19 Episode results for "Union army"
PODCAST 111: The Union Army of the Potomac Before Gettysburg
"Welcome to the tales of american history. The witnessing history education foundation podcast educating americans to understand the history of their country and of other countries so that they will appreciate the value of america's unique free institutions. It's good to be back. After the shutdown due to the pandemic i think mr neil kesterson and dynamics studios for making their studios available to us all this time. We're happy to be back. I'm your host genevieve brown and we will be speaking with the foundation. President can't masterson brown author of a forthcoming book media at gettysburg. A study in command. The new book is a companion volume to can't spoke retreat from gettysburg lee logistics and the pennsylvania campeign published in two thousand and five. But i let us remind you to an american hero who participates in our mission by joining us at witnessing history dot org the website of the witnessing history education foundation click on the make a gift button to make a tax deductible donation to the foundation. Read our monthly newsletter on our website to keep up to date on our latest film projects view for free the foundations documentary films both on the website and on the foundations youtube platform view. Also the foundations free teacher education materials that conform to grade level education standards at pbs. Learning dot org. Now let's take a journey back through time with kent masterson brown as we discuss the first twenty one months of the existence of the army of the potomac leading up to the battle of gettysburg. Welcome kent thank you. It's great to be here. It is good to great well. So let's talk about the union army before the battle of gettysburg. Let's talk about what it looked like. And what it did it's the army of the potomac is what we're talking about and The army of the potomac was the union army. That was assembled a beginning in august eighteen. Sixty one and A union army had just suffered a defeat at the hands of confederate troops. At what is called the first battle of bull run on july twenty one. Eighteen sixty one and that battle is not only a defeat but it was a humiliating defeat When you think about it As the two armies were about to engage the The union army then was called the army of northeastern virginia and it was commanded. By major general urban mcdowell and as they moved toward bull run They were. They confronted a confederate force that was commanded by general joseph e johnston and An army an army called the army of the potomac that was commanded by general p g t beauregard and To make it simple the battle did not go well for the union army from the start ultimately they were not only defeated in the field but there they were routed and the route turned into a panic and all along the hills on either side of this engagement worse spectators from washington with picnic. Baskets going out to watch this thing and of course in the middle of this humiliating defeat. Not only did the army go into panic and retreat back toward washington but all the spectators did to of here you are. i mean. Nearly three thousand union casualties are on the field The army has been routed and humiliated and his running back toward washington. And this is abraham lincoln's baptism of fire. This is the first thing that happens to one of his armies in the american civil war. Well after that humiliating defeat. To abraham lincoln let general mcdowell go reassigned him and named major general george brinton mcclellan as commander of what was left of that army and mcclellan brought. What was left of that army and other regiments coming into washington into an army that he called the army of the potomac. Okay and On november first eighteen sixty one mcclellan was named not only not only. Was he commander that army but he was actually named commander in chief of all united states. Army's after the retirement of general winfield scott so here you have the army of the potomac To give you an idea of the size of the army of the potomac get. Roughly at this stage of his life was probably about sixty thousand troops divided up into various army corps. it had supporting it and pulling it upwards to fifty to sixty thousand horses and mules and It was an enormous force but its purpose was to protect the capital and to hopefully defeat the confederate enemy in virginia And so if you're looking at any of the great battles in virginia during the civil war Particularly the war from eighteen sixty one until eighteen. Sixty four You're looking at the army of the potomac most exclusively not quite but almost and in eighteen sixty four. Now you get other armies active in virginia but the army the potomac continues all the way to appa matic's so this army put together in the fall of eighteen sixty one and it goes all the way until apple mathematics in eighteen. Sixty five okay. That's a that's a great overview would like to talk a little bit about your forthcoming book. We're so excited about this Your new book is called mead at gettysburg. A study in command. And it's coming out in early june of twenty twenty one so it's publication. Imprint is imminent now Let's talk about the focus of your book. What happened with the army of the potomac from the beginning of the war until meade took command and at and right before the battle of gettysburg. The book of course is about general. Meade george gordon meade and It is a a book that addresses meads generalship How he commanded the army. He became commander the army and how he commanded it both at the battle of gettysburg and during his pursuit of lee's army after the battle of gettysburg But to look at with. George made becomes commander which is on june twenty eight eighteen. Sixty three This poor army from the time of its creation in the fall of eighteen sixty one until george. Meade becomes commander on june twenty eight. Eighteen sixty three had not won one battle in virginia against his enemy. Sell for the first twenty one months of its existence. It's going from battle to battle and never winning novick. This enormous well supplied well. Equipped army backed by the united states. That's right okay. that's right. It was defeated In every single engagement Or it was simply confounded If not defeated another is unable to do what it had set out to do. And 'cause to withdraw who was who was their enemy in the early battles before gettysburg and was generally the commander of that army or or. Tell us a little bit about the other side. Okay well after the first battle of bull. Run General as i stated general mcclellan was named commander of the army of the potomac and he became commanders as said in the fall of sixty one and it was not until april of eighteen. Sixty two that. Mcclellan did anything with this army to try to move it against its enemy. Was he training training. Training training organize. It gives a great organizer question about that. The question is can this guy actually lead this army in in a tactical setting against an enemy. Well what happened. was that george. Mcclellan planned an operation. That would take that army not by land but by sea from washington all the way down to four monroe at the bottom of the virginia peninsula between the york and the james rivers he would get up to fort monroe disembark this army and all of its horses and mules and artillery p. All that and then drive from fort. Monroe north i to your town where the first heavy defenses would be found because the confederate army was watching this And as they saw the ships moving down toward the toward the peninsula they began to erect fortifications to defend the capital And the purpose of it was for mclellan's army to drive north through all those defenses and get to richmond which was the capital of the confederacy. Can't try to seize who is commanding the confederate army when they built all the fortifications at yorktown general. Joseph e johnston this aim commander who was commanding confederate forces at the first battle of bull. Run He was now in command of the confederate armies on the peninsula and he erected fortifications that yorktown outside a williamsburg. Lot of us. Lot of the folks listening to this have been to those sites. And then all the way back toward richmond which were which was heavily fortified and so the advance got down there on the second of april and he began. Mcclellan began the movement of his army up the peninsula on april four. He easily broke through the defenses at yorktown and he got all the way up to about fifteen to twenty miles south of richmond. Where joseph e. Johnston confronted him in a pitched engagement. That has been known since as the battle of fair oaks or seven pines and in that battle joseph e johnston on the thirty first of may eighteen. Sixty two was badly wounded and taken from the field. After that fighting though mclellan's army was stalled it it it could not drive any farther Its supply base was on the york river At a place called white house and It was simply stalled on the other side. President jefferson davis president of the confederacy named general robert e lee to take over command and lee took over command of that army on june first eighteen. Sixty two up to this point in time. He had been an advisor to the president. Okay so now. Mcclellan is gonna face robert ely and what robert e lee does i is. He calls for an army to join him in the shenandoah valley. This army is commanded by a fellow named thomas. Jonathan jackson who had gotten the nickname stonewall in the battle first battle of bull run stonewall jackson believe it or not in the spring of eighteen. Sixty two had nominally defeated one army in the shenandoah valley but four four different union armies were defeated by this man and his and his troops. It's spectacular by this moment in eighteen. Sixty two by the time. Lee calls him to join the lease army And so stonewall. Jackson begins the movement of his army toward the peninsula from the shenandoah valley. Lee however has his plans pretty well made out. This guy has an aggressive general. He plans to begin. A series of attacks lee is a very offensive minded commander. He notes that george. Mcclellan appears to be his base of supply from white house on the york river to harrison's landing on the james river moving across the peninsula And as he's trying to move all his supplies across that peninsula lee scribes as lee strikes him. The first time stonewall jackson's army is near okay. it gets there From june twenty fifth until july one approximately seven days Lee strikes him at what places called beaver dam creek. Ganesha's mill savage's station glendale and finally malvern hill and mcclellan is literally forced with his back against the james river at lee makes his last strike at him at malvern hill on the first of july eighteen sixty two. The attack is defeated. Is it fails. But nevertheless mcclellan has suffered so much That his own war department demands that he brings his army back to washington which he does he evacuated the peninsula. So here they've suffered the defeated. I met at first bull run And now the grand invasion of the of the peninsula. Hope hopefully to take richmond has been stopped and mcclellan has been to has been forced to withdraw army off the peninsula and take it back to washington so by mid july. The poor army of the potomac is now on transport trying to get back to washington. This incredible that's really an unbelievable tales. It's incredible and of course it goes on from there What happens after they get back to washington. They reassembled regroup. Okay and in the meantime. Another union army has been put together This one commanded by a major general john. Pope who's been brought in from the western theater fighting in missouri and and The the trans mississippi and western tennessee pope puts an army together just outside of washington and mission that He has told the lincoln administration it would be would be to take army down alongside the tracks of the orange and alexandria railroad. It goes from alexandria. Virginia orange virginia orange courthouse. Then to culpepper Follows that that route into the heart of virginia and his purpose in Forming this and moving in that direction was that he was hoping to draw lee's army elements of lee's army away from the peninsula to helm. Mcclellan However mccullum was finally told come back to washington. Nevertheless john pope move toward the center of virginia. He soon learned that Robert e lee was now on the move north and our friend. Stonewall jackson had been sent west into central virginia and then north with the idea of falling on pope's right flank so here we go on august twenty nine eighteen sixty two these two armies collide lease jack and jackson's and popes And This at engagement erupts in the engagement erupts on the very same field in prince william county. Where the first battle of bull run was fought. This time without the spectators without spectator wants to watch this stuff. Our no no and and pope has tried them. Tried attacks against lee's army. All of them have failed And on the very next day. August thirty lee counter attacks and literally devastates. Pope's what he calls the army of virginia Just devastates it more than fourteen thousand killed wounded captured and missing in the army of the in pope's army alone so here here's lincoln. He's seen three campaigns now by september. One eight hundred sixty two three campaigns first manassas then the army of the potomac venture on the peninsula and now the second battle of manassas bull run and it for and what he. What does he have to show for it. He's had three armies virtually humiliated defeated and humiliated. His total casualties now in virginia alone are over thirty. Three thousand killed wounded captured and missing just own armies. That's an enormous amount of damage but politically over lincoln. He's probably asked himself. Why did i get myself in this. In the first ways. I would think. But i mean it shows you this. There's just no relief from the defeat right so And what happens after after the second battle of bull run. Lee begins to move north. This lee. I'm hope people can see this. Lee is not only a very superior military commander. He is aggressive military commander. This guy goes after. He's he's the guy you would love to have on your football team. He he is an aggressive. Fighter moves north in washington amidst all this chaos and confusion. The lincoln administration turns once again to george. Mcclellan mclellan is popular in the army. The troops like him even though his his tactical handling of the army is somewhat suspect the tropes like they think he's a great organizer. They like him little. Mac is he's called and he'd kinda parade with his hat and his hand in front of the troops and they all cheered and yelled payment. Yes it carries mma so Anyway he takes. What's left of pope's army and troops that have poured into washington And he re assembles the army of the potomac and he begins to move west out of washington toward li li crosses the potomac river Just near leesburg at white's ferry moves into maryland. Moves to frederick maryland and mcclellan is now pursuing him They get beyond frederick into the south mountain range and they're at places like turner pass fox's gap crampton's gap. These are gaps in the mountain through which roads run including the national road The first we've been through all of those gaps and anytime you're right right right. Yeah and the most prominent is turner passing. The national road runs through their. That's us forty eight. today Is the national road. And mcclellan on the fourteenth of september attacks. lee at each of those gaps Lee falls back from those gaps after some tremendous loss in in the in the army of the potomac and some serious losses to lee as well it was. It was pretty brutal That same day. Stonewall jackson had been detached from lee's army and sent to try to capture harpers ferry on the where the shenandoah and the potomac river merge That same day. September fourteen stonewall jackson captures harpers ferry captures thirteen thousand union tropes at harpers ferry. Now imagine the reports coming back to the war department and lincoln. He's lost thirty three thousand leading up to this. He's now lost some more and now he sees that thirteen thousand of his troops have surrendered to stonewall jackson. This is this is nothing but bad news. Well lee falls back to the west. Crosses a place a stream called and tetum creek and he basically sets up a line of defense just west of anti them creek and on september seventeen mcclellan brings the army of the potomac up antietam creek to confront louis and on the sept- september seventeen. He begins a series of attacks beginning against lee's left flank on the north ending with his right flank to the south and this september seventeen has to go down as the bloodiest single day in american history in that one day from early in the morning until sunset. More than twenty. Three thousand casualties will be the result of the fighting. It's a staggering for one day. And he tries. I lease left and fails to break it fighting in the cornfield around fame. Dunker church then. He tries the center and a sunken road and he breaks through only to be stopped by reinforcements coming in from harpers ferry. Then he tries along the south and attacks across an old stonebridge since known as burnside's bridge named for the at corps commander ninth corps down. There they get across the bridge. They forced lee's right flank back to the town of sharp's berg only to have another division out of stonewall jackson's wing commanded by ap hill arrive in time and block the union advance it stalls out. They fail to defeat lee's army and even though lee's army crosses the potomac before the union army does to pursue him and gives up the field. This is no victory for george. Mcclellan in fact his losses are so huge That instead of immediately launching a pursuit of of late. His army is so bloodied that he stays right. There and a lot of people have seen the famous photograph of lincoln visiting Mcclellan and you see. It has a tent and lincoln is standing up. And there's mcclellan looking at lincoln and all these generals and officers around famous famous picture. Well that's right. After the battle of antietam and that was fought on september seventeen and it was not until the twenty sixth of october that george. Mcclellan move that army back across the potomac to pursue so they were resting recuperating recovering covering recovering resort. It is recovering their dead trying to heal the wounded now. I believe that photograph. You just described. Didn't you put that in your cushing of gettysburg book alonzo cushing in that pig show. I'm thinking of another. George custer was was cushing's classmate him over on the right side of the picture in front of a tent yes. He's a little aid to george. Mclaughlin always gets his photograph taken. No custer was a pursuer of of of take a picture of me town okay. So so george. Mcclellan he he winds up. Moving the army back into virginia and at warrenton virginia He is removed as commander of the army of the potomac for the last time. He's probably so relieved named in his place. Is ambrose burnside. Who as i mentioned. Command of the ninth corps attacked across the antiguan bridge and burns and burnside follows lee to the rapahannock river. Leave falls back to fredericksburg. And he's planning of course it. Being there to protect richmond the capital of the confederacy which is just south of fredericksburg And burnside a develops a plan to attack louis at at fredericksburg. I though and he has to get his army across the rapa hack. So he build bridges across the rapahannock all the time under fire bills bridges. They bridges across the prepa hanoch river. These are punto. Bridge john tune. They're supported us exactly supported by pontoons and on the thirteenth of december. Burnside orders a frontal attack against lee's army situated along heights behind fredericksburg This means eastport. Apples are have to attack across ground going literally at just slightly less than a forty five degree. Angle to reach the confederate works and the confederates mostly behind stone. Walls gun emplacements. Everything else up there. Well i don't need to say too much about what would have happened in a situation like that. The union army of the potomac was mauled. I mean it was virtually up a demolished in many ways. The attacks were Brutal meant by horrific gunfire and in fact by the end of the day of december thirteenth Burnside could count thirteen thousand of his men as casualties. Some just that were just start to rackham rackham up members thirty three thousand after Second manassas second bull run. Then you have an tatum and now you have this. So we're now closing in on between fifty and sixty thousand casualties in the army of the potomac. Well burnside Obviously his his efforts were not received very well in washington however he had one more plan in mind and that is to try to go up the rapahannock river To a point Where he could cross at kelly's ford and then try to strike lee from behind He left in in on the In in january on the twentieth of january In a driving rainstorm and sleep storm and for two days ford rain and sleet and this poor army of the potomac became bogged down in mud and finally he called it off and it was for hence henceforth known as the mud march Burnside was relieved of command on the twenty. six january. Eighteen sixty three and in his place was named general. Joseph hooker hooker Had been up a division commander than a corps commander in the army of the potomac all the way through highly political man and One who as as one member of lincoln's cabinet said i do now doubt joe hookers bravery but i don't have much confidence in him. There were the last he becomes commander of the army of the potomac. And do you think this is a position that hooker pursued. I mean who wants to come in army of the potomac this or do you think that hooker saw something in this for himself. Well every every officer now up to this point in time like in every war would love to have his record that he was named army commander particularly the principal army in the field and they vie for that. They should normally under normal circumstances and he was no different he. He wanted to see his name in bright lights as well He was actually wounded in the field at antietam and the person who took over command of his core at antiga when he was wounded was george. Gordon made oh okay. So that's where mead kind of emerges he first emerges as as a potential yes precisely okay so he was made and hooker no one another very well. All right So okay so now hookers in charge of beleaguered army. This is a very this. The morale has to be low as it has. They just can't win now they they're. They're being humiliated right. And they're suffering. Durham now imagine to situation like this We're now talking. The end of january eighteen sixty three three one hookers named think what it's like in washington where lincoln is looking for. Volunteer regiments They have an institutional draft. Okay but but the real problem is who's going to volunteer for this army It's hard to make a case. It's sort of make a case for a soldier for a fellow to say. Yeah okay. i'll put a uniform on. I'll join that now not with this So what happens. As a result of this sort of defeat after defeat after defeat after defeat is in march lincoln and congress institute the draft. Okay they have to go after it drafts are never popular. But think of. i'm here. There were threats of riots in the big cities like new york philadelphia baltimore. They've already lost the equivalent of our losses in the vietnam war. Pass that yeah that yeah and the population smaller so the impacts bigger. Yeah huge Well so georgia. Joe hooker takes Takes over command and he's in command When the draft is instituted. He's having trouble replacing people. Of course as you get these casualties rack up. He's having trouble getting people into that army and the administration is and so he sets up a plan where he is going to move the army. Much like burnside tried Along the rapahannock river and try to get behind. Lee He lease at fredericksburg and so hooker manages to get across the rapahannock river at kelly's ford and get to a position behind lee's army at this now and at a place not too far from crossroads known as chancellors ville against behind him lee from his own scouts learns exactly what hookers lee. What he does his he he takes one. Division leaves it in place at fredericksburg. Same site where they defeated the union army in december leaves them right there marie with arrest of the army. He moves them literally. Does that about face and moves toward hooker and then on the second of may eighteen sixty three. He turns to stonewall jackson. And he's i want you and he has a fellow local man who can look at the map and tell lee and jackson. If you follow this road a around in this direction you'll be on the right flank of the enemy. The enemy won't see you because the woods are sedans but there is a small path all the way around there and he leads jackson's wing of the army on that path. Suddenly jackson appears In line ready to assault the rear elements of hooker's army And on may second launches an attack and the first units he he hitch is oliver howard's eleventh corps lot of german speaking tropes in this unit and behind them. Is this the third gouzer. The draftees drafty some volunteers. Now these are. Germans went into this war with great aggressiveness. It was their key to citizenship Of course so here. Here's this eleventh corps core after chance was ville the rest of the army of the potomac love to hate because they thought they ran in many ways they did. They got surprised by an overwhelming number of troops coming out and jackson literally rolled them up Even with an attempt on the part of one court across the rapahannock river and strike that confederate line left behind at fredericksburg. This corps commanded by john sedgwick. They broke through but lead detaches yet another division and has them strike the flank of sedgwick's corps. It's coming up trying to force into lease into the into in to overwhelmingly and strikes into his flank. Sedgwick has stalled without attack and the rest of the army. The potomac is running away from. What's now chancellor's ville Trying to get across the potomac river this battle. The battle chancers ville has to be one of the most stunning tactical victories the entire civil war. We've never seen anything quite like it and it's pure battlefield genius. That's doing this. I mean there's no question about who is superior intelligence that lee had by having that man on the ground of course the topography who who knew all the past and they got onto the flank in into the rear of the union army of the potomac and attacked them The upshot of chances ville is yet another humiliating defeat union casualties there exceeded sixteen thousand Hooker stays in command he Lee begins on june fifth and move north. The idea of getting back into maryland. Crossing the potomac getting back into maryland ultimately into pennsylvania to forage. The army can get food supplies. It can't get in virginia because his battle-scarred down there and to two hookers credit he follows. Well he's follows with great speed and he finally gets to Frederick maryland lee. By this time is in the cumberland valley of pencil of maryland and pennsylvania and on the twenty eight twenty eighth of june. The lincoln administration finally relieves hooker of command and gives it to george gordon. Meade so that's how that's how general meade ends up in command of the army of the potomac and it's just he didn't know this but it's just five days five days three days till the battle of gettysburg as until he's actually key elements of his army. You're in combat at gettysburg What's interesting is that every other commander of the army of the potomac had been approached by the war department Determine whether he would be willing to serve as commander everyone an interview so to interview. Would you be willing to take this Really only wants someone who's willing to do it right right. Not with george made why. No one wanted to become commander of the armed. Okay yeah nobody not by now. And the lincoln and his chief of staff general in chief they call it and then henry haluk became so set with hooker hooker constantly wanting more men constantly chiding them To the point of distraction really and there was a been a standing order given by the war department that two things must be protected at all costs by the army of the potomac. One was washington of course but the other was harpers ferry armory the armor. Well the armory but also it was the line of the baltimore and So there was always an occupational force harvest ferry and it may seem frivolous for them to have expected harpers ferry to be something to be never to be given up but i think they were stung by the fact that lay took thirteen thousand prisoners of war there in eighteen sixty two and they didn't want to see that gets minimum ball but but finally it was hawker got so because he couldn't get the garrison at harpers ferry into his army then he just finally told him well then. I asked to be relieved. This is on the twenty seventh of june and of course that night they took it under consideration and by got relieved him but They also said to want to know this lincoln. This is henry haluk secretary of war stanton. They said look it. There's no way we can approach anybody. George meat or anyone and say would you take over command because they all recognize it. I'll say no so sad. it is now. Yeah what they did. They told the the fellow who would take the orders. They wrote out orders for george made. We're gonna order you to become commander the fellow who was James hardie a young a colonel very well liked in the army who was the aide in in the war department to edwin stanton. He would be the one to take the orders to hooker telling him. He's relieved and to george. Meade telling him he's commander water to be commander And so But they told hardy they said meade is going to try to get out of it anyone. It's to their credit. They came to that conclusion. Really think about it they they. They said look he's gonna try to get out of it. Take no there's there's we will not accept no for an answer. He's an officer in the army. If we order him to take it. The president does he must take And don't let him try to talk you out of it Literally telling him So general colonel. Hardy gets on the baltimore and ohio railroad and goes out to To to frederick He has given a wad of cash and he finds a wagon. Who can take him over to where. Meade's headquarters are located made as commander of v corps in the army the potomac and he arrives at the head at Meade's headquarters and goes up to meade's Adjutant general and ask him. I wanna visit with general meade. I'm james hardie from the war department. So they let him in. He wakes me up. This is about. Oh three o'clock in the morning and this is what hardy says to him. He says general. I have some bad news for you. Wrote his wife day thereafter literally the next day and said i thought i was under arrest or i had been relieved. Duty exactly one of the other news they come to us comes to you in the middle of the night. He was not going to be good. Our from the war hawks. What possible good could be. Come of this. I so beat sits up on the side of his cot and says look at. I'm at peace with the world. I have done nothing to anybody. He actually thinks and hardy. Who who really likes me. He's he's he's in me really likes him to know one. Another and hardy of course knows hooker as well when he says no. No no no general. I'm not here to give you trouble Except in this. And that is you've been named commander of the army of the potomac. No no no that general reynolds should be the one to take this. Not the first corps thought of that interests and those two reynolds had kind of serve together the entire war up to this stage. Meticularly commanding elements of the pennsylvania reserves Because both of them are pennsylvania's and he says no no general reynolds. The army wants him. Don't and hardee's general. They all talked about this. They all they all said. You'd prefer reynolds to come in or somebody else or anybody else. But you know the orders per employee you've got to take it and made says well i've been tried and convicted and i guess i need to go to execution and that's how the army was given to george made. Now let me ask you something. Did hardy have to go see hooker. I to relieve him of command or was that after he talked with aid he went to meade's headquarters of the fifth corps. Okay then then Got his staff together and hardy and mead and and meet staff then went to hooker's headquarters where the first thing hardy did was go in and tell joseph hooker that he had been relieved of command then. Mead and hooker confronted one another shook hands. I mean they are old army friends. This is always tough thing to do and they confirm brennan uncomfortable converse fairy very uncomfortable. The whole thing was uncomfortable. And there's great stories of when hooker leaves. How all these officers around of the staffs meet as well as hookers. Come up to grade him and they. He walks along shaking the hands of each one of them One young Currier in sedgwick's corps rota wrote a letter home to his mother saying it was very emotional. Farewell and there were many people who seem sad and by the whole thing. But i'm happy to see him go which is pretty much the way the army felt like clerk personally liked liked him not trusted professional. He couldn't get the job done. And but but when you think about what happened with the battle of gettysburg and of course it's a victory the first victory the army of the potomac will have in the entire war. Just think of all the failures leading up to that one after another and the casualties and general meade inheriting this and he inherits this three days right now he couldn't have known then they're the conflict would occur. No but he knew leaves army was out there now. I wanted to ask you why. Why did hooker take the parallel course north. If he knew that lee was on the other side of the cumberland mountains what was hookers purpose in staying on. The east side. Was that because his job was to protect washington and he didn't have enough to leave back there or two answer. One your comment about him protecting washington. Yes that's number one With the army of the potomac they're standing orders Are you protect the city of washington and mead becomes. Commander they say your. Your duty is to protect washington and baltimore because if you're going up into central pennsylvania south eastern pennsylvania southeastern pennsylvania. You're within your within walking distance of baltimore almost and that's because of the railroad railroads as just the location baltimore's in maryland north of washington. It's closer to the Area of operations and so the standing orders to george mead where you protect baltimore in washington but hawker now coming north to try to confront louis. You're right. He was on the east side of the shenandoah valley of the blue ridge. Mountains most of lee's army were moving in the shenandoah north. And the reason corker follows. That road is not only to protect washington. But there's all the military theorists of the nineteenth century including dennis hart mahan who was the instructor in military science at west point. He was the teacher of hooker teacher of mead. He taught everybody in the army. He thought everybody in lee's army air from the eighteen thirties all the way until eighteen. Sixty three so. He was there when lee superintendent. He was complete with superintendent. He follows the teachings of carl. Von clausewitz antoine day. Showman many in that there are three ways to pursue an army A one is a direct pursuit. Go right up following them The other is to Attack see if you can attack that the army you want to pursue on its flanks The third is to follow a parallel course and that was hooker strategy hooker strategy and in fact that is the preferable strategy of pursuing an army. Don't go behind it cushion. You can't do anything to that. Army behind it On a parallel course you may cause it to move more rapidly than it wants to What an army has to move faster than it wants to. It can disintegrate Particularly if it's a retreat. This is an advance still. If they're moving too fast because of fear that they're going to be met somewhere well it could fray then army so you move on a parallel course even though you're risking as as happened losing sight of exactly where your enemy is. i mean. They're in the mountains there. You've got to get to a position where you could confront him And that's the deal and you've got it's a race And you make a rice. And so that's where the prologue of your book and story of meade's command at gettysburg begins and telling you it's a very compelling story what i one of the things i love about. This book is the beautiful illustrations. You've selected including the here to four unpublished photograph. Of general george gordon meade during the pennsylvania campaign that is the illustration for the frontispiece of that is a really incredible picture. But you've got lots of amazing photography in this book beautiful illustrations By contemporary artists who were eye witnesses to the action This is a richly illustrated book the presentation of it The way it's been presented by its university of north carolina press. It's beautiful donna. Shing lee beautiful It's it's i really can't wait to see it in print for those who are interested you can you can it. It comes out on the seventh of june and amazon. Already you can pre-order it on amazon you can also pre-order it through the university of north carolina press on its website but Amazon of course is the easiest one for everybody to get to. And it's again named need at gettysburg a study and command and it picks up where we left off lucky to seeing it. And we'll talk some more about this book and some forthcoming podcasts. As well certainly will. Well thank you for talking with us today. Ken and as i said it's good to be back with dynamic studios and mr neil kesterson are sound simon. Thank you so much you're welcome. We'll see you soon. Become an american hero. Who participates in our mission by joining us at witnessing history dot org download our documentaries and free teacher education materials that conform to grade level education standards at pbs morning dot org follow witnessing history on facebook twitter and linked in.
Civil War and Emancipation
"On that island sits Fort Sumter. On April Twelfth Eighteen, sixty, one, a single mortar shell shattered the predawn sky. and. The United States just eighty five years old erupted into all out civil war. Initially, for President Abraham Lincoln, the war was about a single overriding goal. Saving the Union from the Forces of secession in the American south. Forces that were threatening to tear the republic apart. There was a ditty that people used to sing around union recruiting the I think sums up what Lincoln's original orientation was. It went something like I stand for the Union all its foes I abhor I ain't for the N. word, but I am for the war. Soon after the war began, its focus began to change when enslaved. African Americans forced to work in the confederacies defense escaped behind union lines. Escape slaves who run away to union lines are called contraband and what Union policy makers including. Lincoln begin to recognize is this creates a welcome disruption among the southern slaveholders. This deprives them their property, it shuts down their plantations and it makes their war effort more difficult. The swelling numbers of Contraband Push President Lincoln to see that the civil war was actually about abolishing the institution of slavery. Ultimately, leading him to issue the emancipation proclamation. A many ways, the emancipation proclamation is first and foremost a military policy. It's not clear that union is winning the war before the emancipation proclamation. So the emancipation proclamation also gives these escaped slaves the opportunity to serve in the Union army. This is crucial to the success in the war effort. The freedom of their people at stake. Almost. Two hundred thousand black men enlisted in the union, Army and navy. Playing a pivotal role in bringing victory to the north. The key element that changed the outcome of this war in terms of who won it and in terms of what it was about. Were the slaves themselves. Their determination that this war was going to be about the into slavery masses of self liberated slaves became the wave that the union would ultimately ride to victory.
The Bloodiest Battle of the Civil War
"In July eighteen sixty three two armies faced off on a piece of farmland. That's come to be known simply as Gettysburg. The battle that followed was the deadliest of the civil war, one of only two fought on northern territory. And certainly one of the most historic. For civil war, reenactor Gettysburg is, especially sacred ground. These men with their period, perfect muskets and blue flannel coats are members of the one hundred fiftieth New York, infantry. Back on July second eighteen sixty three members of the same regiment made up of volunteer, farmers and mill workers arrived in Gettysburg. It was to be their first battle. By then, the war between the states had already been devastating the south for more than two years. Confederate general Robert E Lee stationed in Virginia had decided it was time for the north to feel some of that pain. So in late June, he split his men into groups and sent them all north to Pennsylvania to the east union forces acting as a buffer between the confederates and the US capitol in Washington DC, where hot on their heels. Finally on July first leased units began to converge on the federal forces in the town of Gettysburg, the battle that followed raged for three days. Only afternoon of July. Second. It arrived here at the rose families front door. They're small farms soon became the center of a nation defining conflict. Andrew was in their wheatfield that a key moment in the battle unfolded for two bloody hours twenty thousand men charged back and forth across this land as each side tried to claim it as its own. They're brutal hand to hand combat six thousand of them dead wounded survivors would call the wheatfield a whirlpool of death. Moore died here at nearby. He'll already known as devil's dead, the commending Colonel of the one hundred fiftieth New York infantry later, described his troops bravery by men rallied to the front in double quick time, not a man faltered or displayed the least cowardice this regiment was never before under fire and for the coolness and courage displayed on this occasion. The men are entitled to the highest praise. The union army was too powerful for the confederates on July fourth independence day Leonidas his rebels retreated back into Virginia, but tide of the war had been turned in the unions favor for good. The south would never again threaten the north.
Best of Rebel Girls: Harriet Tubman read by Tarana Burke
"Welcome rebels to good night stories for rebel girls. A podcast based on the best selling book series. On today's episode we're taking a look back at some of the amazing rebels we've met since our show began and getting ready for next season launching September, Fifteenth. It features women from our upcoming book good night stories rebel girls one hundred immigrant women who changed the world. preorder your copy now at rebel girls dot com, and we'll see you back here. September fifteenth for brand new episodes of the PODCAST. On with the show. Once upon a time, there was a girl who fought for freedom. Her name's Harry. Harry It was born in Maryland's eastern shore. Sometime around eighteen, twenty two. She had a mother, a father and several brothers and sisters. Harry. Sing and she loves to listen to, Bible stories, her mother told her Harriet cuddled by her side at night. Her favorite was the story of Moses who led his people from slavery in Egypt to freedom in the promise. For Harry. Mike. Her parents was also born enslaved. She lived in a time when white people had decided, it was legal for black people to be bought sold treated like property. Because she was enslaved. Harriet was not allowed to build a school or learn to read or write. She could be beaten. Whipped or killed for even the slightest refusal to do what she was told. Worst of all Harriet and other members of her family could be sold away at any time never to see one another again. Before, she had the words to save. Harriet new slavery was wrong. Even as a small girl, she understood her heart, all people black and white women and men were born to live in freedom. And she would be the one to lead them. I'm. TORONTO. And this is good Max stories for rebel girl. A fairytale podcast about the rebel women who inspire. This week. Up. From the time, she was just five years old. Harriet was forced to work the white men women she worked for beat her for the smallest mistakes. If she didn't desperately for example or if the baby she was carrying for crying. Harriet rebelled in every way she could. She wore extra clothing to cushion her back against the whip and wailed her mistress whip turn as if the blows had full effect. One time she her master on the knee. When he tried to beat her? He never did again. When Harry it was still a child, the man who kept her family enslaved decided to sell. Harrods. Two sisters, Lena, and so. The day, the buyers came to collect them, Harry. It was too heartbroken to look. Corner of the cabin hands covering is. She didn't see. The. Men dragging away her sisters. But for the rest of her life shoe remembered the sound of the horses approaching the cabinet. The clink of the chains and found has sisters. And in desperate. One day Harriet was ordered to go to the local store to buy some things for her master. While she was at the counter, a runaway slave burst in his oversee ran behind him. You the oversee a shouted at Harriet, grab that man and helped me tie him down. No Harriet told him. I will not. Furious to oversee of picked up an iron weight and hurled it at the escaping slave. He hit Harry instead. The weight cracked Harriet Skull. Harriet was forced to go back to work in the fields despite the fact that she was still bleeding. She nearly died. The injury gave her seizures and horrible blinding headaches that lasted the rest of her life. But. It also gave her visions. Harriet began to have dreams she flew. As free and light bird. Swooping across the fields and over the mountains. In her dream she came to a river where women dressed in white guide at her lovingly across. The Harriet, these dreams were not mere. Flights of imagination. Her Future. Harry got married to a freed slave named John Tubman and one day she told her father secret. She to wanted to be free and she had decided to run away. Her father was torn runaway slaves with terribly punished if captured. He could not bring himself to tell Harry to do something that could get hurt or killed, but he also knew they should not hold back his daughters creatures spirit. Without really telling Harry what he was doing. He showed her how to run. He taught her how a tree the got her way growing thick a moss on the north side, its trunk. He showed her which plants could feed or he'll her he taught her how the Northstar could serve as a compass that no one could ever take from her. Not. Long after the man who kept Harriet and her family enslaved died. When a slave on a dive. The things and people he owned were often sold at market. The family could be split up again. Harry knew the time had come. Desperately she wanted to. She could not tell anyone where she was going. Or even say goodbye to her family. They might accidentally give her secret away. So instead. She stood in fields. There well in Psalm. I'll meet you in the morning she saying holding back the tears. I'm bound for the Promised Land. And then She slipped away. Harry traveled on something called the underground railroad. It wasn't a real railroad. There were no trains or tracks instead it was a network of homes in churches where people escaping slavery could find food shelter protection and directions to the next house or station on their journey to freedom. Harriet walk through the nights and rested during the days. She used all the skills. Her father taught her waiting through streams to hide her footprints listening for the howl of the slave hunters, bloodhounds crawling like a snake through the grass. After almost two weeks Harriet. Crossed the border into Pennsylvania where slavery was legal. At last shoes free. When I found, I had crossed that line. I looked at my hands to see if I was the same person she later say. There was such a glory over everything. The Sun came like gold through the trees. And over the field and felt like I was in heaven. Harry I got a job in a hotel for the first time in her life. She was able to keep the money she her hard work her savings went to only one thing her family's freedom she thought of her parents, brothers and sisters back in Maryland she thought of her friends they all deserve the freedom that she now had. The freedom that the white people took for granted. I was a stranger in a strange land she said later. My father, my mother, my brothers, and sisters and friends in Maryland? Free. And they should be free. She would go back to the underground railroad this time as a conductor. Her first rescue came just a year after her escape. Harriet traveled back from Maryland leads her niece and her brother in law and their children to freedom in Canada. The next year, she freed her brothers and two other men. Later that year she went back to Maryland to get her husband and he'd married another woman she was gone. Harriet was heartbroken. But she pushed her pain aside guided another group of slaves back to Philadelphia. Harry it's rescues would brilliantly plan printing shops were closed on Sundays. So Harry, it started the journeys on Saturday. Nights. That way her party could travel a whole day before the I wanted posters up. She digged in fact, the forest and marshes evading slave catches in their house. Sometimes, she disguised herself as a man to avoid detection. Sometimes she dressed as an old woman and wanted the road singing to herself as she were a fatty old lady. In reality she was singing instructions and secret coal to escaping slaves hiding nearby. Go Down Moses we down into Egypt land she thinks. When danger was nearby and when it passed the thing again halo. Haley. Happy. Things. Death no more. Shall make you feel. Harriet rescue soon became even riskier. In eighteen fifty United States passed a new law called the fugitive slave act. The law made it a crime to help a slave to freedom even in states where slavery was illegal. All law enforcement officers in the United States were required to apprehend any escaped slave and take them back to their former on. And other words throughout the whole country it was no safe place for Harry actually was caught. She would be arrested enforced back into slavery. Harry did not give up. Instead she extended her network the Canada, a free country where US laws did not reach. Though the journey now was twice as long. And many times more dangerous. Harriet returned a fourth time to Maryland to guide her brother her sister in law and several others to freedom. She went again to rescue parents. Altogether, UH Harriet lead at least seventy people out of slavery herself and dozens more escape using the castle instruction she gave. People call her Moses. Harriet said, later, I was the conductor on the underground railroad for eight years, and I can say what most conductors can't say I never ran my train of the track and I never lost the passenger. America meanwhile was going off the rails seven states in the south announced, they were leaving the United States and forming their own country called the confederate states of America. The civil war had begun. Had, had a feeling that if the Union army won the War Lincoln would in slavery for good. For this her ultimate goal she was willing to risk her freedom and life. Harriet volunteered as a scout for the Union army using her masterful knowledge of secret roles. She traveled deep into confederate territory for Mason that helped the Union Army, plan their attendance, and at the height of the war, she was given the most dangerous assignment of life. The. Union. Army. Acts Harriet to lead liberation raid on the south. They told her she would be in command of one, hundred, fifty soldiers. She was the first woman to lead a major military operation in the history of the United. States. Heart pounding in her chest. Harriet stood on board the ship's sailing up the combat he river. Trained from years of midnight escapes. Her is made out the shapes ahead in the darkness she thought of her father and how far she had come since stood under the night sky together learning how to read the stars. When Harry gave the command. The soldiers took the enemy completely by surprise. They burned down warehouses holding food and guns met the confederate soldiers. But the most important part of the rave with yet the COP. When they saw the warehouse burning hundred seven slaved people ran to Harry it's boats from the nearby plantations. Whole families came children, old people, mothers, carrying Babies Mittens. Harriet loaded the both with as many people as they could carry. And when the ships returned to the union, they did not just carry tales of victory they carried seven hundred and fifty newly free people. And the woman people called Moses. When? The civil war ended slavery did too. But Harry, it's work did not for the rest of her long life Harriet fought for justice for Black Americans. For Women for the poor and elderly. And as the story of Moses wants to move Harriet. We tell her story today. That we might have the courage to finish what she started. Evergreen Colorado Alo- I mean by Ramleh from Atlanta Georgia today's episode SOS hosted by of Burke. She is a civil rights activist and founder of the me too movement. This podcast is produced by phone mealy and Franziska Khumalo with writing. Sound design an original. Are. By elektra Jackie support for the show comes from the New York Times bestselling book series, good night stories. Did you know that good. To just came out, go to row girls dot com and use your Promo Code rebel podcast to get your copy with a fifteen percents discount. If you liked the center stone we shared On twitter. On Apple podcast. Goodnight stories for girls is a production of ten bucks. Post read a burke lent her voice benefit does tomorrow's girls and women. Tampa to me donation interns eight. And Karen next time stay tiered and stay radical.
9: How Did American Slavery End?
"Hi this is Rebecca and this is the last episode of the History of American slavery. Podcast and thank you so much for listening. This project was made possible by sleep. Plus slates membership program to help us make more of this kind of work please become a member by signing up slate dot com slash academy slate plus members get benefits like free podcasts and bonus content in fact slate plus members have access to two additional episodes of this podcast series in one. We go deeper into the history of the slave narrative with Dr Henry Louis Gates Junior and in the other. Jamal talks with our Burton and others about how to talk about slavery. Honestly to learn more and sign up. Please visit slate dot com slash academy. Thanks again welcome to episode nine of the history of American slavery a slate academy. I'm Jim Abi. And I'm Rebecca onion on our last episode. We looked at the decade of the Eighteen. Fifty S we took a look at what happened to enslave people who manage to escape and about some of the ways that conflict over the fugitive slave act which was passed in eighteen fifty exacerbated tensions between slave states and free state it. We know those tensions boiled over into war just a few years later and there have been thousands of books countless books written on that war in the year. Sense most of them. I think focused on the military and political dynamics of the conflict but on today's podcast which is the final of our series. We're going to keep our focus on the people who are at the center of this conflict. And that's the four million people who lived up until this point in bondage. What did the delivery mean for them? And how did they begin the enormous task of putting their lives together as a free people as we do with each episode of our series? We'll begin by considering the life of a single person today. That person is a woman named rose. Harare Rose Harare was born in the parish. Point coup p Louisiana in eighteen thirty five though she lived through the abolition of American slavery. Rojas personal struggle for freedom had only just begun when emancipation made her a free woman described as a good washer in iron in an advertisement for sale rose was purchased by New Orleans. Dentist James to heart around eighteen sixty one. She married a free black man. Jorge Herrera couple had five children together at the end of eighteen. Sixty two half a year after the Union army entered New Orleans James to heart and his wife. Mary could see the writing on the wall. They began pressuring. Rose go with into Havana Cuba. Where slavery still prevailed after getting a domestic spat with relative. Rose was put in prison while they're the heart split to Cuba and took three of roses children with them. After the war was over Rose Harare began illegal campaign to get her family back when Mary Hart returned to New Orleans without the kids. She was jailed and charged with kidnapping. A court eventually ruled that Mary Hart could return to Cuba on the condition that roses children be returned to America. The family was reunited in March eighteen. Sixty six with the sad exception of George who died before the children were returned. It seems like rose. This story is implementing of kind of what a lot of enslaved people and formerly people going through in this period of emancipation. That's why I wanted to talk more about her. And this kind of story today because I think there's this sort of misconception That you might hop from sort of like an outline picture of history that the emancipation proclamation made everybody free at once and it was sort of a clean surgical cud but from the history that were looking at today it becomes clear that emancipation was really uneven. And sort of confusing and dangerous. You could almost say came in fits and starts right you have in the very beginning Enslaved people escaping and eventually the Union army having to form what's called contraband camps To deal with this influx of people who are basically refugees from slavery. And even after the emancipation proclamation. Right there are large chunks of the south which are so remote that people don't know that emancipation to come. Yeah and there's a Aspect of the emancipation proclamation. To that I never really fully grasped which is that there are parts of the south that were exempted from it. So that if you were nominally loyal to the union you could still continue to hold slaves for thorough places where it was more politically expedient for the emancipation proclamation not to reach at that time And so there are a number of situations in eighteen. Sixty two where you know General Declare Freedom for the people who are behind his like anyone who will enlist and then the president wants to say actually. That's not true. We're not doing that And then there's sort of movements for compensated emancipation or garage laments patient And then there are movements to allow freedom for people who will enlist in the Union army and then finally in January eighteen sixty three. Of course there's the actual emancipation proclamation and even when the emancipation proclamation eventually came down in January eighteen sixty three it didn't apply to the entire south impacted entire country I think the best with understand it is as a joint political military measure on one end. it did not apply to the border states places like Kentucky and Maryland Missouri. Were there were still people holding. Slaves were there is large chunks of the public who are sympathetic to the confederacy. And we're Lincoln really wanted just to keep them in the fold and avoid by kind of political and military loss. It didn't apply to basically union held areas of the South New Orleans exempted from me Men's vision proclamation and there are cases of enslaved people. You know escaping to union campaigns. Just outside New Orleans and saying things like when my master's a rebel so you have to let me let me in right. Basically exist applied to confederate held areas of the South and an implicit encouragement to enslave people to leave to escape to do what they can And in that way undermined the southern were effort. Which was heavily dependent on on enslaved people for Labor and other kind of part of the of the war regime. Yeah stay on. A factor sort of Fighting with your feet away you're moving yourself from the equation and then often of course in many cases actually fighting afterwards. Yes yes right. So you mentioned that New Orleans was in a particularly strange position that neurons with actually Fell to the Union army in late April eighteen sixty two which is really early in the war and so the legal situation of the people who are enslaved there Was you're sort of working in this city? Where the union soldiers all around yet. You're still enslaved And so our first interview today is with Adam Rochman who's a historian at Georgetown University and he's written a book about Rose Harare's efforts to put her family back together but the book is also sort of in a way about what it was like in New Orleans in those strange years when everything was in limbo. It is a bizarre situation where the patient proclamation basically applies to all the territory of the Union does not actually control so as the Union army marches forward. It becomes an army of liberation but in the places that were exempted from the emancipation proclamation like New Orleans. It's just a whole different kettle of fish. So how did that incite people in New Orleans or maybe other places like that react to this? They knew it was on right They react in a variety of ways the most overt is that they flee to the Union army so at the various encampments where the Union army is in and around New Orleans and so people. Just start showing up and saying my master's a rebel I want to work for you. I WANNA fight for the Union And this is men women and children showing up at the Union army lines and the Union army officers and soldiers basically have to figure out what to do with them and they're they're actually battles not battles arguments union officials generals about what to do with these fugitive slaves. Should they be returned to their owners. which owners should should they be returned to If they are not going to be returned to their owners. What is to be done with them? It's just a really Foggy situation you know the the conventional wisdom is the Union army occupied New Orleans. But I like to say that the slaves actually occupied the union army. They presented themselves as a problem as they presented slavery as a problem and they forced union soldiers and officers and ultimately politicians to figure out what to do with them. You know in some ways. It's kind of disappointing to realize how qualified the patient proclamation really was to think about the fact that there were whole areas that were exempt from it and that these areas were places that Lincoln was concerned to keep on his side And how do you feel when you think about this part of the history? What do you think about that you know? I think the temptation is to use this as evidence that Lincoln was not actually committed to Manson station. And there's whenever I talk about Lincoln on social media say there is inevitably someone who was like. Well you know who said so. Horace Greeley letter. Who kind of makes tries to make the case at Lincoln was a Best Fair weather friend of emancipate worse actively post I think that is wrong and I think being insufficient proclamation is actually evidence of that is wrong to my mind in my reading and sort of base when I know the emancipation. Proclamation seems to be primarily a political document In as a political document and is trying to do a couple things at once and I think I mentioned earlier. I it's trying to protect union interest in border states at its trying to undermine the confederacy. It's trying to galvanize the northern public in international public for the Union Cause. And it's trying to do this overstepping Lincoln Constitutional Authority which throughout the war and dot his presidency. He's very much attuned. To the limits of his authority under the constitution in the emancipation proclamation accomplishes all of that I think in other words putting this is the fact that it's even called the emancipation. Proclamation is a political decision. There's no reason for it to be called that it could have been called. You know a general order to free slaves in states under rebellion. It could have been called all sorts of things but it's specifically called the emancipation a charged. Politically heated word proclamation. The President United States And if you think about it in those terms then what that means is that if you are if imagine the enslave person or the family in the Florida panhandle who hears about this or in South Carolina hears about this. They don't know about the exemptions. The exemptions are really for a different audience. They hear the emancipation proclamation and regardless of whether they are legally able to leave they try to do it In in calling you fat. It fundamentally changes the character of the war and I think Lincoln was aware of this having this was the point and so yes there these exemptions and yes it is the case of emancipation. Proclamation did not free all the Slaves. It only you know. I'm using air quotes here freed slaves in places where the union had no territorial control but the fact of it being called emancipate proclamation is highly significant For All those symbolic reasons and I think that's not. I don't think that's an accident. I think whenever we're thinking you're talking by Lincoln. It is incredibly important to understand that he is probably one of the most masterful politicians that ever occupy the Oval Office. And he's very much in this case acting as a politician. It's really interesting to think about that. Sort of Like the question of scale in that relationship the relationship between You know proclamation coming from a president and what goes on in a inflate person's daily life like if they're still living in a place. Where slavery is nominally happening But there is a a sort of like a heartening effect or a exciting effect of this proclamation And Adam told us a little bit about the way that he found evidence of the dynamic evolving in New Orleans while the Union army was there. I think we have a tendency to think of wartime emancipation as something that was fought principally on battlefields and in Contraband Camps Behind Union. Army lines but it was also fought on plantations and in households where the Union army was not a direct presence. So one of the things that I found in researching rose. Harare story was the diary of a confederate woman named Anne Wilkinson Penrose who kept a daily account of life in New Orleans under union rule and assist a bitter raging journal. She's just upset about everything but one of the things he's upset about increasingly upset about is the refusal of her household servants as she called them. They're really slaves to work in the ways that she was used to. So the diary is full of these vignettes where she asks A woman to Bake bread and the woman doesn't do it properly in her opinion. And she slaps the woman the woman rises up indignantly and says don't ever do that again in these sorts of these episodes which were so uncommon before the Union army comes in and just disrupts the whole balance of power between masters and slaves. I rose and went into the kitchen to speak to becky. She was leaning down with her back towards me as I entered. I could not resist giving her a good hard slap on the shoulder. Which by the by hurt my hand. I have no doubt more than it did her at the same time. I asked how she dared to send in such bread and cakes she started up looked furiously me and exclaimed. Don't you do that again? Let it be the last time or I'll just march out of this yard. What's so great about that? Reading is just the that last line? Don't you do that again? Let it be the last time just mart yard. It's so it's so bold And to my mind very funny very almost comical but it seems like it does carry this undercurrent of of danger even still. Yeah I mean I think it's really throws this way that these conflicts are sort of erupting and you know and you think to yourself you know. Becky has probably been waiting to say this for years. This is been boiling until you. WanNa Kinda like jump up and cheer but as Rothman reminded US people like becky still were existing within sort of a perilous that of circumstances the same time as there is this new sense of confidence this new sense of empowerment on the part of enslaved people. It is a very dangerous. Time because slaveholders are not yet defeated In New Orleans eighteen sixty to eighteen sixty three. They still have the hope of coming back into power. A belief that the confederacy will somehow. Someday still prevail. And when it does they'll get the whip hand back they'll push their enslaved people back down into slavery and I think that's a real possibility for much of the war and I think it contributes to the mayhem violence of the process of emancipation. So we shouldn't forget While we enjoy these stories of resistance and relief that simultaneously there is a whole world of pain and violence still out there still boiling and That's part of the mayhem of the period. So getting back to the biography of Rose Harare that we started with It's pretty notable and interesting that the slave holder took her kids to Havana Cuba in particular. Yes and be decision to take. The kids to Havana is not an accident. One of the I think interesting. It's interesting at TRIMs. Incredibly alarming facts of slave holder society in eighteen fifties was a growing. I taught co push speculation demand to really try to expand their slaveholding empire further south and other regions that they couldn't go north. They couldn't go west Make it go. Further south and so Cuba was a target because slavery still existed there. But there are other Southern slaveholders who thought they could expand the Houston even further South Plastic Nicaragua even Mexico. I'm there are a group of men. called Filibusters Attorney has no relationship to the term we use for unlimited debate in the Senate it is a derivative of a term called free booder which it's taken from piracy basically someone who goes tester up revolution a mercenary type in the southern press at the time they were writers like George Fitzhugh Who was a noted partisan of slavery? Who encourage this kind of thing? One of the most famous filibusters We know of is William Walker who ends up failing in his attempt to do this It comes back to the United States but the point is that there was a real push to further expand slavery As much as as much as possible. And that this almost you could call the radicalization of slaveholding society Was One of the things that pushed the country towards war. You had and that stuff is You know towns almost a fantastic also ideological and so extreme to our ears. Although of course there were fact that there are actually historical examples of people. Actually trying to carry out this ideology. Kind of changes the tenor of the discussion. When you talk about what would have happened in the United States. If the civil war had not been fought would we have about ever abolish slavery? Peacefully. And so we asked Adam Rochman to engage in some counterfactual speculation with us right. I asked might be polite. Term kind of badgered him into actual discussion regarding. What would have happened to slavery at? This war had never occurred. There used to be an idea that slavery was just going to die a natural death in the nineteenth century through to the pressures of the invisible hand. I think that I think that's a little common understanding falls. Yeah it's really. There are many ways that slavery was able to find a thriving niche for itself in the new industrial order of the nineteenth century both through the expansion of cotton but also the technological innovation in the oldest of the plantation economies. That have sugar and I think one of the reasons. Why the civil war emancipation? The civil war was so crucial is precisely because slavery was not ever going to die a natural death to could've just absent emancipation APPs. The civil war could have just come chugged along in the United States. Indefinitely chugged along indefinitely even the visions of gradual emancipation that were floated before the civil war. The kinds of visions at even Lincoln subscribed to really didn't imagine the final abolition of slavery until the end of the eighteen hundreds. Well all right so you know. Think about that possibility and not only is it a question of whether or not and when slavery had been abolished but how different would the social and political order of the United States have been if slavery had slowly morphed into some other kind of a quasi feudal relationship in the heart of a liberal democracy so there are a lot of what ifs none of them are good? You know setting aside the alternate history for a moment if we go back to real history. There was a real fear among enslaved people that the state of freedom wasn't permanent that they would if things were very uncertain. Things are very much influx in terms. Of what all this meant. And that's another reason. Why the verse Harare Story in a stand in for a lot of the uncertainty here. You know her kids actually were kidnapped and taken away down into Cuba but there were other rumors. After the end of the war of recently free people being kidnapped and sold down to Cuba Brazil place in South America Which kind of goes to show that. The specter of the continuing slavery in the southern part of the Hemisphere Is Very real to people And these places exist as place where you could still be grabbed and pulled down to in Adam Roth Montoya. These fears were so prevalent that in eighteen sixty six. The Senate actually investigated an issue report on this question of kidnappings and although it's hard to find concrete evidence about the veracity of some of these reports that the the fears that people had of these kinds of kidnappings came from the precarity that they felt especially during the war that's right. There are definite instances of mass kidnappings during the war. And one of my. I wouldn't call favorite facts. It's a horrible thing. But it's it's a useful factor no just in terms of debunking myths about the civil war one of those misses the Robbie Lee Virginia refining for their homes and their own freedom. But it is a fact that during the Gettysburg Campaign Robbie Lee's Army Northern Virginia embarked on kidnapping campaigns to take blacks Free Blacks and sell them down south in the slavery or send them down. South in the slavery and that sort of thing and wasn't unknown to enslave people. They heard of these things and they cost quite a bit of fear. You have to remember that You know the civil war was a hard-fought closely fought war and It wasn't one in which the Union army kept pushing forward you. There are times that they retreated. There are times when they were defeated. There are times of the confederacy gained background that they had lost and whenever they did the newly freed people in those regions were in for trouble because confederate sees them. Sometimes they killed them sometimes. They sold him back into slavery There are many examples of that sort of thing we don't. It hasn't quite made it into the history books yet. But there's a lot of evidence that stuff like that took place so the rumor of the kidnappings after the war. I think is very much an extension of that experience of wartime kidnapping and also kidnapping before the war. In the case of Solomon North of is the most famous one but again only the tip of the iceberg for the experience of free people of color especially in the north but also people caller in the south being Essentially Rian slaved so. This was part of the experience of black people in the United States. We always think of people moving from slavery to freedom. We don't often think about people moving From freedom back into slavery or careening between those two conditions. I think we've been taken by this idea. That the arc of the moral universe bends towards justice. Sometimes you know it bends backwards. I think that happened during the war. War is mayhem. It's havoc so if we enter into the experience of enslaved and newly free people during the war and see it through their eyes. We would see as a much more chaotic much more confusing incredibly hopeful but also Incredibly fearful moment. New York of the universe is S- quickly. It's not an arc to continue along with that kind of big picture thinking I I do. WanNa make a couple quick points about what it meant for emancipated? United States to come on and did first thing is that we really are in a situation in eighteen sixty In eighteen sixty five where? They're legitimate questions about whether a democratic society can survive can exist can endure Just ten years earlier there were failed revolutions in Europe. Democracy kind of is on the wane In in sort of countries were existed and so the civil war becomes his big kind of world historical question of whether or not democratic government. Actually it's feasible to be successful. Conclusion of it for the United States is actually very big deal in terms of the spread of democratic governance. Yeah and we were late to anticipate that's right. We relate to abolish but after we did the rest of your on Cuba and Brazil followed suit. Right it's hard to imagine a United States that can persist a liberal democracy but is also a large slave society essentially. Eventually something had to give in sort of real life history we gave was. We had a war about it. But if we'd never had to worry about it hard to say what would have happened. But my my hunch is that United States or at least worked parts of it but it looks something like South Africa except way worse South African apartheid. I think the other thing to keep in mind is that the end of slavery and I'll be careful but our language here. There's no question that in the twenty first century there are people who are enslaved. There is slavery in countries like Martina. there are lots of screen instances and examples of human bondage with that said the emancipation. United States effectively ended the global economic institution. That was slavery That no longer exists in. That is a huge thing And when we say slavery has ended. I think that's generally what we mean that this transatlantic deeply embedded into tion of Bondage that connected the United States to South America to Europe To European colonies elsewhere had come to an end right a thing that was at the foundation of everyone who had a lot of money. Partly hot it because of that right and that's not the case anymore and that's that's no small thing and in our conversation with Adam He really kind of gets to fix that. We should not discount even even with all the caveats and everything that came after emancipation and all the failures in the United States to really make good on the promise of Man's patient. We really should not discount how generally important this was both for enslaved people for the United States as a country and for you know I mean to sound a bit about it that the cause of human freedom yes even the very fact that Rose Harare was able to work through the courts. In the later part of the eighteen sixties and was able to retrieve her children Was sort of revolutionary. In a way you know we talked a little bit about the the way that the trial went for her. The way that You know people were called as witnesses to say you know. Those children seemed happy with the slave holder. They seem like they are being taken. Good care of which is sort of this like standard paternalist line which has at its heart. The implication that black people can't possibly be good parents and you know she was able to sort of battle and get them back. And that's the sort of the effect of emancipation within an individual life So we're GONNA take a little break and when we come back. We're going to speak again with Heather Williams the historian we spoke with an episode for about family separation. And we're GONNA talk to her about other ways that people after the war after emancipation during reconstruction who had been scattered to the four corners of the earth. Tried to find you talk. You can read an excerpt from Adam Rothmans book beyond freedoms reach a kidnapping in the twilight of slavery. As part of this slate academy find the link and our show notes or at slate dot Com Slash Academy This is the history of American slavery as academy. I'm Rebecca Onion and I'm Jamal Buoy. We're talking today about how formerly enslaved people attempted to put their families back together in the years following emancipation. Just as rose. Harare spent the years after the war trying really hard to get her children back from Cuba. Many other people found themselves in the position of trying to figure out where they're far-flung families were. What's so difficult about trying to tell these stories or even constructed in the first place. It's just the sheer lack of documentary evidence. Remember enslaved people did not have records with them. Many of them did not know how to read or write America. Or take down records into what we rely on to can build these narratives and find. These stories are what we have from the Friedman's bureau which established towards the end of the civil war. To begin to I mean essentially deal with the huge population of formerly enslaved people who now had to make their way in war-torn south the record the freemen's bureau which actually have been recently released online and we can include the link to that and our show notes are good sources for tracing what happened to some families people who happen to come into contact with the Freedman's bureau in trying to find their loved ones but there are a lot of stories that have gotten lost in a recent book entitled. Helped me to find my people historian Heather Williams who we talked to in episode four when we talked about family separation. She documents the stories of people doing everything in their power to find their husbands wives children parents who had been taken from them in one way or another so we had the chance to talk to Professor Williams again at the end of our podcast series on to ask her how people tried to rectify the family separations. That had happened to them during the slavery years. If you were in Virginia if you were a mother in Virginia whose child had been purchased by a traitor. You had no idea where your childhood ended up. I mean sometimes people had some sense of it but very often When people started the search they just weren't sure and nobody had kept records. You know individual traders would have records so their letters that a slave traders writing back to one of his partners or even one He's writing back to his wife and he's he lists the eight people he had sold. He names them. But it's just a first name and that's not an official record. There was no directory. There was no listing of where people had been taken to. And so you start out having a sense that the particular trader who had purchased your child in the market in Richmond or from the plantation in Richmond did business in New Orleans. And so you know I see people who were writing to the Freedman's bureau a government office that was established by the federal government People are using them as a kind of search bureau. Somebody in Virginia might right to the Freedman's bureau in New Orleans and say the trader took my child and this is the traders name. And can you tell me what happened to my son but most times a letter like that would have just gone into the garbage into a file so one thing that I try to remember. When hearing about these stories is just much geographic distance. Slavery had put between some people. So you could. Have you know someone who started out in Virginia? How family in Virginia and then got sold way south and you could have someone who was way south and then during the war the slaveholders took them to taxes to try to stay away from the army on any number of situations like that that put in a time when there is not really you know fast transportation And especially not for no money The geographic distance becomes just kind imaginable. Right in this is I want to emphasize the extent to which depending on where you're enslaved. You could be separated from family members and spouses by these huge. This is just a matter of the local economy so Virginia for example is a slave exporting state If you are enslaved tidewater and your child gets sold away. They could be sold away. Literally anywhere They could be sort of wooded in North Carolina. It could be in Florida. It could be in Mississippi and Louisiana and given those distances and not just the lack of Fast travel but the lack of rapid communication of any kind they're effectively dead for all intents and purposes when when someone is sold away across which distances they might as well have died then. I recall at least reading letters and slave narratives of people talking about it. In the exactly those terms of feeling as if their family members had died once they were sold away until you can imagine then right the the jubilation being reunited because it really is like someone coming back from the dead. Yeah it's amazing to think about those kinds of journeys and also amazing to think about sort of the thought process. He will go through trying to plan out how you would try to get reunited the amount of sort of networking and thinking and researching that you'd have to do. And so some of the stories that Dr Williams found were about people who made the decision to try to go back to where they had been sold and that was their strategy for trying to be reunited and so somebody from Arkansas goes back to Virginia to find her mother and her sister and she gets there but then she's run out of money and she wants to get back to Arkansas with her mother and sister but she has no funds and so she goes to the Freedman's bureau and the agent was very sympathetic and he tried to get approval to give her money for transportation but his higher up said No. Let her just stay in Virginia and she says but I have a husband and children in Arkansas. And we're doing very well there and so I wanNA take my mother and my sister there and the bureaucracy the letters going back and forth and eventually she finds a way. I mean she was obviously quite resourceful and she found the money to get back to Arkansas. Transportation is an issue. And it's through these requests that you get to see what the people were doing. They're making these efforts. But it's really up to the discretion of the Friedman's bureau that agent or that office whether you'll get the support and I think that if you were elderly you were more likely to get support getting back to family. Because the government didn't want you to be dependent on the government. So if you're old and you can't work. Then maybe the government's going to have to give you a rations food rations and they don't want that so they'll they'll help pay for you to get back to a family that can support you So it was really tough. I mean some people just walked for hundreds of miles trying to get back to the place where they had left family and of course. Sometimes you get there and the family's not there and that's something people had found during slavery when they escaped you go back thinking your mother and your siblings are where you left them. And they're not they're listening to Professor Williams instead of just reading and thinking about these stories. My I thought this might just be because I'm me is that I am shocked that no one has tried to make a film out of any of this. It seems sort of ready made for a cinematic depiction either now of the lead Daniels kind of small Tsy type. I like the Butler. Or you know my my preference would be for something a bit more. You know I guess all right. I'm looking for is bleak or dire. Now you know like a movie where a formerly slave person you know traverses the south Not just to find the relatives but to get revenge right you know. That's that's more my style but either way all seems very ripe for for cinema just because he's a powerful stories and their stories. You know happening right here in the United States in places that you can go visit right now. Yeah and you know in telling that story and you could also tell the story of the fortunes of the people who've been split up you know like we've been talking throughout this whole series about this sort of diversity of that slavery happened. You know you tell the story of Iranian. You're also telling the story of the intervening years. These people you know your character is having these different experiences and then coming back together and trying to figure out how to live together again. That's a really interesting story. I think you should write a screenplay Jinbao once once they get all of my screenplay ideas out the way. Maybe I'll try to tackle this. Put It on your list anyway. So something that Dr Williams was talking about is the sort of obscure calculus. That went into the government's decisions to help people or not to help people try to figure out how to get back to their families so we asked her whether the decisions to help. People are not help people whether the treatments bureau actually had like a rubric for what to do in these cases. Yeah as far as I can tell. It was completely discretion. Hurry so that. If you're a freemen's bureau agent and a particular community you are being called on for all kinds of things you know. They're acting as courts really. In some cases they're deciding when owners want to keep former slaves working for them without pay. They're they're being consulted for that. They're trying to really push people into signing contracts to continue the work for former owners or for other plants so they were doing a lot of things and so somebody might be moved by a particular letter and might take the time to go and try to get some information about the person The family was searching for. But then you also see some comments from Friedman's bureau agents. Let's say in response to requests for transportation you know. Why don't they just stay where they are or This is a nuisance or they should not become dependent on the government so you had labored in slavery without pay for for your lifetime and your ancestors before that but in this moment of emancipation even asking for a few dollars to take. A train was seen as if we do that. We'll be encouraging dependency and we cannot have people dependent on the federal government. And so no. We're not going to help to things. Stick out here for me. The first is that even even immediately after the end of slavery when you have people who really do need some sort of material help just to get up on their feet and can be self sufficient. You have these worries about dependency which I think is very much tied to racial ideas about black-americans that these are people who are helpless and cannot fend for themselves parenthetical. That's in part why they're in slavery And we don't want that to happen again and it's interesting to Kinda sucks to pose that. With the extent to which in plenty of places in the postwar south northern officials are trying to return freed people to some sort of a Labor arrangement for the production of cotton and other resources that these I feel like those. Two things are intention Way that you know. I'm sure some people realize at the time but whatever the other thing in this is I think more of a thirty thousand feet view of things. It's just how much the Freedman's bureau Feels very modern in terms of the kind of services and the kind of thing he was trying to do. That hadn't really happened before in American society. And certainly not as a function of government. I'm you can imagine a large humanitarian agency in the wake of a war coming out of the first World War the Second World War And it makes sense to become out of the civil war which is sort of a another conflict of comparable size and destruction But still feels both very appropriate and a bit out of place. If if you see what I'm saying I mean it seems so extremely ad hoc both like powerful and ad hoc in some ways right. I think maybe sort of the feeling that you get from is that you know it's like Oh of course. Someone needs to step in something needed to happen. There's so many people have all these human needs and are just in this sort of really chaotic place but at the same time model for it. Yeah there's no model for it and the Freemen's bureau fascinates me for that reason. I think it's so interesting. So because there's all this chaos and because the freemen's bureau is not super interested in being source of unlimited or even sort of generous help. What's interesting is that it. You know as as is often the case that the mystery of American slavery. It is the enslaved people themselves in this case the for millions of people who are working to reunite themselves and bring some order to their own lives. That's the source of another amazing set of sources that Dr Williams used in her book. One one of the really fantastic sources from the time period or these information wanted ads the ads that people placed in newspapers after the end of the civil war so the war ends in April and by October you have people so before the thirteenth amendment you have people establishing newspapers black newspapers and then people start to advertise in these newspapers looking for family members and the ADS might be three or four lines five lines but the information they would put in is the name of the person you're looking for the name of the people because somebody you know there's a mother in Raleigh with lost nine children. She names each of them. Very important. Information is who they belong to and in a family people may have belonged to two or three people or four people and so they want to listen to name the slave owners and the reason for that is because these would have been for the most part white men in a community whose names would mean something more than my mother's name was betty even if you give a last name for the former slave that name may have changed and so you want to give the name of the owner and then also the name of a slave trader if a trader had been involved in the sale you might know of multiple owners. Some people knew that a daughter mother might know that her daughter had been sold and taken to Texas and then in one case had been taken to Cuba and so they're listing the places where the person had been and they're listing the names of the white men who had been involved in the transaction. Mr Editor desires some information about my mother. The last time I saw her. I wasn't Alexandria Virginia. About the year eighteen fifty two or eighteen fifty three name was Hannah. She belonged to lawyer Tibbs. Who sold her when I was quite young to a trader named brushing. Lather tibbs lived in Leesburg Virginia when he saw mother to bring afterwards. Tips moved to Alexandria Virginia and swap me to bring for another boy brethren put me in jail and I cried so he told me if I would hush he would bring my mother their next morning which he did mother then brought me some cake and candy and that was the last time I saw her. Brother brought me to New Orleans Louisiana and sold into a man name 'em picket mother is found. Please address me. These Ville Yazoo County Mississippi and Care Reverend James Allen Henry tibbs southwestern Christian advocate December. Eleventh eighteen seventy nine so the thing about that odd to me besides the fact that has a really sad story in it is the you know the last time that hundred tube saw his mother was in eighteen fifty three and he's placing ad in eighteen. Seventy nine and so a bunch of years already passed and he's got all this information sort of that. He's treasuring her he's keeping he's sort of. He's trying to figure out how to make these pieces that he has fit together in a way that will bring her back to right in this. I mean this is as we've said this story that's replicating itself across the South and one thing I wouldn't do is under steaks sent towards this kind of story probably has been going on syncing the civil war into the president because you had so many families were separated so many people wrenched away from from their relations. Maybe the direct people never found each other the parents and the children the Siblings Deva spouses. But they're the next generation forward running somewhere and retrieve generations. Forward may run into someone at today. There are plenty of stories about people discovering or meeting or in. I guess you can use the word. Reuniting we use for this With you know families have enslavers enslaved but I wouldn't discount the extent to which with Ginny Lodge research especially your finding people. Reuniting with family members or branch to their family that were separated in the wake of of slavery and the civil war in that the civil war in this period of American history isn't really that far away in in terms of human life spans. It's having the Louis C. K. Joke is that it's two seventy five year old women living back to back into that in my time span families can still find each other a hundred years later. Yeah and I'm hoping that the more sort of documents like this go online either. The separation. The freemen's bureau ads in just a more effort. Put into digitizing this stuff that easier that will become although of course we know that some stuff just never got written down so no matter. How much digitisation we do. In some cases does reunions will be hard to bring about. But we wanted to know from Dr Williams. How many of these ads might have led to successful reunions? Of course she doesn't really you know that numerically but she let us know that she was able to find a few success stories in the documentary record. There's one case where there's a letter written by a man named Tate and it was written in eighteen sixty three so it was written after the emancipation proclamation was signed but this had no effect on his freedom or his wife's freedom because they masturbation commission did not most enslaved people and so he and his wife belong to two different owners. Her owner had taken her away. They lived in Georgia and so she was still in Georgia but hundreds of miles away and so he was dictating a letter his The slave owners wife actually wrote the letter for him and he says you know this is probably my last letter because master says it makes no sense for me to keep writing to you. He will not let me come and live near where you are. Because you're owner took you away. And so that's not his responsibility. And furthermore he says I should find another woman but they're all these other women here who would be interested in me and and so he sends his love to his wife and two children. He names the children never names his wife he. He says my dear wife but he pledges his love to her. He says I'm not interested in any of these other women but if anything should happen I'll let you know I. And he kinda goes back and forth on this so this eighteen sixty three and I was able to find him in the eighteen. Seventy cents us as a free person living in a household with a woman and with three children and two of the children have the names of the children he had mentioned in that letter. Yeah that's really great back when we were first brainstorming in this project be kind of working hard to figure out how to organize everything you know. American slavery nothing of sort of slavery in the Western Hemisphere Large is a massive topic And you know. People make entire academic careers at focusing on small slices of it doe. How are we going to tell the story in nine episodes no less without overlooking as something and I think your idea? Rebecca to focus on these individual lives Instead of trying to tackle it brought theme by broad theme and I mentioned that because I think this bless clip and in this episode in particular really highlights how much the history of American slavery is a history of these individual lives of these families. Never these communities And of their struggle to bring some sense of order incoherence and and light to their lives in the midst of this desert terrible system. I think it's really I mean. I've believed it when I proposed this way of doing it and I think at the end of the experience of doing this whole inaugural slate academy that especially for this topic. I like looking at as much information about people's lives as we have because there are so many sort of big sweeping things that happened during the period that affected people's lives that you know from the perspective of the white people living at the time. Those people enslaved people didn't matter for outside of history in some way or were You know the sort of the matter that was building history or like the hands that was building history but weren't affected by in some way and that part of the racism allowed slavery to happen. And so for me. You know looking at as much information as we have which is not very much about some people about how people reacted to what was going on around them and you know may decisions or change. The way that they're living or tried to fix things for themselves or in whatever way that might be for me that's kind of a way of saying well. They were part of history. They were there and they were affected by things and they were trying to do whatever they could change things. What's remarkable to me is how much you know. One hundred fifty years later These stories and these places still resonate finish off the series. We did an event Involving a whole host of scholars around slavery or about slavery which you can listen to at the Slade Academy website and one of the people who participated What he does as Partially job partially a vocation. Personally Hobby is bring people to sleep Into STAY IN. What's left of the cabins of nwsafe people on former plantations in to me that that's just an incredibly powerful thing Because what it does is. It does begin to help. You inhabit it. The lives of these people you know I I. I said at the beginning of this series of long had an interest in academic interest in American slavery. But I'd never thought so much about individual lives people's lives as I have doing this project and I'm I'm grateful for it It's given me a new way of approaching this history history in general I mean I love hearing that as a cultural historian. Sort of my my always sort of my reflects in some way. I'm always sort of interested in everyday life and I'm interested in the way that you know large political movement affect what happens in the kitchen or what happens in a bedroom and one of the amazing things about doing. This series to me is the amount of scholarship that people have been able to produce the actually look at those sort of intimate relationships or emotional relationships family relationships. The way people are around each other every day you know. There was an argument that he made that. That stuff is gone because it wasn't recorded but there's a lot of really good book. Stephanie Camps Book that I really loved or Bully Glimpse Book an Gordon. Reed's book these all writers who are trying to say okay. So we don't have that much information but we do have some stuff that we can kind of think about as a way to reconstruct the way that people just on a kind of an emotional level reacted to being enslaved and that to me is sort of like what has the potential to transform the way that people think about the history of slavery because it's so hard so that's so exhausting way to think about and there when you get down to it on human level. I think it's paradoxically almost easier in some way. I think that's right and I think getting down to the human level also helps I think the spell some of the myths and misdirections that emerge in any public conversation about slavery. We published a piece for slate On many of these miss misdirections and one of the I think the common threads to all of them is an attempt to completely abstract out the people involved and so it's easy to kind of dismiss mass suffering or it's easy to kind of look for some way out if these are all of this. Visit all dismissed. Traction I think it's much more difficult when you're thinking of the enslaved as actual people like you know like you and me people who had aspirations people who loves There's in Tallahassee coaches book between the world on me which is written as a letter to his son there is a great passage where he describes an enslaved person as someone who alike particular way. Light fell on the grass right. There were people just like you and I and remembering bat and taking that seriously Doesn't just make for for better history but I think it provides the empathy that allows us to resist the temptation to opposite kate or avoid the reality of institution and the people who inhabited it You can read an excerpt from heather. Williams's book helped me to find my people. The African American search family lost in slavery as part of this late academy find the link in our show notes more at slate dot com slash academy. And with that. That's the end of this. I Play Academy. We really want to thank you listeners. For sticking with us through this sort of experimental project and what we want to hear what kinds of topics you'd like to hear slate explorer in the academy format in the future. So there's a link to a survey in the show notes for this episode. Or you can write us. An email at history academy at slate dot com email address has the history in it but this academies won't always be about history and so if you're interested in hearing an academy about some other non history related topic chocking knew that sounds to me Send US An e mail and we will poured it to the right person and we should say. Thank you to everyone who helped put this together. That includes our producers. I Tony Field. And Jeff Friedrich as well as our sleep plus bosses Dan Lewis and Gabe roth minute also slate management for the siting of this is a thing good idea to do and I also want to say thank you so much to the professors the scholars who appeared as our guests for bearing with our many curious questions if you missed any earlier episodes it good a slate dot com slash academy and there's also links to experts in the books we talked about their and further reading. And we're going to leave the episodes up I late plus members. Part of the idea of the series was that it would be something that would be durable. That would be evergreen that you could listen to the next year or the year after that so they will continue to be available. We will continue to use our private facebook group for listeners. Which is facebook dot com slash groups Slash History Academy Rebecca more than me honestly post a lot of great stuff to read. I will try to engage more as well. And hopefully we can keep the conversation going both for people who've been listening from the beginning and for the recurring new listeners. Be We hope to have to mail? Thank you so much for doing this with me. Rebecca thank you for asking me to do it. I'm really glad we we had a chance to work together on this. I'm Rebecca I'm moby and thank you so much for listening.
Bob Lonsberry Show 06-19-20 Hr 1
"On Dot Org, newsradio whammy eighty weather brought to you by William. Muhtar hurt car call. William Muhtar partly cloudy today. That will come more in the afternoon right now. It's a brilliant out there. It will be humid in the high will be in the mid eighties. There could be some afternoon. Thunderstorms which be very good for my garden. It's sixty nine. An amazingly were still allowed to say that on the air it sixty nine degrees at eight twelve, and you're listening to news radio. Ham Eleven eighty. Well today. Is. June teeth. it's a what you call it when you mix to worse together for June. Nineteenth and it has for a long time, Ben a holiday in the state of Texas. It It Memorial Isis the day that the last slavery. Of African Americans in the confederate states, the former confederate states was allowed quote unquote. The marks the day June nineteen. Eighteen sixty five. There is a the major generally union army. Gordon Granger. The deal is that the emancipation proclamation Abraham Lincoln came up with that He wrote at the end of eighteen sixty two. He waited for some sort of decisive victory on the battlefield, an effective January, first eighteen sixty three play president. Lincoln said that all slaves in the confederate states were freed of course as a practical matter if the Union army hadn't yet, you know concord, if you will or come to control an area of a slave state, you know those slaves weren't free. The confederate authorities quote unquote would still compel them in that hateful situation. as the war advanced as the armies moved. There were liberations of people that went on on a daily basis for most of two years. The people who were If you will. Came to be called in the language of the day contraband. And it seems like an odd word, but There was a a a union general. His name escapes me. Who by declaring slaves who had been? You know who are now free? Because the Union army had come through and in and taking over territory by declaring them contraband property he found a way under military law to provide for them and employ them and to help you know, provide some services for them to you know, go forward in what was at that point, a newly shattered a social structure. Like where do I live? Where do I get food stuff like that? So, the actual process of people being freed from slavery after the man's a patient proclamation. It was determined by victory on the battlefield right, and and those came at different times to different places, also the emancipation proclamation did not free slaves in union territory. I'll explain why that was more about that moment. We need a break I though on Newsradio, wham eleven eighty. Eighty weather brought to you by William. Muhtar hurt in a car. Call William Muhtar. It's going to be partly cloudy later on today. It's going to be human. It's going to be pretty warm high in the mid to upper eighties and there might be a thunderstorm or two, which would be good for your lawn. It's seventy at eight twenty and you're listening to Newsradio wham eleven. You know what to do it. Proper time being a little tight. Teeth in the history of the end of slavery in the United States coming out of the eight thirty five news. It's a a wonderful fascinating a topic in June eighteenth as celebrated for a century plus in Texas was a day of jubilation, and and rejoicing and I think we could use a little jubilation and rejoicing right about now surprised to see that the mayor of Rochester and the county executive of Monroe. County both Democrats did not declared June eighteenth and employ a holiday for their employees by contrast Syracuse mayor and the. The onondaga county executive both them. Republicans did declare this a holiday and their employees get the day off with pay. I believe broadcast central While we rejoiced with all rejoicing, I do not think there any days off with pay that have been declared west. Glad you phoned up. Welcome to news radio. Am Eleven Eighty Good Morning? Bob, to us of all I! WanNa. Thank you for what you do. Your kept our head above water. Second of all I'm watching TV I'm watching the news. All of these states twenty states have an increase in colon. But. Do we forget two weeks ago? There were all these protests. Does that and nothing on the news about that when we did it, do they think the American people stupid while I look stupid, that unfortunately contributes to the confusion. Here's the thing I. You know me I'm a get back to life I. Think the best thing we could have done was just to ignore this and gone about life, but but here's the thing. Thing. There's there's a there's a a natural phenomenon taking place out there which I we do not understand the the FAO cheese and the Mendoza's. The world are very good sounding authoritative. They have not turned out to be that good at actually knowing what the Hell's going on, so we human beings are watching this virus and we're trying to figure it out. here's a deal. The protests of course yes took place in those states, but they also took place here. Right I it and yet we don't have a protest. Bump at all right, which is a good the protesters you know if you're one of them, thank you, but the protesters did everybody a favor. It was like an experiment. If a bunch of people get together outdoors most of more masks. How's that GONNA? Turn out. We've discovered from Kovic standpoint. Is Skirt turnoff fine? You're not going have a problem so i. don't think that's what it is. An interesting deal is that. The social distancing is being done a lot less all over the country. You and I are doing a lot less social distancing right in these states They're doing a lot less social distancing. In those states, the amount of covert infection is going up in our state. The amount of covid infection is going down. Are we doing something different and better? I mean Andy Cuomo. You know while stroking himself like to like to tell you. Yes, but the answer is no. We are Americans living our lives it in the parameters that the government's giving us end down there. those are Americans living their lives in pretty much identical parameters. Now we're HAV- having different different comes, and so there must be a unperceived or not understood factors at play here and and I hope that see unfortunately this whole frigging disease has been politicized, and maybe no more so than in the health community, and especially in the public health community I hope that there is just lean back objective actual hashtag science going on here because you know this this this virus. We don't yet have a treatment. You know I we. We got this thing out of England earlier this week, we. We had the thing that they're doing at the University of Rochester the one in England that can help you if you're very acute. The other one they're testing here is very marginal on a good day. M saying we don't have a treatment. We don't have a vaccine yet very close on a vaccine. It's GonNa. Be Like they say you know into next spring at the earliest before we can give you a shot, and you're good to go so we have to deal with it somehow right, I'm not in favor of. Hiding hole in the ground again, but you know we do want to be prudent, and we'd rather have fewer people get sick. We especially rather have fewer people die right, so it's just interesting to watch and also not just watch and try to figure out we need. We need to know what's happening and no one has any idea interesting to note though that. New York which has suffered so much worse than the world arguably You'd think that we'd have compassionate advice for these other states. No Andy Cuomo's offering them mockery and condescension. He's making fun. Of other states, people getting sick and dying right guy I guess that's New York Utah. That's the way we roll. We're going to stop tied how they has. Big Newscast will be back when the good man's done a review, the end of slavery in the United States coming up on Newsradio, wham eleven eighty. Welcome back friends. Welcome back, okay! June eighteenth the first ever commemorated by the state of New, York today by executive order next week. Probably my check next year probably by legislation. Passed in Albany a state, workers have today off. Also some municipalities, not around here and counties have declared woke holiday and their employees have the day off The end of slavery of African Americans in the United States. again Lincoln after about a year. The civil war was all in for emancipation. On philosophical and on strategic grounds. came up with the emancipation proclamation. Unfortunately, he wrote it in a period of time when the Union army was losing a lot of battles and the advice of his cabinet was. Don't go public with that right now because it's going to look like it's a desperate move, and it's GonNa look like you know Y-, it's GonNa. Look desperate so they put it aside and waited till the war started going their way our way of the North Way and when that happened, he issued this emancipation proclamation, which took effect, January, first, eighteen, sixty three. And, what the anticipation proclamation deal was! It freed all the slaves in the rebel states, and here's how he did it, and why it was just the rebel states. politically there were border states in Kentucky being one of them that had come with the union, but which still had slavery It was essential to keep. The border states in the Union. If we lost them, we we. We probably would have lost the war, so he didn't want to tick them off. That was the political aspect of it. There was also the legal aspect of it. it. Lincoln freed the slaves not as president of the United States. But as commander in chief of the Army of the United States a constitutional office which she holds. And and here's how he did it. He, did it under the argument that if I'm the commander in chief of the army, then areas conquered by the army I am the occupier of and I may under a law of war, a set conditions and circumstances for occupied territories, and so as commander in chief. He said I free the people who are currently enslaved in occupied territories, and and that's what occurred, and there's a whole fascinating history of what life was like for those people over the next couple of years look up the word contraband and become familiar with with that a fascinating. It's an interesting part of our country's history, and for many people. It's part of their own personal ancestry. and then. The thing that we call June eighteenth, the deal was after the war ended in April of eighteen sixty five the confederacy is now surrendered the United States Army in effect, occupies all of the confederate states of America and so the emancipation proclamation of bear sway, but the deal is at at. The, confederacy was a big place and included Texas. which was you know itself? A big space and The South surrendered but Texas didn't really know about it right. The war was over Guy. Go tell them and that brings the June eighteenth which I'll tell you about in just a moment time now for traffic and weather in the tens on Newsradio whammo of. newsradio WAM eleven eighty traffic. newsradio eleven eighty weather brought to you by William Muhtar hurt in a car call William Muhtar. It's going to be partly cloudy. That will come later. You'll be humid today. That's come now. It will be hot today. That's getting here pretty soon and a high in the mid to upper eighties forecast, and we could have some thunderstorms in the afternoon. Not Not a lot of the ones that do come again will be good for our gardens. It's seventy at eight forty one and you're listening to news radio CAM eleven eight. So, the deal is again. The civil war ended in April eighteen, sixty five, and of course, President Lincoln was assassinated in April of eighteen sixty five. General Grant. sent a major major. General Gordon Granger of the United States. Army with a small expeditionary force to Galveston Texas. which was then about the westernmost point, of the confederacy and he went up on a balcony, did general grainger and he read out the emancipation proclamation and some additional material that was June nineteen, eighty, eighteen, sixty five. June nineteenth, which became you know it's it just became June teeth in the vernacular if you will. That was the end of slavery in the confederacy in the United States, but here's the deal as you see all the politicians in their proclamation today talking about the the end of slavery. It wasn't because remember The emancipation proclamation was issued. By Lincoln as commander in Chief of the army and he had no authority to make any such declaration in the states that weren't at war with the United States. The border states so what about that? Well? The congress was right after doing its part and The thirteenth amendment was being pushed through in the thirteenth. Amendment Naung Mung other things ends involuntary servitude in the United States, it ends a slavery that was ratified on the sixth of December, eighteen, sixty five, and at that point in places like Kentucky and forgive me I'm Brian cramping the other border states, but that's when slaves that were held by Union states. had to be released, and so the last day of. I hate these words to to say legal slavery just kills me. It's because it's certainly not consistent with you. Know the legality of your heart. But legal slavery of African American people. In the United States ended on December sixth eighteen, sixty five. But. Here's the deal. Slavery did not end in American territory on that day because slavery had included more than just. states and as as practitioners of it, and it included as well more than just African Americans as the victim summit. and this is a small arcane piece, but there's the native American piece. he, there were various native American tribes who the provoke slavery existed in the Americas before you know the Europeans got here. And everything else. There were tribes of the South who embraced slavery African. The slavery of African Americans, it. was you know unfortunately and the deal is that those native American tribes who were outside? You know the states, but within the territory the United States. Some of them retained black slaves past the of eighteen, sixty five, not many in there were you know quick that that that got stamped out or the next couple of years? But here's the thing. Native American slavery of other native Americans. continued in the territory of the United States. A bit. into the late eighteen seventies, and quite possibly into the early eighteen eighty s especially in the Pacific, northwest, but the slavery we understand the horrific thing which we have learned and Ben Aghast at since a childhood. This Day is Sorta, commemorates end and again. June eighteenth has been a celebration in Texas. To State holiday there for about one hundred years, or so. It was a day of jubilation. It was celebration picnics, rodeos dances It was pure fun. It was a celebration it in the nineteen sixties and seventies and stuff it became more of a more somber refocused. You Know Day and now America. If June, teeth becomes a holiday as presumably it. It will will have to decide. Is this a day to celebrate the end of slavery? Is that a day to Look back on oppression. Is it a day of Racial Civil Rights Activism? What does this day mean and that'll be defined? I suspect by people who maybe commencing today back with you in a moment on Newsradio. WHAM eleven eighty. newsradio whammy eighty weather brought to you by William Muhtar hurt in a car. Call. William Muhtar we'll be some clouds that come in a little bit later today. As well as some degrees, it's going to be hot mid to upper eighties, fairmount humidity, maybe an afternoon thunder boomer. It's seventy one and eight fifty one in you're listening to newsradio eleven eight. Okay somebody hit a bear with your car three ninety. This am about six thirty over by is West Henrietta road not so far from genesee valley. Park. No somebody driving down. The road hits a bear. Let me. Just say this. For thirty two years. I've been driving something like eighty miles a day on my commute. And I have not seen a single bear. And here's thing I would swerve not on I e, even if I had to drive a fair distance off the road to hit it I would try to hit that bear. No Right. 'cause I'm I'm never going to get one hunting I. can you know I know I mostly Napoli Hunt Not a good thing, but the about six thirty this morning. Somebody hit the bear. The bear was killed. Let me do. This a little bit of censorship, the news, the great spectrum overnight, a a news photographer photographer was of course there God video of the dead bear. It Berry Scott Barstool he. I talk. He's one of your house over there. You were a spectrum. He's amazed hockey. Mindy coming on the show I would show you on show free easy. I think I've invited him once or twice, but he is the overnight eyes and ears of this town. He really is. If you're on twitter, follow him. He goes to everything, but anyway here's the thing. Bury your friends Scott will not post pictures of the dead bear. Oh, because he does you know there might be kids looking in Bob or something like that okay I. Don't want people to cry Bob. Anyway so by the way you should see Scott. I've watched him in the news room late at night. And he is one of those guys that he hears something on the scanner. He's jumping out of his chair he he doesn't miss a thing. I mean the best digestive. What happened overnight in the Monroe? County area is to follow Scott Barstool on on twitter. He's he's at everything. What was I going to say? Yeah, so what happened was the bear gets hit gets killed I think the I. The the State Police say that it was the Monroe County sheriff's job and a DC job. I have texted the sheriff's office waiting to hear back the two troopers Put the the bear in the back of a truck so I don't know how much Wade but no because I think if you think if you kill killing me, get to take them. Right saw Duh Duh, that's. Your opponent you. What's Ed? I said baby bear me. Come on now. You ever come to my house and there's a bear rug in the middle of the living room floor, and it looks like there's a set of tire tracks over the top of it well. Bobby got lucky I think there's photo circulating on the Internet somewhere with you in a barrack, yeah! Let's. Let's hopefully not Dennis thank you for Calling Sarah. You're on newsradio. WHAM eleven eighty. Aren't Bob. so Wall Street Journal yesterday editorial totally totally sports everything you've been saying about. The Kobe screw ups. 'cause a lot of Statistics I. Want I know you hate statistics on radio, but to other thirty, six, twenty, four, thirty-six I love statistics. Go ahead. Okay, that wasn't one of them, but that's my favorite. To what. Going up sorry. Okay thank you saying Texas is up forty percent. It's up from three percent of their beds occupied by call them patients to five percent that statistical noise. It's totally irrelevant. The other is New York? At its peak never hit one hundred percent of a task capacity, and now something like twenty nine percent of its hospital. Beds are available for patients, so there's all this bullshit about where it goes. But dump that very very. It's okay. It's okay can't say bad words Here's the thing I would say. I do believe that the evening news is pumping up the stats in those twenty states where there's an increase, but and I think that they're pumping up the stats on positive cases, which may well be a function of dramatically increased testing, but in my brain so far I think that hospitalizations and deaths those aren't numbers you can screw with. Those are hard numbers right? How many people were sick enough to go to the hospital? That's. That's not interpretation that's that's a data point and how many people passed away? That's again. Not You know you? That's not infl-? That's a data point and both those numbers in some states are going up and so my again my thought is we should try to figure out why because we're doing the same thing in New, York that we're doing Texas pretty much by and large now. And why are there different outcomes? What's what's driving net? Is there some aspect of weather or climate. Is there some aspect of? I don't know the makeup of the people in community. Is there some you know some small cultural thing? Relative I have no idea, but we have a lot of questions, and the sooner we get answers, the better will be prepared just in case it does come back in the fall of the great tide. Holiday has a newscast I think you're GONNA like we'll get to that. Be Back right after with you on newsradio Ham lemonade.
Harriet Tubman, a Woman of Faith and Courage
"The harriet tubman was a towering figure of courage and faith who risked her own life and her freedom over and over again for the colson center. I'm john stonestreet this his breakpoint recently. The biden administration announced that it will accelerate the process of replacing president. Andrew jackson's image on the twenty dollar bill with harriet tubman. Well at least on the front jackson would still appear on. The back was first announced under the obama administration but was put on hold by president. Trump's treasury secretary as the excellent two thousand and nineteen film about harriet tubman portrayed. She was a towering figure of courage and faith. She risked her. Oh my she risked her freedom time and time again to rescue men and women from slavery. Tubman was born into slavery on a maryland plantation in eighteen twenty. Two as a young girl she was trained as a nursemaid and made to work driving oxen and trapping muskrats in the woods. Harry its owners frequently whipped her. She also endured the pain of seeing three of her sisters. Sold never to be seen again even as a child. Harriet demonstrated a pretty strong rebellious streak. Running away for days at a time. She may have learned this from her mother when her owner attempted to sell one of her brothers harry. It's mother dissuaded the would-be buyer by announcing the first man. That comes into my house. I will split his head open and this may have been were. Harriet learned that resistance. The evil was not only right but could even sometimes be effective. Harry it's deep and abiding. Faith also came from her mother. Who would tell her stories from the bible at about twenty six years old. Harriet learned she might be sold away from her family. So she made her escape along the underground railroad travelling at night to avoid slave catchers following the northstar until she reached pennsylvania and her freedom once there. She made a dangerous choice. She decided to risk her own freedom in order to give others. There's for eight. Years is america headed toward the culture of civil war. Tubman made many dangerous trips back to maryland leading scores of slaves north. The freedom during these trips she relied upon god to guide and protect her and she never once. I a runaway slave. As tom and herself later put it. I never ran my train off. The track. And i never lost a passenger but harriet never took credit for this remarkable success. Instead she explained plot me twas the lord. I always told him i trust to you. I don't know where to go or what to do. But i expect you to lead me and he always did. It was long before tubman earned a very appropriate nickname. Moses abolitionist thomas. garrett said it this way. I never met with any person of any color. Who had more confidence in the voice of god as spoken direct to her soul during the civil war harry at work for the union army as a scout. A spy a cook and a nurse to wounded and six soldiers amazingly she even helped lead an armed assault on southern plantations coastal south carolina during which seven hundred fifty. Slaves were rescued. Many of those. She then recruited to join the army. In later years. Tom in became an advocate for women's suffrage. She also donated property to be turned into a home for former slaves. Despite the fact she lived in or near poverty for most of her life which is mostly due to the fact that she constantly was working to help others. it took thirty years for harriet. Tubman wrist to the union army to finally be recognized by the us government. She was then awarded a widow's pension of eight dollars a month in eighteen ninety five and then an additional twelve dollars a month in eighteen ninety nine for her service as a wartime nurse. If you do the math twelve plus eight. That's twenty dollars now. Nearly one hundred years after her death. The united states is ready to bestow on this heroic woman faith the honor of placing her portrait on the twenty dollar bill both ironic and fitting for the colson center. I'm john stonestreet with breakpoint.
ICYMI - The Best of Dulce Sloan in Quarantine
"You're listening to comedy central. June t the day we celebrate slavery of visually ending in America or you're gone with the wind band. A day of more. Now you might be thinking the end of slavery. So this is a mathematician proclamations. No, the emancipation proclamation of eighteen, sixty three didn't in slavery. Slavery didn't even in when the civil war was over in hundred and sixty five in reality, it took two months after the civil war in the Union army to get into all the days and free the slaked when again even our freedom. Why can around CPR but on June? Nineteen eighteen, sixty five, a union general named Gordon granger occupied Texas, the lack slave state, and declared all slaves free. He's an American hero. Briefs that my coffee shop I'm going to have to thank him. Next time I order MAKIHATA and. In Texas with especially import, because although Texas, for the last eight to be emancipated, it had a ton of slaves. It was black family reunion and will conduct. That's because during the war. A lot of slavers shift their slave Texas for state. Keeping Knowing Union troops couldn't reach that far. There were basically treating Texas like the couch pushes you hide the weed and when the cops. Officer I didn't know. Casual craigslist it came with the we need of course, even though and celebrate June at the end of slavery, it took many more months and a military occupation to actually enforce it because it's one thing to tell people they can't have. Slave is another thing. Go door to door like hey, you guys, because of not this better be a big ASS sleepover and Still didn't free slaves in Union territories that didn't happen until the thirteenth amendment. Yes, that's right. There were union states with slates, imagine living in New Jersey and being a slave. That's one human rights violation on top of another either way. Black people in Texas recognize June nineteen of the day. They were liberated. They organized the first I. In overtime and spread s black people migrated and today celebrated by blackbox around the country, jilting celebrations have evolved and become a real way to pay homage to those who came before us. Our freedom where we can all together one st closed down the city over. See that's why June t is my favorite independent. Egos Jonty in the Pill Will Smith. Then July I'm not a fan of fireworks sounds like someone's doing it. Drag Bile, Scott. So if you ask me, we should make job a national holiday because everybody everybody should celebrate the end of slavery. Getting a freedom for black people and the long. March toward America's founding ideals. Also we get the day off. Job. He visited Mark Way because he's a Harry. This morning and American Cinema Classic Gone With. The wind has been temporarily pulled by the streaming platform HBO backs for years. The movie has been considered controversial for its depiction of black people in its glorification of slavery in a statement Hbo Max Writing in part, these racist depictions were wrong then and are wrong today, and keeping this title up without an explanation and denouncement of those depictions would be irresponsible. Adding the film will return with the discussion of its historical context and denouncement of those very depictions HBO hasn't said how they're going to add context to gone with the wind. And it is going to be a tough task, so we decided to do it for them. Scarlet. You get prettier over time. Why thank you Ashley, if the glow and never worked. Here's. We've traveled along. Route is the oldest and Wisconsin. The lazy days. They weren't lady forever. One womb still country twitter. The high sort Negro Mascot. The what? Let's get one thing straight black people. Laugh laugh if we're laughing softly means laughing at your. Town. Before You talk about favorite. You got that, right? and Go ahead and. Spend whatever be one. Final plantation. Will be plantation. That is GONNA have to have white labor next time. The South is not arise again scarlet. Wanting me getting two things. DM's dudes checking to see if I'm off stocked up reminders to take the census. And I know just with a call to make. It's down. Why it in the mail to do something on the Internet, I'll say this is the first time the census has been done online, and it only takes ten minutes with during his fourteen. I got so much on my plate, trying to work on his dating profile. I'm in the middle of to buzzfeed quiz got all these new instagram filters I mean. They got to you Frederick. Douglas restaurant the. Next ten minutes ten minutes for school lunches for highways for schools for healthcare while I hate to admit it by a point every ten years. The US census tries to count how many people live in America? It uses those numbers to decide how to split up federal funding for things like fire, stations, schools, and hospitals, these numbers even determine how many representatives each state has, which is why the census has made so many ads to convince you to get off your ass and fill out. They little survey. The census really is about money and power. Ten minutes out Internet. The Census Bureau scientists. My twenty twenty census dot, Gov, that's the official census website gadgets so I didn't take into my sense. Is that big titties tomorrow, Dot Info. That's not at official site. That is not the Census Bureau. Let's Where does? Seem to places like I haven't made friends, sometimes they his place, which is technically a defunct food trump. Right some attempts account everybody in the country. These. People have mobile home until there's no market for condiments, only food trump, but he makes decisions. You know can't help you with that. One dulcie rerun account everyone just once, and only once and in a place where they usually stay, because that will be the basis of facts of the sentence that the from Meena answer, I'm a citizen, but for some how many people live here is a loaded question i. I. Hear that you know there's people that are concerned. They're going GONNA report to is that they're gonNA work to the cops and it's done by people, status or citizenship, while there's no citizenship on the on the twenty twentieth senses I, think people distrust stems from. We don't believe that a government agency cannot communicate information to another government agency, and that's not allowed with this brought the map. It's against the law. To reveal your answers identified with you to anybody once it's on the Census Bureau protected. So, it's a no snitching lop is too big. Time knows law. I get it count. Everyone in the government will do right by us. There's just one problem. Not all of us are getting counted. So articles about how the census as bad county black people. Why is that the kite? Some folks who end up traditionally being under commodore, those are ranchers versus owners for example households, worth multiple families in the all of these conditions are. Common to poor populations, and the unfortunate part is African. Americans tend to be poorer than others. The like Wacky hard to count when the police are always finding us in a suit. That's the big issue. Dulcie those communities who don't trust governments. Confused a census request as another way that they might be hard by government, and it's just not true, so if the simpsons traditionally undercounts us. And, the government has shown us not time that we can't trust it. Why should we take this? Though, say, but you gotTA. Understand that. Participating in the Census Allowance Your community, it's fair share of over eight hundred billion dollars in support for Education Health School lunches highways if you don't respond on. Your community is GonNa Cheat, so if I don't do this Mecca Majors GonNa get cheated. Tolson and make it otherwise, but they don't do this then. They're definitely get cheated. You're right well. Really do on a commercial tolson yeah you. Hey? Black people look I can't promise great things happen if you take the senses, but if you don't, I can promise, he's white. People are gonNA use those low numbers to teach you out of the schools hospitals in representation that should be yours, so take the damn senses and let them know hey. Seeming. Walmart says they will no longer put multicultural hair and beauty products inside locked cases at their stores. Practice took place in about a dozen. US stores which customers claimed served more urban and less affluent communities Walmart told NBC News at the company's sensitive to the issue and understands the concerns and the changes are now being implemented as soon as possible. Can you imagine for years? Walmart and other drugstores have been locking up black hair and beauty products, but not the white products. Yes, even black hair products. Suffer from mass incarceration. What is this shit? But still this is great news. What Walmart is saying well. They're going to do from now on. Heard you're talking about mart. Yeah. I was, but how did you know? Never mind that I got thoughts. Okay I. WanNa. Know How you hacked into the anyway I mentioned that you pretty happy. That Walmart is getting rid of this policy, right? Yes, laugh, free it last, but God ally. There is free. Not only did this raises. Ask Policy, make lackey life thieves, but you know wire. It made every trip to Walmart. Ten Times longer wait. Why would be longer? I had to go on a match quiz to find the person with the key, then had to unlock the Kate, who could finally retrieve Mattress Asia? Latin Lord of the Rings, but it's an extra ten minutes. Why does it matter? Do say let me take something you know how long it takes the style natural hair. You have to go through the magical process. The moon and stars with products that have come together for this degrades the planet. It's Day. It's a whole day. Is pre-polling shampooing deconditioning conditioning at dinner, protective style, and has never got that, and then I gotta bail my hair out of jail. Wait bail you're you mean buying the products now Nigga? It's bail. The paper I got my house up. It's a whole thing. I don't know where you burn your hair. CARE products, but I understand what you're saying. I just think it's great news that the policy is ending, and I mean I bet you'll be going to Walmart soon. Already been and just so you know. A little something in the mail because i. Assume milk, mango, hair, makeup more. I see a Ila quarantine baby from. Dry What. Wait. Wait, what do you? What do you mean are are used? I to say. No Way. Don't say wait, what do you? Try. I pre poop. Daily show criminal ears. Addition Watson Availa Show weeknights at eleven ten central on comedy Central and comedy central. Watch full episodes and videos the daily show dot com. On facebook, twitter and instagram and subscribe to the daily show on Youtube, exclusive Austin and more. This has been a comedy central podcast.
Last Year's Lesson: Sherman's March to the Sea - Nov. 15, 1864
"Before the show I have to share the huge savings happening right now at mattress firm. Get King Bet for a Queen Price. Plus a free adjustable base with your qualifying. Purchase the shop now and save up to six hundred dollars on the bed of your dreams. Hey history fans here's a rerun for today brought to you by Tracey. V will thin often. We hope it makes previous episodes for this date. Easier to find in the feed. Welcome to this day in history class from how stuff works dot com and from the desk. Ask of stuff. You missed in history class. It's the show where we explore the past one day at a time with a quick look at what happened today in history. Hello and welcome to the PODCAST. I'm Tracy B Wilson and it's November Fifteenth Major. General William tecumseh Sherman's March reached to the sea began on this day in eighteen. Sixty four. This happened during the US civil war. And it's more formerly known as the Georgia and Carolinas campaign. The Union army had captured Atlanta and September and had removed civilian population with the intent of keeping Atlanta is a strictly military base. It had also destroyed factories and railroads and buildings basically anything that might be useful to the confederacy. Many homes in Atlanta were also burned although it wasn't the wholesale destruction of the entire city as it's often popularly imagined the march from Atlanta Santa started on November fifteenth and Sherman's force was divided into two approximately equal wings. They continued southeast toward Savannah. Manna Georgia where they would arrive. On December twenty second this was not a straight unbroken line the two wings progressed in four columns uh-huh with the right wing shifting south toward Macon Georgia and the left wing shifting North Toward Augusta Georgia. This was to make it seem as though maybe those Cities where the real objective but both columns shifted once again and bypassed both cities this March was incredibly destructive. The the intent was to rob the confederacy of anything. That could possibly make use of and to terrify the civilian population and try to encourage a faster southern surrender so the Union army took anything that was edible or valuable from plantations and from farms that they passed Sherman. Sherman had promised to make Georgia howl so they burned out buildings and farms and sometimes homes. They kept destroying railroads and and Cutting Telegraph lines and burning stores and supplies. They were as they went. Also emancipating people who were enslaved on these properties so so in theory this destruction and it was definitely destructive was supposed to have some limits. Sherman gave orders not to enter people's homes uh-huh and when seizing livestock. They were supposed to focus on things. They were owned by rich people rather than what was owned by the poor people. who weren't resisting supposed the post to be left alone as much as possible? The intent after all was to deprive the confederacy of anything that could be useful and terrify people into surrendering. It wasn't to punish the poorest civilians and the free people who really had nothing else but in practice these orders that were supposed hostess sort of temper. This whole process were often not followed at all. Soldiers carried away as much as they could and destroyed what they couldn't and a lot of people who were left often. The path of all of this destruction were women and children because a lot of the men were away fighting. This also meant that the people they were liberating from enslavement were liberated now but they were left with nothing to support themselves no way even necessarily to have shelter food and Sherman in his army armie. We're taking no responsibility for them or for making sure that they were going to be able to survive. Once they had moved on the two wings of Sherman's March I reconnected in December. They took fort mcallister before bombarding city of Savannah and then after capturing Savannah Sherman sent this telegram his His Excellency President Lincoln I beg to present you as a Christmas gift. The city of Savannah with a hundred and fifty heavy guns and plenty of ammunition and also about about twenty five thousand bales of cotton W T Sherman Major General the destruction all of this was massive. The Union army lost lost fewer than two thousand of the sixty thousand men that it left Atlanta with over this more than a month of the campaign and it was also disastrous for southern morale L.. As it was intended to be especially for the civilians who had thought that the confederate army would protect them and instead had no protection. Sherman estimated rated the march through Georgia caused about one hundred million dollars worth of destruction and then the following year. They turned north toward the Carolinas. And that that March probably also did an equal amount of damage through the Carolinas. After the war Sherman's March became part of the lost cause propaganda that reframed the confederacies role in the war as a noble and heroic but doomed struggle to preserve a genteel way of life in even appeared in the Nineteen fifteen birth of a nation and then was later part of Nazi propaganda. Thanks to crisscross Yoda's for his research work on today's podcast and thanks to Casey Karuma Chandler maze for their audio work on the show. You can subscribe to the stay in history class at apple podcast Google podcast and railroad to get your podcast and you can tune in tomorrow. Oh for a battle that led to the end of an empire. That's all for now but remember too much. True crime has used seeking a nice comforting nap shop at mattress firm. You can feel next. Level Comfort from tempurpedic beds get three hundred dollars. Bonus cash good towards sleep accessories today visit mattress firm dot com slash tempurpedic for the details.
Sherman's March to the Sea - Nov. 15, 1864
"Hello. I'm Anna REEs, and I'm Laurin Vogel bomb, and our show foodstuff all about these islands history and culture food entering is relaunching as saver re along with our super producer Dilling Fagin are hitting the road to find the stories behind all the things we like to eat and drink. We will be talking to the culinary creators and eaters of the world to get to the bottom of why we like what we like. And how we can find more of those things on our first trip. We went to Asheville North Carolina a city that pulled itself out of a seventy year, economic depression with beer and food. New episodes will be coming out Wednesday and Friday on apple podcasts. Welcome to this day in history class from how stuff works dot com. And from the desk of stuff you missed in history class. It's the show where we explore the past one day at a time with a quick look at what happened today in history. Hello and welcome to the podcast. I'm Tracy b Wilson. And it's November fifteenth Major General William to come sherman's March to the sea began on the stay in eighteen sixty four this happened during the US civil war, and it's more formerly known as the Georgia and Carolinas campaign the union army had captured Atlanta in September and had removed at civilian population. With the intent of keeping Atlanta is a strictly military base. It had also destroyed factories and railroads and buildings basically anything that might be useful to the confederacy many homes in Atlanta were also burned. Although it wasn't the wholesale destruction of the entire city as it's often popularly imagined the March from Atlanta started on November fifteenth and sermons force was divided into two approximately equal wing. Things they continued southeast toward Savannah Georgia where they would arrive on December twenty second. This was not a straight unbroken line. The two wings progressed in four columns with the right wing shifting south toward make in Georgia and the left wing shifting north toward Augusta Georgia. This was to make it seem as though maybe those cities were the real objective, but both columns shifted once again and bypassed both cities this March was incredibly destructive. The intent was to rob the confederacy of anything that could possibly make use of and to terrify the civilian population and try to encourage a faster southern surrender. So the union army took anything that was edible or valuable from plantations and from farms that they passed Sherman had promised to make Georgia howl. So they burned out buildings and farms and sometimes homes. They kept destroying railroads and cutting telegraph lines and birding stores and supplies. They were as they went also emancipating people who were enslaved on these properties. So in theory, this destruction. And it was definitely destructive was supposed to have some limits. Sherman gave orders not to enter people's homes and win seizing livestock. They were supposed to focus on things that were owned by rich people rather than what was owned by the poor people who weren't resisting supposed to be left alone as much as possible. The intent after all was to deprive the confederacy of anything that could be useful and terrify people into surrendering. It wasn't to punish the poorest civilians and the freed people who really had nothing else. But in practice, these orders that were supposed to sort of temper this whole process were often not followed at all soldiers carried away as much as they could and destroyed what they couldn't. And a lot of people who were left in the path of all of this destruction were women and children because a lot of the men were away fighting this also meant that the people they were liberating from enslavement were liberated now, but they were left with nothing to support themselves. No way even necessarily to have shelter or food and Sherman and his army. We're taking no responsibility for them or for making sure that they were going to be able to survive once they had moved on the two wings of sherman's March reconnected in December. They took fort McAllister. For bombarding city of savannah. And then after capturing savannah Sherman sent this telegram, his excellency, president Lincoln. I beg to present you as a Christmas gift the city of savannah with a hundred and fifty heavy guns and plenty of ammunition. And also about twenty five thousand bales of cotton w t Sherman Major General. The destruction in all of this was massive the union. Army lost fewer than two thousand of the sixty thousand men that it left Atlanta with over this more than a month of the campaign. And it was also disastrous for southern morale as it was intended to be especially for the civilians who had thought that the confederate army would protect them. And instead had no protection Sherman estimated that the March through Georgia caused about one hundred million dollars worth of destruction. And then the following year they turned north toward the Carolinas. And that March probably also did an equal amount of damage through the Carolinas after the war sherman's March became part of the lost cause propaganda that reframed the confederacies role in the war as a noble and heroic, but doomed struggle to preserve it genteel way of life and even appeared in the nineteen fifteen birth of a nation, and then was later part of Nazi propaganda. Thanks to Chris. Ross yoda's for his research work on today's podcast and thanks to Casey pink room in Taylor Mays for their audio work on the show. You can subscribe to this day in history class at apple podcast, Google podcast and railroad to get your podcasts, and you can tune in tomorrow for a battle that led to the end of an empire. Hello. I'm Anna, and I'm Laurin Vogel bomb, and our show foodstuff all about these signs history and culture food entering is relaunching as saver re along with our super producer, dealing Fagin are hitting the road to find the stories behind all the things we like to eat and drink. We will be talking to the culinary creators and eaters of the world to get to the bottom of why we like what we like. And how we can find more of those things on her first trip. We went to Asheville North Carolina a city that pulled itself out of a seventy year, economic depression with beer and food. New episodes will be coming out Wednesday and Friday on apple podcasts.
The Latest From Witness Docs: Seizing Freedom
"In eighteen sixty one. Harry jarvis was waiting for an opening watchful. Why are we in true. Harry wasn't slaved on virginia's eastern shore and the long shadow of the growing civil war had tightened his attention toward escape. My master he was the meanest man in all the eastern shore and that's a heat to say it's rough plate finally be shot at me one day and now reckon asked about as long as i could so i took to the woods. I lay out there for three weeks. I have friends who kept me. A foreigner who have things was brought me food one night. His enslave are held a rockets birthday party. And harry thesis. Chan's i'd know they all drinking and carousing night and day and all the servants be kept home. So i took the opportunity to slip down to the shore and the night got a canoe and the sale started for fort monroe. He crossed thirty five miles of choppy water across the chesapeake bay at night alone. Didn't appear if i ever get delay. But harry knew he would rather drown in the chesapeake. Then turn back for the shelter of the forest and risked being re enslaved. It was death. Baha and i didn't know what was he saw. Just as lord to take care embalmed by the went down to a good steady breeze straight for all point in the next morning. I got safe to the fourth. Harry jarvis who had sailed a makeshift boat across ten leagues troubled water with now out of bondage. But was he free. Not quite carey knew that his former captor could show up at fort monroe at anytime. Force him back into servitude appeal to the ford commanding general benjamin butler to allow him to become a soldier in claims freedom. A went to ask him to let me enlists but he said it wasn't a black man's war. I told him it would be a black man's war before they got through. Harry jarvis was right. It was a black man's war in black people wanted to and would fight in. This is seizing freedom. I learned to handle a musket very well and could shoot straighten off and hit the target. This regiment has established its reputation as a fighting regiment. Not a man flinched. Though it was a trying time. I do really think that. It's god's will but this war shall not in the colored people get their reg. It goes very hard for the white people to think of it on this show. You hear how black people fought to liberate themselves civil war and how they gain political power during reconstruction. Despite every day at violence oppression our series starts with enlistment black servicemen and women transformed the ranks of the union army and despite dangers of violence on and off the battlefield their labor was essential to shifting the tide of the civil war from the onset of the war. Black citizens were anxious to lend their resources to the union. Cosworth sir very many of the colored citizens of ohio and other states have had a great desire to assist the government and putting down this injurious rebellion. But sir give us a commander who will appreciate us as men and soldiers and we will be willing to surmount all out of difficulties. They have urged me to write. And beg that you receive one or more regiments or companies of the colored of the free states to share the dangers of the battlefield and not be kept for men who will not fight if the world doubts fighting. Give us a chance and we was show then what we can do but the union was slow on the uptake. Don't you know that this is the white man's government. One union governor said and white men are and protect it. It took a year of fighting for congress to realize their mistake that they wouldn't have enough white men to do. The killing dying labor needed to win the war. And the year of listening to abolitionists. Like frederick douglass. Before they started to change their minds a war run taking and brazenly carried on for the perpetual enslavement of colored men 'cause logically and loudly for colored men to help suppress it. The kinds of freedom black people could seize and win even the freedom to fight and die for the union became available to different people from different places at different times in eighteen. Sixty two congress authorized the enlistment of already free. Black men like cornelius carter. Frederick douglass told aim lincoln. Give the black man guns. Let them fight. Abe lincoln say if i give them a gun when it comes to battle he my run in frederick douglass triumph. And you'll win the wall and aim say all right. i'll try. Lincoln wasn't ready to officially try. Formerly enslaved men like harry jarvis though so back at fort monroe. Harry jarvis found some civilian work to do. It wasn't long before he saw firsthand. That a struggle to make it across the union lines didn't guarantee freedom. One day i saw may giving up to his massive. That came for him and i concluded that was not the place for me so i hired onto a ship going to cuba and then on one going to africa and i was gone for nearly two years. harry eventually made its way back to the us. He got lonely living as a stranger in a strange land and wanted to reunite with his wife unfortunately for him she had since married another man but the union also had a change of heart in his absence in eighteen sixty. Three lincoln issued the emancipation proclamation allowing all black men born free or formerly enslaved to enlist when landed embossed founded it had got to be a black means warfare short. I tried to and listen to fifty four massachusetts but it was just full so i was one of the first enlisted in the fit the fit and i fought with it till the battle of folly. Alan dow was wounded three times. But i kept on fighting till the ball struck my leg in fail. I should have bled to death if all our men hadn't been drilled us. An attorney can supply with bandage. I just had time to stick my knife and not and twisted type before i faint. Listen to seizing freedom. Now on stitcher apple podcast the sirius. Xm app or wherever you get your podcasts witness. Docs from stitcher.
Juneteenth and Trump
"Welcome point for June ninth. I'm Lauren Danske Co author of the point I'm here to cut through the political spin to bring you the news you need to know. Today Americans mark the end of slavery in the United States, and President Donald Trump wants credit for making it famous. Trump told the Wall Street Journal that nobody had ever heard of the holiday before he scheduled a campaign rally on the same date. Quote I did something good I? May June teeth very famous? It's actually an important event and important time, but nobody had ever heard of it. End Quote. Is All completely untrue. June eighteenth is the oldest regular US celebration of the end of slavery. It commemorates June nineteenth eighteen, sixty five. A day that a member of the Union army rode into Galveston Texas and told a group of enslaved African Americans that the civil war had ended. And they had been freed. That event took place more than two years after president. Abraham Lincoln signed the emancipation proclamation. Trump's rally was initially scheduled to take place on that holiday in Tulsa Oklahoma, which has its own issues. It was the site of a horrific race riot nearly one hundred years ago during which black wall, Street and Tulsa Greenwood neighborhood was burned down. The wake of George Floyd's death Minneapolis and the widespread protests over social inequality, major companies have made June eighteenth. A paid holiday in state and federal legislators have brought more attention to it. Right now forty seven states and the district of Columbia Mark June nineteenth as a state. Or observance, but it still is not a federal holiday. Trump claims anecdotal proof that he popularized June teeth. He has few black advisors in the White House or his cabinet. He told The Wall Street Journal that he pulled many people around him. None of whom had heard of June teen. And yet, trump's own white. House has issued statements acknowledging June eighteenth every year since he has been in office. Let's get to the point. No Donald Trump does not get credit for making June eighteenth very famous. And that is the point for June. Nineteenth twenty twenty. For more updates throughout the week including our Sunday night campaign addition subscribe to the point newsletter at CNN. Dot Com slash point. If you look this audio briefing, you can get every single weekday on Google or Amazon. Or subscribe on Stitcher or apple podcasts or your favorite podcast APP, so you never miss an episode.
The Battle of the Crater
"In some time okay let's just hope that you know who their sits down a little faster this time yes the worst I mean you guys really think they need another extended intro Yemen intermission is pretty short and people need time to get more drinks Hello and welcome to citation needed live in New York City just in case only Stacey Abrams voter whose vote actually got counted give it up for no lucians you know what fair point helped me out of here finally Jesus guy to sit down right right I I only got recruited because I've been adorable name for my penis dixie cholera labels are we gonNA write a joke here but it seemed like a lost cause so I'm heath and somehow I've been chosen to host this episode about my direct ancestor watching allied dig a hole great question finally. He's Tom Your strapping young men come help me dig this thing no absolutely not Oh interesting this is going to be a good one and also joining me all the way from south Georgia anyone's new this is the podcast where we choose subjects read a single article about it on Wikipedia and pretend we're experts because the Internet and that's how it works now all right let's get right into it we already gave you some hints but let's make it official Eli what person place thing concept phenomenon or event not Li- already told you you don't need to do that Oh for goodness sake why see so because we're going to do this one live in New York City Robert e Lee One of his confederate victories. This'll be fun yeah great work it is no exaggeration to say that if the Union army could take Richmond they could end the war thus marking the first and last time Richmond Virginia I will whistle you all day and I only looked like a confederate soldier because of the beard and the uh-huh so I'm GonNa mostly shut the fuck up yeah and hand things over to my berry where the war is officially still at halftime they say we have the I panel of experts I we have three guys who look like the confederate army can you would matter it is picturing that conversation on the battlefield right I'm sweating just watching you as says I can't have shovels anymore nothing with a handle is his thing now that's a rural trump come on guys yeah it's great for Halloween loosen and I just put the Stacey Abrams signed back on the lawn battle of the crater this episode the last stand of the civil war what better place to do it from then a scarred empty Pitney earth for the last I JV squad. He's Louis Lion Tom going to be talking about today today we'll be talking about the battle of the crater excellent and Noah you could see at least twenty confederate flag so what was the battle of the crater all right so the battle of the crater was an infamous military blunder during the American civil war in which the Union army blue I really need to watch that movie I don't think I'm doing it right it is essential we'd take Richmond and you keep saying that I think we have the manpower the Logistics and the tactical advantage right you don't strike ah I said there's a there's a bunch of guys rest into a tight whole waiting to shoot Yup. US military some things never change obviously this left the Union army salivating over at the only problem was that weapons tech was moving a hell of a lot quicker than vehicle tech at that point and the confederate army was already eggs from your house at any given by Georgia state law are you ready to see talk I am Sir Rail Lines all converging right there on their way over the APP matic's so basically everything being shipped from the south to Richmond has to make its way through exactly this spot four but it's just not clear how long that's GonNa take how many people are going to have to die to make it happen the confederacy is on the brink of collapse and one of their last remaining strongholds is Richmond Virginia I know I know it's just what we're just after we take it how long until we can give it back a couple of months giant hole in the ground climbed into it and waited for someone to shoot the puck if you've seen the movie cold mountain this is the battle is depicted in the opening scene of that movie and if you've seen the movie brokeback mountain is just kind of like getting fucked in the ass similar in many ways are there well you know how much the south likes to surrender the confederates just didn't WanNa be capitulate Oh yeah yeah all right so this story takes place in July eighteen sixty four more than three years into the war by now it's pretty clear that the US is going to win this little known facts we were all just a motive alligators away from losing this shot him in the legs yeah so trump staten island yes exactly exactly just through safe if Jersey tries to go back this is an hour that whereas under your seat so I just grabbed fine you get a joke all right so one of the things that makes the civil war so interesting to me we loaded up with formidable defences on all sides he's got zigzagging trenches with interlocking fields of fire that surround the entire city all the brush all the covers been removed the city was completely surrounded by military forces. Well we actually have here's an early example of trench warfare they just didn't have a name for that yet so grant's forces push against the city the city up against entrenched positions and if you know anything at all about World War One this is a problem that military theorists still wouldn't have solved fifty years later you make it sound like some kind of complicated equation that no man's land then planting explosives beneath the confederate trenches that you hit your cartoon dynamite plunger you poke your fingers in your ears and you wait for a hold of blow up Henry pleasants so he comes up with an idea how they can break this week's long gridlock turns out pleasants was a minor before the war and he proposes digging along mineshaft under the part of the north forever right so yeah pin in that in an plan and they like ran into Wayne Cross oh hey oh I like hundreds of yards in front of all these trenches and they replaced all of that by crazy defenses like medieval type shit like spiked logs and stuff so but in the enemy line unfortunately it would not work out as well for him as it did for the venerable Wiley Coyote a really hoping both sides tried that same yeah I did say now I heard it I don't know what direction to lie yeah not clear no okay Mamba suggests not lining up your troupes like connect four peace now of course he's direct ancestor Robert e Lee ah excellent excellent to to decide on slave exactly this is how we'll decide slavery it's one of the first major wars in the rapid fire era where both sides of the conflict have access to rapid technology right so machine guns wouldn't be invented for a couple of through the Union army tries to take Petersburg the confederate army says Nah on this is this results in what's called the siege of Petersburg now this is not technically a siege which would late means to surrender what how I saw that in the notes and I couldn't even tell where the joke was you'll find us I'm fifty eight named that'll best fit into a civil war essay honoree and he says hey what the fuck why not and he tells pleasant to make it happen interesting side note by the way burnside seconds but there are already various proto machine guns use the gatling gun was invented early on in this war so basically all the generals in the army were having to deal with whole new problems when they went all right so pleasants proposes this to Major General Ambrose e Burnside's polk county high school's class of ninety wanted to build would have been the largest military engineering project in history okay hold on they failed to dig a tunnel that was one tenth of five hundred hundred feet the whole might of the Union army couldn't dig a tunnel from my porch to somewhere around the middle of the back yard you're just like I guess a little bit for a while that'll show him leaving so among the union soldiers there's a dude named Lieutenant Colonel You're now about twenty five miles south of Richmond there's a city called Petersburg during the war that's a critical transportation hub so you've got nine different roads five different they can either we both agreed to just fill it back in right or roller derby apparently not no so all that being said the troops were getting restless and trench warfare has a way of making soldiers recognized the futility of what she's back and ultimately you end up with both sides of the army entrenched along a twenty mile front this is stalemated for weeks like this House that was the best part is you attack you lose the they're doing yeah because up until now the civil war had been going so you've been having a lot of fun yeah civil yeah just the giant beard minus the chin part like slice right out old-timey soared he looks like cease a loss to really weird bet. Yeah you guys digging other tubes me Oh what you're saying hey buddy story you go you know you go first what what so this is awkward question they have the same percentage risk getting shot so a bunch of black soldiers actually want had to help out but Joe Biden wouldn't even send a bus restoring true story he might be president also see so's wife is just really strong crazy strong raced she's been doing interval training her zero logistical support he will not even send those mother fuckers shovel so so they were given the same amount of supplies as a modern public day school teacher I've got all right so me gets a hold of the plan he's skeptical first of all he apparently hates the ever loving cow to burnside's probably just jealous of his suite chic Puke this won't work but at least this'll give the soldier something to do to keep them from getting super antsy so he agrees to burnside's plan but and this is important he offers exactly yeah he lives slept inside of them like sadly in real life I lost that bet the dignity to be five hundred feet long and the Union army had tried a similar stunt with a mine shaft one tenth that length and it puck and collapsed the mind pleasant no not one hundred percent care promised twenty twenty is literally the guy that we named sideburns true looks like a hair tonton he's he's the best at the time right where to God no if this starts with another history of digging I'm leaving I delete delete L. Yeah related to grant it's true yeah yep saint ties it's so of course Lee knows exactly how important Petersburg is he said no one's coming to save us on national never mind go you're talking about the civil war I'm talking about the first there's this processes made all the harder because the bucking commander wouldn't give them wheelbarrows US guys papa chimney up every so often and that gives you a source of fresh air but as dumb as the confederacy was they probably would have noticed a series of breathing tube popping ever closer to their line so these guys had to come up with something else confederate soldiers just sitting there and a periscope pops up the eye winks and then it goes right mm-hmm or whatever naturally inclined to shit on anything that burnside suggests but to his credit he also had good reasons to be doubtful the tunnel pleasants hundred feet and by July seventeenth right below the confederate trench works you guys can feel the fuck contention right now at this point they form a tea with the mind so they can blow up a wider Thomas Super Curious and also because it was actually a really amazing feat of engineering especially when you consider this was all done with improvise tools by people who are being shot at I'm sure all right so the biggest problem you encounter when you're trying to dig a tunnel this link this ventilation right so as you move further and further into the it right out of the Ken Burns Documentary Yeah so much better so now what pleasant came up with was actually pretty ingenious so basically you have what do you see soldier nothing surges another flirty worm sorry what it's actually like the whole movie tremors were just of course the other big issue they faced was the Andy Frayne problem right so they're trying to do this in secret so they can't exactly have this giant expanding pile of dirt right behind there channels are just trying to find out you know it's like you had to sell extra axles more bodies not true you would think this kind of thing would only have to happen once on either side before we need from you now is a fuse got it okay you can have eleven feet of yarn that's fine the Tim Ryan unexpected comeback toy that's a fresh late that's what that is I'm winning you over I'm winning you over all right I'll leave so despite several problems in the construction and supply shortages so great that they literally had to dismantle Wooden Bridge to secure enough timbers to hold up mind you're moving away from your source of oxygen and your exhaling a bunch of carbon dioxide so if you dig far enough suddenly you're GonNa have as fifty eight now normally the solution is just got it we just dig a hole and buried the dirt okay no I heard it I said out loud accent sorry it's actually more like nine feet we played Cat's cradle I wanNA play so we're in a war he's back out right and that actually creates a vacuum that pulls fresh air down into the tunnel and creates a noticeable breeze form as well replenishing air with fire swath of Petersburg's defenses and once that cavity is fully excavated they fill it with thousands of pounds of gunpowder there's there's out one really excited for him in the back that's so in spite of not having basic tools supplies and constantly being under fire we dug a secret bomb tunnel filled with explosives behind enemy lines no it's fine I'll make my own tools don't get up I'll just be winning the war you got napper whatever you call it's fine so eventually they make it to five. The solution to the problem was a flaming snorkel fan told you he'd be into this engineering all right suspense anything here we got the union soldiers got thank you tension the union soldiers advanced in the wake of this blast but they'd soon ah now recalls are never as good and it just so I wanna go into a little bit of detail in the construction of the mine itself wooden hype that funnels fresh air into the tunnel and an a shaft with fire burning and it's based it's going to heat up all the stale air that's deep in the tunnel and that's going to cause that to rise hours of July thirtieth eighteen sixty four pleasants lit the fuse detonated what may well have been the largest explosion a human beings would create aw but burs is men to their credit they spliced that shit together they made a really long daisy chain of fuses to make this work okay Sir waterproof fuse for his operation what needs sent him was a shit ton a ten foot long non waterproof uses and a note that said Fuck your face like Gimme a team we gotta Dave shut the fuck up I it's a fucking not yes the worm break first of all for nothing find out that they'd used eight thousand pounds of gunpowder to dig their own grave dont`a heaven Sign back then too yeah so burnside a requested several links of hundred foot no I guess that explains the people out front of the pit with Tiki torches channing whose I am telling you you are wasting your time exactly hey guys why yeah those are good job good job shit did sign on his own joke I love it now of course me if figures like you know what un-elected they had bridge dismantling tools but they didn't have shovels because this just seems passive aggressive now it's like no the body armor well I'm honestly not even sure just kind of guessing they also sent a case of duct tape wallets virtually the duct tape we asked for the bottom twelve percent of last year's graduating class and they did send that way we asked for that yes sir we did we call them recruits detailed report of the supplies on hand each of the five hundred assault rifles yes sir well not exactly but they sent the next best thing appea- what about the helmets what about the body armor that we ordered okay they sent melons and melon Baler for the helmets and product Smith kid over here yes sir I needed went fourteen super soldiers and twelve cap guns with caps not with caps I don't understand it inches so they actually had to carry dirt several miles behind the line and then when they got there they would like stick brushing shit over the top of it so that no spies would notice anything Amiss and Oh right yeah the tanks we got shopping carts with bayonets taped to the front is there anything that we asked for that they did send yes sir streets are okay or maybe they thought that big Red Statue at the bow tie was a confederate general. EITHER WAY WE'RE GONNA take a quick you want me to read that off to you again I do not private what the hell are we supposed to do with super soldiers they suggest that we fill them with all right. This is how will decide though we barely so in the breed on okay it's official Noah did in fact use a confederate victory for this his show thought there might be a twist sounds clear jealousy tonight loved on people like explosions leaving nothing but the shadows of children let's hear it all right you fucked up my tension by the way you plus up my spring break I remember I was doing boys. Awards are pretty cool sketch sketch sketch duct tape waltzer treasure okay private what about the tanks until we dropped the atomic fucking bomb really big fantasy got some got some fans of off the Union army had just set off giant bomb and started running towards it and the confederate lines and we're back when we left Idea Rita fucking phonology book second camera but there was one exception so burnside at one entire division under his command that hadn't seen any real battle in the entire ward of this point so in the modern day Aaron die in the mud but guy say so I guess I'll stay back here fuck your wives literal slave owners so there was this widespread fear among the Union generals that black soldiers weren't brave enough or tough enough or smart enough or whatever to be income attack now that's actually a bit of a problem because pretty much all of his regiments have been constantly fighting since the siege began at this point months earlier so none of them were in the state of the what happened they're gonNA start rationing and reinforcements to this spot and the union soldiers are going to have to secure these trenches before that happens so one brigade supposed to go left at the explosion one so here's what here's what Burns I'd had in mind after they detonate the explosion two brigades rush the line the confederacy is going to be stunned for a bit but as soon as they realize born child and I'll take the joke back exactly all right well we already lost the zip-lining audience I guess trade from further away it makes tracks that tracks so as Tom has lost the camera bat positions so throughout the war they were largely relegated to menial tasks behind the lines black soldiers just like I really really want to get out of there in general just feel my skull dimples I'd have no idea what to do burnside to forego using the troops that have been trading for this shit for weeks and instead give the job to white soldiers and the white guys we kind of think of racism as pushing African American soldiers to the frontlines but it turns out it can also push him to the rear which is what happened in the Union army put the black guys in the rear they competitive it's next all right so I have to back up in the time line a little bit so the whole time the soldiers were digging this unprecedented tunnel burnside's job is to prepare for the post complete deploy and by civil war standards of regiment that still ought to half its limbs was fucking crush the younger years in yeah animal dressed in white face just throw the whole thing on right he spent weeks with these soldiers several miles way behind the line so that the confederate army wouldn't wind like get wind of this coming attack and he gave them very specific instructions on how to uh-huh so burn scientists grant though when he looks at this division he sees fresh troops eager for a chance to prove path so as Tom has just aptly demonstrated we have to remember these guys were only progressive. Compared to that you'd want for a major assault I'm gonNA guess they were a little worn out from digging a fucking tunnel using brooms of sawed off legs have rights right literally fifteen hours before their scheduled the light the fuse need decides to make a change to burnside's battle plants he doesn't WanNa use this black regiment so he ask because they got killed by their boyfriends in a fight after an imagine dragons concert the army so here's his story goes horribly horribly wrong okay on just thousands shoot the fuck out of some slave owners so he sets about training them for the attack by modern standards training they got was pretty lacklustre but by civil war standards it was really fucking good Paul Course and take it too seriously until he killed his girlfriend and then himself what you show me a paintball or who doesn't murder his wife and his her was that he was worried that if this attack went bad they would accuse the north of using black soldiers as cannon fodder which would be a huge propaganda victory for the south honestly okay so there's a lot of disagreement about why mead made that decision there are three main schools of thought the first is that meat is just a racist and didn't want to trust important mission to black soldiers important now it's important fifty out minutes ago we were like Oh you know these guys the camera committed suicide fucking quit care matter can quit I don't want to be associated with this it goes right on the other side once they've done that two more Brigades pour into the center and take Petersburg see nowadays burnside's would have to like work at a pain that's how we train the police department off Checkout Ferguson Missouri onto believe so the second is that he didn't want to trust such an important missions to soldiers that had never actually been in battle and the third in the one that made tried to sell himself losing the battle because you're unprepared also great propaganda for actually as it turns out I think losing a battle to the enemy is generally good for the energy right yeah exactly tricky system all right buck that show the day of the battle comes the plan was to detonate the explosion between three thirty and three forty five am but I would like to know how he was a known coward right business card high known cower. We don't need business cards spliced together a bunch of sweet M. Eighties in the neighbors trash can looks like something amazing is going to happen now this is important like I said only one theory hard to some a all right it's all right so eventually they managed to get the view sorted out and the charges are wrapped up four forty four am the gunpowder was only about twenty feet below the confederate defenses in its Tam so that all the force goes up the explosion kills two hundred and seventy eight confederate soldiers immediately and left a crater doc great a lot of visual humor for the podcast thank you Eli regardless of the reason bad enough apparently burnside didn't give clear orders to Leslie or his men as to what the hell they were supposed to be doing I think he was just comfy at this point booking soldiers they're like yeah that's great but here's out we just invented something called affirmative action now where they're going to get woke so when the time came they basically just new they were supposed to go like forward so as prepared as Hillary Clinton's campaign manager Channels like look there's a change of plans were sending these five Koala bears with Dole pencils okay at least that way fewer people got killed because of their liquorice rope of uses that didn't happen in fact nothing it all happened when they lit the fuse and they spend an hour and fifteen minutes arguing about which unlucky excuse me campaign manager yeah you gotTa keep in mind how many electoral deaths are going to happen and how the fuck back I even still had his job as a mystery he was a known alcoholic and coward he was profoundly incompetent and he wasn't even an important persons kid wave of attack they wouldn't send hats had to be a skull so the Navy pulls out of this skull was Brigadier General James Leslie One hundred and seventy feet long a hundred feet wide and thirty feet deep which is still visible today we actually have a member audience who's been there whereas yet yeah right over here yeah burnside polls this highly trained division and instead of handing the assignment to his next best guy he literally draws names from a fucking hat to see who gets to lead this the also their boss's boss but apparently that to them even from before the battle started we're spending all their time sending increasingly irate messages to each other about whose fault this he's right there you can hear you can tell me
Booth didnt die in a barn!
"Welcome to kits myths and mysteries stories of strange and unexplained people places and events. I'm your host. Ken crumb on the night of april fourteenth. Eighteen sixty five. A single gunshot in ford steeler changed american history. It had been just over a week since the end of the bloodiest war in american history. The civil war it ended with the confederacy surrender. But now abraham lincoln the man that had seen the war through to its end was dead from an assassin's bullet. Your history books would have you believe that a single madman john wilkes booth took it upon himself to kill the president. You might even have read various history books. How booth recruited two friends one would assassinate the vice president the secretary of war while he booth would cut off the head of the snake. Assassinating the president. What history books leave out is that booth and his two friends were recruited april tenth by the knights of the golden circle powerful pro slave pro south group but every american who lived in dc area new of the strange actions which panicked government officials. The secretary of war was covering details. The burial of the captured corpse. The congressional committee covering the investigation of the assassination called the head of the secret service a liar. It was still time of disorder in the country. Many believe that the south should never surrendered. It was imperative that the man who had killed a president be brought to justice as soon as possible history is filled with versions of how booth was cornered in a barn located on the garrett form and that in the excitement of the moment was shot then dragged from the barn. I wanna break into my narrative for just a moment to say that this podcast in no way implies that booth didn't kill president lincoln or that. His act of extreme violence can ever be excused. Simply what evidence shows is that john wilkes booth wasn't captured or shot in the barn on the garrett farm descriptions of the barn range from having only one door to the reality of it having a door on each side four doors but despite the eventual questions of whose body was pulled from that barn initially all present at the time agreed that it was booth. Even those had no idea what he looked like. Why because the reward. For the apprehension of john wilkes booth was seventy five thousand dollars the equivalent over one million dollars. Today that seventy five thousand dollars would have been split between all present who helped capture booth more than a dozen soldiers and several civilians were present evidence that it was booth didn't add up booth had jet black hair body pulled from the barn. had red. Hair lieutenant william. C allen worked for the united states secret service in eighteen sixty five in august nineteen thirty seven. His widow mrs helen. Allen told a journalist that her husband had told her that he saw the man at garrett's farm who had been killed and that man had red hair and that the government that that man was not booth but they were determined to foist this man on the nation as booth booth had a scar on the side of his face from surgery. The body pulled out when examined had burn mark in a exact same place. The body pulled from the barn didn't have injured a broken leg. Chains kenzi was a quartermaster in the union army and was free to go wherever he wanted basically within the military alliance at is and so he went with a companion to garrett's born because he had an interest in what was going to happen to booth in nineteen twenty two when he was seventy seven years. Old kenzi detail. What he saw gareth's farm in a sworn affidavit. As i wrote up he heard someone call out to say john wilkes booth at all. I could see the color of his hair. I knew at once it wasn't he. His body was exposed and he had no injured leg. The face had freckles now later under examination. The tattoo booth was notorious as having on his hand had appeared on his arm for the next few years washington. Dc was a buzz with the question of what really happened to. John wilkes booth in eighteen sixty nine booth. Mother was escorted down into the arsenal penitentiary. Morgue to identify her shun once and for all but she couldn't identify 'em because it wasn't him over the next seventy years witnesses to the assassination and those that had been present at the barn. He was allegedly dragged from passed away. But the question of what actually happened to booth persistent in one thousand nine hundred three in enid oklahoma. A young reporter took a confession of adine man who claimed to be john wilkes booth shortly after the body of the man claiming to be booth was mummified later in nineteen thirty one six chicago. Physicians examined the body of a man called. John saint harrison. Who was the man in enid who claimed to be booth and recorded their findings in an affidavit. They specifically noted a scarred right eyebrow. A crushed right thumb and a broken left leg john wilkes booth is known to have had all three of these unusual characteristics. Could he have escaped the barn and live for thirty eight years only to die. Nineteen three and antidote oklahoma over the years it was made public that the jawbone of john wilkes booth was in the medical science golden walter reed hospital in the late nineteen fifties direct boot descendants through legal channels arrange to be tested against dna the jawbone to determine once and for all if it was removed from john wilkes booth from the body that was dragged from the barn but when they arrived at the military hospital they were turned away. Could it be that. The government of eighteen sixty five recognized the importance of showing strong union after the assassination of president lincoln and felt they could only do so by bringing the assassin to justice within days during the last years of the nineteenth century decades after the assassination testimonies were recanted by witnesses. Who were soldiers and doctors and directly involved with the identification of the body poll from the barn as boots. Some of those involved in the identification of booths body confessed decades later that they were bribed. Other say they were threatened by the military to change their statements could the escape of the man that assassinated president abraham lincoln have been covered up by a government trying to hold of fragile country together possibly a cover up that has lasted a hundred and fifty six years. Only a dna test will produce the truth and it seems today's government would appear to be standing in the way of that test. John wilkes booth was produced here at night. Owl sound studio. I'm kid chrome. Thanks for listening.
Abolition of slavery announced in Texas (Juneteenth) - June 19, 1865
"He was news. I would like to tell you about a new podcast from APM called decomposed hosted by rockstar, pianist, Jade Simmons, decomposed, breaks, down the secrets scandals and acts of sheer genius that have shaped classical music in the first season, they explored the uptight gender expectations of the eighteen hundreds, the role of classical music in Cold War propaganda, and the danger of putting your personal life on the stage. It's a unique mix of powerful human stories and powerful music that will give you a new appreciation for these classical masterpieces. You can find decomposed on apple podcasts or wherever you choose to listen. This day in history class is a production of I heart radio. Hi, I'm eve, and welcome to this day in history class, a show that uncovers history, one day at a time today is June nineteenth twenty nineteen. The day was June nineteenth eighteen sixty five union soldiers were in Galveston, Texas, a state where the presence of union troops was low and thousands of people remained in slaved, the Amanda patient. Proclamation went into effect two years prior outlawing slavery in the confederate states, but Texas was isolated and the proclamation was not enforced in the state when it was not outright challenged. So on this day, Major General, Gordon Granger announced to the people of Texas. The emancipation of enslaved people June nineteenth is now recognized as an independence day in marked by celebrations, that honor black Americans freedom from slavery. On September twenty second eighteen sixty two a year after the start of the US civil war and centuries after the first Africans were enslaved in the modern United States. President ABRAHAM LINCOLN issued the patient proclamation, the proclamation said that all in slave people in the rebellious confederate states were declared free and it took effect on January first eighteen sixty three the proclamation also announced that black man would be able to enlist in the union army, and navy and hundreds of thousands of black men did fight for the union during the war, but it only applied to states that seceded from the US slavery remained legal in the border states or slave owning states that did not join the confederacy as well as union controlled rebel areas. So the proclamation did not outright inflationary in America. News of the proclamation took a while to spread, and Texas, the most western state in the confederacy was removed from a lot of the civil war action slaveholders, had migrated in large numbers from eastern states to Texas to get out of war-torn areas and shirk emancipation enforcement by eighteen sixty five around two hundred and fifty thousand people were enslaved in Texas confederate general Robert E Lee in the army of northern Virginia surrendered to union general. Ulysses s grant on April ninth eighteen sixty five, but the army of the trans Mississippi and other rebels kept fighting for months after Galveston, Texas was a major confederate port since Texas the seat it from the United States. The city had been blockaded by the union occupied by the US navy and recaptured by the confederacy. But on June second general Edmund Kirby. Smith signed surrender terms for the confederate trans Mississippi department aboard the US fort Jackson, and Galveston harbor. It was the last major confederate command to surrender on June. Eighteenth Major General Gordon Granger arrived in Galveston, with two thousand federal troops? The next day, Grainger read, general orders, number three at the headquarters district of Texas in Galveston. He said the following the people of Texas are informed that in accordance with a proclamation from the executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute equality of personal rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves and the connection here to four existing between them becomes that between employer and hired labor. The Friedman are advised to remain quietly at their present homes, and work for wages. They are informed that they will not be allowed to collect at Miller. -tary posts, and that they will not be supported in idleness, either there or elsewhere. But as the emancipation, proclamation change was not immediate in all encompassing. Many slave owners did not relate news of announcement free enslaved people until after the harvest some forced free people to work. Anyway, though, the order encouraged black people to stay with their former owners, many left to find family or to move north in a process that was dubbed, the scatter, some, formerly enslaved people were beaten, or murdered after they attempted to fulfill their freedom in December eighteen sixty five the thirteenth amendment to the US constitution abolishing slavery in the United States was ratified the next year. The freed black people of Texas. Celebrate it June nineteenth in recognition of grainger's. Eighteen sixty five announcement June teeth as do nineteenth came to be known became a day that marked freedom and Prague. Press honored through readings of emancipation, proclamation games, food and religious, sermons. The Freemen's bureau was established in eighteen sixty five to deal with the social reconstruction necessary in the aftermath of the civil war. But even then records exist, if black people who were still illegally inflamed in Texas, and other states, and the black folks who were emancipated still face the problems of lack of shelter food and resources on top of the codify discrimination, and racist violence that proliferated at the time since the eighteen hundreds the celebration of June teeth has spread from Texas and throughout the United States. I'm eve Jeffcoat in hopefully, you know a little more about history today than you did yesterday. Just an additional note that after June teeth black people need it places to gather to celebrate as white people Barth them from using their public spaces. They began raising money to buy their own spots to celebrate June teeth emancipation park in Houston, Texas, which opened in eighteen seventy two was one such space. We'd love it. If you left a comment on Twitter, Instagram or Facebook at T D, I h c podcast. I'm guessing not to love history because you just listen to an episode of this day in history class, you can listen to more history by checking out my new show unpopular. It's a show about people in history who challenge the status quo and were sometimes persecuted for it. Thanks for listening. And we'll see you tomorrow. For more podcasts from iheartradio. Visit the iheartradio app, apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows, he listeners, I would like to tell you about a new podcast from APM called decomposed hosted by rockstar, pianist, Jade Simmons, decomposed, breaks, down the secrets scandals and acts of sheer genius that have shaped classical music in the first season, they explored the up-tight gender expectations of the eighteen hundreds, the role of classical music in Cold War propaganda, and the danger of putting your personal life on the stage. It's a unique mix of powerful human stories and powerful music that will give you a new appreciation for these classical masterpieces. You can find decomposed on apple podcasts or wherever you choose to listen.
Juneteenth: Freedom for All
"Eight. I am so happy that we chose not to cancel this event. Because there's no way to know that leading up to the event, our country would be in such disarray. And that we would be experiencing a revolution. Can. You hear me? Sky We can hear us the survey. Give me one second. Let me get a prison station at. Hello. My Name's is stern is currently sixth grade. Today, we'll be speaking significance June. We're excited to be welcoming to our second annual gene celebration. June team is a special operation in the United States. Is celebrates the freedom of Enslave Africans in also honors. The black-americans pushes us to think about how we can work to ensure that all people are treated. Monday got all is can't matter until black winds. In partnership, with The New York Times this is together. A part I'm Priya Parker. A. Few months ago, we spoke with teachers around the country the. Gatherers who have been bringing our young people together daily virtually trying to navigate the reality of pandemic. One of those teachers was Tony, show, foreman. A middle school teacher in new. Haven Connecticut trying to figure out how to keep her students motivated and engaged. I believe that when you educate yourself from within that, there is deep power there for you to live out your dreams, and to change the world, and then I also has to believe that are better. Days are ahead of us, and so like when I think about teaching the use of this. This country. There's something special about seeing them. Realize their vision for what a world could be. A lot of our unions are built around to wearing the sleeping in the Americas at the end of this unit. We would have some type of a June eighteenth celebration where kids which shared their rating and it was accusing. We had a band play last year. It was a community bank in so how? You know we still builds community. I was helping to Nisha. Determine which school gathering. If any she could host digitally to help, keep her students motivated. And it had to be one. That was worth the effort of not canceling. We landed on their schools celebration of June eighteenth. When we spoke in April as you can hear, she says she wasn't taught until college what June eighteenth even was. And that quote, it's the true fourth of July. This is the true freedom of everyone. And between that conversation and now. In part because of the murders of George Floyd and others, and the massive great outpouring against police, brutality and racism and anti blackness. We, are now in a moment in which companies like target and Nike are declaring teeth paid holiday. And in which? For the first time, perhaps ever beyond black Americans, the narrative of which holiday all Americans should mark as true freedom day is up for grabs. Here's the scholar and poet. Clint Smith home. We also spoke with earlier this year, explaining June eighteenth. So June team is June nineteenth, and it is the day that fee union army let enslave people in Texas, know that they were free. They had been freed previously, but they they didn't know the word had gotten. Texas one commands patient proclamation was signed even after the civil war ended, and so this was the union army, letting enslaved black people in Texas, no, you are free and in the general proclamation that that the general reads from this really beautiful. Veranda of this building called the Aston Villa in Galveston. Texas he says you know one of the lines in is like all slaves are free in. This is four simple. Words, you know all slaves or free, but but they just carried so much weight without realizing just how significant it would be to host a virtual June teams gathering this year. For the entire school for the first time and their community. To Nisha did it. Bringing hundreds of people together. Challenging in the Internet can be tricky that Shit. Our hope is that you will join dictation to reopen. Make you. Cry and smile, and believes that everyone own city college penn matters is for. Honor the ancestors. Our ancestors celebrate future. Just to see what students presented and what they reflected on, it has me in a very emotional state like the reflection process, so forgive me nearby sound a little bit sad but it. Looked a joyful of Corey. That I'm experiencing. I. Think what's really amazing and important and fascinating about this moment is I actually think we're at a moment that. June teeth as a narrative can actually finally take its rightful place for everybody as what the day actually means, and it's not just black people seeing the truth of it for me, it is also the empowerment of like the next generation. It's shows me the critical role that I play as an educator giving them the opportunity to think critically about why does young team exists why some people celebrate June eighteenth in a different way from the fourth of July and then put you know at the backdrop of what's happening in the world, and it's really really powerful. You may be wondering what is due to. The emancipation proclamation was signed by Abraham weakened in January eighteen sixty since we left our last phone call. Tell me about planning this moment and what you did to plan it. TOLD STUDENTS THAT WE'RE GONNA have host June eighteenth showed. What explain what would be allowed us as a couple of example, I know that last year we wrote about reparations and this year I was just like. Do free rates. However, it comes out of your soul. Let's do that and. What can you have? Students was so much about what they were seeing what they were reading about. The black lives matter movement in how they felt about it, and then I went out to our staff members staff meeting, and I talked to them, and I told them what we will be doing for June scene, and I was if I need you so all people who are who claims to be white allies or white accomplices or co-conspirator wherever you see yourself right now. This is the work sometimes with black history month it'd be like the black teacher puts it together the this Tambi. and. got a tremendous buying from our staff Yup. We're here with you. Experience here any other grades here. UNDERGIRD interior fourth grade year screwed. Right after George Floyd Staff I, struggled with working and being productive, because I could not actually do my work. My mind was in it. Ends. That's where you know. The work came in for for my colleagues were able. It'd be like we can do that. We can help them. And so then we put this together leverage everybody's skill. We had parents on their. We hired. Our principal is on. We Luke field. I'm incredibly full for the bright future that lies ahead because each and every one of you. You're brilliant. Asha. And Dedicated But at the end of the day, I felt like it was a June team and it was something that everybody will. Walk. walkaway walks away feeling like wow, that was good looking at history every mile. Let them. There was a poem called. What keeps me happy way with the smile fish? I get into the little coach. She's in first grade that she kind of same reciting. mileage the. Thing. That keeps me happy. Some one of my students wrote a poem called bounds in what that means to be to feel bound up. How we are so bad. You can't leave our homes. So. We feel bound. How Board we are. Angers me, I'm watching. Our people die in riots the world. It makes me anxious. What's GONNA have next. We'll have next. One I think you know moments of just unadulterated joy. I. Beginning with I like that it was good and another student about perhaps a world's INS now. Perhaps this is the end. Of the world in here by million. Violence begins is a social construct destroying tearing down systems ideas with. The actions of others ensure violence of people. Showing, their true nature to others, in the worst, late in his use exposed them as foolishness day on. Ignorance closes violence in society. The most important takeaway that I am walking away with is the important for people to like. See each other in be near in here one another's voices in taken perspective, because it was a beautiful thing, and one of you know the students who prefer today. She remix the national anthem and I. Guarantee You. When you hear the national anthem, you will cry. Be Like you're right. And it will also make you feel like our future is so bright. I am so grateful for that. I had an opportunity to speak with you because it just it bubbled up something in me. That said this needs to happen and what I experienced today in our virtual June saint. You cannot tell me that I was not side-by-side means arm in arm-in-arm with every person on this call, so thank you. Thank you know you crying. This is together apart. Pre- Parker We launched together apart on April. Second Two thousand twenty. Two weeks earlier on March seventeenth as the world was on gathering. I wrote an OP bad in the New York Times arguing the following. Instead of being what Sherry? Terkel, an MIT sociologist and psychologist has a stately termed alone together. We have an opportunity to be creative with the digital tools that previous generations couldn't have imagined. During this unpredictable and painful time. Let's invent creative meaningful ways of being together apart. And that became the namesake of this podcast. And, that's exactly what we've tried to do. To create meaningful ways of being. Together apart. And along the way we met Melissa, who is trying to create a light at the middle of the tunnel for her sister's eighteenth birthday when everything else seemed to be canceled around her. And ended up hosting a twelve hour redesign of the book. Juliette takes a breath for her sister and her friends. We will be engaging German. Theatre tradition think of it as experimental theater meets nerdy clear meets. We have a lot of time right now. Reading LOUDON ENTIRE BOOK START TO FINISH WITHOUT stopping. If you aren't the one reading, you can take breaks, eat even up, but you have to stay on the video call for a minimum of four hours. We spoke to Elaine Jonathan. WHO's in-person wedding was up ended and they decided to save their wedding date. Look. Be. Hosted Zoom stoop wedding. And focus on how to still give people meaningful roles and a shared experience, even when they're not in the same room second. Can you hear? Again. I want to welcome. All I can say is this is just the wedding. I can't imagine what the marriage is going to be like. We listened in on a virtual speed, dating experience that made us not just of the screen, but of the entire world's behind each person. Like when Kyle was prompted to show you Hira, the contents of his kitchen. A Stewart from Amazon. And it turned out to. Dishes! For scale. It came to my door. I was like dot order. She old like. Why is this so large doesn't even cover. This entire experience has been an experiment. That, I believe and hope will continue long after the last episode of the season. What does it mean? To be together. When, we don't have the ability to physically be together in the old ways. It is up to us to create a psychological and emotional experience of togetherness. And it is absolutely possible. When we aren't walking under doorways into a room, but clicking on, join button to go into a portal. What should welcoming now look like? When! We pause to ask a simple question like. Well, why are we doing this? What is the purpose? New Forms will emerge. And many of our gathering forms even before covid. Longer serving our needs. The way we gather matters. What we choose to mark together what we deem worthy of celebrating. What merits spending time with people to watch or witness or wait for? And We are in a moment nationally. Where something like the fourth of July which is a gathering wrapped story. Is being contested. Gatherings, aren't just events. There moments. Usually implicit and unspoken. That remind us. Of who we are. We've been. and. Who We might become? Oh say Cain you see. For to. ME. Joe May, he's. See! With raise driving. Straw. D.. C.. O.! Boo! Do. That raise! He. Does. Clock. Soon.
"Most of US enter Harriet. Tubman is life when she was in her thirties forties fifties and often times. We don't sort of think about how she came to be. Harriet I'm Celeste. Headley and this is following Harriet. You know I think for people of my generation people who grew up in the nineteen seventies. We first met Harriet in a photo in the corner of textbook she looked old. Her skin was stretched tight on her face. Her mouth was pinched. Her head was wrapped in a dark. Kerchief we read a couple of paragraphs about how she freed herself from slavery and then became a conductor in the underground railroad. She saved the lives of many other. People guided them safely from slavery to freedom. That was it. That was the whole story. We were told but Harriet. Tubman was so much more than a small woman with a lantern in the woods. She was a wife and mother an entrepreneur. A soldier spy nurse and an activist who fought for women's right to vote. I can honestly say after working on this project. She's really one of the most incredible and brave individuals. I've ever come across. That's Erica Armstrong Dunbar. She's a history professor at Rutgers University. And she's got a new book coming out called. She came to slay the life and times of Harriet Tubman. Erica says in the beginning. Harriet wasn't even Harriet. She was era. Minta or minty as her family called her her parents. Were Harry Green and Ben Ross. And they were both enslaved on the eastern shore of Maryland. They had at least nine children and era. Minta was in the middle born sometime around. Eighteen twenty to one of the things about enslavement. Was that the sale of slaves. The forced movement in migration always left enslaved families vulnerable. And we see that happen for Herod Ben. At a certain point they're separated and tear it is forced to move with her children including Eremita To another farm ten miles away from her husband they would continue to see one another to remain connected but they didn't live together and it was really sort of at that moment that we begin to see. Just how fragile. The lives of enslaved people were airmen to was rented out when she was still a child before she even had a full set of adult teeth. She was pressed to learn how to weave patterns. That would have been difficult for an adult. She was forced to empty the Muskrat traps on one of the farms where she lived. She did domestic work. Getting up very early carrying large loads of water to and from the house Plucking chickens making soap work that that never ended and she was expected to do this no matter her health she got the measles. When she was a small child emptying Muskrat traps and she was still expected to work and on occasion she would come back to her mother's The farm on which her mother lived in would be nursed back to health and then she would be sent out once again to work. When era MINTA was around five? She was hired out to a family who wanted her to help care for their infant. Catherine Clinton is a historian at the University of Texas San Antonio and author of the biography here at Tubman the road to freedom and there were incidents where she recalled that the moment the baby began to cry. The mother instead of reaching for her baby might reach for a switch in order to we. Harriet for letting the baby cry because it was her charge to keep the baby quiet. This shows the kind of abuses the enslaved endured under slavery at a certain point when Arrow MINTA had been hired out. She's we would call her a a tweet her. She was Somewhere between the ages of twelve and fifteen or sixteen and she went for what was supposed to be a quick errand to general store. The local store and It was clear that an enslaved man who lived on a nearby farm was in the act of. We're not certain if it was escape. Or if he was simply running away from an angry overseer someone who was angered by the fact that this enslaved and had created some infraction of the rules and he was chasing him and They run into this general store at the moment. That era mint is there. And overseer says to airmen's editor mandates that she help subdue this man and to help tie up his hands and she refuses. We sort of think about this moment where she perhaps it's her first stance against slavery and in that moment that she chooses not to act the enslaved man. He escapes he runs off. And the overseer is enraged and he picks up a metal weight and he hurls the weight in the direction of wasn't necessarily intended to hit a Armenta. He was really attempting to hit the enslaved man who was attempting to escape but Air Minta than Harriet got in the way of that weight and so when Eremenko was struck with this two pound metal wait She was in essence. Just failed immediately. Sh- her her skull was fractured She was bleeding profusely and of course she received no medical care. And at this moment this sort of terribly violent a moment in which we see the abusiveness of enslavement and the horror of it. There's also something sort of special that happens to era MINTA. She later on suggests that it was God entering her life and from that moment on she would have visions and she would fall into deep basically sleeping spells where she could not be roused from that sleep and when she came to she often had visions or memories that gave her information are led her in certain directions told her things that would happen in the future And all that time in my dreams and visions I seem to see a lie and on the other side of that line were Greenfield's and lovely flowers and beautiful white ladies who stretched out their arms to me over the line but I couldn't reach them. Know how I always fail before I got to the line. That's a quote. We have from Harriet about her visions. Now she never could read or write. She signed her name with an x but a historian named Sarah h Bradford interviewed Harriet in the eighteen sixties and wrote multiple books about her Catherine Clinton continues describing those sleeping spells. Harriet or self called losing time so frequently scholars might disagree or experts might debate. We don't really have medical records for her. We don't really know what she suffered from. So I tried whenever possible to use her own language to use her own recollections. Because I think that we have very few of her words and we even have disputes over. Which words were her her own or which words were put into her mouth but at the same time we know that she was indeed someone who overcame these great obstacles so whatever disability. It was something that she was able to not use to her advantage but I think she clearly is able to be more careful and cautious and we have to remember the the main way in which we know about people on the underground railroad because they were caught in most of her infamous comrades were caught and jailed and some were caught and jailed and died in jail and she was someone who was never caught. Just how was Minta who had not yet taken the name? Harriet Tubman able to elude everyone who tried to catch her. We'll have that after the break. Just a quick note here to say that if you'd like to learn more about visiting places that tell the story of Harriet Tubman the underground railroad and the nineteenth century African American experience especially in the state of Virginia go to Virginia Dot Org Slash Harriet slavery and freedom always existed in Maryland but they never eclipsed one another Jessica millward is an associate professor of history and African American studies at the University of California. Irvine she specializes in slavery emancipation. Black Women's history and Maryland. At some point in the nineteenth century the harvesting of wheat became more profitable so slave owners actually found themselves with human property and they didn't necessarily need their laborers full-time in in terms of year. Round tobacco. Production requires people to work year. Round where cultivating wheat does not so there were jobs for free. Blacks to be laundry. Says or blacksmiths. When Jessica says jobs she means paying jobs. This often surprises people but there were a lot of free black people in Maryland in the eighteen hundreds in fact by the time of the civil war nearly half of all blacks and people of color were free in Maryland. That could happen several different ways. A child born to a white mother and black father was considered free because the mother status defined the child's an enslaved person could petition the courts to be freed. Sometimes an enslaved person could negotiate payment for being rented out to other families he could save up money and if his owner allowed it by his freedom the slave owner could leave. A written will saying something like at the time of my death. I want my slave to be free. That's how era mint is father. Ben Ross became free. He was menu committed or freed by his owner when he turned forty five. Ben was a skilled woodsmen and even after he was freed. He continued to manage his former owner's timber. Business Era MINTA. She had not yet changed her name to Harry. It joined him on the farm when she was a teenager again. Historians Catherine Clinton and Erica Armstrong Dunbar. Area it was a very intrepid independent person and she was quite happy for example to be working on a canal because it meant she didn't have the close supervision of a white master or mistress which she found unpleasant and abusive so she was able to go out and work in the field and work doing heavy labor and she was really admired by men and women for her physical strength for her mental acuity. And so there's a moment in Ben's life where he's actually granted his freedom and while most of us would sort of think that this was a moment for him to rejoice for him to celebrate and. I'm not saying that he didn't. I would argue though that it came at a moment when he would watch his daughter plowing fields and breaking flax and doing some of the most difficult arduous labor. And so how? What does it mean to be free when your family is not? How free is free in eighteen? Forty four era MINTA who was about nineteen years old met and married a free black man named John Taubman. She took his last name. Family lawyer suggests that she was deeply in love with him. At some point she started thinking about a life beyond the farm where she lived in eighteen forty nine. She sick again so not worth as much to her owner. He tries to sell her. She praised a God that her owner would change his mind. I prayed all night long from my master till the first of March and all the time he was bringing people to look at me and trying to sell me. I changed my prayer. I began to pray Lord. If you ain't never going to change that man's heart kill him Lord and take him out of the way. Her owner died not long. After to settle the estate his widow began working to sell all their slaves. Three of airmont is sisters. Were sold south. This was likely the moment that spurred her to action. There was one of two things I had a right to liberty or death. If I could not have one I would have the other on September Seventeenth. Eighteen forty nine. Harriet and her brothers Ben and Henry ran away from the farm historian. Erica Armstrong Dunbar. The plan was to escape toward Philadelphia and at some point. Her brothers decided that it was a bad idea got scared they were concerned. They did know if they could actually make it and they decided that they would rather face punishment and even the possibility of sale. Maybe hoping that if they were sold away from their family it would be to a nearby farm or plantation. They decided that risk was a better option than taking their chances in the woods being chased by bounty hunters and dogs and they decided to return and while their sister did not want to return. They forced her dragged her back on. It's really this sort of moment in her life that you know man would ever sort of determine direction again so when they return and they're sort of awaiting their fate. Harriet Tubman makes the decision that she would not sit around and wait and she alone took to the woods and escaped in the late fall of eighteen forty nine. She evaded capture and made it all the way to Philadelphia. When I found I had crossed that line I looked at my hands to see if I was the same person. There was such a glory over everything. The Sun came like gold through the trees and over the field and I felt like I was in heaven. Ooh Eremita had also made herself a identity. As you might imagine. Enslaved people who attempted escape would often change their names to better disguise themselves. Eremita did just that. Some historical accounts say that she assumed her mother's first name of Harriet and adopted her husband's last name of Tubman before she escaped some say it was after regardless by eighteen forty nine. She had reinvented herself as Harriet. Tubman later on when her her narrative was penned. She explained that she was arrived in Philadelphia. And while this was or should have been a joyous moment she felt isolated and she worried about her family and she really at that moment committed herself to rescuing her family and to pulling them out of the jaws of slavery and over the next decade she would do just that. She started with her husband. John Tubman had refused to go with her when she escaped in eighteen. Forty nine in fact. He'd actively discouraged her from self emancipating saying that in addition to the risks. She was taking her own life. Her actions could also have repercussions for him and her family but Harriet worked hard in Philadelphia and saved up the money to go back down and get him. She even purchased a suit for him to wear on the trip back up when she finally made it back to her hometown. The that didn't go with. She expected Harriet found that John had married another woman again. Historian Jessica millward. You would think that you know once you have gone to all this effort and risked your life to not just escape slavery but to come back and come back to your sweetheart and say please. I want you with me and freedom as she returns and he has another wife. He wasn't going to leave. She was heartbroken but she committed to bringing the rest of her family to freedom. And that's how here it. Tubman became a conductor on the underground railroad. One Common Misperception About Harriet. Tubman is that she liberated hundreds of slaves from all over the south. While working on the underground railroad in reality it was between sixty and seventy all of them were from eastern Maryland and most of them were her own family members still. She showed incredible bravery as she went back and forth bringing people to freedom all the while a price on her own head. Just think about the the scariest run of your life. I personally don't like to run now ad running barefoot with food through woods or through marshy areas. These are not ideal conditions. Babies were usually drugged in any way they could be dragged with with alcohol. Or with whatever's of what we would consider. Opiates so that they would stay quiet during the journey but people did it because that's how important freedom was to them and Harriet tubman risked her life over and over again. Because that's how important freedom was to her. There were stories about the fact that for example she would often go south on a train. She would use the train to travel back into slavery because who would be suspicious of a black woman moving from north to south and she might actually have a newspaper and she might read that newspaper even though she was illiterate because everyone who might be looking for the infamous Harriet. Tubman would know that she was an enslaved woman. She was a woman of action. While there were many men of words during the antebellum period. It's eighteen sixty one or sixty two. Harriet TUBMAN IS LIVING IN CANADA WITH THEIR FAMILY. And doing some small speaking engagements talking about the violence of slavery her own escape and her work on the underground railroad historian. Erica Armstrong Dunbar. And in so doing lean she is literally asked by the Governor of Massachusetts John Andrew to join the Union and to take her tools in her talents. The ones that she had really sort of honed during her time on the underground to head down to South Carolina and to serve as a scout and a spy for the Union army. And so you know this is one of the moments most people who think they know anything about Tubman. They're like wait a minute. She fought for the Union. She did but not right away. She's assigned to Port Royal in the Hilton Head District of South Carolina. It's a camp filled with what are known as contraband runaway slaves who found shelter with the union says she heads down to South Carolina. And although she's asked to be a scout and a a spy she is quickly sort of shuttled into a duties. That are anything. But that she's sort of forced into what was really domestic work. She was Cooking and cleaning for the troops. She was helping recently emancipated people who had come to the union lines. She was helping them. Figure out a way to eke out a living. She created wash houses. Where formerly enslaved women would basically take the laundry of union soldiers and in order to make a little bit of money they would do the laundry. She created a couple of eating houses. Eateries because union soldiers were never fed. Well we're always hungry. And so these formerly enslaved women are out foraging in the forest looking for wild birds and bores and anything that they could turn into a food for union soldiers and and Harry is doing the same thing at first. She's she's actually being paid by the Union army and that does not sort of sit well with all of the other. Formerly ENSLAVED PEOPLE COME IN SMART RIGHT. She realizes okay. The last thing I want to do is to anger these folks because my job is to come down here and to be a scout and spy and this may be sort of temporary situation for me. But I'm going to need these people. I'm going to need them for information. And so she refuses to accept any kind of compensation in the form of food or clothing from the Union army and instead she starts baking pies and make you root beer. And she's literally asking formerly enslaved people to go into the camps and sell these pies and she's an entrepreneur right so not only is she brought down to be sky and a scalp but because it doesn't happen quickly. She turns the tables and she she realizes that she's going to have to make a living and she's also going to have to win the hearts and the the souls of the people around her and she does just that and it pays off a year or so later when Harry. It finally gets the chance to do the kind of espionage work. She'd gone down there for Union. Commanders began planning raids around South Carolina's coastal rivers to remove torpedoes floating mines resting just below the surface of the water. They also wanted to seize supplies from area plantations and even destroyed the plantations and in the rage. They tried to free as many enslaved people as possible especially males and recruit them to fight for the union one of those rates planned by Union. Colonel James Montgomery was orchestrated along the Columbia River near Beaufort South Carolina. And it was really a brilliant idea to go up the Columbia River strike deep in the heart of the plantation country where you had hundreds of slaves trapped behind enemy lines anchored on plantations historian and biographer. Katharine Clinton and by using our intelligence network. She was able to find out both. We're the torpedoes were planted and torpedoes were stationary underwater. Explosive DEVICES IN THE PERIOD. So naturally the confederates had used black labor for that who buried those minds their slaves and so that information from those enslaved people found its way to Harry so that Harriet was able on June second. Eighteen sixty three to lead a really a sort of fleet of over three hundred men. Mostly black soldiers up the combat. He River I really Dade just lit up. Her description of that all ninety venture is just phenomenal. My name is Elvis Trees Belches and I am a public historian author archival research and filmmaker. She talked about women running towards the shore who had rise pots still on their hits with steam. Coming out of them little kids were hanging on for dear labs onto their MOMS and people actually had laughed chickens tied to their legs and one of the that was somewhat helpful. Somewhat funny is that she recalled one lady who had both a black and white pig and Mrs Tubman and Montgomery named the Black One Jefferson Davis and the white one beauregard. She moved from Port to port from place to place along the riverbank at designated exodus spots. Where the inside people could come and be rescued and be taken to freedom in Beaufort South Carolina. You know as people were running to freedom as some of those gunboats became field. Some of the people trying to run for freedom held onto the boat because they didn't want the books to leave them even though they were full so that became problematic. So what Montgomery did is he prevailed upon Mrs Tubman to sink. I think he told her to sing to your people because he knew her. Reputation preceded her as Moses for her people. I think at first she didn't know exactly what to sink but she began to sing. And people released their holes on the boats Hoping and praying that yes other vessels would be coming and they were able to continue on with their mission and it was really amazing that in the middle of the night seven hundred and fifty slaves were liberated and went operation with a very small force of Black Union soldiers on these union boats and it was really an operation and certainly the local union officers. Commended her applauded her and she was known really as a secret weapon for the Cumby River rate. And so when you sit back and you sort of think about someone. Managing to emancipate close to a thousand people. You know it's breathtaking and that was Harriet. Tubman as we learn about Harriet. We not only peer into the incredible life of one of our country's most iconic heroes. We also get a better understanding of the broader experience for African Americans in the nineteenth century on the next episode. We traveled to museums throughout Virginia and to the presidential homes of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. To hear how the stories of that African American experience are being told today mulberry. Row is the plantation main street of Monticello where all of the Industrial Labor to place Jefferson and his lifetime. Enslaved over six hundred people. We also knew that we needed to own the fact that our Guy James Madison political genius father the Constitution you know author of the bill of Rights this guy codified the institution of slavery. I'm Celeste Headley and we're following Harriet. If you'd like to learn more about visiting places that tell the story of Harriet Tubman the underground railroad and the nineteenth century African American experience especially in the state of Virginia. Go to Virginia Dot org slash. Carry it in this episode. We heard from several historians Eric Armstrong Dunbar. From Rutgers University Catherine Clinton from the University of Texas San Antonio Jessica millward of the University of California Irvine and L. Patrice Belches Harriet Tubman was portrayed by Krista while rock we had production assistance from Kenny Burns. More curry she ended to Loria and Miranda fillmore following. Harriet is a production by ingredient creative with Tanya aunt as the writer and director. And Tanner Letham as executive producer following. Harriet is sponsored by the Virginia Tourism Corporation and Virginia Film Office. He's Kinda hard not to say. Goodness Gracious. This woman was real. You know she was. She was bad just a bad ass and he can. He says we're back up in some parts. I some ways. I decided not to call her. Bad has sort of reverence just two. I'm in sort of thinking about what my grandmother would say. If she read a book that I wrote in which I called. Harriet Tubman a bad ass sheets. Eric what are you talking about? Watch your mouth. That's like honestly that's the first thing that popped into. That's my my sensibilities as a sort of middle aged black woman who grew up with a black grandmother going to church. That usually don't say those things especially about your elders. And even though that's you know the phrase of the term has we you know we use that now as as a symbol or a sign of respect I know. I kind of decided to to listen to Elsie Armstrong in my in my head and to call her boss lady more frequently.
Episode 177: 5 Days of Christmas Immortals Abraham Lincoln
"You're gonna come into a new season of joy and fulfillment like you've never seen. Hi on jolo team. I have a daily podcast row. Talk about poker coming obstacles accomplishing dreams and becoming all you recreated debate. You may have had some disappointments in the past but this is a new day. Keep feeding your home speeding. Your dreams use your energy to feed your destiny. Listen to the joel osteen. Daily podcast on the iheartradio app. Or wherever you get your podcast. In a world of an ever changing economic landscape. How on earth can i get some financial stability in my life. I'm grow most of the podcast. Follow the prophet every week. You'll hear from successful entrepreneurs learn from their chievements. The most importantly to avoid their mistakes on the podcasts. You'll hear stories that will deconstruct what's going on in the economy and how it's affecting your finances so that you can follow the prophet. Listen to follow the prophet. Every saturday on the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your podcasts on this episode of neutral world. Abraham lincoln is with the single exception of george washington. The most important president in american history without lincoln civil war would have ended with the south leaving the union with america. Broken without lincoln the moral basis of freedom would never been quite as articulate without lincoln. So many things that we take for granted would never become true. I'm going to try to share with you. The essence of lincoln a man who is the most complex and probably the smartest person ever to occupy the white house. One of the lessons of lincoln. What is it about lincoln that made him so unusual so effective and so important. I've written four novels about the civil war. I spent years studying lincoln. I think that he is at the center of defining. America abraham lincoln's rise to greatness is really the classic american story the proof that you could really have almost nothing and if you had ambition and determination and we're willing to work really hard amazing things could happen in eighteen o. Nine lincoln is born in hardin county kentucky and he is an a family. That's very poor. They all leave relocate to the frontier of indiana looking for better lay and looking for greater opportunity. But they're still very poor and when he's nine years old. His mother nancy hanks. Lincoln dies of sickness year later. His father thomas lincoln remarriage to the widow. Sarah bush johnston that long stretch of being extremely poor so poor that i think is literally true. That lincoln learned how to read by the fireplace because most wouldn't use candles which were expensive famous. Pistorious pictures of lincoln laying in front of the fireplace looking at books when he was very very young. It's probable that in that period. He'd never got more than about three years of formal education but it was also period where people often didn't get much education often do not do a lot of reading for his whole. Life is an effect stories of lincoln. When he was on the circuit. Had his horse trained so that the horse would pull. The buggy and lincoln would read between towns. He was immersed in the bible. And in fact. If you really want to understand the cadence of lincoln look at the king. James version of the bible because lincoln rights very much in the pattern of the king james version which of course in nineteenth century america has the most commonly red single book and so he sounded right to people he also worked really hard as a result he became physically very strong is big guy anyway but in addition to that he was physically strong he does a lot of different jobs both firm jobs and jobs in town and then something which i think really affected his life when he is nineteen years old. He works on a flat boat carrying cargo down to new orleans and he saw slavery in a slave market and i think that he never ever forgot that he went back down again three years later on his second trip to new orleans in that period i think he just realized it was just wrong and he hated it. Now hit and run around as an abolitionist. He didn't go make a big noise about it but you'll see very early in his career particularly in a very famous speech that he gave in eighteen thirty eight. He begin to lay out a framework of thinking about these things. That marks is different than most of the people around him. Keep kirksey general store when he is twenty two years old unfortunately for him they store audibly goes broke and he spends a number of years paying off the debt. Which again is one of those things in a small town. People really respected him because they came to believe that he was somebody that kept his word. Here's a guy who wants to get ahead. He's striving constantly he's learning constantly and he's very good with people. He obviously stood out. He was very tall and very visible for his time. I was physically amazingly strong. So people had enormous respect at a time when physical strength really mattered in addition people as he was really smart and finally he was a great storyteller so lincoln was always collected stories to tell people they were usually kind of long drawn out. Slow stories. Exactly what you'd need. If you're going to be on the circuit as a lawyer found yourself every evening at a tavern somewhere having dinner and a drink with the boys and then it would be basically an all male company and so he became pretty popular just because his kind of fun to be around and people thought he had good ideas. You need wisdom. Also thought that he was quite sociable. The black hawk war occurs when black hawk led a group of indians from several different tribes across from what was then the iowa indian territories and a entered illinois scared everybody and at that point those a call for volunteers and lincoln who has twenty three at the time promptly went in and volunteered and the way militia back then pick leaders they would line up behind the person they wanna have as leader so lincoln and one other candidate for captain of their unit took positions and then people lined up and a lot more people lined up behind lincoln than behind the other guy so he became captain in fact. This really touch lincoln at a personal level. He said later quote. I was elected captain of volunteers. Success which gave me more pleasure than any i have had since and now is not because he was going to be a military leader was because his friends and neighbors had chosen shown respect for him. They thought he was competent. And as a result he felt a great sense that he gained a lot of ground kid from a really poor family born in kentucky partially raised indiana and now a young adult male annoy. He was getting to be somebody who's doing well enough and respected enough to become captain of militia. Has lincoln said at one point. They never saw a single and in while he was in charge of the militia. They wandered around. The woods. didn't get anything done. The mattered disbanded. Went home. It also is an australian of how close to the frontier. Lincoln was that he was part of. I think the last major indian campaign in illinois as the sweep of people being moving further and further west and organizing more and more from territories into states. I think that you have to see in lincoln. This ferry rural farm boy who is determined to someday do something that matters and who learns a whole series of tough lessons but never backs off never stops never slows down. 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Lincoln was a very ambitious man ambitious from the very beginning. He had a desire to get ahead and he was constantly thinking about how to get things done. One of the most amazing facts about lincoln is when he first ran for the legislature at twenty three years of age having lost the first time lincoln means to study being lawyer and that same year his elected as a whig candidate to the lower house illinois. General assembly at twenty four years of age most of our founding fathers and most of our most successful leaders in fact spent a lot of time learning their trade. And here's lincoln at twenty four years of age entering the legislature and beginning to learn how to be an effective legislator in fact he's in the legislature for two years before he gets a licensed to practice law and then he moves to springfield and begins to practice and opens up an increasingly successful law from now. He's not particularly successful. In pursuing a spouse and eighteen thirty seventy rights to a woman that he really hoped would marry him. She didn't even reply to his letter. Mary todd lincoln. They have it on and off relationship. Finally marry todd agrees to marry him and eighteen. Forty two married at the same time. He's left the legislatures tired of going to the state legislature and he is rising as a politician. People tend to free at the lincoln as a major leader in the whig party as it was then called in the eighteen thirties and becoming a leader in the state legislature he automatically won a congressional seat for one term. Went to washington immediately made a name for himself introducing what was called the spot resolution because president i had gotten us into a war with mexico and lincoln as a wing who is opposed to poke was saying he couldn't find a spot of ground in. Which would poke was saying was true has asked on popular during the mexican war. The war became relatively popular and seen as kind of unpatriotic to be questioning it. As lincoln. did he came back home. Not because he lost but because he'd made a deal with a fellow whig that they would alternate terms in congress. A deal which by the way the other guy broke and kept the seat leaving lincoln out of public office for the better part of a decade and he kept trying to get back into office. He applied a one point to become the governor of the territory of oregon and was turned down. He stayed active in politics while the whig party was dying and gradually began to realize. If had a future he had to join. This new thing called the republican party and so lincoln became one of the senior leaders bringing with him all of his connective from the years as a wig in illinois and became a very prominent republican that led autumn leader his running for the senate in eighteen fifty eight in what is absolutely fascinating moment in american history. Lincoln is going to run for the senate at a time when the senators are actually picked by the state legislature. So in a sense while he runs as a personality the autumn a result will be reflected in how the republicans do in the state legislative races. He's gonna run against stephen douglas. One of the leading democrats in the entire country a man who was very widely respected who had risen much faster than lincoln and so latinas. The underdog outsider. Taking on the great senator. The local railroad gave douglas and entire railcar made out to live in for the campaign and douglas south went around the state of illinois in great comfort. Lincoln bought a ticket and the common everyday passenger part of the train and could be found. You know sleeping by himself on a bench on the train going from place to place and that gave me a sense of their relative significance as they started into this campaign lincoln and decides that the way he's going to go after douglas as a challenge him to debate and douglas of course being the incumbent in the front runner and the guy who should win does want her debate. Xiao douglas. hyde's from lincoln and lincoln comes up with this theory very typical on what you'll see with lincoln again and again thinking strategically and announces that wherever douglas speaks lincoln will speak the next night while. Of course that means that linkin gets to take apart. Douglas speech lincoln and affect gets the last word and after a couple of weeks of this. Douglas says going to trail me around everywhere. let's just debate. And so the only read to seven debates. These were debates where people spoke for forty five minutes at a time where they had the outline you ge- propositions and they walk through them and it turned out that lincoln was in fact. A extraordinarily good debater. Now this should not have come as a shock. He had been making a living as a trial lawyer in illinois for years. In many ways appealing to the voter and appealing to jury are the same business and so he had a very good sense of how to take complicated ideas. Break them down into very simple concepts. Explain them in a very down home kind of way and all be in a position where the jury nodded. Yes that's how lincoln and made it very very living. Well harry was now applying exactly the same skill exactly the same technique to debate and douglas semi found himself in trouble and part of the reason douglas was in trouble was that he was trying to straddle the great issue of the eighteen fifties. Which was slavery. Douglas knew that the country was on the verge of breaking apart and he knew that northerners were increasingly anti-slavery something which had accelerated dramatically with the publication of uncle. Tom's cabin which was a very popular novel which sold an enormous number of books in the north and which portrayed in deeply emotional ways the plight of african americans who were slaves. the effect of uncle. Tom's cabin on the south was to maximize the degree to which southerners were now paranoid convinced that the yankees wanted to destroy their civilization abolish hedrick cultural based on slavery in an effect have the yankees dominate the region so the very intensity with which anti-slavery movements began to grow particularly starting new england where there were genuine abolitionists that people are saying not only the slavery bad but we should abolish it and they were sort of the radical wing of the emerging republican party. But douglas is trying to do is hold together. The democratic party which was the party of slavery that he he couldn't be slavery and win northern illinois he couldn't be anti-slavery and win in southern illinois and furthermore since israel goal was to run for president eighteen sixty he was trying to find a formula which would allow both southern democrats and northern democrats to be for him for president. If he could keep the democratic party unified. he would probably win the presidency. Is they beaten. The republicans in eighteen fifty six and there was every reason to believe that a unified democratic party could beat the republicans get an eighteen sixty lincoln understanding all this begins to put together a strategy that forces douglas to answer a series of questions enforces. Douglas into an untenable position where he is to pro slavery for northern illinois and he is to obviously hiding and straddling for southern illinois and lincoln is sort of chasing him intellectually and forcing him into a that. He knows is unsustainable. Douglas i think deep down knew that if we continued on the road we were on an eighteen fifty eight. We're gonna an ethnic civil war. And he was trying to find a formula that would contain slavery but at the same time would not so threaten at the south would secede lincoln headed a different approach. Lake want to communicate unequivocally that slavery was bad that it was unacceptable in each of them. Have this balancing act. Lincoln as anti-slavery is not quite yet for abolition. Because he knows that he can't win as a straight out abolitionist in illinois. Douglas doesn't want to defend slavery but he wants to block it from being abolished and the problem for douglas's that southerners have concluded any effort to limit slavery his in fact an effort to kill slavery and so douglas is gradually losing ground throughout the south. The longer this campaign goes on. I losing the opportunity to someday be president. Lincoln on the other hand is gradually consolidating. The notion that he's a good debater. He can stand up against somebody who everybody believed up until they here was probably the best orator in the country and lincoln kept growing stature. Douglas kept declining and stature by election. Day lincoln actually carried the popular vote by about four thousand. But because what mattered was the state legislature. The democrats were able because of the way the districts designed and because of some holdovers horn for election year the democrats can majority in the legislature. So douglas got elected but ironically lincoln won the moral fight again. Also this gives you an example of both how smart he was and how ambitious yours. Lincoln had arranged for the newspapers to cover the lincoln. Douglas debates lincoln then arranged for the lincoln douglas debates. We pulled together into a book. He then arranged for the book to be published in very inexpensive form and thousands and thousands of copies of the lincoln. Douglas debates suddenly showed up all over the country. And is this lawyer from illinois. Who's only been a congressman for two years in his entire career suddenly beginning to emerge eighteen fifty nine as a very serious person who although he had not won the senate seat had won the popular vote for the senate seat had proven that he was capable of taking on douglas and all of a sudden lots of people in the republican party. Who be into wonder about this guy. Lincoln and where it was coming from now. Lincoln at that point starts campaigning. And he goes out and he goes into a number of states in the midwest and soon as far east as ohio campaigning. Because it back then. They used to have a lot of off your elections in eighteen fifty nine. A number of states held elections and lincoln is all over the place campaigning for people and effect. Picking a bio us everywhere. Douglas goes lincoln goes and on election day. Eighteen fifty nine. The republicans won virtually everywhere so now lincoln is riding a wave as a guy who actually is helpful to the party. Who helped grow the party. He's being to pick up strength across the midwest. Two things come into play at this point. The first is if you look at the united states and you assume for a minute that the south is never gonna vote republican then the question becomes. How do you put together a majority in the electoral college. Even though you probably can't put together majority of the popular vote. There's a certain advantage to having a mid westerner they're seen as more moderate period. No new englander was going to get elected president. Because they're seen as hard line have alicia who were very very likely to lead the country into a war. The leading candidate is actually from new york. Senator seward who had been the dominant leader in the republican party. And people sort of thought seward would get to be the nominee except in the mid west lincoln was clearly more effective than seward. And if you think that the real battleground inch douglas will be in the midwest sort of an underlying bias in favor of lincoln to take on douglas in then something really weird happens. There are pieces of lincoln's career that are almost divine intervention seward decides that he so obviously going to be nominated. He goes to europe out of the country taking for granted that the delegates are going to be for him. Had seward stayed home and had sewer work the delegates he probably could have won the nomination but he leaves now. Lincoln has not a fool. Sunny realize there's a big vacuum and for weeks lincoln writing people all across the country while sewage off seeing europe by the time sued gets back. Lincoln is we under. Really be a factor. The other example almost diviner of engine is where is the republican national convention on a b. in eighteen sixty. Oh it's going to be in chicago illinois while who can dominate. Chicago will lincoln ken. So what happens. Is his key advisers go to chicago. They organized the crowds guarantee that they're going to dominate the energy level with lincoln supporters. So gradually he's beginning to build on this momentum and seward suddenly finds himself how to sink. He hasn't kept touch with the delegates to a lincoln. Has sued was overconfident. Under worked and all of a sudden here is the republican nominee. Now poor douglas. Who has spent his whole life trying to get to be president. Who's maneuvered brilliantly. Organized things has been a great senator. He's really made a lot of impact on the country a much more important person than abraham lincoln prairie eighteen sixty. Douglas is watching his party. Die because what's happened is the southerners who basically said if you are totally in favor of the expansion of slavery everywhere in the country. We're not going to support you well. Douglas nosy can't be for that and he won't get any votes in the north of he's for the expansion of slavery everywhere in the country and so douglas is caught in a moment where his party is disintegrating the south votes decisively against lincoln. In the north lincoln. Winds all with a plurality of the votes and lincoln about forty percent of the vote. He carries the electoral college decisively. Because the other guys are splitting the rest of it and outside the south lincoln is dominant and the republicans are dominant. I'm david grauso host of the podcast follow the profit now talking about profit in the biblical sense. I'm talking about entrepreneurs who follow the prophet and how they're making it work in business and sharing those exact lessons with year. The world of course is constantly changing. Many of you are seeking some sort of financial stability while this podcast is not some get rich quick motivational. Show this podcast is designed for you to discover how to use your money to help you every week. You're going to hear from successful entrepreneurs to learn about their teammates but most importantly to avoid their mistakes on the podcast. You're also going to hear stories that will deconstruct what's going on in the economy and how those developments affect your finances economic stability of is something that we're all seeking and i'm going to tell you how to get closer to your dreams so that you can follow the prophet. Listen to follow the prophet. Every saturday on the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your podcasts. Lincoln decides that he simply not going to get involved in decision-making until he becomes president which will not happen until march. The union is falling apart. The south is gradually starting to succeed. Federal weapons in the south and armories are being taken over by southerners. Federal forts are being taken over by others and president. Buchanan is refusing to do anything to defend union and a sitting there passively waiting for lincoln to show up sitting there in illinois. Think he'd himself. We end up in a really big fight if we're gonna be in a really big fight. I'd better really mobilize popular opinion. And so lincoln decides that he will go by train. Lincoln went from springfield to washington zigzagging across the midwest in northern upstate. New york and everywhere. He goes his giving brief speeches. And what he's doing is he's letting people for the first time in history see the president so biggest event in the town's history the train pulls up abraham lincoln gets on the back of the train talks with the crowd for little while his popularity keeps growing he then gets to washington and he gives it inaugural address. He appeals to the south and he says look we. We don't have to get into a war. We don't have to fight. Were not your natural enemies. The tragic fact is that the south has made the decision least a hardline elements the south of made the decision that if lincoln president they're gone period and i think it's really important to understand this. Lincoln had become the symbol of abolition. No matter what he said as far as southern as we're concerned lincoln was the enemy and if he was going to be pretty nice states that meant that their enemy was in the white house and that meant that they had no choice in their minds. Except a secede lincoln again as a strategist is faced with three or four very very big strategic choices and thought about what a civil war would be like it certainly not the presidency that he thought he was running for but he understood almost instantly a couple of big facts. The i was. He wanted to be very very patient. And maneuvers the south fired. The first shot lincoln understood that if it was a war of northern aggression. Which of course is exactly. What's others called it that he couldn't hold the union together because people aren't going to sign up for a war of aggression he also understood that if it was a war against somebody who was attacking the union. He'd have a much bigger base of support in the north and a much greater willingness to sign up alan tears and charleston the most active members of succession. I get frustrated tired and they fire on fort sumter now when they fired on fort sumter that suddenly said to the entire north. They are attacking us now. It was a defensive war. A war to defend the union lincoln was now able to portray it as i am responding to southern aggression. I need your help to defend the union and governors be calling for volunteers and people be to show up and join the union army and substantial numbers. The second thing was lincoln knew that he could not afford to have washington isolated. And yet if you look at a map you have. Virginia in the south you have delaware which at the time was a pro slavery state and you maryland which frankly was essentially pro slavery in eighteen sixty one and that was a real danger that the railroad would be cut off was a real danger that the legislature in maryland would vote for secession and lincoln me and taking very dramatic steps. He locked up about half of the maryland state legislature. Because he knew that if they were allowed to vote they would vote for secession. And lincoln's attitude was he can't ask me to follow rules. Which guarantee that we will destroy the very constitution. The you claim you want to defend. And therefore i'm going to do what i have to do. In order to defend. The constitution to lincoln is arguing that he can use the power that's written into the constitution because the founding fathers understood you could have insurrection you could have riots and there are times when you had to be able to set aside the normal procedures of a peacetime society and make sure you could protect the society and he applies this in maryland was substantial force and substantial willingness to lock people up and do whatever's necessary because he knows if maryland is able to leave the union washington will be cut off if washington's cut off. It's very hard to imagine how the union's going to survive. The second thing he knows. Is that delaware which has wavering and kentucky which is wavering. Need to be kept in the union affect lincoln says a one point. I hope god is on my side. But i have to have kentucky. This is one of the reasons why purist realize it. Lincoln's very cautious about abolishing slavery. The reasons pretty simple if he was seen as an abolitionist he would've lost maryland. Delaware kentucky immediately. He can't afford to do that. Because that means they will lose the war. So the requirement of survival leads him to be very careful and very cautious and as a result kentucky all becomes pro-union and delaware autumn becomes become spro union maryland. Is i said which had a few extra provisions remains in the union so we can as one that round the problem. Lincoln has what she doesn't saw for very long. Time is the key. Generals don't agree with him general. Mcclellan who is the key general in the east doesn't particularly want to win the war. Mcclellan is actually in some way sympathetic to the south. Mcclellan wants to protect the north but not defeat the self mclaughlin's also a very very good organizer and people like him because he's building a huge union army and the result is lincoln has tied himself to a general who blocked him from decisive action in the summer of eighteen. Sixty to the union army has moved. Up is literally within sight of the church. Steeples of richmond. And richmond's the key for the south because it's the biggest industrial city is politically vital. It is the capital of the confederacy. And the commanding general. General johnson gets wounded and the president of the confederacy. Jefferson davis turns to his best adviser robert e lee. And says i want you to take charge. Well leah's weekly. One of the greatest commanders. In american history his ability to maneuver his ability to inspire his subordinates. His instan- grasp of the battlefield. And the fact that he had been the superintendent of west point and so he knew a lot of these people and had a real incident he knew for example. the mclaughlin was slow and the maclellan was timid. The result is that he gets defeated. And the truth is if you look at the size of the union army if he had just been persistent he would have beaten louis but he's not persistent and so he wants to retreat back to washington this sort of thing. Lincoln's faced with again and again lincoln gets frustrated. He appoints a different general. General polk gives him a large part of the army. Poke makes derogatory comments about lee bow. Poke gonna beat them and lee turns in a remarkable series of moves and what's called the second battle of manassas leave decisively defeats poke shattering the union army. And here's lincoln doing everything that he's supposed to do picking people who are losers and it's partly because they're up against one of the great tacticians in american history. It's partly because the union army at that stage in these still wasn't very well formed and it was politically very divided though sort of mcclellan win the army generals who wanted to have a very passive war if you will how did not want to defeat the south but they wanted to protect the north and then where the lincoln republican generals who are very aggressive and you had a leadership in the union army in the east that was very divided. Mclaughlin ends up in a very very difficult battle of antietam lee retreat and then mcclellan sits there for thirty days and finally lincoln i mcclellan and then he brings in general burnside who says to him very straightforward. I can't do this. I'm fine as a corps commander. The you put me in charge of the whole army and i'll just fail. Lincoln says well. It's a risk. I will take while tragically for the nineteen thousand people get killed. Burnside was right. He goes down to fredericksburg and lee has his army sitting on these hills. And it's a killing ground and burnside just kind of marches straight across right into it it slaughtered pulls back lincoln forces himself to sit on the porch of the white house for three days watching the wagons filled with the bodies of dead. Come up to union station to be shipped home. i think of the moral burner now berg. Having you've tried mclaughlin he failed. You've tried polke failed. You brought mccollum back. He failed a second year. Now tried burnside. He failed worse than the other failures and so he turns into general hooker and hooker ends up fighting. Flee the chances will and they basically fight to draw except that hooker standing next to a pillar of huge beautiful antebellum mentioned that they'd taken over headquarters and a ball hit the pillar and the concussion basically took hooker out of the fight and so at the very moment when they might of one hooker just sorta how he's head concussion and saw they fight to a draw which is ineffective defeat. They pull back again as general meade who heard watch this and was really really angry. He thought that hooker should have kept his nerve and that they could have beaten -ly and meet his very tough guy had a very sharp kind of way of thinking and he pulls him together and he says look. The union may depend on the site. And we've got to figure out how we're gonna do this. And so they organize. If i get us berg and in the league loses. I wanted to put yourself in lincoln's position for two years. You've been telling the country that this war is desperately important. You've been getting young men from all over america volunteer. They've been getting killed. Virtually every town. America's lost people. And here you are waiting to hear what's going to happen and hoping that this new is better than the last people you picked. They fight a very tough fight. Lee loses put just when mead doesn't follow him so major won a battle but basically league at away by this stage. Lincoln's getting very tired in the also faced with the election coming up in the fall of eighteen sixty four which saved lincoln. Despite all the frustrations with the army of the potomac was the fact that in the west and at see the union was steadily winning. At see the united states navy i had absolute dominance and was able to gradually strangle call commerce going into the confederacy in the west. The great virtue was that one particular general began to rise. And that general was lucy's grant grant had been who was point graduate. He had been in the mexican war. Grant is far and away the best general of the civil war. he had an ability to organize. Hit an understanding of warfare ran recounts and his very first time to go into battle. Heya trained his men. He had hopes for them. He wasn't sure that they would fight. They got an a steamboat. They went down the river. They got to where the confederates where they got off the boat they climbed the hill and they suddenly realize that all of the rifle pits were empty and grant rhode. I suddenly realized that the other guy was afraid to and from that point for the entire rest of the war i always remembered the whatever my problem was the other guy had problems too and this became for grant the hallmark of his leadership which was very steady very calm very sober. He was captured at a key moment. And one of the things which began to change the whole war when in april of eighteen. Sixty to the confederate army surprised. Grant's forces at pittsburg landing and all day long the confederates drove the union forces back towards the river. Sherman who was grant's subordinate recounts in his memoir that he walked over to see grant. That night drizzling rain grant sitting on a little tripod stool outside his tent which has been turned over to field hospital where people are having their limbs amputated grants widdling which was his habit and trimmer walks up to him and says they beat pretty good today and historically the union army up to that point got in a fight in pulled back got another fight in pulled back grant without looking up up. Lick them in the morning. Though and sherman so at that point he decided he wouldn't recommend withdrawing and they began talking and the reason this matter is there discussion. Was you know the confederates are actually serious. And they're going to become independent unless we defeat them and they became the first two people other than lincoln to understand that this would have to be a war of breaking the capacity of the south to fight and from that evening's conversation. The team that ultimately won the war which is grant lincoln and sherman began to form. Lincoln admired one objective about ulysses grant. He won and so after me fails to follow lee at gettysburg on the very same week. Grant wanted vicksburg huge victory which cut off the confederacy and made the entire mississippi open to the union and that point is looking out thinking all right. I've got a guy who knows how to win. And i've got an arm in the east doesn't seem to know how to win. And he brings grand east. He makes him commander of all the union army's and commander of the army of the potomac and from that point on the team begins to decisively. Sherman stays in the west automobile couponing atlanta marching to savannah and the north grant takes the army of the potomac south to defeat louis and to keep the confederate army the so occupied that they can't do anything to help in the west. The thing to learn for this isn't lincoln has endured failure after failure. Linkin is doing everything he can win. He just can't quite figure it out. Then quite the right people that i have the right understanding as lincoln himself said the goal is not richmond. The goal is lee's army. If you destroy lee's army richmond will fall but if you just take richmond and lease still has an army. Then the wars go on and so finally found two generals who understood that principle and they set out to win the war but remember this point. Eighteen sixty three lincoln still has an enormous challenge can get reelected. And so lincoln undertakes one of the most amazing hacks in american history and something which is almost never taught on november nineteenth eighteen sixty three a few months after the guess. Berg lincoln goes to get us word to help inaugurate the new first national military cemetery lincoln got up and gave a speech about three and a half minutes. And it's probably the most famous speech. Lincoln's gettysburg address first lincoln's using the trip to pennsylvania to bring in governors from all over the region to talk about reelection so in a sense in november of eighteen. Sixty three he's planning his reelection second. Pick up the gettysburg address and reread it as a campaign speech basically what he says at the very end having talked about the sacrifice of all the people who died he says it is rather for us to be here dedicated dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead. We take increased devotion to that cause for which they hear gave the last four measure of tuition. The we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation under god shove a new birth of freedom and the government of the people by the people for the people shall not perish from the earth. Now notice what he's done he basically this set it up to say if you re elect me they will not have died in vain. Because i'm going to win the war but if you elect somebody who's willing to cave in then all of these deaths will have been in vain and it's very telling the next year the general who didn't want to fight mcclellan runs as lincoln's primary opponent and basically runs on the grounds that they could make peace only make peace by allowing the south to succeed. Interestingly the greatest margins for lincoln came from the union army voting in the field very people whose lives. We're gonna be put at risk if the war continued voted to continue the war and they did so because they were convinced to what lincoln said was right that this was a moral 'cause it was a genuine crusade to reason that they marched a war singing the battle hymn of the republic because they meant it and lincoln in that sense came to personify the central cause of freedom. Because what he's done is he's moved here from a legal concept the union to a moral concept in fact it is lincoln who brings back to life the declaration of independence. Lincoln is not basing the survival of the union on the constitution. He's based on the declaration of independence and that's why he begins the address four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth this continent a new nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now think about that again. From this boy who grew up on a farm in kentucky and indiana who migrated illinois. Who didn't have much. But now was president and sage so he believed and freedom in part because it was about him. You never would have risen in an aristocratic society in. He knew it and he knew that on the planet wide basis. If the united states collapsed the cause of freedom was set back thousand years but if the united states had the courage to win and to survive then the very concept of liberty would in fact be captured for people all around the planet. There is no richer source of lessons then. The life of abraham lincoln neutral is produced by gingrich sixty. An iheart media are executive producers issuance. debbie meyers. Our producer is arms. Islam and our researcher is rachel peterson. The artwork for the show was created by sleep special. Thanks team had gingrich sixty if you've been enjoying mutual. I hope you'll go to apple podcasts. Ramos with fire stars and give us a review so others can learn what it's all about. I'm newt gingrich. This is neutral in a world of an ever changing economic landscape. How on earth can i get some financial stability in my life. I'm david grosso. Most of the podcast. Follow the prophet. Every week you'll hear from successful entrepreneurs to learn from their achievements and most importantly to avoid their mistakes on the podcast. You'll hear stories that will deconstruct what's going on in the economy and how it's affecting your finances so you can follow the prophet. Listen to follow the prophet. Every saturday on the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your podcasts. You're gonna come into a new season of joy and fulfillment like you've never seen. Hi i'm jolo team. I have a daily podcast. We're talk about overcoming obstacles accomplishing dreams and becoming. All you were created to be. You may have had some disappointments in the past but this is a new day. Keep feeding your host speeding. Your dreams use your energy to feed your destiny. Listen to the jolo steam. Daily podcast on the iheartradio app. Or wherever you get your podcast.
Presented by Witness Docs: Seizing Freedom
"In eighteen sixty one. Harry jarvis was waiting for an opening watchful. Why are we in true. Harry wasn't slaved on virginia's eastern shore and the long shadow of the growing civil war had tightened his attention toward escape. My master he was the meanest man in all the eastern shore and that's a heat to say it's rough plate finally be shot at me one day and now reckon asked about as long as i could so i took to the woods. I lay out there for three weeks. I have friends who kept me. A foreigner who have things was brought me food one night. His enslave are held a rockets birthday party. And harry thesis. Chan's i know they all drinking and carousing night and day and all the servants be kept home so i took the opportunity to slip down to the shore and the night got a canoe and the sale started for fort monroe. He crossed thirty five miles of choppy water across the chesapeake bay at night alone. Didn't appear if i ever get delay. But harry knew he would rather drown in the chesapeake. Then turn back for the shelter of the forest and risked being re enslaved. It was death. Baha and i didn't know what was he saw. Just as lord to take care embalmed by the went down to a good steady breeze straight for all point in the next morning. I got safe to the fourth. Harry jarvis who had sailed a makeshift boat across ten leagues troubled water with now out of bondage. But was he free. Not quite carey knew that his former captor could show up at fort. Monroe it anytime. Force him back into servitude. So we appeal to the ford commanding general benjamin butler to allow him to become a soldier in claims freedom. A win to ask him to let me enlists but he said it wasn't a black man's war. I told him it would be a black man's war before they got through. Harry jarvis was right. It was a black man's war in black people wanted to and would fight in. This is seizing freedom. I learned to handle a musket very well and could shoot straighten off and hit the target. This regiment has established its reputation as a fighting regiment. Not a man flinched. Though it was a trying time. I do really think that. It's god's will but this war shall not in the colored people get their reg. It goes very hard for the white people to think of it on this show. You hear how black people fought to liberate themselves during the civil war and how they gain political power during reconstruction despite every attempt at violence oppression. Our series starts with enlistment black servicemen and women transformed the ranks of the union army and despite dangers of violence on and off the battlefield their labor was essential to shifting the tide of the civil war from the onset of the war. Black citizens were anxious to lend their resources to the union. Cosworth sir very many of the colored citizens of ohio and other states have had a great desire to assist the government and putting down this injurious rebellion. But sir give us a commander who will appreciate us as men and soldiers and we will be willing to some mount all out of difficulties. They have urged me to write. And beg that you receive one or more regiments or companies of the colored of the free states to share the dangers of the battlefield and not be kept for men who will not fight if the world doubts fighting. Give us a chance and we was show then what we can do but the union was slow on the uptake. Don't you know that this is the white man's government. One union governor said and out white men are able to defend protect it. It took a year of fighting for congress to realize their mistake that they wouldn't have enough white men to do. The killing dying labor needed to win the war. And the year of listening to abolitionists. Like frederick douglass. Before they started to change their minds a war run taking and brazenly carried on for the perpetual enslavement of colored men 'cause logically and loudly for colored men to help suppress it. The kinds of freedom black people could seize and win even the freedom to fight and die for the union became available to different people from different places at different times in eighteen. Sixty two congress authorized the enlistment of already free. Black men like cornelius carter. Frederick douglass told aim lincoln. Give the black man guns and let them fight. Abe lincoln say if i give them a gun when it comes to battle he my run in frederick douglass triumph. And you'll win the wall and say all right i'll try. Lincoln wasn't ready to officially try. Formerly enslaved men like harry jarvis though so back at fort monroe. Harry jarvis found some civilian work to do. It wasn't long before he saw firsthand. That a struggle to make it across the union lines didn't guarantee freedom. One day i saw may giving up to his massive. That came for him and i concluded that was not the place for me so i hired onto a ship going to cuba and then on one going to africa and i was gone for nearly two years. harry eventually made its way back to the us. He got lonely living as a stranger in a strange land and wanted to reunite with his wife unfortunately for him she had since married another man but the union also had a change of heart in his absence in eighteen sixty. Three lincoln issued the emancipation proclamation allowing all black men born free or formerly enslaved to enlist when landed embossed founded. It had got to be a black means for sure. I tried to and listen to fifty four massachusetts but it was just full so i was one of the first enlisted in the fit the fit and i fought with it till the battle of folly alley down. I was wounded three times. But i kept on fighting till the ball struck my leg in fail. I should have bled to death if all our men hadn't been drilled us. An attorney can supply with bandage. I just had time to stick my knife in the not and twisted type before i faint. Listen to seizing freedom. Now on stitcher apple podcast the sirius. Xm app or wherever you get your podcasts witness. Docs from stitcher.