35 Burst results for "Twenty Year"
Drug Addiction In America
"Woken to Mentally Yours Metro could ikaes weekly podcast about all things mental health. Today we're talking to Dave. Marlon, he was the CEO of crossroads of Southern Nevada, which was the largest addiction and Rehab Center in the area, the psychotherapist drug and alcohol counselor, and he basically knows everything about addiction and mental health issues in the US and beyond. Making me talking tim today about how the pandemic has been affected addiction issues to get help if you're struggling and how to recognize if you might have a problem with drugs or alcohol. Bruce Dave. Thanks so much for joining us on mental yours and welcome from across the pond. My first question was basically because obviously as I mentioned, we're in London. You're in the US, it such different situation in terms of addiction, mental health, and obviously the pandemic to get started. Could you give kind of a brief overview of the reality of addiction in the US? How serious the problem is that how widespread is a? The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation calls addiction the number one health problem in the US. If we look at the the number of prescription opiates that are consumed in the entire world The United States consumes more than eighty percent of them. We. have. You know we've always had an alcohol problem for a percentage of our population. we we developed enough and phetamine mean and a cocaine problem over the last. Twenty years, and in the last five, six years Oh actually even a little longer. An opiate problem has has become. Our most serious addiction challenge. Kind of the most common addiction issue that you see people coming into your center with. It it's interesting. I've run Iran the largest treatment center in Las. Vegas of. Gene. Years. And now as a private center and they're absolutely opiates or over my last three, four years, they're opiates was the number one drug of choice that clients had presented to solutions recovery without the opiate use disorder their primary. Primary substance. Now I work at an indigent facility in in downtown. Las Vegas where. More than half of our clients are homeless. And what's interesting is with this demographic, there's a much higher methamphetamine use. Would say my number one. Substance of for clients is nothin vitamin with opiates and alcohol running for a close second place. That's really interesting I. Think What was interesting that you said kind of opiates have been coming up over the lost six years because for me, it's felt like the coverage has been really recent like only in the last couple of years, we taught it to the opioid crisis this being a sudden kind of unexpected issue but you're saying it's been building for a long time. It has. Interestingly, fourteen years ago I was running the largest health insurance company in the state. And I remember in my last. My last year or two I remember looking at pharmacy reports and we were all scratching our heads saying what is this Oxycontin and why did it not show up two years ago and now I remember when across the ten million dollar mark at the Insurance Company for monthly use so it really begins began spiking. Thirteen fourteen years ago. It became. Newsworthy in fashionable. Six seven years ago, and now we're a were still squarely in an opiate epidemic.
Dr. Richard A. Van Etten: Cancer
"Please welcome to the show Dr Rick van how you doing. Thank you very much Andrew and Brittany I greatly appreciate the opportunity to be able to come and talk to your talk your listeners today. Yeah. Well, thank you for taking the time out of your busy schedule to talk to us. So we're GONNA be talking about obviously cancer and how you can prevent cancer do your best to prevent it. But as I mentioned in the Intro, most likely someone knows someone who's had cancer or they've had cancer themselves even it's pretty it seems like it's touches a lot of people but can you kind of tell me how many people does cancer impact on a yearly basis? Well. Thank you for the question Andrew. The lifetime risk of getting cancer is approaching thirty eight or thirty, nine percent. So more than one in three Americans will get cancer during their lifetime. So that explains what you said that basically almost everybody is either been personally. Involved with cancer knows a close family member or a loved one that's been stricken by cancer. So some of the statistics nationwide in the United States, there's about one point seven million people diagnosed each year with cancer. And they'll be about unfortunately six hundred thousand Americans will die every year of cancer. Here in Orange County it's interesting that cancer has overtaken cart diseases, the number one killer, and as soon gonNA happen nationwide. So a very very. Prevalent disease what kind of has led to what's led to that trajectory? Why is that happening? Well, actually the the the death rate from cancer has been falling and it's been falling significantly over the past fifteen or twenty years, which is a success basically for the research that's gone into it through the National Cancer Institute and other mechanisms. But the fact that cancer is now the number one killer has actually also reflected progress in cardiovascular disease. So doing which used to be the number one killer. So we're doing a better job at preventing. Heart disease through the things that you know about treatment of the risk factors like high lipids, blood pressure, diabetes et CETERA. Right? Interesting. Okay. All right. So we got some work to do on the cancer and Kinda catch up. And, that generally, like I mentioned usually happens through education funding, which we'll talk about in a little bit What types of cancers are the most prevalent today? I know that you specialize are a believe in like blood cancers by what are the most prevalent that people run into so we can talk both about incidents, which is the new diagnosis that we have each year and prevalence, which is the number of people living with the disease at any given time. But the top four in both categories are pretty similar. So there's breast cancer which obviously predominantly affects women but also can affect men. Then there's lung cancer there's prostate cancer which obviously is a male cancer and the last one is colorectal cancer. Those are the big four. Close on their heels are diseases like skin cancer and melanoma that's particularly relevant for Orange County where we have two hundred and eight, hundred, ninety days per year rate. And after that come some blood cancers that I specialize in, which is mainly things like leukemia lymphoma and Myeloma Okay. What kind of leads to these types of cancers occurring out of those top four that you mentioned, what? What's the biggest contributor to people getting? Is it? Is it just genetics you got bad genes or something in your lifestyle or in your the world around you I guess causing it. So they're. Probably, equal contributions both from genetics and from lifestyle. Okay. When I say genetics I mean the cancer is principally in the opinion of a lot of primarily a genetic disease in the cancer cells have acquired mutations that contribute to their malignant or cancerous phenotype, their ability to grow and attack the body. Most of those mutations are acquired in other words they happened just within the cancer cell and they're not inherited. So you don't get them from your mother or your father. Now there are exceptions there are well defined cancer susceptibility syndromes the most the one that may be most familiar to your listeners is the bracket jeans Brca which segregating families particularly people, of Ashkenazi, Jewish descent that are inherited either from your mother or your father, and greatly increase your risk for developing breast cancer or ovarian cancer so that the risk for women who doesn't ever bracken gene mutation is about one about eleven percent or one in nine during your lifetime. If you inherit one of these genes, it's virtually almost everybody will get breast cancer ninety percent risk over your lifetime. So, this cancer susceptibility syndromes are very important the need. For instance when there's a new cancer diagnosis, you need to take a careful family history and in some cases be referred to a genetic counselor to determine whether testing family members is indicated. Yeah. Well, that's interesting that you bring that up because my wife actually we went through that process, and so she was found her mother had breast cancer and through that process they found out, she had the bracket gene Brac to and then and so my wife decided because they kind of give you choice like do you want to get screened? Do you not like you kind of have? Do you want to know more or or like not and stay naive to it I guess and so what I've discovered, we went through it and is interesting out of the split my wife got it and her sister didn't so the fifty, fifty there and. It. Seems like. It's I think my opinion is it's good to know because now they're just more aggressively screening her and is that typically the case when you find out about something like that, you're more your screened even more regularly than the average person should be. That's right. A change basically changes the surveillance. In it not to make it more complicated. But there are some genes like the broncos where the penetrates which means that the chance of actually getting breast cancer. If you have the have, the mutation is very high I think there it's pretty straightforward to decide whether to get screened. Right. There are other mutations that can be inherited that don't increase the risk that much increase it above the background, but it's not nearly as high and there it's more complicated to try to decide what to do about that. But. My advice to your listeners is to seek the advice of a NCI cancer center in a a qualified genetic counselor. Those are the people best qualified to help guide you through that decision making process right? Right. When you're going through like you said they ramp up the screening process if you had the genetic mutation but how does how did we get to discovering these genetic mutations I? It sounds like you kind of have somewhat of a background like you discovered or help discover this protein that was causing leukemia right and. How does that process even work? How do we make these discoveries? How do you make these? Discovery I was involved in is one of these acquired mutations not inherited, but it came about from studies done many many years ago actually nineteen sixty that showed that patients with this particular type of leukemia had an abnormal chromosome in their blood cells. And when to make a very long story short when that was tracked down, it was shown that the chromosome was actually an a Barrett. That was acquired in these cancer cells that lead to the expression of this abnormal protein. And that protein. Hasn't is an enzyme which means that it has a ability to catalyze chemical reactions. Okay and that particular reaction stimulated the growth of those blood cancer cells. So. That led a drug company, which is today is no artis to develop us a drug a small molecule inhibited the action of that protein. And that That drug which has the trade name GLIVEC revolutionized the treatment of that leukemia so that in the past everybody died of this leukemia, unless you had a bone marrow or stem cell transplant. Today everybody takes a drug likely. And most people go into remission and when they do, they have normal age adjusted life expectancy. That's example would that's Therapy likely that can do to cancer right? So does this all come from these discoveries? Does it come from just? Tons of data over decades like this one you're saying, it came from research started in the sixties and this didn't have until the early nineties. Is that right or wealth the the The structure of the protein was discovered. I'm saying Circa Nineteen, eighty-four which I got involved. The drug development efforts took place shortly thereafter I'm and the was FDA approved in two thousand one. So it's been on the market now for almost nineteen years I and there are many many other efforts in other cancers that are parallel parallel that. The thing that's happened today is because of our new technology and the genomics and the ability to determine, for instance, the genome sequence very quickly that's accelerated the progress that we can make. So what took forty years from sixty two to the drug being approved now can be done in a couple of years. Wow. Everything's happening much much faster. That's awesome. That's great news for those of US living right now.
Interview with George Varanakis of The Portrait Masters
"Welcome back to another episode I am your host Frederick Ben Johnson today. Once again on the hot seat, I have my good friend. Mr George Very. You may have heard his name in the industry. He's he's got or had fingers in all corners of the photography industry that didn't come out right but. Just. Men involved with everything photography. If you don't know his name, you probably have been to an event that he's been. Behind. Trains on. All that stuff. So George here talk about. What are we talking about the Porch Masters Live? This is your last greatest you like you just like attempting really hard projects and. Hitting home runs apparently. So this one was obviously. Cova head and we had our original conference which was going to be in Phoenix Arizona September ninth through the twelfth we had to make a big decision and it was okay. Do we just not do anything this year or do we try to do our virtual conference if you will I don't really love the virtual name I was like call it digital conference that's just me but yeah. We made that decision and moved back our dates a little bit. So we are September first of the twenty third three days we've got so much content some amazing content. We're doing things a little bit differently than I think what a lot of lot of the. Virtual trade show conferences. You'll see out there in the photo industry or just overall We went out this a little bit differently in that we prerecorded everything and not like prerecord Webcam or zoom kinda thing we prerecorded like shootouts and we had people at our studio We had people at Peter Hurley Studio in New York shooting, and so we've got these amazing shootout through Canon Sony and pro photo. We've got keynote speakers like a tab of the coffee from her famous Bravo show. She is one of our keynotes and she's just incredible Her brother show was Tabitha takes over. We've got mark seller. WHO's one of the most amazing photographers on the planet. You he's done countless numbers of covers for Cube, fair the role I think he's got he's done over one hundred rolling stone cover so I'm really excited of our lineup and we're GONNA do this in a really fun way. It's GonNa be really fun over the three days that we're doing this. We've got kind of a trade show section. We've got a content section. We're GONNA be giving away a ton of stuff and that sue it Nikki closer will be live here in the studio Kinda just introducing a all the classes sue out was just decided a couple of minutes ago. WHO's GonNa do for closing keynote keynote live so we're so most of it is prerecorded, we will have live host, but the content that's come out of this is off the charts I'm really excited. In you when you say you're talking about sue brice. Right, yes? Yes right. These Subaru you should put it in front of her name. Yeah. you WANNA have you set the stage on just a portrait masters for the folks that may not have heard about the conference? What what so Thank you for inviting me to the last one I was I was there in Arizona. Last. Yeah. It was. It was that's the word. It was a blast. Folks that may not have heard of the conference described what what this sort of you know the the soul of the conference is intended to be win it's real versus now when. Virtual or digital doesn't it seem like that was ten years ago. Does right. It's I feel twenty years older I, know. Like as my hair. So the Portrait Masters Conference, it's really a boutique conference in that we have only we cap it at five hundred people We have only nine speakers, one stage, one room. There's no breakout classes we really tried to simplify it and we wanted to give people inexperienced that they never forget. So we added so many different things to this conference that you won't see at other places. For example, we put shooting days in the. Trade show. So some of which are sponsored can have a couple of shooting base Pro Photo will have a couple of shooting bays and basically, and we do a bunch of our own. So basically, it's a model backdrop lighting and you just go and shoot and people went absolutely crazy fort when we when we launched it at it, really we kind of created like a Disneyland photographers almost where you could go in. You could talk to the vendors you could shoot, you could touch. You could feel kind of the things that we love about trade shows. Right you have that opportunity to to touch feel products but also like you could read a camera camera body from any of the vendors, the camera houses and Kinda go around the show and and shoot the networking part of it, which this is one that suit came up with but a red ribbon for someone that hadn't been there to our conference. Before if you're wearing a red ribbon, it was to show everybody else. Hey, come say hi and their brand new they don't know anybody and it was. Just, it ended up being such an incredible experience for people because you go to a trade show, you thought the Portrait Masters amazing show that you wanted to go to it's it's an expensive ticket it's eighteen hundred dollars, but it includes all your your meals, and some other things that we we do. But for the Red Ribbon, it's just amazing 'cause I've I saw a dozen times people just may be sitting by themselves or walking by themselves and other attendants would go and say, hey, how are you come sit with me and and it was just that networking part that that really kind of came out of it, which is really cool.
Favorite TV Shows (MM #3469)
"The Maisonette with Kevin Nation. I spend a lot of time on the internet. Okay, probably too much time on the internet, but it's amazing what you can find when reading through Newsreaders. I mean you're going on with my credit or quora and just looking for information looking for details. And the one thing I keep saying has a lot of TV shows are constant topics of conversation and they're not t shows that are currently airing new episodes It's usually when they go into syndication or when they go into a streaming service like a Netflix or something like that all the time whenever I'm looking online. I see people talking about shows like Seinfeld which has been off the air for twenty years but shows like the office home parks and rec in The Big Bang Theory, they're always hot topics. They're always questionnaires or so on the other day. They ranked the smartest of actual actors on The Big Bang Theory based on their education and that's just really a click bait kind of off because really do you care if Johnny Galecki is smarter than Jim Parsons or Kaley Cuoco. Does it really matter in the big picture? If you ever deal with radio people you can talk to them about the TV show WKRP in Cincinnati forever and the most people doesn't even matter wage.
What you need to know about Tesla's 'battery day'
"Over the last few months there has been information leaking out about Tesla establishing a new battery production line near the Fremont factory, and it is aptly code-named roadrunner not only does that hint speed, but there might also be. A reference there to roadrunner and Wylie coyote the looney tunes characters engaged in a perpetual game of Jason, in which Miley Coyote could never catch the roadrunner. Maybe legacy auto is the Wiley Coyote to Tesla's roadrunner. So one of the expectations for Battery Day is that Tesla unveils this roadrunner production line to demonstrate the potential throughput that can be accomplished with all. These advancements I believe Ilan made reference to this today as well as tussles other progress in manufacturing outside of batteries. When he tweeted quote speed running Victorio and real life dot dot dot, and quote if you're unfamiliar Factoria is a video game described themselves. By saying quote Factoria was a game in which you build and maintain factories you'll be mining resources researching. Technologies building infrastructure, automating production and fighting enemies and quote that you're sounds a lot like. TUSLA. So a lot of these are related but I believe manufacturing and energy density at the pack level to be the two most important things for battery day. But it doesn't just end there. There are few other topics that may be discussed at Battery Day the first. which has been heavily speculated on is the possibility of Tesla introducing a million mile battery. So first things first on that that means a million mile life cycle or another way to say, that would be the ability for the battery to recharge. Let's say three or four thousand times without having significant capacity degradation because of already done a full ten fifteen minute episode. On the Million Mile Battery I'M NOT GONNA go into as much detail on that here a link that episode but the Short version is that they're already batteries capable of producing that many cycles. It's just a matter as it always is with batteries of the trade offs are willing to make. For example, does that increase the life cycle lower energy density or? Increased cost, and if so maybe it's not worth the tradeoff in fact, Tesla already has batteries that are capable of doing a million miles. They just don't use them in their vehicles because of those trade offs rather they use them in their energy storage products. So we'll see what Tesla has to say about a million mile battery they have talked about wanting. To, get there with the whole powertrain and the past, which really makes a lot of sense when you bring in a Tommy because if a scenario exists where there is a full self-driving row taxi that vehicles going to be traveling a lot more than ten thousand or fifteen, thousand miles per year if the utilization is five times higher or ten times higher. Then to have a useful life of ten years twenty years, you're going to need a million mile powertrain including that million mile battery. It also makes a lot of sense for other utility vehicles such as the upcoming Tesla semi the other wildcard that could potentially add life cycles to the battery for a vehicle would be vehicle to grid technology. Again, we've talked about. Tesla hasn't been super bullish on that technology in the past. So it's relatively lower on my expectations list there certainly value to that feature, but there's also complexity in extracting that value. So we'll wait and see what Tesla has to say on life cycle and any additional features that could drive utilization of those battery packs higher next on the watch list is. Charging capability there's a lot of potential here. We've already seen Tesla over the years increase the supercharging rate from ninety kilowatts to one hundred, twenty kilowatts, two, hundred, and fifty all the way up to two hundred and fifty kilowatts at peak now, and at the cyber truck unveiling last November onscreen they shut a graphic that showed the charging capability of the cyber. At. Two hundred and fifty kilowatts plus you elon musk at that unveiling said quote it will be capable of more than two hundred and fifty kilowatts will reveal the actual number later and quote. So maybe battery day ends up being that later we know that just last week lucid, motors announced that the lucid air will have three hundred and fifty kilowatt capable charging Tesla's kinda competitive. So I'm not sure they're gonNA, sit around for too long being outmatched on that charging rate. If we can get a bit speculative for a moment, one of our listeners, Florian halen helped me out with this it appears that the V. Three superchargers should be capable. Of quite a bit more output than the hundred and fifty kilowatt. Max. That does vehicles can charge at today to get a full understanding of this, we have to start with the version two superchargers. If we look at the label on those chargers, we can see the voltage listed at four hundred and ten volts. They amperage listed at two hundred and seventy amps to get the power capacity. We just multiply the voltage by the amperage. So in this case that comes out to about one hundred and eleven kilowatts but what happens in reality is that vehicles on version two charges, one hundred and fifty kilowatts all the time. So the amperage here is. Actually understated the same thing appears to be happening with the V. Three superchargers as well on the label for those, we can see that the voltage is thousand and the amperage is four, hundred and twenty-five. So multiplying those together yet Max power capacity of four hundred and twenty five kilowatts. So that's already higher than the two hundred and fifty kilowatts. The vehicles can accept today leaving some room for upside and charging rate but back to the amperage, it appears that the amperage capacity is understated on the be three charges as well. We have a screen shot here of a model three charging at that Max two hundred and fifty kilowatt rate, but with. The voltage only at three hundred, sixty eight. So if we divide those two hundred and fifty thousand watts, two hundred and fifty kilowatts by three hundred, sixty eight that gives us six, hundred eighty amps, which is well above the four hundred twenty, five amps on the label right now, a model threes battery is limited to four hundred and four volts. So at six hundred and eighty amps that would mean a Max charging rate of two, hundred, seventy, five kilowatts instead of the two, hundred fifty, that is listed, but it's probably limited at two hundred and fifty kilowatts to avoid overheating if we consider a new battery though maybe some of those constraints can. Be removed and the V. Three superchargers seems capable of delivering quite a bit more power than that two hundred, fifty kilowatts. If we use the six hundred eighty amps here that we have already seen register out of a supercharged V three location and we multiply that by the maximum a thousand volts we could be looking at a power output of six hundred eighty kilowatts from three charter and potentially even higher based on whatever that true actual limit on ams it's. So none of this means that Tesla's going to suddenly unveil a battery that's capable of charging at seven hundred kilowatts just that the V. Three chargers do seem to be putting in. Place. The infrastructure for higher charging to come over time with a new cell likely being introduced. Maybe we will hear more about that at battery debt last couple of aspects that I've heard discussed the first mining Tesla has alluded to maybe getting into mining someday if they needed to that's not something that I expect here from Battery Day as should be cleared by this point in time I think they've got enough to go through without going down that figurative rabbit hole but I do expect. Yulon mosque to again plead with suppliers to ramp up supply especially for nickel next is a point on Tesla suppliers we know that tussle works with Panasonic LG. L. To source batteries from them. So the question has arisen of how those partnerships are going to work and evolve if Tesla is designing and manufacturing their own cell and I think this is answered by what we spoke to earlier with product differentiation Tesla is going to need all the batteries they can get their hands on it's going to take time to ramp up their own battery production. So not only can they not just convert all their products over to their own cells instantly even if they were to do that, they still probably need even more batteries so they're going to continue to partner with these other suppliers though suppliers give them viable. Products, which can help Tesla Grow capture revenue capture prophet regardless of their own endeavors and battery cells and production as far as tesla actually supplying these cells to others I definitely don't expect that not for a long long time if at all, and that's really for the same reason, Tesla is gonNA need these cells themselves supplying them to another oem just adds again that extra layer of cost because both sides need their margin that creates a more expensive and a product for the consumer, which is contradictory to tussles goal of accelerating the advent of sustainable energy. So as long as Tesla is battery constrained, which I expect to be for a long time. See them supplying their batteries to anybody else. All right. So after all of this, we finally come to the product. The last thing to maybe expect out of Battery Day could be the introduction of the plaid model s and Model X. potentially being the first products to utilize these new battery cells as Tesla works to ramp up that initial production it's been yearly quiet on the plaid. Powertrain Front for a while now, but the timing is about right and maybe we will finally again here's something about the new roadster.
Under Trump, US reputation hits rock-bottom: Pew global survey
"For the past three and a half years the united. States has not been very favorably viewed by other Western countries that's according to survey results from the Pew Research Center but a new study they paula shows that our reputation has taken even deeper nosedive just over the past year Jacob poster is at Pugh in Washington Jacob Pugh does a lot of surveys and this is not the first one about America's image what made this survey nick. Well, we've actually been doing surveys for twenty years now, and we've been tracking the international image of the US during that time period and in the current survey in two thousand and twenty, we're finding some the lowest ratings we've ever found among traditional allies of the United States in terms of US favorability including in Japan, the UK Canada you know more than four in ten have positive views of the United States and these are some of the lowest levels of favorability we've ever measured for the United States. The title of the survey says a lot. I think US image plummets internationally as most say country's handled corona virus badly. So how did your survey respondents about the US and the corona virus like what was one of the questions? Where we ask people on whether various countries including their own were doing a good job of dealing with the corona virus outbreak and on that question when we asked about it for the United States, no more than twenty percent and any of the thirteen countries that we surveyed said, the United States was doing a good job of dealing with the krona virus outbreak and that's different from what people told us about their own countries and most of the. Countries we surveyed people were actually fairly happy with how their own country had dealt with the outbreak. The there are places where the US image is seen more positively than other places. What country had the most people who thought the US was responding well to the coronavirus in terms of response to the coronavirus no country was over twenty percent. But when it comes to the US favorability, there are countries were a majority still have a favorable view of. The US, but that number has shrunk dramatically in the last year. South. Korea's one country where fifty nine percent have a favorable view of the US. But even there that's down almost twenty points from two thousand nineteen when seventy seven percent favourable view of the US
A Conversation With Maria Hinojosa And Lulu Garcia-Navarro
"The one and only Monday. Joins, me now welcome Lulu. It's it's such a pleasure. I. It is such a pleasure to have you on and to read this book it's called once I was you and it is based around the story. Of how you came to the United States for the first time, tell us that story. Yeah. Well, it's an interesting story. I didn't actually know it like a lot of us. We don't actually ask our parents. So how exactly did I know that you came for example, my whole family we were born in Mexico my dad MPC go of us in Mexico City and dad gets hired by the University of Chicago. He's a medical doctor dedicated to research and long story short he helps to create the cochlear implant. He was an amazing human being. May He rest in peace? So that was in Chicago and my mom, and the four of us kids I was the baby in her arms get on a plane. It's the early nineteen. Sixty's we fly from Mexico City to Dallas and change planes in Dallas, and then we're GONNA fly onto Chicago and. When I finally found out the story when I wrote raising, which is a Motherhood Memoir that I wrote like twenty years ago. You know I found out that there was this whole thing that happened at the airport and that an immigration agent was like you know saying that had some weird skin thing and you know maybe had to put me in quarantine and my mom was like Nah and then I came and I saved the no she didn't say it like this but basically, it was like me Ma Ma Ma you know. She's five feet tall by the way, but stood up and. Know had this kind of moment with immigration agent and and it was a story that I told. Kind of like saying, wow, my mom is such a cool woman like I understand where I get my powerful voice even though she's tiny, she spoke back to an immigration agent. and. Then in the writing of this book, blue is really what happens is that I really understand what was happening there. There were trying to separate you from your mother. They basically told your mom that they were GonNa, take you away and put you in quarantine quote unquote and that she was free to go with her other children but that you would have to stay behind I mean. Can you imagine like? When my mom called me in the midst of and you know Lou that I've been covering this story, the entirety, my career immigration writ. Large. And my mom calls me at the airport. I was flying from one back when we were flying around and in the midst of the height of babies being put into cages, we were hearing the voices. You know we knew this was happening. This is not. This not begin with the trump administration but anyway. Mom. Calls me and she's crying she's like is Gay It could have been me. If I'm a your she was like that was I could have been one of those moms and I swear to Lulu that. By heart dropped I was like Oh. My God. So it's not a story of like my mom. Eh, you know speaking back it's a realized now a story of trauma and that. Wouldn't have happened I think had I not written the book and had the horror of immigration policies becomes so. Crystal. Clear. So inhumane so hurtful and frankly now finally so public You. As you mentioned what brought to Chicago, which is where you grew up, but you always maintained your connection to Mexico and your roots you'd go back and forth. You came here on a green card. When did you become a citizen? I asked this simply because that transition of becoming. An American you said was difficult for you. You. You found it hard to sort of occupy these two spaces. So, it was great because in the writing of the book, I actually had to like do the time line and and then I had to go back and find my citizenship. It was a actually I had just come back from a reporting trip with Scott Simon Scott and I were down inside whether it was December of Nineteen eighty-nine Lau Offensive Little Trenton Webb the FMLN offensive the guerilla warfare was happening inside word and I went down to produce Scott. And I came back and just a few days later I took the oath. Look the reason why it was complicated was because way back then maybe now I am beginning to understand maybe it was because of that traumatic experience in Airport in Dallas I, always kind of new. Like this isn't a certain thing for you. This thing about you being able to come in and out of the United States you've done your whole life. Now. You're a woman you're a journalist you've been to Cuba. You've got you've been tool Salvador you. You know. There may be a time when they say you can't come back and I understood that and so I have to be honest as I am the memoir he was motivated in large part by fear that that my green card could be taken away and that I could not be allowed and this was before this whole conversation of like what's happening now you know this was way before it was a different time but I think I kind of I, kind of knew it. So the thing that happens when you become a citizen in this country is you have to raise your right hand and you have to swear that you will bear arms for this country. And people who are born in this country like my own kids haven't had to do that. When you have to do that you take this thing really seriously you know like the Constitution and the bill of rights and you know all like you take it really seriously, and I think that's why because the book is certainly it's about immigration, but it's also about like my. My struggle for democracy and being seen as a journalist taken seriously to be that's all a part of democracy and it just becomes I mean I was living with a green card I was I was definitely understanding my role as a participant. But when you raise that right hand, it's at a whole
The Cost of Student Debt
"Michael, thank you so much for joining us today. Thank you for having me during a plague I appreciate it. We appreciate you and I gotta say it like when I saw the title of your book, I don't WanNa die poor. You know I thought to myself every point in my life I feel that. ADDS but but tell us why did you want to write this book right now? I didn't really put Tomlin per se but I think off the bed I'm really sick of away. College debt is talked about it's either like it's really really bad. People did like some ridiculous off their debt, which is really silly I, WanNa talk about debt in the way it's actually really impacting people black college graduates and Black College. Graduates of all five in general. Yeah. Getting into it like. Did your dream of going to college costs you can in numbers. And totals about like a little over six figures, the primary loan that paid for. Power for the most part sixty, thousand principle in about thirteen years i. Spend about ninety, five, thousand dollars on it already it's just the fact that for a lot of people don't have access to certain capital, we don't come from certain backgrounds. So they take advantage of us. I tried to put in the context of like I took the educational woman of a subprime mortgage loan. Conversation. Around student I think tend to focus typically on the number of how much how long? To pay back how much interest You accrued over time. But in the book you really get is like the emotional cost of procedure dreams or getting an education talk more about that part I wanted to talk about in terms of high really impacts every facet of life instead of just kind of even like how did it impact mostly in terms of your dating some cases? How does it magnified trauma that you kind of grew up with you know run into also recognized A question like there is an emotional way that we carry in addition to the physical dead. But I think if people really kind of you don't have to have student loan debt to lead into, you know where we are. Now all of us kind of see like people being screwed over even better not their fault or at least you should not solely be blaming yourself for a situation that you did in earnest with the best intentions. In this year is kind of a I think compounds a lot of a lot of people are feeling obviously with the pandemic. Of subsequent like economic. Fallout. Economic Stadi- things is affecting black people with substantial student debt. Whenever, there's a crisis in the country. We feel the worst of it we have more debt just by virtue of again started from behind and trying to crawl away open. You know black grabs was even if you didn't necessarily have a substantial amount of debt realities, your college degree doesn't allow the same ability to generate wealth away a wife high school graduates still. So it's just kind of highlighted. What was already there to that end statistic is like you know it takes the average person twenty years. To pay back their student debt while a lot of people are. Building their lives. Starting entry level work trying to start families are having to take care of parents and loved ones. It's a lot to all at once. Are there any policies or initiatives that you think our leaders our government could putting in place to make this easier on people live with Horn and Bernie in particular really brought debt cancellations like a national conversation. We all go to cancel all student that in this country. and Said Joe Biden Credit, you know was not my first second third fourth pig but auntie slapped down and we is what it is. It is what it is. But I do get. that. Piggybacking off of some Elizabeth Warren's influence that he does have initiative about some level of debt forgiveness. It's not high as Bernie with Liz but there's the caveat if you are a black college graduates specifically and you make under one hundred, twenty, five, thousand dollars I believe that is like total debt cancellation because I think that's really one important way to kind of help a lot of people who are going to default this you. And that's also gonNA stop them from being able to buy houses and rent apartment. So let's fix the problem by giving people a great
Friendships at Work and Beyond with Shasta Nelson
"I've been studying friendship now for twelve years really specifically, I passionate relationships in general but I found myself looking at US some studies coming out talking about specifically at a time for women, how significant their friendships were to their health into their happiness, and yet I was looking around at all of us being so obsessed with the parent child relationship and the romantic relationships, and like we were buying thousands of books and we were like, who am I if I don't have these relationships and it was like that was just like the we think of them as they the kind of things we need in our lives and yet the research shows that those things. Actually aren't always that great happiness and our health and traditionally haven't always been that way and that our friendships that Matt make such a difference I found myself kind of in that space where I was looking around being like, why aren't people talking about this more? Why aren't people doing research on this? Why are we not finding resources for people and that's really what kind of just put me in that space I wasn't because I knew that much about it was because I was. Asking the questions and just trying to find resources for people people I was working with and stop and ever since then I've been reading and devouring and learning, and listening, and teaching, and writing books, and speaking, and gathering up, you know most of its with women and This book puts me a little bit broader. I'm doing more co ED, which is actually very cool too because I've long felt that men I think this is one of the reasons why they die younger than women. And and I think this is why I think men need. I don't think it's a women's issue. I think it's a human need and so I'm really excited to be talking about it in broad terms to but yeah friendship is like the thing. The thing and you actually have a ministerial decree. Don't you approaching this from a really sort of holistic perspective yet my training as a got a massive divinity and I used to pastor and so it felt like a big veer off the road. But when I, look back on it, I was like that was where I was doing marriage counseling I was training small. Groups here Emmy, as a pastor, you're asking the question, how do I bond community what is community and how do people belong and and really thinking through when somebody walks in the door is visitor what does it mean to actually participate belong and so yeah I've in many ways have always been about community and wanting money all of us to feel that sense of. Your belonging and unfortunately in churches, not all of them but unfortunately, in most churches will you can experience that belonging, but there's a lot of. That, you have to believe a certain thing to belong or you have to behave a certain way to behave behavior. You have to appear a certain way to you know and that kind of never rubbed me right either. So it's really just how do we all as humans get that need to feel connected met and ways where we just feel accepted for who we are. So yeah, that's been a life passion. An and what made you want to tackle the workplace side of it then? Yeah, that's a good question I. so here's the thing. My second book was titled French Missy, and that one was talking about how most of us when we feel lonely and as a word that most of us don't actually even use the name very well. But when we feel like we want something more most of us, it's not we want more interaction or that we need to. Know more people that we need to make new friends. Most of us that we need to, we need to have closer relationships where craving intimacy were craving more meaningful relationships, and so I was noticing that a lot of us when we felt lonely, we were like, Oh, I need to go make friends I need to meet people and I was like, no, you actually know enough people you don't feel known by a few and so you need to let go. And when I teach what deepens relationship one of the three things that deepens relationships is consistent time and shared experiences and repeated interaction and I this won't surprise you at all. The number one thing I heard is I don't have time for that I don't have time to be that consistent I can only meet her for lunch once a month or I can only see them once a year I fly out there or I just don't have time to be on the phone I just over and over and over I don't have time. And I've thought, you know I could do my darndest to like into one more hour week and and that's not going when you see the numbers collectively of sixty one percent of US feeling lonely on a somewhat regular basis I was like I don't think I can talk you into one more hour and that's going to make the biggest difference I. Think we need to tackle. You know work is like two adults. What school is two kids. This is where we're spending time with people where we're interacting. We're making our biggest contribution and I was like, why don't we talk about putting friendship and our whole life as opposed to trying to fit it in his personal life bucket with a thousand other things and to me this is really answering the question of how can we? Get more of our emotional social needs met in the biggest part of our lives in that bucket. So it's answering the question I don't have time. Well you do. Doing. Yes exactly. But but I think a lot of people feel a little weird about that. Right? I mean first, we're accustomed to thinking of life in separate spheres but you one is where we can have this this vulnerability, the intimacy with people in our personal lives. You, know we feel a little bit weird about that in in the workplace is, is it okay to be vulnerable and intimate with people at work? Yeah. Absolutely. It is and it's so interesting because we are uncomfortable with it when I was doing the research about thirty percent of esther like. And yet when asked, how many of us lot a friend almost of us are like Oh. Yes. Please in at work like we're not sure it's appropriate but we want one and also it is it is whether we like it or not. It is the number one place adults are making their friends and so that is happening and the much bigger question is it is happening we need it to happen. What we need to do is talk about it more and teach healthy expectations and set this up so that it's best for the people involved and for the workplace and the research shows it is absolutely. Paramount, not to are not only to our individual health and happiness but to the organizations of who we work, which is really fascinating. I mean there's twenty years of research I mean we're talking. Decades and many many different people studying it in a variety of different ways who say if you have a best friend at work, you are the best employees for the workplace you're more engaged you have better treat the customers better. You're less likely to leave. So we're bringing our turnover costs down. You call in sick last year fewer workplace accidents. I mean, you just look down the list and the people who? Have a best friend at work. Absolutely show up and feel more engaged look forward to Monday morning the Monday morning in air quotes and feel like they wanna feel support it and they feel safer brainstorming they feel safer taking risks they feel safer showing up with the ideas and those last few ideas are examples of vulnerability in the workplace and to your point a lot of us are like. Well, we picture people. Telling personal drama and just being all these heated one last night and we picture `vulnerability and we have like these fears the pop into our head immediately and I do teach incremental slow vulnerability when we're talking about disclosing and I teach how to do that and healthy Safeway But more importantly, vulnerability is what we need in order to brainstorm. It's what we need to say, I, actually don't know the answer to this or I actually need help with this or. Not just diversity inclusion is vulnerability. It's like let me I don't want to just have you be a token different person at the table I. Actually want your differences, the impact art answers here and your story to change what we're trying to do and how you're experiencing this and I'm all. When we actually list everything we want for the workplace and how we will be better together it takes an incredible amount of vulnerability to to do that.
Wyoming Doubles Down On Its Long Support For Carbon Capture
"US coal production is down to its lowest level in half a century, but the country's largest coal-producing state is desperate to keep the industry going with support from the trump administration. Wyoming is investing big to try and clean up Kohl's carbon emissions. Wyoming public radio's Cooper has more the largest utility in Wyoming Rocky Mountain power has found. It makes economic sense to start retiring. It's coal plants early, an invest heavily and renewables across the West. That isn't going over well in a state whose economy is tied to call. At a recent public hearing county commissioner can't Connolly said when a plant is shutdown, it's not just jobs that are lost by lose. Fifty percent of the taxes is just as simple. Connolly says it doesn't have to be like this coal plants in Wyoming could stick around if utilities just considered retrofitting them to capture the carbon they emit we will change how goal America. There's no doubt about it we'll get. The idea a coal plant would be retrofitted with new tack. Its emissions would be removed and then sold, but rocky mountain power says right now that technology is too expensive and not proven utilities rick, link says its decision is an economic one. Is Driven by. Changes in the heart condition even so Wyoming is doubling down on its long support for carbon capture. This year lawmakers mandated that by twenty thirty utilities produce a certain amount of electricity from coal plants using carbon capture technology ratepayers bear the expensive that the trump administration is also trying to boost carbon capture. It's passed a federal tax credit in his funding research projects. Holly crude cut oversees several through the University of Wyoming. She envisions capturing co two emissions for a variety of profitable uses including turning them into new products. Building Materials asshole replacement. The problem is many others think the moment for Carbon Capture to help Cole has come and Gone Arizona State University's Klaus Lochner remembers giving presentations promoting carbon capture to the coal industry twenty years ago without that, he warned that climate change would be the industry's demise. Is it look if the comes around, you are not going to be allowed to build a new new coal plant because every bank in the country will know that they will not get their money back. So you bid or buy twenty trinite have the ability to build power plants that. Completely carbon neutral but that hasn't happened Energy Economists Rob. God. Says part of the reason could be politics the Republican Party which strongly supports coal actually may have hurt the industry by downplaying climate change climate change doesn't exist. There's no justification to develop low-carbon technologies like carbon capture. So in an ironic way, the Republicans, kill carbon capture as much as anybody else only one coal plant in the US created a successful business model for carbon capture. It's called Petra Nova in Texas, but that fell apart after the pandemic led to an oil price. Crash analysts, Dennis Wanstead with Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis says he can no longer imagine utility saying, Hey, we really WanNa do this. We really want to build a carbon capture facility and we really WANNA put it on our thirty five year old forty-year-old coal plant improve. It's GonNa. Make Money Wyoming Governor. Mark Gordon isn't put off though he points to wind energy, which also needed help early on, but is now a fast growing industry. He says that means you don't give up for NPR news I'm Cooper mckim
Naomi Ceder - 20 Years with Python
"Python for twenty years. It's a long time to invest in a singular direction seems very focused and I wonder I have a couple of questions about that. You know. Of course you can predict the future. You can do your best to say I think this has a promising future but. If you're picking language in two, thousand, one in python is still relatively young. I think it was probably six years old at the time Is that right? It's about six years the thing. About ten years old then okay it was. Very. It was very yes. At at Lenox world where I I went to Gaydos workshops there were I think there eleven thousand people at Lenox ruled that that year and I know the more experienced establish python types wondered if there'd be enough to make it worse going out for beer? So it's not very popular. And of course, it's exploded in popularity for variety of reasons but. I'm more interested in what made you have buy in number one and number two. Is it accurate to say that you stayed fully focused on python or would it be more accurate to say that python was kind of the central? The hub and you may have had spokes to other types of technologies, other languages, right? Well. So. I've thought a little bit about about this general question and to be honest I. I do recall thinking in after I'd done python for a few years that. It was really likely that something else was going to come along. That was better more interesting more whatever I, and I would probably switch to another language and it it never happened I mean. Clearly there there are other things that you do along the way. So for example. Database technologies have have evolved and emerged. So they're different flavors of things that you can do with databases. So that's that's one thing you can do Know. Web managing things in the cloud there. There are lots of different areas around that. I think part of it was that python. Flexible. Enough to do all of the things I wanted to do. But I think also it's just that through a series of. Of Happy Accidents I think I would say a python has continued to kind of move and and in effect. I don't WANNA say keep keep up with me. Keep ahead of me. I suppose. So that it's always kind of been there for the next thing that I was interested in doing I you know when I switched to to being a developer full-time we we started using aws and it was a great way to help automate the management of that By then Django is maturing and I was working in an e commerce platform that that was based on Django. So we can do that. They are those things just kind of happened, and then now, of course, with the rise of of data science and I do a certain amount of not data science but data engineering, you know all of the things that data science needs in order to do their things. So. That has been part of the reason why that that's happened I think python really has just kind of seemed to catch one way of after another and you know having been involved a little bit in the leadership of Python. I wish I could claim credit for this but I don't think even Gita would claim credit for this it's just been. It's a good language certainly, but there are other languages with it just seems to have been. Capable and picked up at the right time to pick the you know the next wave. So I think that's part of it. So. Yeah. I. Think the other thing that has helped keep me around to though has been the continuing development of pythons community. Now it's something that. From from Gedo on to everybody else involved with python everybody values in his intentional about fostering community and Not all open source communities have. That going for them all the time. So I think that's been a plus.
Curtis Saunders and his 1914 Model T
"This is Robert loss of welcome to another episode of cars that matter today we're joined by Dr Curtis Saunders, Mechanical Engineer Researcher at Johns Hopkins University Tower Things in Baltimore today, Curtis agreed Robert. It's a beautiful sunny day here in Curtis is here because he's the owner of a nineteen fourteen Ford model t now I guess I could make all kinds of jokes curtis about how you really need a PhD in mechanical engineering to work on one of these. But I'm sure it doesn't hurt. I we're going to dig into the history of the Ford model teachers to understand a little bit better. Why was such important automobile? The Ford model t is often named the car the century. Obviously, it's an important car. Why is it important to you? I should say while I'm a mechanical engineer I've always loved history. I'm always been a student of history and history has always been a passion of mine. So the model t important to to me. One of the reasons is just the impact it had on American history and just the general in addition just to manufacturing in general the manufacturing methods behind the model. t some of the things that Henry Ford merely pioneered with the car I was just really fast anyhow had in areas as well as the impact car itself had in American culture from what I understand. They made about fifteen million and they had quite a lifespan and first one came. Out in Nineteen Oh eight is that right? Yes. That is correct Kinda wrap things up by one, thousand, nine, hundred, Ninety, seven when by that time was almost as much of an antique as it is today it's amazing how long the car ran and even through its cycle while the appeared. So the car changed a lot of the underlying the chemical structure while had some changes remain basically the same, the same four cylinder engine, the chew speed transmission. The bones are really did run twenty years I remember years and years ago in my former life I worked with the operating engineers, UCLA. What do we have these emergency generator rooms now ucla campus was built back in the nineteen twenties and we actually had an emergency generator that was still powered by a Model T. engine this back in the eighties imagine that that old engine was deemed reliable enough and competent enough to be working all those decades later. Really Testament to the Durance of that particular design you talk about Henry, Ford and how the model t was really the first mass produced car but I almost get the feeling. Henry could have been making washing machines or vacuum cleaners in a lot of ways the model t was sort of a test bed for the whole production line process actually rates moving assembly line process was not unique to model ts and applied to so many different types of products from airplanes, trains, cars, like you said, also goods washing machines TV's. Of that type of process, we take it for granted now, but someone had to think of it I in there had to be a pioneer that type of industry that really started this whole thing not only introducing a whole new way of making things it was done. So efficiently and relatively inexpensively that I gave any American with a halfway decent paying job the opportunity to own a car or it's eight a here's rolling car off the assembly. Line every ninety seconds from what I understand though maybe you can correct me if I'm wrong the model t was such a grand vision of Henry Ford's that he actually set up manufacturing facilities or plants all around the country, and even in other comments, he truly believed it was the car for the masses I. Don't think he really viewed it as just something for a specific region or even a specific country her specific time thought he'd really. distill down essential components vehicle and that that's what anyone in the world would what I guess. There was more than just one model T. everything from pickup trucks to delivery vans they made a whole bunch of them didn't they? Absolutely, there is various types of cars from to Cedars. Cedars even enclosed cars and open cars later and the whole line of trucks. You can even buy a model t rolling chassis and build your own body for it. If you didn't like what Fort is offering, you could just build your own. You're not even limited cars like you said, the power plant could by the Ford engine, the Ford, power plant and just apple sorts of other applications that would make a nice Margarita blender wouldn't it just about the right amount of horsepower to get that is just just right. Everybody knows what one looks like but I suspect most people don't really understand what it takes to. Make one move got a little engine. What is like three liter inline four or something like that it's a little inline four and it has a two speed transmission. What's the horsepower output on that engine? Would you figure it was rated at twenty two and a half horsepower? Wow. Okay. There's a lot of lawnmowers. Today might a riding mower hardware store that has more horsepower than this little novelty
The Vanessa Guillen Story
"Own. Vanessa's twenty years old. She was born and raised in Houston Texas one of six children. Does Vanessa. Immigrants from Mexico. Mom Gloria took care of the kids while Dad Hindu worked as a machine operator. Again, family is Catholic very religious. This is the baptism but allow this. Does. To sell most. That's your favorite suppo. Young. Commodity. Say I knew. Them. stylist. There is. This is just. Tell me what? Now with the terrorists inside little. Always, eight following her steps and she said I can be like me like. Me Tough. Ignore everyone. Will assign us. So. Miss you. She graduates Cesar Chavez High School. She's this girl who just dreams of a better life. and. Then she immediately lists. There you have a young, Latina. Out of high school. Who says this is what I want to I want to be in the military you Miss Yonne. Dollar lawyer complete. And Hers First, training. She didn't even WANNA come back. She was happy even when she got home, she was like a new person she was like her skin was alerted full of blowing. More staff. More. Semi the police. Say Your meal will be this on the Dr. he said he said Mammy. Sophisticated Keith them even happier that she was going to be stationed in. Texas. Close to home. But that's the was sent to Fort Hood. She was stationed there as an active duty soldier and she would make the track every weekend to visit her family and Houston. That's about a three hour drive. Fort Hood is in the middle of nowhere. Texas. tumbleweeds rolling fast space is. Known as the great place. Fort Hood is big. It's the army's largest military installation and it's the densest population of combat. Units in the United States Army it's like the New York. City. You could easily get lost at Fort Hood because it's it's pretty much its own city. They have grocery stores there they had their own mall the of schools on post you you'd never have to leave if you don't want to. The national was as small arms for pair shoulder. So her responsibilities included ensuring weapons were maintained helping with accountability and inventories that was her job. And soon after Vanessa goes to Fort Hood, her family says they notice a change in her. Disturbing her ibex, we start seeing she didn't want to eat started getting skinny again. Come Do. KOMO's. Authorised. More, sad season must threes. Is. Getting in here. For who she was not happy at four to no style. No. To Be imple- KISS AC-. Nor'easter Story. She would try to tell me that she didn't want to be at forehead I. Remember this one time she said I don't like it here. And I hope one day you understand. October, knowing that my sister was coming home. I. Was there. And she came in. She closed the door and she just started crying on her bed.
Humans Have Caused the Most Dramatic Climate Change in 3 Million Years
"Recently Assad with some research colleagues at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, a look at a brand new science article in which are climate model for the first time had recreated the climate on earth over the last three million years, which covers the entire geological pleistocene epoch. The Pleistocene is so important as it constitutes a point of reference for life on. Earth. Because although sure our planet has existed for four point, five, billion years it's only in the last million years. That earth has looked at least roughly in the way as we know it, the continents were roughly where they are today. The North and South Poles were covered with ice. The atmosphere had a similar chemical composition to what we have today. Planet, Earth. Our earth has only existed for three million years. All, comparisons further back in time are quite meaningless. And the manuscript I hold in my hand is not just reaching. My brain is also striking straight into my heart. A deep humility settles in when look at the graph showing the variations in mean global temperature on earth over the past three, million years it shows that we have never throughout the whole plasticine exceeded two degrees global warming compared to our pre industrial average temperature of approximately fourteen degrees. Never. This means that Earth despite all the stresses and natural shocks from fluctuations and Solar Radiation Volcanic eruptions, asteroid impacts and earthquakes has regulated itself within an incredibly narrow range minus four degrees. Celsius were in deep ice age plus two degree Celsius. We're in a warm interglacial period lasting three million years. It's absolutely incredible. Especially since we know why. It's earth's ability to self regulate the ability of the oceans to absorb and store heat the ability of the ice sheets to reflect solar radiation the ability of the forests to absorb carbon dioxide and the ability to be a safe and store greenhouse gases. The planet is a biophysical self playing piano whose music sheet stays. Within the minus four plus to scale. If that is not caused for humidity than I do not know what humidity is. And a deep concern in hundred and fifty years. In the geological blink of an eye, we risk now tearing this Planetary Symphony to shreds. Let that sink in. The global average temperature is now changing hundred and seventy times faster than over the last seven thousand years and it's doing. So in the wrong direction upwards when the current orbital forcing meaning are distance to the sun and the current low level of solar activity means that the temperature should in fact, be slowing down. You don't have to be a physicist to understand that we have a problem. Climate skeptics like to argue that historically the climate has fluctuated so much. So why shouldn't it be fluctuating now? Obviously. It fluctuates. But we are now racing towards plus three to plus four degrees warming. Sceptics like to bring up the little ice age the time when Swedish King Call The tenth Gustav Marched His army across the deep frozen great belt and the little belt in sixteen fifty eight to beat the Danes or that the vikings grew grapes in Greenland during the medieval warm period. Yes. Of course, this is true but it all occurred within the natural boundaries of minus four and plus two degrees. And it's here within this sweet spot that we must remain for our own sakes and our future? In August two, thousand, eighteen at the peak of that year's drought and fires in Sweden and Europe. We published a scientific paper where we tried to establish whether we are at risk of pushing the entire planet away from its current state of equilibrium, the Holocene epoch where we have been since the last ice age. This is fundamental. Our Planet Earth can be in three different states. It can be in a deep ice age as it was twenty thousand years ago with large is. Extending over the northern and Southern Hemisphere with over two kilometers of ice above our heads here in Sweden an ice extending as far south as Berlin. This is an equilibrium state as it is not only lower solar radiation that keeps earth in an ice age. It is also the feedbacks caused by ice. As the ice sheets grow earth gets whiter, which means that more more incoming heat from the sun is reflected back to space more ice means it gets colder which means even more is and suddenly you have a self reinforcing mechanism. This is what makes an ice age and equilibrium earth remains. They're not only because of the external forces from the sun but also thanks to these inbuilt biophysical processes in this case, the color of ice. Earth can also be in an interglacial an intermediate state, which is what we have today where was still have permanent is sites at the polls and we have glaciers on land and the biosphere with forests, grasslands, and lakes roughly as Earth as we know it. It is these two equilibrium states and only these two states that the planet has been over the last three million years that is during the entire Pleistocene. But then there is a third state when earth tips over from self cooling feedback loops to self heating feedback loops, which leads to an inevitable journey to becoming a hot tropical planet that is four, five, six, potentially seven, eight degrees warmer than today where in principle, all the ice has gone and the surface of the ocean is more than fifty meters higher than it is today and where the conditions for live is fundamentally different all over the entire planet. This is what we call hothouse earth. Or Highs Zaid hot time in German where the article when we published it drew so much attention doing this burning heat wave in the summer of twenty eighteen that highs Zaid was chosen as the word of the year in Germany. In this research, we tried for the first time to identify the global mean temperature at which we are in danger of tipping over from our current state, the Holocene interglacial, and embarking on a journey that would inevitably take us to highlight our conclusion is that we cannot exclude that the planetary threshold. The tipping point where we kickoff unstoppable processes of self amplified warming is at two degrees. Bear in mind we are today at one point one very mind were moving fast along a path that reaches one point five in potentially only twenty, thirty years and two degrees in forty fifty years. This is one I would argue of the biggest. Challenges of all to test whether we are right. Can the planet cope with or Canet not cope with higher temperatures than two degrees? But. My conclusion based on the knowledge we have today is that the planetary threshold to avoid triggering high Zaid is most likely at two degrees. Of course, it's not so that Earth will fall off a cliff at two degrees. The risk is rather that we would then pass a threshold where the shift towards hindsight would become unstoppable. In other words, we face an urgency at the timeframe whether we pushed the on button on not triggering stoppable warming is within the next few decades meaning essentially. Now, if we pressed the UNBUTTON and kick off the great planetary machinery with feedback loops causing self warming, then the full impacts may play out over three four, five, hundred years before we reach a new equilibrium state hothouse. A planet with over ten meters, sea level rise temperatures, and extreme droughts, floods, and heatwaves making large parts of earth uninhabitable a planet we do not want a planet that cannot support US humans. This requires from us that we understand two different time horizons. The short term time of commitment. When do we push the unbutton but then also the long term time horizon when we have the full impact hitting on people these are different but ethically, I would argue only the trigger moment counts, we cannot leave a damaged planet beyond repair to future generations. So to summarize the decisive moment when we press don't press the button lies within the next ten to twenty years. With consequences for all future generations a moral, bum. Are High site article concluded that degree Celsius is our ultimate planetary threshold that we need to stay away from. This article actually came out six months before our climate modeling showed that we've never exceeded two degrees throughout the whole pleistocene, the last three million years. In Two thousand nine, our planetary boundaries size showed that one point five degrees is a boundary we should not transgress because then we enter a danger zone of uncertainty. So perhaps you do understand my feeling a deep concern of humility in the face of our latest scientific findings, which really only says, one thing tipping points are real and if they're crossed, they lead to unstoppable changes, which requires a new relationship between us and our planet, and that we realize that we are facing a new ethics. What we do today will determine the future on earth for all our children and their children.
Novelist Donald Ray Pollock On Factory Work And Finding Fiction Later In Life
"Today's first guest is author Donald Ray Pollock, whose novel the devil all the time has just been made into a new netflix movie premiering next Wednesday. It Stars Tom Holland and Robert Pattinson, and here's a taste in this clip. A young boy has just watched his father pulverized two guys after they made lewd comments about the father's wife, the son's mother. Afterward the father gives his son some advice. You remember what I told you. On. The buzzer gave you. That's what I mean. got. To. Sir. Good sons of bitches out there. One hundred. These that many. Cannonball. In, both the movie and the novel the characters in the devil all the time are driven to extremes whether their fathers and sons, serial killers or preachers. The story begins in the small town of knock him stiff a real place in southern Ohio where Donald Ray pollock grew up. He didn't become a writer until he put in over thirty years at the local paper mill and got sober. But. Once he did start writing. He was noticed quickly receiving both awards and critical. Acclaim. Terry, gross spoke to Donald Ray pollock in twenty eleven when the devil, all the time was first published. Donald, Ray pollock welcome to fresh air. I'd like to start with reading from your new book, the Devil, all the time It's about the second paragraph from the prologue. So would you just set it up for us? What we have here is A young boy's name is Arvin Eugene Russell and he's following behind his father Willard and there and place called knock him stiff and they're going to Willard's prayer logging as a log in the woods where he Wants to communicate with God and So this is where they are. You know early in the morning and their. have finally reached this log. Willard eased himself down on the high side of the law and motion for his son to kneel beside him in the dead soggy leaves unless he had whiskey running through his veins Willard came to the clearing every morning and evening talk to God. Arvin didn't know which was worse the drinking or the praying. As far back, as he could remember, it seemed that his father had faulted devil all the time. Arvin little with the damp pulled his Co. tighter. He wished he were still in bed even school with always miseries was better than this but it was a Saturday and there was no way to get around it. Through the mostly bare trees beyond the cross Arvin could see whisper smoke rising from a few chimneys, half a mile away four hundred or so people lived in, knock him stiff in nineteen, fifty seven nearly all of them connected by blood through one godforsaken clam or another be it lust were necessity or just plain ignorance along with the tar paper shacks and Cinder Block houses the Holler included two general stores and a Church of Christ in Christian Union and joint known throughout the township as the bullpen. Three days before he'd come home with another black I I, don't condone no fighting just for the hell of it but sometimes, you're just too easy going Willard told him that evening then boys might be bigger than you. But the next time one of them starts his stuff, I want you to finish it. Willard was standing on the porch changing out of his work clothes. He handed Arvin Brown pants stiff with dried blood and Greece. He worked in a slaughterhouse in Greenfield and that day sixteen hundred homes had been butchered a new record for RJ Carol meat-packing. Those boy didn't know yet what he wanted to do when he grew up he was pretty sure he didn't WanNa kill pigs for eleven. Let's Donald Ray pollock reading from his new novel, the Devil, all the time. You know in the reading that you did the father tells the sun that the next time. So many beats him up the sun has to fight back and that seems to be. A recurring theme like in the opening story of your collection of short stories, the collections called knock him stiff. The opening sentence reads my father showed me how to hurt a man one August night at the torch in when I was seven years old it was the only thing he was ever any good at. You certainly seem interested in the idea of a father. Kind of indoctrinating a sun on the need to fight back and then egging on to do it even when it's inappropriate. so was is this a story that played out in your life? Well, not so much in my life I. Mean as far as I don't my dad really didn't push me to fight or anything like that. But you know when I was growing up my father and I had a very Uneasy relationship. You've got to understand my dad was born in one, thousand, nine, hundred, thirty he's still alive. You know he's eighty years old and he's still kicking but He was born in. Nineteen thirty grew up in the depression I went to the eighth grade. He was working on the railroad by the time he was sixteen, and then he was in the navy. And, my dad is a very tough. Hard. man Stra very strong man. As and in contrast to that, my mother is very shy kind. Small Bone woman. and. Either fortunately or unfortunately for me, I took after my mother and I believe. When I was a kid, my dad was. Maybe disappointed for not taking after him more. So. You know that's where I guess part of that comes from it and part of it also comes from. Lived in stiff. That's where I grew up and I saw a lot of other fathers who were you know drinkers and hell raisers and they didn't treat their families very well You know maybe they went and worked for a while and. I got enough money to go on another band or whatever, and pretty much left the family to take care of themselves. So, yeah father's have a pretty rough time and my work I just. It's just. You know I'm a father. You know I have a daughter WHO's I'm thirty years old now and I have always felt that I. Wasn't. As good as I could have been. Her mother and I were divorced when she was very young she was like a year old and and I wasn't around that much and. That's probably the best explanation. I can give for why treat father's like I do my work. Were you bullied in school. You said you, you took after your mother who wouldn't hurt a fly. So and if you were bullied, would you fight back? Did you know how to actually I wasn't bullied in school I? Never really had any problems with that and yeah, I. Mean a would fight back if I had to but. That situation you know didn't come about very much probably you know just. No more than any other normal kid you know might face that sort of thing. But. Yeah. I mean I wasn't really interested in Working on cars or farm or anything like that was more of A. I won't call myself a bookworm because we really didn't have that many books but you know I like to read and watch old movies and drawl and stuff like that and My Dad. Just you know he's a very practical man I mean, even today you know his idea of success is. Owning your own farm, starting your own business or something like that and I know that he probably looks on what I'm doing now is. A pretty useless way to spend your life trying to write books. Would you describe what the town of knock him stiff was like when you were growing up well, when I was growing up there it was. You know relocated for us. Ok we'll knock him stiff. is about thirteen miles west of chillicothe Theo, which is you know southern Ohio. It was its own little place. You know there wasn't much else around there but it was a community There were three small general stores and a bar and a church, and probably four hundred, fifty, five, hundred people now I probably was related to. At least half those people. So did you find this nurturing being in a town where half the people in it were related to you or incredibly claustrophobic? I think when I was a kid when I was a kid I was claustrophobic for me. You know I was one of those kids I was always unsatisfied I always wanted to be. Else and somewhere else. And so from a very early age. You know I was thinking about escaping from the hauler. I just Thought that I'd rather be somewhere else are somewhere else. But where you are as in Chile coffee which is. PHILADELPHIA, which is about thirteen miles away like you got out but you didn't go very far. I, really didn't get out I mean that's the weird contradiction of that whole thing you know i. Wanted to escape and them what I finally got my chance or whatever I. I chose to stay I'm out at knock stiff at least once a week even today Ladder parents go to visit. My parents are still alive. You know I have a brother and two sisters and they all live fairly close to there and So I. Think though as far as escape goes what happened with me was I quit high school when I was seventeen. And I went to work in a meat packing plant much like Weller work, Dan? And then when I was eighteen I moved to Florida you know that was going to be I was going to get away that you know by moving to Florida and I was down are working a job in a nursery and I wasn't making much money or anything only been there a few months my dad called and said. Hey, I can get you a job at the paper mail if you come back up here so. I chose to come back. You know the paper Mills Calling it was union job and great benefits and. And I knew you know for a high school dropout that was probably going to be the best job I. Ever got. You had that job for. How many years did you work at the paper mill? I? was there thirty two years and you didn't start writing till you were around fifty or is that is fifth well I'm fifty six now and I started writing when I was forty five. Okay. So how come it took so long did you know? When you weren't writing did you know that you had that in you? Well. You know I'd always been a big reader as I said and I love books. And I think maybe in the back of my mind, you know always thought writing would be a great way to get by in the world and you know, of course, I was very naive about it. The principal reasons for me you know as far as being a writer were one, you were your own boss. To you could do it anywhere. And three, you made lots of money. Wasn't until actually began writing it. I found out. That was a real true. But I. Think you know Sorta like maybe a fantasy that? It was in the back of my mind for a long time. I had a problem with drinking and for a number of years and you know it was one of those fantasies that when you got half loaded and You started daydreaming or whatever it was. One of those things that you thought about right thought about. But it wasn't really. You know I went to school when I was in my thirties I went to college I went to Ohio University and I ended up with a degree in English and You. Know even while I was there though I wasn't thinking about being a writer I never took any writing workshops or anything like that. But then finally when I was forty five my dad retired from the paper mill. And there was just something about watching him retire and go home. and. You know that was you know pretty much the end of his career and it really. Bothered me and I. Just. decided. I had to try something else you know. To some other way to. Spend the rest of my life. So. When you decided, you wanted to learn how to write what did that mean? Any. Writers or anything in for a while I just sort of scribbled and struggled. And then I'd read an interview with a writer and I can't recall her name now or no it was a lady. But she talked about typing out other people's stories as a means of maybe getting closer to them or just learn how to put a story together. and. So I started doing that. Who did you type out? I typed out a lot of different stories I. I was typing out a story at least once a week and that went on for about a year and a half. So John. cheever hemingway. Flannery. O'Connor Richard. Yates Dennis Johnson the you know the list just goes on and on if it was a story that I really liked and it wasn't. Long I, type it out, and then I carry it around with me for a week and you look at over and you know jot notes on stuff like that, and then I'd throw it away and do another one. Typing a story out, just was a much better way for me to see how you know person puts dial together or you know. Moose from one scene to the next that sort of thing. Was it hard for you to find your subject matter as a writer? Well when I first started. Trying to learn how to write. As. I said like maybe I would copy out John cheever story. So then I would try to write my own story about some East Coast suburbanite having unfair. Something like that or maybe I'd write about a re Rita Andrei debut story, and then I'd write about a Catholic priest. and. So I did that for maybe two years or so and it just wasn't working at all for me. and. Then filing maybe at about two and a half years, I wrote a story that's included in the book. Knock him stiff called back teen. And it's a very short story. and. It's about these two losers sitting in a donut shop. And that was the first thing that I had. Written that I thought wasn't too bad. And so then I increasingly started focusing on you know the people that I knew about instead of nurses, lawyers, that sort of thing that I had absolutely no idea. How to write about There's a passage in your new novel that's about a bus driver and the bus drivers father had gotten a certificate from the railroad for not missing a single day of work in twenty years and bus drivers. Mother always held this up as like what you could do. If you really you know were strive and tried to accomplish something when the bus drivers father died the bus driver hope that that certificate would be buried with his father's. We didn't have to look at it anymore, but instead his mother just like. Put It on the wall, display it in the living room. And then the bus driver thinks it wore on you after a while other people's accomplishments. I love that sentence did you ever feel that way I mean he kochman here seems. So relatively small like a good attendance record and not to knock that. But for that to be like, you know the zenith of somebody's life is. You. but did you feel that way that a war on you? Other People's accomplishments? I don't think that I paid so much attention to other people's. Successes or whatever. But I, know that I was aware you know by the time. I was thirty two or so and I've been working at the mail for about fourteen years. And I knew that all the guys that I had come in with you got hired about the same time as mayor guys even much later than that. You know they own their own home. Maybe. They owned a boat and they had two or three vehicles and they were married and had kids and on and on and on. You know in contrast to them. I've been divorced twice. I'd filed bankruptcy when I got sober I was living in this little very small apartment above this garage. Of. Motel Room and I've been living there for about. Four or five years. I owned a black and white TV that my sister had given me and I had this seventy six chevy that had the whole side of smashed in and that was it. You know for fourteen years of working there. That's what I had. And so you know there was that sense I guess of me just being a failure. Wasn't really that I wasn't jealous of those people or anything like that. I, mean I had enough sense to know that you know where I ended up was my own fault. But there was always that that idea in back of my head that. I could have done more you know I could maybe went to college or something you know. I'm sure you know if I'd wanted to go to school when I was eighteen, my dad would try to help me. and. That's not the route that I chose though how has your life changed? Now as a published writer, you have a collection of short stories. You have a new novel you got a thirty five thousand dollars cash prize, the pen, Robert Bingham Award. So, what's different about your life? well, I have a lot more time to just set on the porch and. Smoke and daydream. Think it's a legitimate. Yeah well, at least that's what I tell my wife. But my life hasn't really changed that much I. Mean I get a lot more emails. Now you know that sort of thing, but you know I still live in the same house I still pretty much. You know my daily routine is. I really can't say that it's changed that much. It's a good life and I'm thrilled that you know I've got a publisher and. You know had at least a little bit of success. You know I know a lot of writers out there a lot of writers out there who are much better than I am. And would. Probably give their left arm. To be setting, you know where I'm setting today. Well Donald Ray, pollock thing you so much for talking with us. Terry I appreciate. It. Made my day. Donald Ray pollock speaking to Terry Gross in twenty eleven. The devil all the time a new movie based on his novel of the same name.
Briana Holt is the Queen of Muffins
"BRIANNA welcome to most street. Thank you so much. Maybe we should start with a description of where you work because it's an old gas station turned into coffee shop pastry. Destination. So so what does it look like and what is it like working at? Gas? Station. It's really beautiful. It's like a big white building. It's got that kind of awning out front like it was never actually gas station. It was actually a body shop they worked on brakes and shocks and cars they would lift him up inside that kind of thing. So it has that really beautiful sixties shape to it. You know it's kind of wide and lots of front window big windows in the front and a big awning out front into the parking lot. So there's a lot of room to hang out there the light streams in and it's basically a big open space that we built a kitchen. So you have this. Vote interesting view of baking. This is a quote from you. You're talking about a tray of biscuits. They referring to the biscuits do the thing that I've asked them to do already they're alive the little. Hands they pop up in the right way. The top looks right. They lean over just a little. That is the moment that keeps me doing it. So you have this personification of of baking goods as friends or or or people you like to spend time with is that right? Yeah, I think. So I mean I think it's. Like anything you do with someone else kind of like a transaction of sorts you know I'm trying to. Coax. Something out of the ingredients or the combination of ingredients in the oven or something like that I think. Yeah. especially with biscuits, it's easy to talk about that idea because every single little thing you do with your hands and your fingers results in that That top or that lien or the flake you know. So yeah, that's kind of how I think of it. I think I read somewhere that you have PTSD when it comes to muffins because you've made thousands of them is that true? Have you got onto some could've recovery clinic and our back into muffins again man it's tough. I would say I'm very very slowly gingerly tenderly coming back around to the MUFFIN. But yeah, when I was probably like twenty four. I went back to Martha's vineyard for a short time. I was in love with this guy this musician that lived there and I thought. If I leave my sort of post college what's coming next kind of life and I go back to Martha's Vineyard we're GONNA, fall in love and get married and lived together forever, and so I went back and I A worked at this. Pretty, crappy little sandwich up and. I Made Muffins at like five in the morning every morning. So many I mean I can't I don't even know how to talk about it. We would make the mixture in like. Huge vats and then store them in home. Depot. Buckets. Five. Gallon. Home Depot buckets in this dirty walk in and the place was owned by this crazy guy. Who has never really there he just kind of left it up to the teenagers in the twenty year olds and we would come in hung over and it'd be like five am and I'd be scooping like really crappy muffins out of these five gallon buckets. But. We had to make them. You know that was his recipe, the muffin mixture, and then you added blueberries are like Bananas Walnuts or whatever, and and there were huge. They were like the size of like a like a softball and we sold so many I can't even begin to tell you and I just never liked them thought the could be better, but it wasn't my job to change it and I just saw so many muffins it became this like Muffin nightmare so. Let's talk about your interesting way of combining ingredients. I remember last summer you did a chocolate cake with juniper in it or Pineapple and married Rosemary or apple with fed. So you have this herbal savory mix was something fruity or sweet you just end up doing this because. It's two in the morning and you just chance upon it spent. Months Thinking about these combinations in scientifically. Both I think all of the above Yes. Sometimes it just. I mean, it sounds silly and cliche but sometimes, it just POPs into my head. I think that probably happens with a lot of people out there the more that I eat and the more that I see food around in the world the more things there are kind of Ping Pong around in my brain and so if I'm thinking about making something, you know it's almost like just reaching into like a bucket of fish or something you know there's so much that I like and so much that I've seen 'em excited about that Sometimes. Something will just jump out to me or I kind of want to. Make something. That feels right for the season or something like that. That chocolate juniper cake was sort of like a fall winter wintertime You know that that the inception of that cake was like deep winter thinking about like richness and cold weather and sort of like this is gonna sound silly but like rich beautiful kind of medieval feasts you know and like what might be on the table and something kind of mellow but strong flavored It's also really beautiful juniper berries. Gorgeous. It's not really a barrier it's almost more like a pinecone. What we do at the bakeries roast to them, and they start to release their oils and they get this crazy fragrant smell fills the kitchen we try to do it. When it's not busy 'cause it is almost of weird crazy smell and people aren't necessarily sure if they like it but then you grind it up and we make ground toasted juniper and it so it just. It's really beautiful smell it's it's deep and Woodsy, but also floral, and it just seems to pair really nicely with chocolate and it's it's really good. It's almost like you bite into it and you're not exactly sure what it is.
What Is The Pe Diet
"Everyone is Martin from twenty minute fitness I'm here today connected with Dr Ted Niemann Dominate, and why don't you tell liberal listeners about your work and book? The P. Will Hi Martin Nice to meet you just call me Ted first of all. So I, I'm Ted name I'm a primary care doctor and I've been in practice for about twenty years up here in the Seattle area and I have a mechanical engineering background, and so I'm kind of like a just a huge Geek. A nerd kind of a Geek mechanical engineering background went to medical school and. I ended up just being obsessed with optimum health and I realized that the difference between the healthiest people I saw and the least healthy people I saw really just came down to diet and exercise. So all day long in these patient visits icy this huge spectrum of health You know one minute I might be seeing someone who has just amazing body composition and their incredible health, and they might even be an elite athlete and then the next minute I see someone who's just frail and decrepit and falling apart and has millions of problems and it eventually occurred to me. That the only difference between these people was really just diet and exercise over time, and if your diet and exercise is optimal, you just slowly get better and better over time and if it's not, you just slowly get worse and worse over time and then you know fifty years down the road you see this massive spectrum of health from incredibly healthy to incredibly unhealthy and I've just been obsessed for twenty years with exactly what is the mechanism between Diet and exercise driving health outcomes in exactly what you have to do to get the positive adaptations instead of the negative ones and I've you know I've just been all over the Diet spectrum I was raised vegetarian I went to Loma Linda University in Southern California, which is this famous blues Mecca were everyone's plant based So I've I've experimented with Air Free Diet from Vegan and plant based to, of course, oil spectrum of Paleo. Kito. Carnivora. You name it and everything in between, and then I eventually realized that all of these diets right about something and the answer is in between and the secret is finding out what's powering each and every one of these diets and making them more successful than. The Standard. American. Diet and that's really how I came up with this book. The P.. E. Diet, which is sort of the unified theory of macronutrients You know that's at least it has been described right so so how does like the P. E. Diet look in a nutshell what makes it different from say pay euro at the Ketogenic diets or you know all vegetarian diet for example. So what I did is just zoom way way way way way way out to the fifty thousand foot view and just looked at what is eating and I realized that plants are. Auto troops and they make all their own food and then animals are Hetero trips and we only exist because we constantly injust other living organisms. So plants are at the base of the food chain for all animals they're making all the food for animals and then animals are just either eating plants or animals that have themselves eating plants. What plants her doing is two very specific things. Number one, they're sucking minerals out of the soil, which is nitrogen for protein and and about a dozen other minerals that are crucial for plant and animal life, and then they're using solar. Energy and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to create these high energy chains of carbons with high energy bonds, carbon hydrogen bonds, and that's all of your dietary energy either carbs, fats. This is all solar energy stored is chemical energy. So I realized that you could divide your entire diet up into protein and minerals which getting room soil and energy, which is these high energy, carbon chains, carbs, or fats that plants creating from solar energy, and then I, sort of looked at all of human history in this evolutionary Lens. I realized that if you look at hunter gatherers, they have this. Incredibly. High Protein Diet. It's thirty three percent on average protein. If you look at worldwide hundred gatherer macronutrients and hunter-gatherers, they have an easy time getting protein they just go out and kill an animal and eat the whole thing you get plenty of protein and minerals but you're always a little bit starving for energy right? Every animal you know trying to get enough energy to be successful, and so you're always looking for extra energy to add to your diet. You can get the protein and minerals, but just killing an animal and eating the whole thing but you're looking for. Extra Energy and what humans have done is we have always used technology to feed ourselves. We don't have teeth and claws were not particularly fast or strong on. But what we have is brains, and so we built tools, we use tools to feed ourselves. We use technology to feed ourselves. We had stone tools with break-up in skulls for branch and long runs for married at fat energy to our diet. We dug up tubers, add more carbohydrate energy tour Diet. We figured out how to throw weapons and create traps in hunting in groups, and we all of this technology to add. More, energy to our diet
Building the Building Blocks of Life
"I'm Mary Parker and welcome to this episode of Eureka Sounds of science from mouse models in one, thousand, nine, hundred, one to cloning Dolly the sheep to a couple of Nobel prizes. Stem cells have had an exciting half-century. But rearranging the building blocks of life is not easy and more importantly for patients not fast. However, newcomers on the market are ready to change the stem cell programming for the quicker. Joining me today are Mariangela, I o Vino Group leader integrated biology at Charles River Saffron Walden site and Mark Qatar. The founder of the cellular reprogramming startup bit bio. The are here to discuss the innovative technology created by mark and his associates and how it can be exploited by end users like Mariangela welcome Mariangela. Thank you welcome to Beautiful Safran. World. Nice, weather? Yeah. Not Bad. So can we start at the beginning? What are stem cells briefly? So stemmed has really the origin of any complex organism. Their form pretty much after an expert. And role is ready to reproduce all the cells. In the body of a human or or an animal. And the cool thing though is that Yamanaka in two thousand seven showed that one doesn't have to fertilized egg to produce stem cells. You can also produce them synthetically using salary programming, and that really has opened up the use of stem cells for drug discovery and can locations. Cool. All right. What practical uses do stem cells have for drug developers? I think that the DAW to using human cells in drug development this is really important because there's a huge translation gap at the moment between. The animal models and cell lines that are traditionally used right and. The high failure rates that you see in clinical trials. Yeah. Totally the boiled on to two things I drugs because they're toxic to human or because they don't work the human setting and so at the center of all this differences between the species used for drug development at us as the end uses. So you're saying is that the stem cells can be made from human cells and that way they're tested on human cells instead of a different species. That's exactly right. Okay. That makes sense. So how were stem cells traditionally used to create sells like brain cells? So the traditional paradigm was to try and repeat what happens during development when embryo grows in Utah and so researchers for the last twenty years or so tried to. Create protocols that expose cells to extra Selah cues, molecules that exist in the growing embryo and instruct them direct them towards particular cell fates. One of the problems that you have if you repeat this paradigm, of course, you're bought into the timelines of of Embryo Genesis, which basically means it often takes sixteen hundred days plus to generate human sale. and. The other problem that you have when you adopt this, this method is that you have to overcome the diversity that nature requires to create cells. So the worst thing that can happen during development is if a lineage, an organ or a cell type isn't produced raced. And Soak Nature seems to. Prevent. This using. CASSIE principles. So these cells make cell fate choices all along the way. If you think about a protocol that takes sixty one, hundred days with multiple steps were cells make these choices than you end up with inconsistencies. So inconsistency and longtime nine's really the biggest bottleneck introduced new Simpson about. So it's basically I, mean if we're trying to imitate nature nature is trying to make all of the organs we may be only want brain. So using nature's methods is a little bit tricky. So I would say if you wanted to produce a particular cell type, it's very tricky. In terms of producing elements of an organ. It's probably slightly less tricky although you still have the inconsistency question right and then this new paradigm called cell reprogramming. Which is essentially. An expansion or reverse engineering of Yamanaka reprogramming. Provides an alternative route so you can now very efficiently in very quickly. Produce. Human cells using. Synthetic biology paradigm
"twenty year" Discussed on One Giant Leap For Geeks
"There are still movies that still ape. The bullet time slow Zack. Snyder has made a whole career often like slow MO like bullet time he shot. So I'm like, maybe not necessarily right out of my mouth hammer per se. But that whole stop slow MO speedup slowdown thing. Yeah. Oh, yeah. No. I, my, my one example was going to be that without the matrix in bullet times night, or wouldn't have. I feel like we just Baz Zack Snyder on this. I have remained new. He's just sitting somewhere like what the hell I didn't even make this. Yeah. We knows actually. Sorry shots fired. Zac that man. Right. You know what that their fire? That's, that's fair if you soup man is how supposed to fight. I I'm down with that all the way until he punches. The dues head through floor and in like blows up multiple cars with, like the giant guns on his van mobile, but other than that, no, I was cool. When I said, he just started Berlin murdering Batman versus superman. The ten minutes where he attacks. The guys in the warehouse is some of the best Batman on film. It is very hard to say that, that made up for the two hours that came before. Yeah. Yeah. If we never get Arkham video game that is the closest we were probably ever get to. It was that fight seeing warehouse for sure. One more thing before we start closing this out. I wanted to make sure that we talked about Why's. Two things. Specifically, how this is received and then kinda the backlash over time that it's gotten as well. I feel like this movie in. There's gonna be a bold statement. But I feel like this movie created the quote unquote woke generation. Do you guys agree with that? I go ahead. We'll see that I would say, I could see the influence that it could have had. It definitely would have been able to pepper in concepts slightly. I would not give it the credit of having created that mindset. Okay. Well, let me let me, let me, let me make my case for real quick. And then and then you guys can dissect it the reason I say that is because there's a lot of stuff in this movie that, like I've hit on the head of few times, now that can be interpreted a lot of different ways. And I think one of the interpretations that negativity came from this movie was the whole, not trusting in the system. And, you know, the government or some other entity is trying to control the world and your individuality behind the scenes and the everyone doesn't understand you and your, your two special for this, and you have to ban together behind the scenes and kind of tear down the system and, you know, we just got burn and all down because it's all bullshit. Like, I think if it didn't create that it definitely put a new surge of energy into that movement. If nothing else I would I don't necessarily agree, I, I would think that conspiratorially conspiratorial and, and thinking like or realizing that, you know, the adults around you have clay feet moment. I don't know if that necessarily was influenced or amplified by the matrix, I think what we're experiencing now is more. So just finally people, we have an entire generation that has grown up with social media, and I think that's more so the influence. But I see what you're talking about like this machine this literal machine overbearing and, and controlling us we needed to defy against it. I mean rage against the machine was exactly films specific. But I think that was more so like a fight because we know ridge against the machines, subject matter. But I don't necess-. -sarily think the matrix triggered it, but it was obviously influenced by a form of it being, you know, things like ridge against the machine, which hausky is their general attitude towards the world. And I don't even think it was a purposeful message per se that they were trying to convey, I just think that certain groups cheery picked meaning from it and kind of made this amalgamation of, of mindset of how view the world from things that they picked from this movie and kind of ignored some of the other elements and just kind of latched onto the things that they already believed in the first place..
"twenty year" Discussed on One Giant Leap For Geeks
"I'm not doing that. We'll fair another way. It's probably the same thing with Neil toes of how you tell me. Oh, Etta beginning. Yeah. You're the one you're the one he may get cocky, and mess over there up, or he would not be willing to make that ultimate sacrifice to die. Trying to save. Morpheus. Exactly. The feeling of you know, if he knows he's the one, then he has that feeling of. Oh, well then eventually at some point I'm just going to be better than everybody else. So it'll, it'll come, but knowing that he isn't the one means that he has that feeling of it doesn't matter if I die, because the war will still go on, they'll find the one, and everything will be fine, pivotal scene. And that the train station men, he's starting to believe. Oh, yes, yeah. When he finally confronts Smith or, or so, much, so to the point of him when you guys, I'm into earlier taking that performance anxiety off of him and allowing him to just do his thing and not have to worry about a prophecy, that he has to fulfill now because he that was kind of one of the things I was always holding him back was that he had to live up to bay. Basically cypher even says it to him. He's like, so you're going to save the world. He was like, what are you even say to something like that? You know, it's like, well, we see it we when he's doing that the training sequences with, with morpheus in the DOJ Joe. And he's trying to, to learn kung FU and everything we see it because there's that whole bit where he'll, he'll mess something up, and he'll immediately get up and be like, all right. Let's do it again because he's psyching himself into thinking I need to be perfect. And I need to be perfect now. And then morpheus counteracts that with one of my favorite lines in the entire movie, which is quit trying to hit me. And yes, yes, yes. I think. Another way that we can just frame, his whole movie is exploring mindfulness which is clearly tried to work in a lot of different religious aspects. But they, they also talked about how they wanted to talk about consciousness and mindfulness and morpheus saying the lines stop trying to hit me and hit me or, or you think that's air. You're breathing or. I think it's they're good allegories for trying to focus on consciousness itself thoughts popping up as they as they pop up, and you observing them. So it's like the matrix itself is just something that's popping up in your mind. It's not real. So you can manipulate it. And I think that's just like it's a it's a good. I don't know the compare. What's the word simile metaphor there, it is metaphor for meditation and Malia no, no? I would definitely agree with that. Now, what do you guys think is far as what about the kung FU element of this, because that's one of the things that I think, makes this movie. So special is because they do they kind of brought the whole kung FU wire work stuff into mainstream Hollywood more so than even like the Jackie Chan movies had came up to that point, or anything like that in Jackie Chan he was really more, practical stunts more so than wire William and stuff like that. But, you know, like we would have never gotten movies. Oh, you know, in the states like crouching tiger hidden dragon and stuff like that. If it wasn't for house of flying. Right. Exactly. Or what's that movie with gently the one that pisses me off because he dies at the end hero hero? Yes. Yes. Thank you hero. Like, we would have probably never got stuff like that over here. If it hadn't have been for movies like the matrix, and to this day, I still feel like that is the. The at least the way, it's filmed is the standard for how all action should be shot in any movie anytime there is close up. You know, quick cut fight scenes, like the Christopher Nolan Batman movies, were like notorious for this. I love those movies to death by I can never tell what happening a fight..
"twenty year" Discussed on One Giant Leap For Geeks
"And this is like. Forgot about them. But what do you guys think about her relationship with cypher because I always felt like cypher might have been considered as one of morpheus is like potential ones but didn't quite work out. And because they seem like they hint a few times, movie this cypher, and trinity had a relationship prior to Neo showing up. And that's kind of what turns cypher against Neo is because he's jealous of his Trinity's new relationship. Because he has a line specifically where he says, oh, I don't remember you bring in me, you know, food or something like that. And, you know, and he talks about like oh, you know, he's nice to look at her something when he's sleeping, or he, he just, he's very jealous. And he makes it very obvious that he's jealous of Neo jealous. But I don't know if that really signifies a relationship or more just his obvious. Feelings for trinity 'cause he could have been afraid mind at a later stage in life on the crew, you know, on the number Kinetzer, and he could have said the line. I don't remember you bringing me dinner like just he might have been in the same state as Neo not necessarily someone that they you know that she was involved. What about you guys do? Do you agree with that? Because I'm curious. I actually kind of agree with what you're saying. Man, because I mean, I don't think it wouldn't carried much weight, if it was just with India. I don't think it would have been put been so hurt by it at it been that thought makes to me, it does make sense. Just going from purely logical standpoint that at one point, he probably was considered he was somebody morpheus pulled out in, you know, did in, in, in morpheus, and the oracle since something in the both of both of them since something in him that wasn't wasn't what the that what the what the prophecy of the one Representative was supposed to bring up. And when he didn't make that Mark. The moment edge when Neo came around and then kind of put him over the cliff once trinity started developing feelings for him. I agree with that assessment. I think it makes a lot of sense and it makes the betrayal, so much more impactful. Because now he's not just not just being a hater. Oh, yes. Awesome filling up the. Yeah. Yeah. What about you? Do you agree with that? Actively trying to. Going along with the question of, of what does this trinity kind of fulfilling this as well as, as cypher? I know talking about the Christian imagery, we have in this is that we look at the three main characters as being the trinity of Christian mythology. So that puts morpheus has God Neo is Jesus, and that makes trinity the Holy Spirit essentially, which can easily play into the whole idea of when Neo is killed in the matrix. He is only brought back after trinity spirit brings the idea that the, the Holy Spirit brings him back because her true love of him is what then proves. He's the one. I was looking at when we get to the kiss and. Yeah. Cipher would be Judas in this situation. Actually, I z cypher as being the daily he is he's Lucifer because he, he is. So put off by morpheus and morpheus plans. And the fact that he is gay putting all of everything he has into Neo, and so far as he had a love for trinity himself that was potentially reciprocated I but when he discovered that he was not the one that was meant to lead the armies of man, or however, it would be he grew bitter because she was interested in him believing she was only supposed to fall in love with the one and saw that everybody was being driven by the, the unbending will of one man in charge of the ship. And so his ultimate betrayal and his wish to go back into the simulation is because he would rather if he was pulled out of a situation where he. Told he had no choice and put into a situation where he still had no choice. Yes..
"twenty year" Discussed on One Giant Leap For Geeks
"He's totally many character. I, I totally agree with that sentiment. I mean there wouldn't be a matrix without morpheus in running everything in putting the wheels in motion. Like you said. I mean. Yeah. Because he takes on your, he contacts Neo. I mean granted Neo was looking for him but he reaches out to Neo. He's the one who was kind of looking for him. He just found the right right you clicked on the right. He he was in the right AOL chat room and morpheus was like, ASL. What's going on? But, but, but, but, but I'm curious to hear what, what, what are your thoughts about morpheus? It's interesting in the fact that I've heard many different theories on morpheus ones that state that he has found numerous people who were the one before it didn't work out. They died. They didn't live up to the standard whatever it was. And he Don there's the theory that he himself wished he had been the one, and when he found out that he wasn't he decided that he would make it his life's work to find the one. The one that I find the most interesting is a theory that essentially states that despite the fact that morpheus is so dedicated to this prophecy, that he was given by the oracle that he would find the one who would be able to free everyone from the matrix. We also have that moment that when he brings Neo to the oracle she tells Neo, you're not the one and the theory that runs with that is that there really is. No prophecy. She gave morpheus a purpose because that's what he wanted at. So. His search to find the one isn't so much that he will actually find someone who is going to be this other worldly being. But just a reason for him to keep fighting that's fascinating kind of falls apart when it kind of falls apart when you get to the end of the movie and Neo comes back from the dead, and you're like oh, shit rise on. But it's, it's just it was interesting idea that it's playing almost into an idea of creating the self fulfilling prophecy, that, if you truly believe something will come to be, you will go out of your way to make it happen. And convince yourself that it has. There's a there's I mean that theme is throughout the movies with the oracle just telling people things that they need to hear so that they will do such a thing, and it's important that they are the person that they are otherwise what she tells them won't push them into the right realm of the future. You know what I mean? It won't be the right person to tell this to otherwise the right things won't unfold. So that is. Yeah. Was why echoed the thing that I've always found interesting was that the concept of the oracle telling Neo that he wasn't the one essentially was the idea of her taking the pressure of own my God. Everyone thinks I'm the one off of him. Yeah. Wow him to finally be himself rather than struggle to try and be this unattainable goal that morpheus has placed on him now. What about what about? Because we, we've talked about Neo, obviously morpheus. What does trinity represent to you? Guys wonder woman. That's, that's actually there isn't. She. Now, she's the, the trinity in general in my opinion in this again, just I'm coming third Neo was super man. Yes. Neo is a better superman. Wonder woman tax. Niagara superman. I said it fighting. Here's right now, bro. I hope we don't. Span Calvo was a gym, when comic book walking, bro. Oh. Will say. Deal that didn't. Pointing at him. Thank you. That is still was amazing that members that we don't talk about that. I'm sorry. We're not. How bad? I was talking over Matt, Matt was saying, well, because we're currently fighting over whether or not, we like man of steel as a film, my I was saying we were talking earlier about finding ways to use Christ imagery for your main character..
"twenty year" Discussed on One Giant Leap For Geeks
"And he and he kinda, you know, lead that way, the kind of show them who was like that John, the Baptist figuring. You know, preparing the way for all the one is supposed to be. And when he found out, you know, in that series at this has happened before in oh, I mean, there's obvious you know, you know, connotations reincarnation all of these things that possibility, you know, for morpheus, I think, was kind of let him up a little bit kinda helped him to keep going in the importance One. of it. But right. I see where you're going with this. I wanted to expand on it. What what's important is that he didn't lose faith after the that information, which is crazy? And I think that's why he's more of a representation of faith, and like he goes through, like insurmountable opposition in all three movies, but he keeps faith. I think he's just meant to represent that. You never or faithful will never be gone or never give up faith something like that. I never really thought about him wanting to be the one himself. Maybe. Yeah. Maybe he's so desperate to I think I think more so than he wanted to be the one himself. I mean, I do feel that there was an element of that probably when he I was, you know, a kin and shown the truth and stuff like that. And he kind of felt like he was going to carry the torch to free the people, but I feel like. He was almost an antagonised to a degree because if you really think about what more is dead. He talks about how, you know, they have been searching for the one this whole time until they finally come across Neo, and it's almost implied that Neo was not the first person that they've woken up and try to train and become the one like morpheus himself has had other, you know, potential prodigies that he his woken up now, some of them, maybe, you know, were integrated into the number can as our crew, maybe you could derive some of these people were put into Zaire honor, whatever, but it was almost like he was. Using them as, as Guinea, pigs almost and because Neo even says that point when they're in the training program, he's like I know what you're trying to do. And it's not gonna work like he's pushing him to be the one whereas Neo doesn't even necessarily even believe he is the one at this point. Right. He's like that mad scientist that's doing all these crazy spare moments on people, the finest search to cure, everybody. Now, the needs of the many, you know, in our, the sacrificing mini to try to save, you know, the whole human race is all. Yeah. Because I mean he he I don't think he does it with malicious intent per se. But I think he's so, especially because to your point about faith. I think he's so devoted to the prophecy being fulfilled that he is putting his crew and other people that he's taking out of the matrix, and unnecessary danger to fulfill that prophecy, like he's being proactive as opposed to just letting it happen per se. And he just so got lucky that Neo actually was the one because when when when does get killed and by agent Smith. And before he wakes back up you, they do that. Cut shots to morpheus. He is just like. Completely destroyed like in that moment, he's like, yeah. He's just shit. Like he very. Very nice that moment where in the hell show where they used to do that joke. And it was like, and it was at that moment that morpheus realized that he had fucked up. It was like. He was completely destroyed that moment. And it was like it was realizing like what did I do? And it just so happened to work out in his favor that Neo was the one because if you think about it, he, he was really behind a lot of the stuff that happens in the movie and sets a lot of stuff in motion. I mean Neil would have never even confronted agent Smith. If morpheus had and got kidnapped. I mean granted that was inadvertent and not on purpose. But morpheus is like the driving force behind all the. Story progression in the movie like he is almost the main character in Neo is just kind of passive, for the most part..
"twenty year" Discussed on One Giant Leap For Geeks
"Know this is probably going to be blasphemy to some people, but I would even almost compare this to something like two thousand one space odyssey or something like that, to where upon more viewings you get more out of the movie each time. And as you get older, and you get more life experiences and. Things like that. I feel like you pick up on things that were just kind of subtext before where you can really extrapolate that out. Once you're, you know, more, I don't know seasoned as a human being like, wow, like, okay. Like I did not even really pay much attention to what these things had meant. Because for example. And again, I'm probably, you know, also getting ahead of myself. But for example, the whole idea about trinity being destined to falling in love with the one in like what that means and kind of like her being apprehensive about it, because she's like kind of caught in this thing where it's like, okay. Well, if I don't love you does that mean that you're not the one or if you are the one does that mean I have to love you now like and stuff like that. I thought was really interesting as I started watching it, once I got older. And I was like, you know, I never really even thought much about that whole concept. But now that I've been relationships and stuff like that. It's like that's a crazy idea to even wrap. You're hetero. You know what's crazy, Mike? I was going to bring up trinity immediately after a Matt had concluded. And you did it for me. You've said a beautifully that's exactly what. Okay. So. I wanted to talk about some of the characters so we can go there. Well before you go to I wanted to bring out because I admitted to the early similar movie that came out of ninety. Some of the big name movies like okay, and this is going to bring you remember lane shows you how different the makings worth the movie that were coming out in the big, some of the big movies worth Toy Story to the six cents. American pie fight club. Heretic, beauty. Dogma. Being John Malkovich. See over the movie that were coming out this year. This is a great year for movie, by the way. Yeah, it's funny. We actually did an episode on my podcast on while back about, like our favorite year in movies, and I ended up picking nine hundred ninety nine and some of those ended up on my list, because I believe fight club is on there, too, right? Yes. Yeah, I forgot. I don't know how MS Toy Story too, though. Yeah. This year, every movie is nowhere near as close to the matrix. There's nothing that is even close to the level of detail and how you this movie the matrix is for that time. And even now the matrix hold up very, the closest one on that list would be the six cents. Maybe maybe that would be the only thing that I, I mean, not even they're not even in the same lane of thought, but it's just being unique I would say the six inches probably the closest thing on that list. I remember it with the matrix..
"twenty year" Discussed on One Giant Leap For Geeks
"He translated the cartoon to the movie truly. Well he netted his own. That's who he is John wick, same thing, if I. I can't say that, if you would play some kind of historical character like they would doing Abe Lincoln film, even Abeille, vampire hunter. I still don't think that would work because, you know, Ebeling that's an iconic character as well as an actor with roles that are very are characters that are very new, untapped untouched undeveloped, though. He has that freedom to make them his own. He did talk about Constantine for quick, second or. I wasn't a fan only because I know a little bit about constant in what, what that character is. So that's why that's why sake jahns. Acting chops kind of stops when it's in relation to. Established characters, but that's just me how can be wrong. And honestly, I think that's a very fair assessment with Constantine. I think the reason it worked for me. When I saw the movie was, I didn't know the character from the comics before that, that's fair. So I had nothing to compare it to. No. I agree, though, that I I've never thought of it like that. But yeah. Like I couldn't necessarily see him playing an established like historical figure or character because with Constantine. Yeah. If you know that character from the comics, I it was ill fit for Kiato. But that being said, I didn't learn about Constantine until after I saw that movie. So I didn't have any kind of preconceived notions of what he should be like. But especially once I seen the movie, I read some of the comics. And once they brought him into the CW shows I was like, oh, that's totally not working on. It was doing. And that constant heat. That's in the CW shows is already much a dead on. Oh, yeah. Yeah. He's was not that at all. No. So, and that's why I was just like, yeah, I feel like I was just a big name, move that they pull bringing keen on a resume their thinking. It was gonna poll when it. Been really didn't. And that's what that's fair. But that's why. That's the only reason why I say he's an all right. Actor I can't I can't on a personal level. They that he is a great actor because he has not played anything icon. Again, is acting stop. I'm sorry, I'm rambling. But I feel like that's one other thing down, everybody clowns on key on style of acting like he's a bad actor daughter to the an hour before somebody said, we give we've been giving us me of Kiato, which is true. But one thing we ought to remember, everybody has different acting styles, Harry and Kiana definitely has a style acting. That is very different from everyone else in Hollywood. You can't I can't pay anybody else was like, oh, that actor reminds me Kiana res, you know, you can't you, can you can pick somebody that's like Chris pine, you know, Chris pines straight. I will shatter knockoff just much as call it, what it is. He really is. You got you know, the unaltered a Capri on. I mean, even though he's an amazing actor on his own, you could still pay him. Con compare him to certain people. You can't do that when counter Therese because nobody acts the way he does. And I think is why Jonah reasons the well-suited roles that aren't established at all and own two new characters, you know, because that's what is acting style lens to. I actually kinda I'm just going to counter that just with Delvin point from earlier that he compared him to VIN diesel and performance. Vin diesel gave in pitch-black is something that I think only VIN diesel could have accomplished so, yeah, that was a decent comparison. Yeah. Yeah. I don't think that these note. Keo gets. Yeah. No. I think I think, I think I think because like a lot of people forget, like he was in saving private Ryan. So you've probably yeah. He actually was pretty good. He's in a movie for like all at eight minutes, but he's not bad for the time that he's in that, but he doesn't have a lot..
"twenty year" Discussed on 1A
"So according to a new study that was published in the American journal of medicine nearly thirty nine thousand kids in the US were fatally shot between nineteen ninety nine. An twenty seventeen the authors of that report noted a steep rise in deaths among black children starting in two thousand thirteen. It happens everywhere, and we have to pay attention to it everywhere because it's not just saying Chicago and white suburban areas, it's the United States of America that has a gun issue. That was activists in Denver school board candidate, Tae Anderson. Speaking to K, UNC's Lee Patterson le-, let's zoom out a little bit further before we have to let you go talk about how gun violence has changed in the twenty years since Columbine. I mean, writ large has America got more violent or less violent or stayed the same generally more violent, the number of gun deaths has been rising pretty steadily in the US since Columbine in two thousand seventeen nearly forty thousand people died from gunshot wounds and sixty percent of those deaths were suicides we spent the hour looking at what has changed since Columbine before. We let you go. I'd be interested in knowing your assessment of what has not changed since. Then what are some of the biggest things that remain the same twenty years on well school shootings, still happen gun violence? Still happens case in point this whole incident with a slow pace that unfolded in Colorado this week, I think people. Coming from many, many, many different viewpoints are frustrated they're frustrated that this still happens. They're frustrated that the solutions that they support haven't fully been put in place, and we should be clear, by the way, the story of sold by is still very much open. There are still out of gaps in terms of who she is what motivated her. What exactly the narrative was behind that? Right. Yes. Yes. Of course, this is a developing story, the FBI is still investigating and we are really reporting what we're hearing. And what we're understanding is that comes out a lot of folks who are listening. I think are kind of resigned to the fact that this is a threat anywhere in the country at any time, especially those of us who were young adults when Columbine happened. I think you were in your mid teens when it happened. I was just a new to the university of Miami. And since then the anniversary is also linked to what likely led to sixty percent of Colorado schools being closed this incident with solar by because of a credible gun threat before. I'll let you go. What's your sense based on your reporting of what people can do of what is being done to change the way we deal with violence in schools? Well, what's important to know as that people? With many many different viewpoints are getting involved. We've heard from some of them in this hour. People are voicing their concerns for the need for for things like mental health services programs like safe to tell school districts all over the country are deciding what kinds of physical security measures that they're going to put in place, whether that means hiring armed security personnel, or in some cases, even allowing concealed carry and here in here in Colorado again going back to what happened this week. Some communities are making decisions to keep kids at home. And I would just say that some of the reporting I've done should leave people with some hope because in spite of all of the attention on school shootings, and in spite of have truly terrifying. They are evidence shows that school is one of the. Safest places that your child can be that's K UNC's Lee. Patterson, a reporter with guns and America Lee. We appreciate all your reporting. Thanks very much for joining us. You're welcome. Thanks also to Amanda Andrews at K UNC into the whole guns and America team, you could find more of their work online at guns and America dot bore.
"twenty year" Discussed on 1A
"It may. I think it made them feel uncomfortable after striking out in the legislature, Tom and others pushed for the ballot measure instead amendment twenty two which required background checks on sales at gun shows part of his push was fundraising part of what was was speaking at rotary club meetings. You know, kind of looking at those sort of moderate audiences part of it was meeting with a district attorney's with the police chiefs association with some sheriffs. Talking about the issue. How do we work together to to close the gun show loophole during this time after the shooting? Life was kinda crazy. Tom was working fulltime job lobbying on the side, grieving going to Columbine related events. And he and his wife adopted a baby girl from China so much change in a year for your family. Wow. Yeah. That that first year. I I look back on I think of what all we went through. I I don't know how we did. It Tom said that the activism part of his life did help him take his mind off things, you know, you you can't escape that grief. But yeah, you can't put it aside a little bit to a certain extent what a sweet night. In the end Tom helped close the gun show loophole amendment twenty two passed with seventy percent of the vote. But after that, the movement kind of dissolves, Tom has stayed active, of course, but back then he says that a lot of people felt as though the goal had been achieved people moved on today. Clearly, it's much different because it was social media. It's just so different in nineteen ninety nine with students reacted. It was just out of shock and fear. And as the general oh my God. And here it is twenty years later and they're saying, but wait a minute. This is still happening. This is part of us now too. All our government. And president can do is some thoughts and prayers that it's time for victims to be the change that we need to see. And when you see David Hogg Ramon Gonzales on TV, and you watch how much momentum's the movement has now like, what do you? What do you think about that? All it's it's exciting. It's it is so exciting to see them get engaged in this issue. We didn't really have that back in one thousand nine hundred nine but their voices are are are so strong, and they reacted so quickly. It's so encouraging for me to see that happen. Tom says that the conversation now is more sophisticated banning bump stocks, for example, and passing extreme risk laws. Also known as red flag laws these are measures that allow firearms to be temporarily taken away from someone in crisis earlier this month after passionate debate and disagreement the Colorado legislature voted to pass one of these laws. I think we're we're seeing both more support and yet a stronger resistance than we had back in nineteen ninety nine. There's one. Issue. Tom might be willing to compromise on and it brings us back to the beginning of this hour to Evan Todd. I will say one thing I do not support arming teachers in our schools, but I have to say when it comes to the very rural areas where they are a half an hour from police station, I understand their desire to protect their kids by having firearms in that school. And I think they need to be well trained, but I can understand their position that in those very rural areas, they they wanna protect themselves. Tom Mauser feels as though he's passing the torch onto a group of highly motivated, very savvy young people, most of whom hadn't even been born yet when Columbine happened and some of them already have built some pretty high profiles like Emma Gonzalez, David Hogg, two of the students from Marjory stoneman Douglas high school in parkland, Florida. I mean, I'm looking online David hall. Got almost a million followers. Ama- Gonzales more than one point six million. And that's just on Twitter. Right. Right..
"twenty year" Discussed on 1A
"Back, and you can read the New York Times coverage you can read Hitler saying it was America who taught us we should not open our arms equally other nations this week on it's been a minute from NPR. Back now to our conversation with Kay UNC's Lee Patterson about the legacy of the shooting at Columbine high school, it's part of a special collaboration with guns and America a reporting project that explores the relationship between we in the US and our firearms now Lee when it comes to Columbine, how do actual high school students feel about it. Yeah. We had some of our reporters asked the high school kids they interviewed in their communities about Columbine. And a lot of them said something like this. Have you ever heard of Columbine high school? No, I haven't heard of. Yes. I have. Students was at students that basically shot up a school. And they I mean, I'm not sure of the full extent to it. But that's all I pretty much. Are you familiar with with Columbine or or what happened there that school twenty years ago? I might have heard or something, but I could be confusing with something also not one hundred percent, sure. The fact of the matter is Columbine happened before these kids were born even the students who had heard of it really only knew about it through movies. When I watch everything about Columbine. It's all through like a documentary footage or like a news crew filming in all like with parkland. It was like we were seeing Snapchat videos of kids like in the classroom like the Deutz right outside the classroom shooting in. It's like he's still there filming under the desk, what their Snapchat and all that was like I opened. It was like doubt that's us. So let's back up to Columbine itself back before Snapchat before smartphones before all of our lives were so very deeply digital. How did activists back then? Get people to really understand what it was like to live through a mass shooting sue back to the year two thousand it's election night in Denver, one more euro that I know you've all been waiting to hear from tonight. This is a victory party for the passing of a ballot measure called amendment twenty two which close something called the gun show loophole by requiring background checks for firearm purchases at gun shows, honor and a pleasure introduce Tom medicine. You had a big smile on your face, and you got up to the podium. What what was that like for you? All. Is it was heavenly? It really was heavily sweet night. I know some people would say, oh, gee, isn't it bittersweet? You know, you're still just a little more than a year since the tragedy. But now that was that was just one of the great moments that night at the podium. Tom Mauser reaches down and holds up a pair of large white sneakers. And then in Daniel shoes, he says his son shoes, I could say, you know, we did this in in Daniel's name the people of Colorado did it and and he provided the inspiration for. Tom, son. Daniel was one of the twelve students killed at Columbine high school twenty years ago when I interviewed Tom recently at his church..
"twenty year" Discussed on 1A
"A lifetime. Save to tell us come about six o'clock, and I'll be at the gym, and I'll be on the electrical trainer at the weight room, and I'll get to safe detail, and what I'll do on your phone on my phone, and I look at it. Then I start sending it out to the law enforcement and the mental health officials in our school district. There's always somebody on duty twenty four seven three sixty five. So we don't just because it's eight o'clock at night and schools closed doesn't mean we're not gonna be here for somebody during last year school year, sixteen thousand tips came in statewide through safe to tell the most common or suicide threats followed by drugs and bullying guns threats school attacks, those are less common. Some of those kids actually were in the process of overdosing, or maybe cutting or doing something to themselves that was very dangerous if you're listening and thinking, well, that's great. But. Saved us. How also sounds like something kids could really mess with. They could use it to bully someone else. They do according to the state around seven percent of safety tells or bogus. And if you're thinking, well, the system probably doesn't always work. It doesn't guy grace and the other first responders don't always get there in time. Once he got a report of a picture on social media showing a kid with a gun in an elementary school. They didn't know if he was suicidal bowl my lawn, and I had a category selene and speeding up to that school. And that gas can flips over in the back of my truck and this leak in everywhere, but I remember going to get there. I hope I hope you know, he hoped they'd get there in time. They didn't he says the boy died. And sat things you see all that you. But you did everything you could. But you get there. And you you're hoping that you could have stopped it or those things weigh on you. This is part of a special reporting collaboration with one A and guns and America were exploring what has changed and what has not in the twenty years since the Columbine shooting. Let's get back to lean now guy is an evangelist for safe to tell why is this something you're willing to essentially devote your free time too because it works. He says he sleeps better. Knowing is doing what he can now for all this talk about mental health, Littleton public schools has some serious physical security guy. And I talked at the district security operation center over one hundred video screens security cameras audio feeds and automatic background check system to screen for sex offenders. Here's how guide reconciles all of it. And we look at physical security and putting that technology in there. It's kind of like the last resort. So when I look about mental health is wonderful to see now that we are trying to get on that where we're trying to stop a school shooting or suicide or or. Bullying or whatever that hazard is related to mental health before it blows up into something bigger guy. Grace, the director of security at Littleton public schools and Noel sedan the guidance counselor at Columbine high school have two very different jobs on paper, but they come to pretty similar conclusions on mental health care in schools. I think this year in particular in my own grief process of still processing what happened on April. Twentieth. I think I'm feeling more of a calling to. Really be mindful of this mental health problem. I guess I'm like an eternal optimist..
"twenty year" Discussed on 1A
"And we're making the month of April all about women in comedy. We've got grittily and Leslie Hedlund from the Netflix series Russian doll. So beloved Reta from NBC's parks and recreation and many more spread the word. Listen and subscribe now. This is one A. I'm Joshua Johnson. We're talking to k- UNC's Lee Patterson on the twenty year anniversary of Columbine Leah's reporting fellow with guns and America, it's a project that looks at the role of guns in American life Li it's pretty clear that there have been some real policy changes since then. But what does it mean that our policy making is so reactive rather than proactive? Yeah. So I talked to David rupee about that. I am a retired Harvard instructor and an author of books about risk perception, and how worrying too much or too little can get us into trouble rupee says that given the relative rarity of school shootings, we might be overreacting when we let them drive policy. But there's a good reason for it. We are exquisitely afraid of any risks to our kids, which makes sense because to keep the species going our kids are tomorrow's version of the species when a risk is being talked about a lot. What in the media amongst friends amongst parents, sending their kids off to school as Columbine has made school shootings in general. And then another one happens. And then another one happens. It becomes a bigger blip on that risk radar screen, and that alone disproportionately magnifies how scary that risk seems. I see what he's getting lean. But that doesn't mean we should disregard these incidents, right? No, no, not at all Roby explains that it's really more of a question of awareness. We can't not feel terrible hurt and and horror at school shootings. But we can also realize that our fear and our horror can be getting in the way of what's best for our kids. That's why having this conversation matters. They that he means two things number one that it's important not to unnecessarily frightened students about school shootings. And number two, not to let those adult fears distract from other solutions or other bigger problems. School district's across the country are dealing with this as they make decisions on school safety. They can buy things like security cameras chur, but they can also take preventative measures like providing mental health services..
"twenty year" Discussed on 1A
"Northern Colorado. She's also reporting fellow with guns and America. This is one A. I'm Joshua Johnson in Washington. Vaccinate everybody. I'm Peter Jennings. At ABC news world headquarters. We want to bring you up to date at the shooting at Columbine high school. They left the library. We just kinda ran for running towards the cop car. They just came in. And they started shooting. Everybody's saying get down get down. Perhaps. Now America would wake up to the dimensions of this challenge. Factually, become part of our language. A Columbine style attack Columbine really gave birth to the modern fear of kids being shot in schools were still struggling to figure out. Why did that happen? Twenty years ago to teenagers murdered a dozen students and one teacher at Columbine high school in Colorado since then more than two hundred twenty thousand students have been exposed to gun violence in schools, and the threat of a school shooting is always there an eighteen year old woman is dead of a self inflicted gunshot wound after threatening violence against Denver schools. Investigators say sold by was infatuated with the Columbine shooting so much so that she flew from Miami to Denver bought a shotgun and hid in the Colorado foothills for nearly two days more than a thousand Denver area schools closed yesterday as police searched for her. She was found dead on mount Evans yesterday afternoon. Joining us from K UNC public radio in Greeley about an hour. From Denver is reporter Lee Patterson. She's part of guns and America a reporting collaborative that focuses on America's relationship with firearms. Lee. Welcome to the program. Hi there. We'll talk about the. Order question of what's changed in America since Columbine? But tell us more about what happened this week. What more do we know about sold by? Sure. So she was an eighteen year old high school student in Miami. As you mentioned earlier this week law enforcement found her dead by suicide an apparent gunshot wound. The whole thing started a couple of days ago pace came to Denver. She landed at Denver International airport, Monday morning. She went and bought a shotgun. The FBI division here in Denver at some point was made aware of her presence, and basically frantically begin searching for her because you know, in their estimation. She had made threats that were credible in the area. She was infatuated with the Columbine high school shooting. Now, the FBI has said the threats were not specific to any particular school. They have also really haven't given out any details on these threats, but it all led to a massive manhunt and hundreds perhaps over a thousand front range schools were closed, and ultimately it all ended in the in the discovery of her body is supposed to have been especially emotional. Colorado, especially because Colorado passed a new red flag law just last Friday. Yes. Yes. Absolutely. I think this. This has been a very emotional thing for Colorado on one hand. Some people have said really an eighteen year old kid can shut down hundreds of schools, and you know, scaring entire metro area. Really? And then on the other hand, if people were terrified, you know, not letting their kids beyond the coldest sack imagining this woman creeping around in their neighborhood, and you know, really just feeling terrified and shake in in the wake of the you know, the twentieth anniversary of the Columbine high school shooting this weekend. It's been very difficult for communities, and a few of the survivors few of the Columbine survivors that I've been talking with and texting to were quite shaken up by this whole thing worth noting. Of course, red flag laws designed to prevent people who seem to be a threat to public safety from acquiring firearms. Let's shift gears to Columbine itself when it comes to that what exactly have you been focusing on? So a couple of months ago. I was listening to a hearing going on at the Colorado state house about a Bill. Will that would allow people to carry guns on school grounds? These types of discussions are going on around the country..
"twenty year" Discussed on Biz Talk Radio
"For twenty years. We have five nine and when we got like a little hand policy Alba bark when there maybe twenty six. I think I got that dole provider and the guy I think they'd be like three hundred thousand come on. And we got for him that we converted to a whole lot. And then we get the tanker made that much. Got twenty five thousand whole life. I don't know maybe a hundred thou- open parent. That is that is that a good investment or wait. Wait the money. About one hundred dollars a month. So. First the first question you have to ask yourself are is. My husband goes home to be with the Lord. Or if I go home to be with the Lord early is is my husband or my wife gonna suffer a financial hardship. So in other words, if you're still raising kids how how old are your children? Came the youngest is nine. Yeah. So very difficult. So you would have a sinus hardship. And you have to ensure that. Okay. So that's the right thing to do. So the question is how do you ensure that hardship? Well, whole life. You may you made EEG you said is that a good investment? No. It's not an investment at all. It's life insurance that does accumulate a little bit of cash value. But is it a cumulating fat cash value? Are you paying more and more that you pay the more it accumulates, which is what it really is? So yes, that accumulation is invested in some way, shape or form. But it's also getting an enormous amount of fees that are taking out of that, and those fees that are taking out you might not you might not see right away. But they're coming out. So for me. May I don't know what the number would be by what you might wanna do for your husband to walk at a thirty year level term. How old is he? So take a either a twenty twenty year would probably be fine. But it's twenty or thirty year level tournament for whatever amount. You have now. And it would probably be less likelihood.
"twenty year" Discussed on The Big Story
"Toronto. There's a traitor in all of us direct invest with Scotia. I trade become a new client, and you could get up to fifteen hundred dollars cash or three hundred free trades when you open and fund a new account conditions apply. See Scotia trade dot com for details. Give me a sense of how serious this was for the army when they were called in compared to say the huge ice storm that happened one year earlier the storm ended up being tasked v. Millions of millions of power lines redound thousands of households lost power and dozens of people died in that in that ice storm as well as the military played a key role in maintaining stability during that restoring power lines working very sororities to serve an emergency role and help people in dire need during that time. And Mel Osman's fear was that, you know, maybe not a similar catastrophe could touch Toronto. But that there could be a lot of trouble with emergency services. If you know, the snow got a lot worse, but the sort of dire further snowstorm that he anticipated didn't end up serializing. So that was widened a being a little bit ridiculous in the odds of a lot of people that the army came in because in the end, the the bison armor personnel carriers were able to transport, you know, a fair amount of people heart attacks, for instance, the hospital, but there wasn't nearly that same same amount. Of need us oppose for military help and trauma. Was there was in the Eisler which Senate being it never got worse. Yeah. A lot of shoveling for the most part never really ours. Is that why it kind of endures to this day as a joke to basically everybody in Canada? I think that's a big part of it. The snow not having gotten worse as the army was there. They just ended up doing a bit of shoveling the pedal wall was soldiers were only there for a few days, actually. And they ended up ended up going home soon after but they weren't even the only people that came. It wasn't just the army. It wasn't just the army one sorta oft forgotten storyline in all this is that as art egelton in the the army personnel were dispatching all these soldiers from pedal wa wa and mobilizing the local service. A group of over one hundred volunteers were sent from Prince Edward island's to help out in Toronto. The transportation minister in PI the guy named Mike curry year. Remember seeing Mel Asman on the local see TV channel they're pleading for help saying, you know, dire situation was at hand. So he remembers feeling sorry for. Auto and realizing that the city didn't have sufficient equipment to deal with snowfall, whereas PI, they they have the personnel. They the equipment so curry decides to very quickly random a team of over one hundred volunteer snowplow operators in Charlottetown. Elsewhere. And so we send them on this twenty one hour drive overnight. Rousing some of them out of bed to, you know, tell them at eleven PM one day they're gonna come into work next day, get prepared meat and all that to get themselves. Ready and then the next afternoon evening driving, you know, twenty plus hours to Toronto and the peo- volunteers ended up driving through terrible row, conditions, blizzards and freezing rain and terrorists. Terrible conditions in jail. And so they arrive in Toronto, and they got to work immediately. Helping the city crews blow snow from downtown streets and innocent for two weeks. These guys worked twelve hour rotating shifts someone the day shift someone the night shift just working very hard. And they really came through for Toronto. In addition to that to the army, so the PI volunteers stuck around for much longer. Some the soldiers you've done a tremendous job during this interview, not laughing at this story, how many people start laughing as soon as you start asking them questions about this incident. How'd you be lease half has BF calling up in some cases, e-mailing cool calling people who didn't have a direct role in the incident, but made some comment at the time, or you know, they they remember the incident vividly a lot of people we call each other Dawson number two chatted with Stockwell day. Who is the Alberta finance minister at the time. And I'm not sure Stockwell laughed off the bat, but he recounted vividly, the sentimental Albert being why aren't these people in Toronto just stepping up? You know shoveling themselves out of the situation. And he said Albert today often, you know, feels as though they don't get much. They might feel ignored by central Canada as he put it and certainly at the time they were there. They held a bit of an unshared review. I think was prevailing thought toward Toronto. But it is pretty funny for a lot of people. Yeah. People people. Remember, it's kind of hilariously in part. Part. I think because the catastrophic situation the worst case situation the Mel Osman had feared didn't actually materialized. So that ended up being people were able to laugh Bota, basically when you talk to the people who made these calls to Mel Lastman and Art Eggleton. How do they recall that decision? Are they kind of rueful about it or they very serious about it too? They sort of like, well, you know, we kind of had to like, what's how do they talk about it? Now two decades later Mel Lastman for his part has always doubled down instead behind his decision. The first thing he told me was that when I when I call them up. He told me that he would do it again. Then the next thing he said, it was it was actually the line that ended up leading off a real history. It was look you don't know how much no there. There was my case. I didn't actually I wasn't in Toronto the channel I was pretty young. But he was saying just kind of generally to myself, I guess to anyone who might have noted him over the years like you don't know how much no there truly was Toronto gotten hit with these three record snowfalls or the three snowfalls contributed to this record amount. And more is in the forecast. And he basically says he had to do. That he had to do an art art we chatted for a few minutes. And he he kind of got progressively more. A bit more fired up. I think over the course of the seven or eight minutes, we're on the phone. He he remembers it as you know, Mel calling him and Mel laying out to him how Dr the situation might have gotten if this if this extra snowfall came up, and so art's sort of recounted the details of how that happened who he called afterwards. But then he was saying you kinda summarize they'd care drives it as a damned if you do damned if you don't situation he was saying that if the military didn't send him help, and the all the the extra snow is dumped on Toronto and fire trucks and ambulances couldn't get any emergency situations that arose than people could have been in dire need help. And then you definitely would have heard about the military not doing anything. You're Mel Lastman not doing anything. So he was saying it was kind of a catch twenty two in that way. But he he supported the decision and Mel Lastman definitely stands by his call to call art egelton. Well, it's only a joke now because everything turned out. Okay. Right. Exactly. Exactly. People are able to joke about it. Now. That's. It was kinda arts main point. And that definitely rings true. Think how much did some of the people you talked to who weren't from Toronto. Enjoy getting this call a couple of people loved it. They really did. I spoke without the Montreal gazette is a longtime legendary editorial cartoonist by the nickname of as Lynn his real name is Terry motions by called him any remembers creating this cartoon of the time. He thought it was hilarious. And he said Montrealers thought is particularly ridiculous the decision to call asked for military help because because they live through the ice storm year before. Right. And so they saw this snow end up not materializing the the the the additional dump? So they thought it was absurd that you know, army soldiers had to come in and and show thrown out of this. So he remembers drawn this cartoon he drew a man with I think he had to leave scarf to represent Toronto general, and he was on the phone saying mayday mayday, my Volvo got snowed on some along those lines. And he said he went down to he had been hearing. It all of the radio is the radio in watchos good source for cartooning at the time to hear hero people were talking about. He draws cartoon goes down to the gazette news and people just love it. The eat it up the human colonists. Everyone else. He and just loved his ideas. This runs in papers all around can. I just got picked up. So he thought it was really funny. My call each other Dawson spoke with Andy wells, who is the mayor of Saint John's Newfoundland and the time one of the snowiest cities anywhere in Canada. Yeah. The following year. I think they got hit with something like more than six hundred centimeters of snow. So almost you know, five six times which a gun and nights ninety nine. So one thing Andy said a toddler was he just called last minute national joke. So the situation was a joke said Toronto's laughing stock of the country the time so people still have very candid. Enforceable thoughts with this whole situation twenty years later, and this is never going away. Never go into trance. Never forget about this. No one's ever going to let them. Thanks a lot. Next. Sarah's a reporter at the national post. That was the big story brought to you by Scotia. I trade you can visit Scotia trade dot com to start direct investing today and for more from us. You know where we are? We're at the big story podcast dot CA with all our other episodes and a contact form for you. When we are also on Twitter at be big story SPN, and you can find our entire network at frequency podcast network dot com. And of course, all our pods are wherever you get them. You can find us on apple on Google on Stitcher on Spotify on pocket casts. Leave us a rating and leave us a review. Thank you for listening. I'm Jordan heath Rawlings. We'll talk tomorrow.
"twenty year" Discussed on The Big Story
"The big story is brought to you by Scotia. I trade there's a traitor in all of us. If you made fun of Toronto in the past two decades, and you're not a real Canadian. If you haven't chances are you've made a crack about calling in the army with another big dumping of snow heading straight for us. Mayor Mel Asman says he's preparing for another hectic day four hours ago. Toronto mayor Mel Lastman asked for military help to keep the city moving and safe and tonight the troops are here. The ludicrous idea that Canadians would need the army to deal with snow is one of the most enduring jokes that sprung from. What was of course, an actual thing that happened twenty years ago this week in fact, then mayor Mel Lastman asked for help dealing with snow Toronto was buried by a lot of it. And even more severe snowstorms were on the way. Last one was a mayor attempting to secure help for his populace. In the midst of what seemed at the time a dangerous situation response to people who say that you've press the panic button. Hey, better safe than sorry. His phone call at the time might have been saving lives and cementing his. Legacy as a man who knew what to do in a crisis with twenty years of hindsight, though, we know now that Lastman was indeed cemented his legacy and Toronto's legacy and the legacy of a moment treasured by Canadians everywhere except her on. Jordan, heath Rawlings. And this is the big story. Nick Farris is a reporter at the national post who managed to talk to all the key players in this incredibly strange saga twenty years later. We a lot of people fourteen until we try to get a good variety of perspectives from around the country. Not only Torontonians who remembered this snowstorm happening in the ensuing arrival of the army, but if you who scoff the Toronto from hardier parts of the country, we could say so because it was twenty years ago. And because I think all the mockery has kind of distorted it just explain what happened twenty years ago this week in Toronto so twenty years ago this week Toronto have been battered by a record amount of snowfall in the first two weeks of January nights nine nine. It was boat hundred eighteen centimeters of fell on the city in three separate bursts, mainly so amid the third of these big snowstorms Mel Lastman was the mayor of the time. His driver takes him out on a trip of downtown Toronto residential like narrow residential streets to. Survey the damage she was happening. And Mel Lastman told me that he remembers thinking we'd better get the hell out of here else. We're gonna get stuck on one of these streets in the snow any kind of had visions of you know, fire trucks, ambulances emergency vehicles. Getting stuck in the snow because another massive dump of snow is forecast for the next couple of days after that. Right. So the situation was quite dire in last men's estimating. So after his driver takes downtown Toronto. He gets home jostled his wife Marilyn tells her what everything that's been going on what the situation is downtown. And she tells him you should call in the army that was her suggestion was her suggestion. It was her suggestion. He says. Yeah. And he did he did. So the next thing he did the next morning January thirteenth. He calls. The federal Defence Minister Art Eggleton who was himself former Toronto mayor as well. Yeah. So he appraises art of the situation tells him that we have this terrible snowfall more is coming the next couple of days. The city is going to be in big trouble was what they are anticipating. So from their art takes that to to. His staff, the military staff, and in the course of that day, the next twelve hours or so the military decides to dispatch several hundred soldiers to Toronto to help in whatever way, they can basically. So that came up in the form of about three hundred local reservists who lived in Toronto UTA and four hundred thirty eight of believes the exact number of troops who responded from pedal wa wa interior they drove down on the thirteenth to help out at at arts direction, but mel's Mel Asman's behest for his call for help from the army. So what was actually aside from Lastman going around with his driver? What was happening on the streets of Toronto. How bad was the city at the time Lastman made that call it was pretty bad. So the subway system had been mobilized in large parts subways in certain walls of the the TC system, it stopped working businesses and schools have been forced to close large sections of the city were basically paralyzed when one person I spoke to was Mark Robinson whose achieve e storm chaser nowadays. And he was in his mid twenties. Living in Toronto the time he remembers nights ninety nine. That's no. Storm as the year right before he started storm chasing. So we're kind of stands out his vivid in his mind. So Mark remember is living on one of these side streets downtown Toronto. And he says that he remembers knob being of the drive anywhere us actually wearing in the university of wealth at the time. So he would have get from his home to the highway. And he said it was fine. Once you're on the highway getting all the way to wealth a couple hours drive by the problem was it was impossible to get there. He said a one point he had to when he was sort of pulling out of his driveway. He had chew drive up on the sidewalk to get around cars that were stock in the street his situation. His memories are kind of emblematic of the largest struggles. At a lot of people were having the time or the city was just kind of stuck in place due to this record snowfall that have been happening. So the army gets here. And what do they actually do like what are they assigned to do? So the soldiers who came from pedal wa who form the bulk of the response, they go to a base in north Rona the old downs via base. Okay. And they're not doing much to start off. A lot of them are just kind of chilling out the military. The the pedal Walla detachment had planned winter exercises. So they're set up in the big gymnasium downs view, and they have all their tents with them. So some soldiers start they're directed to start working on the regular the the planned winter exercise, this sort of immediate response that came down from the military from Padua is they had these bison personnel carriers. These armored vehicles that they drove down with them part of the convoy from pedal WaWa. So immediately those vehicles were dispatched to help civilians in dire. Need people who are having heart attacks people who need really need to get to emergency rooms that was what Mel Asman had envisioned needing the most just help with that that emergency side of things and that actually did happen. So they were out there working to save lives. They're working off the bat to save lives that were and then the the other side of it is that a lot of soldiers ended up appearing photos that were dispatched are circulated all over the country with shovels in hand. Because a lot of them ended up just being downtown. And helping literally shovel the city out of the snow that had found itself in. I spoke with one soldier reserves to his living in Toronto's name is Dunkin Nyberg, and he was the guy who was dispatched by his superior on the the day the pedal wallet attachment arrived to go to Canadian tire and take his army MasterCard. And essentially max it out by as many shovels and other winter could so he remembers going entire and only being able to buy maybe a couple dozen Canadian tire for one didn't have that many thought there have been a bit of a a bit of a run on them. Exactly. But if a run in the store, so he was able to get some equipment some shovels and then the army also went down to this city Toronto yards. This this city commitment warehouse. So the ads they got a bunch more shovels there. So a lot of soldiers went out, the the the sort of command, the the makeshift command center that the reserves here created indenture on their dispatching soldiers to various streets, Anita clearing Salata services, when it was shovels, their their visuals photos of soldiers marching in a line, sorta tend to align shovels in hand going to their next assignment, the next city the next driveway exact sidestreet. Yeah. The next sidewalk. They. They had to clear out for the people of Toronto. So those are the ones those are the photos that kind of became iconic. Exactly. That's what a lot of people. Remember in that sort of what genital out of the the scorn from across the country at the time. And to this day really twenty years later, tell me about the initial reaction from the rest of the country the rest of the country was the mused, I guess, they're they're they're very scornful initially on one hand a lot of people would have woken up the following morning to headlines on the front page of the local newspaper the Ottawa citizen. The province in Vancouver, the starphoenix and Saskatoon the herald in Calgary all ransom variance, either on the front page of the paper saying mayor Malkhaz jobs nine one one was the the starkest one probably from the from the from Vancouver from the province, and that kinda summarize the shock from the rest of the country that Toronto would have to call in military assistance to help them out of this out of this predicament. Yes, basically the rest of the country was was was stunned. They couldn't believe that drawn. Tony's were out there themselves shovels in hand doing the work themselves. They'd call on the soldiers from from all around to to to help them out when you and your colleagues talked to ordinary Torontonians who went through this. What was their reaction to the army? It was pretty split. Some people were definitely happy to have any help. No matter. How seemingly hilarious? I it was one of the most candid reactions we got. And of course, we're reporting was from the posts own Christie Blackford who was right. I would've been writing about it at the time. She was reading in the national post about it at the time. She wrote a couple of scaling Collins back in January nine nine expressing her own disbelief being in the city Toronto her her her own her the city, she was living at the time just shocked that the army edgecomb end to to help us. Oh Christie's from northern Quebec. So she has the perspective that a lot of other Canadians in basically everybody else in Canada. Yeah. Exactly comes from smaller towns into usage, just pretty plainly just shoveling, you know themselves. The of out of these situations that are these storms so Christie recanted to me she that she woke up one morning. She steps into the house with her dog she going to walk and she sees soldiers all over the street and seeing Oliver neighbors at their windows staring out onto the streets thing was happening. And she was just disgusted in her own words that that these people were letting this happen that they were just sort of standing idly by as they just selling their own. Yeah. That they needed this help to come in. And that she she likes. She knew her she she was capable of shoveling herself. She figured our neighbors. Brazil, and she was kind of stunned that that's Ron needed. This military says it's come in. Up next. It wasn't just the army one sort of off forgotten storyline in all this is that a group of one hundred volunteers were sent from Prince Edward island's to help out in Toronto.
"twenty year" Discussed on WJR 760
"Twenty year old it was there was it was in the news a twenty year old was suing retailers because the retailers wouldn't sell to the 21 or to the twenty year 20yearold they had a they'd the retailers had a policy of not selling to anyone below the age of twenty one that's an interesting case because there is no inherent right to buy it from any given retailer but is the retailer is that the retailer or does the um is is the retailer in that case violating the wouldbe buyers constitutional right by setting policy that says than any we learned in fact uh that nicholas crews went to one gun store and tried to buy it tried to buy a uh uh an assault rifle and the owner said no i don't salvaged i this door doesn't salva anyone under the age of twenty one so i don't think they're going to wind i don't think that person that 21 your or that twenty year old is going to win that case because there's no inherent right to buy it from any given retail the question is is it the government that is you know right eyelid in your caused rational writes not that they a retailer and other person can't violate your rights but the question is is there is there any given right to purchase it from a well it i gave reach a at a given re guess would all be the reason can you refuse to sell somebody something that's legal and over the age of uh you know of of twenty one or between the ages of eighteen and twenty one and what would be that legal reason by the federal governor meant that you could say will know at nineteen you don't get it with an can you say 25 you don't get it or is that discrimination because of age alone you either insurance companies like on the on the on for commercial drivers there and i'm i believe they still they're still out there there were some insurance companies it would not ensure and these were people these were licensed drivers uh wooden insure them below.