because we make the carnival Aaron Portland Modern I. When does that happen over I'll come back for that. I met Danny at the Domino House in downtown Lee Morton next to the old railroad yard. It said that the Domino House popped up when the railroad stopped running in the one thousand, nine, hundred, ninety s almost everyone in here was of Afro. Caribbean descent over the age of fifty male spoke English and was very serious about their domino's. So, why did you talk to Danny? Danny's grandparents like a lot of the folks there came to Costa Rica from Jamaica to work on minor keys railroad didn't know a lot. was people not to read and write. An assignment not tom trap them to come from Jamaica. And His dad worked for United Fruit, transporting the bananas to the docks and getting them onto the ships. He said his dad was grateful for the job because it was much better than working in the fields on the plantations where the user treat them you'll better. Worker. And then Danny break out in. Song. Do the coma. Go. By recognizes the Banana. Boats. Saying he called it the anthem I'm the banana plantations go. Mom. Taliban was the CHEKA. Say though. When we come back the worker strike and united fruit. Strikes. Back. My name is Katie and I'm calling from Anchorage Alaska. REIVER's I'd on the. ATHABASCA. And you're listening to three line from NPR. Thanks. Support for this podcast and the following message come from the Walton. Family. Foundation where opportunity takes root more information is available at Walton Family Foundation Dot Org. Part three, the empire strikes back. In the nineteen ten's as minor Keith and united fruit continued to see enormous profits pockets of resistance began cropping up among workers throughout Central America. The. Banana workers were not dumb obviously and they know that they are the weakest piece of this business they know that they're being exploited, and so they begin asking for their rights basic rights in the workplace eight hour days a healthcare to have hygienic back on or dormitories for men. In on that, waiting a month to be paid by being at the end of the week and you got to remember this is also happening after the Russian revolution. So there's The ideal of socialism back then is is coming into play of communism. There are workers movements beginning all over the world in America to. See United Fruit workers began to strike. These are mostly workers who are not educated on and so their attempts to gain their freedom. Really. Are, very limited and are suppressed over and over again with bloodshed. But the company had one weak spot. Remember how united fruit was only producing one kind of banana to big Mike and Mike that left them really vulnerable to one thing the thing that's hardest to plan for. Disease. But none of diseases would kind of just radical. Not just you know one banana tree but. A whole think of them. If a banana plantation gets infected the soil becomes useless for thirty years. Yeah it's a really long time and so if you have a plantation. And it gets sick. You're done there. You'll never grow bananas there again. And in around nineteen ten, a disease cropped up in Panama destroying every banana tree in its path they're rotting away and. Nobody, really knows what this disease is, but it's rendering these plantations fallow very quickly. Nobody knows how it spread. Nobody knows what it is whether it's a fungus bacteria something else but what is for sure is that once it appears It moves very quickly and it can wipe out an entire district or even a country in a matter of monks. Soon. This Panama disease began seeping into the soil throughout central. America killing banana tree after banana tree after banana tree the disease happens chases the bananas out of this one field of this district of this one country and into another the disease comes again. And every time it comes you've gotta take more lamp the way the Banana Garcia. Because your demand is growing and growing and growing and the places that you can grow, bananas are shrinking and shrinking and shrinking. United Fruit had to spend a lot of money developing these new plantations, but they needed to keep making a prophet and bananas had to remain the cheapest fruit in the store. So something had to squeezed. The workers. The workers. The. Disease. is both a reflection of the business model and it is what makes the business model so deadly? This disease is not just sort of a hindrance. It is a driver. For the ugliness that happened. In Colombia the government started to grow frustrated with United Fruit for how they were treating their workers. So in Columbia The Nation Columbia is actually Maybe beginning to. Say, maybe we should take care of our people. Maybe the banana companies are getting too rich united fruit workers in Colombia began to organize and demand basic rights they are asking for for A. Healthcare. A little bit of money The ability to to live better lives. So in October nineteen, twenty eight. Thirty two thousand banana workers go on strike. It's a big strike. And when the higher ups that United Fruit we know this they panicked because there seems to be some government support and. The United Fruit prompts their their supporters in the government of Colombia to go and occupy Magdalena. Meanwhile, US officials there we're trying to figure out how to deal with the situation. US officials in Columbia are communicating to the US State Department, these are communisty serves overseas. So you know this was sort of these communist are are going after sort of the belly of the beast if you will right in and they must be stopped. So there was a lot of. Thinking premeditation that went on between the company, the US State Department and the Colombian government on how to bring this strike down. On Sunday December six, nineteen, twenty, eight in the town of China. Banana workers assembled at the church in the town square. Root. These workers are in church with their families. machine-gun Nassar Setup at four corners of squares and he's workers don't know what's going to happen because they're all inside the church. I think for the workers was another day. You know another day striking. Not. That they didn't expect the military would come in and divide and conquer I. Think what they were mostly used to is seeing sort of divide and conquer strategies from both the state and the company I. Don't think anybody saw this coming because machine gun positions set up. The people get out of church and they're told. You must the square within five minutes or open fire. You can't leave a town square with you had a thousand people children in the square. So the cat disperse. More than three thousand people. Workers Women and children. Had spilled out of the open space in front of the station. Repressing to the neighboring streets. Army had closed off road machines. Five minutes countdown. Captain gave the order to fire. They open fire. They were panned in throwing about the gigantic whirlwind, but little by little was being reduced to accept the sensor. As the edges for systematically being cut off. Can Onion repeal insatiable besides shares through the machine? This was like a massacre. A Total massacre yeah. Gabriel Garcia. Marquez would go on to describe this massacre in his novel one Hundred Years of solitude. The estimated deaths that day range widely. But it's suspected that at least a thousand people or killed. The US ambassador reported these events to his superiors in Washington. I the honor to report that the Bogota. Representative of the United Fruit Company. Told me yesterday that the total number of strikers killed by the Colombian military exceeded one thousand. The honor to report. What can you say it's terrific. Minor Cooper Keith died a year after the Columbia massacre, but his business lived on. United Fruit remained ruthless in its mission in partnership with the US government, it would go on to overthrow the government of Guatemala in the nineteen fifties and in the nineteen sixties it participated in the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba an attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro, which led to the Cuban missile crisis. United Fruit continued to control much of central. America until the nineteen seventies when it became Chiquita and a merger. Those countries are known to this day. As Banana Republics. Okay, this is quite an amazing view. That's because. And then there's only one hill. And if I were minor cooper. Keith. That's where I put my house. No doubt. You can oversee the the port you can see you re Thailand. And you can see practically the whole town that's the way. That's I live in the distance where Columbus would win it. Yes. That's where his fourth trip to feed the night drove up to the house where Minor Cooper Keith USA live. From up there minor Keith would have been able to look down on the universe he created. Today a man named Don got on Castro lives there. Don and his two dogs came out of the House degreed us if the Greece. On Ninety. Tiki Oh picky wants to interview. And then he took us into the house to show US around. It's a one story house mostly made of wood on a huge plot of land that stretches for miles. Raith years of kids. Running horses, eighteen fruits that restricted had planted. Mangoes K. Meters and there were cal fire cacao plantations. Did you have any sense of minor keith was like heavier stories about him growing up? Well, he said the spirit of Keith filled the house and that he was told he was a great businessman who built the railroad. And what's interesting is that Donner nuns father was a politician in Costa Rica for forty years from the nineteen thirties on just after keep died. Donner non then took US outside to shows the fruit trees that keeps it planted. A droid. Leaving picture. I mean you have a very very positive opinion nope him and often these people are very complicated. Right and things always come at a cost and so I wonder. Do you see. Any negatives to that sort of entrepreneurship that he demonstrated. I don't see negative. Only see positive things that he did. He had money he had he ward card for it. But he's criticized by people that. Thinker. Different. As a private enterprises exploiters. But for me, it's It wasn't a good man and. Maybe we could have more more people like him the country will be. Better. Not Worst, but it would be better. Rica minor kids. Is Fundamental fiew. There it's. Because the national like they your. Mina kid is kind of a mirror and got the mirror. Costa Rica Build. Letter Day. Against by not. But at the same time for the lead, a minute maze somebody very simpler I. I, don't think he's seemed as a hero or whereas villain I. Think he's probably seen as an historic figure. He's an outsider, but maybe one way to look at it is the way we might look at Thomas Jefferson held slaves yet was responsible for a lot of our democracy. There sort of seen in A. Way that that is probably nuanced. But the banana industry itself. Has a sort of invisible memory. There's still Great problems in the banana industry, the business model is still usually problematic. Workers. are still exposed to amounts of pesticides that are unhealthy. And so minor Keith may or may not be forgotten, but the business model he created. Silhouettes. That's it. For this week's show I'm Rob Louis I'm for attack and you've been listening to live from NPR. This episode was produced by me and me and Jamie York Lawrence Woo Lane Kaplan Levinson new Olkhovsky Niger Eaten backtracking for this episode was done by Kevin Vogel. Thank you to J. D. V. Neck. Last year Hannah. Hagman and Isabella Gomez Manto for their voice over work and a special thanks to feed vodkas an Austin Horn also on your grandma. Our music was composed by Ron teen and his band drop electric and a special shadow to my tour guide lawn Sergio Bolanos and his band Cucolo for providing the song you're listening to called the Sun United Companies. If you like something you heard or you have an idea for an episode, please write us at through line NPR DOT ORG or hit us up on twitter at through line NPR. Also, we'd love to hear from you send us a voicemail, two, eight, seven, two, five, eight, eight, eight, eight, zero, five, and leave your name where you're from and save. Line you're listening to through line from NPR and tell us what you think of the show. We might even feature voicemail on a episode that number again if eight, seven, two, five, eight, eight, zero, five. Thanks for listening. Soon.

Minor Cooper Keith United Fruit company Costa Rica NPR United States America Keith Costa Caribbean Costa Rican Central America Columbia Sergio Bolanos Costa Ricans Minor Cooper Keith USA Keith Part Blake Europe Rica Christopher Columbus University of Costa Rica
Dr. Says: Eat cheese?

The Dr. Gundry Podcast

38:08 min | 1 year ago

Dr. Says: Eat cheese?

"Welcome to the doctor Gandhari. Podcast the weekly podcast. Where Dr g gives you the tools you need to boost your health and live your healthiest life. Welcome to the doctor country podcast. You know. There's nothing more than hearing from my listeners and readers and boy have I had a lot of questions about my yes and no list of foods particularly as I put out a new book and that lists changes so I get it. You know one egg replacer that I might have recommended two years ago. I might not recommend now because believe it or not formulas change without consulting me so what I said was a really great egg replacer a year ago that formula changed and I no longer recommend that. A replacer you know. I do try my best to keep the list updated. I assure you I am always looking for new food to add and I'm always looking for when somebody changes something and if we don't get to the question I will try to remind myself to talk about the changes that have been made in corn products. That's not corn. It's Hugh Hugh O. R. M. Because I have a lot of patients that asked me about that so the fundamentals of the Yes. No list actually hopefully never change now having said that you really smart readers. Careful readers may know that in the Doctor Gunnery Cookbook the original one. I cited a paper. That said Pecans might have electon that. In some people attack the pancreas and that same paper suggested that there is elected in Seaweed. That may be problematic. And it's well hidden in that book but every now and then alert reader will pick that up. So why haven't I taken Pecans and Seaweed off the list? Well stay tuned because in my upcoming book the Energy Paradox which will be out this coming fall. I have found through multiple food allergy testing in my patients. That pecans often often often. I would say seventy five percent of the time. Come up as a food that people are allergic to so stay tuned. They may be coming off the list. Also we have found that there is a lectern in spinach that can be problematic for certain individuals. Not Everybody and as I get more data from my patients remember. This is not conjecture on my part. This is data driven from patient. Blood work as more data comes in. We may issue a cautionary note on spinach. But for now. Don't don't throw the spinach away okay. So there's always going to be great food steep and they're probably always foods that you should avoid okay so there's always exceptions to the rule and we're gonNA talk about some of the exceptions okay. Francey S. I. Heavy tree nut allergy so the acceptable flowers on the list or out of my range of acceptability I am also vegetarian. So meats and chicken on the list are cannot be dairy is one of my protein. Staples any suggestions. Well there's certainly a lot of flowers on the list that are not nut. Base for instance tiger nuts are not or not at all. They are a tuber. Cassava is a tuber millet grain without a hall as sorghum and we're increasingly seeing sorghum and millet flours available on a routine basis and if worse comes to worse you can find them on Amazon. Or on thrive so. There's multiple other flowers other than almond and coconut flour. Most people don't react to almond coconut flour. But I'll add the proviso make sure it's blanched almond flour not whole almond flour for instance trader. Joe's does sell a whole ground up almond flour. And you can actually see the flex of Brown. A number of my patients with autoimmune disease. Do React to the Latin and the peel of almonds. That's why you actually don't see almonds on the approved Nutley's Marcona almonds which are peeled almonds are perfectly acceptable but in my way of thinking there's actually far better announced eat than almonds in terms of feeding gut bacteria and I've written about that in the long jetty paradox. That there's better choices okay. Dairy is one of my protein staples well dairy protein if you find casing a to milk products and they increasingly available That's a perfectly acceptable protein source You can get it from goats milk you can get it from goats cheeses you can get it from sheep cheeses. You can get cheap yogurt. Which is absolutely fantastic. Sheep and goat cheeses from Europe. No matter where they come from her safe and most cows in France Italy and Switzerland are a to producers as is Buffalo Mozzarella so make sure it says Bufalino Mozzarella either from Italy. There's also a company that we've talked about before from Ecuador called BU F. And you can find in a whole foods you can find it in actually multiple stores now and a true water. Buffalo milk is perfectly safe now. Having said that there are a number of people in my practice who when we do. Further testing do react to all the casings in milk and even way protein in milk. So if you notice that even if you're eating casing to melt products and you still have an issue whether it's irritable bowel whether it's mucus production than your one of those people where Melk is one of your off. Food's always remember. There's there's no human need for melt were we're the only animal that uses some other animals melt product. Well cats like it but that's We give it cats. They don't go milk a cow so milk is not essential for your good health. Also remember that while there may be cheeses aged cheeses that have really cool compound called Pollyanna means which appear to promote longevity milk. In general liquid. Milk has lots of insulin. Like growth factor to make baby cows or maybe goats or baby. Sheep grow quickly so I'd much rather you use the finished product of Melk like an age cheese or even a yogurt rather than the milk liquid itself. Okay hope that helps Robin Ass. Can you drink almond milk? Well you you can drink almond milk. I find it a little watery bland. I think there's actually a lot better products out there on the market now. I'm particularly fond of a combination of macadamia and coconut milk. S- that are available. There's some really I think sick delicious. Coconut Milk S- that are available. There are some combinations of almond and coconut. Melt that give you the thickness you want. And if you WANNA have some fun. Look for several of the products that are non dairy half-and-half which are often a mixture of Macadamia a or coconut or almond melts. And you're going to get more of a thicker texture for those but you can drink almond milk. Christiane asked what about honey? Is that on the S or no list. So you'll notice in the plant paradox. Family Cookbook. I do recommend a few recipes using a little bit of local. Honey you gotta remember. That honey is sugar. There's no other way of looking at it. And in general we have far too much sugar in our diet period. That being said if you use local honey. There is some interesting evidence that they contain Health benefiting properties including actually some interesting probiotics and even prebiotics. So it's not it's neither on the no or yes list because when I originally made the list if I put everything that everybody asked a question about It would take the entire book just to do the. Yes and no list so rather than put at one place or another. It wasn't a big thing that my patients were demanding. And so I just left it off the list. One way or another but yeah honey does appear. You'll notice in several of my recipes but do try to get local honey and you know again. Support your local. Beekeeper support your local farmers market. And that's where you're gonNA find local honey and please don't make the mistake that local hunt. So for instance. I live in Palm Springs. My local honey is not from Orange County. It's from Palm Springs Same Way if I'm in Santa Barbara and my other home I buy site Santa Barbara Honey. Do I use it quite frankly? I almost never use on except to make one of these recipes. Rosa's am I correct in understanding. That much of the no list is perfectly fine if pressure cooked. She's specifically looking at squash keen while rice lentils the answer in a general rule is yes There are there is evidence that pressure cooking destroys most leptons. The exception to the rule listed on the list is gluten which is present in wheat. Rye and barley cannot be destroyed by pressure cooking. It is a really nasty protein. That can't be broken apart by pressure cooking having said that there is a protein in oats that mimics gluten and so. I've had a number of my canaries Test even pressure cooking oats for an hour and they still react to oats. So you'll notice that that's on the off. I have a number of people who still want to maintain their traditional diet. Their family diet and that includes lentils and for instance keen one and they do extremely well by pressure cooking their keenum. In fact interesting just this past week I have a family who have keen one. And they pressure cooked they're keen one or thriving on that and they invited their in laws over to have pressure cocaine Wa and the in laws said. There's no way we're coming over. That's not how you Cook Kina and you know you're gonNA make some regular stuff for us and they actually didn't and they fed their family. The pressure cooking. What man he said. You're not going to believe this. My in-laws actually said why didn't you tell us about this before? This is so much better than the way. We've been preparing it so true story from just this past week as you know in the plant paradox. I write about a woman who emigrated to La from Peru and wanted to continue her traditional diet which included keen one She developed some impressive bowel issues. Autoimmune disease and humorously her mother two weeks before her appointment with me flew from Peru and basically said you stupid girl. Didn't I tell you you have to pressure pressure cookie nwe and she took her to bed bath beyond and bought her a pressure cooker and when? I met her She said you know my mother would be you to me. And ever since she's been pressure cooking or keen while she is resolved issues so these are real things white boss mighty rice. I personally feel is the safest of the rices. Please pressure cook it. And as you've read even with with any of the starches you're best off to pressure. Cook them. Put a little coconut oil in the pressure cooker with these starches but then cool the starch. Put it in the refrigerator. And then reheat it the next day cooling. We'll take any of the starches and increase their resistant. Starch content what resistant starch means for those of you who are just kind of getting into this. It is resistant to normal digestion. So it takes longer to digest number one and number two some of it. Actually resists are normal digestion and then is eaten by bacteria in our gut so it becomes a prebiotics. Now we can get really nerdy on resistant starches but really nerdy potatoes. Good old white potatoes can be made a resistant starch but the starch in potato is actually in our to starch and it is actually eaten by bad bacteria rather than good bacteria so it's another reason to avoid potatoes even if you're going to pressure cook them now. I do have some of my patients that have to have their white potatoes and MASH POTATOES. And yes we have them. Peel the potatoes and pressure. Cook them. But if you're looking for a starch that's good for you. That's way down the list. Okay so let's take a quick break. Hey everybody it's doctor here and I've got some very exciting news right now. You can sign up for Dr Countries newsletter as a subscriber you'll get updates about new episodes of the doctor country podcast where we talk about all things. Health Trust me. You won't want to miss out. Also keep you in the loop of all the things. I'm up to from news to events special appearances visit. Www DOT DR dot com to sign up. Okay Sherry S. How do you ensure adequate potassium intake on the Diet? The Nana's are a staple for me to ensure appropriate potassium levels. I know sweet. Potatoes are a good source but so one has to remember that the United Fruit Company who originated bringing bananas to the United States had to make people adopt to a new foods. Sort of one the fascinating things about about bananas that I hope everyone knows that bananas were the original fruit that could be picked green and then shipped across the country and then ripened with either exposure to air or ripen rapidly with exposure to the gas. Ethylene oxide so that was the motivation for making bananas. A desired food source. So how'd you make people eat bananas when they don't know anything about it in the early nineteen hundreds? The United Fruit company paid doctors to tell people that bananas were a great source of potassium. That people need in their diet. It turns out the potassium. 's that potassium is not particularly high in bananas? In fact there are far better foods including leafy Greens that have far more potassium per outs Dan Bananas but it was this marketing plan over one hundred years ago. That actually made people doctors to this day. Tell People Eat Bananas for potassium? Incidentally the United Fruit company formed with the new founded kelloggs cornflakes company in nineteen o six to have a coupon for a bunch of Jakisa bananas in every box of Kelloggs. Cornflakes and doctors were paid to tell people that the healthy way to start. Your Day was with a bowl of kelloggs cornflakes with a slice banana. So that's why you know now I. My mom gave me a healthy sliced banana on my kelloggs cornflakes every day. While I was growing up and while I was getting allergy shots little did I know little. Did she know that's because of the power of marketing and is anyone who learns if you say an untruth often enough and loud enough it will become the truth? How's that okay also? Calcium is a concern so most of the world two thirds of the world cannot drink milk because of lactose intolerance they did not inherit the mutated gene that allows most European ancestry to tolerate lactose. Many of us don't have the particular lactobacillus by can digest. Lactose easily to the world does not use calcium does not take calcium as a supplement the FDA has warned that in general we should not take calcium in a supplement form that we should get calcium which is an essential mineral from food and so it's incredibly available in all of our green leafy vegetables. It's actually President Avocados to a very good amount. It's present in millet and sorghum. It is president and beans and people have to understand I have nothing against beans and lentils as long as you pressure cook them they are a great source of a prebiotic fiber. But just take the time to detoxify the electives by pressure cooking. And it's so easy to do. If you don't WanNa do that you can go to your friendly store and pick up Eden brand beans. I have no relationship with them. E. D. E. N. and they are the only being that I have found that his pressure cooked in the Cam. It's pre soaked and the beep a lie. There is no BP lining in eating beans and believe it or not. I have a shelf full of eating beans in both of my pantries and I eat them. So whoever puts out on the Internet you know I am totally against beans. That's not true I eat them. Maybe I'll post a video meeting beans. That'll be good okay. I'll look for that bottom line. How does one ensure the right vitamin and mineral balance? So if you eat a wide range of different different starches different routes you will maintain an adequate balance one of the things that has been noted over and over and over again. Is that our soil? Even our organic soil is terribly depleted of magnesium and selenium. How do you get when you're one of the easiest ways is to buy a bag of Brazil nuts and he three Brazil nuts day? That will get you your daily requirement of Selenium and. Actually they're pretty good for you. Magnesium on the other hand is really difficult to get by eating food and I have every one of my patients on a magnesium supplement. I particularly like potassium magnesium aspartame eight. There are several companies that manufacture it. Look for the most you can get per tablet or capsule the labeling is very inconsistent if you have any issues with cramps in your legs cramps particularly at night. Or if you're doing a Kita genyk diet you absolutely. Positively must supplement with potassium magnesium aspartame. And it's actually one of the better tolerated. Combinations of magnesium at high dose magnesium will act as a diarrhea or Saas tool inducing agent. Milk of Magnesia is concentrated magnesium so those are the chew two really fundamental minerals that may be lacking in our diet because of our soil. Depletion SHELLY ASS. I love Avocados but in the last five years or so. I have extreme gut pain when I eat them in have eliminated them for my diet. This diet seems to rely heavily on Avocados so I am wondering I am having a problem with them. And what other options do I have? So I have several patients who clearly react to Avocados and some of them actually seemed to develop an intolerance for them the longer they eat them. So I think Avocados or one of the greatest fruits there is and yes on. Avocado is a fruit. It's a single seeded berry but on the other hand. If you see that there is a food that you react to. It's you know like the old doctor job doctor. You know whenever I do this. I get a headache and the answer is well. Don't do that and so if you notice you react. Avocados don't do it. I can tell you. I have a number particularly women who get irritable bladder from eating spinach. And they notice it universally and I can tell you. I have purposely overloaded myself on spinach anti induced irritable bladder myself. So I believe you when you told me that and there are compounds and spinach that are capable of doing that and they actually brings me to an interesting point A patient asked me a couple of weeks ago. The more you kind of stick with this program when you go off even with a little cheat do you notice. You're now realizing that that product that food actually bothers you and I think that's actually a great observation because I noticed that myself and I noticed that in lots of patients normally we are so bombarded with compounds that universally make us feel bad have brain fog. Have bad sleep have pains? We are so used to that that when we take all those products away and we finally wake up when we add that product back our sensitivity is now heighten to the actual effect that product was having on us. And I'll give you an example. It's it's actually in my new book but I'll give you a preface As a transplant surgeon both doing kidney transplants and heart transplants. We would have people who were functioning Quite well with basically horrible kidneys or a horribly pumping heart and they could do a number of things when we would put a kidney in them or a new heart in them within a day they would go. Oh my gosh I forgot what normal felt like. This is what normal feels like. And it's so interesting. I've been so impressed that we have been so surrounded by food that's toxic. That's making us feel bad. Having low energy having fatigue having brain fog that we're so used to that we think that's normal and what's really delights me. Do I mean when it happened to me is when that lists you go? Oh my gosh. I forgot what normal feels like? And so when you add something. Back that is one of the culprits. It's wonderful because now your body says hey you idiot. What did you do that for? You can feel it immediately. So it's it's a real thing Scott from instagram. As can I drink ciders as a beer? Alternative? That is a great question. Scott because I have a gentleman who's in his seventies who has some of the most impressive leaky gut that I've come across. He does not absorb protein. Well he is skinny as a rail and his wife is a faithful follower of mine. And he's actually a faithful fowler of mine except he used to drink a six pack of beer every day. We weened him down to one to two beers per day and he still has leaky gut. So I said I'll tell you what. Let's do a really specific leaky gut test on you. And let's find out your culprit Knowing full well what I think we thought we'd find and Lo and behold all of his leaky gut test game back and son of a gun. I've been telling them this for ten years. He reacts to Wieght and surprise elite in severely to gluten and gluten is in his beer no matter what beer drinking beer has gluten and his wife you know hits them over the head with your pocketbook and say I told you you gotta give up the beer so why. I'm going to do next week when I get back to springs office is I'm GonNa have my staff call and say I'm GonNa make a swap for you. Let's get rid of beer and let's put insider and we're gonNA see what happens. Great Question Yuli from INSTAGRAM ASS is teff flour allowed tough is actually very interesting ancient grain from Africa. It's really tiny. It GROWS IN INCREDIBLY ERA. Did awful places and it's a staple of the people. I go dig wells for in Ethiopia and teff is actually a safe grain. It's another one of those Hollis grain. Tried a by tough. You actually support indigenous farmers so Hannah from instagram asked for high fat dairy products. How important is it to stick with organic dairy products? Es Get organic dairy products but warning if it says grass fed but doesn't tell you the cow breed most of our cows United States Holstein or their jersey. Cows jerseys are half a one and half a to so they do have a one casing in them. The picture elsie the cow was a Jersey cow for those of you who remember board and fame. You're better off getting excuse me cheeses from raw cheeses from France Italy and Switzerland which have all been grass fed. And so they're all organic. You're just much safer so the follow up with that. What about cream cheese well cream cheese does not have any casing in it? I mean there's a microscopic amount but it's on really basically unmeasurable so your safe with organic cream cheese as one of the SAFE. Cow's milk product if you're gonNA use cream cheese so kristen asks what about blue cheese? So there's lots of great blue cheeses out there but I would prefer if you got your blue cheese from particularly France Italy or the mountainous areas of Germany and Switzerland which are all a two cows blue cheese from England and having lived in England. I loved Stilton Cheese. It's the wrong breed of cow. It's a whole steam. So you're much better off getting your blue cheeses like penny and I do from from France. That's the blue cheeses. We use oriented so a Goldstein from instagram. As please recommend a Parillo oil to cook with well there's actually a number of parole oils that are available if you go to an Asian market Pearl oil is the most popular oil for cooking in Korea and parts of China. You can go on Amazon and get it. I get mine from a company called Dr Wonderful Which is easy to find on Amazon? I have no relation He may be wonderful for all. I know But I've been using that for a number of years. My personal feeling is that long term in phase. Two or beyond olive. Oil is your best buddy because it has far more polyphenols than parole oil. The benefit of parole oil is. It has a lot of what's called. Rose MORONIC ACID. Which is one of the secrets to the longevity and good brain health of the Achy role? Is that cute community that is south of Naples which has the oldest the biggest percentage of over one hundred year old people of any community so rose moronic acid which by the way is in one of several of my products is one of the real secrets to longevity so three. Oh three Charlie from instagram wants to know about micro-toxins in coffee and chocolate and other things and he wants to know. Are they really as bad as certain people say they are? That's a great question. I actually take care of a number of people who come to me. With a mold. Exposure or mycotoxin exposure including one of the world's experts on him. And I'll give you my take on all of this. I don't test for these things the fact that you may test positive for G to various mold or other. Fungi does not mean that. Those molds and fungi are in you or that you were ever infected with them. It means that you were exposed to them. And you appropriately made a antibody to these having said that your immune system most of our immune systems because of leaky gut and quite frankly I think about one hundred percents walking around In America have leaky gut and your immune system is so hyper on Stone. Alert that any foreign protein will activate them to attack not only them but you normally when your gut is sealed and you have normal component of microbiome with lots and lots and thousands and millions of different species. Those species literally educate your immune system. That we've got your back. Whatever you're going to swallow will take care of and even if we don't they're not going to bother you and you guys can just rest and stand down. I'm a perfect example of that. I got allergy shots for most of my teenage and young adult life. I don't have any allergies anymore. I was allergic every mold. There was I could live in a moldy house. I will not have any reaction to mold exposure because my immune system is different by the way the Italian government has issued statements that there are no micro-toxins in Espresso so there are not Because the process even if there were the cooking process the high temperature kills and deactivates any mycotoxin. Same Way with chocolate. So if you react to these molds or fungi it's because your immune system is hyper reactive and that's actually telling you. These guys are not the problem. The problem is you got leaky gut. And you got a horrible imbalance microbiome. We fix that. That problem goes away as it did with one of the world's experts in micro-toxins when we changed her leaky gut. So that's it for this week from the Doctor Gunnery podcast. Please send your questions on in. It's really fun to get a chance to answer your questions and send more and we'll be happy to put me on the firing line because I'm Dr Gunnery and I'm always looking out for you. Thanks for joining me on this episode of the Doctor Country. Podcast before you go. I just wanted to remind you that you can find the show on itunes. Google play stitcher or wherever you get your podcast and if you WANNA watch each episode of the Doctor Country Podcast. You can always find me on youtube at Youtube Dot com slash Dr under. Because I'm Dr Country and I'm always looking out for you.

United Fruit Company autoimmune disease Amazon Avocados France Switzerland Pecans Doctor Gunnery Cookbook kelloggs tree nut allergy Dr g Hugh Hugh O. R. M. micro-toxins president Ecuador Europe Palm Springs lactose intolerance
Attack on the National Palace in Guatemala / Marguerite Perey born - October 19

This Day in History Class

13:59 min | 8 months ago

Attack on the National Palace in Guatemala / Marguerite Perey born - October 19

"This episode is brought to you by Candle Wick press publisher of all thirteen when twelve boys in their soccer coach entered a cave looking for some adventure rising floodwaters soon, blocked their path out they were trapped for the next seventeen days. The world watched with bated breath as an extensive rescue operation work together to get the team out safely blending science suspense in cultural insight. All Thirteen is a true story that reads like a heart pounding adventure. All thirteen by Christina's invite available wherever books are sold. What's it like to drive the Volvo xc ninety plug in hybrid? The thrill of four hundred horsepower t eight twin engine. The joy of impromptu road travis. And the serenity. Of Electric Power in pure. Ego. Mode. Visit DMV Volvo retailer today to experience the XC, ninety recharge plug in hybrid for yourself. Hey y'all eve's here. We're doubling up today with two events in history one for me and one from former host Tracy v will thin on with the show. Welcome to this day in history class from how stuff works dot com, and from the desk of stuff you missed in history class. It's the show where we explore the past one day at a time with a quick look at what happened today in history. Hello and welcome to the PODCAST. I'm Tracy v Wilson and effect Tober Nineteenth. Members of the military attack the National Palace in Guatemala on to stay in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, four during the Guatemalan revolution. This revolution had started earlier in nineteen forty four as students and young military officers rose up against president. Biko he had been elected president in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty one and his early presidency included campaign against government corruption improvements to public health an overhaul of Guatemala's infrastructure and helping to stabilize the country's economy. But by nineteen forty four, he had gotten rid of all political opposition and he was governing as a military dictator. His policies had also increasingly favored elite landowners and corporations. Especially, the US based United Fruit company which owned a lot of the arable land in Guatemala, but wasn't actually using most of that land meaning it wasn't available for anyone else to use either he had also implemented things like decree eighteen sixteen, which exempted landowners from prosecution if they used violence to defend their land up to. Murdering, someone. He had also abolished a series of forced labor laws, but then replaced them with vagrancy laws that were very similar in these really amounted to indentured servitude and a lot of cases the so called vagrants who were being forced to work were from Guatemala's Maya. Peoples Ub coup also developed close ties with the United States in the United States was providing Guatemala with armaments and with favorable tariff terms this whole situation. Though, was not unique at all to Guatemala other nations in Central America had various similarly unyielding dictators and control with similar social and economic effects. Similar reliance on one food crop for the economy similar connections to the United States and united. States based business interests and one dictator Maximiliano Arnez Martinez was overthrown in neighboring El Salvador in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, four this overthrow became an inspiration for a similar campaign. against. Yukiko in Guatemala. Not just inspiring the students and other young people to rise up but also inspiring in Yukiko a fear that the same thing might happen to him. So he cracked down on civil liberties he put people who were loyal to him in charge of the university. He basically tried to do what he could to ensure his own power. This had the opposite effect of what he wanted a series. Of protests followed with students at Saint Carlos University petitioning for changes to the university teaching staff and other reforms. Lawyers petitioning for biased judges to be removed from the bench teachers were demonstrating for pay increases and all these initial demonstrations were violent. They included things like boycotts and strikes the Guatemalan government responded to all this by deploying tanks and troops, and using tear gas on the demonstrators placing the capital under martial law. But the demonstrations spread even as the government was placing participants under surveillance and deporting foreign supporters of the movement. Finally at the end of June, tens of thousands of demonstrators were gathered at the Capitol, and because support was really eroding. He resigned July first nineteen, forty four and placed the government under the control of military triumvirate although he allegedly remained in charge, the National Assembly elected one of the triumvirate General Frederick Ponce Vitus, president he promised to their. Free. Election was going to follow but by October, it was obvious that it just was not going to happen and Guatemala was sliding farther and farther away from democracy. The protests continued students and teachers called for a general strike on. October. Sixteenth students and members of the military began taking control of the capital on October eighteenth. There was an attack on the National Palace by members of the military said at the top of the show on October nineteenth. Violence spread through the capital, the presidential guard rebelled and the general finally surrendered on the. Twentieth. This didn't put a total end to the violence or the unrest, but new elections did follow in. December and they were one of the freest elections that Guatemala had seen in decades a new constitution was drafted in one, thousand, nine, forty, five. This constitutional rule lasted for just less than a decade before President Kobo. Arbenz was elected in nineteen fifty one and he had been part of the revolution. He instituted a lot of land reforms including redistributed a lot of that unused land that United Fruit company had been buying up. The United States isn't like that the United States was also threatened by the fact that he legalized the Communist Party in Guatemala. So so the CIA helped overthrow the democratically elected government of Guatemala in Nineteen fifty four thanks to Jeff coat for her research work on today's podcast and Tar Harrison for audio. On this show, you can subscribe to this day in history class at apple podcast, Google podcast, and wherever you get your podcast and you can tune in tomorrow for a political purge. Hi. I'm Katie lowes and on my podcast Katie's Cribb I talk about the ups and downs of parenting no-holds-barred here a few of my favorite moments from Katie's crib presented by target. This halloween target has introduced adaptive Halloween costumes, parents a differently abled children can shop their collection to make sure their kids can express who they are and want to be for Halloween. It's all part of targets belief in good. We can all AFFORD VISIT TARGET DOT COM to learn more my girl Kristen Bell I said to my husband I. Don't want to do antibiotics. If we can get this out the baby is not sucking hard enough I need you to be a team player here and he was like gross he sits down nurses and it was a while I mean it was like thirty minutes. This is very gross. He started getting the block out he started getting his show because. It's Gooey, and then he had to get a cup. He was like gagging which I don't blame has been the the century Katie is now available on iheartradio apple podcasts wherever you get your podcasts. What's up everybody? We're comedy troupe, Obama's other daughters and we wanted to share one of our favorite moments of our podcast. You Don presented by target committed to offering an elevating `black brands including black owned beauty brands is all part of targets belief in good. We can all AFFORD VISIT TARGET DOT COM to learn more. shoot is one of my favorite moments. Were there any dates that really left an impression on you secure? What's yours I? WanNa know I guess I will go with my worst. This guy was like I'm so excited to finally GONNA stay He said he's GonNa take favorite place he picks me up to say me get fro the worst part is like I was trying to like not ice cream like I was trying to be healthy and I hadn't had dinner and I was like, weren't you hungry? Hungry, I was annoyed and I was like going to waste my time. That was one of the worst states I've been. That was the worst day you went on with a man secure frog. No. I'm just saying you live a life of privilege that sounds like that sounds like I would take it as my worst date. How everyone welcome to the show I'm eaves and you're listening to this day in history. Class. A show that uncovers a little bit more about history every day. The day was October nineteenth nineteen o nine. French nuclear chemist and physicist Marguerite Paret was born in Bela Mamba. France. A suburb northeast of Paris. Paret is known for discovering Francia M-, the eighty seventh element of the periodic table and being the first woman elected to the French Academy of Sciences. Paret was born into a middle class Protestant family as a child. She took an interest in science and wanted to study medicine. But her father died in nineteen fourteen leaving her mom to take care of her and her four siblings. Her mother gave piano lessons but the families still faced financial hardship and Marguerite could not go to university. She did however attend local. Law Technique Feminine a school for Female Technicians. Her education, they are qualified her to become a chemistry technician, and after she completed her studies, she became a lab assistant at the radium institute Paris where physicist and Nobel. Prize winner Marie Curie was Director Curie acted as a mentor to Paret. Radio activity the focus of parades work. Her job was to purify actinium a radioactive element that was discovered in eighteen, ninety, nine by chemist Andrea Gibson. Paret was skilled when it came to preparing radioactive sources and she eventually became curious personal assistant. After Kennedy died in nineteen, thirty four Andre. debbie-ann became the director of the Institute and Parade continued researching the properties of actinium. The spectrum of the radioactive elements Barium and strontium. By this time parades work in radio chemistry was well recognized by others in her field but the discovery she's best remembered for happened in nineteen thirty eight. Scientists were trying to find element eighty-seven on the periodic table. One of just a few elements that they thought were missing from the periodic table. In her research paret realized that the actinium she had purified was emitting unexpected radiation. After a series of tests, she came to the conclusion that she discovered a new element. One that was predicted by Dmitri mental as periodic table. It was element eighty-seven with an atomic weight of two twenty three. She initially called the element Actinium K., but it was later renamed Francia after her home country. Jan, Perrin announced the discovery to the French Academy of Sciences in early January nineteen, thirty nine. Paret began working on the chemical and nuclear properties a France and studying artificial radioactivity. She got a grant to study at the Sorbonne in Paris and in Nineteen forty six, she got her doctorate of physics. Parade went on to work at Francis National Center for Scientific Research and she studied the biological effects of Francia at the University of Strasbourg where she was made head of the Department of Nuclear Chemistry in Nineteen, forty nine. By the late nineteen fifties a nuclear chemistry lab she directed Strasborg. Part. Of a larger nuclear research facility. In nineteen, sixty two, she was elected as the first female corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences. She remained head of her lab in Strasbourg until her death. In her last years, she continued to receive awards and the press recognized her as a notable scientist. Unfortunately her story was also a cautionary tale about safety measures that are necessary when working with radiation. Paret was diagnosed with cancer in the nineteen sixties. After years of dealing with that diagnosis, which was a result of her prolonged exposure to radiation. She died in France in May nineteen, seventy five. I'm used up coat and hopefully you know a little more about history today than you did yesterday. Feel free to share your thoughts or your innermost feelings with us and with other listeners on social media at T.. D.. H C, podcast. If emails, your thing send us. This Day at Iheartmedia Dot, com. Thanks for listening to today's episode, we'll see you again tomorrow. For more podcasts from iheartradio visit, the radio, APP apple podcasts, or wherever you listen to your favorite shows.

Guatemala Marguerite Paret United States France apple Guatemala Katie lowes president French Academy of Sciences National Palace United Fruit company actinium Paris DMV Volvo physicist Candle Wick Christina Yukiko Strasbourg
Part Two: Edward Bernays: The Founding Father of Lies

Behind the Bastards

59:20 min | 2 years ago

Part Two: Edward Bernays: The Founding Father of Lies

"Would not rob story that you tell off. My daughter was beaten to death and Catherine Townsend host of the true crime podcasts Helen gone and I'm heading back to Arkansas on a new case to find out what what happened to Janey Ward on September ninth in one thousand nine hundred nine when there's no justice done it hurts a lot of people listen to hell and gone. That's H.. E. L. L. and gone on Apple podcasts or on the iheartradio APP or wherever you get your podcasts eating my bags of I'm Robert Evans this behind the pastors the show where I talk about terrible people and try new intros. This one was inspired by something soapy said minutes. It's before I started this episode. When Jamie Loftus expressed a concern that someone would hear her chewing and would attack her for it on the Internet and Sophie said that person could eat a bag of Dick's which is why the show opened that way? I like like the context Robert Your stugotz providing historical context everything including things that just happened. It's necessary. Everyone needs to understand why why I say the things that I say and why open this show with what's eating my bags of Dick's. I understand why people are bothered authored by <hes> an occasional eating sound on Mike but I encourage everyone to remember that this is entertainment that is free and if you don't like it you can simply go pay for something now or you'd a bag of digs according to settle rita bag upticks eat a bag of Dick's and then other people will hear you chewing now I do. I do have to have a lot of sympathy for people who just like for whatever reason <hes> can't stand the sound of other people chewing because it it bugs me sometimes with certain people like I can't stand the sound of other people eating eating cereal. It drives me fucking nuts other foods. I don't have an issue with but cereal. Isn't that something you can control and so I don't judge people for having issues with it but it is an occasional part of life. It is an occasional part of life. People eat food <hes> and that's just the world in which we live in one day robots will do all of our eating for us but that day is not today now now. Let's start talking about Eddie Lebron as again so at the start of our last episode I made the case that it would Bernice deserves to be considered one of America's founding fathers he invented the tactics publicity stunts N._p._R.. Flax masquerading as journalists that so dominate our national discourse today you can look at that vogue article about Asthma al-Assad which we discussed in the bizarro Assad episode. It's just one of many descendants of Eddie Brenes tactics. He got women smoking. He helps make thin be vogue. He invented fo- socially conscious add tactics that cloak capitalism in robes robes of charity and perhaps more than anything else he invented bacon as a staple of the American breakfast yes yes I don't know what do you call the kind of person who will not shut up about up bacon besides obnoxious eaters every time because I I love Bacon. That's great I who doesn't Love Bacon. Even if you think it's unethical to eat you agree that it smells tastes incredible. I Love Bacon but I dislike when people I feel like it is a talking point for Marez. I've like anytime anytime an R._A.. COMES UP. They're like oh look Jimmy Mom. She doesn't even like like Beer Babes and bacon like this. I've I've been people have invoked the three BS at me before it is a weird talking point and I would like to hold Edward Bernez personally responsible for it. Yeah I mean it's it's one of those things we're like. <hes> the the story of how Bacon became what it is right now which is like this internet famous like everybody does these <hes> Oh look at this thing that's made I made a Burger Patty entirely woven bacon or whatever like all of these. It's clicked Bacon. Yeah yeah like that's a tactic to get people because people were eating less bacon so they were like head. We Make Bacon cool. It was incorporated into like the random culture of the mid-2000s. I feel like everyone kinda funny word yeah everyone would like an invader invader Zim Sleeve of tattoos talks about Bacon too much and if you're like a company that produces a product and you can have it be that kind of popular where like people are making random Internet jokes just because the word Word Bacon is funny and then it you know it and then they eat more bacon like it's one of those things it works because as I was researching how Eddie Brenes Made Bacon go viral in America I craved Bacon. I and I bought a whole fucking pile of Bacon and ate it because I desperately wanted to eat bacon after reading everything that had been you see a bunch of in it's the same thing like you see a bunch of Bacon memes on twitter and it's like these are dumb and like doc understand how stupid they are but Bacon is delicious and now I'm GonNa go eat some help. When the product is fun to consume yeah yeah it really does now in the mid nineteen twenties beech-nut packing company who is one of America's major bacon producers had noticed their sales were starting to plummet this may have had something to do with the thinness craze that Eddie Brenes had actually helped spark whatever the cause Americans were eating lighter breakfasts and going without bacon more mornings than the not so beech-nut packing company hired Bernez to turn shit around now Jamie the average standard adman move might have been to attack the competition and try to steal market share from other bacon companies but Brenes knew there was no point in doing that beech-nut stood to make way more money by just changing America's breakfast habits to include too much bacon? He instituted this change the same way he got America smoke by finding doctors in bribing them to light of the country going going to quote from an ink dot Com article here Brenes contacted a doctor he knew and who also had substantial financial ties to his agency and Commission to study on the Health Effects of Bacon when the physician came back with was that Bacon was in fact the perfect breakfast food food and that it replaces the energy you lose during sleep. I fucking I I love twenties like bad medical advice reasoning cigarettes. Go Your Own Bacon replaces. Your sleep energy just like inventing things that don't actually exist well yeah of course you're going to have less energy after sleeping so you need bacon is exhausted. ZSA ZSA contradicts the very concept of sleep. Yeah it's it's it's amazing. It's incredible once assured of these results as ask the doctor to communicate his findings to the medical community which he did by distributing them to a list of five thousand M._D.'s across the country with a no time doctors from coast to coast. We're recommending that their patients eat bacon for breakfast and the eating habits of a nation were transformed so there we go thanks Eddie. I mean that that is I think one of the more positive things that he did for the world I mean it's never good to lie about something being healthy. That's not healthy but that's certainly wasn't his idea and innocent was he's idea to say that a healthy I that's been happening since before before Edward Bernez that low lying about something being healthy. No I mean not just lying about something being healthy finding a doctor to cook up a fake study. You got something being healthy to make that go viral so that people would start eating all of the Bacon in the world like you can tie so much like our modern health bullshit to Edward Bernez getting a doctor to be like Bacon replenishes your energy and and now it's like it's come down to be like no K._o.. Juices like you gotta fight cancer and stuff but at all it's descended from the same tactic by Dr has wouldn't be possible without Edward Yeah Yeah because before like yeah you'd have lies where people would be like this morphine. Cough Syrup is good for your kid but after medicine started to really become a thing and like antibiotics were real and like it was clear that like doctors were more legitimate that they'd been in the old saw bones days. He's right rene was the first guy to be like okay. We'll I've got a I've got a kick this up a notch. I can't just lie about something being healthy. I got a bribe doctors to lie about something being healthy and that's how we're GONNA fuck it. Get this shit on the road and it worked and it worked and I'm <music>. I'm not mad about it. It's a it's a bad practice but I like Bacon breakfast so do I it's delicious and he was objectively right that it's a fantastic breakfast food but I did feel see I'd be remiss if I didn't talk talk a little bit about the health consequences of all of this bacon consumption on the American people so I found an article yeah I found an article on the Guardian about an announcement made by the World Health Organization based on the conclusions of twenty two cancer experts and ten countries reviewing more than four hundred studies on the health impact of processed meats like bacon quote the W._H._o.. Advised that consuming fifty grams of process me today equivalent to just a couple rashes of Bacon or one hotdog would raise the risk of getting bowel cancer by eighteen percent over a lifetime eating larger amounts raises your risk more learning at your own risk of cancer is increased from something like five percent doesn't mean like six percent may not be frightening enough to put off bacon sandwiches forever but learning that consumption of processed meat causes an additional thirty four thousand worldwide cancer deaths. A year is much more chilly so if we're if we're calculating the death toll of Eddie Brenes on top of that two hundred million dead cigarette ladies we had another thirty four thousand a year from Bacon can bake and edge Lawrence. Wow wow that's brutal. Okay that is brutal now. I'm a fair man Jamie and unlike with tobacco. I don't think we can blame burn as for purposefully harming here because back in the twenties whiskey was still medicine listen and while he knew that his medical expert was paid lying schill to get people to eat more bacon he did not know that Bacon was going to give our grandparents bowel cancer so you can blame him somewhat for that because he knew he was lying for money but it's not like with cigarettes where he knew he was getting people to give themselves cancer. He had yeah like where you had the research and had a counter argument prepared yeah okay yeah. I almost like willing to defend him for this of just like yeah. It's not good to have a like a snake oil Dr Cop for your product but if the product ain't delicious if the pro damned if this is fucking taste you know now over the course of the roaring twenties Bernez gradually refined his strategy <hes> create newsworthy stories by any means necessary and use that to generate demand for the product he was representing. He eventually turned it into something like a science by nineteen. thirty-one Brenes was raking in more than sixty thousand dollars a year in profits which equates to more than nine hundred thousand dollars a year in modern dollars by nineteen thirty five he was earning five times that much but Edward Bernez was not just content being good at his job and making he money he wanted to be seen an intellectual titan a serious scholar of mass consciousness so he started writing books propaganda in nineteen twenty eight which was about well. You know propaganda. This quote from the book is telling about how Bernez ideology developed quote the conscious intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in a democratic society those manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute. What an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country? We are governed our minds are molded our tastes formed in our idea suggested largely by men we have never heard of it is they. Who pull the wires that control the public mind? He writes this considering considering himself a good guy which is amazing because like this is almost exactly what Alex Jones believes about the world. He just thinks it's a different group of people had brigades. It's like this is what we're doing. It is so funny like how books of this era that it's just like you sound like a villain but but he is of the time he sees himself as the good gay for shirt and Bernez considered himself a liberal but he was also very elitist liberal so not a populist not a socialist socialists. Certainly he was one of those people who feared and reviled the masses much of his work in the cynicism behind it came from his strongly held belief that the masses were fundamentally dumb in dangerous they had to be lead and molded by men like him who could channel channel. They're unconscious desires in productive or at least profitable directions cool so not not an ego issue with him and dotted all no not an ego issue thinking that he knows what's good for the world better than the people of the world. Everyone not not at all but me and I'm going to kill them with cigarettes exactly any Brenes. That's a that's a fucking epitaph. Someone find his his gravestone and carve that in their everyone is trashed opened me so I'm going to get them hooked on cigarettes amazing. There's eighteen thirty yeah SARS. WHO's the jewel equivalent of Eddie Bernez today? I'm just one I mean he's the guy who runs Joe. Maybe yeah who runs Israel all right. I'M GONNA investigate anyways continue <hes> in one thousand nine thirty three. He published what would become his most influential work crystallizing public opinion. His focus in this book was on what he called the engineering of consent a phrases horrifying five yard. It's it's sounds horrible right like that's bad. That sounds like some Tucker Max Shit Yeah. That sounds like a little tucker maxi okay. What does that what does he the goal all of engineering consent he says is to provide leaders with the ability to quote control in regiment the masses according to our will without their knowing about it consent like yeah yeah? I just have to remind hi everyone at no point did Brenes consider himself a bad guy. He's saying this shit and he thinks like but I'm in the right here. You hear this stuff. It's no wonder that however many years in the future his daughter's like no he wasn't that great like. Michael he was he was kind of a piece of shit on his daughter seemed kaieda consistent about that use the phrase piece of Shit but they're very critical all the fact he's able to be like on the feminist I did kill like one million ladies killed all of the women who were alive in my day other than that. I was very progressive. Yeah now obviously while burn as considered himself a good guy he was very popular among long bad guys and starting in the nineteen twenties he accrued a new in increasingly influential fan a fellow you might have heard about by the name of Joseph Gurgles now yeah <hes> there we go even though Bernez himself was Jewish gurgles loved him. He kept a copy of crystallizing public opinion in a place of honor in his office and utilized all of Brenes well-worn techniques to create a cult personality around Adolf Hitler according to an article unborn as in the conversation quote Bernez learned that the Nazis were using his work in nineteen thirty three from a foreign correspondent for hearst newspapers. He later recounted in his nineteen sixty five autobiography. They were using my books as the basis for destructive campaign against the Jews of Germany the shocked me but I knew that any human activity could be used for social purposes or misused for antisocial ones this observation what's that they use the phrase antisocial purposes to describe the Holocaust is very diplomatic. It's also interesting because it's exactly the terminology Nazis used they called people like homosexuals. People like Trans folks and Jewish people themselves a social that was one of the terms they used to talk about the people who they later exterminated interesting to me now this Observation Lead Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter to warn Franklin Roosevelt against allowing Bernez to play a leadership role in World War Two describing him and his colleagues as professional poisoners of the public mind exploiters foolishness fanaticism and self interest which is very true yeah. That's a lot more direct yeah yeah which is why vibrant as does not get to have as much fun in World War Two as he had in World War One real tragedy there now. It's shocking to me that Bernez was surprised to see his tactics used for evil he had not confined himself to the political ethical realm in one thousand nine hundred four he'd helped popularize President Calvin Coolidge by creating the nonpartisan committee for Callen Calvin Coolidge and basically hiring famous people to come to the White House and chill out with the President Coolidge hetty reputation for being cold and utterly a a humorous sober nays made sure that we're headlines about Al Jolson the most popular comedian of the day making him laugh three weeks after this article ran coolidge won reelection so he made coolidge seen cool man. It's it's horrible but sometimes when I hear news from this era I'm like well. Maybe people just shouldn't have been so fucking stupid there. It is though it's the same thing as donald trump showing up on Jimmy Kimmel show or not Jimmy Kimmel. What's his fucking name? Jimmy Fallon the Jimmy Fallon show in having his hair tussle. It's the same thing it's like. This guy has a bad reputation put him with a famous popular comedian and that'll make him look nice. Those people are yeah. That'll make him seem at least hume yeah exactly it's exactly what worked Don coolidge networked with Donald Trump. Your Life is hell. Brennan is also worked with Herbert Hoover. He advised the president's administration is it fought to sell the nation Huber's disastrously incompetent policies aimed at mitigating the Great Depression Bernez influence on hoover is obvious in this line from speech hoover gave to a group of advertising executives you have taken over the job of creating Ziya and transforms people into constantly moving happiness machines machine which of the key economic progress constantly. Let's do not know your evil. If you're calling people happiness machines living happiness machine sounds like a shady R._e._M.. Song no it sounds like a great r._e._M.. Album sevens sevens constantly moving happiness machines. Yeah that is basically an R._A._M.. Album right there was a shiny happy. People like yeah yeah sounds just weird in areas enough to be in our album constantly moving happiness Venus machines. It's so uncanny valley. It's fucking wild fucking Herbert. Hoover says that the guy who sees the Great Depression and it's like clearly this solution to this is more capitalism. We we just didn't go far enough. It was a commitment issue. It was full yeah. It was a commitment issue. Yeah all right yeah yeah so Bernez advised Herbert hoovers campaign and it's attempt to defeat the rise of Democratic candidate edited Franklin Delano Roosevelt according to the father of spin quote I he would enlist his cadre of disinterested experts from Business Labor in academia only this time he was out to win over the entire nation which meant signing up as many as twenty five thousand group leaders to his nonpartisan fact-finding committee hoover it would get out the word that the economy was about to turn around and they would help puncture the inferior personality of Roosevelt by convincing voters at the Democratic candidate was not the progressive people thought he was and that he has been subject to Tammy and political nickel Jabari dividing the opposition was the key to comp conquering Brenes believed in this case persuading the fifteen million Americans who had voted for years before for Democrat Alfred Smith to switch to hoover right in Smith's name or simply stay home on election day one publicity campaign would spotlight leading Democrats who thought it had been a mistake to nominate Roosevelt instead of Smith and other would show hoover to be a courageous humane leader who brought the nation piece if not prosperity Brenes also made clear as he had in his corporate campaigns that the best way to win over for the public was by appealing to instant rather than reason always keep in mind the tendency of human beings to symbolize their leaders as Achilles heel proof his strategy paper advise also that the inferiority complex of individuals will respond to feeling superior to to a fool create issues that appeal to pugnacious instincts of human beings now you may recognize all this as the exact same strategy that worked in two thousand sixteen literally feeling very familiar vince leftists to say home convince them that the person the other Democrat who lost the nomination that they should right in that person's name instead and get them to what to fight in order to like like focus on the instincts that make them angry rather than the stuff that brings them together like it's the it's the same strategy that worked in two thousand sixteen eighteen but fuck fuck crucially. Thankfully it didn't work in this campaign which is why the United States did not turn into a fascist health state like Germany and why the Nazis Lost World War Two so thankfully F._d._R.. was just to fucking good at running political campaign to lose to this but it worked a century almost singer later so many thoughts and I'm GonNa none of them allowed at this time. There is oh boy you know it'll clear your your minds pal Jamey forever. I just really need some capitalist messaging to do me through the next couple of minutes on a couple of products a servicer three and then we'll be we'll be we'll be on the fucking road to a happy town the exact baking pallet cleanser. I'm seeking all right now which are type of product in a lot of emails Ellsberg cold-case all the time and usually when I look at a story I can tell him. The first five minutes probably happened but this one is really strain. I'm Katherine Townsend host of the true crime podcasts Helen gone in hours asking people which wrong so much room and we're getting the sheriff's office he said James Dan no explanation. Janey Ward was sixteen years old when she died under mysterious circumstances she was at a party at a cabin in the woods in the small town on of Marshall Arkansas story that she fell off my daughter would be today. I'm heading back to Arkansas on a new case to find out what happened to Cheney Ward on in September ninth nine thousand nine hundred nine listen to hell and gone. That's H.. E. L. L. and gone on Apple podcasts or on the iheartradio APP or wherever you get your podcasts we're back. I hope you'll enjoy those ads for Raytheon. <hes> which which you know <hes> is the finest provider of of missile guidance equipment. I'm going to use the discount code. It's funny money. Were joking about Raytheon a bunch but I grew up in Plano Texas where they're headquartered and like my scoutmaster is a kid like the Guy who taught me how to start a fire. Survive in the Wilderness did something for Raytheon and we don't know what he all he could could save his job is that he worked for Raytheon and he was the kind of guy who like whatever he did. The way that he relaxed every year was by spending a month alone in the bottom of the Grand Canyon like he's been doing some any any person who needs to take a very specific alone dark annually is doing something good for a living like what he would sometimes go with a friend in one year that friend broke his leg and so he had to like us a flair to get the guy helicoptered out and then he he continued alone for weeks after that like that's whatever he did it work like that's how he what he needed in order to like get straight again afterwards and he would return from this feeling cleanse and ready to Fuck Shit up for eleven nine months. I mean it's one of those things. I don't know what the fuck he was doing. I'm sure it's horrible. He also like taught me everything I know about wood crafting and I'm I'm always be grateful for that he was that he was an incredible woodsmen man a complicated man the odor. I've gotten in the more I've learned about Raytheon the more at started to be like Oh my God. What the fuck were you doing? I'm thrilled to be descended from a long line of weed smoking remedial algebra teachers and it's very uncomplicated implicated existence. People never hurt nobody nobody and they certainly never taught nobody anything about Algebra. So when we last left off Edward Auburn as head invented Donald Trump's twenty sixteen election strategies so it's fucking wild hurt my heart to here yeah yeah now obviously his attempts to stop F._D._R.. From winning the election did not work. They weren't even close hoover got one of the most resounding defeats in the history of American politics tone-deaf weird out yet. He was a tone deaf Weirdo. He was terrible president president. He was a terrible terrible president. One of the worst we ever had but Eddie's tactics for engineering consent worked more often than they didn't Bernez knew that well and as a clearly intelligent man he should have known that writing out a how to who guide for manipulating mass consciousness could be used by Nazis just as well as it could be used by people who wanted to sell cigarettes but Bernez wanted to be regarded as a great unserious thinker in the only way to do that was to publish a book and make sure everyone knew how smart he was. What Bernez did with crystallizing public opinion was the propaganda equivalent of Phil figuring out how to build an atom bomb with household materials and then just throwing the instructions up on read it now? It's like yeah you how to make a bomb inside of fight club up like what why put that in the thing need now. The grossest part of the story is that many of the ideas Bernez wrote about in crystallizing public opinion weren't even his own ideas originally years before an academic named Walter Lippmann had published a book called public opinion according to an article I found in the International Journal of communication quote what Bernez represents is a friendly reading public opinion in his own quickly crafted sequel to Lipton's book crystallizing public opinion in is actually a calculated reversal of argument Lipman was of a human critic of propaganda who condemned the manufacturer of consent by public relations when that field was still in its infancy crystallizing public opinion converts and subverts Lipton's radical critique into an apology apology for P._R.. So this Guy Littman who's a serious scholar represents what people like Bernazard doing recognizes it sees it as horrifying and writes a book outlining y what they're doing is dangerous and then burn as basically flips that around into uh-huh. This guy wrote out really well what we're doing. I'll just turn it into a how to guide to make it easier for other people to do just strips but nobody deaf explain how to do it. Let's just take out the parts where we talk about. Why it's culturally he says this is a nightmare? You did tell us how to build the bomb. Just delete it. All the stories about people dying with bombs yeah about the consequences of bomb US okay so once Bernez book was out and into the hands of men like Joseph Gerbils Brenes finally started to get what he wanted respect New York University. Let him teach the very first P._R.. Course in academic history while Lipman was in remains respected in the Industry Bernez ideas took a much deeper hole. Unfortunately those ideas included stereotypes are awesome actually going to quote again from that International Journal Communication Article Quote Littman was consistently critical of the manipulation of public opinion by wartime propaganda in the transfer of propaganda techniques to peacetime endeavors conversely Bernez contends that propaganda has positive social value in creating unified purpose in wartime agreement on industrial purposes in Peacetime Brune as regards stereotypes as quote a great aid that the Public Relations Council in his work because they can be grasped by the average mind even though he acknowledges they are not necessarily truthful pictures of what they're supposed to portray no matter according to Brenes P._R.. Practitioners can you stereotypes to reach a public and then add their own ideas to fortify their position and give it greater carrying power P._R.. Can and also create new stereotypes to advance clients interests. He does however acknowledge that stereotypes have one disadvantage demagogues can use them to take advantage of the public the only disadvantage of stereotype as long as he. Set there well I mean this is at least we're getting into <hes> the cartoon villain territory that I've come to expect with this program because I was feeling to challenged at the beginning. I'm like oh no he descends into egotistical mystical madness okay yeah he's literally saying like well. Stereotypes can be used to create fascism and they're also usually lies but they help you sell shit usually come and people who have no negative stereotypes about themselves South Yeah Yeah but it doesn't burn as well. This is actually another interesting thing better. Bernez was Jewish by like birth but he was an atheist and he was like angry that people considered him Jewish <hes> because he he just didn't WanNa be <music> identified as religious at all but like you'd think he would understand how dangerous stereotypes it sounds. He sounds like he always understands that but would but needs risk the respect and like the whatever our glory can come being the father of spin more than he cares about any one. It's like I mean I understand like based on the kind of like figure he's trying to be. I understand why he would divorce himself from any identity Kennedy at all because yeah but what a good he'd be you know I'm GonNa tool. I'm just like stuffing my face with Bacon. I'm stressed Oh. I'm going to eat so much bacon. After this fucking episode still winning. He can't winning yeah. Edward Manet spent his life taking advantage of the public after World War Two that meant fighting the Cold War in the name of capitalism. He convinced President Eisenhower that the right reaction to the threat of the Soviet Union was to urge Americans Americans towards an irrational fear of communism in order to drive spending Eisenhower's first political campaign directly tied consumer culture to patriotism dominating. Oh yeah culminating in his you auto by slogan Kurato is in Car Eisenhower was telling Americans it. was there patriotic duty to buy more things. That's how you beat. The commies is by embracing consumerism well now raytheon yeah yeah really on like raith like a wonderful people literally the on yeah now the bulk of his anticommunist work of Bernez anticommunist work would however be done in the name of a corporation not the United States government in that corporation was the United Fruit company now how United Fruit Chiquita owned a huge chunk of Guatemala in the late forties and early fifties they had secured the Central American Empire by basically bribing and cutting wildly beneficial deals with the corrupt government in the area this allowed them to grow and export bananas at very low cost but it also completely screwed over the local workers and insured they made virtually no money from the trade and that the nation of Guatemala itself did not benefit in any meaningful way from united fruits booming sales the whole state of of affairs owed an awful lot to Edward Bernez for one thing he helped make bananas popular in America United Fruit hired him in the late forties with a mandate to add the fruit to America's Diet Brenes achieve this goal by using his usual tactics he founded doctor who said bananas were good for people and then engineer to state of new stories around the country about the amazing health benefits of Bernie of Bananas Classic Bernez which is not a bad thing in our great for you. Great thing is approach is so unwavering whether he's like Yeah Bananas Bananas cigarettes like reds fire kind of all the same yeah all right fine someone with a fancy title to light to America Yeah Yeah which is still works today. There's still like whole T._v.. Channels AH dedicated to yeah yeah fucking Dr Phil like if it was just fill nobody would give a shit so as time went on Edward Brenes made his actual visits to Guatemala it became clear to him how bad add conditions actually wear for most Guatemalans under years of corrupt rule Guatemala's leaders exempted the United Fruit company from most internal taxes. They let it import goods duty-free they gave it control of the nation's only Atlantic seaport and almost all of its railroads they capped workers salaries at no more than fifty cents a day since united fruit was the country's largest employer and landowner this effectively locked the entire nation into perpetual serfdom to an American fruit company now Edward Burn as was above all else the kind of guy who didn't need to see himself as a hero and this was more than he could bear according to the father of spin quote when he returned from a month-long company-sponsored trip to Guatemala in Honduras in September nineteen forty seven Brenes wrote his company clients a long memo warning eating them about low worker morale in substandard living conditions goodwill of all groups towards fruit company is poor he said ignorance conscious and unconscious distortion by Politicos and power or seeking powered by fellow travelers and communist influences all contribute their part Guatemala isn't a state eight of transition. All these situations complicate the issue and make the company vulnerable unless certain things happen he advised united fruit to basically share just a tiny tiny tiny bit of the wealth they were making in order to alleviate conditions on the ground and reduce unrest being gigantic capitalist behemoth helmed entirely by racist to believe Brown people were sub-human United Fruit was unwilling to do this Bernez later wrote the people in the tropics were remote from Boston. They produce their banana quotas and that was what counted fruit company executives in the tropics tough characters who come up through the ranks they were action oriented men. Whatever posed must've seemed like mollycoddling? I got no reaction to my voluminous report now based on his own code of ethics which he outlined in his nineteen twenty eight book propaganda Bernez should have quit he'd written a good p._r.. Man Quote refuses a client whom he believes dishonest a product which he believes to be fraudulent or cause which he believes to be antisocial his resume look at his fucking resume yeah yeah yeah and Bernez clearly believed that united fruits behavior was antisocial but he also knew that they were paying him one hundred thousand dollars a year so he continued to work for them and as left-wing movements rose in the country and agitated for taking back some of Guatemala's natural resources from United Fruit Bernez advised his employers on how to fight back in one thousand nine fifty two he wrote this whole manner of effective counter communist propaganda is not one of improvising could only be fought by the same scientific approach that is applied. Let us say to a problem of fighting a certain plant disease through scientific method of approach now the disease in Guatemala from the perspective of United Fruit Edward Brenes was a fellow named Kobo Armez. Now our best was not a communist but he was a socialist in nineteen fifty one he'd been elected president of Guatemala. His big campaign issue is land reform upon taking office he'd launched degree nine hundred a program that confiscated four hundred thousand acres of unused united fruit land and redistributed to poor Guatemalan farmers in nineteen fifty yeah. It seems like a great idea in nineteen fifty. One only about ten percent of Guatemala Land was actually available for purchase for the ninety percent of its people who might want to own it united fruit had bought up everything else in their tax filings. They'd reported on the land is being almost valueless essentially Barron in order to pay less money in taxes so when Arbenz seized their land he only paid them back the incredibly low value that they'd assessed for its value now. This would seem like Karma justice. If everything about to HAP- talk about hadn't happened the next so yeah yeah I it's it's really kind of like united fruits like oh no this land almost worthless so they'd have to pay much taxes on it and then when our best buys it back he's like well okay then I'll pay you the worthless price for the land and <hes> yeah yeah unable to Duncan him yeah yeah I one of the only things that this shitty man hadn't done was <hes> ruin country that wasn't his own but oh he's got around to that as he got around to that shit real quick and also oppressing people <hes> nationally great now united fruit went to the Eisenhower administration and wind that the seizure of their lane was clear example of people communism sneaking into Latin America. They warned the president that it wouldn't stop it. Just returning Guatemala's land to its people united fruits inconvenience would be the first domino to fall eventually taking all of America freedom and capitalism with it now. That's a rather hard line line of bullshit to sell thankfully united fruit had the greatest salesman on the planet the year before the government had started its land expropriation program Bernez had actually suggested United Fruit launch in media campaign to quote induce the President and State Department to issue a policy pronouncement comparable to the Monroe doctrine concerning expropriation his idea was to convince Americans specifically Americans in power that the Arbizu administrations totally just land reform was the same as say Joseph Stalin murdering five million Ukrainian peasants through starvation genocide he planned to start by picking tin popular magazines including Reader's Digest in the Saturday Evening Post and convincing their editors to run similar stories about the crisis in Guatemala quote from grenades in certain cases stories would be written by staff men in certain other cases the magazine might ask us to supply the story and we intern would engage in most suitable writer to handle the matter so yeah just so just not a lot of fact checking going on at this new yeah. He's he's providing the facts to journalists yeah now. One that still happens another thing that has not stopped happening. Yep Yep Yep cool once Guatemala land expropriation really got started in earnest United Fruit Greenland Brenes campaign. He engineered a whole spate of stories aimed at making Cobo Armez looked like a Mayan Mao this culminated on a two week to a two week tour of Guatemala in which Bernez led several journalists through the country in nineteen fifty to here's the father of spin quote within the publishers of Newsweek the Cincinnati Inquirer the Nashville banner in the New Orleans item contributing editor from time the foreign editor of scripts Howard and high ranking officials from the United Press The San Francisco Chronicle Michael the Miami Herald in the Christian Science Monitor Brenes insisted in his memoirs that the journalists were free to go where they wanted talk to whoever they wanted in report their findings freely and he reacted angrily suggestions in later years that the trip was manipulative but Thomas McCain who in the nineteen fifties was young public relations official with United Fruit wrote in his memoirs the trip and others like it were under the company's careful guidance and of course at company expense the trips were extensively together information but what the press wood here and see was carefully staged regulated by the host the plan and represented a serious attempt to compromise objectivity moreover it was a compromise implicit in the invitation only underscored by Brenes and the company's repeated claims to the contrary so that's cool so he's just generating a bunch of bullshit that by the people that he can then I mean it's just like a different version of what he did with the doctors but more yeah like Oh well Janice journalists are credible so let me find someone who will and their name to a whole pile of bullshit. That's too much for people to read on their own. The noticed be like all right works for me yeah. He knew what sort of newspapers everyone on the White House was reading and he made sure that they all published stories about how Communism was overtaken Guatemala right simple as that all right okay cool well. I A fucking hate this guy you know what I don't fucking hate Jamie what Robert the wonderful products and services that support our program. I'm honest. I can't wait to hear about more of them. I hope it's Chiquita banana add Dan. I hope it's an Ad Chiquita for I hope it's an ad for the new Chiquita wire guided <hes> bananas which which of course manufactured in part by Raytheon guidance chips yeah educated Banana Amazon Prime Crossover Yeah Yeah Yeah. Let's get all of the big companies working together to to drone strike bananas into the mouths of hungry people love IT products. This podcast began with a simple premise but things don't always go as planned and something happened during production something no one expected. I'm going to let you in a dark secret secret south that have tried to hide from almost every one of the past few years. I can't sleep at night and when I am able to sleep I have nightmares not the kind of nightmares that had child might have but the kind that can only come from the mind of a grown adult who scene and read a little too much. I'm hoping that if I can give this off my chest maybe just maybe I'll be able to shake these killers out of my head long enough to get some much-needed rest from iheartradio and ten foot TV muster presents INSOMNIAC listen two months to presents INSOMNIAC on Apple podcasts or whatever else you get your podcasts. We're back hind. We're talking about Eddie Boo and he can. He get worse. Yes yes <hes> <music> spoiler alert in like a minute NAFF. We'll be talking about genocide so long. The worst smell yes the whole banana yeah now true to form Edward Bernez also commissioned scholarly studies in order to lend extra legitimacy to united fruit she commissioned a twenty five page content analysis of seventeen thousand words spoken by Guatemala's new left-wing leaders and then compare them to statements from Soviet leaders. The conclusion of the report was obvious the our best administration were hard line commies quote every item mentioned it almost verbatim form is frequently found in Soviet propaganda messages. I love some good false equivalence. It's like literally all the Shitty memes on the Internet that like reply guys get into your mentions and they're like oh well. You said this and this fucking murderer also said this word so you're murderer dude in yeah fun and they're the same guys who will tell you it's not valid to point out when somebody literally repeats Nazi Propaganda Verbatim. It's a quite quite amazing and like the thing that they're calling communism here. I WANNA point. <music> out like our beds was was a socialist was not a communist was a guy who like his most radical stance was like no the old incredibly corrupt leaders of our country sold all of our nation's national resources to a fruit company for pennies pennies on the dollar so that they could get rich and it's locked our nation into a form of slavery and we're just not gonna let that happen like you don't get to own the whole country because you bought it from a corrupt asshole twenty years ago fuck that that's what he's saying. It's the people as yeah yes yeah yeah and he's not even kicking united fruit out. He's taking the land that they hadn't developed at all. They were just holding onto in case and saying we're going to give this to people like the company could've still made a shitload of money like I. It's one of those things communism gotta major hold in the country after everything that we're about to talk to happened because when these moderate reformers came along we fought tooth and nail entreated them like they were Joseph fucking Stalin reincarnated reincarnated like it's very frustrating the paper said Robert so <hes> so brunet's propaganda and united fruits lobbying did it's work. He managed to get his work all these articles and studies into the hands of top men in the White House and in the national security apparatus the CIA began to train arm and insurgent movement the Liberation Army under a piece of shit named Carlos Castillo automous armas was a military officer living in exile he and his two hundred C._I._A.. Picked guerrillas entered Guatemala Mullahs on June Eighteenth Nineteen fifty four with C._I._A.. Air Support Bernez ensured coverage of the coup in called them an army of Liberation Army forces took over Guatemala within a week and he was quickly named president shockingly the C._I._A.. Backed military dictator later did not have the best interests Guatemalan people at heart armistice. I act yeah I know really surprising his first act was to return all the land taken from United Fruit back to the company. He told Vice President Nixon. Tell me what you want me to do. You and I will do it many Guatemalans. We're of course unhappy with the state of affairs by the nineteen sixties. The situation had degraded into a brutal conflict. The banana wars had begun according to the council on hemispheric relations. I it's a shitty war. Dude that's true. I guess that's not really the focus of I mean. It's just accurate these are a war started over fucking bananas fucking bananas the civil war between the newly formed leftist guerrillas and the government lasted for over thirty years costing approximately two hundred thousand lives mostly people of my in dissent when the U._S. assisted in modernizing the government troops in nineteen sixty five kidnappings and assassination significantly increased in systematic manner the wars victims included farmworkers student activists Catholic priests and labor leaders who are part of a nonviolent social movement. The war was devastating. More people were killed in this conflict than in any Latin American war the valiant efforts of the Guatemalan historical clarification commission which the government initiated the end of the war identify genocide in the my in communities. This is atrocious and horrible and I just <hes> I mean a little beside the point but however I never heard about this before. This is like shit of Yeah Yeah. It seems like if you're going to talk about this is one of the things that frustrates me. A lot and people will bring up the the huge death count of communist regimes around the world totally valid absolutely worth talking about the tens of millions who died under the Mao in the millions who died under Stalin but then they pretend like there's no death toll for capitalism they ignore the twenty or thirty million who died in India as a result of the east India corporations reform land they lowered the hundreds of thousands of people who died in Latin America in are still dying as a result of like it's because history education in the United States is criminally incompetent at a systemic level well and it's just yeah it has to ignore the evils of capitalism or young people might start asking questions yeah yeah and I you know one other fucking thing we have to blame for we have burn as to blame for is Shay Guevara t shirts because Yeah One observer of Yakubu Arba's overthrow was a young young Argentinian traveler named Shea Guevara. He told his mother that the army coup was the moment quote that I left the path of reason as New York Times writer Daniel Kurtz fell in wrote in his two thousand eight article big fruit so to did Latin America that day mark turning point the end of a hopeful age of reform in the beginning of a bloody age of revolution in reaction over the next four decades hundreds of thousands of people were killed in guerilla attacks government crackdowns and civil wars across Latin America. This is fucking cool fucking horrible I this I can't even this myth cigarettes. I can wrap my head around the bacon fine. This is just I mean this is next next level. This is just like propaganda. Warfare will yeah it's a fucking nightmare and you mentioned not having heard about any of this before I mean I guess that's pretty common among our listeners. The only reason I had is that when I was in my early twenties <hes> a group of friends and I lived in Guatemala for several wonderful months and it's I fucking love Guatemala. It's unbelievably beautiful like maybe the prettiest place I've ever been it certainly like up there on that list of just like lands that take your breath away but it was impossible to not notice all the scars of like decades of civil war there were there would be times where we would like be driving through a field and you'd notice that it was like it was covered in grass but the texture of the land was like the surface of the moon and it was because so much mortar fire had filled it with craters that had been gotten grown over with grasp. There's thousands of craters or you drive past old buildings covered in heavy machine gunfire like holes for machine gun rounds wants or you'd be walking down the street in Antigua and you would see fifteen or twenty old men missing arms and legs like lying on the side of a building begging for money all clearly with like war injuries and stuff and so I started like really what the fuck happened here and that's where I didn't let about as at that point but I learned about United Fruit and the fucking banana wars I mean the fact you had to physically be there to even learn that this had happened like speaks volumes yeah yeah yeah and it might like my study of that started when I was in these little Mayan villages around Lago audit lawn and people would explain to me why the because you see soldiers all over the place in Guatemala because it's it's one of those countries where they don't have laws like we do like the military doesn't do like law work in the United States like they don't keep the peace that's for police to do. Guatemala doesn't have laws like that so you see soldiers a lot <hes> on the street and stuff but once we got to these little Mayan villages there would be no soldiers and I started asking the people. I met like why that was like Oh. We don't let the military in here because of the genocide they committed back in like a couple of decades ago so reason yeah reasonable reasonable. That's very reasonable reasonable and I mean I like joking and shit or on like how could Alka people not like realize that things are going to kill them but it's like and then there's you know at I am probably most people people in this country. Have this huge blind spot that is just like intentional erasure to make it easier to be okay with Howie. How we live well God Robert? You're really really killing me with this. One in this is it's it's fucking bad brenes about this. Wow Edward Bernez died a millionaire on March Ninth Nineteen ninety-five he was one hundred ridden four fucking years old he left behind a world scarred by the wars he helped to incite there were other Latin American Moore's by the way that he got involved with like this is just as much as I had time to write about it went so great and a world utterly dominated by the propagandistic techniques that he pioneered. Perhaps the most insidious piece his legacy is the possibly fatal damage done to the field of journalism when Bernez started manipulating the media P._R. was a new field and the handful of extant P._R.. Flex blacks were massively outnumbered by reporters and journalists by two thousand nineteen that situation had completely reversed itself. There are currently six P._R.. People for every journalist in the United States like the alleys full of money. They make a lot more money which is why if you look into past Pulitzer Prize winners an awful lot of them. Go into P._R.. Because it's like like I can't even blame them. It's like okay you worked your ass off making fucking nothing when you you told an incredibly important story and got recognized now it's time to ensure that you can retire someday. Men Having ethics means that you're GONNA be seen a lot of groupon doctor on the upside Jamie Edward as also advise the multiple sclerosis foundation to call themselves the M._S. foundation because it was better branding so like you know it equals out you cause a war you help foundation make more money dicon in the last episode how dare you the and then and then you throw the banana wars at the last second. How dare well you can be a feminist icon and also helped spark a brutal genocidal civil war in Guatemala? You can't be feminist icon and and kill every woman you know with cigarettes and you can't. He didn't know not not as wife because he got her to stop smoking. Women women except my wife Argument Bernie Bernie Bernie Burn as Eddie booed the cried. All villains live forever. Well villains live forever yeah old cube head so that was so there's no more or is there nope. That's the fucking tale of Hebron as much of it as I'm gonNA tell. There's a lot more the book the father of Spin is a fine book. If you WANNA learn more about the guy but I feel feel like this is a enough to know about Edward Burn as Yeah Yeah I certainly learned. I certainly learned a lot and now I understand why his daughters hate him. So much EIB isil Yes ebusiness coupon himself <hes> oh Cuba so Jamie you got any plug ables to plug hide yeah not that they're doing in the zone. Yes as you can listen to the Bechtel cast <hes> Meinen Caitlyn Toronto's podcast every Thursday at Bechtel cast. You can follow me on twitter at Jamie Loftus help albeit at Edinburgh Fringe Festival Evil August. If you want come see show you can do that so fringe out with your hinge out fringe on my show. It's my is. It's my <hes> the Elizabeth a bit homes show basically I mean actually you could do a really good like comparison to hang out with your your Wang out there. Using a local British isles synonym for pubic hair dish that people will hinge out with your minj out your men Jr.. Yeah never say that again. Robert Never Save me. That's that's that's. That's a slang term in the place. You're going to be going God you so cute about all his you know what you know what fanny means up there to right but right. No it means vagina in the aisles it means Vagina. Fanny is slang for Vagina and the British isles so this is very important for you to know you endanger. If you don't understand yeah so I I mean not that I've ever said fanning but if you said sit on it people would be confused very very sit on your fanny means a very every different thing in the British isles yeah okay well good. Thank you for these travel temps. They do need them. Yeah also blood pudding surprisingly tasty really fucking good like everybody. Everybody talks talk show about the British. I think they have the second best breakfast food I've ever encountered. They're not better at breakfast than the Irish but they're very good in my opinion. I'm a big fan so enjoy yourself. I don't know anything about Scottish food. That scares me so I have no idea yeah. I'll just have to find out when I get there yet. Drink a lot of TALLEC though I do I do recommend that all right well. Jaime Loftus fringe festival watcher be the champion Queen of comedy that we all know her to be cheer her on her journey me through Scotland and listeners online. If you know of other slang terms that she should know before she goes there hit us up on twitter and warned her. I Don Yeah. I don't WanNa get killed for saying the wrong thing yet. That happens a lot. The British violent people and I'm getting them just pre brexit so it's going to be stressful time. Oh yeah everyone's going to be swinging tally packers that seems like a British lane for a weapon. It sounds like something well. I'm Robert Evans. This is behind the bastards has been behind the bastards. It's not anymore because it's over. You can find me on twitter at I right okay you can find their show on twitter and instagram and F._S._U.. Pot you divide t shirts on public <hes> AH looking for behind the district on public and that's it. That's the fucking episode Joe Robert. Thanks for being on. That's the goal with every episode of behind the bastards is to leave you feeling worse than you did support and I usually don't end by shouting products but I did why why I'm just thinking there will always it will be an ad after this. You know that filthy it would not story tell my daughter was beaten. I'm Katherine Townsend host of the true crime podcasts.

Edward Bernez Bacon Eddie Brenes Guatemala United Fruit company president Jamie Loftus America United States Brenes Raytheon Apple President White House Herbert Hoover Bernez E. L. L. Germany Bernez
The 1954 Guatemalan Coup Part 1

Stuff You Missed in History Class

35:59 min | 1 year ago

The 1954 Guatemalan Coup Part 1

"Support for Steffi missed in history class comes from our friends at rocket mortgage by quicken loans finding the right house is not easy but finding the right mortgage can be rocket mortgage is doing more to help you understand the home buying process that you can get exactly what you need because it's not just a mortgage your mortgage and they've found a better way. They make the the home buying process work for you. In fact rocket mortgage is there with a word winning at client service and support every step of the way visit rocket mortgage dot com slash history a class and take the first step toward the home of your dreams equal housing lender licensed in all fifty states L. S. consumer access dot Org number thirty thirty mortgage by quicken loans push-button get mortgage mortgage welcome to stuff you missed in history class a production of iheartradio's. How stuff works <music> hello and welcome to the PODCAST? I'm Tracy Wilson and I'm holly frank over the next two episodes. Were going to be talking about something. That's still has a lot of relevance in the world today and that is the nineteen fifty four coup that overthrew overthrew the democratically elected president of Guatemala which was orchestrated by the US Central Intelligence Agency. It's not really accurate to say the this caused the coup but one of its biggest advocates in the United States was United Fruit company. Sometimes they'll see it described as like United Fruit company when he convinced the CIA government and that's exactly what happened it also didn't happen in isolation this was rooted in Cold War. We're paranoia about communism and it was also part of an overall pattern of US intervention in Latin America and overall pattern of US business interests trying to influence the governments of those nations so today we will have an overview of how the United States relationship to Latin America evolved over the nineteenth nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This definitely is not every twist and turn of those decades. It's more like a through line to put the stuff in context plus stuff. That's GonNa Kinda it come up later in the episodes and we'll talk about how United Fruit company came to be such a major player in Guatemala in the first place and what was happening in Guatemala that that caused the United Fruit company to be opposed to it the next time the second part of this tea party. We will talk about the coup itself and its aftermath. This coup was was carried out in one thousand nine hundred eighty four but the United States mentality behind it goes back to the Monroe doctrine which was articulated by President James Monroe in his December second doc in eighteen twenty three annual address to Congress the speech. That's known today as the State of the Union address. The address and the idea is in it were heavily influenced <unk> by Monroe's secretary of State John Quincy Adams. We talked about it just a little on our episode on John Quincy and his wife Louisa. There's obviously a lot more in the scope of this address but the basic ideas of the Monroe Doctrine worthies number one in the world had two spheres of influence the Americas were their own sphere here and the rest of the world was another number to the Americas were also not open for further colonization by European world powers number three the US. I wouldn't interfere with the internal matters of other nations and this included remaining neutral in the face of wars in Europe and remaining neutral when it came to existing European in colonies in the Americas and the number four if a European power attack ter- attempted to exert control over a nation in the western hemisphere the United States would view that as an attack on itself one of the motivations behind the Monroe doctrine was the recent independence of several nations in central and South America which had previously been Spanish colonial territory the US was concerned about the possibility of Spain or another European nation trying to recolonize and the Latin American nations themselves had the same concerns in eighteen twenty six simone. Bolivar convened the Panama Congress which brought together several newly Julie Independent Latin American republics to discuss the same issues wilder. Monroe doctrine asserted that the western hemisphere was off limits to European European colonization. It didn't suggest that the United States should stop its western expansion across North America but also didn't really suggest that the United States couldn't didn't expand its territory beyond that which happened through everything from the annexation of Texas to the treaties that into the Mexican American war in eighteen forty eight and the Spanish American war in eighteen ninety eight the Monroe doctrine also didn't really discourage the United States from trying to extend its influence within the western hemisphere including through what came to be known as the big brother policy in eighteen eighty nine. US Secretary of State James G Blaine spearheaded the first international conference of American States in this was the first in a series of meetings among the United States and several Latin American countries and it was something Blaine had been advocating for about about a decade and this led to the creation of the International Union of American republics and the International Bureau of American Republics in eighteen ninety the bureau zero later became known as the Panamerican Union these conferences and the organization that grew out of them or meant to improve cooperation among the nations involved involved including working out matters of International Trade International Law and dispute resolution and although it was an international organization it was also heavily he directed by the United States circling back to that idea of the US being the big brother in this part of the world. The first conference was held in Washington DC where the bureau is also headquartered the United States also organized the Bureau and funded its first year of existence. The Secretary of State of the United States was also chair of the organisation's ends governing board including after Hispanic delegates tried to turn it into an elected position the Monroe doctrine was a cornerstone of US foreign policy until nineteen nineteen o four when President Theodore Roosevelt articulated what came to be known as the Roosevelt Corollary in his annual message to Congress the Roosevelt Corollary expanded handed the monroe doctrine to include the idea that the United States had a responsibility to police the western hemisphere preserving the quality of life and other countries and taking taking direct action to restore and maintain order. Here is a segment of that address quote all that this country desires is to see the neighboring country entry stable orderly and prosperous any country whose people conduct themselves well can count upon our hearty friendship if a nation shows that it knows how to act act with reasonable efficiency and decency in social and political matters if it keeps order and pays its obligations it need fear no interference from the United States. It's chronic wrongdoing or an evidence which results in general loosening of the is a civilized society. May In America as elsewhere ultimately require fire intervention by some civilized nation in the Western Hemisphere. The adherence of the United States to the Monroe doctrine may force the United States however reluctantly in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence to the exercise of an international police power another aspect of this that was alluded to briefly in that was the collection of debts under the Roosevelt Corollary. If a country in the western hemisphere had an unpaid debt to one of the European powers that European power could not collect the debt that directly instead it was supposed to go through the United States. The United States had intervened in various nations in the Western Hemisphere before this point including in Panama Emma the US controlled Panama Canal Zone was created in February nineteen o four but after this shift in foreign policy the US intervened a lot especially especially in the Caribbean and Central America at various points the US occupied Cuba Haiti Dominican Republic Honduras Nicaragua on on and on there's actually more about US intervention in Haiti in the Dominican Republic and the aftermath of that intervention in our previous episode on the Mirabal Sisters. Yeah Yeah that that however reluctantly statement didn't actually play out to seem all that reluctant it kind of seems like a cover your tail phrase right. That's all of this way. Don't WanNa have to do this you guys but according to the rules that we just made so although Roosevelt's address had really focused on ideas like international stability a lot of these occupations and police actions and other interventions were motivated by protecting US interests in these nations and especially business interests a lot of those businesses were major growers of crops like coffee and fruit and for this reason sometimes all this US US military activity in Latin America during this period is looped together as the banana wars. It is also during this same time period that the term Banana Republic public was coined by American writer William Sydney Porter also known as oh Henry Porter. I use the term a short story published in nineteen o one and it's he used to describe a fictional country that was probably based on Honduras where he was living at the time the term conjures up images of small impoverished countries governed earned by harsh and often corrupt military dictatorships and dominated by one key agricultural export like bananas. The Term Banana Republic has a lot of disparaging connotations but it also reflects the reality of what was going on in much of Latin America. Many of these nations were reliant on one key export sport like bananas with that one industry being very tightly controlled by United States businesses and those businesses tried to keep conditions favourable able to their own interests in these countries they contributed to ongoing instability and corruption in the nation's where they were operating makes this kind of a weird name Brick Britt clothing retailer. Yeah I have often over. The years wondered how they landed there. Well it. It kind of goes up against the Cherry pop and daddy songs zoot suit riots in terms of historical. Why did you do this now. <hes> I guess it sounded good to someone at some point in time but this practice of direct intervention in international affairs took took a pause after Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected president and we're GONNA get to all of that after we I pause for a little sponsor. Break Technology is becoming more or open data more accessible and the world more innovative. IBM is combining their industry expertise with the open source leadership of Red Hat to bring you more freedom more security more flexibility. Let's unlock the world's potential. Let's put smart to work learn more at IBM DOT com slash red hat and his march fourth nineteen thirty three inaugural address President Franklin Delano Roosevelt articulated what came to be known as his good neighbor policy to quote in the field world policy. I would dedicate this nation to the policy of the good neighbor the neighbor who resolutely respects himself and because he does so respects the rights of others. There's this aligned with a proclamation signed at the seventh International Conference of American States on December twenty six that same year article eight of this proclamation elimination was that quote no state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another so with this reduced focus on intervention the united handed states started pulling troops out of the nation's it was still directly occupying including Haiti and Nicaragua Roosevelt's administration also encouraged favorable depictions ends of Latin Americans and of Central and South America in the media the career of past podcast subject Carmen Miranda was tied to this whole idea and she became something of an international spokesperson for the ideals of the good neighbor policy overall the countries in the Caribbean and Central America saw this change in attitude with both both relief and suspicion after so many decades of direct military intervention by the United States but it didn't last long after World War Two things shifted once again and once again the shift was outlined in the president's annual address to Congress this time the president was President Harry S Truman and in his March Twelfth Nineteen forty seven address before Congress he outlined the idea that the United States would intervene to help democratic nations that were being threatened by authoritarian forces forces whether those forces were coming from within or without this Truman doctrine grew out of events taking place in Greece but a similar mindset was is also driving. US Foreign Relations in the Americas in the spring of nineteen forty eight the ninth International Congress of American States was held in Bogota Colombia Lumbia and at this conference the Panamerican Union was reorganized as the Organization of American States or s and a lot of the ideas that were part of the Monroe and Truman doctrine's became part of its formal charter basically applying these same ideas to all of the member states the charter also so built on the Rio Security Pact of nineteen forty seven which was also called the Inter American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance and in that nineteen countries <unk> signed an agreement that an attack on any American state would be viewed as an attack on all the signatories this was at the start of the Cold War and at this conference friends the oh a s also passed resolution thirty two known as the preservation in defense of democracy in America this resolution read in part quote in order to safeguard peace and maintain mutual respect among states the present situation of the world demands that urgent measures be taken to prescribe tactics of totalitarian Palestinian domination that are inconsistent with the tradition of the countries of America and prevent agents at the service of international communism or of any totalitarian leterrier doctrine from seeking to distort the true and the free will of the peoples of this continent the republic's represented at the Ninth International Conference of American States declare that by its anti-democratic nature and it's interventionist tendency the political activity of international communism or any totalitarian doctrine is incompatible with the concept of American freedom which rests upon to undeniable postulates the dignity of man as an individual and the sovereignty of the nation a state this resolution also condemned quote interference by any foreign power or by any political organization serving the interests of a foreign power in the public life of the nations of the American continent it also condemned quote methods of every system tending to suppress political in civil rights and liberties and in particular the action of international communism or any totalitarian doctrine and this is where things take something of when i Ronnie turn the United States approved this resolution which condemned international communism because of quote it's antidemocratic nature and it's interventionist engine est tendency but not long after the resolution was passed the United States started intervening in other nations democracies and not necessarily because they were under under any kind of communist or totalitarian threat in another shift the US increasingly handled these interventions not through direct actions but through covert operations uh-huh through the newly-established Central Intelligence Agency the first big example of this came in nineteen fifty three when the CIA orchestrated a coup that overthrew overthrew the democratically elected prime minister of Iran Mohammad Mosit- back the major issue was that my second started nationalizing British oilfields oil fields in Iran and the CIA launched the coup with the approval of the British government so this coup wasn't really about protecting Iran's democratic election from authoritarian authoritarian forces was about protecting oil interests for the most part the CIA admitted its role in two thousand thirteen and of course this is an entire other story with ramifications that are still affecting the world today but the fact that it was successful kind of made the CIA more okay with doing more things like this in the future the CIA orchestrated coup Guatemala was similar. It was ostensibly about stopping the spread of communism in Guatemala but one of its biggest advocates was was united fruit company which had a monopoly on Guatemala's banana industry so we have to backtrack for just a moment and talk about both bananas and United Fruit Company Bananas are the most Popular Fruit and the United States today with Apple's being a close second until the end of the nineteenth century. Most Americans had never even seen one then in eighteen seventy captain. Lorenzo Dow bought one hundred sixty bunches of green bananas in Jamaica for Schilling a bunch he took them to Jersey earthy city and sold them for two dollars a bunch which was a huge profit. He grew this into a business and along with several other men established. Boston Fruit company in eighteen eighty six soon multiple companies based in the US were buying up land in the Caribbean and establishing banana plantations and when they started running out of available land in the Caribbean they expanded into Central America Boston Fruit Company and other similar businesses didn't have much trouble buying the land that that they wanted like we mentioned earlier the countries where they were doing business tended to be small and impoverished and governed by dictatorships so a lot of times the decision to sell this. This land was being made unilaterally often. The Land Wasn't being used for anything else so the governments were happy to have the money for it or a government might give up the land in exchange for the fruit company providing some new infrastructure like roads or railroads or a port and all of this ties back to the Banana Republic public idea that we mentioned earlier in eighteen ninety nine Boston. Fruit company merged with railroad ventures owned by minor seat Keith in this newly formed company. He was called United Fruit Company. The combined railroad slash banana plantation model meant that the company could establish a monopoly on growing the fruit and hand on transporting it and anything else in the territory where it operated in this enterprise was already pretty large holding more than two hundred thousand acres of land in in the Caribbean and Central America. A little over sixty thousand acres of land were used as banana plantations. This finally brings us to the history of Guatemala and she will get gets you after another sponsor break. Let me tell you about Pete who loved hockey and always wanted to play in the NHL Pete played since he was three and begged his mom to let him stay on the ice by some nights he even slept tennis hockey. Skates Pete practiced and practiced until one day when he was forty seven. Pete realized he just wasn't that good so he threw his skates in the trash but then you heard how diko proud partner of NHL good save money on car insurance so he switched and saved a bunch so it all worked out now we finally finally get to how all of this connects specifically to Guatemala so as a quick overview of Guatemalan history. Spain began conquering colonizing what's now Guatemala Guatemala in the sixteenth century. Guatemala was a Spanish colony for more than two hundred years. Although in some of its more remote areas the indigenous Maya had pretty limited contact with the Spanish Guatemala declared its independence from Spain in eighteen twenty one from there it was briefly part of the Mexican Empire in in eighteen twenty three became part of the United provinces of Central America which also included Costa Rica El Salvador Honduras and Nicaragua the United provinces the began to fracture in eighteen thirty eight after a cholera epidemic and an uprising it dissolved by eighteen forty the uprisings leader Rafael Carrera <hes> became president of Guatemala and after abolishing elections became president for life in eighteen fifty four again. We are really just hitting highlights here for some context for the next several decades. Guatemala was governed by a series of dictatorships which were occasionally interrupted by short-term governments specifics of these dictatorships could really change from one administration to the next for example. The Catholic Church was very powerful in Guatemala from eighteen twenty three until till eighteen seventy one but when a more liberal administration took over in eighteen seventy one the church was stripped of a lot of that power in general though these dictatorships leaderships were all known for human rights abuses and for maintaining control through oppressive policies and the use of standing army and secret police force regardless regardless of whether you might classify them as liberal or Conservative throughout all of this while there were some advances and things like public health and the nation's overall economy eh outside of the Aristocracy Guatemala's people lived in poverty and without a lot of basic civil rights. This was often particularly true for indigenous people and for the descendants of enslaved Africans people of both indigenous and Spanish ancestry known in Guatemala as Latinos often had more social mobility but overall it was socially and economically very stratified with multi-layered hierarchy based on racial ethnic and class disparities for decades any gains in civil or human rights tended to be very small and short lived in these decades after becoming independent Guatemala became a major producer of coffee which was grown on large plantations and as this happened Guatemala shifted away from growing crops that were grown on smaller farms like indigo. Oh and Coca Neil as part of this shift fewer and fewer Guatemalans owned their own land as it was sold or cease to be consolidated into large coffee plantations and this shift happened very quickly and eighteen sixty one coca neal made up seventy one percent of Guatemala's agricultural exports ten years later coffee was at fifty percent and coca neal was down to thirty three percent. That was a trend that continued over the next couple of decades. It's the country also increasingly exploited the indigenous population as a source of cheap or even unpaid labor for these growing plantations for the decades. The peasant class which was mostly indigenous was subject to debt peon edge in which people were forced into unpaid labor in order to pay off debts and Guatemala's economic conditions that in rural areas landless people were very likely to be in debt United Fruit Company's presence in Guatemala started to increase around the turn of the twentieth century in one thousand nine hundred one Guatemalan President Manuel Estrada Cabrera gave United Fruit company a ninety nine year lease is on land in exchange for finishing a railroad from the Guatemalan capital to the port of Puerto Barrios which United Fruit company also controlled he he also put United Fruit company in charge of the country's postal service United Fruit company's presence continued to grow in Guatemala after nineteen o one with the the company following a similar pattern of acquiring land for banana plantations that we talked about earlier after dictator or who Biko came to power in nineteen thirty one he granted into the company another ninety nine year land lease part of this agreement included United Fruit company agreeing not to pay workers more than fifty cents a day so that other their workers wouldn't demand more money as well three years later we go abolised Guatemala's debt pianist system which had been keeping much of its indigenous population nation effectively enslaved. He was praised for abolishing that system but in its place he implemented a vagrancy law that required landless people to work for at least one hundred fifty days a year he also passed a law that exempted landowners from prosecution if they hurt or killed someone while defending ending their property so because this work was legally mandated and because landowners were empowered to use this kind of force under the idea of defending their property people had virtually no negotiating power when it came to things like their pay and they're working conditions so even though this effective enslavement system system didn't exist anymore. UNITED FRUIT COMPANY STILL had access to very cheap labor while Beka was in power Guatemala and United Fruit company became even more interconnected by the nineteen forties forty percent of the nation's arable land was being controlled United Fruit company to look at it another way less than half a percent of demolish farms measured more than one thousand one hundred acres but plantations of that size were taking up about half of the country's farmland and most of those plantations belonged to United Fruit company by this point United Fruit company had become Guatemala's largest employer and it had a monopoly over Guatemala's Guatemala's banana trade it also controlled the railroads and the utilities and the port at Puerto Barrios United Fruit Company worked out a lot of these deals in the nineteen thirties. Thanks to John Foster Dulles. He was working at United Fruit. Company's Law Firm. Sullivan and Cromwell United Fruit company was such a massive presence in Guatemala and the United States was such a big part of the United Fruit company that a lot of Guatemalans thought that the T. were basically the same thing but then on July I nine hundred forty four things started to change or Heyoo Biko was forced to resign after a popular uprising general strike that was largely led by teachers intellectuals workers and students another general Federico Ponce became interim president he promised election to confirm his presidency but by October of that year seemed pretty clear that no election was coming protests and demonstrations continued and on October Twentieth Nineteen forty four he was overthrown in a coup who led by Major Francisco Donna and Captain Ha Hobo Arbenz Guzman. This was a start of what came to be known as the Guatemalan Revolution or the October Revolution then and it followed the overthrow of military dictatorships in both Ecuador and El Salvador in May of that same year this wave of revolutions had been inspired in part by World War Two and the allies focus on the ideals of democracy and Human Rights Franklin Delano Roosevelt's four freedoms speech which was his nineteen forty one state eight of the Union address was particularly influential in that speech he hit expressed the idea that every person in the world had the right to the freedom of speech the freedom of worship the freedom from want and the freedom from fear one Jose Avenue won the election that was held in December of nineteen forty four with more than eighty five percent of the vote vote he had run on a reform platform that aligned with these ideals and with the protests and demonstrations that led up to the October Revolution a committee of Fifteen fifteen was formed to draft a new constitution which went into effect in March of nineteen forty five because Guatemala had been ruled by military dictatorships for so so much of its post-colonial history this constitution limited the power of the executive branch of the Guatemalan government it established Guatemala as a representative have democracy with the Presidency Limited to one six-year term and former presidents were ineligible for re election for the next twelve years military officers had to resign at least six months before election day if they wanted to run for office the new constitution also outlawed discrimination and guaranteed quote Life Life Liberty Equality Insecurity of the person of honor and of property. Juan Jose Palo was inaugurated as president of Guatemala in March of Nineteen nineteen forty-five just a few days after this new constitution was signed and he had a lot to get done in his one six year term the changes he and his administration tried to make were ambitious and sweeping he was focused on addressing the issues that had led to the October Revolution and had been part of those protests and demonstrations especially agrarian reform improving the educational system protecting labor rights and reinforcing this newly established system of democracy in Guatemala. <hes> the array below government disbanded the secret police and purge <unk>. Biko's former supporters from office. They changed the soldiers had to take upon on entering military service to include protecting the principle of democracy not just protecting the nation the administration allowed freedom of speech and a free press and multiple political parties emerged as totally different from the previous one party systems that attended to be under other the Communist Party was banned and voting rights were expanded although women who could not read still could not vote other initiatives included equal pay laws and legal equality between husbands and wives lives. Guatemala's largest university was also put under its own control rather than being controlled by the government previous administrations had for example tried to use this government control of the university to try to keep students from learning about the pro democracy movements that were happening elsewhere in Latin America in the nineteen forties New Labor. We're laws said a forty hour work week and established paid leave after giving birth to a child as well as a social security system employers were also required to pay eight people in actual money rather than scrip in one thousand nine hundred eighty seven new labour code established collective bargaining rights including the right to strike the New Labor Code also established Labor courts to settle disputes an increased minimum wage and other worker protections in nineteen forty eight the government government started trying to improve the condition of Guatemala's small farmers and landless citizens by passing a law that forced large landowners with uncultivated land to rented aren't people who had no land of their own the government also redistributed land that had been confiscated from Germans Nazi sympathizers during World War Two all all of this was just incredibly ambitious and it didn't go flawlessly the array below administration started to struggle about halfway through his term as some of the projects spago down and bureaucracy in general it became harder to build on the earlier games but overall this could not have been more different from the dictatorships that had govern Guatemala for most of its post-colonial history however many of Guatemala's elite were not happy about these changes and the arrival administration and had to fight off seemingly continual coup attempts U. S. business interests. Were not happy either. United Fruit company and US officials denounced many of our revolution policies and programs as communism and they started looking for a way to get rid of him. Which is what we will talk about next time. Do you have some listener mail in the meantime I do this actually came in via some tweets from John and John's first tweet in this a couple of tweets that he sent us was <hes> regarding our thalidomide episode. He tweeted US after part one came out and said something. I hope you discuss an episode to is how the crisis lead to women being virtually excluded from decades of medical testing and all the terrible downstream effects shocked to discover while researching this cracked article wrote a couple of years back and then sent us the link as well to the article on cracked so at that point we had recorded and edited episode to but it was not live have yet and we talked in that episode a little bit about how medical testing evolved and various ways that that affected drug testing and medical ethics. We didn't talk about about this specific aspect of it. It's one of those things where I had things in my notes about it and about especially how still today a lot of pharmaceutical testing thing is carried out on male test subjects and then the dosages are kind of extrapolated from that based on body weight which doesn't account for physiological sex differences at all but there was so much stuff to cover in that episode and not enough time to get to all of it and that was one of the things that wound up being cut so yes after the disaster there was also another drug that was called diethylene still bestir all or DAS. This is a synthetic estrogen that was given during pregnancy pregnancy to try to prevent miscarriages and premature Labor but not only was it not effective at preventing these things that also caused issues for the developing fetus including being an increased risk of some cancers of the reproductive system and fertility and reproductive issues later in life especially among women some of these issues can also be passed down to their children so after these two issues in one thousand nine hundred eighty seven the FDA issued a guideline called general considerations for the clinical evaluation of drugs and it recommended excluding quote premenopausal females capable of becoming pregnant from all phase one and early phase phase two clinical studies and that guidance didn't really change until nineteen ninety three so that's more than twenty years of of female. We'll patients being completely exclude from this kind of testing and even now a decade since that happened a female patients are way under represented represented and drug testing and this has enormous and far reaching consequences on what drugs are available and which adverse reactions are caught ahead of time it it goes on and on so thank you John for that we also got a couple of emails that were also about the the DAS drug drug disaster which has not gotten as much attention. I think as the limit has so you're like email us. We are history podcast at how stuff works dot com or also all over. Social media missed in history. That's where you'll find our facebook interest instagram and twitter you can come to our website which is missed in history free dot com or you will find show notes all the episode the holly and I have ever worked on Andy searchable archive of every episode ever and you can subscribe to our show at Apple podcasts the iheartradio APP and anywhere else you liked it at your podcasts stuffy. If you missed in history classes a production of I heart radio how stuff works for more podcasts for my heart radio visit the iheartradio APP apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows does every year forty percents of food in the United States never gets eaten with the average American family of four. You're spending one thousand five hundred dollars a year on food that they throw away and each individual throwing away twenty pounds of food a month wasting food. You'd wastes everything water labor fuel and many cook it store it share it. Just don't waste it. Learn how to better plan store and Cook your food at Save the food food dot com brought to you by the National Resources Defense Council and the Ad Council.

United States United Fruit company Guatemala President President Franklin Delano Roos Western Hemisphere Latin America Congress Caribbean Monroe Doctrine Banana Republic President Theodore Roosevelt South America United States United Fruit Spain Americas CIA Apple
Guatemalan Civil War ended - December 29, 1996

This Day in History Class

07:13 min | 1 year ago

Guatemalan Civil War ended - December 29, 1996

"The completely redesigned twenty twenty four explores the greatest exploration vehicle of all. Time won't take you to the moon or the bottom of the sea but those places have been explored already instead instead. It's going to take you on explorations that everyone can relate to but few have conquered like complicated interstates new towns on vacation or grocery store trips with cargo space to haul everything you need or winding gravel roads to get to the birthday party for a kid in your son's fifth grade class the all new twenty twenty four to explore the greatest. I xe vehicle of all time. This Day in history class is a production of iheartradio. Pay Everyone I'm getting some much needed our our in our in the comfort of my home but just because I'm resting doesn't mean history stops. Let's get on with another episode. Today is December Twenty Ninth Nine Twenty Nineteen the day was December twenty ninth nineteen eighteen ninety six watermelon president all artists and the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or you are in g signed peace accords ending the thirty six year long Guatemalan civil war in one thousand nine hundred eighty four. The United States Central Intelligence Agency back tactic O to overthrow the democratically-elected Guatemalan President Huckabee'll art. Dance right wing Guatemalan Army Colonel Carlos. GUSTA automous led the coup American anticommunist. Fear was at a high in audits was deemed a Communist threat. He had legalized the Guatemalan Communist Party. He and his land reform threatened major land owners particularly the US based United Fruit company. Audubon was forced to resign and went into exile optimize took power in Guatemala and reverse reforms from the last decade and returned land to the United Fruit company throughout the rest of the nineteen fifties government corruption was common leftist political parties were banned in poverty was rampant automous was assassinated assassinated in one thousand nine hundred eighty seven but military personnel continued to take power but the Guatemalan civil war did not begin until November of nineteen sixty when the country was under the autocratic role of general us as a group of junior military officers attempted a revolt against the government and failed but some of them went into hiding and established contact with. Fidel Castro's Cuban government by nineteen sixty two they established an insurgent movement known as m are thirteen and from there the conflict escalated left wing. Guerrilla groups began fighting government military Harry forces there were demonstrations riots and strikes in Guatemala City with the assistance of the US the Guatemalan armed forces engaged aged in anti-guerrilla the conflict was especially brutal marked by violence abductions in state terror in one thousand nine hundred eighty. Six civilian rule was restored in. Julio's thought of Mendez Montenegro. The candidate of the moderate Revolutionary Party was elected president but violence and terror. The intensified as the army launched counterinsurgency campaign that broke up guerrillas in the countryside guerilla attacks continued in Guatemala City though. Oh after Colonel Carlos Authority Ohio assumed the presidency in nineteen seventy. He declared a state of siege. So that the military imposed more control over civilians civilians including a curfew home searches throughout the rest of the nineteen seventies. A series of military governments perpetrated violence against guerrilla groups. Can't anyone who seemed to support their cause Guatemala's indigenous people had been subjected to discrimination over the years and many of them fought in the civil war. Their communities were hit hard in the violence of the conflict in one thousand nine hundred ninety nine the Inter American Human Rights Commission issued a report that said the Guatemalan government government was responsible for thousands of missing people and illegal executions throughout the nineteen seventies. A particularly bloody part of the civil. The war were the years. Under the dictatorship of General Efrain Rios Montt. He resorted to using scorched earth. Policy and indigenous Mayans were murdered and mass but the war. He had pledged to end escalated and in August of Nineteen eighty-three. He was overthrown. By General Scott Umberto. Oh Maria Victoria is. The new president promised a return to the democratic process. Two years later a new constitution was approved and presidential elections elections resulted in the victory of civilian president. Monaco Benicio today so I develop peace talks between the government and rebels of the Guatemalan revolutionary. National National Unity began in one thousand nine hundred four but the civil war raged on until nineteen ninety-six when President Alvarado art suit was elected finalized the peace negotiations and on December twenty ninth. He signed a peace agreement ending the Guatemalan civil war. More than two hundred thousand people were killed over the course of the war. Most of the people who were killed were my in the army was responsible for the majority of the human rights abuses committed. Three months was convicted of genocide and crimes against humanity but his conviction was later overturned. A court later ruled that he would not the sentence if found guilty and a retrial due to his senility. He died in two thousand eighteen while his trial was ongoing. The effects of the war resounded into into the twenty first century. Poverty crime violence and human rights violations continue to plague the country. I'm Eve Jeffcoat and hopefully you know a little more about history today than you did yesterday. And if you WANNA hit us up on social media you can do so on facebook twitter and Instagram instagram. At T H Z. PODCAST IF YOU WANNA email us you can reach us at this day at IHEART MEDIA DOT COM. Thanks again for listening. And we'll see you again tomorrow for more podcasts. From iheartradio visit the iheartradio APP apple podcasts. Or wherever you listen to your favorite shows did you know the air inside. Our homes is five times more polluted than an outdoor air air filters can't get to the root of the problem microscopic allergens and pathogens that live on our bids counters and other surfaces but the probiotic purifier by better air can better air uses environmental probiotics to remove those microbes from your home so you can literally breathe better learn more at better air. PROMISE DOT COM. There's a sixty day. No Risk money-back guarantee plus save twenty percent when you place your order now go to better air promise dot com and start breathing better.

president Guatemalan National Revolution Guatemalan Communist Party Guatemalan government governme Guatemalan Army Guatemala City Guatemala US army General Efrain Rios Montt United Fruit company Inter American Human Rights Co GUSTA automous Fidel Castro United States Central Intellig Revolutionary Party Ohio Colonel Carlos
2163 - Empire of Borders: The Expansion of the US Border Around the World w/ Todd Miller

The Majority Report with Sam Seder

37:32 min | 1 year ago

2163 - Empire of Borders: The Expansion of the US Border Around the World w/ Todd Miller

"In the jar already sense yes lays gel mitch tuesday august twenty any seven two thousand nine hundred my name sam cedar. This is the five time award winning majority report. We are broadcasting live to tape steps is from the industrial ravaged guadalcanal in the heartland of america downtown brooklyn u._s._a. Why do i sound so energetic attic. I'll tell you why i'm a vacation and i am bringing you. This brand new interview via a the recording technology. We have traverse through time and space to bring you this interview even though no one's in the studio today on the program investigative journalist todd miller's empire of borders how the u._s. is exporting its boarder around the world. It's a fascinating look at the concept of a border and how we projected outward breath also on the program for members. You're gonna get deep archive. Pick from brendon that means something from the show show the first iteration of the majority report on air america back with geneva. I don't know maybe i'm not even included in some of these picks. He says there are very <hes> entertainment oriented so little light break from politics so if you're a member check that out stay tuned. It'll come up after the interview. If if you're not a member what are you doing. What are you doing freeloading. I think is the answer. Oh my gosh. I didn't say that but i'm thinking it go to join the majority report dot com join the majority report dot com. You'll support the free. Show you get extra content. You will love it meanwhile. I know you're you're. You're desperate for some update on on a daily news well then you should be subscribed to our majority report feed on itunes or stitcher or spotify satisfied wherever you get your <hes> podcast feeds and listen to the a._m. Quickey were doing a five minute news brief every day. It's either hosted by myself off or lucy steiner who i know you'll love and every morning we do it even when we're on vacation even when i'm on vacation what kind of idiot does is that idiot stupid. Well what it is. Folks can't help it trying to launch new show uh-huh quick break. We come back empire of borders with todd miller the expansion of the u._s. border around the world be right back. We are back back sam cedar on the majority report on the phone. It's a pleasure to welcome to the program todd miller. He is the author of empire of borders the expansion of the u._s. border around the world. He's a winner of the two thousand eighteen izzy award for investigative. Journalism may have seen his writing in the new york times. Mother jones owns a nation al jazeera english and salon. Tom dispatch todd welcome to the program. Thanks for having me so. There's there's there's two sort of fundamental questions that i want to ask you. I'm trying to figure out which one is the better one to ask i but well let's do it this way. What do we mean when we talk about because you write about essentially border imperialism. What do we mean gene bye. Bye border in this context in how has the concept of the border changed yeah. That's the that's that's that's the big maybe somewhat complicated question but i'll try to <hes> <hes> answer as best as i can on win so one live the one of the things that happen especially post nine eleven was a shift of of the <hes> what the strategy the the strategizing of customs and border protection and department of and than with of the formation of the department of homeland security and if you go to <hes> <hes> one of the <hes> strategist <hes> alan bersin he was on our borders are under the clinton administration us also worked for d h s under the obama administration ministration. He called it. He said we started looking less at lines. Are both that lines i want to i want to stress and then flows of people in other words. The as another are as many c._b. Commissioners have put since then in the end. It's also a strategy papers the border no longer longer. The is the first nor last line of defense meaning that the border on the actual you when you think of the border if you think of the u._s. Mexico border dat is only one layer prominent layer of what the border is but the border actually ripples out internationally and and also there's an interior portion of it and that's <hes> when you when you begin to grapple the question of what the border that's one way to look at it and i could give be some concrete examples of what that actually looks like if you'd like yeah yeah do and and and i wonder well why don't you give us those concrete examples and then we'll talk talk about how much this was theory. How much of a philosophical change does it represent or simply. <hes> <hes> i mean i i'm reminded of that era in the wake of nine eleven where <hes> the the the cry was fight them over there are so we don't have to fight them over here on some level. It sort of feels like it's that same theory which was being employed right yeah i think i think you're absolutely right. It is it is coming from that same basic theory. If you look at the the nine eleven commission report that came out. I believe it was in two thousand and three at one of the things that it's as the quote unquote the american homeland is the planet so the idea of braying the border order out away pushing it out away from the united states to to stop people or items or weapons of mass destruction shen if you will from from coming to the united states long before they even get close to our borders. That's the official justification jason when you when you look at this kind of shift over to this internationalization and i remember well i just wanted to ask you like was there a change. I mean i you know obviously we have a long history in this country of a- vilifying at different times <hes> immigrants prince and exploiting them also i mean obviously <hes> in many ways <hes> structurally we were set up to to welcome them. Was there <music> a fundamental change in the sort of philosophical perspective of immigrants that needed to take place. I mean just as i say like fight them over there era as opposed to over here. They're immigrants. They're they're not terrorists. They're not an invading army. Their their potential immigrants grants. I mean was there. Was there a a concurrent change in the philosophical perspective of immigrants point yeah i would. I would say that that's correct especially when you look at the post nine eleven <hes> shifts a- actually one person called it a massive paradigm shift as far as c._b._c._p.'s concern but it in that comes this this viewing <music> of immigrants it through the lens of the <hes> you know of the post nine eleven reality for example when you are c._p._r. C._p._r. Customers a border protection didn't even exist <hes> when two thousand two thousand one in september eleventh two thousand one it was formed after that and when it was formed its priority mission was stopping web <hes> terrorist critical terrorism weapons of mass destruction from crossing u._s. borders so you have you have the setup of c._b. If you look at the budgets going out of two thousand eleven to present the budget started needed increasing and and historically unprecedented ways and the justification was a terrorism justification was and and so you get all these budgets is coming in you have all these resources going into the two to building a border apparatus a border and immigration apparatus my do ice immigration and customs forcement was created also in two thousand three so all these resources going going into this long under counter-terror justification but yet as you say <hes> what we have what the the what they're what these sorts of new <hes> this this apparatus satis impacting who this impact apparatus is impacting our in fact mostly immigrants immigrants coming from from particularly latin america the americas but even over all around the world but under a kind of terrorism justification so if like following border policy we in the two thousands for example you see this kind of <hes> you know what is what is coming you know. Are there terrorists coming across order. You know all this sort of rhetoric of of of terrorism that sort of thing the budget scoring up but yet there's not one incident ever of of a person at least that we know about a person that's affiliated with a terrorist organization has no by the u._s. Government from cross crossing the u._s. border and so you have has built up and under the certain post nine eleven rubric but it's it's mainly the arsenal is aimed at the immigrant and so so the emigrant so basically you know you have the kind of anti immigrant sentiment. That's that's kind of behind the veil that it's interesting using because it it extensively right. It's like a hidden threat that exists in this group of people that we weren't aware of before that ultimately ultimately doesn't exist and the the fallout from creating that threat almost supersedes now the original proposition that existed did <hes> in that regard and we should say the southern border right. You're you're talking about the southern border man. I remember there was the millennium bombing <hes> the annual or or i think that's what i can't remember. Come came in <hes> through canada or there's an attempt like in seattle or somewhere around there. I think yeah up in that. I can't remember exactly the details details but that is correct as nineteen ninety nine so is pre pre deatilas right and that's the one incident that has brought up if you if you if about terrorists coming across the u._s. border than millennium <hes> on bomber and i go ahead okay well no and that was right and that was that was done prior to the apparatus that we have now okay so you were going to mention some so we have the situation asian now where we have projected the border and really in some ways sort of vaporized it as a geographic distinction and almost created like some form of i guess repellent or just sort of like a force field that we project out based upon where we see flows of people coming. Can you give us like some of those tangible examples you were talking about. Yeah sure <hes> one one example example and this might have been. I worked the story. That really prompted me to look into reading this book. I happened in two thousand and ten when the big earthquake hit haiti and i did a a an article for knock law on on what how would you know what was happening. As far as immigration was concerned and and <hes> what what i found out almost immediately was that the united states sent sixteen coast guard cutters basically ships right up to the haitian shores and they also sat a supply plane <hes> over haiti which was flying low and with the on the voice of the ambassador of of <hes> of haiti to the united states he was talking to pray all saying asking people not to leave the country the not to leave haiti in your mind you there's over. Three hundred thousand people were killed with the matter quake there. There's over a million people displaced and so the idea of the border of expanding the elastic border going right up to the shores of haiti. <hes> <hes> was really really was was actually quite surprising to me and i and i've been studying you know borders particularly u._s. Mexico for quite a while and on so that that was is a prominent example how quickly a border could be this not in a static position it could be mobilized to move and on also to add there was detention bad setup in in guantanamo bay by the company geo group that was at the this displacement upheaval and migration patience so that's that's one example <hes> and then after that that's i i did go to puerto rico. Maybe two years later in two thousand twelve on and of course puerto rico's u._s. Territory on and i was studying the border patrol and puerto rico which is again. It's two thousand miles from the mainland and i was surprised at the on the west coast of puerto rico all the green stripe vehicles that i normally see where i live in arizona tucson arizona and <hes> and and i was loud you know i didn't i knew that there was border patrol there but i didn't realize how extensive their the patrolling of the west coast puerto rico and mind you. The west coast is looking out onto the mona straight and across the mona straight is the dominican republic so i find out later that the border patrol can goes fires ars of mona island which is about thirty two miles from the dominican republic and literally you know pretty much patrolling the coast of the dominican republic like almost as close to san diego tijuana okay so i have. I have two questions regarding that. The first is is the sovereignty question like how what what allows a foreign government in this case the the united states government to enter into haiti airspace. I guess i don't know i mean maybe there's no provision for this at all and and basically really announced to the haitian people like stay here what what what allows for in international amid. Maybe they're in international waters when we send all these cutters there to presumably intercept <hes> refugees at that basis. I guess if we're in international waters autres. We're in international waters but certainly flying over the country in saying stay where you are. How do i mean can countries just do that. Can canada send military planes over the united states and just start announcing like hey we want you guys to i don't know by more maple syrup or or something. I mean like what what what is involved in terms of. Do we have a treaties for this. How do we get away with that. Yeah that'd be interesting to see canadian canadian at the canadian. Air force are sent their planes over the united states. I bet you can you imagine kind of media coverage style again. I mean that's it's like it'd be sort of a problematic. I mean do we have permission from the hague. Government the the haitian government to to cross the the <hes> <hes> the the country and say stay where you are. I mean that's that seems problematic to me yet. It's i do believe you're correct. On the the the plane was a supply pointing so technically it was part of the united states aid mission to haiti post earthquake so <hes> but obviously it was being used as an for another reason a home a quote unquote homeland security reason on the the coast and i believe the coast guard cutters were able to get there are allowed to patrol quote unquote allowed to patrol an international water so they i believe they were able to get up right up into where the the technical international boundary as coming off the haitian coast which i might. I think it's about ten miles <hes> so they are kind of prowling around around the the haitian coast in international waters expecting people to leave on and then quite frankly you know like as you're canadian example on the kick. The candidate example really underscores yeah. I mean what other country could possibly do that a man you know that's there's a a certain kind of bravado earn. I guess aggressiveness in policy that the united states you know has shown over many many years and continues to show like the that that that the united states is long considered latin america the americas the caribbean to be its quota backyard <hes> that it can dan. Do you know pretty much whatever it pleases and those places and this seems to be another example of that. The kind of border extension you see is is is is an example of that i mean and and and i mean at one point right that has to infringe enj- upon sovereignty unless we have some type of i guess <hes> treaty or something to that effect and maybe that there's examples of that in other other places uses let me ask you this that when when there's a situation like the <hes> the haitian earthquake and we had <hes> i'm not sure how many tens of thousands of haitians that we allowed into the country under temporary protected status <hes> status program that i don't know how many of those people will now have been sent back to haiti under the trump administration. I would imagine significant numbers have not all but the the the idea that we want to intercept people before they can actually reach the u._s. Territory therefore we don't need to put the men to the asylum system is that the theory or is at the the idea of that's definitely a theory that's that's out there and the idea yeah or even the the stated mission as far as the pushing out of the borders and that's how often officials speak about this is to intercept people long before they reached u._s. Shores so that's so so the idea of stopping people way before they get there if they and then in the haiti case while they would be detained in in in one time obey right in cuba technically <hes> and <hes> you know and the state and you could make the same case are right now how for what's going on on the mexico's border with guatemala <hes> where you know many many people from guatemala on sal sal salvador honduras are are crossing that more and more fortified border in that that border has been fortified help with <unk> with plenty of help from the united states on in the longest <hes> including doing trainings of mexican immigration agents of mexican can police have mexican army setting resources to mexico from biometrics biometrics lake <hes> <hes> fingerprint digital fingerprinting machines jeans and facial recognition to motion sensors they have black hawk helicopters down there from the united states <hes> and and this kind of fortification of the mexican southern border which on which has been happening actually for quite a while but really really ramped up in two thousand fourteen when mexico geico announced the what they call the southern border program and then i it's been ramped up even more under this kind of cooperation between the donald trump administration and uh-huh andres manuel lopez over door administration so you see you see this this this this ramping up the stopping of people long before they get to the southern border many as we know from central america silence seekers so there's a lot of theories out there will this is stopping people who are asking for asylum long before they get to the u._s. borders to be able to do that and we should make clear when they get to the u._s. Border if they touch u._s. Soil they are then statutorily torah qualify. If they're seeking asylum they they statutorily qualify for some type of adjudication process assess right and and that's the that's the idea we were hearing stories that <hes> you had <hes> <hes> custom border officials who were preventing people entering from the southern border to actually go to appropriate <hes> border control all border crossings with the hopes of like preventing them from from from qualifying for essentially that that that status that you get when you're seeking asylum right and that's an to as is on evolves this kind of cooperation. The united states has with mexico <hes> so mexico's agreeing. You know this kind of remain in mexico <hes> program. I guess you call it that we see the border right now and as you say right let the legal processes of people step on u._s. soil than they have to you know than there has to be a credible fear your examination and a asylum process initiated <hes> and <hes> so it does seem like this pushing out of the border whether it be on on the even on the northern border of from with the united states and mexico are way in the southern border or even further because you can go down to guatemala honduras and you see this county building up this these ripples of borders are these layers of borders that go further and further onto the south <hes> other so you can you can definitely look at it through the lens of stopping people from getting to the us border for that purpose of of asking for asylum and it's not just we're not just doing this in the western hemisphere right. I mean we are there is a an analogous mechanisms for for places that are in no way contiguous <hes> with the with the united states that is correct on i like in the <hes> empire borders i i went all over the world i went to on the border between jordan and syria for example and <hes> <hes> investigated you know millions and millions tens three <hes> three hundred million dollars. The united states was giving to jordan <hes> <hes> to build up its border with syria and iraq and through and they gave a contractor raytheon corporation so there's a important point that private companies are often often involved in all of this as well <hes>. I went to the the kenya on where the kenya like jordan. I don't <music>. I'm not sure if shorted will kenya's one of the twenty three countries around the world where there's a customs and border protection attache and the embassy so that goes to show you like akao supposed to be happening what is happening between the syrian jordan the jordanian border that implicates u._s. us u._s. immigration so as <hes> as <hes> the so there's been a massive amount anna immigration coming from from syria <hes> <hes> this this sort you know a refugee crisis that probably araya were the worst in the world perhaps <hes> and <hes> the under the the the the jordan re really stresses the idea first of all of of terrorism so they are on really stressing stressing the antiterrorism counterterrorism entertainers and there was a there was an incident in. I believe it was two thousand fourteen at one of the ports of entry and jordan that involves on isis i believe and they pretty much shut down the border from there but already the united states was really helping <hes> jordan build up its its border order was syria <hes> the even though jordan jordan itself at has taken in many many refugees about one point five million in different camps apps on but when you talk to when he talked he la on and i was able to talk to pretty high up officials who enjoyed it or who who told me what the purpose of the strategy is and it's it's jordan serves as a kind of geopolitical on <hes>. It's a strategic geopolitical location in the middle east on as far as <hes> maintaining. I guess what would be a status. Quo a status quo of <hes> in a place where you know the united states has has has many interests as everyone knows especially with its excursions orrock and other places so we six so if i understand you correctly the calculus is not a national security one or at least not a direct one insofar ars that we anticipate some of those refugees may be <hes> terrorist or people who are <hes> you know <hes> interested in doing us harm erma whatever the the construction is. It's more that we are invested in halting the flow of various. I guess immigrants who are political entities entering into a country because it will destabilize the country in some way or destabilize the relationship with the united states that it has with that country yeah <hes> i would like. I guess there's a couple ways to look at it. There's <hes> when you look at the america's <hes> and the the border and the pushing out of the borders and you have lots of examples of stopping people before they get to the united states actual border but but but when you start going overseas and they about on you know situations like jordan and <hes> another place as many other places than it's i think it gets imperative to start looking at what are u._s. Interests in those areas are what are on is disease. Boarder is aboard as border order around the u._s. Territory but is there also mortar round u._s. Interests and i think that basel along the lines of what you're saying like oh it's in the u._s. Interests that jordan is not too stabilized on for whatever reason rae or for whatever what reasons that the united states wants its footprints foot in the middle east <hes> and that that sort of thing so so immigration our immigration policy is used as a way hey to at times an end in and of itself and at other times. It seems a means to some other end yeah yeah. That's that's. I mean yeah. You almost have to have a louis. No there's there's the strict exam. The strict definition of immigration controller immigration listen enforcement would be but then there's this more loose almost i would say imperial on structure under which it falls and it can be used in many different ways including on for u._s. Interests abroad well. Let's talk about that notion. Because the my senses your book describes an imperialism that is i guess i mean we hear different sort of variants on on imperialism right like this is a software imperialism or it's more sur surgical or you know. Give me your sense of how our immigration policy so our immigration policy policy has obviously domestic implications but it also has these these broader international ones basically basically a define and describe for this notion of of border imperialism or imperialism via an extension of malleability of borders not so much in giving up territory but in some ways taking territory right was a <hes> so yeah so the idea of if porter imperialism and if you will on the the when you look around the world in different places on if you follow you know u._s. Policy for example <hes> anywhere really around the world <hes> tear you know iraq is a good example for the middle east or you know the israel palestine as well on but also also if you look in central america <hes> the such you know the long processes of u._s. Militarism the economic models that have been shaped <hes> <hes> economic policy in places like guatemala el salvador honduras that really have privileged u._s. Corporations going way back to united fruit company. You know ruled in guatemala and honduras those sorts of things that have marginalized many many many people <hes> <hes> and then if people are to stand up to those sorts of situations well then the iron fist comes down and central america you the the words of the conflicts of the nineteen seventies nineteen eighties really show show that the dictatorships that were sponsored by the united got it states or even you know the coups that were instigated by the united states so one of the things that you see you know when you have a policies <hes> you know throughout the world that that on can cause upheavals that can <hes> really marginalized people that that could create a lot of people in dire situations of poverty or create help at least impact different situations the violence that people are in and then there's going to be a certain amount of blowback or even a lot of blowback on in a were and that sort of world of the dramatic inequality rate when you look at you know when to go back to the kind of one percent versus the ninety nine percent on sort of paradigm the the the in order for a status quo where you know the wealthy keep getting richer the the poorer maintained their status <hes> to keep a status quo <hes> like that intact will there has to be a whole kind of system of control and i think that's where you know. The kind of analysis or the conceptualization of the of the global board apparatus has to be seen and then on top of that you have to look at the ecological obstacle situations that are happening especially as the globe pizza and different places are getting more and more impacted by droughts and sea level rise as an extreme weather and that sort of thing that exacerbate situations of you know if you're poor and you're guatemalan drought happens and you don't you. Can't you know your crops will then you're. You're screwed really you have to you have to think of something. I mean there's there's obviously like a huge parallel here with the way that <hes> some people describe our carsl state as our police force is basically mopping up up <hes> the problems created by the inequality and perhaps racism that we have in society that <hes> creates a segment of the population the election that will need to be controlled because they've been <hes> exploited in left out of the upside to our society exactly. I think you hit the nail on the head there. Well go ahead. Go ahead. No please just yeah. I think there's gots. That's exactly what this kind of apparatus is doing and it's important you know like dimension that assad only like the lines signs of division and and halting the movement of people from one place to the other but if they do do that like if somebody does cross a line of division than their illegalized legalized and then maybe thrown in the karsh allstate as well right they're they're in. They're in prison. They're detained. You know like the the the examples of the prison camps that we've been seeing are that indefinite detention by immigration and customs enforcement or the full <unk> forced expulsions the people from one place to the other enforced family separations that all that involves so yeah. I think that's all you know in this this whole like to keep the system the status quo of system that we have in place intact. That's what's going to happen. That's how you control charlet empire of borders the expansion of u._s. border around the world todd miller will put a link to your book at majority dot f._m. Thanks so much for your time today. I really appreciate it yeah. Thanks for having me on that person to go st get sue wong aw i'm blowing kid because put it shores though the option no you don't get the blow briggs. Just search <music> sakes aches apo- <music> you you wait. Save the school you uh-huh.

united states haiti todd miller Mexico puerto rico america jordan new york times brooklyn geneva sam cedar americas spotify brendon Mother jones iraq alan bersin united fruit company
375. The Most Interesting Fruit in the World

Freakonomics

37:57 min | 2 years ago

375. The Most Interesting Fruit in the World

"Eighteen seventy six the city Philadelphia commemorated one hundred years of American independence with a centennial exposition those big trade fair. It was like a world fair, and there was a horticultural exhibit and they had a banana plant with finance growing. That's junior Scott Jenkins. She's a cultural historian and the author of bananas an American history, and they had to put a guard on it. Because people wanted to pick a leaf poke at it because people hadn't seen one of these things the banana plant, and yes, it's a plant technically not a tree and the banana is technically a berry anyway, this banana plant had stiff competition for attention at the centennial expo also on display were the right arm inflame of the statue of liberty which hadn't yet been erected in New York harbor. There were the first public demonstrations of the typewriter and of Alexander Graham, Bell telephone and an appearance by the president of the United States. You Liz grant still the humble banana plant caused a stir thanks to its novelty. They're not native to the Americas at all and in North America, bananas weren't even possible. Well, take about eighteen months from sprouting to fruit and climate and different ecological zones in the United States. You don't get frost free that long. The banana was one of the first fruits cultivated by humans the earliest written accounts. Go back to five hundred BC in India, the Americas didn't get the banana till much later, although exactly when and how are like much banana history disputed facts, but it's safe to say that in eighteen seventy six in Philadelphia. The banana was still exotic to most Americans in the first two thirds or three quarters of the nineteenth century bananas might come in to east coast port on a sailing ship, and then they'd be sold at the port. But they weren't generally commercially available anywhere they were luxury item. They were very expensive. I found some very interesting menus for very fancy occasions that might have been Hannah's on the menu. But they were something that most people had never seen. Most people had never tasted even though bananas. Were by then being grown in Latin America sailing ships couldn't travel fast enough to reliably keep the fruit from over ripening. But then came steamships and railroads they're just put huge pieces of ice at each end of freight car to try to keep the bananas. Cool. And by the nineteen twenties trains started getting mechanical refrigeration in the nineteen thirties came refrigerated trucks. This new technology at a huge impact on food distribution generally hip made possible the modern meat industry. For instance, it also allowed for the bulk importation of bananas to the United States the variety that Americans came to know and love was the grow. Michelle also known as big Mike, and it was a large banana and it had thick skin. So it didn't bruise easily. There are more than a thousand banana varieties in the world. But Jenkins says a lot of other banana varieties don't travel well, either there's small or they have been skins. Or for one reason or another didn't grow. Well in one thousand nine hundred Americans were eating fifteen million bunches of bananas ear just a decade later forty million. So it was very bad news. When a fungus emerged devastating the plantations in Latin America, this fungus came to be called, Panama disease. It was I noticed in the late eighteen hundreds by the nineteen fifties. It was wiping out the grow Michel. And so what the fruit companies did was they'd move onto another country by a lot more land and grow bananas until the disease caught up with them and they had to move on. But the disease couldn't be outrun the grow Michelle was doomed. So they changed to propriety called the cabinet banana, the Kevin dish was not susceptible to the disease that wiped out the grow, Michelle. So the Kevin dish is the banana. Most of eat today it accounts for ninety nine percent of the banana export market. The last grow Michelle's in the US were sold in nineteen sixty five. So our banana is not the same banana our elders eight I've never had a grow. Michelle not old enough. So I'm not really sure how much difference. There was some people who did eat the grow. Michelle say it was more delicious than the cabin dish. But the Kevin dish has done. Very well, thank you. It is the most popular fruit in both the US and Europe, even though the vast majority of them must be imported the EU imports around six million tons of Kevin dish bananas each year or one hundred ten bananas per person, the US about one hundred thirty bananas per person Candida pizzas, both with one hundred fifty bananas. So you can imagine. There would be a lot of unhappy people if the banana we all were once again under existential threat. Well, the doomsday scenario is that it wipes out the international banana trait. That's right, Panama disease is back and this time it's come for the cabin dish today on freakonomics radio. Sometimes a banana is just a. Anna. But in this case, it's also symbol of commerce of political discord of scientific dilemmas, and of course, personal taste martyr preferences on his as they are all curious enough bananas on types. From Stitcher and productions this is freakonomics radio. The podcast explores the hidden side of everything here's your host, Stephen Duffner. Why are bananas so popular Mattis count the ways and full disclosure? I say this is someone who personally does not love bananas. But I do recognize how appealing the are sorry about that. But seriously the peel it's got to be part of it. First of all, it's bright yellow. It's basically an advertisement for itself also Virginia Scott Jenkins notes that the banana I gained popularity around the time people were just starting to learn about germs and food hygiene one early banana importer called it a fruit and a germ proof rapper. You know, this is something that you could eat on the street and not worry about getting sick from it. There was also a new awareness around food and nutrition people were interested in calories. And this was a good way to get more nutrition and vitamins at the same time still if you know even a little bit about economic. Mic's you'd have to think that price must also have something to do with the banana being the most popular fruit in America. And this is where it gets interesting. Put yourself in a grocery store you see piles and piles of apples all different Friday's about ninety five percent of the apples eaten in the US are grown in the US the imports usually just plug a hole at the end of the growing season. Now, check out the pile of bananas. First thing you notice just the one variety. The Kevin dish in every one of them has been grown picked washed and box in another country. Then they're shipped still green in a temperature controlled environment at their destination. They're put in special ripening rooms that provide among other amenities the release of gases that trick the banana into thinking it's still back home in the tropics at a temperature of sixty four degrees banana can be ripened in his little four days at fifty eight degrees. It'll take seven days considering all this after care, and the fact that they're all imported you might expect a banana to be much more expensive than the. Very American apples. And yet they're not an answer. Typically, listen half, the price of apples, in fact, there among the cheapest fruits around how can this be how did an imported luxury item become cheap American staple? Well, let's start here. This in part a story of economies of scale. That's the economist Douglas Southgate an America's professor at Ohio State University. He started studying bananas because well, the short answer is that my wife is from Ecuador which happens to be the leading expert bananas and has been for the last sixty five years, even though the country's no larger than the state of Colorado bananas are grown in many warm countries around the world in the eastern and western hemispheres bananas are far and away the most widely traded fruit of fruit or vegetable basically one hundred and thirty five countries the grove anonymous. One hundred forty five million tons of been on this produced every year that's about eight hundred billion bananas. And that's Andrew byles who until recently worked at Chiquita one of the world's largest banana companies his title at Chiquita was CEO of bananas pineapples seriously. That's the title as for the bananas in the world. It's the fourth most important crop of two rice. We'd and Cohen the economic value generated by the banana industry, some fifty two billion. And there is some four hundred million people that rely on bananas for a staple food staple source of income. There are many countries that did not have bananas. They would go showed a food the Kevin dish banana accounts for just under fifty percent of global banana production. But again almost one hundred percent of exported. Bananas and Ecuador alone accounts for more than a quarter of all Kevin dish exports. If you produce something and very very large numbers than you bring down the per unit or average cost for the early American banana companies the transition from luxury fruit to mass import was a strategic move. I think the key to the strategy or understanding the strategy was to realize that they made more money from having a smaller margin on a much larger volume than they would have had continuing to treat bananas electoral system. And how did they accomplish this consider the history of Chiquita to started way back in the eighteen hundreds and was a company that I went public believe it or not in nineteen oh three back, then it was known as the United fruit company, and you happen to have the largest fleet of ships in the western hemisphere. Only. The US navy had a larger fleet of ships. In fact, the navy would requisition some United ships during World War Two. But in peacetime, well, they use those fleets to move bananas to the United States very very efficiently. And as always the case or practically always the case, the major beneficiaries of this officiency were in fact, consumers prices were slashed and within a few years bananas were no longer a luxury item. They were instead of of fruit of of poor people the first food that a lot of poor babies aid after weaning where mashed bananas in the days before canned baby food. It would be hard to overstate here. The role of the United fruit company. What we have here is a company, but that she created of an honor industry. It was called the octopus because it had a near monopoly on production United food deaf. Had its tentacles wrapped around this industry. Most of United's bananas were grown in the Spanish, speaking countries to our south Costa Rica, Honduras and other Central American nations happened to be an ideal setting for raising bananas for the US market ideal because of the climate yes, but also because land and labour were both very very cheap. So American consumers were winning United fruit was really winning. And what about those Central American countries? Keep in mind, they were largely undeveloped at the time. Foreign companies led by United fruit were willing to make the investment to clear land put in infrastructure and so forth to start producing bananas in a massive scale for the US market. But only if they were awarded vast tracts of land and largely exempted from taxation. So that gave them the dominant position. That's what led to banana republics. Yes, before it was a clothing store banana Republic meant something very different essentially, a fragile country whose economy and often political leadership were propped up by an export crop. And when a banana Republic acted against the interests of their banana overlords things could get ugly. Consider the case of Guatemala in the early nineteen fifties, president Heiko Arbenz. Former army Colonel was pursuing a land reform program that would have reclaimed property from the banana companies and this angered United fruit United fruit. Definitely wanted to see Arbenz go United fruit lobbied, the US congress to act against Guatemala and Arbenz was ultimately ousted in a coup. Led by the CIA, I think drying simple line of causation United fruit. US government overthrow of of Guatemala doesn't capture all of what was going on the US government had other reasons why it was alarmed at some of what are Vince was doing apart from the land reform, specifically the American government was worried that Guatemala was sliding toward communism and an alliance with the Soviet Union. This was a common theme of the Cold War era. We're not talking only Guatemala here in any case. The US overthrow of Guatemala lead to destabilization and decades of bloody civil war United fruit. Meanwhile, continued to tangle with governments in other banana republics, and ultimately the US government as well which accused United fruit of monopolistic behavior, we controlled production and also have an extensive deep network for distributing bananas from U S ports inland. So the United fruit was very much the the banana business in nineteen sixty seven United fruit agreed to reorganize and sell off some of its strategic assets. The octopus was shrinking the next blow came from Ecuador that was the most important development that ended the octopuses time Ecuador does not fit at all into the standard banana Republic narrative land in Ecuador was owned by independent farmers. So it was-. Susceptible to the political and economic exploitation that had worked elsewhere by the time, the major companies were taking a serious look in Ecuador. Most of the good farmland the prime farmland was already owned by Ecuadorians that meant that. There were never going to be any extensive concessions and grants tax exemptions all those sorts of things in the late nineteen forties. Ecuador's president Galo plaza invested heavily in infrastructure and pest control that benefited the local banana growers here was this important source of supply that came online and very big way very quickly after World War Two. And it was a source of supply that was impossible for United fruit to control we learned from Ecuador, something that's more typical about the role of local entrepreneurs in agricultural trade and development the contributions that they can make. Today. No, one company comes close to dominating the international banana, treat like United fruit. Once did the three biggest banana companies dole Del Monte and Chiquita United successor. They share around forty percent of the global export market. So there's more competition than they used to be which will tell you helps keep prices down. But there's an even more powerful explanation for why bananas are so cheap. Standardization? So the advantage of having the communis is that it is really a monoculture that you can actually grow it consistently Andrew byles, again, formerly of Chiquita, you know, that it's going to take eight to nine months to come to fruition. And you know, how that banana is going to function when it's transported refrigerated cargo. You know, how it's going to be form in the ripening rooms and the country vista nation, and you know, how it's going to be form and hold up on the retail shelf. And it's not just that nearly every banana grown for export is cabbage. It's every Kevin dish banana is genetically the same as the next cabin dish from a business perspective. That's ideal the ultimate in quality control from an agricultural perspective. However, there's no diversity. So this you each plant is the same each. Has the same resistance to disease spreads as you'll recall the grow Michel banana was wiped out years ago by Panama disease, or technically FU cerium wilt, it's caused by a fungus that infects the plants roots and eventually kills the whole plant and leaves the soil unfit for future banana growth, the strain of Panama disease that killed off the grow Michel was known as TR one or tropical race one. Now, there's a strain called R four that's tacking the cabin dish. So indeed it's fallen victim to almost the same disease as the groom show. So what we see is to start apparently in Indonesia spread for the vans. It's devastated crops there as pharma's moved the mecum bell to all to me in the banana industry is very worried the TR four will make it. To Latin America, you looked at the map. It's a disease that seems to be spreading west. Coming up after the break the banana industries race to save itself. Then really isn't anything else arise and that could now go and replace Kevin. But what about science? So acceptable societally. That's coming up right after this. It may sound like a made up name, but Humpty doo is a real place a small town in the northern territory of Australia. It's wet. Fairly rugged when we fish. We don't do the plantation. They the plantation manager say you gotta be careful working around here. A girl was taken by crocodile a couple of months ago. We also have a real problem with while buffalo, but manage to work they were that losing any of staff, James, Dale, he's a plant scientist. I'm we're at university of technology in Brisbane in a strident. I work on bananas DALE'S first job out of grad school was working on a banana disease a disease co punchy top had a long history in trying to punchy top with caused by a virus that scientists couldn't find a way to control. And so when the concept of genetic modification, kind alone, and that was so to the late eighty s we said, well, this is going to be absolutely perfect for bananas. And the reason for that is that the bananas that we ate primarily sterile. Wild banana seeds are very hard. And so the cabin dish like other banana varieties that people eat has essentially been bred into a seedless sterile condition shy crops. It don't have any sage extremely difficult to breed conventionally, so the idea of being able to genetically modify them that is to add additional James to Kevin dish, for instance, which way are interested in same really really attractive attractive and for the global banana trade important because the cabin dish like the grow Michelle before it has rare attributes the robots that travel long distances on there really isn't anything else on the horizon that could now go and replace Kevin dash there's nothing that you could pull out and say this is going to do what Kevin did after the last outbreak. The new strain of Panama disease emerged in the nineteen ninety s. And around about two thousand we decided that this disease tropical rights full was kind to be a a huge problem. And so we set out to look for Jane's provide resistance to the disease as part of this research Dale had a former PHD student out collecting wild bananas. And the scientists was in Malaysia and happened to see this patch of bananas which were growing with everything else had died from tropical rice full. So she and her colleagues collected seeds of those bananas, and they sent them back to it, James Dale and his team began studying these bananas. And so he said like, let's go look in the deny of is resistant ones and see if we can find the Jane that would provide resistance, and we came up with a number of candidates James that seem to be working in the resistant sailings, but not in the susceptible sailings. One of those look really promising to us. So we took that Jane. And by by prices known as Agrobacterium mediated transformation. We put it into another terminology Embry, Jin, excels or ember Denic sale suspensions, and these we might these sales from Kevin they have the ability to regenerate an entire plant from a single cell. And this leads us back to Humpty doo Australia which had been a fertile site for banana production, but because of the tropical ice for what's being wiped out which made Humpty doo the perfect place to hold the world's first experiment to see whether genetically modified Kevin dish bananas could survive Panama disease. Remember once Panama disease, the struck the soil remains contaminated with the fungus. So we put this chain into these single cells and grew bananas back in two thousand. Twelve they began field trials that would last a few years planting both genetically modified and non GM bananas in the Humpty doo soil would they find? So what we found these undefended number of things we found that the non GM bananas with between one hundred percent and two-thirds of them. Why the data are infected after three years. So that as as was having pretty big impact. Okay. That's important to know that Panama disease was still in the soil, which men if a genetically modified plant survived. It was survived ING, Panama disease. So how did the genetically modified plants do Dale and his team planted? Six different lines of GM, Kevin dish plants one of those lawns rates, Jamie. Putting John g I two. So gee, I to line three appeared to be completely immunity into threes. None of the plants infected a tool so sensually. But we've done is. We've taken a, gene. From the wall banana that he's resistant to trouble rates full. We've taken that one banana, Jane and we've gone to put it into Kevin. And by doing that, we we've generated resistance to the disease. This was amazing banana news RJ to line three was a clear winner. Some the other genetic modifications did well to three of the other lines had really high levels of resistance where there was twenty percent less plants author infected Dade which was to us in critical outcome rarely do you get that sort of percentage success in the sorts of things to tell me a pretty excited about that. And there was something else to be excited about the other really important thing we found was that the gene will be put in this GT. Jane, not only occurs in these wall bananas. But it also causing Kevin dish, it just doesn't work. Very well and senate's actually really really important because there's a new technology known as gene editing. It's different attain modifications, gene editing. These we can go. Into the deny and just tweaked genes that are already there sides, very very close to some natural processes. And that's why we're now starting to to figure out how we can tweak the Jane in Kevin to make them resistant without actually adding any new Jane's toll, this type of gene editing is made possible by something known as crisper, which I'm sure you know, stands for clustered regularly. Inter spaced short pal Andro repeats. We spoke with one of Christopher's inventors the biochemist Jennifer Dowden back in two thousand seventeen for an episode called evolution accelerated its episode number two ninety one if you want to hear it, and it's cores the crisper, gene editing technology is is now giving human beings the opportunity to change the course of volition, and you know, human beings have been affecting evolution for a long time. Right. But now. Now, there's a technology that allows very specific changes to be made to DNA that gives us a new level of control Christopher's terrific. And so yes, we are using crisper at the moment. So this would seem to be super amazing banana news there are potentially two ways to save the cabin dish from Panama disease by using crisper to tweak its genetic code or by introducing new resistant genes from other bananas either way, the banana industry must be thrilled by the solutions that James Dale is proposing right? We asked Andrew byles, former CEO of bananas and pineapples at Chiquita dream style. He is working on more of a GM approach. Okay. That of course is not so acceptable societally. So some people will say, yes, I don't mind genetic modification others will say they do indeed a sizable fraction of consumers in the US. And especially in Europe, considered genetically modified crops to be risky despite assurances to the contrary from scientists like James, Dale, and I think that's way we filed. We really haven't got the message across this is one of the most incredibly highly regulated technologies in the world said the sorts of things that we got through to demonstrate safeties ising the objection to GMO crops is also curious in light of the fact that traditional plant breeding without which many many fewer of us would be alive. Is it self a form of genetic modification Jennifer Dowden again? I think it's important for for people to appreciate that for. Out of all humans have been modifying plants for on time, you know, genetically and you know, this literally thousands of years. Exactly thank goodness. And you realize, wow, I'm glad there's plant breeding. But you know, the way that that's been done traditionally is to use chemicals or even radiation to introduce genetic changes into seeds, and then plant breeders will select for for plants that have traits that they want the opportunity here with gene editing in plants is to be able to make changes precisely not to drag along traits that you don't want really the difference between what we're doing and conventional breeding you should move thousands of Jane's tone from one banana to another. We just moving tape. It's worth noting that nearly every technological advance is greeted with skepticism by at least a small segment of any population, and such skepticism may be magnified when it comes to something you're gonna put in your mouth, a great example for me is pasteurized milk. The economists Douglas Southgate again in the United States and other countries lots of kids used to die from drinking raw milk, raw milk that had been exposed to flies or whatever pasteurization came along that entire source of Marty went away. And yet there were people who swore up and down that they were never going to consume pasteurize Melk the claimed it it didn't have the same attritional properties didn't taste the same. It was in one way or another undesirable. There are still some raw milk advocates. But most people Southgate says most people ended up drinking pasteurize milk. And I just have a hunch that if we produce. Substitute for the cabinet or if we improve the cabbage by moving in a gene from some other banana, people will have a tough time telling the difference in and the product will win acceptance, but big companies like Chiquita or to be fair most big companies in any industry, period. They're pretty risk averse, honestly, the can't afford to not be. But there's another reason James Dale is not surprised that Chiquita's resistance to his banana proposals. The big banana companies, unfortunately have had a history of not being terribly innovative. They much reactive. They don't run big research and development divisions. Yeah, we talked to them. They take more of a let's just say what's going to happen reaction. So how does too key to see a path forward for the endangered? Kevin dish banana, we believe the puff towards this is that through improving breeding, techniques we. Feel the the logical first place for us as a leading branded premium quality banana to go is to try and go down in a very sophisticated and the very organized and very thorough way the plant breeding route and James stales response to that. There's an exceptionally good breeding programs going on in the world. But you don't end up with Kevin dish you end up with something different to Kevin dash. And so if we want to replace Kevin dish with something probably very very different. We'll probably get that from the conventional breeding programs. So if you wanna have the Kevin dish in the future high. If you wanna have Kevin dish in twenty ton that probably going to be genetically modified that probably going to be Jane aided that makes it sound as if the cabin dish as we know it may well be headed for extinction, depending on the banana companies decisions and the public's response to. Connectik modification so four the billions of people who eat trillions of bananas. A great many of them. Kevin dish, how panic should they be where the industry would say this though, Penick the will run on this. But what about the Kevin dish banana what I think we're going to have to probably confront is actually having more varieties have been on us of I level in the future. As we protect the farming of bananas. We're gonna have to get used to how we can actually grow and commercialize and do the disticts for different bananas. The prospect of exporting several different kinds of bananas would be an adjustment for the industry, of course, for consumers less standardization might mean higher prices, but the prospect of finding several varieties of banana in a grocery store would hardly be unsettling considering how many varieties of apples and grapes and citrus fruits are available, but in a world with so many options in most realms there has been something. Nice something unifying about all of us eating the same banana, no matter how you eat it straight out of the Piel cut up on cereal. If you're feeling a little bit more ambitious as you'll recall, the banana historian Virginia. Scott Jenkins told us about researching earlier interest peas, I found some very interesting menus for very fancy occasions. It might have been. On the menu. Jenkins has a rather interesting banana recipe of her own passed on from her mother, take a peeled banana, you put mustard on it. You wrap it in a slice of ham. And then you bake it in a cream sauce. I've tried it to husbands and Neil room could eat it that was just nasty. Freakonomics radio is produced by Stitcher, and w productions this episode was produced by Greg Rozelle sqi, and Matt Hickey our staff also includes Alison Craig low, Greg Rippin, Harry Huggins, Zach Lipinski and Korean Wallace. Our theme song is Mr. fortune by the Hitchhiker's all the other music was composed by Louis garra. You can subscribe to freakonomics radio on apple podcasts or wherever you get your podcast. The entire archive is available on the Stitcher app or at freakonomics dot com. Where we also published transcripts show notes and more. We also publish every week on medium a trimmed up text version of our new episode Goto, medium dot com slash freakonomics radio. If you want to hear the entire freakonomics radio archive ad free. Plus, lots of bonus episodes, go to Stitcher premium dot com slash freakonomics. We can also be found on Twitter, Facebook and Lincoln or via Email at radio at freakonomics dot com. We also play on many NPR stations. So check your local. Nation for details. Thanks for listening. Stitcher. You can think of household name episodes as lifelines when you're stuck in a boring conversation. The change the subject tell them the secrets behind Victoria secret or how a single lie turned KFC into Japanese Christmas tradition. He does die. I still regret that did, you know Panara open cafes where customers could pay whatever they wanted that before it was a hippie car. The BW Beato was created by not seeks build a city for the beetle like the hippy beetle. You can talk about how LaCroix crocs car heart and Canada goose all became surprisingly, cool, and while your friends stories of TGI Fridays wild early days as one of the first singles bars, that'd be standing the board Fridays and say, hi, darling. I own this place that seemed to work I'm Tempa coffin. I host household name from business insider, Stitcher. We make this show. So you have something that talk about subscribe to household name for surprising stories about famous brands find it on apple podcasts, Stitcher or wherever you listen. Household name brands, you know, stories. Out.

United States Kevin dish banana Republic Panama James Dale Chiquita Ecuador Michelle Scott Jenkins Jane Kevin Latin America Guatemala Andrew byles president James Kevin dish United fruit company Americas
Episode 29 Part 3 Congress and Corruption

Labor: Know Your Rights

22:06 min | 2 years ago

Episode 29 Part 3 Congress and Corruption

"Hello listeners. This is labor. Your rights podcast. I'm your host. Dave. This episode is brought to you by the national ego, Justice and security professionals. The members count. First contact information can be found in the show, including our toll free number which is what eight five five six two five eight six one zero please check out life on record or gift of record messages for any special occasion to load one. She are showing for details. In nineteen fifty three. He announced his intention to reclaim land controlled by United fruit company in the name of the watermelon. People L D obeyed a woman uprising led by back military, liberation Colonel Carlos Castilla Armas the collapse of RBIs. Government was cheered in America. But Colonel Armagh soon revealed himself to be a right wing dictator intent on murdering his political opponents and erotic ating, the country's trade unions. See I went on to us, and af L C I O supported union in British Guyana in nineteen sixty one to undermine the duly elected. Government of prime minister, Chad Jagan and A I L V F L C I O staff were involved in the overthrow of labor friendly. Governments in the Dominican Republic in nineteen sixty five and in Chile in nineteen seventy three the US meddling in the affairs of foreign labor unions remade a secret for many years revolutions first servicing by accident in the mid nineteen sixties fearing hearings into tactics in Lathrop. Ick foundations by democratic congressman right patent of Texas patent who's small business subcommittee was looking for tax abuses stumbled into evidence that various real and dummy US villain throb AAC foundations were used by the CIA essay secret conduit to direct US funds to covert operations, like J lo'd stones. American unions also appeared to be involved a treasures of oil chemical and Tomic workers B C A W. As well as American newspaper guild were among those used pass through large cash payments. Batman went public causing an article about the mysterious guy funds to appear in New York Times on September. First nineteen sixty four. During this period of time. When some members of the labour busy attempting to reveal the vent of communism. Elsewhere in the world at home without it self on the defensive from allegations of corruption there had long been labor union related crimes. What did appear to be a relatively new and growing phenomenon in the post World War Two era was that of large Enes organize along business lines tolerating extensive corruption and abuse from within barrel leadership as well as attracting fulltime criminals from without the increase in. Memberships be mount of money gathering in year, treasuries, straight funds and pension funds had grown so large. It could not but have a transformative organizational affect. Controlling millions of dollars changed. The character of the union leaders job often his character as well a certain amount of questionable practices, payoffs and graft in the leadership ranks, but if they delivered on basic needs and stood up for workers, and acceptable level. Crushing would be accepted. The New York waterfront corruption that reminded America of its problems with labor related crime. When you're sun. Reporter Malcolm Johnson was sent to cover the murder of a Canard hiring bus in nineteen forty-seven. I west side piers Johnson investigated and wrote up historian. But intrigued remain on the waterfront for the better part of a year documenting and I'll LA. Fred here of unchecked Febuary smuggling shakedowns, kickbacks, robbery, extortion, and murder and underworld syndicate one whose reach extended throughout America. And even the world. The syndicate is like a big trade association in crime it began back in prohibition. And it is still strong today. It has interest in New York, of course. And in Hollywood, Miami, Chicago, Detroit and other key cities, the heart of this enterprise was a labor union, the international longshoremen's association through which Johnson wrote mobsters are able to control all key jobs on the piers and Reckitt operate without interference Johnson's son series, which won a Pulitzer prize in nineteen forty-nine helped insp-. Fire an even more public expose a in nineteen fifty fifty one when Tennessee Senator ESTES. Kefauver led Nationale Lee televised hearings into the underworld syndicate that featured the testimony of real life criminals since prohibition be American public had known of the sense. Asian lives activities of gangsters and the nineteen forty prosecutions of murdering corporate had revealed the existence of a nationally coordinated Jewish and I tell you of execution squad. Hurry, insulin here of the US Breyer of narcotics. Who had been following the efforts by Charles lucky Guccione buyer, Lansky and others to develop an offshore criminal haven in Keila head as early as nineteen Forty-six understood that the syndicate was far reaching in scope known formerly essence special committee to investigate organized crime in interstate commerce. They kept offer panels convened in seven seas, including New York, Washington and Los Angeles, the hearings were fellow by the public weren that the syndicate was a criminal Vandam government that enforces its laws carries out its own executions and that only ignores, but a horse the democratic process of Justice, which are held to be the safeguards of the American citizen. The report that emerged from. The hearings was very much of it time imagining labor corruption not unlike communism to be a secret government of criminals capable of some birding the country from within the Kip half or hearings was covered by newspapers. And the medium televised executives of the three major stations were excited that such civic minded programming garnered high ratings as twenty million Americans were believed to have watched some of the Japan ever hearing only one in five households at ATV set. Those who did not gathered outside of stores who had them displayed in windows the link between organized crime and the longshoremen's union of New York was central to both Malcolm Johnson's and esus Fathur's were in of course, raised uncomfortable questions. About organized labor. It was Robert Kennedy who had investigate this connection more closely. Senator John McClellan, chairman of the committee of Arkansas was sparked by an incident in New York City on the evening of April fifth nineteen fifty six when York Post labor columnist Victor racial who had just left Lindy's steakhouse was attacked by group in who test acid in space. The assault came only a few days after resell had published a comb criticizing New York's trucking and clothing industries for alleged connections to organize crime resou-. I Bain Joan Gardy also known as Johnny DO a union officer racketeer in the garment business who'd already done time in sing-sing. He was convinced DO head hired his attackers. Resale went on meet the press to tell the story of his attack. He asked why the government can Vesta gate a foreign threat such as communism lag, nor a local fit of labor racketeering. George me quickly responded saying that just as we have defeated the east without who tried to desperately to destroy the labor movement. So we defeat enemies from within those wrongdoing can undermine the effectiveness of everything we are trying to accomplish the AFL CIO ethical practices committee was orange extend it staff confront the dilemma as others for paired to deal with what bloomed as a major public image crisis for federation and all organized labor. It was Clark Mellon Hof a lawyer and investigative reporter for the desma registers from you approach Robert Kennedy about the possibility of all up on resuls suggestion for formal inquiry into labor racketeering. Can't he was Vince Irving as counsel to the Senate permanent committee on invest? Negations which had been recently looking into corruption on the part of suppliers and low level government officials in the clothing procurement system of the armed forces at the time all labor unions were required churn in annual financial reports to secretary of labor as they are today. But then they lacked the staff and will to scrutinize these submissions. The information was considered confidential. It is public today. Kennedy's first stop was to visit several cities where labor crush it had been reported accompanying him worse. Former FBI agent and accounting expert Carmen who Email they focused primarily on international brotherhood of Teamsters. With one point six million members, the nation's largest trade union in meeting journalists and police knowledgeable about its activities during this trip. Candy heard enough tells of extortion Phoebe in evidence. Two more than confirm claims. She'd heard one important in Kennedy's outrage at this early stage of the inquiry where the unique skills of his traveling companion for Elino a table full of canceled checks ledgers and scraps of paper authored a forensic he to the Teamsters wrongdoing and the accountant confirmed to Kennedy that deceit and phony transactions appeared to about because of the difficulty of tying individuals to the cookbooks Bellina warned Kennedy not to start this unless he was ready to go all the way Kennedy replied, where going all the way the pro. I looked at Teamsters president, Dave Beck. The former head of the Union's Western Conference who had taken over the IB t in nineteen fifty two from the unions itching founder jail Jj Tobin related dairy old nanny way having served for forty five years can. Candy and Beleno suspected backup playing fast and loose with union funds making questionable purchases often bay sectioning. Many through a Chicago labor relations intermediary named Nathan view Scheffer. Mun a longtime union BUSTER for Sears, Roebuck and company Beck had vent union money on everything from home appliances to boats as well as lavish renovations to his family's all in Seattle. Instead of using the standing Senate permanent committee on investigations to gemin- abuses in organized labor. Hoosein head created a new panel. The select committee on improper activities in the labor or management field to be chaired by John McLaughlin of Arkansas and endowed with an appropriations of three hundred fifteen thousand dollars Katie was chief counsel edition to McClellan. The other Democrats on board were Sam urban Patrick McNamara and John Kennedy who joined reluctantly, but at his brother's insistence in order to keep Strom Thurman, then s later for regressive us on all questions off the committee. Republicans included urban is karo mutt. Very old water and Joseph McCarthy. Kennedy issued a subpoena for Beck in early nineteen fifty seven but back conveniently left the country to spend several weeks in the Caribbean. He claimed fee vacation was for his wife's health when he did finally appear. He took the fifth George me with agreement of both reussir had warned that any official taking the fifth in order team. Baid the committee's questions would be expelled from the AFL CIO in one day back took the fifth more than sixty five times unaware of the way, the TV audience which see. That taking the fifth so many times would be seen as a guilty plea. He would be forced to resign. His gene stirs post and later was convicted of grand larceny and tax evasion. He was sentenced to five years the federal penitentiary James Jimmy Hoffa, the son of an Indiana coal miner who died when James was four he and his family moved to Detroit where the man left school. After the seventh grade were on the loading docks of a grocery warehouse. He his first strike at age nineteen and brought his three hundred man union into the Teamsters local two ninety nine the Teamsters enormous organizing strength by controlling over the road trucking as well as wellcoll delivery drivers in warehouseman, they could virtually bring local regional or even national commerce to a halt oughta and Deb's ever to grow the Teamsters led to. Such expensive membership grove the IB teens welfare and pension fund grew to almost two hundred and fifty million making the Teamsters largest and wealthiest union in America. Hopper was no stranger to Capitol Hill. Having recently been the subject of a house investigation led by Representative Claire Hoffman of Michigan and went Smith of Kansas into the missions of some of those vast IB T resources, it was alleged that off ahead handed over control of a Teamsters health and welfare fund to start up insurance agency ran by Ellen and rose Dorfman who were related to Paul red Dorfman, a suspected organized crime figure who headed a large Chicago trash haulers in the door funds had now prayer extremes in insurance too much S three million in fees and commissions from the fun half of which resulted from the overbilling. And excessive fees the Hoffman. Smith, inC, fiery was mysteriously terminated before it could complete its work probably under pressure from the Republican party, which was eager to win fort for upcoming election. In michigan. Oppa came under scrutiny by the McClellan committee day to his connection student. Johnny DO, the New York garment business racketeer suspected of ordering the salt on Victor resou- DO is suspected to have helped Hoffa maintain paper locals in New York. See when DO arrived at the capitol to test. He managed to make headlines before uttering a word irritating. Win news photographers came too close to snap his pitcher. He routed in anger striking one of them. And Manding don't, you know, I have a family Hoffa in contrast to the site -able DO confidence if he took the w-. Witness stand facing eighties questions. He knew the committee had limited authority and that like the houseman Smith investigation is findings would either be marginalized by backroom political. Maneuvering are it would simply run out of steam hop return. Katie's many info referring to him as a friendless person a bully a spoiled brat. Someone who never had work wouldn't know how to work a curly headed smart Aleck in early nineteen fifty seven Hoffa approach. John C chesty, a former member of the secret service and offered him a salary of two thousand dollars per month. If he can get a job with the McClellan committee in order to tip off Hoffa about witnesses the government had lined up and to feed candy information that would poke doom Dave Beck, whom Hoffa was ear to succeed as Teamsters boss chesty who. Whose character Hoffa, obviously misjudge promptly reported? The proposal to Kennedy the EPA the manage to photograph Hoffa on March thirteenth nineteen fifty seven appearing to have a payoff to Jesse in Washington D Pont circle leading to Hoppe's arrest on bribery and conspiracy charges hafa during his trial claim that if that he was paying chesty for legal services, not a bribe his legal team seeing the jury was two thirds African American had auctioned legend, Joe Lewis show up in support of hafa, but also hired Martha Jefferson, a black attorney. He was also known for reposing segregation in the IB t candy head told reporters that he would jump off the capital, if hop was acquitted when the jury did just that Joe's asked by an intermediary to give an autograph for one of candy sons replied, give it to you for his son. But not. For him to him to go. Take a jump off impair state-building the committee exposed a scheme where in the mid nineteen fifties off and other Teamster executives used money what half million dollars and used it a collateral for a loan of a developer in Orlando, Florida pitch to members prospect of buying plots of land in a retirement village known as Sun Valley, the developer would make what half the plots available to half a privately at a steep discount. We're were a few houses built there and a short road of about two thousand feet evil with all the scrutiny of half and his hoodlum empire. His popularity swelled. Off a compared himself to semi Ogun pers- William green and Philip Murray. Oughta assured his followers I have given twenty five years of my life to fighting for the union, I have fought for what I believe is Ray and good against forces more vicious than you can imagine I propose to continue that by as long as I live. We will be going into the more complete history of labor racketeering in the future in these episodes. We will discuss the how and way crime organization snoop into unions. We will discuss Facific locals in specific cases that involve unions and organized crime. Thank you. Cast with your family and friends, please our podcast on itunes. It helps other side us. If you want to contact us to suggest a topic have a question or just want to say, hi, our contact information is in the show along with our sponsor, the National League of Justice and security professionals where members come first.

Teamsters New York City James Jimmy Hoffa Robert Kennedy America Dave Beck Senator John McClellan Chicago Malcolm Johnson John Kennedy racketeering Senate Colonel Carlos Castilla houseman Smith United fruit company CIO George Johnny DO Arkansas Katie
The Birth of RCA

TechStuff

40:18 min | 2 years ago

The Birth of RCA

"This episode is sponsored by ADT ADT can design and install smart home. Just for you backed by twenty four seven protection, you can have all sorts of automated settings for example, you could have the worry free getaway service, ADT automation arms your system locks up and set slept lighting schedules while you are on vacation. So it looks like you're still at home ADT sets everything up for you, including locks lights garage door control even video doorbells. Brought to you by ADT smart security designed and installed just for you. Visit ADT dot com slash podcasts. Get in touch with technology with tech stuff from house networks dot com. Hey there in welcome to tech stuff. I'm your host Jonathan Strickland. I'm an executive producer with how stuff works and iheartradio in the love all things tech. And while I was preparing for CAS twenty nineteen which I am getting ready to to travel to as I'm recording. This. I'm agreeing list the Friday before I jump on a plane and head out to Las Vegas, Nevada. Well, I read a lot of emails from a lot of different companies, and they're all attempting to entice me to go to a particular part of CAS to see their booth or their presentation, or maybe even to a hotel suite off the exhibition floor because you know, some companies will rent out a suite of rooms rather than secure exhibition space for lots of reasons. That's neither here nor there. Anyway, one of these companies the ones that sent me these emails was our CA, and the thing that really caught my eye is that in twenty nineteen RCA. Is celebrating its one hundredth anniversary RCA has been a really important company in technology for lots of different reasons. Not just consumer tech and RCA is responsible directly for two of the big broadcast networks in the United States and indirectly is responsible for the third. I thought I would explore the history of this company and what it's been through during the century of its existence. So this is the first episode where we're going to talk about the formation of RCA. But of course, this also means that I'm going to be doing a lot of backtracking because while RCA which was an initial ISM originally for Radio Corporation of America. It would become an established company in nineteen nineteen the history actually dates further back. So we've gotta talk about some other companies and some politics and some other big issues that would lead to the formation the founding. Ng of RCA. So let's go back to the eighteen hundreds in the late nineteenth century invention and innovation were rapidly. Changing the world you had the industrial revolution. And it had altered the way we do work at impacted the price of goods things became cheaper. Because it was easier to make a heck a lot more of just about everything people had more time on their hands. And at the same time, you had engineers and inventors who are experimenting with stuff like electrobi- and magnetism and radio waves entrepreneurs from around the world, some of them inventors other just business not just but others of business minded people who saw opportunity through the invention of others began to form corporations that could exploit these discoveries for profit. And they included companies like the American Telephone and telegraph company also known as AT and T also General Electric, which grew. Out of several companies one of which was founded by Thomas, Edison, himself, and many more the discovery of radio waves, and the technology that would allow humans to produce transmit and receive radio waves in a meaningful way is beyond the scope of these episodes. Besides I've talked about that a lot in earlier episodes of tech stuff. You can search the archives there tons of episodes where I talk about radio waves and the history of radio, but by the early nineteen hundreds there were a dozen or so radio operating stations in the United States. Several of these stations were owned by foreign companies and almost all of them were dedicated to transmitting signals using Morse code. So this wasn't about radio stations playing the top forty or anything like that. At this stage. These were communications stations they were meant to transmit signals from one place to another to send communications across the nation. It was sort of analogous to the telephone infrastructure. So not meant as entertainment or news source, the telephone companies had not yet entered into this business at this point these were all individual enterprises, some of which were getting pretty large and the biggest of all of them was the American Marconi company named after Marconi the guy who gets the credit for inventing radio. That is the transmission technology of radio, though, that is of course, a matter of great dispute in certain academic circles Nikola, tesla would be the other name that gets thrown around in that. And for good reason, tesla was awarded a patent early on and that patent would eventually get overturned in favor of Marconi's under somewhat shady circumstances. Anyway in the summer of nineteen fourteen war broke out in Europe somewhat optimistic. People were calling it the war to end all wars. But now, we call it World War. One thus optimism did not win out now while the United States initially maintained a neutral status during the war. The US government was already making preparations in the event that the nation would be pulled into the conflict and part of that wasn't executive order. That was signed by Woodrow Wilson on August fifth nineteen fourteen that executive order authorized, the United States navy department to censor international. Telegraph messages that were sent by radio firms, the largest of which was the Marconi company now Marconi company challenged the legality of this executive order saying this is censorship. You can't do. It. Legal battles would follow and the navy would ultimately shutdown. Marconi radio transmission station for three months until the company agreed to follow regulations in January nineteen fifteen eventually. Even this was thought to be too risky and the United States government, effectively took over the American Marconi company. And the American Marconi company was technically it was a subsidiary. It was a subsidiary of a company that had its headquarters in England. So the US government says we want to maintain Neutra neutrality. We cannot have stations that are located in the United States, sending messages on behalf of one or another of the parties that are at war in Europe because that would seem to suggest that we are on a particular side, and we want to stay out of this. So the US says in order to do this. We're going to take over your assets. They're not yours anymore. They're ours. Boo. Now at the end of the war, the United States still had those assets of the American Marconi company and the government needed a way to offload them. They didn't want to keep them. They also wanted to ensure. That those assets would remain under American control. They didn't want foreign nations to have access to critical communications technologies with on you know, on US soil. So the government approached a group of companies that included General Electric, which would become the dominant partner in this group, Westinghouse AT and T western electric and United fruit company. And if you're like me, your reaction to that last partner was probably hang on. Did he say United fruit company, and indeed Idid that company has a complex and controversial history? It was involved in various levels of government in many regions across the world, particularly in central and South America, and the Caribbean, and it was operating as an effective monopoly in a lot of places has a lot of a lot of time. With colonization. So there are a lot of negative things that kind of tie into this company's history. But in nineteen thirteen the United fruit company had established the tropical radio and telegraph company, which is kind of what brought it up as a potential partner for this enterprise. So anyway, these partners all got together, and they formed the Radio Corporation of America or see a in nineteen nineteen. It was essentially a government sanctioned monopoly in the radio industry in the United States. The companies all pooled their patents together in a series of cross licensing agreements to avoid any conflicts of having one company attempt to leverage its essential patents over the other partners in the operation of our c- as business, so essentially they were all saying here are all the patented technologies that we have at our disposal that relate to radio transmission technologies. We wanna make sure that we're not creating impediments for our. See a to do business to head up this company the partners chose a guy named David Sarnoff Sarnoff himself had a really interesting history. He was born in Russia in eighteen ninety one. But his family immigrated to America in nineteen hundred he had started working as a messenger. Boy for a telegraph company in nineteen oh six and he became a telegraph operator for the American Marconi company. A couple years later legend has it that he picked up the distress calls from the Titanic in nineteen twelve while working in the radio station that was owned by John Wanamaker, but the truth appears to be that Sarnoff had instead picked up signals of rescue ships that were responding to the Titanic's distress call. And then he relayed that information to the local press in New York. He was promoted to chief inspector of American Marconi a few years later, and he wrote a memo in nineteen sixteen in which he proposed building radios for home. Consumers and he called it a radio music box. So this is before the days of commercial radio. But he had thought this technology has the potential to bring culture, entertainment news, all sorts of stuff into the American Home. Through transmission, if we want to pursue that this was in the days when only amateur radio enthusiasts had any access to radio equipment outside of the professional industry. The otherwise the only places you would find it are in these radio stations where they were acting almost like telegraph operators. So he would then become the commercial manager for RCA eventually become the general manager. And then further down the line. The CEO Sarnoff was a really am businessman. He was also really good at self promotion, and who is also really good at sensing the potential impact of radio broadcast technology as well as related technologies like television broadcast. Sts which I'll talk more about in the next episode in the early days of our c- as history, it mainly did two things it operated, the various radio stations which were still almost exclusively transmitting messages in Morse code, and it sold radio equipment manufactured by the various companies that had formed our CA while this was intended to build out a communications infrastructure similar to the telephone system. Something else was happening at the same time that changed the course of the industry, and that something was the rise of amateur radio operators, the United States had banned amateur radio during World War One saying that they needed to have those radio waves free for communications. But the the government lifted that ban on October first nineteen nineteen and more. People were interesting radio communication and setting up their own radio receivers at home, the rise in amateur radio encouraged Sarnoff and gave credence to that idea. He had proposed a few years earlier. About his radio music box will during World War One. There were some hints at what would become the standard for commercial radio in use by the military in nineteen eighteen a publication called the wireless age featured a short range system that could broadcast news and music to hospitals to entertain convalescing soldiers, for example, on the technology front companies were exploring ways to make radio receivers. More compact in less expensive to make radio signals loud enough for commercial radio to be practical. Those radios would have to have amplification and so companies began investing in research and development to improve vacuum to manufacturing processes to make radios. Ab- radical consumer item before the transistor the vacuum tube was your primary way of taking in an incoming weak signal and boosting it to a stronger outgoing signal an amplifier in other words, I have more to say about the early days of RCA. But first, let's take. A quick break to thank our sponsor. Hey, guys. I wanna talk to you about the online furniture shopping company joy bird, because I recently got a chair from joy bird, and I am incredibly pleased with the experience not only was it seamless the furniture itself is gorgeous. And it's comfortable. It is a wonderful accent to the room that we put it in. We put it in our guest room. We got the Soto chair from joy bird in lucky turquoise. And my wife said immediately, you did a really good job picking this out. Will I didn't do that job joy bird? Did they have an incredible selection of different pieces of furniture? They are made with precision and care. They use responsibly sourced materials, and they have a three hundred sixty five day home trial. You can see how joy bird is revolutionizing online furniture shopping. Just go to create the for. Furniture that brings you joy today at joy bird dot com slash tech stuff. Go to joy dot com slash tech stuff and receive an exclusive offer for twenty five percent off your first order by using the code tech stuff. And so as RCA oversaw radio stations transmitting communications across vast distances and various companies began to work toward a goal of building. Consumer radios. The race was on for the first true commercial radio station, and it wouldn't be RCA to launch it. Instead Westinghouse applied for a license to operate such a transmission station, they applied to the US government. And received permission in nineteen twenty Westinghouse was in the business of manufacturing radios, but demand for radios was lagging behind and so leaders at the company reason that one way to increase demand would be to create programming. Now today that seems pretty clear that if you want to sell a technology to someone a technology that allows people to access content you need to create content for people to access otherwise. They just have useless tool. But this was a big step in nineteen twenty radio had mainly been used as point to point communication at that. At that stage. It's just that the points were undefined because there were no wires. So you had a receiver that could pick up a signal that would be a point. So this would open up the possible uses for radio and allow them to become entertainment devices. It was precisely the stuff Sarnoff had been saying in his memo back in nineteen sixteen Westinghouse approached a ham radio operator named Dr Frank Conrad who had already been playing records over the radio for some of his other amateur radio operator, friends and on November second nineteen twenty Westinghouse launched K D K A L of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was the first commercial radio station Sarnoff had been working on his own approach receiving the blessing of the companies that founded our CA to do. So they gave him some funds. So that he could pursue this and on July. Nineteen twenty one Sarnoff showed off the market potential for radio by broadcasting a boxing match between Jack Dempsey, and George Carpentier Dempsey was a celebrated US champion Carpentier was a boxing hero in France. And he had a reputation for knocking out British champions. So this was a super hyped event. Back in nineteen twenty one Dempsey would win by knockout in the fourth round. And the broadcast was a sensational hit our CA began to sell more radio receivers to customers and radio stations began popping up all over the United States. The first radio commercial on record happened in August, nineteen twenty two when a New York real estate developer. Aired an ad in New York City two years later in nineteen twenty four there were more than six hundred commercial radio stations in the United States, these were mostly independent stations. And that's when RCA made a really big move in the industry. Partnering with Westinghouse and AT and T RCA formed a new company called the national broadcasting company or in B C, which had its first broadcast on November fifteenth nineteen twenty six the concept was that NBC would produce material for broadcast, which would then be sent out over different radio stations in different regions with the stations being part of the overall network, which was a new idea the time, you know, create your your content in a central location and then distribute it using these various radio stations that was revolutionary NBC had to Simi independent networks under its governance shortly after it was formed so it split off. It's it's operations into two networks. One was called the blue network and one was called the red network. So yet NBC blue and NBC writ. The center of the blue network was a radio station called w Jay z which had been founded by Westinghouse in. In nineteen twenty one the center for the red network was a station called W E A F which was founded by AT and T in nineteen Twenty-three while all this was going on Sarnoff was already looking at the potential future of television in nineteen twenty four RCA transmitted the first transatlantic radio photo from New York to London. This is before the invention of electronic televisions when the early prototype TV's were largely mechanical in nature, and I talked about that in the history of television episodes on tech stuff. So there was a limited market for mechanical televisions. They really didn't make a lot of progress in the consumer market. They were very expensive. They are very complicated. And they had limited successful results. Let's say, but the real boon would come when inventors began to create electric televisions, and that wouldn't begin until the late nineteen twenty s and when we talk about commercial TV's your timeout. Two more decades on top of that. Now, this is not entirely a happy story in nineteen twenty nine Sarnoff met with an engineer at Westinghouse named Vladimir Zorkin. And if you've listened to my episodes about the origins of television, you knows working is one of two inventors who typically get the title of inventor of television. The other would be Filo Farnsworth Sarnoff convinced Westinghouse to fund Zorkin's work, and in nineteen thirty RCA would take over the research as work would actually go over to our CEO as well become an RCA employee Sarnoff seeing the power of patents wanted to run out of business any person or company he felt was Horning in on his action. And so in nineteen thirty two RCA would file a patent suit against Filo Farnsworth. The case would last seven years ultimately Farnsworth would win that case. RCA would have to pay fines and royalties to. But by that time, his health was in shambles. He had had a nervous breakdown from all the stress, and I'm going to get back to Sarnoff litigious ways throughout these episodes. But bouncing back to nineteen twenty nine for a moment. So this is before all of the legality issues with Farnsworth. I need to talk about another company that would play a very important part in our see as early history. Now, if you heard my episodes about the history of turntables, you'll remember the early days of the phonograph and the graph own and the gramophone I covered a little bit of the turbulent patent battles in the cutthroat business strategies that are all part of the early days of home audio and I'll have to do a more in depth series in the future to really focus on it. Because it gets nasty all but the Victor talking machine company was born directly out of all that strife now since this is not an episode about Victor. I'm just. To give you the super short version, which let's face it. I'm Jonathan Strickland of tech stuff super short for me as a lecture for anybody else. But let's go with it. The Berliner gramophone company of Philadelphia. Founded by Emile Berliner was the company that really was the focus of this. This strife Berliner gets the credit for inventing. The first flat disc record before his invention engineers would press recordings onto cylinders. So you had these cylinders that you had put on a spool essentially that would then rotate, and you could play it back on of various devices the discs were much easier to store, right? You didn't have as much space as much bulk as a cylinder dead. There were easier to ship and wants the manufacturing process was refined. They lasted a lot longer than cylinders did as well. It took a while to get the right materials. But once they did those disks just seemed more practical Berliner made a deal. Deal with an enterprising manufacturer and machinist named Eldridge. R Johnson Johnson developed a wind up spring motor for Berliners gramophones now previously those gramophones had relied on hand cranks. So you'd literally turn a crank which would then turn the gears inside the device and turn the platter. So that you could listen to the disk being played back on the gramophone Johnson. Did good work. He created a spring motor that worked reliably, but Berliner would enter into a sales agreement with a man named Frank seaman, and this would lead to massive trouble. Frankie wanted more money for himself and eventually began to sell knockoffs of Berliners works while simultaneously bringing legal action much of its spurious in nature against both Berliner and Johnson the process eventually prevented Berliner from selling gramophones in the United States and nearly bankrupted. Both Berliner and Johnson in the process, and this was infuriating to them. I mean, they were the ones who had created this technology and now this salesman. They had worked with was claiming that they were the ones infringing on his patents, his ideas and his trade secrets, but in nineteen oh, one Johnson Berliner and some other entrepreneurs got together and founded a new consolidated company that took Berliners facilities and Johnson's manufacturing plants as the basis for the new organization, and this was the Victor talking machine company which incorporated on October third nineteen o one. So the Victor talking machine company was older than the Radio Corporation of America. That would not be born until nineteen nineteen but Sarnoff looked at the Victor talking machine company and thought this is a way I could sell more radios, I could take this company and take their product the the gramophone. Essentially, although they didn't call it that in the United States like they couldn't that. They started calling it things like the Victoria, those one that the Victor company made I can take that I can incorporate a radio into the design of those machines sell it as a new product and sell more radios this way, also just as a quick aside. The Victor trademark is one of the more famous ones in business history shows a dog specifically a FOX terrier sitting in front of a gramophone horn. And the dog's head is tilted slightly from a painting, titled his master's voice and the artist was Francis borrowed, and it was made in eighteen ninety nine the dog was named Nipper and once belonged to Borodin's nephew, Mark, Mark had tragically passed away. And then Francis sawn Nipper one day sitting near gramophone with his head cocked. And that led Francis. To wonder what the dog's reaction would be if they had happened to be playing a recording of. Of his old master, Mark speaking that was the expression for the painting. They tried selling the painting as a magazine illustration to no avail, and ultimately sold it to the gramophone company for the princely sum of one hundred pounds. Sterling Johnson got permission from the gramophone company to use it for his products under the Victor company and Berliner trademark the design at some point transferred that trademark over to the Victor company. The whole story is super fascinating. And I'm sure I'll devote a future episode to the Victor talking machine company. But for now, let's remember that it started in nineteen Ninety-one. And even though it grew out of an older company. And then would eventually get incorporated into our CA. I'll explain more in just a moment. But first, let's take another quick break to thank our sponsor. Hey, guys. I wanna talk to you about the online furniture shopping company joy bird, because I recently got a chair from joy bird, and I am incredibly pleased with the experience not only was it seamless the furniture itself is gorgeous. And it's comfortable. It is a wonderful accent to the room that we put it in. We put it in our guest room. We got the Soto chair from joy bird and lucky turquoise. And my wife said immediately, you did a really good job picking this out. Will I didn't do that job joy bird? Did they have an incredible selection of different pieces of furniture? They are made with precision and care. They use responsibly sourced materials, and they have a three hundred sixty five day home trial. You can see how joy bird is revolutionizing online furniture shopping. Just go to create the furniture. That brings you joy today at joy bird dot com slash tech stuff. Go to joy dot com slash tech stuff and receive an exclusive offer for twenty five percent off your first order by using the code tech stuff guys. Let me talk to you a little bit about turbo tax live. I don't know about you. But for me, nothing really cranks up my in Zion, easy, like tax time. I'm always worried I'm going to do it incorrectly. We'll turbo tax live is a new way to do taxes. It combines technology with on demand tax professionals who can answer your questions and offer personalized advice. I'm talking about real CPA's really as they can help you with your return. They can help you find all the deductions that apply to you. And you can file your taxes and know that you're doing them correctly their tax experts are there when you need them. So you can file with complete peace of mind. Turbo tax live with CPA's and as under. Amand? See details at turbo tax dot com. The acquisition of the Victor talking machine company met that RCA was now getting into the consumer electronics business. Keep in mind up until nineteen twenty nine are see was primarily in the business of operating radio broadcast stations and selling what was -ffective -ly industrial equipment. But now RCA owned the company that had created the icon Vitrolles machine, and they created a subsidiary company called RCA, Victor that company also took a majority ownership in the Japan Victor company, which is also known as J V C also in nineteen twenty nine Arcadio radio. Pictures released a film called syncopation which relied upon a new technique called RC a photo phone, which is not to be confused with the technology developed by Alexander Graham, Bell that was also called photo phone now, this was a technique of recording audio onto film for the purposes of synchronization. Sized visuals and audio in other words away of making talking pictures and the formation of archaic pictures at self is a great story that ties directly into our history of our CA. So the development of the RCA photo phone technology date back to the early nineteen twenty s there was a man named Charles a husky who was working on recording audio to photographic film as a project for General Electric, which you'll remember was one of the founding partners that created our CA. Now hawks these work, and that time was more about preserving audio recordings for playback, not necessarily as a way of creating talking pictures, but just recording audio in itself, but by the mid twenties General Electric was thinking about applying hawks he's work in the direction of talking pictures. Now, the desire to match sound to moving images dated back to the earliest moving pictures. Edison himself worked on this challenge. And a lot of different companies were taking various approaches. To this problem. So for example, Warner Brothers had created a system called vita phone vita phone, you would record a soundtrack onto a disk similar to in L P record when you're ready to play the film. You would synchronize the film playback with the audio from the disk. So that was a pretty primitive approach, but it was how some early talking pictures were made including the first one the jazz singer, which debuted in nineteen twenty seven RCA photo phone used a totally different approach. The sound was recorded in a narrow band on the side of the frame of film. Some actual photo reactive film. The band would be out of you. When the film was put through a projector. There was a frame on a projector that covers up the edges of the film. And the audio track is on one of those edges. The wits of this strip on the side of the film varies with the frequency of the sound. That was record. Id onto the film. So essentially if sound that's transmitted into a microphone, it is turned into an electric signal which in turn is used to treat this this federal to film. So that it has this record of the frequency. It's almost like a wave form if you were to think of that, you know, in the modern sense if you were to look at an audio file on a audio editing software. So then when you're playing it back. You have a bright lamp that shines light through this narrow strip. And you have a photo sell that picks up the light that's coming through, and it generates an electric current that matches the amount of light that's hitting the photo cell, and that signal goes to a pre amplifier, which can then boost the signal strength. So it can go to an amplifier. And then ultimately speakers the lamp for reading this optical sound. And the photo cell are not in the same position. As the projection lamp, though, it just get in the way. So. This is actually it creates something of a challenge. It means that the soundtrack is offset from the actual frames of the film itself. The soundtrack is either running a little ahead or a little behind the action of the film, depending upon the method that was actually used so in playback, it's all synchronized because if you as you put the fell through the right type of projector. The audio track gets read through the audio system at the same time as the video or the film rather the images are being projected through the projection lamp, and I'll get synchronized together so in playback, synchronized. But if you were to look at the film itself, like if you took the film out of the projector, then you held it up to the light. And you saw where the audio track is the audio. You're looking at would not be the audio that occurs in synchronisation with the image. You're looking at the advantage of that approach was. That all the synchronization would be done beforehand. You didn't have to set up a disk and a film in separate chambers to try and match up to each other. It was all in one piece of film, but the format itself changed several times sometimes with the optical soundtrack running ahead of the actions of us behind the action. This meant that movie theaters had to invest in different equipment to play back those films properly because if you put in a film where the soundtrack ran a little ahead of the action, but you put it in a projector that was designed to run a film that had the audio a little behind the action. You would have terrible experiences because the audio would not be at all synchronized with what was happening on screen. It would just be a total mess. This ended up creating kind of a format war that waged in the late twenties after RCA's approach debuted. It was not the only audio on film format and it also did bad. With the via phone approach where it was the the recorded two disc version now on the production side, if you were making films, it also changed how movies were made because if you watch some of the early films with sound like some of the first films that had sound in it, you might notice. People don't move very much shots are pretty static actors tend to remain in place. Well, this was largely because of the limitations of these sound recording equipment at the time microphones were large and bulky and typically Omni directional actors needed to be close to the microphones. So that they could be heard clearly, but they also couldn't move around very much because the microphones would pick up everything. So you just have a love noise the cameras themselves which had been motorized in the late nineteen twenties to create a standard frame rate of twenty four frames per second. That was necessary in order to have reliable sound playback. Those cameras made a lot of noise to in those early. Days and that could get picked up by the microphones. So as a result, the common practice was to put the cameras in enclosed somewhat soundproofed chambers. The camera man a camera operator, if you prefer would be inside that chamber with the camera, and they would be isolated from the rest of the set. So that the sound wouldn't leak through they were jokingly referred to as iceboxes I say jokingly because it would actually get scorchingly hot inside those as the cameras were running, and it limited what you could do with a camera, you could pan the camera a little bit on tripod. But that was about it. And so early talkies typically don't have very much movement or action in them, which was a big change from the early days of silent films because in those days actors would make these really big dramatic movements in an effort to tell a story because they could not be heard another thing that would change was that in the early days film, crews captured audio and images on the same film at the same time. Time. So in other words, the audio and images were both being directly recorded to the same strip of photographic film. This made editing really tricky. Because again, the audio track wasn't indirect line with the images. It was running a little head or a little behind. So you couldn't just snip film to create a transition or cut out a mistake because the audio wasn't lined up directly with whatever was happening in the image. And that would eventually changed when the industry began to capture images and audio separately and would only combine them after the editing process to create a master print the audio track and the images were still offset. But you could at least make edits to the film without messing up the soundtrack, and you could do the same to the audio track without messing up the film RCA's photo phone would go up against not only the vita phone system from Warner Brothers. But another sound on film system called movie tone movie tone came from a western electric subsidiary called. Electrical research products, Inc, or E, R P. I that's this time was the dominant one when RCA was ready to debut photo phone. So again, the company goes out and says what can we do to really compete in this market again idea? Let's make a new company. So they go out they purchased the Keith Albee orpheum chain of theatres that was a chain of the Inter's. That wasn't wasn't just motion picture theaters. But also vaudeville the enters as well. So our C goes out and buys this company that owns these multiple theaters. And then they merged that company with another company they buy called film, booking offices of America or F B O and the merger of these two acquisitions becomes the radio, Keith orpheum or are K O pictures company, so RCA created an entirely new corporation in order to put its motion picture audio format onto the market. And it worked photo phone would eventually evolve into the industry standard, pretty audacious move. And not the last one from RCA in our next episode. We will continue this story to talk about how our a weathered the great, depression, and what it was doing during World War Two. If you guys have suggestions for future episodes of tech stuff. Let me know semi an Email. The address is tech stuff at how stuff works dot com or head over to our website. That's tech stuff podcast dot com. You'll see the archive of older episodes. They're in different ways to contact us, including on social media. Don't forget to visit our merchandise store. That's not public dot com slash tech stuff. Remember every purchase? You make goes to help the show and we greatly. Appreciate it. And I'll talk to again releasing. For more on this and bathrooms of other topics. Visit how stuff works out com. Hey, guys wanna tell you about a brand new show called the brink. This is a podcast that's been in the works for a really long time. And the hosts are well, there is a handsome devil Nate Jonathan Strickland and his good friend Ariel cast. And together we bring to you stories about big moments in business that were make or break situations. And what happens when people have to make that pivotal decision. In some cases, things turn around and company that was on the verge of extinction will find a new life and be rejuvenated and everything's happy. Sometimes things don't go. So well, and we learn about those stories as well. So if you've ever wanted to know the human stories behind some of those big moments and business make sure you check out the brink. Listen and follow on the. Iheartradio app or subscribe wherever you listen to podcasts.

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The South American Tour, by Annie S. Peck, Part 1

Boring Books for Bedtime

53:02 min | 11 months ago

The South American Tour, by Annie S. Peck, Part 1

"Good evening and thank you for joining me for another boring books for bedtime. I hope tonight. Selection provides all the boredom. Your busy brain needs took quiet down and let you get some sleep. So find a comfortable spot. Adjust your volume. Take a nice deep breath in. Let it out slowly. And Off Waco. Before we start tonight, I might to give a special shouted of thanks to three new members of our Patriot family. Rob Been. Ian and Ariel who signed up at our blissful level, and will actually be getting their own private recording. I'm not saying I might be a little more loose with copyright restrictions when it's not going to the public, but I'm not not saying it either. Thank you so much for becoming supporters of this podcast. You help make it possible and keep an ad free zone of relaxation for everyone, and it's much appreciated. If you're interested in checking out the perks available to subscribers on unpatriotic. or You'd to support us through by me. A COFFEE DOT COM with no subscription required. You'll find links to both of those in the show description. Now. Let's get to the reading. Tonight or relaxing with a book by a remarkable woman and adventurer, explorer, mountaineer and suffragette. The book is the South American tour by any. S, Peck, A. Author of a search for the apex of America. Illustrated chiefly from photographs by the author. Published by the George H Doran Company. Nineteen thirteen. Let's begin. To. Introduction! I congratulate Miss. Any S pack the publisher of this book. And those who consult or read it. Upon the preparation of a work of this character. Interest in Latin America is now so rapidly growing throughout all the world. And especially in the United States that are descriptive guidebook of this kind regarding the region's commonly visited by tourists. Become an actual need. Such a work by Mrs Pack is a practical and timely contribution to the literature of the day. There are few persons better qualified to write a book of this character. The remarkable explorations which ms pack has undertaken in the most difficult sections of Latin America and the traveling. She has done in all parts of it not only have provided her with a fast fund of useful information about the countries of South America, but give Special Authority to what she writes. Her book contains in Compact form an amount of definite information, concerning the country's considered, which should place it in the forefront of works of this character. While of course it is impossible for the Panamerican, Union as an official organization and myself as its official head to endorse in any way, a particular book, or accept responsibility for the statements and views it contains. It gives me real pleasure from a personal standpoint to express the hope that this work of Ms Pack will have a wide circulation. And prove decided help in promoting travel to and through the Latin American countries. The Panamerican Union. Which is readers of this book? Probably know is the office of all the American republics. The United States and it's twenty sister Latin American countries. Organized and maintained by them for the purpose of developing commerce, frienship, better acquaintance and peace among them all. Is doing everything possible and legitimate to persuade the traveling public of the United States and Europe to visit the Latin American countries and become familiar with their progress and development. There is no influence in the world that helps more to advance friendship, comedy and commerce among countries then travel back in the fourth of their representative men and women. Nearly every person who visits Latin America under the advice of the Panamerican Union, upon his or her return, writes a letter, expressing appreciation that this opportunity has been afforded of seeing these wonderful countries up the south. In conclusion I would observe that if those who may become interested in Latin America through reading MISSE PECs book, desire further information about any or all of these republics. The Panamerican Union will always be glad to provide them with such data as it may have for distribution. John Barrett. Director General of the Panamerican Union. Washington D. C. USA. October twenty! First, nineteen, thirteen. For everyone. To all Americans both of the northland and of the south, this book with due modesty is described in the hope that by inciting to travel and acquaintance it may promote commercial intercourse with the resulting ties of mutual benefit and respect. In the hope to that the slender cord now feebly, entwining the various republics may soon draw them all into more intimate relations of friendship. At last into a harmonious sisterhood, in which neither age nor size shall confer superior rights. But, mutual confidence based upon the foundations of Justice shall ensure perpetual peace. The opportunity is here improved to express my grateful acknowledgement of kindly assistance and detentions of diverse character received throughout my travels from many of my own countrymen. From Englishman in. Interested and ready to aid. And, from the ever courteous and helpful Latin Americans. As a complete list of these would be too long. I permit myself the mention of those. Who are entitled to a special recognition. Are Minister to Bolivia nineteen ten to nineteen thirteen. The honorable Horace Jean Knowles. And the governments of Bolivia Chile and Argentina. Without whose prompt and substantial aid this work would have been impossible. That its usefulness may be such as to convey to them affected. Return is my earnest aspiration. The indulgence of critics and tourists is sought for errors few I trust. And deficiencies which may be discover. The send other faults will have crept in on account of a preparation somewhat hurried that the book might earlier be of service. And from the impossibility of securing on some points, exact and adequate information, in spite of diligent investigation and careful scrutiny of facts and figures. Many items of interest and importance have been omitted. Less the book should be too long. The selection of material, it is hoped while be suitable to the general reader, though doubtless everyone will find topics presented to which he is indifferent and others neglected, which appeared to him of greater consequence. Any just criticism or suggestion presented to the author will be gratefully received and considered. With a view to incorporating it in a subsequent edition. The South American tour. Forward. The? South American tour. Komo no. Why not as many spanish-american say when they wished to give hearty ascent. have. You been around the world. Do you travel for pleasure or business? Whatever your object! Whether your purse is full or you wish to fill it. The southern half of our hemisphere is land which should not be ignored. What is there to see? May The journey taken income for? These things shall be revealed in detail after a few general facts have been presented. Is the enjoyment of scenery, the chief aim of your travel. With ease, you may be hold some of the finest in the world. Much more if you care to take a little trouble. Snow Clad Mountains Galore rising twenty thousand feet tour thing. The Alps into in -NIFICANT S-! Giants to be admired, not only from afar as tourists in India gaze upon the Himalayas, but from nearer points even from their ferry foot. Smoking volcanoes cliffs more lofty than those of the Yosemite. Wonderful Lake scenery, including the highest sheet of water, twelve, thousand five hundred feet where steamboats ply. Strange! He had fascinating desert's. Wondrous waterfalls one of these surpassing Niagara in height, volume and beauty. Magnificent, tropical vegetation and forests. The highest railroads. The most picturesque and beautiful harbour of the world. All of these with the exception of the great cataract are easily accessible and form a combination of scenic attractions unsurpassed in any portion of the globe. Destroy People and cities interest you more. You may wander in towns, old and quaint. Containing buildings of centuries past, and in cities quite up to date growing with the repetitive of our own. In a few places Indians peculiar garb may be seen by the side of Paris gowns and English masculine attire. In. An Indian with sandals. Hood and Pancho was tracked as much attention as on Broadway. Several cities have boulevards, parks and opera houses finer than any of which North America can boast. Do you care for ruins antiquities? These also abound. All, cities of the dead are there. and others were the new civilization rises above or by the side of the old. Temples palaces fortifications. ANCIENT STATUES Mummies and pottery. Maybe cursorily admired or profoundly studied, and search may still be made for undiscovered monuments of a prehistoric past. These countries rapidly advancing with astonishing mineral and agricultural resources awaiting development. With railroads to beat laid with fast growing markets for almost every kind of merchandise. Invite the traitor and the capitalist. To investigate hitherto neglected opportunities before it is too late. Well informed as to what there is to see. The possible tourist is certain to inquire if the journey will be comfortable. Perhaps, indeed, they order of the question should be reversed. For few I greatly fear would be tempted to say. Let us go if the tour involved any hardship. Happily. This is not the case. Though the period her, the Mauritania and the Olympic do not yet in that direction. The names of several steamship lines, which served the traveler to Panama or point, OHS aries. Are a guarantee of comfort and of sufficient luxury. The steamers elsewhere are commodious having for the most part state rooms provided with electric fans and satisfying on reasonable requirements. The railroads in the various countries have the usual equipment. The hotels if one does not depart from the ordinary line of travel. Will in general, be found satisfactory. providing. Food good beds, etc.. And in the cities were some little time should be spent meeting. The wants of all. Except the ultrafast idiocy tourist. If we do not sympathize with the cry, see America first. Bearing in mind that America is the whole and not a fraction of the Western continent. At least when we have seen the old world. Instead of ever retracing are steps in familiar ways. Let us seek the strange new world beyond the equator where brief tour will reveal a multitude of scenes, amazing and delightful, even to the experienced traveler. The South American tour. Chapter One. What the tour is! How wind went to go what it costs. The South American tour rapidly becoming fashionable into popular and about to be described. Includes the most interesting and accessible portions of that continent. It's finest scenery its greatest cities. A wonderful variety in the swiftly moving pictures prevents any dullness on the part of the intelligent traveler who has ever captain Lert for the continually fresh experiences of this remarkable journey. My. Tourist Party will be conducted I to Panama. Where soon the sale ocean to ocean through an immense artificial channel while awakened sensations of wonder and pride. The opportunity, then to continue in the same vessel along the west coast of South America in valuable for commerce, and for those on business bent may prove a disadvantage to the pleasure traveler by tempting him to pass with a mere glance, the city of Panama and other spots worthy of observation. On the Pacific side. Peru Bolivia and Chile will be visited by everyone. A few may make the side trip to Ecuador Choir Keel and Kito. In order to return along the East Coast One may complete the circuit up the continent by sailing down through the Straits of Magellan past point, quinto arenas and up on this side. Or with a greater number may cross the Andes by rail, thus to reach the metropolis of South America Buenos Aires. Thence after or if not including an excursion to Paraguay. And to the greatest of American waterfalls, the equal sue. One may sale two months video in Uruguay. From there to brazelle returning from Rio de Janeiro directly to New York, or by way of Europe as preferred. Similarly the trip may be made from Europe by several lines of steamers direct Panama. Or more quickly by way of New York with the return from Rio. Altogether omitted from this itinerary or the countries on the northern shore of South America. Up these Colombia and Venezuela are better included in a west India trip. The key unas by ordinary tourists are neglected. Obviously the journey may be made in either direction as above or in reverse order. But unless the season of the year invites change, the former sequence should by all means be followed. Thus taken the journeys one of ever increasing interest. Until its culmination in the delightful harbor and city of Rio de Janeiro. Not that Peru is inferior to Bolivia and Chile or Buenos Aires to Rio. Let me hasten to add. Each has its own peculiar charm, but one who begins with the West Coast or find the entire journey far more enjoyable and impressive. When one should go depends more upon when one wishes to leave home than upon the conditions prevailing in. South America. Also upon one's individual taste as to temperature. In brief one may safely make the trip whenever it suits convenience. Bearing in mind what so many seemed to forget? At the seasons are reversed in the northern and southern hemispheres. May leave home to escape either heat or cold. Or to avoid March wins as he may elect. In. None of the countries to be visited is the variation between winter and summer so great as in the latitude of New York. North tropical heat anywhere on the journey so intense as that of many days of every summer here. Leaving the United States on a four months tour at any time between the middle of November and the last of August I strongly advise one to visit the West, coast i. During the remaining three months. One Who dislikes hot weather might better begin with Brazil. In December January and February, the Mercury at Rio is mostly in the eighties. In January I found it comfortable enough for summer weather. But I needed the ten degrees lower temperature of an earlier or later season to make my visit absolutely ideal. With the delightful climate during nine months of the year, the city had any time is perfectly healthy. Since the yellow fever formerly had dreaded, skorge was stamped out at Rio during the same period that this was accomplished in Panama. Why knows aries also may be more advantageously visited during the cooler weather, both because the opera and social festivities are then in full swing, and because one is likely to be more energetic for sightseeing of which there is much to be done. In Peru and Bolivia on the usual route of travel. It is never hot enough to be troublesome. She lay in the central and most visited portion is a trifle less agreeable during the southern summer than in spring or fall, especially on account of the dust. But. This matters little for a brief stay. Four months should be allowed for the trip. A couple who made it in three, oh delighted with their journey, mourned over the unavoidable emissions and were planning to go again. Six months is not too much. A whole year could profitably employed. But in four months or a trifle more? One may visit the most important places and gain a fair idea of the various countries. The personally conducted parties for three months only are well worthwhile. The expense of the trip will naturally vary according to the time and extent of the journey. And the economy or extravagance of the tourist? A round trip ticket from New York to New, York. Good either by the Straits or across the Andes may be purchased for four hundred seventy five dollars. Or including a return by way of Europe for five hundred five dollars. Additional expenses may be from five hundred or less to one thousand or more, according to the person, the time and the number of side trips taken. By several tourist agencies, personally conducted parties are semi annually dispatched to South America. At a cost varying from one, thousand, three, hundred seventy five dollars for a tour of ninety eight or ninety nine days to two thousand, two hundred fifty dollars for one hundred forty six days. Also the Hamburg American line has sent a ship around Valparaiso by way of the Straits. Tickets, four hundred seventy five dollars to three thousand dollars. Optional extra short trips, three hundred dollars or more. On the completion of the canal they will probably have ship making the entire circuit. Persons who prefer to be relieved of care or who do not speak, Spanish. The language current at all points of the journey save Brazil. And they're understood by educated people. We'll do well to join a party even if their time is limited. Those, who can devote a longer period to the trip? And who liked to do their own planning? May seem more by themselves either greater or less expens-? One Who speaks only English. By keeping to the mainland travel and a patronizing, the leading hotels should have no serious difficulty. Though it is of course an advantage, but only gained by one who is familiar with Latin or French to have some acquaintance with Spanish an easy and beautiful language. Up Bear smattering picked up from a phrasebook on. The foliage is better than nothing while a conversation, knowledge greatly enhances the pleasure and Prophet of the journey. In regard to baggage, the less taken the better. Both on account of the expense, and because of the care entails. Yet it is well to have a fair supply of close since evening. Dress is everywhere more strictly on rag. Then in most parts of the United States to the steamships are not all rigid as to the precise amount of baggage, though the allowance on different lines varies from one, hundred, fifty, two four hundred pounds. The railroads are strict and the baggage is expensive. Only one hundred pounds are allowed. Going up to Bolivia by the southern railway of Peru. A heavy box or to make cost as much as the ticket. Many tourists take only hand baggage to COSCO and Lapaz, leaving on board the steamer. They're heavy pieces to be reclaimed later at Valparaiso. On all roads, the hand baggage go spray. Hence Suitcases, etc are much in evidence. One niece supply of both light and heavyweight clothing, the proportion of age depending upon the season of the year. Always by way of the isthmus, there are eight or ten days of summer weather on route and several weeks during the. East Coast Journey. Along the seaboard, Peru and Chile. Woolen or heavy underwear may be desirable for many as on the Highlands of Peru and. Also in Chile and Argentina during the winter season, when a temperature in the forties and fifties will be experienced. Some hotels have no fires, and the nights and mornings are chill. On the mountain railways as during a portion of the sea, voyage wraps, and rugs are needed in addition to moderately heavy clothing. Furs though unnecessary may be found agreeable during the months of winter June to September. Money may be carried in letters of credit on W. R. Grace. Or other bankers. or by American Express or traveler's checks. Together with a moderate supply of gold, preferably in English sovereigns the English pound, being precisely the same as the Peruvian is interchangeable with them. In other countries, it is more acceptable and convenient than American gold. Though in the large cities are, there will be readily exchanged. A point to be noted and remembered. Is that most resident Americans and English a few natives and travelers in South America, generally speaking of certain coins, so soule's or pesos has dollars a poor custom which should not be imitated. Prevalent one, must be on guard to avoid mistakes. In. Panama, a clerk or Coachman sang to be cents or one. Dollar means silver. I eat ten fifty cents United States currency. A man in Lima who speaks of twenty dollars, probably mean soule's practically ten dollars. In Bolivia Oblivion is about forty cents. A peso in Chile is twenty two cents more or less. In Argentina forty four. In Uruguay one dollars four cents. In Brazil a mill race is thirty three cents. All of the country's divide their unit decimal A. And if it were not for the foolish custom of english-speaking folk, there would be no confusion. In this book, the words dollars and cents and the sign the dollar. While everywhere signify United States currency. Otherwise the names employed by the respective countries will be used as soule's pesos and Centavo sales. In connection with Brazilian money, the sign of the dollar is put after the number. Thus fifteen meal raise is written fifteen dollars nine, zero, zero zero. Chapter to? The voyage to Panama. In nineteen eighty three before the United States occupation, there was no choice as to means of transport to the Isthmus A. Steamship Company that of the Panama, Canal Road. Dispatch vessel from New York once a week. Now there are four different lines with as many weekly sailings besides one from New Orleans. A more convenient point of departure for many south of Mason and Dixon's line. The four companies all with headquarters in New York won't gladly furnish the latest information in regard to their own sailing and accommodations as on other points in reference to the tour. The lowest fare from New York to Cologne seventy five dollars. Took Panama Seventy eight dollars. Is the same on all lines. Better accommodations being provided for supplementary fee a from fifteen dollars up. It is wisdom to purchase if not a ticket for the round trip. One is far at least as Malindo one hundred ninety one dollars. As, a slight reduction is made on through tickets. Stopovers are allowed at any of the ports of call. And on the East or West. Coasts of South America. The journey may if more convenient be resumed on certain other lines of steamers without extra charge. Save for embarking or disembarking in the small boats. The respective merits of the four steamship lines to Panama are a matter of opinion. On three days. I have enjoyed the voyage. Especially, my last in luxurious suite on the Prince August. Villa helm the Atlas Hamburg. American line. The Old Panama Company claims that its boats are provided with all of the comforts afforded by the others including. With private baths. It has slightly irregular sailings seven among. With several steamers, making the journey in six days, instead of the seven, eight or nine occupied by ships of the other lines. Those who prefer American cooking or the shorter voyage will choose one of the ships. The Royal Mail and the Hamburg American lines are quite similar to each other in service and accommodations. The boats of the former CEO for Cologne on Alternate Saturdays calling on the way at an Tia Cuba Addict Kingston Jamaica. Those of the latter sale every Saturday. Touching at Santiago de Cuba and Kingston. The Royal. Mail steamers are scheduled to arrive at Cologne on Sunday eight days from New York. Connecting with the P. S. N. boats departing on Monday for the south. But through tickets are good by any of the three lines on the other side. And One may delay on the Smith's for a few days or weeks of sightseeing. The hambrouck American steamers arrive at Cologne Monday one week connecting with the PSN steamer, the next with one of the Peruvian and another of the Chilean line sailing the same afternoon. No one, however, who was making a pleasure trip. Should cross the smiths without staying over a few days. The United Fruit company boasts of a great white fleet with four sailings to Colona. Week. To on Wednesday and Saturday from New York. And two on the same day as from New Orleans. These ships they say are the only ones going to Cologne, which were designed and built especially for Tropical Service. Thus having all the latest devices for comfort as well as for safety. Among these are bilge kills and all the watertight compartments. A wireless equipment as a matter of course, the boats of all lines carry. These have also a submarine signal apparatus to give warning of the proximity of another vessel. And as an a special feature lifeboats, which with a patent lever, may be swung off and lowered by a single man. By the system of ventilation, the temperature of the rooms at night may be kept down to fifty five degrees if desired. A Boon to many on the muggy Caribbean. And the electric lights have the rare quality of burning low. All of the boats on the various lines have pianos and music. Most of them cards, checkers, chess and libraries the United Fruit company, supplying the latest magazines. The Saturday steamers of this line from New York call Thursday at Kingston Jamaica. Where they remained until two PM Friday. They are due Cologne at noon on Sunday. The Wednesday, steamers take a day less for the trip. At Kingston, arrive on Monday. They remained from seven am till four PM. The Isthmus is reached at one pm on Wednesday. The opportunity to go by way of new, Orleans may appeal especially in winter to some who have not visited that city, and those who desire to avoid the possibility of two or three cold stormy days on the see before entering the regions of perpetual summer. The steamer sale in five days to Cologne the Saturday boats arriving Thursday am and the Wednesday boats Monday morning. The foliage to Panama indeed all of the six or seven weeks on the C. which are a necessary part of this tour will be likely to prove an agreeable experience, even to those who, as a rule do not enjoy the ocean. While the waters of the Atlantic may at any season be turbulent and tempestuous. The portions of both oceans which are to be reversed. Are for the most part so smooth that unless persons are determined to be seasick whether they have occasion or not, it is probable that they will suffer little or none from this unpleasant malady. Ordinarily this sale to Panama under sunny skies, over unruffled, sees in weather after a day or two warm enough for summer, clothing is a pleasure unalloyed. On the Caribbean might be trifle muggy and sticky. But if favoured with sunshine, the wonderful blue of the waters deeper than that of the Bay of Naples, afford solace. On some of the ships, little dance on deck, if happily under a tropical moon. May Be Inexperience affording delightful memories. After leaving New York, harbor and the enjoying coast. The first land to come within range of vision is that of what links island noted for a lighthouse of great power value. Otherwise unimportant it acquires interest from the fact that on this shore. Columbus is believed to have made his first landing in the Western world. The. Is thus entitled to the more pretentious name San, Salvador. Bestowed by the great explorer upon the land where I teach rod in devout Thanksgiving after many weeks of painful suspense upon the limitless ocean. Fortunate is the traveler who toward sunset enters windward channel, passing before dark, desolate wooded bluffs of the eastern extremity of Cuba Cape Maisy and later having a look at the southeast shores, where rise somber forest covered peaks to an imposing height, the loftiest above eight thousand feet. From Panama or United Fruit company steamer no more. Will you see of Cuba? But on a boat of the Royal Mail you will already have called the den Tia in the eastern section of the island's northern shore, a new and growing seaport, a neat Pay Bay and the North Terminus of the Cuban railway. Extensive docking facilities have been provided large warehouses immense tanks for molasses. A good hotel. And plans are made for building here a great commercial city. By the Hamburg American line. The first call made on the south side of the island. At the more famous inconsiderable city Santiago de Cuba. which founded in fifteen, fourteen is said to be the oldest settlement of size in the western. Hemisphere It has also historic interest. That Hernandez Cortez from this port. November Eighteenth fifteen eighteen set out for the bold conquest of the as tech empire is a fact less widely known than the more recent circumstance. That in this sheltered harbour, the fleet of Admiral Cervera Lay concealed. Until July third eighteen, ninety eight, it sailed forth to its doom. In the narrow porthole, less than six hundred feet, wide rest, the old merrimack. Sunk by Lieutenant Sin and seven others June third eighteen ninety A. On the right of the entrance, Crowning Bluff, two hundred feet high is the old, moreover castle, an ancient fortress of picturesque appearance begun soon after the founding of the city and possessing towers and turrets in genuine medieval style. Six miles farther at the head of the bay on a sloping terrace with steep hills behind is the bright gaze city. Though at the noon tied our. It may seem a trifle sleepy and dog. If time permits a drive on the fine roads will be enjoyed. To the San Juan battlefield, three miles distant. And to L. convey a little further. The fare is one dollar fifty cents for a single person two dollars for several. The longer Dr Tomorrow Castle Fair Three Dollars Fifty cents affords charming views. In the city one proceeds I to the plaza. Where on one side is the Great Cathedral called the largest in Cuba. Containing rare marbles and Mahogany choir stalls. On the other sides are the CASA, Grande Hotel and the Phoenix restaurant. Nearby is the filler Mugniyah Theater where the famous diva other leany potty is said to have made her debut. A few may care to visit the spot where the captain and sailors of the Virginia s were executed as filibusters in eighteen, seventy, three, a slaughter pen name the Harbor Front to the East to Cuba railway station. An inscribed tablet, there commemorates the sad defend. Kingston Jamaica is presented by all of the steamers. Those of the Panama Line. The Wednesday boat of the United Fruit Company having previously touched at Port Antonio on the northeast side of the same island. The port, a busy place, allowing its present prosperity chiefly to our fondness for bananas. Captain Baker of Boston in eighteen sixty eight. Began the trade which the United. Fruit company has developed to immense proportions. The Splendid Hotel to field, which the company has erected affords every facility for a delightful summer outing during our winter season. The older and larger city of Kingston is on the south side of the island. By the excellent and far famed harbor of Port Royal. The town of that name, ancient Rome Devo of Morgan and the Puck, and nears once stood on the. Sandy spit which separates the bay from the ocean. But on a day in sixteen, Ninety two occur to one of those memorable tragedies at which the whole world stands appalled. The Earth was shaken. The city sank beneath the sea. where it is said that some of the buildings may yet be seen when the waves are still. Deep down below the smiling tranquil surface. Kingston then founded on the main shore. Recently suffered on January fourteenth nineteen o seven, as we well remember a similar, thou less complete disaster, being merely shaken down instead of swallowed up. Mike San Francisco. It was promptly rebuilt with better architecture. Quite up to date with electric cars send other modern conveniences. It is an attractive place of scenic and tropical beauty. Excellent to for shopping. Interesting or the markets, the old parish church badly shaken, but still standing. The main streets king and Queen at right angles to each other. The, Jamaica Institute with museum and a library where among other historical Curios may be seen the famous shark papers in Seventeen, ninety, nine, thrown overboard swallowed by a shark, but soon after rescued from his maw. To The discomfiture of the Yankee captain of the Nancy an American privateer. In the suburbs of the city within easy reach is Kings House the fine residence of the governor? General? Worth visiting the electric cars is hope gardens and estate two hundred twenty acres. With a fine collection of indigenous plants and many exotics. The splendid roads over the island. The possibilities for delightful excursions. The most enchantingly ascent of a mountain, seven, thousand, four, hundred twenty three feet. Would, attempt to a longer stay. But we hasten onward to more distant and greater glories. Tourists Living West of the rocky mountains may prefer to sail from San Francisco or Los. To Balboa the port of Panama. At a considerable saving F expense though not have time. Express steamers twice a month. Make the voyage from San, Francisco, in fourteen days with the single call at San. Pedro Los Angeles. Fair eighty five dollars. While three times a month. There are other boats which do not stop at San Pedro but make eleven calls in Mexico and Central America, thus affording opportunity to see some of those ports consuming twenty six days on the trip. Home on these steamers. That Fair is one hundred twenty dollars. All these boats are up the Pacific mail steamship company. By Way of New York the journey from San Francisco to Panama. May with close connection be made in ten or twelve days. European Torres may sale from Southampton by Royal Mail steamer in eighteen days to Cologne. Fair one hundred twenty five dollars. or from share bark seventeen days fair one hundred dollars. Other companies which have steamer sailing from Europe to Cologne are the Hamburg American. Four Times monthly from harbor and Hamburg. THEM LEYLAND SEE Harrison. Three times a month from Liverpool. The CIA Generale Transatlantic. Once a month from Saint Nazaire, and once from Bordeaux. The. Transatlantic. And the CIA lava luce. Each month lie from Barcelona and Genoa. And with that I think we'll end this evening's reading from the south. American tour by any s pack. When next re return to this bug and we will definitely be returning to this book. We're going to get a picture of the Panama Canal contemporary with its actual construction, so that will be interesting. If, you'd like to read ahead and take a look at this work for yourself. As always you'll find out link to a free e Book Version From Project Gutenberg in the show description. The description also includes both ways you can help support this podcast and keep it ad free by becoming a subscriber on Patriae on or offering a one time tip via by coffee DOT COM. I. Hope you'll take the time to check them out. If you'd like to connect or suggest a book, you'd like to hear read. The best place to catch me on our website. WWW dot boring books pot, dot, com, or catch me on twitter at boring books pod. I'm so glad you could join me for this evening's rating. Until our next boring book. Goodnight.

Panama New York United States Bolivia Europe Cologne South America South America Kingston Jamaica Peru Chile Latin America Rio de Janeiro Hamburg American line Panamerican Union America United Fruit company Andes New Orleans
Episode 259  The Jakarta Method

The Iron Fist and the Velvet Glove

1:06:35 hr | 1 year ago

Episode 259 The Jakarta Method

"We need to talk about ideas, good ones and bad ones. We need to learn stuff about the world. We need an honest, intelligent thought, provoking and entertaining view of what the hell happened on this planet in the last seven days we need to sit back and listen to the Iron Fist and the Belleville Glove. Dealers now. Heightening to saved. And are really high connaught. And I get really angry if somebody. Misleads or deceives me. When I should have now in Betta. I shouldn't be not a wicked eyup. Facility ease we've been told a story of ant, the United States and its activities around the world. The story was that they won the war. The help the countries I defeated. Along the way after the would. I defeated the. The Evil Communists and I. Encourage the will to pursue freedom and democracy. That they are initiative and drive created new industries and I deserve this success. The most of the seventy years we were subjected to anti Soviet propaganda. Is If that would devils who seated evil communism around the world. The demise of the Soviet Union. The focus has shifted to China. John is not perfect, is indeed deeply flawed and I certainly do not want to leave under a Chinese rule. But it is a mistake decided that the Chinese other bad guys. The Americans of the good guys and we should therefore support in the Americans. The truth is the. Bad guys. And we should follow my line path. Many people look at the US. I see his suing the principles of. Truth Justice, freedom and equality. But the opposite is true in the proof of this is in America's foreign policy I've lost seventy years. Today many people speculate that if unchecked China could flex its power and control and subjugates Mola, countries. That it could force, its will communist agenda onless powerful countries. That if necessary would kill gile and terrorize vast populations to achieve times. The listener the terrible truth is the for seventy years the US I. Has Been Conducting. The same sort of terrorism campaign that we fear, the Chinese will start. Mice people are on a way of just. HOW BADLY AMERICA'S HIVED! I've recently just completed reading a book cold the. Jakarta method. By Vincent Bevan's and In recent I lost fees offered some interesting books I think. Some of the most influential one of them would have been the shock doctrine by Niamey Klein. In the divide by Jason Hickel. And all right I write this book. The Jakarta method, but Vincent Bevan's wrought up. The with is on top handfuls of books. That's. That's. Extremely important at such an important story to tell in a highly recommend the go out and bought. One I'm going to do in this podcast is. He's basically. Look what he said in the book and rely a lot of that to you. And try and pint of picture of of exactly what the US has been up to. I've lost seventy years. Said hopefully, none of you listening to this podcast will ever again suggest the Erica stains for the principles of truth Justice Freedom, equality. It will necessarily be an account of of the bad things that the US has done. and. In the context of comparing the US in China for example. In this podcast on a list of all the bad things challenge done. This is a bit of a history lesson. I've a what the US is being up to. as part of its foreign policy for the last seventy years. and. We'll go into some detail of some of the stuff that we've really brushed ever in this podcast in the LAS obvious so pleased with this book that I'm going to be. Taking, what from the bottom? The Jakarta MIFID Vincent Bevan's? Please read it. Read it twice. Many join this podcast because you reject the nonsense of religious dogma, and you pride yourself on being rational enough to spot snake, oil, salesmen and clerical close. I'm asking you to. I've AECOM seventy years of pro US indoctrination. Just as you kind two thousand years of religious doctrine nation so. Again to emphasize I'm not saying you should be pry China. Um, sign that powerful manipulators piney picture of China and you need to constantly assists. What is likely to be tree in what is likely to be false and Aden things likely to be true. You need to say what is fair. Criticism in what is a beat up I. Have Nothing. And when you find real and terrible challenge behavior darkness that the Mirror of the American response. Is The answer now. The treaties that the Americans have probably already done something just as bad. The answer doesn't have to be America. So. Let's start. In this book. Vincent. Starts Bicycling Post will to. And the world's to. Go to new global. Europe Spain wakened badly by the war, and the planet is broken into places. We've got a lot of. Former, colonial POWs that have been broken badly so. They have got territories which they used to control. That were either taken by the Japanese and they want to regain control law. The case of the Japanese they controlled territory, and that's Nasdaq, and often. There's a lot of territory in the will that was previously controlled by colonial pals that sadly the people have got a sniffer freedom. In terms of the world we've got the first world, which is the advanced Western countries we've got the second world, which is basically the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc and we've got the third world, which is. People who with very few expects exceptions had leaped onto the control of European colonialism cy. In nineteen fifty, that was about two thirds of the world's population. So I. Will to. President Truman. Highlighted Communism. And he had a problem in grace. There was a civil war. As great communists who had fought against the Nazis were going well. In Trim and wanted to interfere. So. He came up with what became known as the Truman Doctrine. In, the Truman doctrine walls as he was quite telling Congress quite. It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities will by outside pressures. That's basically. The US is in toddler Guinea involved in other countries. So. That was his doctrine, which was used as a reason for. Taking action against the Communists in the Greek civil war. and. Allied to that at the same time as sort of anticommunist President Truman, we had Will, he had to get domestic support You've got a country that's already banged awards. Probably war want solids, boys I'm doesn't want to necessarily get involved in anymore and. Is the advisor trimming was that in order to get the American people inside? You need to scare the hell out of the American people about communism. Scare them enough then they'll come on board with whatever you want to do to bring it down. So this helped. Kick off McCarthyism. which was driven by the president in the FBI and nine after Senator Joseph McCarthy Who with the House UNAMERICAN activities commission. Led a wall search for communists in the US government. So. The Truman doctrine were allowed to interfere in other countries. McCarthyism let's look full communists wherever we can fall in them. And all night I mix. It became accepted fact that the cyber threats with pushing for revolution worldwide. That wherever communist with prison that will plotting to overthrow the government? And that we're doing so on the older of the cyber threats as part of a vast global conspiracy to destroy the waist. Now, when you actually look at the history, a lot of these countries. More often than not the Soviet latest, she was telling Communist groups in various countries to take it easy dined. Create, a revelation, trying lick with the government's trying to get a foothold as part of the the government intends of coalitions in not to actually. Create revolutions in in fact, they even told now that top to back off and dunked to just work with. The government of the die in any end. To different approach, but Vista, the notion that the was signed a little communist friends around the world yet, boys. Having in a revolution when the chains that is just not the case, but that was the theory. Now this book is entitled. The dichotomy and such can spend a little time looking at Indonesia and Australia and dealers and I'll have to face that until recent times on you nothing about invasion, history and unfunny at Fascinating Hynde. Darris at how little previously new the AD a country! That's an northern Aiba and obviously sound important side. WE'RE GONNA LEARN TO BE. Easier in this one. So. Early Indonesia Indonesia had been controlled by the Dutch the centuries in in mobile to Japan took control. After the war. The touch thought I could just move back in. So there a war of independence as you would expect with the locals said. And Gone Cold Sakano. He took power in doing so he. He sort of clashed with the Communists. and eventually expelled the Dutch in nineteen forty nine, so he was a fairly independent monitored guide side laced in. He didn't want formal alliances with Russia or America, but he had enough credit points from fighting the communists in order to gain power that Americans were with him. So, that's early Indonesia. We're going to move in a timeline here. D Listener. We're going to scoot around the world. Working out wide through the fifties, sixties, seventies, eighties, and end an inducting back and forth amongst these countries signed. That sets up early early Indonesia for. Let's move ahead now to nine fifty, three and Iran. and. We've got I new president at that point is and. WHO! Had appointed the Dallas brothers into significant positions Appointed John Foster Dallas said as secretary of state in tapped younger brother Allen, Dallas delayed. The Cei- and these guys are obsessed with. Finding and fighting communism wherever. They, sword, and. Basically. In Iran. I mean look at Iran to die in in what we've got with this Islamic theocracy that's in control. It all comes back to what happened. Naughty fifty three with US intervention. Bicycling. A duly elected Prime Minister Muhammad Muscle Dick. Had Control of the country. and. At that time the British oil companies head at righteous deals with. keeping all of the money that the Mike in from oil, our extracting from Iran and these deals that were done with with corrupt dictators from previous eras so. This happens a lot in developing the will. D Not where? You'll find that. You've got oil-rich countries while countries that are rich in natural resources that lodge multinational corporations. Cut Deals with corrupt dictators. Then duly elected, progressive reformers mean IVA Thri the dictators. And then talk to these multinationals and say that deal is not fair. We can't continue on that basis. We can come to a more reasonable deal. But you can't have that deal because it is just ridiculous. Andy Listener in. In Law if you make deals With people who are incapable because I don have authority. those deals get get. quashed. It's a similar situation here. These companies have got nice sympathy for them. They ny deals that were grossly unfair to the countries that I would dealing with. Dealing, they got them because of corrupt practices by. dictators at the time Cy. have sympathy for these companies at all. They did all this work develop stuff. And now it's taken off them. Anybody who enters into. Deals like this has to do so on the understanding eventually when the people gun control of the country, the going to cannon and want something different side. That's part of what happens when you as a as A. As a corrupt international company deal with a corrupt dictator and Mike a corrupt deal. You have to expect that some point. It's going to get either throng. Anyway back to Iran so most Dick. He! He basically wanted to cut a deal with with the British oil. Company and I just wouldn't come into by win prepared to budget all and initially the US was not interested in helping the British and basically like come on, guys. You know this is not. This is not a fair deal. You can't really expect to hang onto that but. They were convinced that. In fact. It was something that I wanted to get involved with. And now this is not conjecture. This is not. Fanciful stuff in some sort of smokey conspiracy that ninety really can be sure about like. This is established fact that the US. Through! Its CIA agent Kermit Roosevelt. Took enormous steps to create havoc in Iran, and he had a million dollars to spend Hey, and the CIA broad every politician that I could. Buy looked for a general willing to take Iva. Ending stole the Shah Tida. The CIA Pied Street thugs strongmen in circuits performance to wrought in the Straits they created pamphlets and Pastas, proclaiming that Mosig was a communist an enemy of Islam so. And, I hide gangsters to pretend to be. Members of muscle aches, party and attack a mosque so. They basically went around with a massive propaganda campaign against Moscow Dick and and in the end successfully overthrowing. What we end up with the shower of your? The Shah who they installed who obviously became unpalatable to the people we ended up with the I taller coming in, and we ended up with the Iran of today like it's all a direct result of the US interference. In that country and this isn't fanciful stuff. We know the case. So that guy, you've the US some sense of success because. I could say that they could change. The government of country. With with a few street thugs in a propaganda campaign and enough money. And tap the people on the Shalva. You could change government. So that was Iran nodding fifty three. Let's cross the will to Guatemala Prior to World War Two. There was a pro Nazi dictator. He corruptly five, the landed aristocracy and foreign corporations. In knowing forty four, there was a revolution. And more progressive government managed to get a tie hauled. Managed to get power, so that was not forty four suspected the time that the US government was too busy looking at the Dealing with signaled water sort of pie much attention to what was happening in Guatemala so any line rather progressive group gets into pairing nine forty four. In owning fifty to. The government, the democratically elected one. wanted to into a process of land reform. And what they wanted to do was. BACK UNUSED LANE IN PIE official value. So. They, basically signed two groups like the United Fruit Company. You've got land at it. Know you're not using in the books you've got it listed this baillieu. Way GonNa pay you for that lane because we want APP, peasants and people to be able to use it. Now the United Fruit company wasn't happy because it's been it in its books undervalued. It's lane in order to avoid tax. In. The government at the time Guatemala the Communists were part of the government coalition. But the government was clearly drawn to take. Guatemala to Fullwood as a modern capitalist state today it had. Ended Communist as part of its coalition, but. It was definitely on the track of being a modern communist. A modern capitalist state. Side but you not afraid company complained of a Communist threat. which was completely unwarranted? In this case with the United Fruit Company. That particular company had deep ties with Washington side. This is from wikipedia. The relationship between the Eisenhower Administration in the United Company demonstrated the influence of corporate interest in US foreign policy. So John Foster Dulles mentioned before. He was a member of a law firm which had represented United Fruit his brother Alan Director of the C.. I was a board member of United Fruit. United Fruit. Company's the only company now to have a CI Krypton. The brother of the assistant secretary of staife into near say is. At, once, being president of the United Fruit. And Its principal lobbyist was married to is in house personal secretary, so many people who directly influenced US policy towards Guatemala. Had direct ties to the United Fruit company so. The company said. They Communist and The had all these. People, in Washington who are deeply connected with them. and. That was enough. So, what did America do well? The basically my three coup attempts, and it was the one that worked so. What I really wanted to create a pretext for intervention cy. The! Really wanted some sort of excused coming and interfere in the country. So, The the president at the time uncovered the planes full the third coup attempt in even publish them in the Guatemalan price, but the see I was side, confident That they organized Tony. Rebel force around General Carlos Castillo Amas in basically. The US dropped bombs on the capital of Guatemala now these. bums nicknamed so foss will sulfite laxatives, because they job is not to do damage, but to make the president and everyone around himself ride. That would fill it paints so. This the US got to actually dropping bombs on the Guatemalan capital, and the president realized that the US was determined to to asked him said he contemplated giving in. and. At the time line, it was a twenty five year old Argentinian doctor living in Guatemala. City at the time nine to Shaggy Vera. Volunteered to go to the front and he'll. fought the rebels. But instead the president resigned in handed I of a payout to a colonel as who was head of the armed forces. And D has had said to the president that he had an understanding from the North Koreans that if he took Pale then it will be I think. So, he took pal. And What happened was. A few days after this general took POW say. Is Tyson chief John Dougherty? Set Him Dan, said let me explain something to you. You might a big mistake when you guy but the government. You're not convenient for the requirements of American foreign policy and this Jan was shot in the ASTA. The ambassador himself in the best, said not. You're not the main and. In fact, show Ds, a long list of Guatemalans who would need to be shot immediately? Indiana's the general said why. And the ambassador. said. because they call me this. This is the sign investor who had been transferred from Greece. So. Castillo Armas. The US five or took Iva. And Ran Up in executed between three thousand and five thousand supporters of the President of the likes of the president. We've got the US bombing the country in schooling. It's fine dictator. And giving a list of nine to kill. Can you imagine if? This is the sort of thing. People think China would do today. That's Guatemala. It gets worse for Guatemala, but we'll go on. Shaggy, Vera Lynn and listen from that he learned. He need to fight to. Our. He hit it off to Mexico. Let's trouble back to Indonesia. Kana was president. We had an on wheel parliamentary system with several coalition partners including the Communist. And in the nineteen fifties the Communist Party the P. Kyw. was improving all the time largely because they were the least corrupt in the nice helpful to the people. So. At that town. Sakano said was quite independent minded, and he didn't mind getting a bit of lip to the US and the US decided he'd made to be to for them say they decided to hold. He's the C.. I decided to hold cicadas to the fallout so. In nineteen, fifty seven. The US started arming reveals to create problems in Indonesia. Just tend to the wrong part of the book. Basically Bombs started being dropped pipelines on Indonesian military and commercial shipping village on vessels. On the fifteenth of mine explosions hit a market killing by morning shoppers. In Christians attending church. Actual bombs being dropped by real lines. And the US was denying that it had anything to do with it. Our rebels who doing it's not us. In fact. The New York Times at the because the the the Indonesians signing. US You can stop doing this. What are you doing in the US of science? Not Us then he'll times. Lambasted CICADA and his government in a mine on editorial fidel cutting. The issue is that the US would intervene in the conflict. Well. Nineties lighter. The Indonesians managed to shoot down one of the planes. Captured the pilot. Is Nine was Alan Lawrence pipe a CIA agent. The pilots taking off from Singapore and Obviously CI. Agents dropping bombs and helping the rebels against. So. At that point. The The US decided. Well we've been cool in such. An obvious fashion will pull back from this obvious method that we're using here with silicon and. What they realized was that the military was the why guy in a situation like Indonesia sight. To improve they. Their relationship with the Indonesian military. Sakano was in a juggling act he was. He had a communist. The PK I. Who will popular with the people? He was having to juggle a demands. He had the Indonesian Armed Forces. Who will largely? Anti Communist. And remembering that all of them I had been in the beginning very prior nationalist, they mind. Deal, at the beginning was to get rid of the Dutch side I rolled together at that point in getting rid of the Dutch and then the differences. So the US to saw to use. The Indonesian Armed Forces to construct an eighty communist front now. What I did was I started inviting Indonesian soldiers for training in the US I mostly at Fort Leavenworth. So? Non and fifty four over twelve soldiers trying in the US USI from Indonesia. Fifty eight at the time of this sort of bombing that I mentioned when the show town there was zero. A year later, there were forty one Indonesian soldiers trying in the US, I. In boy nine threes on to that there was at least a thousand. Indonesian. Soldiers training in the US. And they obviously being trying In warfare, but they will side being indoctrinated into. Americanisms and In particular anticommunist sentiment. So. Also that taunts Sakata had to give the military extra panelist deal with is rebels in those the military. As a result of that got involved in all sorts of other things, fishing farming in construction so military than. Got Extra, pay out. They had all sorts of businesses the Dow. A conducting in that becomes important lighter on in east team, or if we get to that in the story on the show if we will. But, basically the military were very to give away east team because they were making money out of these team will. site. That's the setup in Indonesia where the Americans. Dropped some bombs CEI-. Agent cooled red-handed interfering and the US. let's get with the. the armed forces and will spend a few years. American using them. That's bubbling align the background. Meanwhile nine sixteen, the con God. The congas I elected prime minister was Patrice Lumumba. Immediately faced with the breakdown of order. There was an army revolt wall suspicious groups from the mineral rich crumbs of Tanga. By then the in Belgium paratroopers. The colonial Powell returned supposedly to restore security. Sally wins in election duly elected immediately. Kyle is the caring. Mumba fight full mystic! He turned to the side Union. Fulfil this set of panic in London Washington. Who'd feed? The Siamese would get a foothold in Africa much the done in Cuba. In the White House president is now hill. The National Security Council meeting in the summer of nineteen sixty. In, which at one point he turned to his say I. Director News The would eliminated intense of what he wanted done with Lumumba. The CIA got to work came up with a series of planes ranging from snipers to poisoned to paste to get rid of the leader. By carry out because the CIA man on the ground Larry Devlin said he was reluctant to see them through in the end. The Mumba was killed by troops loyal to Joseph Mobutu. Who was the CIA backed I'm chief. this will happen. Three days before giant kind was sworn in. By Szekely. Lumumba was killed before the CIA could get to him. An army chief. Backed by the CIA. Mobutu took over the second largest country in sub. Saharan Africa stage public. of his rivals built a dictatorship became out of America's closest allies in Africa. These are the sorts of things that people are worried. The China Middle Day. America has already done. We neither did it's on. The record swam back nine sixty. Kita nineteen sixty one. Giant kyw actually inherited the by you've pigs, invasion plans. The mercenaries would training in Guatemala. SHAG AVERA was on its Munis in Cuba, and he wasn't a bad to allow a repeat of Guatemala. Side a by of Pigs was disaster. And the US I had taken such public hit on that they couldn't do the the same thing again so nothing is public as that so. ironically. Food is after the invasion SA-. Khanna Indonesia visited Washington But he didn't bring up the parallels with what the with what had happened to him to non fifty eight with the US bombing. He's He's on encountering. Stealing nine and sixty one Iraq. Outside of Indonesia. The largest communist party was in Iraq. The Iraqi communist contemplated Iva throwing the Dick Tida al.. Qassim. But the it's advised against it. Washington backed a successful coup by the anticommunist Ba'ath party which immediately crushed the Communist. slowed. UNTOLD NUMBERS With a chief torture of being Saddam sign. That across the world, stealing nine, sixty, one, nine, sixty to resume. My South American countries Had to try the Spanish, but Brazil was Portuguese. And the Portuguese rule family had fled to Brazil united nights seven when Nepal when Napoleon invited. The had been a long serving left-wing. Voss prison and cold God became president in nineteen sixty one he. He promoted such righteous things such as universal vibrating. Increased Literacy and landforms. He visited President Kennedy inaudible, sixty two and shortly afterwards Kennedy met the US Ambassador to Brazil and agreed to spend millions of dollars on anti Django plans for the election. To prepare the ground for a military coup, if necessary because I saw him as a Communist. So Money Porty in. More subtly than in Guatemala and Iran. That's the Blink Y. Ninety sixty three, Vietnam. Kennedy ordered the Ambassador in South Vietnam to facilitate the removal of President Diem. The scene I passed the would down to a local general. Said, damn was kidnapped and killed whereas giant CACTUS wanted him removed not killed. A few weeks later, jive was killed. Back to Brazil. So, there was a coup led by General Humberto Castelo Branco. WHO HAD TRAINED GATEWAY? Fort Leavenworth you signed. So? The coup was non sixty four Django fled to Uruguay. Began US State Department began operation dubbed brother. Same at my tank is ammunition and aircraft carriers available to the conspirators. These not needed. I mean Jenga was a Julie elected? Leader. In the US doesn't give a shit. Brazil was different in that the US interference was obvious than previous ventures, and it was my easier because Brazil had a unique sort of anticommunist culture as a result of its history back in the thirties. As. A result of that Brazil would not hall now the Democratic Election for twenty five years. Back to Indonesia, nine, sixty three. Remember? We've got the Has had at least two thousand soldiers a Yeeha being trained by the US. So known and sixty-three, nearly a third of the country's registered voters will pk all affiliates Communist affiliates. The peak by the PK I had been peaceful. The head no arms. And had my vice because at that stage they win. Any elections economy was was running what he called a God democracy meaning a dictatorship. The military was anticommunist and allied to the Muslims and was increasingly powerful. So I. Took on the United Kingdom. Either Malaria side the Yucai at created Malaysia but had excluded Singapore. The reason I did that was. They didn't want. Timmy Chinese Communist sympathizers in Malaysia so I- segregated Singapore yeah. So the US supported the Yucai. In return for the UK supporting the US in Vietnam. San Much for freedom Sakano became. Publicly Eighteen American and American I dried up. Except why kind of money for the Indonesian Army? which the Americans? That was flowing very freely so? At that time off, Vietnam. The US destroy maddox was in Vietnamese waters It violated the International Twelve Mall limit and Ivan fire on three. Vietnamese patrol boats. Two days lighter. Fought their iron shadows creating excuse for. Thousand Minds Johnson to start a full war in Vietnam. Imagine if we say that and had used China instead of Yusei. Chinese. But we don't seem decide the USA. So three lighter Sukarno established relations with high teaming government just so annoyed with the arrogance, and it was prickly, so he's he's signed stuff you. Can, you can start, but I'm to be bites with it mean. An actually most Indonesians agreed with Cana because they cherish the the idea of independence from colonial power. They recognized Vietnam. Having got rid of the. Well originally occupied by the French. With, fighting for their freedom in in the Indonesians had done exactly the same thing. The directly after the Second World War. Say That quite sympathetic to what Vietnam was trying to do. At the time the US. I had a really good guy ambassador. Cool jeans, who just can't seem to have been a decent guy who understood Indonesia? Into undestood the communists were actually just socialists who were progressive and trying to do the right thing within the system. So they really good. Guy John's because that ready to take action. And what they really wanted. the say, I m I seeks wanted to goad the Indonesian communist into a premature coup that could provoke an army response. We get to an event. The thirtieth of September nineteen sixty five in Indonesia. and. Australia New Nabi vent. I didn't know better until very recent toned. It's embarrassing. This story and This particular incident that I'm going to describe. I mean fifty five years later and we still be sure exactly what happened. I'm going to give you the version from. Vincent! Devon's book the Jakarta method. There are Outta versions at the make up your mind. So thirtieth September nineteen sixty five Indonesia. Six generals were captured and killed by a rebel group in the army. Tried to get seven, but got six. It was. Most likely. It was an internal on movement that the the PK. I the PK High Communists did not help organize. It's it seems very plausible. That Sahata Nazi. Kanye's a new character Suharto. Was General A lower ranking general in the infant in the Indonesian military. It seems plausible. It's hot. I planed infiltrated the group to engineer his rise to power. Because everything, Sahata, did you? Tiber suggests he was executing an anticommunist counterattack plan that had been developed in advance, not simply reacting crisis so. These rebels tried to capture the top seven generals. Got Six of them. The rebels would quickly captured dealt with. General killed intron down well. Even the reminding seventh general was high ranking. Sahata I just took control in the way that a man you. What was happening? in advance would take control. And, he blamed the communist straight up. It said it's the PK on, and you might fanciful stories. They awarded being done what the what the peak I communist were planning to do. Need demonized the PK AOI described. The generals are being tortured and have. Will be dealt with and described really gruesome things in and said this is what these communist going to do to the rest of us. And and. He beat up a propaganda, a bad communist involvement in that. Uprising! Siamese side to die Indonesians celebrate the anniversary as of an anti communist national ritual. If there were any communist involved. In that plot. Would have been the top handful. At most of The Communist leadership, and certainly not. A million Indonesians. Anyway, Very early on the us-backed. Sahata this incoming, general either CICADA. and. With the PK Communist pint is evil in CICADA. Basically they ran a propaganda campaign through the the media. Painting, the Communists is evil in Kana. The all guy had to support the military with its anti PKI rhetoric. Because emergence had been stood up so much that if if Sakano would sit all come on, it's not really the case. Nobody would've swallowed it and he's having to do with a military coup cohere essentially. He's trying to cling onto PR say. Bake high communist I can. Anyway. The army then proceeds to torture ripened slowdown every communistic good fine. Mass killings. Readers starting to bank up and be blocked by the number of bodies. Did in the rivers. People were arrested. disappeared. In, no one was sure what was happening. This is one of the things like people would be rounded up and taken ally in their families wouldn't know what had happened. That went short. I've dated what had happened to them. There was this there was a sense of just not knowing so. That was a big part of it. All, so the Muslim Youth Wing helped out. Now US officials might clear. That Sukarno had to be removed. And the attacks on US investments had to be halted. In Bali. Five percent of the population was executed over few months fulfill. With a political party that had been tightly legal in mind stream just weeks earlier. The Communist by the Kayak was a legitimate, just political party in Indonesia. But if you any links to that party after this event, your rounded up and disappeared. You could have been just an ordinary. Union organizer shop floor is to get better conditions here in the organizing. Sing alongs at said Dino. Function like just the most. Innocent of people would look up as a supposedly part of the plotters of killing these six generals. Anyone Sakata I was forced to resign and at that time the western press. was basically repeating the narrative piddle by the new government and just sign. It was inexplicable tribal violence that had broken out in irrationally outburst. Deal is. Between Five, hundred thousand and a million people were slaughtered. And? A million mole will put into concentration camps. All I view as trying. These military in modified the Mindy Communist, but yeah I didn't actually do it themselves to die, won't. US assistance snaps from Wikipedia Bradley Simpson Director of the Indonesia. East Documentation Project at the National Security Archives. Contains that. Declassified documents indicate that the United States provided economic, technical and military I to the army soon after the killing started and continued to do so long after it was clear, a widespread slaughter was taking place in northern Sumatra and other places. In the expectation, that US assistance would contribute to this. Thir- The evidence for this funding has been substantiated by cable was sent from Ambassador Grain after meeting. The say is who Tova. The Assistant Secretary of State Bill Bundy. One advocating full payments to be sent to Anti Communist fighter Adam Malik. Reading from the the cable. This is confirmed my. Concurrence that we provide Malik with fifty million repairs been ten thousand dollars. Fraternities of the Gap Gestapo Movement the army. But the civilian stopped group is still carrying burden of current repressive efforts. L., willingness to assist him in this matter will I think represent in Malaysia. Mind our endorsement of his present role in the army's anti PK our efforts. And promote good cooperating relations between him in the army. The, chances of detection, subsequent revelation of support in this instance are as minimal as any black flag oppression candidate. Other cables from grain to the State Department suggested that the United. States played a role in developing elements of the Anti Communist propaganda following the. Alleged ACC- PIQUIONNE activities. In a cable from October fifth quite we can help Shaik developments to our advantage spread. The story of PK is guilt, tree and brutality. He went decided it would welcome the awoke goal to blacken the of Pie in the eyes of the people. Side, the US was funding civilian murderers who carrying at Omni assassinations and admitted its help in this terrible propaganda campaign, the pilot a picture of p-a-k Communis. That then encouraged Indonesians to kill them. It gets worse again from wikipedia. In Minority Noni, the Stein used service published a study by journalists. Kathy Kettani we tied lauded significant US involvement in the killings. Kadena quoted Robert Martins hoodwinked. The US embassy assigned that Sane. US diplomats and Officials. Provided least of approximately five thousand nine of communist operatives to the Indonesian army, while it was hunting down and killing members the Communist Party of Indonesia. And alleged sympathizers. Martin's told Cadena that quote. It really was a big help to the army. They probably killed a lot of people. Probably have a lot of blood on my hands, but that's not all bad. This is Tom, and you have to strike hard at a decisive moment. In quite. Godina I write that approval for the release of ninth journalist kind from top US. Embassy officials. Marshall Grain and deputy chief of Mission Jack. Liederman And political section chief, it would cost. This stuff in the Shiites about this. Essentially this compelling evidence that the US provided the Indonesian. With a list to help them out. Because in the of the US, was surprising hail. The Indonesian army was in terms of finding the communist to kill Sally. The helped him out. Again. This is the sort of thing that we think China might get up to if. It's already happened. It's it's terrible. This morning show not too bad then. So. The incoming guy. He consolidates his rule. and. American companies like General Electric, American Express Caterpillar and Goo deal all explore business opportunities while one million Indonesians iron concentration camps. Comparable to what you'd find or imagined in the Soviet Union. Let's cross I have to Chile nineteen seventy. Salvadorian die one narrowly inaudible seventy. He was a socialist and amongst intellectual. Henry Kissinger. National Security Adviser to Nixon said. I don't I don't see why we need to stand by. What country got communist due to the irresponsibility of its own people? Are really more from. This book the. One thing about this book is. Obviously guys in a much more daytime, but he also paints pictures from ordinary people at the time and follows their personal experiences which Really adds the story and. This might be sad and just angry. The signed sign-on at what had happened to these people. Kissinger also said I want to work on this on military relations putting more money on the Economic Saad. We wanted to give him call ticky. We'll be very cool and very correct, but doing these other things. A real message to Allende now this knowing impression should be permitted in Latin America that they can get away with this. Now Impression In Latin America that you can elect a leftist government is what Kissinger assigned? This is from the country. Truth Justice equality. Anyway. They apply in economic squeeze. This is the template that's currently being used by the Lai in Venezuela Sandwich Law Combat Mature Act. This is the sort of exact. Chilean. Thing again. So the US. is encouraging the military in Chile. In I start with you on a plane. which cycle in within the military the Jakarta planned? To kill around ten thousand people. And in the capital of July. You start saying graffiti on the Wolves Jakarta's coming. So A is a real saints in the country the. Military tai-chi is is going to happen, and because I've seen it alive. I've seen it happening in these other countries. But the head of the military at the time was actually. Very sympathetic to the constitution. He was like Nye. The constitution says this is going to be president, so he is. While he was killed. Replacement was also sympathetic to the Constitution and let the end I continue. But? when he resigned, he immediately hopped to Buenos areas to get the country because he knew he was up. So, he left and went to Benetton to Buenos Aires. Lighter, he was assassinated. So inte-. General Pinna shy, who then becomes the hit of the military. We all know what happened September eleven nine, hundred, seventy three. I ends up barricading himself in. I think it was the pound Montoya or something like that and. Shot himself. And finish. I went ahead and killed around three thousand people. Known as many as ten, thousand died unusually planned on. Again enormous. US Hill offered to the military. and. You can just hear it in the woods that we've got from. Nixon end. Actually that last said before was from Nixon not from Kissinger. Let's move either to Cambodia. America organized a coup to a to get rid of Prince Sihanouk and installed lawn knol. During his rule, you is bombed Cambodia indiscriminately killing hundreds of thousands of people mostly peasants in a futile attempt to stop the Vietnamese communist moving through the countryside. United States three times the tonnage. Of Bombs on Cambodia as was dropped on Japan and would. That include the atomic bombs. Narrative organized a coup against Prince San okay, I said. The acid prince threw his support behind the Kamei Route Ninety. Anyone's faulting long on the US army. And, we all know. That! But did you buy? Genuine on seventy nine. Is after I'd started the Command Rouge Phil because the Vietnamese realized what was happening. And the Cambodians to cry their government. The US tries to recognize at the UN. The remnants of the Chimera Rouge rather than the Vietnamese allied government. Is Yon Back to the Kim My ruse wellm. Ding pain. Later of Challenger at the time was furious about. The Vietnamese, doing this in Cambodia Because the marriage was a Chinese Allen. And he threatened to invade Vietnam until prison encounter privately. Tell Prison Kata in prison. Inkatha privately promised help China if the sides threaten to help the Vietnamese. I will stay out of it, but at the of get involved China will help you. John you're invited. Vietnam nineteen seventy nine. But the Vietnamese would say good bye being fought and hard and long ninety five, so they kick. The CIA, but they thwarted the. Chinese attack. Needing on East Taymor nine seventy five. Non In seventy five. There was a Portuguese dictatorship. which fell. And the new Portuguese government. Decided to withdraw from its colonists. This included a team all. This is his team ward bicycling on the map is the fire east of. Indonesia clash two trillion. And SAHATA client he was threatened by the East Timorese Communists. Nixon. President Nixon Guide, Sahata. To tyke it to Tyke as team on an Operation Lotus, which killed three hundred thousand East Timorese. From nine to nine seventy nine. The Indonesian armed forces killed up to a third of the population. A high proportion than Pol Pot in Cambodia. This is by Suharto the. The US assisted. Military. Dictator He grabbed parent Indonesia. Back to Guatemala nothing racked by dictatorships. Since Jiji Vera left united on hdl Lia. The. Dictatorship supported by US Green. Berets conducts a terror campaign against any lift season subversives it can find. And uses to Cadillac. Tactics disappear tens of thousands of people. Nicaragua on seventy nine, the Sandinistas one. Ronald Reagan promptly begins funding the Contra rebels. I lean. Anytime lift ISH government. Popped up his head in Latin America the US kind Dan Hod Fanta military dictator. Guide systens, guiding the naked, the wink and the nod. We'll guide. The money will guide them a death list. Put troops on the granting foam of green berets. Help them conduct propaganda campaigns. Will scare the shit out of any left to see day to stay up to them. From? Just ruffling from seventy three, the Guatemalan military killed more than two hundred thousand people. The Salvadorian Civil. What took seventy five thousand lives? Argentina Killed Twenty thousand to thirty thousand. Eighty Communist extermination spread all across Latin America. Always with the assistance of the United States. Historian John Kites with concluded that from knowing sixty two naughty naughty. The number of victims of us-backed violence in Latin America. Vastly exceeded the number of people killed in the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc I've assigned Tong. There's a quite for you when people talk about the evil Communist. Say Yes. They're evil, but hey. US Bank violence in Latin America vast leaks say to the number of people killed by the side of gets in the eastern bloc from nine sixty to nineteen ninety. Indonesia today. They still under the belief that the Communists can spot and plotted. Caused. A gruesome death of heraldic general's. Luckily. Sahata was around degree gun control quickly and help rid the country of the Communist threat forever. There's a museum. which must be somewhere in Chicago I think. And As she walked in on a bizarre series of darkened holes, a series of Diorama installations tighty through the history of the party. Is the Communist Party. Demonstrating agent every time by tried the nation or attack. The military applauded to destroy Dijon. Down to reproducing Suharto's propaganda narrative about events of October nineteen, sixty five. There's not reference to the up to one million civilians killed as a result. At the exit, kids pies is in front of a big saw him, it says. Thank you for A. dioramas about savagery carried out by the Indonesian Communist Party. Don't let anything like this ever happened again. site. Point of this sees. As I said earlier today. Many people speculate that if unchecked Jonah could flex its Pale in control and subjugate smaller countries. That, it could force its will and communist agenda on this path countries. If necessary it would gile kill and terrorize vast populations to achieve times. In the terrible treaties that facility the US is being conducted the same sort of terrorism campaign. We feed the Janis. We'll start. And Nice people on a way of just how badly America's behaved so. D Listener. I really highly recommend. This book the Jakarta Math Point Vincent Bevan's. Guys into enormous day tile. Lots of footnotes and references that'll side the personal stories of different individuals caught up at different points in these tragic stories and. It's a story. We need to understand and. And we need to keep that in law, and when we a feist what I see all the time at a moment. Of this eighty China rhetoric fine. But the response seems to be so we must saw with the Americans and I just hype. The this podcast gives you some reasons why that might not be a good idea. Aim Idealist next week. Episode two hundred sixty it. We will celebrate five years of having done this podcast. Happy can join us will be live streaming on a Tuesday nodded seven thirty home. See then. Fotheringham's here. Faced Glove. Congratulations Sean foyers of entertaining. And Informative podcasts. Twelve man. Feared not feel wise counsel. You'll come. Rides would have argued in ever decreasing circles until eventually disappearing their own.

United States Indonesia president America government China Guatemala Soviet Union Vincent Bevan Indonesian Communist Party CIA US State Department Guatemala Iran Jakarta CICADA Guy John Sakano Indonesian Armed Forces United Fruit Company
Mark Levin Audio Rewind - 6/9/21

The Mark Levin Show

1:52:29 hr | 4 d ago

Mark Levin Audio Rewind - 6/9/21

"Ladies and gentlemen the following segment of the podcast is presented exclusively by hillsdale college for over one hundred and seventy five years for purposes have defined hillsdale's mission learning character faith and freedom. Thank you for listening my sincere appreciation to our brothers and sisters at hillsdale for their great sponsorship now broadcasting from the underground command post deep in the bowels of a hidden bunker somewhere under the brick and steel of a nondescript building. we've once again made contact with our leader Hello america mark levin ledger here. Our number eight seven seven three eight one three eight one one eight seven seven three eight one three eight one one have heard this but let's let's dig a little bit because we cannot allow this. Us lafayette park issue. Just the slide by for two hours after it was hammered and hammered and hammered for weeks. Actually have the inspector general's report in front of me. I'm not raising reading the news articles because the media is you'll see are so corrupt that we would be well without them because they are destroying freedom of the press. We really need a new media but with these corporatists and their boards of directors and so forth. We're never going to get a new media so it's among us between us that we have to communicate pass on information. I want to read you a little bit. Not to create create monotony by any means june. Twenty twenty one office of inspector general. Us department of interior. Many many years ago i was the deputy solicitor of the us department of interior. The number two lawyer there. So i know the inspector general's office there is huge. It's filled mostly with civil servants. And it's extremely competent. And they write here what we learn. Summary factual findings. I they say at the request of then secretary of us department of interior. David bernard and members of congress. We review the actions. The us park police us pp took to disperse protesters in and around lafayette park in washington. On june. one twenty twenty. I review focused on events that occurred in and around the park from may twenty nine. Through june three amid the ongoing black lives matter protests we sought to describe what occurred primarily from operational perspective including how and when the us p p it is the park police in coordination with law enforcement partners developed and executed his plan to clear the park and the us pp's reasons for dispersing protesters from the area. We also saw to determine whether the warnings that the us ppe provided to protest this before it executed the plan complying with applicable guide. Let's we did not review as part of this project individual uses of force by the us p p officers. These actions of the subject of separate inquiries are ongoing lawsuits. Sorry that lays the foundation how we got here what we learned summary of factual findings protests began in and around lafayette park on may twenty nine twenty twenty on may thirty the us people and us secret service established a unified command to coordinate the law enforcement response to the protests for may thirty two may thirty one at least forty nine united states park. Police officers were injured while policing the protests and federal and private property were vandalized. On the morning of june one the secret service procured anti-scale fencing to establish a more secure perimeter around lafayette part. That was to be delivered and installed that same day. The us park police in coordination with the secret service determined that it was necessary to clear protesters from the area in and around the park to enable the contractors employees to safely installed a fence the us p p. plan to implement the operation as soon as the fencing and materials safai sufficient law enforcement officers arrived at the park. Six other law enforcement agencies assisted the united states park police and the secret service and the operation to clear and secure park. Let's just stop for a moment. You remember all the violence that was taking place. The attacks on the historic church saint john's church in addition to these forty nine park police over fifty secret service were injured. President united states and his family were taken to the underground nuclear bunker. You talk about inciting insurrection. Inciting inside nothing like that occurred on capitol hill. And i don't defend what occurred on capitol hill but i reiterate nothing like that happened on capitol hill nothing. The operation began at six twenty three pm and was completed by six fifty pm so it took thirty minutes shortly thereafter thereafter at seven one pm president trump walked from the white house to lafayette park to saint john's church at seven thirty pm. The contractor began assembling installing the anti-scale fence and completed the work by approximately twelve thirty. Am on june second so what did they conclude. Factual findings summary. We found the united states park. Police had the authority and discretion clear. Lafayette park and the surrounding areas on june one. The evidence we obtained did not support a finding that the us p p cleared the park to allow the president to survey the damage and walk to saint john's church instead the evidence. We reviewed show that the united states park police cleared the park to allow the contractor to safely install the anti-scale fencing in response to these destruction of property and intrigued officers occurring on may thirty and thirty one further. The evidence showed that the united states park. Police did not know about the president's potential movement until mid to late afternoon on june one hours after it had begun developing its operational plan and the fencing contractors had arrived in the park in other words in plain english. This had nothing to do with. What trump did trump had nothing to say about clearing the park. Nothing zero this was a decision by law enforcement to secure the park which is right next to the white house. In order to protect the white house from they. Violent rioters black lives matter and tika and others who injured almost fifty park police officers and over fifty secret security secret service security personnel. What else did they find. We also found that. Although the united states park police used a sound amplifying long range acoustic device day shoot three dispersal warnings to the crown on june one. Not everyone could hear the warnings. Okay well what are you doing in the park where there's violence anyway. You don't need to hear warnings. Get your ass out of their. Furthermore we found that the us ppo does not have a detailed dispersal warning policy applicable to operations like the one that occurred on june one and he goes in matters that are of no consequence to us. How many more examples do we need of the american media. The democrat party trumpeters never trumpers creating propaganda in flat out lying to the american people. I asked mr producer asked the team to pull together some of the tweets on june first and june. Second and i want you to listen to these because this help propel a narrative about donald trump and i to sit here behind this microphone and constantly say the attorney general of the united states. Bob barr excuse me. Bill barr and the president of the united states. Donald trump said over and over again. We had nothing to do with clearing the park. We'd nothing to do with tear glaze. We don't do it any and they wouldn't be believed they wouldn't be believed. Joe biden is an ambulance chaser. Joe biden is a street hack politician. He will say anything for power anything to gain power anything to keep power. That's why he in the miscreants malcontents that make up administration keeps saying the climate change in white supremacy of the greatest threats in america. Not communist china which is massively building up. Its military not russia which has modernized almost ninety percent of its nuclear force. No no no no no. The greatest threat is climate change in white supremacy and those damnable phrases and radical notions. Are the reasons why these are going to get us in a big time war because she and putin and the others look at this and they say all right we see the weak underbelly and his name is biden. Now what biden. Say on june first. He tweeted his follows about trump. he's using the american military against the american people. He's tear-gas peaceful protesters and fired. Rubber bullets for our children for the very soul of our country mustered feed him. But i mean when. I say this we can know we can only do it together. June second joe biden from his basement when one hundred thousand americans died because of his incompetent leadership. This president what americans peacefully protested outside the white house. This president tear-gas them from a four photo op. Donald trump was elected to serve a saw but only looks out for himself you see. What a sleazeball by is and always has been kamala harris june one twenty twenty. Donald trump just tear gas peaceful protesters for a photo op. Chuck schumer june one. Twenty twenty. how long can this president go. President trump orders federal authorities. To fire tear-gas at peaceful protesters so that he could hold a photo op to appear like tough guy. His words are empty. His actions reveal is true nature by the way i wonder if the wall street journal national review in these others were they similar mindset. I don't recall. Just wonder chuck schumer. June twenty second twenty twenty president trump's relentless need to make himself a week man feels strong. Let him to order. Federal officers to gas peacefully assembled americans so he could sneak his way to a church photo so he could wave bible not read a bible not even his bible a prop nancy pelosi jr on twenty twenty across our country. Americans are protesting for into the pattern of racial injustice and brutality. We saw most recently in the murder. George floyd yet at the time. When our country cries out for unification this president is ripping it apart teargassing peaceful protesters without provocation. Just so that. The president could pose for photos outside a church dishonors every value. That faith teaches us. Adam shift june one when a president is fearful flailing lacks the capacity to lead in unify turns to the american military against its own citizens and tear gases peaceful protesters to make way for a photo. Op we must do what he cannot. Bring people together and fix a broken system general. Jim mattis one of the greatest disgraces of my lifetime in a statement to the atlantic june. One twenty twenty. When i joined the military some fifty years ago. I swore an oath to support and defend the constitution. Never did i dream that troops taking that same oath will be ordered under any circumstances to violate the constitutional rights of their fellow citizens. Much list provide a bizarre photo up for the elected commander in chief with military leadership standing alongside. It never happened you crepe. I don't care how many stars you have on your chest. General martin e dempsey and obama. Hack june one. Twenty twenty. america's military. Our sons and daughters will place themselves at risk to protect their fellow citizens. Their job is unimaginably hard overseas harder at home. Respect them for they respect you. America's not a battleground. our fellow citizens are not the enemy. Be better other nitwit. The washington post june one twenty twenty authorities use rubber bullets tear gas to clear protesters near white house ahead of curfew. Trump then walks to a nearby church. The new york times june one. This was the scene outside the white house on monday. As police use tear gas and flash grenades to clear out peaceful protesters so president trump could visit the nearby saint george church where there was a parish house basement. Fire sunday night. Npr police in washington dc. Use tear gas and rubber bullets on peaceful protesters. They clear them away from saint john's church which suffered a small fire sunday night near the white house president trump and walked at a church. A photo op. You see how they're trying to make the connection. The daily beast tear gas had apparently been used to break up protesters near saint john's episcopal church. So that trump could take a photo in front of the house of worship after his speech. The president held up a bible in front of the church's cameras flashed and it goes on lying. Sob's generals politicians the media. All the same riffraff if you ask me another bald face. Lie from the trump. Haters like inciting insurrection on capitol hill. Did you hear all. The violence took place here burning a church forty-nine u. s. park police injured over fifty secret service personnel engine but that wasn't an incitement no no tune insurrection. Even though the secret service had to take the president and his family down to the bunker no no no that was peaceful. And if we were to collect more from msnbc and cnn and cnbc and all the other sleaze balls dressed up as real reporters it'd be an inch or two inches long. if i printed it out. These are grotesque lying thugs who are pushing this country over the cliff. I'll be right back and Are you worried about america's future times of trouble are full of reasons to despair but those who built and have preserved. Our country didn't despair. And if we're going to do our part. We need to draw on the books. The history and the ideas that gave our forefathers and mothers strength and inspiration hillsdale college was founded in eighteen. Forty four to teach these things that teaches them still today. The great news is that we can all study these things along with hillsdale college professors right. In our homes through hillsdale's free online courses. We can study the history of our civilization. The wisdom of ancient judeo christian philosophers and the writings of shakespeare mark twain. We can reacquaint ourselves with our constitution. We can learn how the constitution has been undermined and more importantly how it can be recovered. My friends as we find in defensive family faith and freedom let us draw on the best of the past with hillsdale's guidance to save the greatest nation on earth begin learning today at levinforhillsdale dot com l. e. v. i n for hillsdale dot com levinforhillsdale dot com. By the way. I'll be on hannity tonight on the fox news channel nine twenty five pm eastern time nine twenty five pm eastern time. I hope you'll check us out. He's got a great show night in and night out dozen shawn. He is steady eddie. Twenty five years twenty five years. He's been fighting for this republic twenty-five years he has never you know coward twenty five years. He's been under attack. So i mean it's one of my closest friends but he is a pro and i don't have anybody else who does television five nights a week and does radio five days a week to be radio. Broadcasters and enormous amount working effort if you're going to do it right and you can tell who does it right and who doesn't people just going to pop off on articles and so forth. You want them to go a little deeper. Explain a little bit more. I think and Sean preps very very hard for radio and he does for tv dooney right. He writes his home monologues and so forth. So that's four hours a day on air four hours a day on air which means at least six to eight hours a day off air preparing. He's great so i'll be on his program tonight at nine twenty five pm eastern time. Now folks. I wanna link everything i just discussed about. Lafayette park to american marxism. So stick with. Are you worried about america's future times of trouble are full of reasons to despair but those who build have preserved. Our country didn't despair. And if we're going to do our part. We need to draw on the books. The history and the ideas that gave our forefathers and mothers strength and inspiration hillsdale college was founded in eighteen. Forty four to teach these things at teaches them still today. The great news is that we can all study these things along with hillsdale college professors right. In our homes through hillsdale's free online courses. We can study the history of our civilisation. The wisdom of ancient judeo-christian philosophers and the writings have shakespeare mark twain. We can reacquaint ourselves with our constitution. We can learn how the constitution has been undermined and more importantly how it can be recovered. My friends as we find in defense of family faith and freedom let us draw on the best of the past with hillsdale's guidance to save the greatest nation on earth begin learning today at levinforhillsdale dot com l. e. v. i n for hillsdale dot com levinforhillsdale dot com. Oh my goodness who do that. Really really nothing that. Hey hey. I'm really come a puppy. Dog aren't not all the time. Sometimes a rottweiler by got it but mostly a puppy dog. By the way i was thinking and i don't know any time in history. Certainly recent history where we've had true lightweights at the same time one is president. One is vice president. We've had a lightweight. President a lightweight vice president but typically not both at the same time and actually i correct myself so we had a bama biden to light weights and now we have biden harris to lightweights and i have to tell you harris's way over her head way over her head. She really has no credentials to be vice president of the united states. Not because i say so because she demonstrates this day in and day out day in and day out she demonstrates this and the democrat new this the voters in the democrat primaries rejected her she had to drop out early on but then biden resuscitates her career and makes her vice president of the united states his running mate but even the democrats could tell that she was way over her head and she is. She doesn't make sense when she speaks. He's not even prepared. We've made great progress. Well what did you learn. We made great progress really. Oh yes it's a great future. We made great progress. Which i mean. It's just insane as i told you. I just received the official hardcover copy of american marxism. So what's coming. I only have a few so it's coming it'll be it'll be in stores. It'll be on the various internet ordering sites and you'll get to get it in real time. But i'd like you to get it on july thirteenth. The day we begin. I want you to think about something. I've been talking about this little spurts. Little pieces now promised eight weeks and just talking about this in my own county of loud. I have people who are emailing me. People who are leaving messages for me people who are sending me letters thanking me thanking me thanking me thanking fee for bringing national attention to this and they feel just in the last two months that we've made great progress and the hasn't even come out yet and you can see because this is a national show. It's a national show. Even a magazine. I believe today. I don't track. There's somebody told me the top one hundred. I'm number three number two. They can keep saying. I'm number three but i'm number two. I have the numbers but are going. I'm number two is an exactly winning. But you get we're everywhere in the country on. Am and fm radio on satellite on the internet from the podcast. We're everywhere in the country. Whoever has any kind of device anybody has any kind of radio. You can hear this program and not only in america but all over the world and give it the size of you. My audience live nights the number of people out there when we talk about subjects. It's important. I've said this before and i don't say this to put down anybody or anything but talk. Radio is much bigger than cable tv. It just is you and the audience listening to me now. You're two three four times the size of most cable. Tv shows on their best night and so conservative talk. Radio is very very important and has an enormous impact. And then when you have a podcast on top of it which we do. It's that much more. And so when. I'm talking about critical race theory and these other theories almost daily and i'm trying to link it back to what i believe is strongly can make the case at american marxism it starts to have an impact. Not because it's me. But because of what we you and i are talking about learning together and also expanding and so i wanna do that again and again and again because i think as i said before you can see the budding movement that's out there and we're going to build this into a huge movement and there's a lot of ways to do that and i'll talk about it again when the book comes out. But in the meantime at the opening of the show. I read to you from the inspector general the interior department's report not a news article on it but from it everything they said about trump and lafayette park was alive everything. The media reported was alive. Then i read to you. Some tweets selected tweets from the media from democrats and from generals liars. But they wanted to believe there self self-serving they wanted you to believe things about trump that we're not true. They wanted you to believe things about his character that we're not true and they hate your guts to by the way. Oh yes they do. What do you think all this white supremacy craps all about and i'm not just talking about white people. Anybody who disagrees with their marxist agenda. I pointed out a month or five weeks ago or so that marks profession as long as profession anyway was as a journalist. And it's not a surprise that when you see the the american marxist today in these various news platforms although the night but they deny whatever they want. I don't give a damn what they do not remember. This is part of the case. We're going to make the case. Use our language. Use it properly and identify what we need to identify. But he was a so-called journalist in the modern journalists so called are using marxists tactics and many of them don't even know it. They just play on a social activist on page ninety. Four point out in an interview with james ledbetter the editor of dispatches for the new york tribune a two thousand and a book of marxist articles for the tribune yes he wrote for the new york tribune ledbetter who looked at all the articles explains that the basic marks approach to his new york tribune columnist at an event that was in the news and election and uprising the second opium war the outbreak of the american civil war and sift through it until he could boil it down to some fundamental questions of politics or economics and then on those questions he would make his judgment and their sense marxist journalism does resemble some of the writing that is published today in journals of opinion and it is not hard to see a direct line between marxist journalistic writing and the kind of ten days writing on public affairs that characterized much political journalism. He says especially in europe but this was written some time ago. It's especially now in america in the twentieth century. So he wrote that in two thousand eight so the modern american journalists so called is not what the framers of the constitution had in mind. They're not about freedom of speech. They have taken the approach of karl marx himself. As who's was a journalist for a long time. And as i also pointing pronoun in american marxism thus marks approach journalism as modern journalists. Do today that is. He was unencumbered by a commitment to actual news reporting instead his reporting ship the news around his own opinions and ideology now ledbetter in his book continues after eighteen forty eight marks learned the power of counter revolution and began to believe that existing systems of government and economy could not be overthrown until a relatively informed an organized proletariat the masses could be mobilized to do so is became clear with every passing year and many nations such organization was decades away if it existed at all and as i point out in short marks understood the power mass communication and the need to control it in shape it from events. Excuse me frame. Events and opinions in other words the purpose was to propagandize not inform. And i go out. Go on further lengthened. The book american marxism now. When you read as i read to you those tweets and when you read this inspector general's report there is simply no denying what's going on with our media are media academia entertainment the culture the democrat party the surrogate so the democrat party. The teachers unions among others. Yes all pushing their agenda and one of the things that we're gonna talk about in the days and weeks ahead as well. We've talked a lot about critical race theory. We spend an enormous amount of time on this as well as other issues but transgenderism ladies and gentlemen because critical race theory is just one branch of the american. Marcus agenda. Transgenderism is another branch and not the only branch. There's many there are many movements that have been spawned from marxism which. I call now. American marxism and i want to strongly encourage you to order your your copies preorder them. You'll get first editions. Amazon has almost forty percent off because we need to take these issues and grab them by the horns and wrestled him to the ground. We can do this together. And i dare say over the last two months leading up to this program this evening. We've talked about a lot of things that you may not have been aware up. We've talked about it in a way. That's understandable and we've mentioned names of individuals. You may never heard of before. Well there's a lot more. We need to know our enemy in order to defeat our enemy and we must defeat our enemy if we are to retain a free and open society all of you who love this country. I don't care what your race is. What your religion. Any of it. Red blooded americans whether you're a newly minted american last week or yesterday or last hour or you're one of five six seven eight generations. We're going to have to come together. We're going to have to unify. We're going to have to build a movement. That pushes back. American marxism and i'll be right back. Mark levin. Are you worried about america's future times of trouble are full of reasons to despair but those who built and have preserved. Our country didn't despair. And if we're going to do our part. We need to draw on the books. The history and the ideas that gave our forefathers and mothers strength and inspiration hillsdale college was founded in eighteen. Forty four to teach these things at teaches them still today. The great news is that we can all study these things along with the hillsdale college professors right. In our homes through hillsdale's free online courses. We can study the history of our civilization. The wisdom of ancient judeo christian philosophers and the writings of shakespeare mark twain. We can reacquaint ourselves with our constitution. We can learn how the constitution has been undermine and more importantly how it can be recovered. My friends says we fight in defensive family. Faith and freedom let us draw on the best of the past with hillsdale's guidance to save the greatest nation on earth begin learning today levinforhillsdale dot com l. e. v. i n. for hillsdale dot com levinforhillsdale dot com. I think we do something a little differently here. Although i can't swear by. Because i don't listen most of the other program and i hope you do the more the better as far as i'm concerned it's just that i have other things to do including prepare for this. The reason why my books fuse so well or easily into my program is not a coincidence. It's because i'm writing about what i believe. And what i think in what i tell you. Except i'll take a topic or multiple topics that i think are front and center that we must address and confront and i will write about them and not just right superficially about them nowhere in this book my patting myself on the head. Nowhere in the book of my saying look at me. I was the first one critical. Racer care who was the for. Its irrelevant me and yet in the back of the book. There's almost five hundred notes. I think there's four hundred and some notes. Because i want to give credit to everybody. Everybody who deserves credit. And i wanna give discredit everybody who deserves discredit and so you can look them up yourselves. And that's how i go about this. I don't say you know what. I'm going to write a book about flowers and then i'm gonna walk the hell out now. I'm talking about this book because it's part of my radio show. It's because what i believe in. And i'm promoting this book because i want to help save the country and this is what i do in my little way i live and breathe this stuff probably to my own detriment health wise. But i can't help it. I know that my time on this earth has limited as is yours. Has this everybody's and i know that my time behind this microphone is limited even more. Because i can't do this. When i get a certain age and so here we are staring totalitarianism. Right in the is here. We are staring marxism right in the eyes. And we're told we can't call it marxism. We can't call up marxist progressivism it's liberalism. It's democratic socialism. I had different names for this book. And i said dammit it's american marxism and that's what i'm going to call it while we need. A subtitles said no subtitle. It is what it is two words. It is what it is to words. And it's actually worse now than i thought it would be at this point which is why i held up the printing presses. I needed to go through the book again. And i needed to address many of these things that are taking place. And then i said to the publisher. I don't know how fast we can do this. But we need to get this out as fast as humanly possible and that is what we have done. We moved up the publication day two months ago. The printing presses are ready to go. We're actually going to have to do a second printing already. There are many many orders with the big retailers and small retailers amazon. Of course and that's because of you. We love this country and so that's what we're going to talk about. That's what we have to talk about. And if we don't do it here on talk radio. And if i don't do it in this book as well then where's it going to be done. There's my beautiful wife bringing me a little treat. Chocolate thank you. She knows. I love chocolate. And sometimes it's hard to wait till the programs over mr producer. You where there. By the way mr producer wolfing down steak sandwiches and hot dogs and mr call screener is even worse. He's woven out to hot dogs hammers. But that's another story. All right folks. we've got a lot more to cover. I hope you'll stick with us. Don't forget i'm on hannity tonight. Nine twenty five. Pm eastern time on the fox news channel. We'll be right back now. Broadcasting from the underground command post deep in the bowels of a hidden bunker somewhere under the brick and steel of a nondescript building. we've once again made contact with our leader. Mark love america mark levin. Here our number eight seven seven three eight one. Three eight one one. Eight seven seven. Three eight one. Three eight one one joy. Reid is on msn. She shouldn't be anywhere given her vile homophobic posts over the years which he lied about. But she such a radical unhinged kook. They put her in prime time. I think seven pm. And i want you to listen to this so you get an example of what that side of the aisle. It's not even that side of the aisle those morons over there what they think and how they talk. It's an amazing thing when you live in the free country in the face of the earth the most prosperous country in the face of the earth at least for now. And you don't even realize what you have. You don't even realize that somebody like joy. Reid plucked from obscurity plucked from stupidity. Given a prime time. Show that these things. Don't just happen in america. You can actually make something of yourself even if you're an unhinged lunatic it's not true in most other countries certainly not true in communist china fascistic russia islam. Oh nazi iran and so forth and so on. And that's why these marxists never leave america for some other culture or society or country. Where are they going to go. Where are they gonna go where they can make this kind of money and be stupid as i honestly only in america. Speaking of which. I'm going to address this joy. Reid on ms lsd yesterday. Cut three go. There are seven countries in central america. There's another dozen countries and to sort of territories in just her wikipedia to find that out. Go ahead four hundred and thirty three million people in south america. Something like what forty four million people in central america. Four hundred thirty three million people in south something like forty four million people. Oh right off the top of her head she something photographic memory go ahead with mexico is not the only important issue that matters to the world. Well it's an important issue that matters to america. It's an important issue. That matters to america as you as you broadcast from your cozy surroundings and environment and don't have to deal with any of the consequences whether you're is somebody trying to reach the border whether you as somebody who lives on the border you're a fraud and a phony fool go ahead. Those seven countries have a long history with the united states much of it troubling and those seven countries have a long history within those countries much of it troubling including two day. But they don't wanna talk about today ever do they go ahead. The united states used much of central america as essentially a giant plantation. Google the united fruit company. We have a long sorted torrid history with this region. The history does not begin at the border where people are showing up. That is not the only important thing that matters. There's a whole history that long precedes people. Arriving at the border between mexico and utah. Ladies and gentlemen. I don't know any people or society or country that at its burke was perfect lacked injustice. I can't think of one not one in africa. Not one in south east asia. Now one of the middle east not one in europe not one in north america not one in south or it's amazing thing it's an amazing thing but let's talk about america today. She won't she wants to talk about the united fruit company. She doesn't want to talk about america today. Where are you free or today. In the central american and south american countries are in the united states of america joy. And why are all these losers name. Joy mr producer. They have no joy no no no. As a matter of fact people from these very countries where the united fruit company had plantations. When it come to america. We just saw that in a gallup survey twenty over twenty five percent of the people south of our border wanna leave their countries. Forty two million of that twenty five percent when it comes to the united states. She didn't mention that did she. Why is that because she wants to talk about the united fruit company. She doesn't want to talk about today. Howard people treated south of the border. Today you see. This is the problem with the american marxists on the one hand. They say they're trying. They're trying to lead poverty and crime. They need refugee status. They need to escape from their countries. And then when you say well you know. Their cultures are crap. Hey you must be a racist. No they're saying it by by their own mobility. They're leaving no no they're not. Why are they trying to come into the united states as refugees that has a very specific meaning refugee from what refugee from. What and then they brought in the definition to include poverty and crime. That's not what you're a refugee from your from totalitarian genocidal regime. That's a refugee but no we brought in the definition so on the one hand the joy reid the world tell us. Hey let's remember the united fruit company. The fruitcakes on the left. let's remember the united fruit company but today today our history it goes way back all history goes way back you idiot. All history goes way back you idiot but the united states to the amazing thing. All these people want to come to the united states. They're trying to leave these regimes in these countries. Trying to leave these regimes. Because they're no damn good to come to the united states. I get what does what kind of mine. What kind of sick unhinged insane mindset isn't where somebody like joy reid who's picked out of obscurity and has absolutely no talent in my view and has a very bigoted past become wealthy becomes well known among the morons one watch that network and they. What kind of person like this wakes up every day hating their own country and yet living in luxurious surroundings. There's an utter disconnect utter disconnect mineswee- lebron james. No the country in the face of the earth would a guy like this be worth a billion dollars. Well he's a great basketball player. Exactly that's my point because he's a great basketball player. He's confucius now. He's mahatma gandhi. He's moses. What did what did lebron say. What are the all he did. Yes oh my goodness well. Then that's very very important surrounded by the fruits of this society surrounded by luxury. And i've said it many times before and i want a hat tip to a great economist. Also citing several of my books george recent and i've commented on this. You go into a supermarket today. You have available things to you that no other society in human existence has ever had and no other society other than the american society has abundance for everyone and anyone at affordable prices wines from all over the world forty five thousand different kinds of beer different slices of meat different levels of fat and ground meat. Oh it's unbelievable you want to buy you wanna breast. You want to win all kinds of chicken. You wanna cook. You don't wanna cook. We got all kinds of lettuce in fact we let us. That hasn't even called lettuce apples. We got apples. I'd like the job apple. And i like the pink app. He can me three different color grapes. You want to mislead you want to without seeds. We got big oranges tangerines. We've got hybrids of tangerines orange. Oh look at that. You want bread. Yes how many grains do you want. What do you mean. Fourteen grains grain one grain. You want white bread. You want wheat bread. You want sour dough potato bread. What do you want. We got all kinds of bread and by the way we have a bakery you do. Oh yeah all kinds of baked goods home. I look at that. Then get the coffee. What coffee over there. Forty five different styles of coffee. What do you want my goodness. You go to the paper section mr producer. They have ten different types of toilet paper. Double plied trip apply single ply. What the extra big role little role. What do you want anything you want. It goes on and on and on on and on and on it's available to everybody not just royalty not just the rich everybody. Anybody can walk into that supermarket regardless of who you are. That's not true. In the vast majority of countries on the face of the earth. And i'm sick and tired of the american marxists the joy reed and the other miscreants malcontents who enjoy the fruits of capitalism. Enjoy the fruits of liberty. Enjoy the fruits of the history the greatest country in the face of the earth and then look for every reason to pick it scabs and undermine this country and they call it things. It is not an to call you things you are not. I'll be right back over two thousand of you. My listeners made the switch from overprice wireless carriers to pure talk over the past few months. We want the rest of you to join us in to see what we're talking about. If you're with eighteen t and verizon or t mobile your family could save over eight hundred dollars a year just by switching to pure talk you get great coverage you can keep your phone and your number and you'll save a fortune. Pure talk is the top rated wireless company by consumer affairs with the absolute best consumer service team based right here in america. Does that sound good. Well it gets better right now. Get unlimited talk text and six gigs of data. Just thirty dollars a month and if you go over on data they don't charge you for it. They don't care go to pure talk. Usa dot com enter promo code levin. Podcast again pure talk. Usa dot com promo code levin l. e. v. I n. podcast. And when you do you'll say fifty percents off your first month. That's pure talk. Usa dot com promo code levin. Podcast pure talk. Usa simply smarter wireless. The democrat party and it's Surrogate are also obsessively focused on something they invented a phrase the invented coal climate change just like black lives matter because everybody i think i hope police black lives matter all lives matter. And so they steal that that language in order to create what they hope is from a political perspective and immune organization throw. There's a black lives matter group. Oh great they're not the marxist anti-semites group and i don't know that the black lives matter grew okay the same thing with climate change climate change. Oh my goodness sounds so scary. Oh yes and you're causing it. Yes the meat you eat. Yes the cows are causing everything value is causing it. Everything you do is causing. We consume too much. You see on the one hand as he ran used to point out they attack capitalism for not creating enough wealth and opportunity in goods now the attack a because it creates too much whatever tool in the drawer works. That's all they care about. Climate change god the same morons behind. Can't be the lab. What are you conspiracy not the virus. It jumped from a back door human thing. That's the consensus among scientists. Don't look any further. You cook your denier. Say with climate change. It's a hustle. Even if it's changing tell you little secret. There's not a damn thing we can do about electric vehicles. What are the jetsons. People are nuts and yet. This is public policy and g the genocidal maniac in beijing. He's looking at this and smiling and putin the old soviet secret police piece thinks this is hilarious. All of our enemies. Think it's hilarious. Because they look john kerry and they see a big dumb guy. They look at joe biden. Joe biden is going to now meets world leaders and and he's going to make it abundantly clear to them no longer any confusion as a network so biden is in mildenhall england today and he tells them you know the greatest threat. You're facing ladies and gentlemen cut eight go. Must all commit to an ambitious climate action if we're going to prevent the worst impacts of climate change limiting global warning warming to no more than one point five degrees celsius not. So what does that mean. Mr president one point five degrees celsius. What is that. what does that mean. Go ahead grover global transition to clean energy technology. You know over the tank in the pentagon. When i i was elected vice president with president obama military saddest down to let us know what the greatest threats facing america were. Greatest physical threats. This is not a joke. You know what the joint chiefs told us. The greatest threat facing america was global. Warming biden is he such a serial liar. He doesn't even know when he's lying. Cosies pathological truly is. I'm the bandy x. lee of the microphone. He's a nutjob he's a liar. He doesn't remember what he says. Live from lyon. This is when he had his wits about him. And if that's the case then the joint chiefs should have been fired every damn one of them. We get real generals in their real admirals in there. Anyway go ahead because there'll be significant population movements fighter already. Are you idiot on the southern border having nothing to do with global warming but thinking policies you jerk and now we have john kerry do we have time or not but is john kerry with the economists today or as i like to call him. John d. student carry but still. He's getting those mashed potato and applesauce infusions in his face. His face is running down his chin. At all times cut nine go view. Something scum mechanism for pricing carbon will have to be part of a long term solution. Or do you think it is possible to have success to net zero without that omega volt. And that is the economist. Go ahead without that. But the question is whether you could move fast enough and whether it fast fast fast to kill the american economy ca- fast go ahead whether whatever we choose to do embraces all of the available best opportunities i am what does this idiot know about whether climate science anything. He knows absolutely nothing. He knows about as much as foul. She knew about this virus. Honest to god. I'm i'm serious. This is now. John kerry's idle. This is john kerry's false idol. This is what he worships. And now we're all required to worship and they're all laughing. The communist chinese are on the move russians. All of our enemies are on the move. We'll sign that parents peace. Whatever you want the paris climate. Call it whatever you want. Yeah joe yet yet. John wilson to dummies. That's friends in the senate. Can you imagine to dummies. But don't worry he knows all about it and you know it's our greatest threat ladies and gentlemen the communist chinese yes it is at your greatest threat and never forget that. Look over there over there. You know what. I'm being honest about this and being serious about this. I fear we're going to get into a big war. And i fear it's because of fools like this and we're not going to be ready because we will not build up our military thanks fools like elizabeth. Warren crackpots unhinged insane. I'll be right back. Have you noticed biden's giving putin and gee what they want. Here's the latest today. Biden has replaced former president. Trump's executive orders that sought to ban downloads of the chinese owned apps tiktok and we chat in the us in place of his predecessors orders biden directed an evidence based analysis of risk posed by software and apps designed and developed by foreign adversary including china. They may represent an undue unacceptable risk to the national security. The american people. The reason trump did this is because they already knew what china was doing through. These software packages buy is selling out our country. He talks tough and then he gives her enemies what they want. He selling out our country to hamas and the palestinian terrorists. He selling out our country to the islamic nazi terrorist regime in tehran. He selling out our country to the genocidal war machine. That is communist china. He selling out our country to the fascistic murder. Who is putin. He's selling out our country to country south of the border with open borders. This is what they mean by globalism. I guess selling out america. What do you think joy reid. Hey don't forget the united pineapple eight joy. How about we move up today. This is really quite a polling trump. Wanted a block new users from downloading the apps but the orders were blocked in court never took effect. Oh you gotta love our courts to you. Oh yes that is. We all know the real national security problem is mother nature mother nature. We gotta control mother nature. And you know how we're gonna control mother nature. We're gonna try electric cars. Where does electric never mind and the electrical grid. It's naked. it can be attack. Never mind never mind by now. It should be clear that the media are corrupt at endless entities within the federal government aren't corrupt and the politicians are corrupt and they're dragging us into their ideological theoretical. Hell which is why we must dig in our heels and fight this. There is no such thing scientifically as climate change. And what do i mean by that. Does the climate change. We'll find the climate change is we have no control over it what i meant to say manmade climate change. There is no such thing. These are frauds and fools who are pushing agendas the white dominant culture. It's pretty funny. This white dominant culture isn't it a white dominant culture. That's allowing so many people who aren't white into the country. That's an amazing thing. It's not that white dominant. After all barack obama noted it the other day. L'ordre start pap there just upset because the demography he's changing. The demography is changing. I guess because white people are allowing it to change since majority just listen to what they say and how they think steed dubuque iowa. Xm satellite go mark. Thanks for taking my call. Thanks for being a great patriot. I totally support what you're talking about your huge voice in our radio that we need. You've got all your books. My plan is read them this summer. So i can fight the fight that you're talking about having bought the new book yet but i'm going to okay thank you. You won't get to my point. Yeah you're welcome get to my point quickly I kind of caught the end of what you're talking about with joy reid and South america latin america You know plantations and the fruits and all that of stuff and it just occurred to me. Why is it not occurred to joy reid. That that's exactly what nike and lebron james are doing with china. Excellent not made any sense to excellent point and as a matter of fact back circling back to what she said did the history of these countries in south america begin as these countries in south america. No the indigenous people were brutalized. Is she aware of this. I don't know what the hell she's aware. But you make an excellent point modern day today some of her heroes. Some of her political People who she supports politically and who support her. I should say have no problem with the genocide going on in communist china and elsewhere. You are exactly right sir. In if i had any free government cheese left. I would give it to you. Thanks mark all right my friend. That's an excellent call. Had does a great point. All right. Look at this. The phone systems back are. Let us go to wait a minute. I wanna play. The allow. The fairfax county virginia teacher. Who went to the loudon county. Virginia school board and spoke to the parents in loudoun county. I want to get that before. I forget ladies and gentlemen so this is all happening. Virginia would never be happening. Virginia virginia was still a red say. And you notice. The blue states are depopulating joy. Reid point why are they populating. Why are people. Moving out of the blue stinks. Because they can't stand him anymore. That's why that's why they don't want to leave their homes. Isn't that the line but the refugees now they're refugees because of the crime and the poverty just like people wanna come into texas. They refugee we have american refugees. Who want to go from new york to florida. New jersey to florida american refugees who want to go from california to texas and california to that to tennessee. We have our own refugees based on the definition at the morons give. Where was i. Oh little it the that. Cnn is a teacher at loudon now. She's actually teacher at fairfax county. And she spoke at the loudon county school board meeting. I'm highlighting these events because we want to build on them and build on them in big way and these are very very courageous patriots and she got up there and she gave him an earful which is a great thing. that's go to cut twelve. Go air facts county public school teacher and i'm going to give a message of encouragement to parents and teachers and students who are too afraid to come and speak forward parents a longer that you wait and you don't hold your child. Schools accountable gives these guys more time to dictate. What's best for your child's physical mental and emotional health. Don't be afraid to speak out for your kids because they are voiceless and they and they rely on you you should be afraid of them rooting for socialism. By the time they get to middle school teachers. It may seem that our careers have come to a dead end. But i'm here to remind you we don't work for the school board. We work to mold the next generation of well rounded american patriots. So don't give up because it is up to us students. You're on the front lines of these indoctrination camps. Challenge the staff when you are presented with a ludicrous statement. And do not allow anybody to tell you that you cannot accomplish anything because of your skin color or to hate yourself because of your skin color students and it's up to you to be the next generation of victims or victorious and finally to the board. This isn't over and your policies or just as and your policies are just as pathetic is making us wear masks. She says at the end. And i want to thank the courageous teachers who are speaking out. You have free speech rights to these public forms. Not just the union boss thugs who are significantly behind all these policies. I wanna thank you know the courageous individual. Let's take another call. That's go to marry loudon county virginia. Speaking of the great w. m. a. l. go hi mark i'm calling. I am a very concerned. Mother of two teenage daughters and the loudon county public school system noticed. That poor. Just voted to make the superintendent. I give him a permanent job. So this report is rubbing it all in your faces in our faces and loudon county go ahead yes I'm calling because i have a seventh grader. This year my daughter and her friends One of them has come. Peds told my daughter recently becoming a boy she started started. The hormone shots all right. Wait a minute seventh grade. How old is that thirteen. Maybe even break the thrill twelve twelve years old. I got yeah since. I sent my daughter a picture. She hadn't heard from her in a while and she said actually. My name is no longer this girl name. It's this boy name So it she and she sent a picture of herself to my daughter softer and she is becoming a boy you know. We don't even allow people to vote when the thirteen years old. We don't allow them to drink. We don't allow them to smoke. We don't allow them do a lot of things but we allow this. Can we even wait till somebody's twenty one figure out what they wanna do. Thirteen years old seriously. Do people make their best decisions when they're thirteen years old shocking and these are who these girls whose hormones are shifting their confused and exactly. Now you're quite right. I have a whole section of this in the book. I can't get to all of it in one show or even on the radio but this is being pushed believe it or not by the united nations. It's being pushed by a lot of organizations. There's a lot of educational material And people being trained to promote this sort of stuff it's not just critical race. Theriot's what i call critical gender theory. They call it gender resume. And we're going to have to talk about that too. We can't ignore it anymore. All right. Mary loudon county. Virginia where i guess our property price of ours are going to go down mr producer. I'll be right back lovin over two thousand of you. My listeners made the switch from overprice wireless carriers to pure talk over the past few months. We want the rest of you to join us in to see what we're talking about. If you're with eighteen t and verizon or t mobile your family could save over eight hundred dollars a year just by switching to pure talk you get great coverage you can keep your phone and your number and you'll save a fortune. Pure talk is the top rated wireless company by consumer affairs with the absolute best consumer service team based right here in america. Does that sound good. Well it gets better right now. Get unlimited talk text and six gigs of data. Just thirty dollars a month and if you go over on data they don't charge you for it. They don't care go to pure talk. Usa dot com and enter promo code levin. Podcast again pure talk. Usa dot com promo code levin l. e. v. I n. podcast. And when you do you'll say fifty percents off your first month. That's pure talk. Usa dot com promo code levin. Podcast pure talk. Usa simply smarter wireless. Somebody disagrees with. Let's go to daniel. Houston texas sirius. Satellite daniel go right ahead sir. Hey mark i just wanted to Get an understanding of where you get all your information about global warming. It seems like there's a lot of evidence that it is then made. And then why don't you point to assist one piece of evidence one piece of there's a lot of evidence so it's must be swirling all over the place de plenty of research and studies which research in which scientists do you ever hear. Richard lindzen ever hear of robert carter. Have you patrick. Michaels ever hear of nine standard you ever heard of over nine thousand scientists and climatologists anybody knock sir sir. I asked you a question. Don't be a notches liberal. I asked you a simple question. Can you give me a name. Go ahead and give it. I would ask everybody out there to do their own research. Folks this is what we get. We get a guy like this who has no information whatsoever utterly unfamiliar with what i've been saying over the years. Have an extensive trapper on this and liberty and tyranny that we've discussed for years have an extensive chapter in the upcoming buccaneer and we. It seems like these scientists overwhelming. The sciences not overwhelming. That's why they have to keep changing the name of it because global cooling is an existing. It doesn't exist. Global warming baby some. Well let's call it climate change and let's blame everything on climate change the rising oceans that's the rising oceans have nothing to do with climate change. It's called gravity. it's called the moon. It's called the sun. It's not a damn thing we can do about it. But this guy's a believer. He can't help it. he's fanatic. Come can you give me exact. I'll give you a thousand names of scientists and climatologists there every yes and i would encourage you go on the internet and google and google it. It's the same type of experts. Were telling us over a campy the lab and wear a mask and don't wear a mask and do where who are their experts exactly. He can't give me a single name. Daniel i'll give you one more chance one name one study go. I'm asking all phone. You idiot asking all the listeners. Go ahead folks go on the internet. He's asking all the listeners to check it out. Check it out. I'm all for checking it out unlike. Chuck todd you know what we're not gonna have anybody on my program here at nbc news. Chuck todd with a fourth grade. Iq we're not going to have anybody on my show here who's a climate change denier. So that means any physicist and there are many any expert of any kind no matter their degrees no matter whether they're from mit or stanford or harvard. Not one of them is welcome on. Chuck todd show to challenge this issue. We have scientists who say there is no climate change happening in any significant way. We have climbed. We have scientists who say there is some warming but it doesn't matter it so miniscule we've scientists who say yeah. There's a little bit of warming man has nothing to do with it. We have scientists who say actually. It's getting a little cooler when you look at the broad spectrum over one hundred years or so and it goes on and on and on so there's a lot of scientists who say it's happening right so why is it that the politicians are out front pushing it. Why why is it that the ideologues are behind this. Daniel doesn't care doesn't matter. And i'm not gonna stand on my heels with guys like this. You know if you wanna go to the internet you can go to the internet. You wanna you know if you can go to google or or bang or duck duck or whatever you want to. You can do your own research. We'd only daniel the tell us that do it. And then like daniel. I can name scores of scientists from the top schools in the country. Who raise all kinds of different questions about this. He can't name one. What are the experts he relies on. I can even name some of the experts that they rely on. And tell you where they're wrong. Because that's what i do. I studied this stuff. Chuck todd can you know. He can't he can't even decide how to have his haircut. Be right back ladies and gentlemen this final hour. The podcast is sponsored exclusively by the association of mature american citizens. Now over two million conservative members. Strong amac believes and stands for the virus that we care about faith family and freedom. Thank you for listening. Please support man and you can become a member amac dot. Us slash join broadcasting from the underground command post deep in the bowels of a hidden bunker somewhere under the brick and steel of a nondescript building. We've once again made contact with our leader. Mark slow laura. America mark levin. Here we are going to take calls this hour. Eight seven seven three eight one. Three eight one one. Does anybody know who chalan young xeloda young. Anybody don't look it up columbia. She's the acting director. Did you know this. Don't she is xeloda young then. She's at a hearing today. And we've been using this term that our government compels us to us now birthing people that would apply to all of you women. I'm really quite frustrated. White media personalities and so called journalists. Keep calling joe biden. The first lady lady is out. It's the first birthing person. And i'm seriously we are to start mocking them. The first birthing person we have as vice president the first birthing person vice president. And what does this mean birthing person. Anyway what does this mean or representative. Jason smith asked this question at a budget hearing today. Hat tip c. Span cut seventeen go. The budget requests twenty six million dollars to reduce maternal mortality and eliminate race based disparities in outcomes among quote. Birthing people this is a shift from recent budgets which referred to maternal health issues as women's issues. I'm waiting for a hallmark and the rest of them. They have the birthing people cards. Aren't you mr producer ahead. Heard the term before. Can you explain what it means. Absolutely there are certain people who do not have gender identities that apply to female okay so there are certain people who do not have gender identities that apply to male and female would apply to. I don't know what else would apply to. I mean we. We can cock these stories climate change and yet we know. What of giant of penises. May i say. I think i'll say it. We know what they are. We don't have to play games about that do we. Apparently we do. There's people who simply do not identify with one or the other. Okay so let's change our words. Let's change our whole world because there's some people who don't identify that way. Okay great so everything has to change. Locker rooms bathrooms the language. This is the definition of insanity. It's a civil right now. We're told a civil rights if you don't agree you're a hater. You must be a white supremacist ahead. So we think our language needs to be more inclusive in how we deal. It's not inclusive. It's exclusive the way you talk about women and ladies it's disgusting birthing people burke thing people. I'm still trying to figure out what you call men mr producer. I guess we have to look at the six trillion dollar budget proposal. That biden put out there to find out. Now you birthing people out. There should be very upset that we don't have a new phrase for men. I mean here since the beginning of mankind and women kind and all kinds we had okay. You're a female. You're amount not anymore all of a sudden we've learned since by one hundred and forty days and all of a sudden we now not true. It's not inclusive inclusive but what people who wanna switch genders. People wanna do this. What does that hell is that if to do with anything. Fifty eight flavors more than baskin robbins has go ahead. Jus i think the underlying issues most important that your colleagues underwood and others working on is to try to ensure that those of color who are giving birth leave the hospital alive and that's the issue rather than ask you that question. We don't need lectures about leaving the hospital live. There's nothing you can do to improve that. We asked you a question. Go ahead the verbiage. The verbiage manners but the underlying issue is extremely verbiage matters. Because you're the one who changed the verbiage. And the verbiage i might add go ahead is working hard on this because all of those giving birth should have accesses same quality. Hell what do we call women who don't give birth. Can't call them by birthing person. What do you call them. See this is how you dehumanize this is how you dehumanize birthing person no it's it's a woman no it's a birthing person. Well the feminists out there all the radical feminists out there. Shouldn't they be marching and protesting peacefully of course with molotov cocktails. Shouldn't they be peacefully marching. I remember when they used to burn their bras when they weren't getting respect. But what's going on what's going on. You wanna be called breath and people. Now i have a mother or did and a wife. They're not birthing people and they wrap it around and self righteousness and this way you see. We're not offending anybody. You're offending me. What do you think about this woman in the suburbs. Y'all what excuse me birthing people in the suburbs. It's almost like a monty python. Skit isn't it mr producer. Go ahead is the administration official policy to relate replace the term woman with burning people. I think are official. Policy is to make sure when people get service from the government that they feel included. And we're trying to use inclusive language. Okay that's that's very cool of you. Yeah of course now. Will your budget fund the wuhan lob given its magnificent track record over there cut sixteen go a congressman point you back to the president's tasking of the intelligence community that's appropriate place To to look the source of Of of Covert in relation to the wuhan lap. So let me ask you this. Can you commit that. American dollars will never be used to fund such research going forward from this budget. Starting my career in. I h i would never you know. Oh another genius. H now the birthing person you know they. Republicans should insist these little name things when you sit and you testified ms this and ms that now we're ms. It should be birthing person whomever if it's a female mass female i think i will birthing person whomever or bp rather than miss it should be bp. Xeloda young people schollander young bring person so now all men are to look at women as birthing people not as women not as ladies not as human person people. That's it perfect people. Get ahead as someone who believes we need. Shut up already. I can't take this to be honest with you. I mean everywhere you turn. It's like it's like so bizarre. Is it not and these people are in charge. And they're getting their way in their imposing their will and they're trying to enshrine their they're perversive. I'll say a perverse attitudes and even their perverse phrases. So let's do away with mother's day because it's not inclusive. Let's do away with it. There should be no mother's day. Let's do away with july fourth. What's going to happen on july. Fourth is big dummy. Going to be on the south mall watching the fireworks running around in a superman costume talking about biden serious. Why are they celebrating. July fourth when they just told us july fourth isn't the person the nation juneteenth day is juneteenth jinping absolute insanity. I cannot believe that the vast majority american people by this. But then when you have joe biden going around trying to build up his base by saying everything. Republicans store racist. If you don't turn the country over to one party rule under the democrats you're racist. You're white supremacist. And it keeps saying it over and over and over the big lie. The repetition by the by the corrupt media. Same thing big lie repetition over and over again and has an effect. It has an effect a back. Lovin amac the association of mature. American citizens is one of the fastest growing organizations in america. Now over two million conservative members strong. And i'm one of them. A mac believes and stands up for the values that we constitutional conservatives care about more than talk amac fights a full-time presence in washington amac pushes back against reckless spending disasters like medicare for all and expanding reach of the federal government and beyond advocacy joining. A mac gives you access to a wealth of benefits and discounts including special member only rates on car insurance travel discounts cell phone plans and a hell of a lot more. And if that's not enough you'll get a max by monthly magazine full of inciteful articles on issues that matters to most of us we conservatives as i said i'm amac member and you should be to join today at amac dot. Us that's a. m. a. c. dot. Us stop supporting the liberal agenda that the other fifty plus organization has been pushing for join amac instead a. m. a. c. dot us. Listen we want to be inclusive. That's why we can't use the word woman or the word lady or the word girl of the word female we wanted to be inclusive. Specially with you white supremacists. That's right we want to be close if good lord wet insanity the way more good news and you can thank joe. Robin biden deutsche bank issues stark warning about rising inflation. This is from townhall. Lieber kuka's deutsche bank said the united states may be headed toward one of its worst periods of inflation in history and increased government spending and relaxed monetary policy warning that the belief inflation as transitory could have serious consequences for the economy. Look i'm banging pots and pans over this the reckless spending. We've never seen spending express. Not just an american history but world history. We've never seen spending like this. And the massive tax increases. Don't even come close to covering the spending. It is a. it's a facade but nonetheless. Those massive tax increases the highest in half a century for sure they're going to create economic dislocation. So you're going to stunt growth. You're going to stunt growth you're gonna use marxist class warfare rhetoric you're going to massively increase spending. These are the ingredients for destroying a financial system. These are the ingredients for destroying an economy. That may be blunt. These are the ingredients for destroying a currency. The report which was just released begins with a series of quotes contrasting. Ronald reagan's warning about how inflation is without joe biden janet yellen and others have justified acting. Big we're going to act big. I want you to think when the currency is devalued via inflation. What happens to your salary. What happens to your pension what happens to the money. Put aside for whatever. The reason what happens is reduced in value. A dollar is a dollar anymore. What are the other pressures. The other pressure price increases for the retailer and others. Those who produce those who sell the costs go up because you have inflation and this is the dragon that you don't wanna let out of the cave. This is what ronald reagan had slade. You have inflation which means the price for goods and services are increasing quickly. Get the value of the dollar is going down quickly. It is a horrendous tax on everybody so when this clown biden and the clowns who surround him say we're only going to tax the rich and redistribute wealth and do all those colty. He's a fraud he's an idiot. These people are stupid. Yes on birthing. People are stupid like biden so you have upward pressure on prices downward pressure on income because the currency becomes less valuable it becomes week so you need more dollars to buy something and your dollar in your pocket is worth less. I can't making any clear mr producer. That's why reagan went immediately after inflation and it was very painful. It was painful to eliminate inflation very painful but they did it and he had to do it but this makes the inflation that reagan had to confront forty years ago. This makes it look like a walk in the park. This is going to be a monumental disaster. He is a six trillion dollar budget proposal. And the military is flak by the way on top of his two point three trillion dollars on top of another two point some odd trillion dollars phony infrastructure bill economic dislocation the devaluation of the currency. It is a disaster. Go big go. Big mean so. The bank says the consequences of delay that is delaying dealing with this dealing with it. We're going in the wrong direction. We'll be greater disruption of economic and financial activity activity. That would be otherwise the case when the fed does finally act in turn this could create a significant recession and set off a chain of financial distress around the world particularly emerging markets so it can create inflation deflation. It created depression. These clowns think they're spending is has lifted up the economy. We have over nine million jobs. That are unfilled. People are getting paid for sitting home and buying says the jobs are unfilled but it has nothing to do with paying people to sit on. I told you sometimes you have a nitwit as vice president and sometimes you have a new president but you don't often have to nitwits except we did with obama by that's another one. We are witnessing. They say the most important shift in global macro policy since the reagan voter access. Forty years ago fiscal injections now off the charts at the same time the fed's modus operandi has shifted to tolerate higher inflation. That is they're interest rates. Low low low wall spending that is deficit. spending is going through the roof. The typical reaction from the monetary. The monetary should be. Well we have to raise interest rates. But they're not so what's going to happen at some point is gonna blow off. That's their point. They go on. This will continue to output moves about potential. This is why this time is different for inflation. The report says listen to this. The effects could be devastating particularly for the most vulnerable in society. Well maybe the most vulnerable in society is start voting republican in conclusion. The bank said the feds approach to inflation leads global economies sitting on a time bomb. This is deutsche bank not me when you have economic devastation. Economic dislocation when the value of the dollar is devalued significantly. You know what else you have ladies and gentlemen riots more riots more violence. They've laid the foundation already white supremacy critical race theory. Have something goes wrong. It's the result of a white dominant society picking on others people of color. They've got their whole race narrative set. They've got their whole you know. Get the rich class. Warfare said in other words. The american marxists are all poised and ready to jump. And i have to ask you a serious question. This isn't a mistake folks. this has been done purposely. This bank is telling them warning them and they're not. The only ones are serious. Economists all over the world who are not political hacks like those who right at the new york times or the washington post and the rest. They're warning them even obama's former economics. Chief jason furman ended up with three to four percent inflation this year. That's this year but it's going to be much much higher because we've never seen anything like this. You're gonna choke the goose and at the same time spend spend and spend while that is an economic and financial disaster and it is looming. Sorry i'll be right back. Amac the association of mature american citizens is one of the fastest growing organizations in america. Now over two million conservative members strong. And i'm one of them. A mac believes and stands up for the values that we constitutional conservatives care about more than talk amac fights a fulltime presence in washington amac pushes back against reckless spending disasters like medicare for all and expanding reach of the federal government and beyond advocacy joining. A mac gives you access to a wealth benefits and discounts including special member only rates on car insurance travel discounts cell phone plans and a hell of a lot more. And if that's not enough you'll get a max monthly magazine full of insightful articles on issues that matters to most of us we conservatives as i said i'm a name member and you should be to join today at amac dot. Us that's a. m. a. c. dot. Us stop supporting the liberal agenda that the other fifty plus organization has been pushing for joint aimak instead a. m. a. c. dot us folks just a reminder in a less than an hour nine twenty five pm eastern time. I will be on hannity on the fox news. I hope you'll check us out there and we always have a blast on we also. I believe you great patriots out. There preorder copies of american marxism. We may welby on a pace to having preorders all types that is hard cover book and audio one hundred and fifty thousand copies so i wanna encourage those of you who haven't jumped in with both feet. Come join us. Make a difference. We've got a lot to do. And it's to start in earnest. At least with the book on july thirteenth of we've been sorta doing peekaboo for the last few months up to this point and it's Seventeen and forty five cents right now on On amazon almost forty percent off. And you get your first edition. Copies has there will be future printings and nothing. I think would send a bigger message then having the biggest preorders in modern times. And then when you get the book you go through an airport. You're sitting on an airplane. You're sitting in a park and so forth proudly carry it with the title that can be read. We'll spread the word. Because you are the paul and hopefully. This book is a quick to a thomas paine pamphlet even though it's significantly longer but he wrote many pamphlets in my defense. I'm not saying. I'm thomas paine. Your paul revere our time right now. This is our time right now. I appreciate so much. Those who've jumped in and i just wanna encourage more of you to to to join us I want to issue a warning. I one issue a warrant deadly serious. I've never been more serious. Joe biden and the democrat party are creating conditions for war with china. But i don't blame the united states. I blame china. But here's what i mean by our failure under biden to immediately and significantly increase defense spending the communist chinese see their spending has reached record highs. They spend more on defense than all the countries in the surrounding asian area combined. Japan south korea. Whatever this peacetime and they're spending like its wartime for wartime. We are not. They're reckless on the domestic side. Reckless deficit spending combined with these low interest rates are going to drive inflation through the roof in poverty. Millions of people so these two things are where we are headed with. Joe biden. i. I really believe this may not happen. Next year. may not happen the year after that but he's dragging us down these two paths and so's party. I don't think there's any question about. Let us go to sherry raleigh north carolina. The great t.f sherry. Yell inquire very good guy there. Hi there a pleasure and privilege to speak with you. Thank you anyway When you're talking about renaming mother's Birthing person's super studying and Insulting the official position of the biden regime. It's so insulting to have my value as a woman and mother who can only woman can provide the role in term mother to a child and just beyond upsetting and it started as you know so so long ago i had mentioned to your call. Screener years go. When elton john and his partner were still together and whether they adopted or had a surrogate for their children out and john partner insisting that he be named mother on the child's birth certificate and back then however many years ago it was. It just engaged me. I'm like oh this is. This is actually a bridge much further than that right because this is all women are viewed as birthing. People and i thought the feminist movement was no. That's not how you look at a woman but doesn't it dehumanize isn't that it's sherry at dehumanizes women absolutely and now i am excluded like you were saying. This is the intention of being Increasing x. inclusion but now we the women the primary caregiver and best source of love and nurturing to child is being excluded from that because a moralities out the window and i don't have any copies of american marxism to get away right now. We will at some point. My won't more in twenty thirty forty. I'm but there's in there. I discussed at some length how this relates to the whole critical theory movement. It's not just critical race there. It's the critical theory movement and the theory behind. This is that. Americans christians in particular set up a society in which they defined morality. And of course you can throw in jews in there too but they they define morality and they define morality this binary relationship. And why should we comply with this original christian dominant society and their morality when people are doing other things. People want to do other things. And why are we confined to this. This is where it's coming from too so you know it's critical theory disgusting. It is disgusting. It is a war on tradition. It is a war on on on institutions. It is a war on faith. It's a war on really everything they even. That's in the declaration of independence all right sherri. Thank you for your call. Let's go to chris and that's gotta be fayetteville arkansas. Correct that's ak. xm satellite go mark. It's an honor to talk to you. I've been a listener for probably the better part of fourteen years what i discovered you on patriot and Just a honor and privilege to speak to my call tonight was because of the you know the millennial all liberal With the blind faith for climate science who called in and can't provide any evidence of why he has the opinion. He has a geologist I went to school to change a career as an adult so it was spared the indoctrination Because i knew it was coming for me. But there's no there's no credible evidence to show that climate change is manmade. it's all natural currents are in the middle of a twenty thousand year warming cycle And there's there's really nothing out there. The only thing that there is grant money and that grant money if you wanna be a grad student or you want to pursue your phd. You only get that in in the geosciences is if you told this line that they want you to tote and that's the manmade climate change And it's you know to me. That caller is indicative of the millennial generation who has no experience life experience and no real knowledge that automatically know everything because it's trending on twitter or they've read it in the first ten minutes on the google search. So you know you're so right. Dr patrick michael who was on life liberty and levin. He made your point in. You're making it extraordinarily well. Which is a lot of. This is pushed by government. Grants and collegiate grants that. If you wanna make money in this field you cannot take a contrary position. In fact you can't even be neutral on the subject and it's interesting you find the cheating in the lying and the misuse of the statistics Chris is on those who keep pushing the manmade climate. Change agenda whether it's these un outfits and we saw the emails whether it's one of those college organizations which we saw him britain and so forth. You don't find people who are really trying to get to the bottom of this and are having open mind if not skeptical playing with figures cheating anything like that. Do you know absolutely and and when you see these climate models these these people that take you know. Millions of pieces of data. They data mine. They put them into climate model. They're literally the same models that the doctors for cova were using and look at how off. They are in one year of their projections. And then they wanna try to do this sort of thing over one hundred year period when we're only using one hundred years worth of temperature data versus millions of years of rock core and drill core data from deeper that we know this is what it is. This is a normal thing like you say to simplify the tides of the moon. the sun. that's about as simple as you get. And that's really what it is but they don't want any of that and luckily i went to university as an adult Where we still had professors. Who were there from the seventies and eighties. Who would sit the students down and say listen. No need to panic about this. If we can make things better we can but this is not the end of the world. This is something that happens naturally and then you see. They say we have to harry. We have to act. We have to hurry. And what do they want us to do. They want us to kill the capitalist system. They want to kill our life sign and They're being taught this in school after school if the school is i pointed out in the book. This is the propaganda that you were able to avoid because you were an adult at the time but it has drummed into these kids and if you dare afterwards say you know what that's not right co look at google. Go look at google. What do you mean go look at google. How about you read some studies and read some books and read some research. Chris i wanna thank you very much for your outstanding call. We'll be right back Amac the association of mature american citizens is one of the fastest growing organizations in america. Now over two million conservative members strong. And i'm one of them. A mac believes in and stands up for the values that we constitutional conservatives care about more than talk amac fights a full-time presence in washington amac pushes back against reckless spending disastrous. Like medicare for all and expanding reach of the federal government and beyond advocacy joining. A mac gives you access to a wealth of benefits and discounts including special member only rates on car insurance travel discounts cell phone plans and a hell of a lot more. And if that's not enough you'll get amax bimonthly monthly magazine full of insightful articles on issues that matters to most of us we conservatives as i said i'm a name mc member and you should be to join today at amac dot. Us that's a. m. a. c. dot. Us stop supporting the liberal agenda that the other fifty plus organization has been pushing for join amac instead. Amac.us let's go to leslie phoenix arizona. Xm satellite go mark. Good evening how are you. Okay thank you go right ahead good. Hey i had a few good things happened today and we are so inundated with breathing. That's one good thing right there. Yes and also. I wanted to give you a little laugh. I decided i would tell you that there will not be using any explicatives when we speak explicatives. They'll find yes. Miss mala gay yesterday as you recall. How bundler flags where she. She said they were explicit. Twos on the side of the people's truck. Yes she did chair as you always say the new york times really weeks. That than that from their their Actually don't it's just tongue in cheek but anyway we can holding today. This report came out basically exonerating. Donald trump no completely. It said that he had nothing to do with tear-gas with the rubber bullets we clearing out. Lafayette park it was cleared out for these fences that the us park service and the secret service wanted to put in place and once they did it he walked through it but they said he had nothing to do with. Why exactly don't you think it's poetic justice biden. Get on the plane to england acts like a dork as he always does and this grave g. Wow this is a great day. This is like the equivalent of the five pm. Here's the problem with bride travelling overseas a meeting all these leaders. Now they're going to know what the rest of us know that he's a dim witted moron. I'm quite serious leslie. I have silenced. You my genius. Let's keep moving. Catherine fort worth texas the great. Wba quickly go. i'll get right to it. Okay the one thing out of everything. You've discussed the thing that it's driving me so insane. Marcus sleaze helped me with this. Okay is the way the people on on the fox news and you guys and i want you all listen to you all the way. Y'all just casually play it or let them say it over and over. And joe biden and kamala harris are Diligently trying to find the reason for the mass immigration at the bar. If i hear that am i the paul. Hello hello earth calling. I've said over and over again. They're doing it because they want to. Import democrats. Are you not listening to my show. I am every day at work. I'm sitting right here at work. Listening mr producer. Can you vouch for me. Well you must not be listening to me. You must be listening to somebody else. Well rick roberts before you and then you okay. Good man to. He knows what's cooking. I talked to all the time. But i just mean why nobody else standing up and screaming and a lot of people are standing up and screaming. I think you've made a mistake. I think you're actually watching cnn. By accident you see a lot of stupid people that cnn. I thank you for your call. I must be missing something. But it wouldn't be the first time sarah springfield missouri the show me state. The great chaos gif. I think you're gonna change that. Show me state stuff. It doesn't it doesn't ring right. Go ahead so. I actually work. They social worker. Not a typical republican. Probably but i see a lot. I don't know. I misjudged the clock. Sarah richie get serious phone number. Sarah i definitely want to talk to you. You were on hold ladies and gentlemen. We salute our armed forces. Police officers firefighters emergency personnel. I'll be on hannity and thirty minutes. Don't miss it. please get your copy of american marxism. I don't know what else to say. But god bless you and thank you for everything. See you tomorrow.

america united states park police hillsdale hillsdale college lafayette park us department of interior Donald trump president trump saint john's church biden Joe biden white house capitol hill new york tribune democrat party Lafayette park united fruit company Chuck schumer mark levin ledger David bernard
Biography of Che Guevera - Part 2

A Biography Podcast - Life Histories of Successful People

15:42 min | 8 months ago

Biography of Che Guevera - Part 2

"Hello listeners, welcome to part two of our podcast on Che Guevara. a short summary of last week's episode Che Guevara grew up in a family that went against Traditional Values unlike their neighbors, they were not religious moreover. They supported leftists in the Spanish Civil War. So Che Guevara my thoughts and early that going against the norm wasn't a mistake after all. Since his childhood Che Guevara suffered from severe attacks of asthma but he did not surrender to it instead. He performed strenuous physical activities. So from childhood, he was a hard-boiled fighter who wouldn't give up but due to his asthma he couldn't go to school regularly. So he stayed at home often and read a lot of books. His parents had collected after finishing his schooling Che Guevara wanted to become an engineer but looking at his grandmother died. He decided to become a doctor instead. So he joined a Medical College. While he was at College Che Guevara traveled a lot during one of these tours, he made through Latin America. He saw the atrocities committed by us companies against a local population this impacted him deeply and he decided to fight capitalism through violence after returning from the trip. He studied twelve to fourteen hours a day and quickly finished his studies. Then he started on another trip through Latin America to learn more about the governments and people there. Listen to the stories of men and women who transformed their lives using pure passion and she took it will to become the Pioneers in their field and change the course of history. This is with serious biography podcast the podcast that helps you learn the real truth about successful personalities subtract right now to get access to future episodes. Bolivia One year earlier in 1952 and National revolution had taken place in Bolivia civilians and minors armed by a political party had successfully made the army surrender the wrong option also led to agricultural reforms and the nationalization of some Industries. So eager to see the Revolutionary government inaction Ernesto and his friend Carlos Ferrar traveled to La Paz capital of Bolivia. However, during his time there Ernesto witnessed the atrocities committed by the US supervisors against local workers moreover. He was annoyed by the way, the Bolivian government treated Native Indians. So disappointed the two friends left for Peru. Peru when he was in Lima a city in Peru Ernesto heard about jacobo arbenz the president of Guatemala then the 1950s 70% of Guatemala's agricultural land was owned by only 2% of the population. So many Guatemalan citizens worked for us company, which was the largest landowner and employer in Guatemala. But after becoming president are being sought to end the foreign influence in the country and make it self-sufficient. So he passed a bill that redistributed uncultivated land from with landowners. The landowners were compensated with government bonds while the land taken from them was given to their agricultural labourers within two years of passing this bill almost one-sixth of Guatemala's population had received Land This Not only increased agricultural productivity, but also increased the sale of farm machinery as a result living conditions in Guatemala improved considerably and its dependence on foreign Nations decreased simultaneously. The United Fruit Company, which was owned by us capitalists was the largest landowner and employer in Guatemala. It owned almost four hundred sixty-seven thousand acres of uncultivated land. KO Urban's passed a bill in 1952 its profits nosedived. So our bands became the enemy of the United Fruit Company and important political figures in the USA who are linked to it there for United States government decided to overthrow arbenz. After listening to this story Ernesto Guevara wanted to find out what was going on and Guatemala moreover. He believed that he could better himself and become a true revolutionary in Guatemala. So he took out his plans of going to Venezuela and decided to go to Guatemala instead. Guatemala Ernesto and his friends reached the capital of Guatemala in December 1953 there Ernesto sought out Hildegard idea who came from Peru. She was politically well-connected and introduced Ernesto two high-ranking officials in the arbenz government. When he reached Guatemala, he didn't have sufficient money. So to support himself financially Ernesto tried to find a job in Guatemala. However, he couldn't get a job as a doctor because he was a foreigner annoyed at the bureaucracy and Guatemala. Ernesto did not know what to do. But held a gaddi a helped him financially by paying his rent and lending him books to read soon Hilda became Ernesto took up her friend and companion with whom he had intense political conversations. Then Guatemala Ernesto came into contact with Cuban Exiles of the moncada assault Ernesto had previously met two similar Cubans in Peru. He struck an instant friendship with them and learn about the twenty-six-year-old Fidel Castro who along with his 127 insurgents had attacked a military barracks in Mankato to overthrow the Cuban dictator fulgencio Batista, even though the exact failed and Fidel Castro was imprisoned their story impressed Ernesto and he came to like the Cubans who farted against Batista. So he connected with the Cuban Exiles in Guatemala instantly while talking with them Ernesto Guevara often used the word che che can be used to attract someone's attention similar to the words. Hey and Buddy in English. It is also used as a filler similar to the worse, right and so in English, however, it is predominantly used only in Argentina Bolivia who are guay Valencia and Paraguay, so the word was foreign to the Cubans whom he talked wage. Therefore since Ernesto used the word often. They nicknamed him Che thus Ernesto Guevara became Che Guevara. In nineteen fifty-four the USA began its covert efforts to topple. Jacobo arbenz as government in Guatemala as part of its operation pbsuccess. The CIA sent weapons to Guatemala in a sighted hundreds of mercenaries and Guatemalan refugees to take up arms against the government Che Guevara who like jacobo arbenz is reforms immediately offered to take up arms to defend is a government. He joined an armed militia, which was organized by communist youth but the group did not do anything. So he tried to gather young men to take up arms, but the Guatemalans were not willing to fight The Guatemalan military believed that the rebels were backed by the US government and a defeat was unavoidable. So even the Guatemalan military did not want to fight the rebels instead. They pressurized. Jacobo arbenz to resign there for arbenz resigned took Refugee in the Mexican embassy and asked all his foreign supporters to leave the country. After arbenz resigned a friend who worked in the Argentinian Embassy informed Che Guevara that the CIA was monitoring his actions. So he took Refugee in the Argentinian Embassy in Guatemala off several weeks later. He made his way to Mexico Che Guevara had always hated capitalism and thought that it was the cause of poverty. The US is interference and Guatemala hardened his anti-capitalist akande anti-American views further. He even concluded that Marxism achieved through an armed struggle was the only solution against imperialism and capitalism. Mexico Che Guevara reached Mexico by train in September 1950 for his first few months were difficult as he did not have much money with him. So he and a friend whom he met on the train bought a camera and offered to take pictures of strangers in Mexico City the capital of Mexico. They developed the photos by striking a deal with a photo laboratory. Then they delivered the lousy photos. They took wage by walking from one end of the city to another after struggling for several months like this Che Guevara found a job as a doctor for treating allergies. He also submitted research papers on allergies and gave lectures in the faculty of medicine at a university. So he was offered a grant by the hospital for his contribution to Medicine. Moreover he also worked as a freelance photographer for an agency there for his financial situation became better and he started to go on tours across Mexico. Once in the hospital where he was working, he encountered his Cuban friend whom he met and Guatemala. He introduced Che Guevara to Raul Castro. One of the members of the Mankato assault in Cuba Raul Castro, then introduced him to Fidel Castro his brother and leader of the moncada assault even though the exact date of their meeting is unknown. It would become one of history's most important meetings. From the moment. He met Fidel Castro Che Guevara was impressed by his ideas and optimism. He was also convinced that Fidel's goal of overthrowing the dictatorship in Cuba was a Cause worth fighting for years. So he immediately signed up as a member of Fidel Castro's revolutionaries. Alberto Beto was Cuban by birth, but he had worked in the Spanish military and later became a military trainer in Mexico. Alberto Beto is the one who trained Fidel Castro's revolutionaries on the practice of Guerrilla warfare initially Che Guevara had planned to be a medic in the group of Fidel Castro's revolutionaries, but in the guerrilla warfare training he underwent he came first on all the tests found became the best gorilla among all his comrades. Meanwhile, Hilda gatea became pregnant with Che guevara's child. So they got married in August. Nineteen fifty-five. Their first daughter was born in February 1956. The same year his daughter was born Che Guevara Fidel Castro and other Cubans were arrested while Gathering weapons the Mexican police also found evidence of a training camp from Fidel Castro's resume, so they were sent to prison for a month. After coming out of prison, they resumed Gathering weapons and prepared for an attack in Cuba after finishing their preparations. Finally. They decided to attack. So on the night of November twenty fifth nineteen fifty-six. They boarded an old yacht switched off all its lights and set sail to Cuba. Cuba Then the early 1950s Cuba was a prosperous country compared to many other Latin American countries. It was one of the five most developed countries in Latin America. Its GDP was almost equal of Italy at that time. Fulgencio Batista had served as the president of Cuba from 1940 to 1944 in 1952. He ran for election once again, but after realizing that he can't win. He staged a military coup canceled the elections and took over the government. The same year Fidel Castro who was a young lawyer at that time circulated a petition to dismiss Batista's government since it had illegitimately canceled the elections. However, the court ignored his legal challenges. So he and his brother gathered supporters and attacked the moncada barracks in nineteen fifty-three. Their aim was to take over the barracks and obtain the weapons stored within them. They would then distribute the weapons to the public and encourage them to fight against the Batista government. However, the attack failed and of the 160 Rebels many were killed or captured and executed Fidel Castro Castro were captured imprisoned and then exiled Fidel and rolled and went to Mexico where they gathered money weapons and supporters to attack once again, Meanwhile Batista had converted Cuba into a US puppet state the USA backed Batista with weapons due to his strong opposition to Communism and turn Bautista antagonized Cuban people to make the USA influential in Cuba indeed. The USA was so influential that the u.s. Ambassador became the second most important person in Cuba. By the late 1950s us companies owned ninety percent of the mines eighty percent of the public utilities 50% of the railways 40% of the sugar production and 25% of the time deposits in Cuba moreover Cuba's capital Havana became the center for American mafias run by US citizens of Italian descent gambling prostitution and drugs became commonplace in Havana. So in nineteen fifty-six by the time Fidel Castro's yacht landed in Cuba Batista was already hated by the Cubans. On December 2nd 1956 Fidel Castro and his revolutionaries along with Che Guevara landed on the southern coast of Cuba three days later. They were attacked by the planes and troops of sister who were alerted of their presence during this attack Che Guevara who was the head of the health services took a weapon left behind by a deserted comrade and started firing Che Guevara who until then God had only used knives in surgeries to save lives used a weapon for the first time in real Combat to end someone's life. This marked a turning point in his life of the eighty-two revolutionaries many were killed only twenty-two of the managed to escape into the nearby Sierra Maestra mountains Che guevara's group was split from Fidel and Raul Castro's group, but after a few days, they found each other and hit in the mountains. They lived Among The Peasants there and began their offensive against Batista's troops. In the mountains where they lived many people were illiterate and they did not even have access to necessary facilities like healthcare electricity Etc. So check of our is set up schools and health care clinics for the welfare of the people. He constructed ovens to bake bread and workshops to teach military tactics. He also established a newspaper in a radio station thus due to his contributions double-check Guevara came to be known as the brain of Fidel Castro after their initial setback Fidel Castro's revolutionaries started seeing success. They excelled at hitting Batista's troops and running away and hiding in the mountains before reinforcements arrived in the next two years that followed they went from success to success Che Guevara became instrumental in many of these victories off. So Fidel Castro who was impressed by Che Guevara his abilities made him the commander of the second Army. Thus Che Guevara became second-in-command of the revolutionaries. As a commander Che Guevara was very strict. He did not hesitate to shoot deserters and execute spies. But at the same time he entertained his comrades by telling them stories from books. She had read so he came to be loved by his subordinates by now Che Guevara had become a commander loved by his team-mates. But how did a commander loved by his team-mates become a revolutionary celebrated by people all over the world. How did a handful of trained revolutionaries win against thousands of armed soldiers of the Batista government find out in the next episode of our biography podcast.

Fidel Castro Che Guevara Che Guevara Fidel Castro Guatemala Guatemala Ernesto Cuba USA Che Guevara. fulgencio Batista Raul Castro Batista government Ernesto Mexico Latin America Jacobo arbenz president Bolivia Peru US government CIA asthma
Best of 2019 - The Football War

Brief History Podcast

14:59 min | 1 year ago

Best of 2019 - The Football War

"Nujoma based on truth and by that fund and he said that my sister a comeback conditioning. Your sister the old parents parents boys. They're all gone. T really blue sheet of is capable of doing something Jeremy. The humor seems glad ONA tell you what really happened that night that why has new drama White House femme watch now on TV hub. Welcome to the brief history. PODCAST my name is Andrew Not your host. This is the second episode of our brief history bite sites. It's the small episodes allows us then to produce more episodes on a regular basis as always reach out to us on social media. We're on twitter. INSTAGRAM and facebook as brief history. podcast come talk to us. Let us know what we're doing well and what you want to hear what you like about a previous episodes or if we're doing anything wrong please get in contact with up to hear from you and if I could please please please as anybody if you could end sixty seconds you time and release provide us with a five star review. Anyway listen to your podcast. It really helps the show. The more we get the wider. The audience becomes more listeners. This allows us then to attract bigger sponsorships. The show gets back to invest more in it and ultimately you guys is benefit as well as you get better episodes so if you could do that Tell your friends get them to listen. We're family to That that would be very very much. Appreciated anybody. Want any shouts outs All wanted to discuss the show. Let me know happy to do that. In future episodes so Reach reach out to us on social media. Thank you again. Harry Edmonson. He provides the music and the sound editing producing as well. I'm so today's episode. Is the football war. It was a war often. Refer to as the hundred hours war. It was a war fought between El Salvador and Honduras in one thousand nine hundred sixty nine exists. In tensions. Between the two countries coincide with righted. Join Jordan one thousand nine hundred seventy three for walker qualify the war. We can on the fourteen July sixty nine when a salvador military launch an attack against jurists. You're the Organization of American States negotiated a ceasefire the night of eighteen for July hence the hundreds of our war which took full effect on the twentieth of July lie. Salvadorian troops were joining early August. Well then the nickname football war implies that conflict was due to a football match. The causes the welcome deeper. The riots were issues over land reform in Honduras. An immigration demographic problems in our Salvador do on jurist is more than five times the size of neighboring of Salvador in one thousand nine hundred sixty nine the population salvador three point seven million with some. I'm forty percent higher than our Honduras. Two point six million. At the beginning of the Twentieth Century Twentieth Century Salvadorians Have Begun Migrate Into Honduras aureus in large numbers by nineteen. sixty-nine more than three hundred thousand Salvadorians we're living in Honduras. These Dorian made up twenty percent. The president trump population of Honduras in Honduras is a much of Central America. A large majority landlord was owned by large landowners us or big corporations. The United Fruit company attempts making it hard for the average Landau disc complete in one thousand nine hundred sixty sixty six united fruit bandits gave with many large companies to create laugh federation nationality. I to- CHEESE EGG gender on Thursday horrendous the National Federation of farmers in Livestock Farming Honduras it was anti peasantry as well as anti Salvadorian Dorian. This great put pressure on the hunt during president. General as what has already I know to prevent the property rights of they'll wealthy landover in nineteen sixty two hundred juris successfully enacted a new land reform law fully enforced by nine hundred and sixty fifty seven. This law gave the central government and modes passes much landa occupied illegally by our so virgins immigrants and redistribute beauty to native born Hondurans as specified by land reform law. The lamb was taken from above immigrant farmers and squatters regardless of that claims to the ownership or immigration status this crepe problem for Salvadorians and Hungarians were married thousands of Salvadorian and laborers were expelled from a jurist including both migrant workers and long-term settlers. This General Roy's intentions ultimately lead to military conflict conflict in June sixty nine on jurists and Salvador El Salvador in a two legged nine thousand nine hundred seventy fee for a World World Cup qualifier. There was fighting between plans at the first game in the Honduran capital of Tejeda wrapper on the June nine hundred and six six nine which Honduras win one nil. The second game on the fifteenth of June six nine in the Salvadorian capital San Salvador. which was what? Three nail by the El Salvador was followed by an even greater violence on the twenty seven for June sixty nine the day. The playoff match took place in Mexico. City Salvador's is off all diplomatic ties with endurance state. In in ten days since the game in El Salvador eleven thousand seven hundred Salvadoreans. It's been forced to flee Honduras it said the as hunters had done nothing to prevent murder oppression rape plundering and the mass expulsion of Salvadorians. There was little point in maintaining relations. It further claimed that the government juris had taken an effective measure to punish those crimes which constitute genocide. I saw it nor is it given assurances in Haitian or rap recreations for the damages caused by the Salvadorans El Salvador. Tall Wooden decided that game. Three two after extra time late in the afternoon a fourteen for July sixty nine the concerted military action began El Salvador was put on a blackout an Salvadorian Air Force using pasture airplanes with explosives. This is trump to their sides as bombers the tax targets inside Honduras Salvadorian air raid tugs included. Tom Kenington International Airport which left the Honduran Air Force able to react quickly. The larger Salvadoran Army large major fences along main roads connecting the two nations nations and invaded juris. The invasion phase were perpetuated by three main contingents. The color of Tinian go theater later the northeast and east to the Tango Theater was based on North side of our salvator including the palm of Santa Ana and Colloton go across the mountain range. Close to the border and Assam Powell River. This was a strategic region. JEETER's rich joyal soil and climate however this was not see any fighting as it was to deploy only in the case of Honduran penetration into into our Salvador northeaster was composed of a small unit of armored vehicles. The large amount of manpower. The East theater was deployed. Deploy Diplomas Union Morazan. This theater is composed of a large mechanized division in armored fighting vehicles. Such which is the m three Stuart and a large amount of artillery such one hundred or five male when a one oh one Nicaraguan direct dictator Hunter Seon Somoza. The Bali helped Honduras providing weapons and ammunition Shen initially rep progress made by the Salvadorian Army. We've been striking distance of the hunger hung jury and capital. The Mentor on the events did not last however the Hon. Jarring apples reacted by striking the Salvadorian base when German bombers attacked for the first time in the morning of the sixteenth for July when the bombs began to fall Salvadorian anti-aircraft artillery started not far Repealing some of the bombers the bombers had to attack that I can lose to where the main oil facilities are salvator always based on during Atar at ray targets also included Moina oil facilities such as the ones in custody by the evening evening sixteen for July huge pillars of smoke rise in rose in the salvator in coastline from the burn in or deposits that been bombed both sides point will vote to a redesigned aircraft or planes engagement. Where use of origin on the phone for July on Jury Air Force Concert Pilots Captain Fernando Soto and his wingman captain and Quavo Acosta engaged to Salvadorian T F fifty one D Cavalier Mustang? Two's which were attacking Never consider while strafing targets Soto entered a turn engagement when Mustang a blow off his left wing with a burst of twenty mail. A N M three cannon killing pilot pilot captain Douglas Rela warhead when his parachute did not fully deploy later that day. The past potted Soutar Victorian after one week nick. Goodyear Co says they jettisoned hard point stores before climbing made the dive in attack. Soto sent one concern on fire only to find finding wingman on his tail. An intense dogfight between them ended when Sato entered split. Ask giving him a pharmacy she she she used to shoot them cutting grew mirror rinaldo quotas. You died when his Co. sale exploded El Salvador contingent flight surviving in two thousand nine hundred. Seventy Five Honduras did not retire. Its fleet until nine thousand. Nine hundred seventy nine. The war was the last conflict which piston engined fighters there's four each over the Honduran Government Corden at the OAS to interview fair in that in the narran Salvadorian army would invade paid the capital away. ASS matting urgent session on eighteen. July Inc immediate ceasfire withdrew vow Salvador's forces for on jurist Chris L. Salvador resisted the pressure from the OAS. For several days demanded that her juris I greet to pay reparations for the tax on the Salvator in citizens and guarantee the safety of those Salvadorians remaining in Honduras. A ceasefire is rangers. On the night of the Eighteenth July it took for the effect on the twenty July. I'll salvador continued until the second of August to resist pressures. Rejoice troops then the combination of pressures that all Salvador to agree to redraw in the first days of August these persuasive pressures include the possibility Steve economic sanctions against our Salvador and the dispatch of a s observers to Honduras to oversee the security or Salvadorians begins remain in that country. The actual lasted just over four days to take more than a decade to Roy a final peace settlement. I'll Salvador finding we've Jewish troops on the second of August nineteen sixty on that date. Honduras guaranteed Salvadorian Victorian President Fidel scientists. That the Honduran government would provide adequate safety for the Salvadorian still living in Honduras. Sanchez attack. Reparations would be paid to the Salvadorian citizens as well but never accepted by Hondurans. These there were also also heavy pressures from OAS for the deliberate in Brook Repercussions. That would take place in our salvador. Continue to resist the withdrawing conjoined twins. There's there's a great deal more for you right now. At Bristol. Street marches forward. In fact. There's a choice. Great deals to make buying your next car easier than ever before. Choose from three in fact office as stunning selection of used cars with three months deferred payments. They'll get five hundred pounds towards your finance deposit or choose two years or twenty twenty four thousand miles free servicing your car your deal your choice. Bristo Street Motors Ford. In Cheltenham Gloucester and stroud or set up Trey online representative point nine percents. APR Decencies Apply Excludes Online purchases. were a credit broker nata lender and can introduce you to a select panel of lenders. Let's begin on night-time relaxation. You've never felt more. Feel your eyelids getting now. Let yourself late back and get a good night of a cold and Flu. Symptoms won't let you sleep Oscar night nurse it's unbeatable strength helps put cold and flu to bed. 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Honduras Salvador El Salvador Salvador El Salvador Salvadorians Salvador Chris L. Salvador El Salvador Salvadorans El Salvador Salvador Honduras Salvadorian Salvator president OAS Salvador Captain Fernando Soto football Salvadorians twitter
Part Three: How The Dulles Brothers Created The CIA And Destroyed Everything Else

Behind the Bastards

1:36:12 hr | 3 weeks ago

Part Three: How The Dulles Brothers Created The CIA And Destroyed Everything Else

"My name is jill lepore. I'm an american historian but over the last few years i've been troubled by some pretty big questions about the president. Why is it so hard for us to agree on what's true. Why does it feel so impossible to know anything anymore. So i started a podcast. The last archive to find answers to trace a history. Listen to the last archive on the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your podcasts. We're By the time we get to the third part of this i just have nothing. It's either screeching urges. What you got which is ship and i'm ashamed. But what are you gonna do. You're going to go to another podcast. Listen to fucking come down. No you're not you're gonna listen to the third part of the the dullest episode you worms brine shrimp. I'm sorry i don't know. I don't know what i'm doing here. My guest again for part three. Who is my guest in the episode. Not my guest in emotionally abusing. My audience for no reason is jason. Pardon part of it is. This is a big subject. I guess not just a a seventeen hour long marathon of podcast. It's a it's a big subject to try to explain to try to condense to try to convey and it's big like we're trying to explain why the world is the way it is now as the half century it's difficult to get across. It would be one thing like if you're doing a very long podcast on say the oj simpson trial which is one singular subject with a certain number of players this subject the dulles brothers and the cold war it's so expansive and there are so many side roads you could get off on the did as mentally taxing to even think about it. It's fucking exhausted And it's you know. I was just saying the like there's a there is a set of left wing conspiracy theories who think that i'm cia operative. And i'm sure those people Who sometimes listen to the podcast for reasons that that Escape may Will be like. Oh he didn't bring this up and it's because he doesn't want people if they didn't bring this up because he doesn't want people thinking about it. No it's because there's too much like we're barely going to talk about. Mk ultra which allen dulles masterminded and a lot of ways in which was the cia drugging thousands of random people with acid. We're not even going to really get into it today. 'cause there's just too much to cover we're gonna do a whole two-parter on m. k. Alter don't don't don't worry about that. There's a lot to talk about here but like there's just you can't if unless you're gonna be talking for fifty hours about the dollas brothers and what they did. You're going to leave shit out. It's just too big a subject and then there's the question of like how much time you vote to what they did. And how much time do you devote to the influence of what they did and how it shook out in history and the context of why they did what why. Why find this interesting myself as like what goes through the mind of something like that but for example one of the two brothers he is just now about to the head of the cia just trying to convey to the average person what all the cia does. Because it's not just a bunch of spies every country has got that. Yeah the sierra your alternately here like they seem to have their own army couple of can organize and can invade countries like well. Now wait a second. How does that tie into what we know about. Like a james bond type characters like the cia is more than what you think. It is the reason conspiracy. People can think that they've got their fingers in a podcast host as because there's almost no limit on what they can do as long as the president wants it done in which is where the last episode left office. Basically have this mission statement is like whatever whatever it takes. That's that's the end of the sentence. It's whatever part of like what the cia like. Why the like work the way it did as you have you. You have a bunch of different ways that you're going to be shutting money out to people and shot gunning arms out to people and you use you establish different agencies and all these different you have these little different rat lines through other government agencies that do other stuff too but that you are also able to shotgun money through or have operatives in because again there's no limit to what the cia can do if the president tells them to or if they're pretty sure the president would have told them to but they didn't want to bother him about its they just did it anyway which is also the cia does cool dudes john krasinski said. We should be thankful for them every day. Jason did you catch when john krasinski got to a twitter. Fight with cody over that. No i didn't oh yeah well. There's there was an account that kept really dragging. Cody for cody. Dragging john krasinski for about how great the cia is and people started to think that maybe it was john krasinski and then there's a thing you can do where you can see some of the letters in Somebody's email address. If you try to get their password on facebook and it seems to match with john krasinski. Email was a good time. We all had a fun week. with john. Krasinski and cody arguing. Cody johnston friend of the pod Anyway all right. Let's get into this episode so from the beginning. The more intelligent members of the federal government had their reservations about the cia. The united states has never before had an international intelligence agency outside of wartime. Let alone with purview as white as whatever. The president says Dean atchison president truman's foreign policy adviser in an eventual secretary of state expressed quote gravest forebodings about the cia when it was established he warned the president that quote neither he nor the national security council nor anyone else would be in a position to know what it was doing or to control it. Harry truman himself later wrote. It was not intended to be cloak and dagger outfit. It was intended merely as a center for keeping the president informed on what was going on in the world. Now it's debatable as to whether or not harry truman's being honest here right like did is. Was that really your intention or did you just see what happened in wanted to distance yourself from it. That can be argued. But if truman's goal from the beginning was for it to be very different than what it became. He didn't really fight hard to stop it from a changing six months after the cia creation communists in czechoslovakia carried out what is often referred to as a constitutional coup now. The history here is complex but in brief at the end of world war. Two the czech communist party was super-popular due to the fact that they fought against the nazis and the fact that the ussr had liberated czechoslovakia from the nazis. Communism was pretty popular at the end of the war The party grew from about fifty thousand members in nineteen forty-five to well over a million by nineteen forty eight. It swept the nineteen forty six elections winning thirty eight percent of the vote which is still the best ever performance of a european communist party in a free election. Now since czechoslovakia was a parliamentary democracy. The communist didn't take complete power because they'd one they just were like the dominant bloc and government you know that's how parliament's work but they quickly alienated voters and fractured the broad left wing alliance. They'd been a part of you know understandable reasons once you take power. You're never as popular as you are when you're trying to get it. It became clear that the next set of elections were going to go worse for the communists and so they used their control of the police in a network of trade union militias to seize total power. This set off alarm bells across the west and lead to a sort of paranoia that other european communist parties were just biding their time until they could carry out the same kind of so. The cia used this as an excuse to start pouring money into operations aimed at countering other european communist parties namely in italy and france in italy. They funded a christian nationalist party that was seen as pro. Us and the recruited catholic officials to preach against communism. They drowned the nation in a wave of propaganda. Allen does was not yet a regular employee of the cia but he took a leave of absence from his lawyering to kind of pro bono. Help or ca efforts in italy because again. He missed the fun of being a spy. Now the fact that allen dulles traveled to italy to help the cia did not go unnoticed again. He's a bad spy. The boston globe ran an article with the headline dulles masterminds new cold war plan under secret agents so really bad it being a secret agent. I just. I can't emphasize this enough kind. Of the way that james bond catch his catchphrases him telling people his name. Yeah if you're if you're famous spy that's bad yet. He was a famous spy. Yeah he was a famous spy which you shouldn't be so at this stage of things. The cia as aid in italy will aid is a weird that what this you know the the shit the as doing it. Italy was entirely focused around propaganda and providing funds to sympathetic. Politicians are mostly focused but even at this early stage allen and his colleagues were discussing the possibility of organizing mass violence as a way to achieve their ends. They reached out to several officers in the italian military. With the aim of organizing. Okudah todd if the communists one from a write up. By the wilson center quote they viewed the project as possessing an extremely grave implications carrying with it the probability of plunging italy into a bloody civil war and seriously hazarding the start of world war three but since the scheme represented a final though thorough. Desperate action to hold italy for the western bloc. They did not want to discard it and recommended immediate exploration so they decide like ok. Italy might go communist. We have to set up a network capable of carrying out a coup. If the communists win an election we have to get all these guys in the army to help to be willing to overthrow the government. Even though if that happens it might start world war three in life in human on earth the fact that it would stop italy from going. Communist is a worthy risk. Like that's the cost like we have them in writing making that cost benefit analysis base. Once you have an enemy the you've decided doesn't existential threat to everything. And as we mentioned last episode that became the habit of making sure we always had one of those. Yep you have a blank check to do absolutely anything in anything including exterminating life on earth. We were and are fully prepared to render the species extinct rather than let it continue on under communism. Yup if you sit back think about that. That's kind of weird. Yeah it's it's a little odd. Because like i'm not i'm not a state communist but i think life even with all the critiques have the. Ussr still better than death. Once that template was established after world war two it would always be so and we mentioned last episode that after nine eleven then like islam and the encroaching like the fear of you had you had small towns in america passing laws saying that they they could not be ruled by sharia law. Yeah yeah exactly. There's some small town in brassica. Afraid that it any day now. The muslims are going to come take over that small town it and because that's our only way we can think about problems yet. So if you have that in minded that at any moment islam is going to utterly take over the world and depose capitalism capitalism the most unkillable idea in the history of civilisation like an almost impossibly durable ideology. Yeah the once you sold. The idea that civilization and freedom and free markets and capitalism are utterly fragile and at any moment can be toppled by the next threat on the horizon whether it's communism whether it's to muslims one of the next thing is going to be and we must do anything anything anything morally justified in stopping it. You're doomed. You've set yourself down a dark road because there's no checks in that direction the moment anyone says. Hey you went too far. It's like oh so you're a secret commie. And that was that was the atmosphere. The dulles is established and would establish and that we'd lift under until now you can still scare. You can win. Elections today with the red scare. The people are still just as afraid of communism as they were which is bizarre like the idea. The donald trump could talk about encroaching marxism in america. It's like what power do marxist have in this country but it doesn't matter that fear run is now etched into our dna. And you can think the dauntless brothers that to a very large extent yeah you really can It's bleak It's i really. It would be nice to be able to have because it leads to this. It leads to this kind of same thing on the other end of things. Where because of this. The way that kind of these tensions around communism when i get ratcheted because that's the way we go when we talk about enemies in our culture right that it's existential you get it it's led to this complete death of nuance on all sides. So now if you're if you're on the far left you can't be like you can't analyze geopolitics by saying like okay. Well who's the right and who's in the wrong. There's a lot of people just be like well whoever's not the united states is in the right and that leads them to back but shara assad or whatever or or back russia or think that the that china is is this. Perfect embodiment of the socialism. They once it's it. All it infects everything. I guess the fact that everyone has to be at this level of every threat is an existential threat every threat ins and extermination. I think it just it. It has got. It's so deep into our culture that it affects everything and that's probably bad man. It's it's extremely important. Understand that mindset though because this is this is what will govern the way. They're going to do business for the rest of the time. They're in power the dulles around power which is about to start yet soon because everything we've discussed with these guys should have ruined their careers. Many times over they will both be rewarded by becoming to the most powerful people on earth. His we've laid out is going to get them elevated to as high as you can go without being president than i in ways more powerful than presidents some press. They vote served longer. Yeah so yeah definitely. They're both more powerful than jimmy. Carter was. I think we can all agree on that. Yeah so yeah. In france the cia intervene to crush a communist led strike of duck dockworkers in marseilles. They developed an ongoing relationship with several clans. of course it can gangsters who they hired and used to violently crush the labor movement In marseilles in nineteen forty seven and again in nineteen fifty. And i think this is kind of the first example of the cia basically bringing in a mercenary force to do violence against their political enemies. And it's i don't. I don't know that anyone dies. They might have happened. I have found a lot of detail on this. But this is kind of the very beginning. Now while allen dulles was helping his colleagues in the agency explore the boundaries of their new powers foster dulles was still a lawyer for sullivan and cromwell. He continued to dip his toes into politics growing deeper woven into the upper strata of the republican party as the nineteen fifties took off his attitude about international order started to shift before and during world war. Two's we talked about last episode. He believed the root of conflict was the failure of national leaders to cooperate right. That's why you know you wanna spread all this business around because it creates these these actions that can bring peace now. Foster's view shifted as the cold. War kicked off. He came to believe that all global instability had its roots in the action of a single nation. The soviet union now this was a period in which and i guess you can say. That's kind of consistent to his earlier view. Because the soviet union doesn't ostensibly except you know business interests and stuff so i don't know maybe that's how he justified in his head. This was a period though in which labor movements and anti colonial movements. Were taking off in africa in indochina and in latin america just to name a few places. foster viewed all of this as not the result of decades of oppression of poverty of exploitation but as the result of soviet meddling from the brothers quote he began reading and rereading problems of leninism. A collection of stalin's essays and speeches by one account. He owned six or more pencil marked copies and kept each in one of his workplaces. He considered it a blueprint for world conquest and came to believe that the october revolution had basically been the seed of an inevitable process. That if left unchecked would into the very existence of world capitalism now foster believed that soviet communism was doing to the west into the christian world. Would islam had done hundreds of years earlier and a lot of his writings. he would draw. Direct connection between what islam did during the time that stand of the muslim empires were expanding in the would we call the medieval period And he would draw a line between that and soviet communism which i find interesting because in the twenty first century a lot of conservatives drew back to kind of soviet Like the kind of the the way we talked about the soviet union to talk about the problems of radical. Islam is just interesting that foster recognized. I guess that connection to in away both because there there are both is. He sought threats to the christian western order. And if you want to see the perfect intersection thing. Watch the movie. Rambo three Yes like not a joke It's all in there so foster was willing to admit it's interesting to me that that fosters sees soviet communism as this kind of existential threat in a way that he didn't see nazism he was willing later on to admit. The nazis had committed terrible crimes. And even that those crimes had had their roots and ninety nazi ideology but he accepted. Nazism is essentially western communism. He thought was an ultimate evil and impossible to compromise with you can compromise with nazis. Foster believed you can't compromise with communists which is ironic in part because both the nazis and communists compromise with each other on a number of occasions. But that's beside the point now in his columns and speeches dose insisted that the united states was a struggle to the death with communism defeat would mean the end of humanity quote. We are the only great nation whose people have not been drained physically or spiritually it devolves upon us to give leadership and restoring principle as a guide to conduct. If we do not do that the world will not be worth living in indeed it probably will be a world in which human beings cannot live again. The victory of communism is the extermination of the human race. That's the only way this ends Yeah it's worth noting that foster dulles was not unopposed in his views. One man who argued against him was reinhold neighbor who he'd served within the just endurable peace commission after the war neiber warrant warned that the great danger to the west was not communism but the american ego writing quote if we should perish the ruthlessness of the faux would only be the secondary cause of the disaster. The primary cause would be that the strength of a great nation was directed by is too blind to see all the hazards of the struggle and the blindness would be induced not by some accident of nature or history but by hatred and vainglory which i think is accurate both in now like e you can say the same thing about our response to nine eleven and a lot of ways The danger is not what actual attacks the enemy carries out. It's about how our egos lead us to react to them. That's extremely key here because the entire purpose of doing this series and why it's relevant and why it's interesting lies in my opinion and that the reason the doses matter is because this ideology that everything stopping communism justifies anything and everything. That's what they brought to the world or helped cement and the world. Because that what that quote the you know you read off their about. That like surrendered surrendering to communism means extinction of the human race as if communism is they kanter. That's growing and the body of humanity. That sounds like the teen of an extremist crazy person at a rally that that would basically become the defacto american belief for the next half century. Everything about the way. We behaved everything that the cia did it. All comes back to that in the fact that that was so easy to abuse. Because once you've established that any pro labor movement is secretly communist you now have justification to to intervene anywhere. Labor rights spring up in the name of stamping out the seeds of communism because of that slippery slope fallacy. We're anywhere you have. Workers taking to the streets demanding better conditions are demanding. Whatever things that otherwise would seem distinctly american. You can now justify intervention in any in all sorts of underhand ways based on well. This is fighting cancer. This is fighting the the knife at the throat of humanity that is communism where there's some alternate reality where the capitalists simply says hey will out compete. Them will show them. The capitalism is better. We'll we'll lead by example we'll become so strong with our economy that we will prove the communism doesn't work but that is not the path they took nope and it's you know there's an interesting similarity to me when we talk about the way. The rhetoric works where it leads. People to something i see kind of in the. I'm i'm seeing increasingly become common on on both the kind of extremist libertarian and the extremist right wing with groups like the proud boys groups like the boo-boys where the the walk around the shirts that are that say shoot your local pedophile. And they're not their problem is not actually with pedophile. What they are doing is equating. Basically saying this this thing that comes up again and again and conspiratorial culture where all of your enemies are secretly pedophile. And the reason you would want to do that is because you can do anything to a pedophile. It's the ultimate evil. So i wear these shirts like harry. The signs that same opposing pedophile. And whoever i'm beating up is a pedophile right. Like that's that's it's this. It's the same. I know it's not the same kind of logic. But it's an extension of that logic of if the enemy is ultimate than all remedies are on the table. You know yet because there can be at that point any nuances weakness if any nuance and how you approach i you want nuance in how. You approach profiles. Well we know what you are is because they want to shut down any discussion of what they're doing and that lets you go as far as you want because if you can just tag your enemies as whatever this trump card this trump card of evil that you at this point. There's nothing that needs to be discussed. Look there will be people possibly who listen to this episode or these a series and say oh so you prefer a world and wished everyone's living under the flag of the soviet union or which these countries fall under is like. That's a child's thinking that that the foreign policy is black and white and this battle between good and evil. That's the stuff of blockbuster movies that's not how the real world works in. No it's not and but again it's so pervasive because you get this attitude on the other side of the people who know a lot of the stuff that we're saying about the dulles who had radicalize them but part of what they take out of it as well then everything i've heard bad about the soviet union must be ally and that's complicated by the fact that we did tell a lot of lies about the soviet union but that doesn't mean it was a good government for whether they like it didn't work out in the long run But you you get this. You can't i don't know there's there's no room for new wants If you decide one side is bad than whoever. They're in opposition to has to be good in your friends and it can't ever be complicated because again if it's complicated it's nuanced than for one thing the level the number of options you have in sort of confronting it are reduced and you don't get to necessarily feel great about know what you did or whatever but movies give you a black and white version of reality because it has a fantasy that that the pure morality where the the bad guys literally referred to themselves as the dark side. It's this fantasy that's not how it exists and so you can have people in the name of fighting something that is truly bad such as child predators and using that as justification to do unrelated terrible things and that doesn't make them heroes. It's the the world is messy like that. This is why it for those of you who've been listening to this whole series. The very first thing i asked was do you think the doses were true believers. Do you think they believed in what they were doing. That they were actually saving the world and the answer that is difficult to decipher even as individuals because the two brothers approached this from very different directions. We see the decisions they made and the and then the position they took later in. Life is very different where they started. Even in this case of two people it's hard to discern. Did they actually think they were fighting on good or were they just using it as cover to do things on behalf of their former clients from that offer. And it's also i think sometimes it's a mix of things I'll compare this. I'll compare this to some some of the kids in portland. Who do Do some of the rioting I think there are people who believe strongly that because of how bad these issues with policing are because of just capitalism is and because of how ineffective peaceful protest has seemed to be in their in their life the best thing they can do is to go out and cause damage right to to businesses to police infrastructure because that gets attention that brings people makes people care about the issue and that that accomplishes you know point to like the burning of the third precinct in minneapolis and the impact. That had on getting some variant of justice for george floyd And they're they're they're a and and that's logically and i believe that they do believe that when they go out and they light a fire some of those other people also during that you know from an apple store and i think that taking from the apple store not that i'm equating that morally with overthrowing governments but there's a mix of i believe in this thing but also here's an opportunity for me you know like can get a free thing to write like it's it's it's an opera. It's a mix of belief and opportunity. And i think you see that. I think you see that everybody right. And i think sometimes we try to find justifications for things that are are opportunities for us Win were also doing things we believe in. I think it kind of everybody does that. These guys are just doing it at a much bigger scale. But i didn't get as a mix of i believe or at least for foster i believe these things about the world. I believe in this struggle. I believe that the stakes are this. I oh but also i can help. This guy is paying me. I can help him out to while furthering the struggle. I do think it you know. It's a mix of things and you have factions within the government within the business community. They may have some other motivation for seen. A government overthrown may have been they may run into opposition and trying to build a factory there or a rubber factory or whatever and so then it's very easy to say. Well you know he's really friendly with communists or whatever. Same way as with the red scare in the united states if you had a beef with somebody and you wanted to get them rejected from the industry it was. You could drum up that well you know. He attended a meeting of communists last month. I can prove it and that even though you personally have no concern about communism or anything whatsoever it becomes a convenient opportunity to jump on board and use that as an excuse on all this stuff this is not off the subject. This is this is this is this is explaining. Yeah why. America was the way it was because you did have a combination of true believers but then you had a lot of people who saw opportunity to jump to jump in. Yes that is exactly what we're what we're going to be talking about all day. Today i take a take an outbreak though yet sophie. Why don't you take an outbreak I would love to. I would locate kaya. Go do it. Sophie robber oh right. We'll be back soon. Every day can bring changes challenges and opportunities that can also change your personal or business financial goals and priorities as a true partner. Sandy spring bank can make it a little bit easier. Someone who really listens understands and then create solutions in hard times and good times. Always drive to be your advocate today and every day. That's real banking for real life into real business visit sandy spring bank dot com slash really member. Fdic christmas night. Nineteen eighty at raf bent waters in airmen on patrol sees something descend from the sky and into the forest outside the base. There was like oranges. Readies hollering in the forest and white like three men entered the forest to what they think must be a plane crash. But it's not a plane crash. It's something very different off. This season on stranger rivals the rental trump forest incident one of the most famous ufo sightings in history sometimes described as britain's roswell really what more can you say barroso lousy lean said. There's an awful say about rental shon as being said find stranger rivals on the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you listen to your favorite shows and learn more grim in mild dot com. We're back so just took an ad break. It was lovely great time complain. I'm glad in april of nineteen forty eight. While the secretary of state was in bogota for a conference. One of colombia's elected leaders was assassinated this sparked riots and mass violence that killed thousands. And eventually this kind of we've talked about levay violin in columbia a couple of times on this podcast including during the protocols episodes this this kind of fed into that hundreds of thousands of people die by the time it was all over in short. What happened the assassination of this leader in columbia and the violence that followed. It was the result of a number of things growing conspiracies. You know we've talked about that. In the protocols episode violent rhetoric among the right wing the linger results of economic depression severe inequality a bunch of stuff contributed to the fact that left and right and columbia started massacring each other for years but american leaders pay had paid zero attention to colombian politics. None of them knew any of the history. None of them had paid attention to why this was happening. And so they just kind of assumed that the violence had come out of nowhere and foster dulles decided this meant that the violence was the fault of moscow that oh this seemed to come out of nowhere because i haven't been paying attention to columbia. It must be the soviets fault right. They're trying to stabilize our backyard. The seizure of power by czech communists in the violence in colombia were seen as proof that the soviet union was orchestrating a grand global plan to destroy the united states. A senate report later claimed. Us leaders were in a state of quote near hysteria by june of nineteen forty eight. So like they're actually freaked out about this right. This is not a bunch of cold calculating. You know capitalists plotting to destroy the so these are these are got a lot of people. A lot of the people who are necessary in order for the crimes. Were about to talk about to happen. Believe truly that like the. They're staring down the barrel of a soviet rifle so to speak that same month. June of nineteen forty eight. The national security council issued directive nfc tin slash to a secret or approved by president truman that increased the cia power. The directive stated that the ussr had launched a vicious campaign against the us and in return. The cia had to carry out propaganda economic warfare preventative direct action including sabotage anti-sabotage demolition and evacuation measures and subversion against hostile states including assistance to underground resistance movement guerillas and refugee liberation groups. These operations were to be quote so planned and executed that any. Us government responsibility for them is not evident to unauthorized persons. And that if uncovered the us government can plausibly disclaim. Any responsibility for them. Now the fact that this was being pushed at and had been done by. Truman caused an uproar actually sparked something of a civil war in the republican party. Between is the latest in internationalist conservatives and the dillas brothers are internationalist right because they think that the us should intervene internationally to protect capital That said during this big debate within the republican party they were mostly on the outside looking in. They still spent the vast majority of their time. Working for sullivan and cromwell allen dulles is not a cia employees. He's kind of contracting with them a few times but he's not a full-time employees and fosters still doing law stuff Foster did Help in the negotiations that led to the creation of nato Allan during this period mostly obsessed over trying to make the cia a bigger and bigger thing because again he really missed the fun shit he done during the war His quest was helped along in june of nineteen fifty when north korea invaded south korea. We now know that stalin in the ussr are were not behind this invasion and in fact a lot of folks within the soviet union didn't think it was a good idea at all it was it was it was really not there call. It was a thing that north korea decided to do but america. The americans assumed that this was part of this vast secret war. The soviets were carrying out that like everybody was happening in colombia would happen czechoslovakia north korea. These are all again. These are all like pieces on chessboard. That the soviets are playing In order to wipe out. Christian capitalists civilization the unexpectedness of the attack convinced mini that the united states needed to put more money and invest more power into the cia. So that future attacks wouldn't come as a surprise in autumn. The director of the cia hired alan for a six-week consultants contract at the end of the contract. He was offered the job of deputy director of operations. This gave allen dulles control over all covert operations carried out by the. Us overseas one of his first acts was to convince congress to approve one hundred million dollars for the cia to armed paramilitary groups exiled from various communist nations dulles agents across the world to launch attacks and foment rebellions. Many of these guys were caught immediately. Allen dollas actually sent thousands of people to death in the first couple years that he was had this position in the cia and he felt no guilt about any of this saying quote. At least we're getting experienced for the next war. Yeah that's kinda guy who gets this job. He doesn't see these people. As people now allen's first major success would come in nineteen fifty two when republican dwight eisenhower and democrat atalay. Stevenson fought over. Who would get to be the president. Alan well this was happening turned his eyes towards the lovely nation of guatemala. Then and now. Guatemala was a very poor country and the largest landowner was the united fruit company. A longtime client of selenium cromwell foster dulles had done work for them in the past. The devil's chessboard. Gives a pretty good overview of the situation guatemala by the late nineteen forties quote the giant company whose operations sprawled throughout the caribbean ran. Guatemala less like a banana republic than a banana colony united fruit not only owned huge plantations. But almost every mile of railroad track in the country the only major port and the telephone system in the capital rulers came and went at the whim of the company. Now one of these rulers was hey Biko who considered the peasants of guatemala to be beasts of burden fit only to labor for the rich under his reign in the early nineteen forties guatemalan farm workers were roped together like animals in delivered by the army to united fruit plantations where they were forced to work in debt. Slavery to the country to the company or to other landowners like this was like our bananas were made by slave labor. They were chaining men together to force them to pick fruit. Seventy percent of guatemala's land owned by two percent of the population and a number of folks in guatemala. Thought this was fucked up some of those folks members of the guatemalan communist party who started agitating and for reform. Now not only communists. Were doing this now. only communist. This was wrong one non-communist person who realized how fucked up the situation was was a guy named kobo armez. Now our best was again not a communist. He was actually a young rich kit. The son of a swiss immigrant father in a mixed race latina mother despite his wealth and privilege. His upbringing was rough due in part to his father's suicide as a young man armez joined the guatemalan army and became an officer. He married the daughter of an el salvadorian. Coffee plantation owner in nineteen. Thirty eight now his wife. Maria had been educated a catholic women's college in california. She had also grown up wealthy but she was uncomfortable with the fact that her father had gotten rich off. The backs of poor workers. Yukogo had been raised by an indigenous mayan nanny in his relationship with her made him sensitive to the plight of the indigenous people of quantum allah over the course of many long conversations yukogo and maria decided to become reformers and to try to make guatemala more equitable country. They opened their home to activists including a number of communists. This made them ostracized by the local aristocracy. Mo- maria later said. But what did we care. They were parasites like el salvador. I wanted to broaden my horizons. I hadn't come to guatemala. To be a socialite or pre play bridge or golf so spurred on by his wife you rbis injured politics and in nineteen forty four. He helped lead a coup that overthrew Biko in the years that followed guatemala transition to a full democracy in nineteen fifty decided to run for president on a campaign of agrarian reform. He was elected in june of nineteen fifty two. He succeeded in pushing through a massive land reform. Bill under the bill. A huge amount of private land was handed over to poor peasants including a significant amount of united fruit land. Now the communists would have considered this kind of a fucked up compromise right. He did not go nearly as far as a lot of people on the left one and this was actually a pretty moderate bill. One of the things he ensured was that the land he took from united fruit and other companies was only land. That was not under cultivation. So he basically said. I'm not gonna fuck with your ongoing financial operations but you own all this land that you're not doing anything with just to own it and i'm going to give that back to the people like that's what our beds does but of course. The elite in guatemala did not see his reform as a compromise necessary to build a healthier society. United fruit started crying. Foul paid propagandists in the united states. Put out a series of red baiting articles with titles like the front titans grip on guatemala. United fruit becomes victim of guatemala's awakening. Shortly after our business land reform bill passed the dictator of not nicaragua. Anestachio somato So mahsa visited dc and told the cia that if they gave him weapons he would quote. Clean up guatemala for you. In no time. Stephen kinzer goes onto write allen. Liked the idea with general smith's approval and by some accounts with indirect encouragement from the white house. He established a small team of cia operatives that conceived a plot aimed at setting off a coup in guatemala on the afternoon of october eighth. Cia officers presented this plot called operation fortune to their counterparts in the state department. Frank wizner said that the cia was seeking approval to provide certain hardware to a group of people planning violence against a certain government. Another officer asserted that the operation was necessary because a large american company must be protected state department officials at the meeting. According to one account hit the ceiling one of them. David bruce allen's old comrade told him that the state department disapproves of the entire ordeal so this is not immediately popular people. This is not something that everyone is like agrees is a good idea. There are folks in the state department who are like seems. Kinda fucked up to Overthrow the government of this country to help a fruit company. You know it's the kind of thing that you would almost think the voters should have a say in because you're you're wanting to you know. Once upon a time a long time ago only congress could declare war and when we went to war it was like an official thing rather than as became the policy later. We just kind of stumbled into conflicts. Where one day you'll just hear the we've launched cruise missiles at some country in your country and there was no it was never put to a vote or anything. It's just something we're doing. I sydney here right now. Can i tell you how many countries we are doing drone strikes in. I don't know that's just. We just take that for granted. Now that well somewhere. We're probably tina drone strike at a wedding somewhere. But it's probably you know to take out terrorists or something the beginning of this. We now consider kind of normal. Really as far as i know comes back here where it's like. Oh this government is turning red. Let's just sneak in under the table. And just knock it over. Not with an official declaration of war. We're not at war with guatemala. Like my would we be but this might drive up the prices of bananas or whatever so it's like all right And this became standard operating procedure. This is not only not to say about it because it. Because if you're looking at it like propaganda from the time would have like a picture of a map and the map is slowly alternative red as like the commies bleed out and take over one country after another after another after another and you heard how long it took robert to explain the complexities of what was actually going on there. And that was a very brief various. Yeah overview of an incredibly complicated situation and when you boil that down to. Oh this is just stopping the evil communists you have no concept of. What's actually going on like you are. It would be better for you to have never heard of the country then to boil down in your mind where it's like. Oh these people were soldiers of the soviet union and this is just another front in our war by that is an objectively insane way to look at it. Yeah it's great that that's just how everything worked for decades Yeah in part because like you know if they had framed it as like well. These people are taking land that are corporations owned but don't use so that they can live lives of slightly less Desperation That that that doesn't Sound as good as they're they're trying to destroy christendom And we have to stop them in guatemala. Or they'll be in pokipsy you know next week. Which is you know how. A lot of it was framed you. You don't have to be a crazy person with like with like news clippings and red yarn on your wall join connections to say wait a second. So the law firm that represented that freight company employed the future secretary of state and and Or director of cia. Like it's not you don't have to dig the find the connections. It's not a conspiracy theory. It's pretty out in the open. It was a company that they had done work on behalf of them and they were doing them a favor under the guise of stopping communism. Like it's not. This is not a conspiracy. The i realize it most of the time on the internet when people bring up the cia. It's accusing them of things that may be improbable or or hiding aliens. Whatever you have to understand the real things. The cia did. They were absolutely real. It's you don't need the fantasy it's you don't it's there's there's there's enough to fill a lifetime of work trying to understand the stuff that they absolutely did So as i said like allen dulles kind of brings to the state department this plan to assemble bunch of c. a. operatives and overthrow the government of guatemala and they get shot down but the state department. But that's in early. Nineteen fifty two now in november of that year. The election happens and dwight. D eisenhower wins. Truman had acted as depending on who you trust kind of restraining hand on the cia. He was cautious about them. He didn't let them do all the things that allen dulles wanted to do. Eisenhower had no desire to restrain the cia and of course in nineteen fifty three he made allen dulles head of the cia which was not a great call. Now as a lawyer for sullivan and cromwell allen had been the legal on voyage of the company to guatemala. He'd actually visited so often during his time with the company that he started taking his wife on trips with him and he did not like his wife. So that meant something. Eisenhower made foster dulles in the same year. Nineteen fifty-three his secretary of state. Now this was the result of years of politics and asking by foster which finally paid off now that a republican was in office again foster to had his contract connections in guatemala before world. War one foster dulles had visited the as a sullivan and cromwell lawyer. His job had been to monitor labor unrest in communist activity in guatemala Both brothers lobbied extensively for intervention against our beds and they were not alone. United fruit was well connected to the eisenhower administration. The under secretary of state. Walter beatles smith was a close friend of the president and he also happened to be applying for a high police position with united fruit after the coup. He was named the company's board of directors henry cabot lodge eisenhower's. Un ambassador had a number of family investments in the united fruit. John morris cabot in charge in charge of latin american affairs for the state department was the brother of united fruit's former. Ceo the husband of the president's personal secretary was the head of pr for united fruit. So this is not just a cia thing right. They are deeply embedded with the eisenhower administration. Now eisenhower's administration labeled guatemala a soviet beach head in the hemisphere though are again was not at all a communist secretary foster dulles declared that he was forcing a communist type reign of terror on the country. The us ambassador guatemala working under the direction tried to bribe rbis with two million dollars to cancel his land. Reforms are best said no so the ambassador threatened to have him murdered when that failed the dulles brothers decided there was nothing to do but overthrow him. They found an angry disgraced. Colonel named carlos armas who was working as a furniture salesman in honduras. They hired a bunch of mercenaries to be his revolutionary army and the cia provided him with weapons intelligence an air cover as he invaded guatemala. Cia pilots bombed the capital which panicked the population. Dozens of officers in our best as army were bribed to abandon their president in june of nineteen fifty four you. Cobo decided he could not hold out any longer. He fled the presidential palace sending out one last radio address in which he accused the united fruit company and its allies in quote. Us ruling circles of raining fire and death upon guatemala which they had done of course the cia Blocked the transmission from going out. Not gonna let nine yell at that guy get a last word at the. Our best family spent the rest of their lives fleeing from country to country never able to find comfort or happiness. One of you cobos daughters committed suicide in the former president himself was harried and tracked in harassed and threatened by the cia until the day he died like they didn't just overthrow him. They anytime someone said anything nice about him any time he was on the verge of like rebuilding some like they would go into like it was personal. They wanted to ruin this man's lie. They were trying to drive him to suicide to be honest like well as range. The he wasn't able to find a home in moscow since he was clearly an agent of the soviet union did live there for a while because they were willing to take him in but they didn't like him was a communist and he didn't like living there so he left I think he wound up in Somewhere in latin america eventually might have been cuba but he didn't have a lot of options because the us would threaten any country that offered to take him in so the only options he had was the soviet bloc which then fed. Us property look went running to russia because he loves communism. Well you threaten to mexico. If they let him live there. Were supposed to go well. Who's supposed to kill himself. Yep good shit. So delicious considered the overthrow of guatemala's democratically elected leader to be among his greatest accomplishments. Now the co operation had been code-named. Pb success and david talbot rights. Well about the celebration. That followed in dc quote when they filed into the east wing for their guatemala. Slide show the. Pb success team was at the height of its glory. The room was filled with the administration's top dignitaries including the president himself his cabinet the vice president afterward eisenhower ever the soldier asked dulles how many men he had lost. Just one dillas told him incredible exclaimed president but the real body count. Guatemala's started after the invasion when the cia backed regime of casteel must begin to clean. The nation of political undesirables labor organizers and peasants who had too eagerly embraced our bessis land reforms. It was the beginning of a soaked era that would transform guatemala into one of the twentieth century's most infamous killing fields the stainless coup as some of. Its cia engineers. Like to call. It would actually result in a tight of gore including assassinations rampant torture and executions death-squad mayhem and the massacres of entire villages. Bloodletting ran its course. Four decades later over two hundred and fifty thousand people had been killed in a nation whose total population was less than four million when the reign of terror began five percent of the population thereabouts. So that's good one of the two now when most people talking about the early days of cia coups they'll bring guatemala and iran Both stories have a number of similarities for one thing. Allen dulles also had business interests in iran in nineteen forty nine working for sullivan and cromwell delivered flown to tehran and negotiated lucrative deal with the shaw under the deal. A consortium of us engineering firms would be paid six hundred and fifty million dollars to modernize the nation. It was at the time the largest foreign development project in us history now the shot and dulles kept in contact during the same time. The royal ruler of iran was not popular developing left wing and communist movements. Were agitating for his overthrow. Which deeply worried. Both the british and the americans who had invested heavily in iran's oil industry in nineteen forty nine at a party hosted by alan for the council of foreign relations. The shah of iran promised my government and people are eager to welcome american capital to give all possible safeguards he promised not to nationalize the oil industry. Which is something that the communists wanted. And you can it similar to like what rbis was doing and guatemala. Right i w- their foreign powers have basically through working with corrupt leaders. They put in power. Bought access exclusive access to our resources for way too cheap. Want those things because this is our country so that's kind of what the left is agitating for in iran. We don't want the british to profit off our oil industry. That should be our money. It's our fucking oil. And obviously the shop promises to his friends in the cia and the foreign relations that will never happen but of course. The shah was unpopular not surprising in nineteen fifty. One he was forced to appoint a reformer mohammad masada as prime minister after the iranian parliament nominated masada by a vote of seventy nine to twelve. So this is a popular guy like. That's not a fucking close vote now. Masada had found any political party called the national front which was a pro democracy party. That was kind of centre-left again. Like this is kind of center left as opposed to being a radical the national while they were i mean the national front was kind of radical for iran at the time but not to the extent that the communists were the national front again. They were not communist. They wanted a democratic system. Then we're not state communist. They wanted a democratic system and the agitated in the streets for iranian independence from foreign economic domination. Now right around this time. There was also a shia religious fundamentalist party that had carried out. A wave of assassinations. Um and they were you know they were. They also all of these kind of groups. The shia the communists in the national front are anti. You know the foreign colonizers and broadly speaking anti the shah of but for different reasons And all of this kind of unrest means that iran very unstable in this period and the main reason why the shah appoints masada prime minister outside of the fact. That parliament told him to work because he was kind of afraid that not doing so would lead to a revolution. Masada immediately launched a series of sweeping social reforms unemployment compensation sick benefits for workers an end to forced labour for peasants and a land reform bill that forced landlords to give twenty percent of their revenues to tenants. Basically they had to put a chunk of the revenues they landlords into like public works projects. Soup go back to the people in nineteen fifty two masada nationalized the anglo iranian oil company. A british business that had inked to deal with the shot to control iranian oil until nineteen ninety-three. The british were furious but masada argued that iranians were rightful owners of their oil. The british responded by instituting in international oil blockade of iran. They actually sent in ships to blockade. The persian gulf so iran can't sell the oil that is iran's but you know again they would argue that what we bought access to it for until nineteen ninety-three so they have no right to take it from us. i guess it depends on how much you like the british This old cratered economy. Which led to massive domestic unrest but masada still remained broadly popular. The british appeal to the americans for help or depending on who you believe. The eisenhower administration was worried. That all the unrest would embolden the communists and lead them and lead to a revolution that would send their oil over to the soviets so the cia had been active in iran since nineteen forty eight. They were actually led there by teddy roosevelt son. Kermit so a big part of the story is a dude named kermit which i can't overemphasize now. The main thing the see i had been doing in iran was fighting the to de party which was iran's communist party and they had mostly been focused on setting up what they called a stay behind network. This is a group of militants who could act as an insurgency. The communists win power. The shah was doing this all over the place. They did this in europe like they were setting up. Stay behind networks in italy and stuff. There's this whole thing called operation gladio that will cover at some point in a separate episode but like this is the thing this is all over the damn world anywhere. There's a single leftist trying to run for political office. They're setting up networks of you know assassins and terrorists in case those people get too much power now. Britain was expelled entirely from iran in nineteen fifty to try to convince the us to overthrow the government by arguing. That like masada success with that. The communists were about to take over. Eisenhower was actually hesitant to believe them But the dullest brothers were of course very bullish on the idea. Cooler heads pointed out that none of the conservative politicians in iran had the popularity to replace masada and so if he was forced out the only popular alternatives would be shia. Hard liners which weren't any friendlier to the west. So at first the british were rebuffed. The eisenhower administration comes up with some very good reasons why they don't think overthrowing assad is going to be a good idea. Eisenhower suggested stabilizing the masada government with a one hundred million dollar loan to help them through the blockade period. Who's basically like well. okay navy. They have the right to to not let the english after oil. Let's give them cash that their doesn't collapse in the communist can't take power which seems like a pretty good solution to me actually But of course this is not what they do he was actually convinced in part by the dulles brothers not to do this and so instead he tried fruitlessly to negotiate with masada to allow the british to take back control of the oil company nationalized. Masada refused saying that. The history of his nation's leadership was filled with corrupt cowards. Who had bowed to western money in. He wasn't going to add to that. Legacy in march of nineteen fifty-three allen dulles attended a national security council meeting with seven pages of talking points in his hand aimed at convincing the rest of the eisenhower administration to overthrow. Masada from the devil's chessboard. Quote iran was confronted with a maturing revolutionary setup dulles warrant and if the country fell into communist hands sixty percent of the free world's oil would be controlled by moscow oil and gasoline would have to be rationed at home and us military operations. Would have to be curtailed in truth. The global crisis over iran was not cold war conflict but a struggle quote between imperialism and nationalism between first and third worlds between north and south between developed industrial economies in underdeveloped countries dependent on exporting raw materials. Doulos made masada out to be a stooge of the communists but he was far from it. So the the iranian communists again massat is kind of like our bez. he's not a communist in the communists. You know respect some of the things he's doing but they don't like him all that much. He was not friendly to moscow and the soviets actually didn't want to get involved in iran because they're not dumb they understand sixty percent of the free world have been about sixty percent of the us oil supply. That's a thing we'll go to war over like that's not a thing. Russia wanted to fuck with in this period of time but of course nobody in the eisenhower administration was listening to reason. Once the lowest brothers got their propaganda. Machine churning over the course of several weeks. Alan foster succeeded in convincing eisenhower. That iran was the next great battle of the cold war and that if he didn't move quickly it would become north korea but with the world's largest oil reserves in june of nineteen fifty-three alan dillas presented the cia plan to his brother. And a handful of other key policymakers the actual coup plot had been drawn up by kermit roosevelt. Who had already been a arming and organizing an anticommunist resistance in the country. The plot started with the assassination of numerous iranian military and political leaders loyal to masada one general was found ripped apart by a roadside outside of tehran. Others had their throats slit. Now we'll all this was going down Unrest was growing in iran. The shah was actually forced to flee the country because a large band of communist and democratic militants were roaming the streets tearing down statues of him and destroying royal property these militants were loyal to masada some of them were. Some of them were communist. It was both groups out in the street and both broadly on the same page as far as this goes but on august eighteenth the. Us ambassador sat down with the prime minister in claimed falsely that masada supporters had threatened. The us embassy. David talbot writes quote. He warned that if the prime minister did not restore order the united states would have to evacuate withdraw recognition of masada government. The gambit worked masada lost his nerve according to henderson and immediately ordered his police chief to clear the streets. It was the us diplomat later observed the old man's feeble mistake with masada supporters off the streets. The cia's hired thugs were free to take their place backed by rebellious elements of the military on the morning of august nineteenth as masada huddled in his home with his advisors tanks driven by pro shah military officers and street gangs whose pockets were literally stuff with cia. Cash converged on the prime minister's residence masada was of course overthrown and imprisoned the shah. Who had been shopping. In france with his wife was brought back to govern the country he was not popular and in order to keep him in power. The cia had to go to war with the iranian left wing massacring communists and pro democracy activists wherever they found them the chief focus of their violence was the tuta. The communist party and with cia has helped the shaw us train security forces track down four thousand two party members between nineteen fifty three and nineteen fifty seven. These guys were basically all tortured. They were whipped. They were beaten. Some of them had share smashed on their heads. They had their fingers broken A lot of them were subjected to something called copani. Which is a torture method. Where you're hung by hooks. At least eleven people died under torture. During this mostly from brain hemorrhages dozens more were executed And of course with the shah back in power iran's oil was denationalised but under the new arrangement. Forty percent of iran's oil profits went to us oil producers in dc. The overthrow of masada was hailed as a great success As had was the later. Overthrow of our beds. An internal report on the coup described the party they held after the coup as a day that should never have ended for it carried with it such a sense of excitement of satisfaction and of jubilation than it is doubtful whether any other can come up to it. Did sound like a good time. Everybody's having a good one you know what else will overthrow. The government of iran in order to gain access to its vast oil reserves. Don't know about that. But i mean probably at least one of them right. I mean statistically speaking statistically speaking one of our sponsors would happily overthrow the iranian government. So here's some ads. My name is jill. I'm an american historian but over the last few years i've been troubled by some pretty big questions about the president. Why is it so hard for us to agree on what's true. Why does it feel so impossible to know anything anymore. So i started a podcast. The last archive to find answers to trace a history. Listen to the last archive on the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your podcasts. Fm stories of things lost to time or just barely saved it kind of just fades away. Just sits around in people's houses forgotten pioneer early cinema. How did anybody ever do that. Well she started. In the beginning the fading soundtrack of danger planet sound of human advancement. It's everywhere the instrument that score the cultural revolution. Music was immediately central to these political struggles artists on the fringes musicians. That maybe didn't really have a fair shake the first time around and an ever-growing collection of one of a kind of coordinate new episodes of ephemeral are available now. Listening subscribe on the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you listen to your favorite shows and learn more at ephemeral dot show. We're back so the was of course eventually. Overthrown in nineteen seventy nine and part of why the current government that exists in iran was able to take power this this hard line shia fundamentalist regime was because the communist and left wing movements in iran had been utterly annihilated. Right like that's a big part of why the ayatollah are able to take power is that there's no other anti-government organized anti-government forces in iran because they've been massacred by the cia whereas the shia fundamentalist kind of been allowed to to grow. Can i jump in here just yet. it's i feel like for. The listeners are has to has to feel like whiplash at this point. Because it wasn't that long ago in the series we were describing. An american government was did not wanna get involved in world war one at all and really hesitated to get involved in world war. Two 'cause like oh well. That's that's europe's mess. Like what business do we have deciding whether or not hitler owns france. Or what is like you know as that's not a repes- like there was a sizeable faction of conservatives sane small government keep mind our own business. That's well small. Government is small government is not you build a military has to the entire globe and to go from that a decade later or so to looking at the mess you described in iran the tangled mass affections and things get into oil rights. And all of this and deciding. Oh no that's we've got to be part of that and having it spin out of control in exactly the way the isolationists that you cannot control what happens after that. This is not a video game. You're not playing risk or whatever where you can just flip a switch and decide this country's not going to be communist. You don't know what's going to happen after that just as you know we. We celebrated when the soviets lost in afghanistan and then not that many what fifteen years later you know the the bowl back from that arise on our like. You can't control what's going to happen. So everything the isolationists have been saying. Plays out here because you look at like how this direct directly led to the rise of radical islam in the region. And it's very frustrating to me. The you'll hear people say today while we should be in the middle east. Those people been fighting with each other for thousands of years. No they haven't These were specific decisions that were made by people in washington who had not been elected. These people have been appointed to their positions because they were born into the right family and worked for the right law firm and the reason the geopolitical map looks the way it does and twenty. Twenty one is because of the decisions that the role of domino's they started following over back then. Yup yeah and it always does piss me off when people talk about like well. It's always been a mess over the number one for a long time. They were the dominant power in the western world And for another thing like a lot of these countries didn't exist like wasn't a country until it was made a country by france and england like they just decided that looks like a good countries. They were carving up. Shit like yeah. It's much more. i think. Direct with shit like iran. Where it's like. well no. They had a government that had a pretty reasonable political movement. That was doing reasonable things to try to improve things for the people of iran and it was crushed and the reasonable people were murdered. So the people who took power when the cia backed government eventually failed were not reasonable km. We could also talk about how like a lot of why iran is so the government is so messed up as the horrible war. They had with iraq that was directly incited encouraged and funded by the united states who armed both sides. Yeah it's you don't have to if someone disagrees with us. You don't have to reboot with the sins of the regime. That was overthrown. Because that's not the point. You can't predict what's going to happen in a situation like this and when they had this party like well look how easy that was. You know you have a government that looks like it's lean in the wrong direction again. Lose oil rights in wall. Hey if you think about it. That's a national security issue because we don't have oil that whatever it's like okay the i if you go back to them and say let me show you what the next seventy years looks like because of this would. They have made a different decision. I don't know. I don't know if they cared the thought that that they boiled the world down into such a simple equation. It's like well as long as we blunt. The encroachment of the soviets here that's all that matters is a really because you know just because you repelled. The soviets that doesn't mean that that play suddenly becomes a franchise of the united states. Everybody has this view of like world war. Two were like well you you defeat germany and then you know. Germany becomes a modern industrial democracy. You know there are best friends now. It's like yeah. It's not that simple. It's really not and the people still thought. Like i heard that during the iraq war. It's like well you know once we get an american friendly regime in there and we bring democracy to them and they will think us and they'll have their fast food franchises and they'll have consumerism. It's like okay. Do you know what the different like. Ethnic groups are in the region. Do you understand that. The borders were drawn not by the iraqis but by people who didn't live there. I do understand any of that deer. Stand who the kurds are. Do you understand what there's so much that even the people who went to war didn't know or care about the like it to be. You know that. I think george w bush even toward the end of his like he never was totally clear that there were different factions of islam. Yeah hit each other like more than they hate us the insistence on having this black and white view of the world is so destructive. I swear to god you see it come up again in. These people have to know better again. Just you had to race through the situation in iran tried to explain it the like that is the most surface level. It still took a while to get through it. I think some of the people making decisions did not necessarily have even that level of a grasp of. Because i don't think they would have been as enthused about sticking their their hands into it if they did. 'cause i if you if you would look at us the there's no way this ends well. Yep 'cause you're not gonna be able to babysit that situation unless you just occupy the country but we don't do that because we're the good guys know we We do the good guy thing. Which is overthrowing the democratically elected government. And then when a much worse government takes power In saber rattling about their dangers Which also has the effect of breaking some people's brains and making them defend the iranian government. Because clearly if it's it all it's just this this incredibly frustrating feedback loop where everything just is always accelerating into less and less reasonable and more and more dangerous things. I dunno jays. This is why. I admire the rare person i run across. Who says oh. I don't understand all that stuff is to condensing. It's like actually your more correct. Yes then the almost the person on twitter who thinks and two hundred eighty characters in a snarky broken. You can summarize like what we should be doing over. There shouldn't be doing there. 'cause it's like man i that's the attitude that got us into this situation. The it's it's like. Wow these people are bad and so we'll we'll just kick them over and then leave and they're all sort itself out no nope so yeah jason You know that's most of what we're going to cover in terms of the cis fucker in this period. I mean there's so much. Over the following years allen dulles ac- i would create the republic of south vietnam almost out of whole cloth which was pretty horrible government And they did it in order to challenge the north The attempted to carry out a coup in indonesia which failed in nineteen sixty allen dollas helped to mastermind the assassination of patrice lumumba. A socialist president of the congo prior to lumumba's killing dulles wrote quote if lumber continues to be in power. There's so we'll be at best. Chaos in at worst eventual seizure of power by the communists with disastrous consequences for the prestige of the un and the interests of the free world. His dismissal must therefore be an urgent and priority objective now the numbers assassination led to a horrible violent war The presidency of joseph mobutu a brutal dictator who robbed the nation blind and left it in like what is still to this day. A perpetual state of multi civil war. There's just in the congo has been torn apart ever since and obviously live that blame goes onto the belgians to but is just farcical that that that dulles ever thought that like oh if lumumba gets in power then we'll have chaos in the congo like nobody and again. I don't know if you were to tell him what had happened if he would have changed his actions. I don't think so I just don't now allen doha's retired in nineteen sixty one. I think foster had been out for a while at that. But i mean there's only secretary of state for four years or so away i think in pass by nineteen fifty nine something like that. Am i wrong about. This was foster. Yeah i thought he. I thought he left office. Might fifty nine for health reasons. Yeah nine hundred fifty nine and he was in so when he died That's where we have dulles. Airport is a guy named after him. And i think it was actually jfk who Who inaugurated dulles airport given ice speech about you know all the wonderful things that that foster dulles had done for the country it was not named after allen dulles there was a statue of foster dulles that used to be in dulles airport that is now has been moved out of the public part of the airport in his now just kind of like sitting awkwardly in a conference room because about ten or so years later people started to get embarrassed with foster delicious legacy which you don't hear about these guys anymore you know But yeah it it. It happened pretty quickly like these people went from being in the news constantly too by the time they were both out of politics in nineteen sixty one fading really fast from popular memory. Considering how influential they were assemble. That i think some of it's probably that people started to feel ashamed of what they done but i think more of it was probably it wasn't in anybody's best interest to help people remember like i think everyone listening this heard about the bay of pigs In school didn't don't know the name allen dulles sale you don't remember it yeah like all of these things that were just part of the cold war and help shape everything about the policy and all those different parts of the world. that's that was the douglas's all of it either entirely or partly it's baffling how much they did. And the highlight. That is by how much we're leaving out. We're not talking about the bay of pigs. Which was allen. Dulles is baby. We're not talking about the fact that after world war two. He was given the job of building a new german intelligence agency. Combat the soviets and he hired general reinhardt. Gaylon hitler's former head of intelligence galen played a huge role in the holocaust but dole is in the cia kind of hand wave that And allowed him to hire other members of the shopco to work with the cia in west. Germany there were complaints within the cia about all of the nazis. They were having to work with one of the guys who got brought in to work with the cia was conrad fi. Big who worked at the through gaylon was later charged with murdering eleven thousand jews in belarus. During the war there was a memo we have about this guy wherein one c. i. Employee suggested might be smart to drop such types from employment like and dulles gets asked about this guy does is asked about gaylon in general the british because the british unhappy with the fact that we keep hiring all these nazis and dulles gets asked about like gaylon and all the nazis desire again dulles responses. I don't know if he's a rascal. Rascal was not the allegation. The type of memos some of you in the listenership have gotten about inappropriate term that they would like you to stop using an e mails or something like that. They got that memo about well. Maybe we should not hire ex-nazis And there's like well. Are you sure thing that dude who killed eleven fasted people. Yeah he's problematic or you wear these problematic cancel. Culture comes for the s now. One of the things is funny is so he says he gets asked about gailani says. I don't know if he's a rascal. There are a few archbishops espionage. Besides one needn't ask him to once club which is funny because alan dollas absolutely invited reinhard gala to his club on numerous occasions he actually hosted parties for the nazi spy chief at the chevy chase club whenever he would visit. Dc shit. it's just good shit now. Galeone's big influence on allen. Dulles was the fact that galen was the guy who believes that everything was justified in combating the communist threat He wrote at one point in an agent which war is the paramount. Activity of man of the total annihilation of the enemy. Is its primary aim which is a very fascist thing to say and something. Both of the doha's brothers got on board with they were instrumental in pushing a policy on the. Us government called massive retaliation. John foster dole is actually laid out this idea in a speech to the cfr when he insisted the us would protect its allies quote through the deterrent of massive retaliatory power. I'm going to quote from a write up in history dot com here. Dollas began his speech by examining the communist strategy that he concluded has had as its goal. The bankruptcy of the united states over extension of its military power both strategically and economically. The secretary explained it was unwise to permanently commit. Us land forces in asia to support permanently other countries or to become permanently committed to military expenditure so vast they lead to lead to practical bankruptcy instead he believed a new policy of getting maximum protection at a terrible cost should be developed. Although dollas did not directly refer to nuclear weapons. It was clear that the new policy was describing would depend upon the massive retaliatory power of such weapons which is interesting because a moral level. What he is saying here is. It's too expensive to go to war all the times. We would need to go to war to counter the soviets. You know what's cheap is a fucking nuke skid shit and we could talk a lot about massive retaliation and how that idea played a big role in the escalation of the us commitment to vietnam in nixon's bombing of campaign But we're running way too long as it is to buy acknowledging m. k. ultra Which is the part of. Doha's legacy that i think people are probably most familiar with this as the cia giving everybody lsd. The idea behind this was that allen dulles had become convinced that the soviets were carrying out mind control research and we needed to do mind control research to counter them. Even though we actually had information that they weren't really doing all that much But th- that was beside the point allen dollas wanted thousands of people to be dosed without lusty. And that's exactly what happened. We'll do a whole two-parter on this someday. For right now. I wanna talk about the aspect of it. That had the biggest that says the most about allen. Human being wishes is the fact that he subjected his son to some aspects of the ko tra- program so his kid allen dulles junior or sunny was a brilliant young man with an incredible academic record in a sharp mind his mom and his sisters all adored him. but alan doha's senior was kind of incapable of taking any pride in his son and this kind of pushed his son to try to impress him and in order to do this. Sunny joined the marine corps. He fought with incredible courage and career and won commendations for reckless bravery under fire until he was hit by a north korean shell in nineteen forty fifty. Two and his brain was permanently damaged when he came home. Sunny was unable to take care of himself. Therapy did not seem to help. He would get lost easily. He would launch into angry rants where he called his father. A hitler lover and a nazi collaborator. His family dubbed these paranoid even though they were pretty accurate in desperation allen dulles cintas son to dr harold wolff who worked on the m. k. Ultra program we know something of what was done to sunny. Thanks to his sister. Joan visited during this period from the devil's chessboard. Quote joan has disturbing memories of visiting her brother at newark hospital where. He was subjected to excruciating. Insulin shock therapy. One of the experimental procedures employed on the cia as human guinea pigs used primarily for the treatment of schizophrenia. Insulin doses were meant to jolt jolt patients out of their madness. The procedure resulted in coma and sometimes violent convulsions. The most severe risks included death and brain damage. The one study at the time claim that this mental impairment was actually beneficial because it reduced paste patients tension and hostility joan recalls that. Her brother kept begging her when she visited him. Can't you do something for me. i'm going mad. He showed no improvement from his treatment. and of course obviously He wouldn't Is just seems to have done horrible damage. Eventually he just started like stopped talking to his parents in stopped like he just decided like i have to. Just pretend that. I'm fine that they will stop torturing me this way I dunno it's that's that's allen fucking dulles you know i mean. Of course he would like that's how he solves his problems. And i don't know if you you're about to cover this. But now he was fired after the bay of pigs cracked then effectively forced him to resign. But yeah so. I began the series by talking about my i like exposure dim in the realm of like cia conspiracy. Stuff was in oliver stone. Jfk movie yeah because after kennedy fired dulles and then exactly two years later or so Kennedy would be assassinated right nine hundred six november twenty seconds. Something like that. And then when they would form the warren commission to try to find out who had assassinated jfk allen dulles winds upon the commission share was who jikei had fired doing for his his behind the scenes Cia stuff in the form of the bay of pigs. So if you're wondering why like conspiracy theories and stuff persist and why they have like there's enough truth for them to go on to keep them fueled it's stuff like this like the. That's that's shady as can be it would seem to to my Innocent is yeah. It's incredibly shade. It's one of those reasons. Where when i'm talking about conspiracy theories i don't put the jfk assassination in the same realm as you know hollow earth stuff. 'cause there's reasons to have questions about what went down. You know not that. I'm a magic bullet or whatever like i. I'm not i have no. I'm not convinced on that. But i it. Certainly there's sketchy as shit that went down. It would be weird if people weren't theorizing about reasons why that might have happened. I wanna end jason. 'cause we mostly talked about the dulles brothers in the kind of men they were how they came about and how that led them into what they did and how that led to the creation of the cia. I also wanna quote a passage from the brothers by stephen kinzer that lays out kind of the talent allen cultivated. Because he was he headed the cia during its formative years. This talks about the kind of people he recruited. And i think this is the note that i wanna in dawn quote. All were gregarious intrigued by possibilities. Liked to do things had three bright ideas. A day shared the optimism stock market plungers and were convinced that every problem had its handle and at the cia should find a way to reach it. The intelligence historian thomas powers has written they also tended to be white anglo saxon patricians from old families with old money at least at the beginning and they somehow inherited traditional british attitudes towards the colored races of the world. The pook saheeb arrogance of the indian rosh but the mixed fascination and condescension of men like t e lawrence who were enthusiastic partisans of the alien cultures into which they dipped for a time and rarely doubted their ability to help until it was too late. These were the best men who formed the core of the early cia most came from privileged backgrounds that isolated them from ordinary life and had gone to the right schools during the war they had traded gentile lives for death defying adventures upon returning home. They found the quiet routines of peace. Unfulfilling yep it is hard to overstate the power of boredom and when certain wealthy people can decide for example. What i think it would be funny. If i ran for president sometimes sometimes people just want to find something to do and decide. You know what i think that the uncivilized races need me to come rescue them. Yeah i it is it is fitting that all of the people who kind of form the background of the early c. i. r. dulles types. They are rich kids from the aristocracy. Who go to private schools. Have an exciting time in the war and come home board. And also i think with that kind of ego that they know what's best for the world that has to be a factor and then you've got people like alan doss who i fully believe. A big chunk of his motivation is that nothing gets you laid when you're a spy and you you overestimate the impact of boredom or getting late or his ability to build a say. Well you know that revolution just happened. That was me i was. I barely escaped with my life. Like i had. Yeah that the guys assassinated. I killed him myself with the poison dart from my wristwatch. Why don't we talk about this. I can't tell the story here in the restaurant but if we come up to my room. Where's to on me. I can tell you the story and privacy with you and your twin sister the three of us you know you do a great allen dulles so yeah there you go everybody i. These are two names. Everyone should know these are names. When when we say i have shorthand like top the mccarthyism or whatever names dulles should be among those that everybody knows as shorthand and they're no. Yeah so if we have helped some people know these names and know what hand they had in shaping the mess that is a role today their ego. We've done a service. Yes that's all we ever tried to do service. And if you don't know the names of the modern versions of the douglas's yes john krasinski. Google john krasinski Jason you got anything do Plug up yes look out and say yes since. I abandoned The online publishing industry last year and left my job at craft time author a new york times bestselling author of several increasingly stupid books Last one was called zoe punches. Future and the deck. It has booked to in a series. You do not have to have read the first one it as good of a place to start as any or you can go to amazon or if you have a more ethical place you buy your book from you can browse any of them by looking at my name Otherwise i also have social media all the social media's except tiktok are you on tiktok evans No no i. I am frightened and confused by anything that the kids like sophie. Take on the handful of tiktok videos. That i've seen segments of on twitter. Have convinced me that we need to do a reverse logan's run i love tiktok. I'm just not like posting on there. It's a great time. I've learned so many helpful tips unlike organization and like what products to buy that actually work. It's like it's like yelp but video. Well you can either do what sophie lot of puppies puppies guy's gonna say it again. Reverse logan's run. I said in a previous episode like it's easy for us to look back on the past and condemn how casual they were about nazis in various i think in the future. They'll look back at how we tolerated tiktok And they'll say the same. It's like how could they not see where that was going. Yeah how could they not tell that. Tiktok would lead to the of the dolphins and twenty twenty two. And i saw it coming but thanks for having me on this was this was a lot of information that try to get through very quickly left out so much. We many stories that could have. You're going to do an entire sears. On multi part series on. Npl tra is also going to wind up leaving out a lot a lot. A lot of wild shit. It's just the nature of it. It's the best thing podcast can do. Is encourage people to go out and buy gaps on the subject and and pursue them because you. You're not informed because you listen to nine hours podcast on it. I like there was a lot to get through there so much more and it fall just as interesting. It really is and If you want to learn more buying the brothers. Which is where i recommend. Starting stephen kinzer and the devil's chessboard. By david talbot with will that that will actually give you a pretty solid base of understand these guys what they did they will still be a lot for All right here comes. The break is the groundbreaking. Podcasts sparking real conversations about creativity mental health pope and music asante black stars as rubin in a fictional narrative featuring real interviews with emerging artists. None of us. Would you give the families and parents supporting teenager to wants to pursue the arts if you see their dedicated and you see that. They really mean it in their grade. They're do event. Listen to here comes the break on the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Four wherever you get your podcasts join. Grammy nominated rapper and author. Propaganda used his hood knowledge to break down the political scene in his podcast could politics because after all politics is just gang banging nice suits if you're a senator. You're down ballot. You're looking at this election. And you're seeing what. I'm trying to tell y'all which is the comes. I listened to the hood politics. Podcast on the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your podcast.

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