19 Burst results for "Two Hundred Kilometers Per Second"
"two hundred kilometers per second" Discussed on Space Nuts | Astronomy, Space and Science News
"Put it that way. Yep so there's just nothing there. But when you at certain of the other way bunsen what we now doings dividing infrared up into slices an in fact we do that we call it near near-infrared admitted for firing for these well. Well-known technical terms tried. Some of those bands is actually brought to the need expected to be and that's puzzle so it's giving you a mixed message saying in one way bundy sanyo young cold genuine regular wind. Your asari brown dwarf but in other white bundy saying no muchly quite hot and bright The selling something interesting here. And so the theory the people who do the physics of this thing thought about it long and hard and you've kind of worked out why this should be the bottom line. Is that this star. The accident is an extremely old star so it was formed when the the gases from which stars a foam was not as rich a heavier elements as it is in more recent times united spoken before. About how the amount of ion in stock spectrum is an indicator of a styles with virtually no iron very very old because they were full from gas that was really just hydrogen helium. There wasn't anything else. But it's time goes on stars themselves generate the island and then come to an end spread out among the in the interstellar medium to use for with much more on. That's what we call the enrichment of the interstellar medium. it's his how these elements appear so the thinking now is that the accident actually formed at a time when first of all there was less carbon than there is now the there was more recently Because the the carbon is one of the the the sort of indicators that suggest it is brighter in this region of the spectrum than it should be a more carbon it would be entering that region until while saying is yes. This is a star that formed from the primordial mix not quite primordial without some heavier elements in. It wouldn't be parts of first generation of stars that is back to the early years of the universe perhaps thirteen no so billion years ago. So it's very very old star and they now suggests that the might be a whole populations as things that have been missed because we've got these peculiar response in the different way buns fascinating. It's also moving rather fast. Yes it is correct. It's whizzing round Let me do the calculation. In my head it's Several hundred kilometers per second about eight hundred hundred thousand kilometers per hour out of yet. So you divide by three thousand six six hundred which i'm doing my head getting a about two hundred kilometers per second. Nothing his on. That's moving along. It's not far away the fifty lot years. Yes quite close. That's right to whizzing by. Yes really interesting object..
Breaking Down the Science Behind OneWeb's Planned Constellation
"On monday we talked about the successful deployment of thirty four internet satellites by uk. Communications company one web bringing their total network to two hundred eighty eight satellites. Their goal is to reach six hundred and forty eight satellites by twenty twenty two. But how in the world does the internet come all the way down from space satellites straight down into your ears right. Now let's take a closer look at some far out satellite science one. Web satellites is a joint venture with airbus. They aim to deploy a constellation of up to nine hundred. Low earth orbit satellites at around one thousand two hundred kilometers altitude to provide high speed internet. These efforts intend to compete with spacex. His starling system which currently has one thousand seven hundred internet satellites orbiting the earth at five hundred fifty kilometers altitude amazon also has plans to launch internet satellites for its project copier constellation. All of these companies are aiming towards providing low latency internet from space. But how does it work rather than sending internet signals through electric cables satellite internet beams information through the vacuum of space or it travels forty seven percent faster than fiber optic cable. This is particularly interesting for remote locations where laying electric cables is complicated in order to transfer a signal. You i need to emit one. So i and internet signal is delivered to a large antenna or earth station on the ground and this station then sends radio waves up into space targeting a specific satellite which is around the size of a large table.
What Happens to All the Stuff We Send Into Space?
"Since the launch of sputnik in nineteen fifty seven humans have been sending all sorts of things into space stuff like the serious eight and new satellite just launched by stitchers parent company or cargo space craft bringing supplies to space station's not to mention the most prising stuff like golden records or read tesla's an estimated thirty five thousand bits of Incentives right up to objects at the size of double decker buses up to of course international space station which is said to be the size of american football fields or five bedroom house. That's dr alice. Gorman associate professor at flinders university in south australia and one of the world's leading space archaeologists she studies all sorts of ways. Humans have engaged with space including these tens of thousands of objects rocketing around in earth orbit. And that's just stuff four inches and bigger there's believed to be millions of objects anything smaller than that. They distributed from lois little bit which is about two hundred kilometers above the surface of the us up to maybe about one thousand two thousand kilometers then. You have raged. That's just cold middle or medium business and then you get into. The high as obits. Miss includes Stationary orbit which is where bust of telecommunications satellites used to think of these orbits kind of like three lanes of a running track with satellites and spacecraft as the runners zipping around and around in their respective lanes. But note that for this analogy to work the track would be really really big and runners relatively teeny if we go out there and look at these might only say one object within your field. You so that impression. We have a stuff's closely packed together. Just together that's actually luck. Absolute worst case scenario. Which we're not at yet. There's growing concern about what will happen over. The next few decades as there are a lot of plans to launch way more stuff into orbit. And here's the thing. The vast vast majority of objects orbiting the planet is considered space junk.
"two hundred kilometers per second" Discussed on Sean Carroll's Mindscape: Science, Society, Philosophy, Culture, Arts, and Ideas
"Were you know running the vietnam war for a long time. There's no obvious idea that. Because if kennedy had been robert kennedy. Bobby kennedy had been elected. He would have gotten us out of vietnam. Politicians are tricky. They say things and they don't end up doing them all the time. So i don't know enough about that era to say how devoted or how influential he would have been actually make that happen. And as far as watergate is concerned watergate was an example of agree gio abuse of power illegal actions on the part of the president but it also led to reforms of the system. You know the ability to have special prosecutors and things like that so maybe it would have been worse overall. If watergate had not happened if i were to imagine ideal histories i would have wanted to stop some terrible massacres tragedies genocides right like the holocaust or various other terrible things that happened. There is a little bit more cut and dried to me that if that had not happened the world would be better on the other hand. I don't know like if it comes to either assassinating or not assassinating one person. I'm not what not at all sure. What would need to happen to guarantee that the holocaust would not have happened. Yeah you can say will kill baby hitler. That's the usual thing to say but it's not at all obvious to me that the social forces wouldn't have led to something more or less similar to what actually happened in world war two. I don't know maybe they wouldn't. But i just don't know claudio slam says about a moua the interstellar visitor. We had that. We talked about with envelope while his speed was notably high for solar system standards twenty six point three kilometers per second relative to the sun. It's still very low. Compared to the speed of light would we have noticed anything weird had the movie was dash been a hundred thousand times faster. Is it conceivable that a material object can be accelerated to relativistic speeds by accession of pushes from stars or other massive bodies so it certainly would have been much weirder if a who's been one hundred thousand times faster so if you think about what is going on in our galaxy the stars moving around and you know with respect to each other and around the center of the galaxy the typical speed you should have in mind is something like a couple hundred kilometers per second okay. Two hundred kilometers per second three hundred kilometers per second something like that. That's the typical speed that stars and other objects have in the galaxy. So that's the speed. You expect everything to have with respect to everything else on average okay. This is why we made the point. That in some sense move. Speed is anomalous. Low twenty six kilometers per second is lower than three hundred kilometers per second but if it had been three thousand kilometers per second that will be an all mostly high and that would be weird. So yes that would be weird. Is it conceivable that something could actually be celebrated that fast. You know it's conceivable but it's very very unlikely Things do get pushed around by passing by stars but it happens slowly and gradually An every little pushes very tiny and sometimes the pushes go in opposite directions from each other right so you certainly do not expect things to be accelerated to very very fast speeds and i should go further than that. You certainly don't expect things to be accelerated to relativistic speeds near the speed of light. Because once they're accelerated to the escape velocity of the galaxy. They escape from the galaxy and they're no longer being accelerated by a gravitational assists from nearby stars. And things like that so there is an upper limit to speeds you expect for things that are galaxy namely the escape velocity. That is fair in christie's says a priority question. You guys are using up your priority questions..
Automatically Generate Your Unit Tests From Scratch With Pynguin
"I'm stefan i'm phd. Student university of pulse. Also small town like two hundred kilometers east of munich. Germany between germany australia the czech republic. I used to do my studies. Their computer science a bachelor master's degree in Doing a phd and the project we are talking about. Tingling is my main research project here. Do you remember how you first got introduced a python. I thought about that actually. I cannot really narrow that down. I played around with it before i started my studies. Which around like twenty ten or something. But i really got introduced it during my bachelor studies usa quite lot. Although our programming experience basically many java background from this talton study curriculum but used pies pizon their lot of finesse started my phd. I focused a lot on and shifted my main focus basically In that area and there's no in terms of the penguin project you mentioned that some of the focus of your current research with your hd program. I'm wondering if you can just give a description about what it is that you're building and some of the story behind how you came on this particular problem space to work through and some of the interesting areas of research that it's uncovering as you go through your program one of the things to note here. Is that my supervisor. Professor gordon fraser. He's an expert in testing software and developed a tool for job of unitas generation. Called every sweet. Some of you might have heard that name somewhere around when you're interested in testing and so we were discussing a lot of opportunities.
Israel Independence War Era Weapons Cache Discovered in Tel Aviv
"The day before yesterday as we record a gardener found underneath a bush at number twenty two cream as street a cache of world war two vintage bullets artillery shells and grenades which ordinance was stowed under a bush three quarters of a century ago by members of the haganah jewish militia to keep british soldiers and centuries from finding it such a hiding place for weapons was called a sleek from the hebrew root some lama couth to make rid of and in the one thousand nine hundred eighty s there were hundreds of maybe thousands all around the country though most of them were dismantled as soon as the brits left palestinian nineteen forty eight. But you know how it is. You put your grenades and your artillery shells in your bulletin a whole under bush in your yard and then you get busy ensure the brits go home but you tell yourself you'll empty the gun whole tomorrow and if it's not one thing it's another before you know it seventy odd years of pass that is just life in the big city so this week. The police bomb squad piloted remote control. Sapper robots under the tree and they exploded some of the grenades shells and bullets. And they neutralize the rest and sent them to the tel aviv. Forensics lab for further investigation. And for those of you wondering and who isn't wondering isaac jacob adolf. Crimea was the french jewish attorney who in eighteen. Forty along with sir. Moses montefiore made the trip to alexandria egypt to plead before Dive mohammed ali for the release of jews arrested in damascus blood. Libel that rocked the jewish world that year and crimea and montefiore secured freedom for nine of the thirteen syrian. Jews accused of killing christians for their blood. The other four having already died while being tortured after that chromium became minister of justice of france under the second republic in eighteen forty eight and he later founded the 'alliance eastern elite universal in paris in eighteen. Sixty one gathers that isaac jacob adolf creamier would probably not himself have hidden guns in tel aviv in nineteen forty eight but he probably would have understood the sentiment and arguably nothing captures the haphazard semi history city of this forever new and yet never really new city. We love so al tel aviv. Alto better than a gardener. Finding an old bag of old bullets and such tucked under a shrub to shield it from the prying eyes of the brits on a street named for a man who one hundred years before that sailed with an english financier to alexandria a city. Just four hundred fifty kilometers. Southwest of tel-aviv. In order to gain the release of wrongly residues in damascus a city just two hundred kilometers northeast of tel
"two hundred kilometers per second" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"Own magnetic field so turbulence the this coalition of the gas clouds guess similar to the galaxy collisions. But in this case essentially you have a video video applied than process right because it's dense. These things are colliding right. These objects which clouds orbiting in our galaxy on approximately a circular orbits around the galaxy like the sun that they're orbiting around maybe two hundred kilometers per second takes maybe a hundred million years or a couple of hundred million years to orbit around once what we showed in this in. This work is that perhaps every million years or twenty million years they are going to suffer collisions with other clouds and in that process then the relative speeds may be perhaps ten kilometers a second between the clouds. That's still faster than the sound speed in the clouds. And that's enough to create a shockwave which then compresses the gas can can. Then we think trigger a stock list formation and there's been cases into in in case by case Sense were astronomers have looked at particular classes and concluded is processes happening to some extent. What is less clear is how universal it is if if most stars a triggered in this in this way or not yet so the existence of this gas clouds john his duty cav sort of a a an ideal of evolved so The mason day exist at the recent. Gas load exist is that you didn't have an opportunity to collide something else. That's a great question. So you know galaxy there is gas. Between the stars the interstellar medium. I like to think of the galaxy as an ecosystem as as a balanced flows of matter energy so we have some mattress flowing from gas into.
Going old Turkey: a regional power spreads
"A decade ago, Turkey's Foreign Minister Audit of Attalou used to boast his country was on good terms with everyone police fantasia want. less confrontation, less tense attitude. Especially, in the region, he spoke at the Council on foreign, relations with the will of the principal. In. Two thousand three. Zero problems with our neighbors. And the made a huge progress. All, that now seems a distant memory Turkey is growing its international influence and not always with a light touch. The country has been backing Libya's government in its civil war. Last month. The Turkish Defence Minister landed in Libya to inspect his troops and opposition warlord warned them to get out or else. Turkey prompted an angry statement from Egypt last week by allegedly planning gas exploration and Egyptian waters. And yesterday Turkish officials railed against an American company for its dealings with ethnic Kurds in neighboring Syria. That Turkey believes to be terrorists. To some, all this adventurism is reminiscent of past chapter of the country's history when the Ottoman Empire ruled all of Syria and far beyond. Turkey, has been playing an especially prominent role in Syria since protests spread into a full blown civil war. Turkey has really become a meshed in Syria since the start of the our spring, the uprisings that took place in two thousand eleven across the Middle East it back. The Islamist. Movements that initially took to the streets and then took up arms. Nicholas Pelham is our Middle East correspondent. But as those fighters were false back towards its border, it's really stepped into try and protect its southern border, stop any more refugees coming into the country and to provide some sort of safe zone for the proteges, and it's also very nervous about the current state law that emotion the northeast of the country. It feels very threatened by the emergence of Kurdish power on the southern borders, and is it reasonable for Turkey to think that those Kurdish forces are really a threat historic? The have been links between the PK, the cuts down Workers Party, which has been waging a thirty five year a war for. Autonomy and separatism inside Turkey. Many of those fighters did flee sought refuge in Iraq and in Syria, and so Turkey is worried about what it sees very much kind of PKK influenced state emerging on its southern borders. So this year it's been launching pretty heavy attacks inside Iraq, it's been sending tanks across the border. It's established positions inside northern Iraq. It's been carrying out drone bombardments, such two hundred kilometers from its border in Saint, John More, Kurds all the way along its southern border inside Syria inside. Iraq see a new Turkish assault, which is pushing deep into their territory and not just unsettling. Kurdish aspirations for sovereignty in Iraq and Syria, and this is also unnerving Arab leaders as well. Who Turkey pushing deep into territory, which was part of the Turkish Republic predecessor. The Ottoman Empire, which ruled the Middle East centuries until its dissolution about a century ago, which is to say that Turkey is expanding its influence is doing this adventurism beyond Iraq and Syria all over the Middle East of the moment. There's a this year has seen the new intervention of the Turkish, Army. Libya. They came to the rescue of the besieged government of National Accord. In Tripoli, which has been fighting a civil war against a renegade general. Khalifa. After Turkish forces established at base on the borders of Tunisia, we're seeing it's frigates make a bid for control of looking coastline and even ward off French frigates. We're really seeing a substantive increase in Turkish. Power across the Middle East and it's not just happening in Liberia. It's happening in Gaza, which is an ally of Turkey. Turkish forces there have tried to help. Cut Break Its blockade by Saudi Arabia they're. A. Few hundred to a few thousand Turkish forces that are they're wasting more Turkish interested in Yemen civil war. We're seeing interest in a Sudanese port and actually Turkey's largest overseas basis in the point of Africa. So really this is a massive increase in Turkey spread across the middle, East and do you believe that the the the Ottoman history plays into that as a return to former glories? In some way? It's very much the in the rhetoric certainly saw Mr. Osman tropes at the at the height of the Arab spring wanted to appear to be the leader of the Muslim world. He was promoting his version of governance across the region hoping to clone the Turkish model across the Middle East. But since the collapse of Islamist movement since its as from power in Egypt and the retreat of many of its forces, he's really kind of played much more on Turkey's national interests. He's ally domestically with what had been his nationals opposition. He seems to be much more concerned on trying to maximize Turkey's economic claims in the. The Mediterranean this since much more about promoting Turkey's national interests than flying it systems colors. This is really an exercise in in hard power and trying to exploit the weakness of others, the retreat of Europe and America from the Middle East. The policies of many Arab governments, and try and push Turkey to fill what seems to be a vacuum of power across the Middle East, and so is that push to serve Turkey's national interests working is, is it benefiting from this from this expansionism? If you're trying to put together a balance sheet of profit balance sheet? Sheet Turkey has benefited from Khatri investment cutters, loans, and investments have helped prop up the Turkish lira. It may be that country's also hoping to fund part of its military costs in Libya Turkeys, keen to promote its companies when it comes to eventual reconstruction of war-torn Libya, which after all is energy rich state, and so long term, there may be benefits, his critics home highlight, the cost it's estimated that Turkish operations in Syria have cost anything up to about thirty billion dollars, and of course, there is a threat that you're going to see a major escalation. Escalation in the Middle East, which could embroil Turkey. It's not just Turkey is entering the middle, East enforce. It's also Russia. Many Arab states are trying to gain Russian support to push back Turkey, not just Syria Egypt the United Arab Emirates looking to Russian support in Libya, and Egypt is sending its tanks to the Libyan borders. The UN warned that the risk of a of a regional war focused on Libya and beyond that that risk was huge. So this is a massive gamble and it looks as if the stakes are going to be increasingly hyphen
North Korea fires two projectiles into sea
"News South Korea says the north has fired what appeared to be too short range ballistic missiles into the sea off its east coast Yonhap news agency quoted the military joint chiefs of staff is saying the projectiles were launched from the coastal city of one son the flu more than two hundred kilometers towards the sea of Japan is the fourth in a series of launches this month by North Korea Seoul describes the tense fighting as very
The Future of 5G with Paul Scanlan CTO Huawei Carrier Business Group
"Welcome Paul thanks very much under now. I've just been very fortunate to sit around a round table with a bunch of influences. And you're quite candid about you know the challenges that you face in the industry but this podcast is about the future of and I wanted to talk about the future of Five G. Sofa my listeners out there that may be in markets where five gs and live or just been launch. How WOULD YOU DESCRIBE FIVE G? And why's it better than four g you know Andrew it's This is probably the most misunderstood technology. It's been bandied around as being everything from the you know the evil of the world to To the savior of the world right and I think the answer probably leaning towards the latter. Which is you know. It's something that really will transfer so I like to think of I five as a platform for transformation. Went talk about it as a speed thing or this thing or that thing. I'll just terrific platform for transformation. Everybody says you know five G. It's faster it's this that and everything else when we talk about them. Do you operate four G. And how do you operate five G? When we operate forgery generally we designed it for this thing called twenty megahertz of spectrum because in three G it was five Megahertz Chunks of spectrum. And therefore more megahertz means you get more spectrum. Generally you get more bang for your buck when we talk about five Jay. We're talking with starting with one. Hundred doesn't mean account. Wigan Eighty or seventy six fifty or ten yep but it was originally thought of. Let's try it for for for one hundred MiG. One hundred twenty two one mistake now. Of course you've got the up link in the downlink say have maybe it's about two or three to one put it in called a spider spider. So you have about two times or three times more spectrum so you're really not comparing for and five Jay in like for like we learnt Andrew many years ago five years ago in doing you think Oh. Wtt X. Wireless to the something. We learnt that we could provide wireless communication as a sort of an alternative center. A Better Time. To market than fiber by deploying wireless buys technologies to provide home-based broadband solutions. Because you build an anti put an antenna and you can sell it so cash and carry you. Get Five Mega. Hit megabits per second team. Maybe one hundred right now. This fixed product is competing with the mobile product. The second one is the bane with these not there so you don't really have enough resources but we learned very quickly that if we were able to put more antennas in we call the massive. Mimo. Then you end up with a better better result. Suddenly you can offer not three hundred customers. Ten makes you could offer three thousand customers teen makes and the more customers more Abu more money simple. It's all about money so now comes five G. so five G. The first thing we do so we've already got some empirical evidence about how much more efficient having one hundred megahertz of spectrum is in this. Wimax area. We're using two point. Three two point five. We've picked a different spectrum. Three point five GIG which means three point two to three point. Six three point eight. Maybe four point two to four point six just relishes the higher the frequency the more efficient it can be she can get more bandwidth through the high frequencies. Would you get you get larger amount of contiguous ECKSTROM? Yes and understand a little bit about how breaking spectrum up into blocks become very inefficient but if you have a big block of spectrum absolutely right and that's why the millimeter wave even higher stuff is even far more beneficial because you have a clear one gigahertz and suddenly war instead of five megs of got one GIG. Simple physics tells you you're GonNa get more bang for your buck. Yeah so five. G. Comes along with starting the premises. One Hundred Megahertz Huge leap ahead of four G and we've got these improvements inefficiencies. So that's what Linda lend lend itself to the high throughput but wait. There's more right and the more big comes to about things like lighten city and massive connections. So we could already see that the challenge is always the always the latency at the air interface and the reason for that is because you could imagine from a base station probably in developed countries. You can have five back to the cornet work for the back to the corner. Work five milliseconds into into the top rate Japan. Top to bottom ten roughly these sort of rough guidances of how how much delay you have across these areas. But if you want to do things that are more interesting like connected car. You don't need five Jay for car but You know if you want autonomous driving. It's one of the options. Yes you could use other methods. But that's not the the most important but if you take a robot right if you've ever shook the hand of a of a rebel with articulated digits but the first thing is if you want one hundred kilos of metalwork comes toward you put something out the first step back of course when you put your hand out and you grab it if the latency is not really shop. Then by the time it gets feedback in squeezing your hand it's probably to light my crusher hand. You got it so we need latency so there's a practical example. Yes but you have more certainly connected car within a couple of meters. The shorter duration robotics interaction. Let's talk about the medical profession if you wanted to do telemedicine remote medicine. Yes so between a practitioner. Highly capable person. Let's take a simple like it's not really simple. Let's take ultra ultrasounds. So you have an expert a technician. The journey woman sitting there with a couple of hundred grants with equipment. What about the village? That's you know two hundred dollars or three hundred kilometers wide. So we just discussed about this thing called latency. What about if I wanted this person to do some remote monitoring of a man or a woman or somebody on the on the I and we've got these tactile feedback devices now? Yes but the person is a couple of hundred Roy. So you imagine. There's a basic person. Triage a stripping. His thing to your body for a couple of thousand dollars which is cost effective. And you got the expert with brain paranoid analytics copy with scopes and everything and now. He presses and two hundred kilometers lighter. It's pressing on you. And then by the time he gets the feedback. He's got to realize that I shouldn't push too far because it's the robot prom you don't want to crush the got it so this this problem. So this is lighten savings on. He's a couple of industries and a couple of sectors that where you can feel that latency. We important robots inside the factory today factory in factories. Andrew haven't changed in one hundred fifty years. Everything is serial from the day we industrialized in the UK. Right I give you the material you do your bit. You Pass it to him. He passes it to her. She personally what happens today? Robotic PLANT ROAD. I does this positive robot. By-pass Robert C. So let's suppose this boardroom. Were nail which vacant and a couple of hours is the Knicks factory from twelve six income the robots willing themselves around connected with five G. They're from different companies. Kawasaki. Ibb ETC. And they're all connected to the cloud by five. G. So the latency is really small. And of course if you take beyond this. This is not thing of few connections to multiple connections per person to devices everywhere. Lamppost ties dresses salt pepper. Shakers everything the cup of tea bags or connected and they will be. You might think it's stupid but you know today it'll get down to something you know a third the size you now. Then everything's connected. If you have that competition of connectivity things in a cell a mobile cell with people you have come back to the first. Problem fixed wireless existing and with mobile paging competing for resources. And it's signaling resources. Yeah and you won't have a few thousand people per sale. You might have hundreds of thousands but the thing with it is. You don't need the speed because some of these things are transmit low data rate but if you've got millions of them in the same spot they all want to compete for radio spectrum to say. Hey I want you to get your data you got it and so you're quite right after that. The data rates are pretty small and listen to a couple of K. kilobytes. But you have a lot of them and it's a signal you know. I've got to wake up not communicate to the end so it's a bit like ceiling overhead traffic. It's it's competing for this. Some of the data so there's a lot of optimization bottomline so affected that in so that's why you have speed latency and throughput as the three key components of five G. But what nobody ever talks about is the social impact five g. and the social impact directly about energy. So you know. Today we're at the product and solution launch of lawyer and we announced that we have a five G. product. That is now. It went one year ago. Forty kilos to twenty five. From two hundred Megahertz bandwith to four hundred megahertz bandwidth but also consumes about the same amount of energy as four J. site. So you've just gone for something that's twenty to one hundred times better for the same amount of energy so some of the analysis that's been boy very specifically by a company called steel partners a consulting company here in the UK. And they've done some analysis based on you know while always products in an older competitor's products looking at all the networks around the world and their energy consumption and a very simple tagline is if you keep building four g networks you double the carbon footprint the planet but if he's five g. It flattens out and it starts to reduce in five years. That's not a bad reason for deploying five G. above the other I think you're great storytellers. It'll just had the opportunity to spend an hour and a half in the room and you. You mentioned the point about your station equipment. Going down in White told a great story about why wife now people know about while we for all different reasons but I love the story about how the thing dropped in. Share that story so I was at a meeting in headquarters and the CEO is sitting at a table with with a number of US including the product and they director in the product. Our Day director was showing the new version of the first five G. Base station that we're going to be launching in a few months and the white was forty five kilos Andrea and he said left on the table. What do you mean forty five kilos? Don't you understand occupational all health and Safety in Europe? It's forty kilos. Everybody looked at him. What does that mean and he said you need a crane. If you need a crane to install this. Do you know how expensive it'll be for our customers? They want. And how the time delay plus the expense and everything. Everything's the wrong wrong targets. You know the capital equipment costs too high. Three months later are endangered. Came back in forty kilos right. Thank you very much forty kilos. We launched now with twenty five kilos and he just on stage and said. Do you know why it's twenty kilos because a person is allowed to carry a twenty kilo product and install it and you know so we're always thinking about how do we improve person the customer's business. It's not about. We've got a great product you want to buy it or you buy this product because it's got these features we're always thinking about from the customer's perspective and generally everybody has the same. Kpi therefore KPI's it's called Revenue Prophet brand market share. You want all of those things. That's what you want right. That's the key metrics so we always think about those components whenever we building products or solutions or focusing on customers. And things like
A Mountain Bike Adventure Through Greenland
"Our first guest is Chris Wing. He's the owner of big mountain bike adventures based in Whistler Canada and he's just launched a mountain biking tripping greenland inspired by his photographer. Friend been hanging. What are you laughing at? My insurance coverage along a guy who's solo traverse the route said Proxima two hundred kilometer trail trail. And it's all self supported very remote and he did this on his own and And then you know we spoke about it and I'm a I'm a tour operator amount by tour operator and have been almost twenty years and I thought it was an interesting idea to go there with you know with a small group of people and consider launching a you know a guided trip The first ever actually agreement. So yeah so. It was Benn's initial reconnaissance trip. And then we you know he was the the very first person to have ever mountain biking greenland there have been You know people going there in the wintertime and and snowbiking but In terms the traditional mountain biking. He was the first and then we went over this past September a few months ago with a group of five and checked it out. I I I can imagine that the favorite of logistics involved in Making show this is a safe journey as well. It some it's truly. You know I've been. I've been in this business for almost twenty years. I've never never been to such a remote destination as as greenland and you know. It's one of those. It's one of those trips that you you know. It's it's an adventure. It's a trip but it's really truly an expedition where you need to plan for For possibilities where things could would go from comfortable and fairly exposed to very exposed quickly. You know if you had a You you know if the weather turned or or an injury or even a simple mechanical problems your bike you know getting somebody evacuated in that part of the world is you know it's a is is quite an ordeal so Yeah it was. It was definitely required. Some very careful planning and you know the right group of people that need to come together to do this trip. It looks amazing. Unlike the downhill beat the buy. Yes yes no doubt. Two hundred and fifty as it's not easy easy there is some challenging aspects to it. Yeah no it's it's true in. It's it's a bike packing trip also and which is kind of a a a- An emerging style of mountain biking It's become quite popular in you know in recent years and and basically it's like going on hiking trip but with your mountain bike where you're you know you've got very very light wage setup. That's that's fixed on your bike. So they've developed. You know really cool bags that fit onto your bike. In such a way that don't inhibit. The you know the the writer from from peddling and maneuvering a new ring the bike so it's not like traditional paint gays but these are small bags it kind of fit in various places on your bike and as I said has to be very very lightweight late light lightweight they've developed ten specifically per byte by packing. And so you're you know you're riding. You're pushing your bike From point to appoint in camping during the night. So it's It's really definitely an acquired experience. Not everyone yeah. I hang on light white and called called by doesn't seem to get to be old. That's Oh yeah you're hundred percent correct like I. I consider myself to be someone that's experienced quite a few ooh difficult situations and hardships. And and I you know I I love I love being out in the elements But on this trip I was. It's you're you're you're exactly correct where you know. You need to pack as lightly as possible in almost that kind of scenario where your cut your toothbrush. Notice Shave a few grams Type of thing and and your food everything has to be really calculated every Calorie But when we arrived camps he'd been writing approximately eight to ten hours a day in you pull into a you know the place where you're GonNa camp for the night and then all of a sudden you know your body is cooling down and MM attempt is cooling down considerably and The nights that we're you know we're there. Your I was basically every single layer of clothing that I had in my sleeping bag while sleeping so it was Yeah it was a little bit you know it was on the verge of being like okay. This is a little bit. Almost you know Berry exposed where you know that if you've got every single layer on clothing in your sleeping bag through the night that You know there's no margin. There's very little margin. Farrah Garad for for comfort. That say you'd say you're writing details today but that must be because you have to keep stopping and looking at the amazing reviews. Some you know it's it's it's an amazing place really I mean. The Arctic is is unique and appreciated just the vast remote nature of Greenland. Just you know there wasn't you'd stop. Stop Riding and look around and it was you know completely dead silent you know. We saw a reindeer couple of eagles GREENLANDIC. Eagles would come and check us out and men That was that was pretty much yet terms of wildlife and you know just a few other hikers here and there that we encounter. I had that feeling feeling. We all did where you're just so so remote and so exposed to the elements that it was a little unnerving at times where you felt like h you know it was kind of another level of exposure. We can greenland but very cool all and memorable. That's for sure we spot device that allowed us to send a text if we you know in an emergency I find when you're when you go to places like like Greenland that haven't seen a lot of tourism you're you gain this kind of really deep appreciation for nature Because it seems like a planet is becoming more traveled and places cases are more busier than they've ever been and so to go to a place that has few humans is is quite quite special and you really feel like you want to do your best protect Greenland of course and then everywhere else you go. We are essentially a travel insurance company at the end. Yes no ask you some questions about how you did. Some preparations reparations because yeah in providing travel insurance in Suchai remote like we've got some problems as you say it's hot get somebody evacuated. It's expensive. There's a problem for us because we provide the service that we like to promise that we can't because it's impossible because it just doesn't exist for that reason why not sell policies cease to North Korea because we can't do job that did you have any special resources. Did you hook up with a evacuation company. How did you will nice thank you well? It's it's a very good question because we're you know we're we're of course boldly going to be selling packages to to greenland to to those. That have the experience and the The ability first and foremost on if we needed to be evacuated we would have to be calling in a helicopter. OPT from from nook. which is the you know the capital? It's a horribly expensive operation. You know we just are very transparent of course swith participants in that if if it's if it's required you know it's something that one is going to have to You know to foot the bill folks for obviously we do we do have the contact in place if it was needed and dob we we do everything we possibly can to to avoid. You know having to get enough in evacuating
Earth's Last Magnetic Pole Flip Happened Much More Slowly Than Previously Thought
"Any study suggests earth's magnetic poles may take far longer to flip than previously. I thought a new analysis reported in the journal science advances shows. The process may take up to twenty two thousand years to complete. That's more than twice as long as the nine thousand years. He's previously estimated this growing evidence that earth's magnetic poles are about to flip the north magnetic pole will become south and the south magnetic pole will become north last time. This happened with some seven hundred and seventy thousand years ago when it does happen. It'll be the first magnetic field polarity reversal in modern times times and that raises some serious questions about how today's technology with coq with the change to us me mortals on the surface of this revolving planet around the sun first magnetic field seemed steady and true reliable enough to navigate by your largely hidden from daily life less your pilot. The magnetic field drifts waxes awesome wayne's constantly when i'm flying one of the first things i do when i get in the cockpit of an aircraft is to readjust the cockpits compass to the latest readings for true north both for years. The magnetic north pole was wandering around pats of northern canada but more recently it's been careering towards siberia which recently forced the global positioning positioning system which underlies old model navigation updated software sooner than expected to account for the shift on average the magnetic pole shifts and reverses versus. That's polarity roughly every hundred and fifty thousand years or so that with the last one occurring some seven hundred and seventy thousand years ago with long jude for the knicks flip and there are some early signs that a possible paul reversal may be about to occur the accelerating movement of the north magnetic pole is one sign another other is something known as the south atlantic anomaly a weed pad of the south atlantic ocean between brazil and africa compass needles go nuts pointing south instead of north north and it's not just compass needles affected the south atlantic anomaly region causes earth ina van allen radiation belt to move closer to the earth surface dipping down onto just two hundred kilometers in altitude this results in an increase flocks of energetic particles in this region exposing orbiting spacecraft the high than usual levels of radiation listen effect the international space station required extra shielding just deal with this problem nashes reported that modern laptops of crushed aboard space shuttle flights as they a pass through the anomaly and the hubble space telescope doesn't do any observations while it's passing through the anomaly whether or not the south atlantic anomaly really does mean a polls colds are about the flip polarity is yet to be saying the problem is scientists have only a very limited understanding as to exactly why the film reversals occur or how they happen now new research by university of wisconsin madison geologist brad singer suggests the most recent short reversal seven hundred and seventy thousand years ago took at least twenty the two thousand years to complete that several times longer than previously thought and the results further color the question some controversial findings that some polar reversals could occur within inhuman lifetime than you analysis is based on advances in measurement capabilities at a global survey of lava flows ocean sediment at arctic ice coast rose providing a more detailed look at a turbulent time for earth's magnetic field of a millennia. The planet's magnetic food weakened partly shifted stabilized the game and then finally reversed for good to the orientation we know today. The new results provide a clearer m._o. Nuanced picture of reversals at a time when some scientists believe we may maybe experiencing the early stages of paul reversal and you other researchers dispute the very notion of a present day. Paul reversal singer says unless you have the complete accurate accurate in high resolution record of water filled reversal really's like it would be difficult to discuss the mechanics of generating one. We know that earth's magnetic field is produced by the planet's molten alton liquid metallic out of core as it spins around the solid. I and inigo generating powerful electromagnetic currents. What's coda jet dynamo this year dynamic in a creative field. That's most stable going through roughly the geographic north and south poles but the field shifts in weakened significantly during reversals. We know this because <unk> asni rocks formed typically other volcanic lava flows or a sediments being deposited on the sea floor they leave a record the magnetic field the time they were created and geologists can survey this global record piecing together. The history of magnetic fields going back millions of years. Their record is clearest for the most recent reversal that one seven hundred seventy thousand years ago for the current analysis singer and colleagues looked at lava flows from chile to haiti hawaii the caribbean and the canary islands and they collected samples from these latter flows of several field seasons lava flows are ideal records of the magnetic field they have lots of iron bearing ring minerals and as cool and solidify they lock in the direction of the planet's magnetic field the research is combined magnetic field readings and radio acid type dating samples from seven lava flow sequences to recreate the magnetic field over a span of seventy thousand years centered on las reversal they found the final reverse was quite quick by geological standards less than four thousand years but it had been preceded by an extended period of instability included excursions which are temporary partial reversals the polls stretching back another eighteen thousand years. That's more than twice as long as suggested by other studies which claimed reversals wrap up within about nine thousand years the lava flow the data was corroborated by magnetic readings from the seafloor which provided more continuous but less precise source of data than lab iraq's single and colleagues also used at arctic ice core samples apples to track the deposition of beryllium which is produced by cosmic radiation colliding with molecules in the atmosphere. You say when the magnetic reversing weakens allowing more radiation in from space to hit the atmosphere producing more beryllium since humanity began recording the strength of the earth's magnetic field. It's actually decrease in strength by about five percent century century and his records like singing shows. A weakening field seems to be a precursor to an eventual field reversal although it's far from clear that a reversal is imminent reversing planetary magnetic food would significantly affect navigation as well as satellite and terrestrial communications but if the current studies right it means society would have many generations to adapt to what would be a lengthy period of magnetic instability stewart gary. You're
Powerful Typhoon Bypasses Taiwan and Heads Toward China
"China is on red alert for a powerful typhoon that's heading for its eastern coast typhoon Lakey ma is focus to make landfall nonsense today with warnings of torrential rain and flooding thousands of residents further up the coast in Shanghai have been told to prepare to evacuate the typhoon has been ripping through the north of Taiwan at speeds of nearly two hundred kilometers an hour leaving about forty thousand people without power
"two hundred kilometers per second" Discussed on Space Nuts
"The not reported feels good. Hello yet again. Thank you for joining us on the space nuts podcast. My name's Andrew Dunkley, your host, and with me as always is professor Fred, Watson, astronomy at large hullo, Fred Andrew, how you going very. Well, how are you? Yes, I'm surviving nicely. Thank you. It's good to hear. Danley minutes since you told me. Anyway, let's talk about this week's episode episode one hundred fifty nine of the spice nets podcast. We got to look at a situation that I find quite surprising, but having worked in radio thirty five years, or whatever it is and radio is very common radio. Waves are very common in the universe. But now it's been discovered that they might be a ridge of plasma emitting radio waves, connecting to galaxy clusters which just sounds mind boggling, when you consider that the limit of radio signal in spices, fifty light years or something. So this, this is rather fascinating. We will also knock off a couple of questions in what is yet? Another shortened version of our podcast. We got to look at a question about, doc matter pushback from Dr Robert, Scott. Thank you, Robert, and Kevin Rutherford's asked us about the Michelson Morley experiment. Expand. Could be the michelson-morley experiment, depending on how you pronounce his name. But. It looks like Kevin's detected could be a contradiction in that experiment. And well, we'll, we'll investigate that tiger a little bit of work to figure that one out. But first, Fred, let's look at these, these radio waves that same to be sort of working between these two galaxy. Clusters sounds rather fascinating. It does indeed. And it's something that's been suspected for decades, actually that we would find something like this. And it probably means we will eventually find a lot more of these. So what's happened is that two clusters of galaxies. And of course, galaxies are these huge aggregations of stars and gas and dust, one of which we live in coal the Milky Way galaxy but we know that galaxies coming clusters, two of them, which have been studied in data will have shown a, an interesting thing between them. These two galaxy clusters. The, the not close together that, that, you know, they are relatively close together on the sky. But when you look at the scale at you talking about this is millions of light years apart that they are eight maybe a little bit unexpected that you'd find the bridge of material between them. But clearly people have been expecting this because astrophysicists have been looking for it. So the two galaxies rejoice in the name of I- bell zero three double nine zero four zero one, and you might notice those numbers early to apart which tells you that these two clusters next to one another galaxy clusters, by the way, I usually they usually have the name a ballet in front of them because they were catalogued by an call Joe J bile, who did a lot of these work in the nineteen eighties. She knew he spent some time in Edinburgh, the all observatory where I was working, because he wanted to use some of the photographic material that we had to identify his is galaxy. Clusters. He was a delightful man is no longer with us, but it's nice to season him cropping up every time you talk about galaxy clusters so bell, three nine nine able 4._0._1. these two galaxies, which may well, be about to merge together in other words undergoing a collision, but what is being observed is a bridge of material between them and it's, it's plasma as you said, it's a it's basically energized atoms and the interesting thing about it. And I think this is why this has become such a big story is that to have a plasma like that you need magnetic fields to, to excite it until the ridge tells you that the there is magnetism, connecting these two galaxy clusters. And that's a magnetic field over a very, very large distance. They so if you think about a Bama Ignat, you know, the kind of thing you might put in your pocket. This is something like that. But he's ten million light years long. So. Is the plasma? So it feeds into trying to understand how magnetic fields originate, and, in fact, that's what a lot of modern astrophysics bow, where magnetic fields, come from. It's one of the reasons why a stray Leah is involved with the square kilometer right project, the largest telescope in the world, which will be completed within the next decade in two places one in Western Australia, and the other in South Africa s K is the next big thing in radio straw, me and they will certainly be using that facility to look for bridging magnetic fields between clusters of galaxies because among stated intentions, the stated aims of the S K is understanding the origin of magnetism in the universe. Now it wasn't the Esca that was used for these survey Sion's, but it was a sort of. What you might call a distant cousin of the s k thing called Lofa low fire is the low frequency array. So it's a set of radio telescopes looking at low frequencies from the universe is still is still VHF bound is far as we're concerned in terrestrial communications. But that's low frequency for for astronomy. Low far is actually located in Europe. In fact, in several sites in Europe. I visited one of them some years ago, which was non saying in northern France. And it it's like it looks like a just an array of poll stuck in the ground. It's not elegant dishes or anything like that low far only needs relatively simple antennas, but there are many of them as indeed. They ask it will be yes K, we'll have hundred thirty six thousand ten shape like small Christmas trees are actually shed like large Christmas. Trees, made our Benko hung. Is that's what it looks like. But, but he's very high tech stuff on by this out of there. That's right. It's probably got big civil current as well. I can tell you actually that when they made the prototype of that. And they used to actors have base for, for each of these antennas, and the several thousand ten is in the prototype, model the Pathfinder, they actually used a concrete slabs with holes in the middle, which they bought secondhand from the post office in the United Kingdom. Because they were they were telephone manhole surrounds, you know, you have a manhole cover way at the bottom of the holy you've got these telephone cables with a metal cover on it, while this, they've got a concrete surrounding, and somehow the square kilometer array, people found a cheek deal to buy a couple thousand of these manhole cover areas. Yeah. That's that was the base of their of the base of their prototype right now to change the design because they realize. Is that for hundred sixty hundred thirty six thousand of these things it was going to get very expensive in second non hills. So they thought of another way. Debate anyway. So that will be what they love frequency square kilometer array. Component in a strategy will look like but lo fi has, as you know, the one in Europe has essentially made this great breakthrough that we found the fields between clusters of galaxies. I'm sure the story will move on as the squad killer Mehta awry evolves. We might find that there there's a web of magnetic fields, connecting all galaxy clusters that could be one of the discoveries that might be made and that would play in directly play into trying to understand where my take fields, come from opens up a question in my mind because as I understand it. I Bill, I three non non L for I one merging. Yeah. And Al galaxy is guide to merge with the drop of the galaxy. So one wonders, if we'll start sort of exchanging these materials it could be. It could be already happening, Andrew because that will be something that. From our vantage point will be very difficult to detect I do have friends in the in the business, though, who are specialists on, on cosmic magnetism might ask them about it, because that's a really good point that maybe galaxy Andromeda which are closing on the speed of is, I think it's around two hundred kilometers per second that closing speed means that they're on a collision course that may already be a bridging material between them that links them in the way that we say these two galaxy clusters Ling really interesting coming well done. Thank astronomy papers, not. Short. An identity dead qualify, but only so two hundred kilometers per second merging. Right. And and how long before the merger happens. It's about three and a half billion years, really does let you know how big the space between. All right. You're listening to space nuts, Andrew Dunkley here with professor, Fred. What's in? Space butts now Fred before we get onto today's questions, something's popped up in the news, which is rather extraordinary, we've, we've talked about space tourism and the organizations, private organizations that are looking at putting people into space sub orbital flight that kind of thing, people get to experience for two hundred thousand dollars a pop or whatever it is zero g for a short period of time, and then glide back to worth we'll get rocketed backdoor or whatever it depends on who they go with us oppose but now Nassar's playing the game. Yeah, that's right. And I guess, this e can put it in context, the context is that the current US government administration sees the private sector, essentially taking over the space station within the next decade. Or so it may even be before that Bobby, where the next five years the. That. Nasa wants to open the station to private industry and that they will eventually private industry will take over the running of the, of the space station for whatever purposes, might be deemed necessary, and one of those purposes could well be tourism. So this is sort of opening gambit in the in the private sector for NASA to start. You know, start opening up the possibility of space tourists now to ease the transition to the from the private sector to the commercial. So from the publicly owned sector to the commercial sector. So we've got the deal that you can now buy. You could buy a holiday on the international space station as you've been able to do before you on this. Well, not really the space station itself. So for about a decade during the early two thousands, a company called space adventures bro- broke the deal between roscosmos the Russian space agency, but a few really wealthy people who wanted to go into space that because in those days as he's now, actually, well, no in days. While the shuttle was still flying. US astronauts were ferried up down to the space station with shuttle, butts, cosmos, went with the Soyuz, spacecraft, which was a three seater spacecraft, but only two or used so space. Adventures, did the stale where a passenger could fill the third seats at there were seven? I think there was seven takers for the day lease that was paid. We know was twenty million dollars for a few guys on the space station. Then it was probably more than double that for the most expensive one. The prices that have been quoted now though are a bit higher than that because. The, the ticket to get there could be as much as fifty eight million US dollars..
The polls of earth's magnetic field. Don't lineup perfectly with its polls of rotation.
"Hanging out in earth's orbit is no easy task you already know satellites and structures, like the international space station have to deal with things like space, debris and cosmic rays and dust and all sorts of stuff. But have you heard of the south Atlantic and nominally, it's an area of our planet. That has a big impact on the delicate electronics we send into space I'll get to that in a minute. But first, let's back up and talk about the radiation belts that actually protect our entire planet. The earth is surrounded by two Donut shaped masses of high energy. Particles called the van Allen belts. Those particles are leftovers of cosmic rays shooting in from outside. Our solar system that became trapped in the earth's magnetic field the exist in that belt configuration because the magnetic field follows a telltale pattern when you know, if you've ever seen iron filings sprinkled around a magnet, the high energy particles would be dangerous on their own. But when they're trapped in the van, Allen belts. They actually shield the earth from any other dangerous particles that might elbow their way in thanks for protecting us van Allen belts. Actually, don't be too grateful. Just yet the polls of earth's magnetic field. Don't lineup perfectly with its polls of rotation. They're actually tilted by eleven degrees. That means the van Allen belts are tilted to. And that means that the inner Donut shaped massive deadly high energy particles dips dangerously low to the earth surface as close as one hundred and twenty four miles or two hundred kilometers at some points over the south Atlantic and. Zil that dip which is called the south Atlantic anomaly is well below the path of a lot of satellites which are forced to pass through the belt and get pummeled by protons. And we're talking pummeled every square centimeter is hit three thousand times per second. That abuse can cause all sorts of problems from data glitches to electron damage. Engineers actually, tell their satellites to power down whenever they pass through the anomaly because they hope that will protect their data. Yeah. It's pretty intense. Anyway, the south Atlantic anomaly could be a symptom of the earth's magnetic fields changing, and you can read more about that on our full right up on this. But suffice it to say if you're heading into space anytime soon, you might wanna check your map to make sure you won't be passing through the south Landik anomaly, or you're gonna have a bad time
Deadly Tropical Cyclone Idai Barrels Towards Mozambique
"A major aid operation is underway. Way in Mozambique and Malawi to help victims of tropical cyclone it die which has reached the densely populated Mozambican port of better after registering. Maximum wind speeds of nearly two hundred kilometers per hour exceptional rainfall before the cyclone hit has already affected a total of one point five million people in both South African countries and claimed more than one hundred twenty lives. In addition tens of thousands of people have been displaced and homes, roads bridges and crops have been washed away weld food program or WFP spokesperson ever hersal told journalists in Geneva topical areas made landfall and they'd overly populated laws on beacon port city of Beira, which is his compound this took the flooding that radio cured as far inland assault on Malawi and eastern Zimbabwe. We know all the that some people sadly died in the past week in probably doing tonight. We don't have any numerous to communicate for the moment as that number. Is changing constantly the UN agency has already begun to assess the extent of the flood damage and prioritize needs among the most vulnerable. He added satellite imagery shows that Malawi's cheek w-we district has been particularly badly affected by flooding while Mozambique Zambia and teddy provinces have also seen tens of thousands of people displaced and more than one hundred and sixty eight thousand hectares of crops reportedly affected in addition to helicopters already sent by the South African government WFP is sending at least one transport helicopter to conduct emergency era perations in Mozambique.
The Hunt for Water Beneath Mars
"In July. A paper was published. I could put an end to the speculation of the existence of water on Mars. Spoiler alert. It's there I spoke with Tim cross the economists science correspondent about it. I guess the first thing we should say is actually there's no shortage of traumas. It's just that it seems to be almost all ice. So there's millions of kilometers of ice on enough to drown the whole planet in one hundred foot deep ocean rule to melt, but what people are really have been wondering about for a long time ever since the eighteen ninety s this whole idea that you could canals on the Martian surface was whether any of it was liquid and up until today. Really when when this was published the best thing, we had was some observations from orbit, which seemed to show that, you know, very occasionally, you'd get these tiny little bubbling XV, briny water and the bottoms of craters, maybe would have been the Martian, some when it was slightly less cold water could exist on the surface, briefly even. That's never quite been conclusively proven. Now, though what we seem to have is underneath the southern polarize. Couple mas. There is liquid water. I'm not just a little bit is a lake about twenty kilometers across buried about one and a half kilometers down beneath the ice is this the sort of finding that is widely accepted or might there. Be a challenge to it. Well, it's early days the papers only just come out. But everyone I spoke to advance of the publication seem to think it was a pretty good piece of science and the technology. They've used to find it is not new it's a similar sort of what we use on earth to look under the ground. Basically just involves radar you send frequency radar waves into the ground. You wait to see the reflections different substances reflect the radio waves different attends. And so you can you can tell what's down there. So the teams three and a half years of data all of it from from all bit around the southern Martian poll, they said Aidid a two hundred kilometers wide, and they go through in the paper various other explanations rule them out in ways. That people who know more about Jody's seem to find pretty convincing. So I think it's hard to say. But I think it seems to be a pretty solid finding and why do we think it's water and not some other liquid is because of the the characteristics of the radar reflections. Like, I said, there's no actual shortage of water on MAs. The thing that was into missing is liquid water, and you can sort of reason by analogy because what this thing looks an awful lot like is things that with me from from earth. So for instance, underneath Antarctica. There are a whole load of subterranean lakes. One of them lake Vostok is one of the biggest lakes in the world. And they kept liquid by combination of the isolating them from the surface. The fact that the temperatures go up as you go deeper underground and on Mars, you've got the pressure of the is it self will affect the lower the melting point of water as also might the presence of the chemicals that we already know exist on the Martian surface in the basically work like antifreeze. So you could get water the liquid temperatures quite a long way below zero. Which is seems to be what we have here. Let's be honest. Nobody really cares about water on Mars. They care about other life on Mars. How does this finding pointed direction of whether life once existed or currently exists on Mars Kenya? Traducing the geologist if the world lots of people care about that is indeed the big questions. So we know you can see from from orbit. Mas was at one point woman wet, and you can see dry river valleys and deltas and so on. So the hope is always been the maybe four billion years ago when the planet was much warmer and much wetter something did of all since then it's been clinging on in some refuge as the rest of the world or the rest of MA's has dried out frozen on the other hand, though, it's being about three point eight billion years as one wreck incense. Mas lost had water on it. And that's an awful long time for a single lake to have survived one of the scientists. I spoke to pointed out as well that MAs Axial tilt has changed since then, which means the Pola cops will have moved all. Over the surface. So the place where the lake is hasn't necessarily always had is on top of it. So whether this lake is really quite so agent. I think has yet to be proven on the other hand it maybe there are more of these things. There are plenty of them on earth, the same basic geological processes apply, and it may well be that MAs is dotted with these things. And who knows perhaps one of them something has managed to cling. And of course, for now, it's all speculation. But I think what this does do is maybe puts MAs sort of back in contention a bit because Nasr's motto when looking for life was always being followed the water, and for that reason, I recently some of the focus has maybe started to shift a bit to the outer solar system to the moons of planets like Jupiter and satin, which which I see seem to have big liquid oceans of water underneath that surface. Now that we know MAs seems to have as well, I think that may be bumps it back up the rankings.
Mars has a vast liquid water lake beneath its southern pole
"In July. A paper was published. I could put an end to the speculation of the existence of water on Mars. Spoiler alert. It's there I spoke with Tim cross the economists science correspondent about it. I guess the first thing we should say is actually there's no shortage of traumas. It's just that it seems to be almost all ice. So there's millions of kilometers of ice on enough to drown the whole planet in one hundred foot deep ocean rule to melt, but what people are really have been wondering about for a long time ever since the eighteen ninety s this whole idea that you could canals on the Martian surface was whether any of it was liquid and up until today. Really when when this was published the best thing, we had was some observations from orbit, which seemed to show that, you know, very occasionally, you'd get these tiny little bubbling XV, briny water and the bottoms of craters, maybe would have been the Martian, some when it was slightly less cold water could exist on the surface, briefly even. That's never quite been conclusively proven. Now, though what we seem to have is underneath the southern polarize. Couple mas. There is liquid water. I'm not just a little bit is a lake about twenty kilometers across buried about one and a half kilometers down beneath the ice is this the sort of finding that is widely accepted or might there. Be a challenge to it. Well, it's early days the papers only just come out. But everyone I spoke to advance of the publication seem to think it was a pretty good piece of science and the technology. They've used to find it is not new it's a similar sort of what we use on earth to look under the ground. Basically just involves radar you send frequency radar waves into the ground. You wait to see the reflections different substances reflect the radio waves different attends. And so you can you can tell what's down there. So the teams three and a half years of data all of it from from all bit around the southern Martian poll, they said Aidid a two hundred kilometers wide, and they go through in the paper various other explanations rule them out in ways. That people who know more about Jody's seem to find pretty convincing. So I think it's hard to say. But I think it seems to be a pretty solid finding and why do we think it's water and not some other liquid is because of the the characteristics of the radar reflections. Like, I said, there's no actual shortage of water on MAs. The thing that was into missing is liquid water, and you can sort of reason by analogy because what this thing looks an awful lot like is things that with me from from earth. So for instance, underneath Antarctica. There are a whole load of subterranean lakes. One of them lake Vostok is one of the biggest lakes in the world. And they kept liquid by combination of the isolating them from the surface. The fact that the temperatures go up as you go deeper underground and on Mars, you've got the pressure of the is it self will affect the lower the melting point of water as also might the presence of the chemicals that we already know exist on the Martian surface in the basically work like antifreeze. So you could get water the liquid temperatures quite a long way below zero. Which is seems to be what we have here. Let's be honest. Nobody really cares about water on Mars. They care about other life on Mars. How does this finding pointed direction of whether life once existed or currently exists on Mars Kenya? Traducing the geologist if the world lots of people care about that is indeed the big questions. So we know you can see from from orbit. Mas was at one point woman wet, and you can see dry river valleys and deltas and so on. So the hope is always been the maybe four billion years ago when the planet was much warmer and much wetter something did of all since then it's been clinging on in some refuge as the rest of the world or the rest of MA's has dried out frozen on the other hand, though, it's being about three point eight billion years as one wreck incense. Mas lost had water on it. And that's an awful long time for a single lake to have survived one of the scientists. I spoke to pointed out as well that MAs Axial tilt has changed since then, which means the Pola cops will have moved all. Over the surface. So the place where the lake is hasn't necessarily always had is on top of it. So whether this lake is really quite so agent. I think has yet to be proven on the other hand it maybe there are more of these things. There are plenty of them on earth, the same basic geological processes apply, and it may well be that MAs is dotted with these things. And who knows perhaps one of them something has managed to cling. And of course, for now, it's all speculation. But I think what this does do is maybe puts MAs sort of back in contention a bit because Nasr's motto when looking for life was always being followed the water, and for that reason, I recently some of the focus has maybe started to shift a bit to the outer solar system to the moons of planets like Jupiter and satin, which which I see seem to have big liquid oceans of water underneath that surface. Now that we know MAs seems to have as well, I think that may be bumps it back up the
US National Hurricane Center, Hurricane and United States discussed on 24 Hour News
"So the Philippines now, what tens of thousands of people are being vacuous from coastal areas. As a super typhoon heads towards the main island of Luzon schools have been closed and soldiers on full alert in the north typhoon coach which is currently a category. Four hurricane has a stained winds of more than two hundred kilometers an