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Twenty one episode eighty nine for broadcast on the November twenty eighteen coming up on space-time Nashes Cyrus or expes Kraft gets its first images Trojan dust, clouds confirmed in over it around the sun and the launch of new climate change satellite. All that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. After two years of traveling through space. Necessaries Rick spacecraft is taken its first images of its mission. Target the asteroid Banou. The new images will act as calibration tools from detailed images to be taken next month. Using filters. Asaraha's Rix was launched back on September the eight twenty sixteen on a two year journey to the primitive diamond shaped asteroid Banou arriving last month. These first images have been obtained using poly cab one of three cameras aboard the spacecraft though, it take in the distance of three hundred and thirty kilometers above the asteroid surface during the bay minute elapsed time between the first and last of the eight exposures the asteroid rotated some one point two degrees for team used a super high resolution algorithm to combine the images producing a high resolution view of the asteroid. These first images capturing the tire asteroid used for an important. A number of calibrations that a fundamental to correctly interpreting the results obtained from high resolution images using different filters in December. Scientists will start to obtain images using the Matt Cam camera that uses color filters to allow research is the generate maps studying the geographical distribution of different minerals unbeknown including silicates altered by the presence of liquid water. The studies will also hope the select the region on the asteroid surface with samples can be collected for return back to earth in twenty twenty three ten nineteen fifty five Banou is a combination Apollo group asteroid, meaning it's a Neo near earth object with an OB that intersects with and crosses earth. Oh, but around the sun Banou is classified as a beat-up carbonaceous asteroid generally similar to see top cabinet droids. But with surface spectra suggesting and hydra silicates hydrated, Klay, minerals, organic Palomas magnetized and sulfides four hundred ninety two Mehta. A white space rock currently has one of the highest chances of hitting the with a one in two thousand seven hundred chance of impacting our planet between twenty one seventy five and twenty one t nine on average at asteroid the size of Banou can expect a crash into worth roughly wants everyone thirty thousand years or so if been would hit the earth, the resulting impact would be quivalent to twelve hundred megatons of in the news orbit is intrinsically dynamically, unstable dynamical. Studies have predicted a series of eight potential of Impac spy Banou between twenty one sixty nine and twenty one thousand nine none exceeding zero point zero seven one percent chance of impact the new will pass seven hundred fifty thousand kilometers about the earth on the twenty third shift Tim at twenty sixty and that close approach is crucial because it will affect the next close encounter on September, the twenty fifth twenty one thirty five that's expected to be at around three hundred thousand kilometers while the could be as close as. Hundred thousand now there's no chance of impact in twenty one seventy five, but depending on how the asteroids affected by that close encounter with earth, featuring cat as without planet. Start to get really interesting. That's because the asteroid could pass through this fifty five kilometer wide. Well, it's a sort of gravitational KO, and that could create an impact scenario in a future encounter on the twenty fifth September twenty one seventy five a one eight twenty four thousand chance of an impact with earth, but the normal twenty one seventy five approach will be February at a distance of roughly fifty million kilometres the most threatening chats impact will be on the twenty four September twenty one ninety six when there's a one any live in thousand chance of Banou slamming into the earth only in all that adds up to a cumulative one in two thousand seven hundred chance of an earth impact between twenty one seventy five and twenty one ninety nine Louis from the cat can ever if station in Florida aboard an atlas five rocket on September the twenty sixteen. The two thousand one hundred ten kilogram Cyrus wreck spacecraft spending threes orbiting the asteroid. The new mapping the space rock surface jollity studying it's volition composition chemistry in mineralogy. One of the missions cave. Jacobs will involve understanding non gravitational influences on the asteroid such as the coffee fit and with sunlight hates up the surface of an asteroid, and that Haiti's then radiate it back spaces the asteroid rotates in the process, providing a small amount of thrust. So knowing the news physical properties will be crucial for scientists trying to determine the likelihood of this mountain sized asteroid slamming into the earth in July twenty twenty Cyrus Rix will fly down on how the just about business surface extending our body to collect up to two kilograms of pristine asteroid regulus. Sample return to worth the space craft decided to leave over around Banou in March twenty twenty one with a sample return capsule and being jettison for parachute. Landing the Utah. Visit in September twenty twenty three. You're listening to space time. I'm Stewart Gary. 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The great coaches plus dot com slash space that way they'll know you came from us and you'll be supporting program. Let's the great courses plus dot com slash space. And of course will include that URL in the show notes. And now it's back to show. This space time with Stewart. Gary astronomers have confirmed to elusive Trojan like dust clouds which in but around the sun, the clouds in the Legrand g and l foreign L five positions Legrand, gene points additions in space with the gravitational pull of two bodies such as the sun and the earth the oath and the moon tend to cancel each other out while at the same time equalize in the central pay full native for a small object to move in unison with the two large bodies. And so allowing small logic to remain in that position relative to the to latch buddies for extended. Periods of time in all their five Legrand. Jin points nine is L one two three four five hill. One two and three all along the line connecting to buddies say, the the sun nine such a case L one is between the the sun, and it's often used by spacecraft to provide uninterrupted visa, the sun one case in point. The solar and Helius rate observatory satellite. So the old to position is on the opposite side of the from the sun, it's into the plank space craft and the Senate be launched James Webb space telescope. That's because it's an ideal position for strana MMI Espace craft is still close enough to communicate with the earth and can keep the sign of the moon old behind them solar power while still providing cleave view of data space telescopes. The all three position is on the opposite side of the sons of the because the oath three point is always hidden from the oath by the sun, it's become popular in science fiction at the location of a hypothetical second earth in this new story. The foreign five physicians are important, they provide stable obits around thirty degrees in front of thirty degrees behind Ovid around son. It's at these locations, which trudging asteroids, commonly found back in nineteen sixty one polish astronomer Kasim as code loose ski reported signs of strange dust, clouds. In what paid to be semi stable point about four hundred thousand kilometers from earth? But these clouds so exceptionally faint they've very existence has remained controversial at least until now. That's because the strongest now finally confirmed the existence of the clouds at the L foreign alpha positions describing their observations in the journal monthly notices the roster nominal society, the study's lead author Kubota Hovav of yacht lawn. Love us university. Muddle the code loose clouds as they code to assist how foam and how they might bid at check did the researchers were interested in their appearance using polarize shelters, which transmit light with a particular direction of solution. Similar to those found in different types of sunglasses scatter reflected lights, always more or less polarized depending on the angle scattering reflection. The oath is then set out the front dust clouds with a polarizing filter system attached to a camera lens in the CCD detector, the office took exposures of the proposed locate. Of the quarter Lutsky cloud at the L five position and the images they obtained did show polarized light reflected from thus extending will outside the field of view, the camera lens the observed pattern matches predictions. The team admire earlier, and it's totally consistent with the early. Steps of visions of the Kudelski clouds taking six decades ago, given this the -bility the L four no five positions. Cintas potential sites for opening space probes and his transfer stations feature missions exploring the whitest solar system further research will look at L foreign L five and the associated Cordischi clouds to understand how stay with. I really are. And whether they dust presents any kind of threat, the find out more Andrew darkly speaking with a strana, Dr Fred Watson, forget it took about a dust cloud. That's opening on you the spice was a dirty plies. What does it have to hone in on us filthy enough here already this dust, cloud that saw in -veloping us and making a missive ale? Little pace of. The solar system. What's this all about what you quite right? The spices pretty dusty. And actually we particularly here in in one. Let me put it this particular for you up in regional New, South Wales way, you've got fairly dog skies. You can say that dust every night almost when the no moon around because there's some legal there's light which puzzled strong for questionable tell him as to what it was. But we now know that this is the light from dust in the solar system. It something Ican see after sunset or before sunrise. It's like a pillar of light that days sort of standing above the self. I've seen it many times because of cosigning spring is very play. So we don't have much light pollution, but that's living proof. If you like of the fact that the space between the planets base, quite dusty. Because that that pillar is light is just sensually the cell luminescent, the disk of dust that is around that. So the dust in the plane of the so it's, but this story is about something a little bit different. And he's about the way. That dust can congregate because back in nineteen sixty one polish astronomer whose name was I think I'm pronouncing this correctly, cut CB, its code you less gate gun. He basically proposed the notion that that would be clouds of dust in gravitationally stable points in the earth moon system, lease the LaGrange points, and the ground was a nineteenth century mathematician who proposed that they would be if you've got any to gravitating bodies, for example, the oath in the moon that will be positions around them whether gravity combined with the rotation of the moon around the earth where they would conspire to produce what you might call neutral points points, where there's no pool of gravity on the first one of the one we call L one the first the grounds point is really easy to get your head around because he's between the and the moon, and he can intuitively mentioned that yet. Somewhat between the moon is going to be a point whether I respected gravity balances out and wouldn't be half Wii unless the gravity of both bodies was equal. Correct. Absolutely. So much near the moon than it is to the because they has the greater gravitational Powell. But there are four other of these Stibal points sort of dotted around the Spicer Elliot's in the moon on two of them in particular are of interest because there's a lot of astronomical phenomena. That's essentially central nice things. And they rejoice in the name of L full L five the full and fifth league. Raj points, this sometimes called the Trojan points because they attract task steroids in other contexts. Let me digress. Briefly to explain not if you think about the planet Jupiter going around the Selm, sixty degrees ahead of Jupiter in its orbit. So what's that that six of the way around over it ahead and a six of the way around the orbit behind the two of the? Able points the LaGrange points, and they actually collect asteroids in the case of Jupiter and the Selm so Jupiter's this clump of what it called the Trojan asteroids preceding in Soviet another. Clump of likewise name Trojan asteroids trailing behind it, sixty degrees behind in Seoul bit. So that's why they call the Trojan points. Okay. That was a digression. Now think about the the moon again. So the two Trojan points one head of the moon won't behind six of the way around as we said, sixty degrees ahead on behind the moon, and what Dr court delays gate proposed was that those points because they're stable gravitationally. They would be a place where dust would congregate. Just the dust in the solar system would tend to accumulate that. And actually believed he had photographic evidence of that. In other words, it took photographs of the space. Sixty degrees ahead of sixty degrees behind the move until he could say brightening, but it was not terribly convinced. Sing. So then the story languished until now basically because a group of struggle is not based in Poland. But based in Hungary, scientists there have done a double whammy on this. They've published two pipers in that Oguz journal, the monthly notices of Royal astronaut, Michael society, it's out she one of the leading professional strong gerbils in the world that go to out tickles in that one of which basically builds a theoretical model of these dust clouds and says that yes, the theory does predict exactly as Cody Levski said that that would be clouds of dust in these positions relative to the and the moon, but the second type is about actions that made of both of these. But one of them the sale five cloud that they've observed, and it's really interesting evasions. Of course, what you've gotta do choose festival site where the sky is very dog. So no artificial light you need to be well away from Twaddell. So there's no line from the sky you need to be well away from moonlight as well. So you want the moon below the horizon, probably at the time of new moon is the best time to do this. And then you look at the place where you expect to find this dose cloud. So they've done that they have found a brightening of the sky there. But more especially they've identified something else that is kind of the smoking gun for dos cloud, guess an intergalactic Lange Cheik because always dust behind one of those. It's all about polarization. So we have means of measuring this property of light. So you know, when you when you look at things in space, you can measure that color the brightness. But you could also measure that polarized as well as the spectrum, of course, the distribution of color with, you know, the intense with color, so you can measure polarization us, very specific and draw the sensitive, basically Queant cold a polar emit polar bitter is really just a glorified polarizing sunglasses. I know the polar especially in the world would be reacting with horror that statement because that could be different. But the principle is the sign what you doing with polarization is your trying to isolate the particular way in which the light waves vibrating. So what's called on polarized light? Which is kind of what's all around us? Most of the time is like this. Vibrating in many, different planes, an infinitive different plans. Really? But if you aware in polarizing sunglasses, for example, what you then do is just one of these planes of vibration, and the reason why you do that with some blesses it because the light from reflecting surface like a body of liquid or brightly lit road is highly polarized. So that allows you to just select one of the of the whys in the libraries now, we know that Dustin space, actually, polarize lines. And so that is one way of detecting when you're actually looking at dust rather than just something house this brightly eliminated in spice, and that's the smoking gun in this case. So they code you left skate dust, clouds, the one that has been observed by these Hungarian, astronomers shows strong evidence of polarization, which tells you that you've got a cloud of dust that rather than a cloud of gas. This just sell for limited something not. So so what? They've thought was they all along is the is by what we've found out through Laura's action. Just a couple of thoughts have bigger we talking in terms of the dusk Klabin, what's likely to happen to longtime? It's so yeah, that's the dust cloudy self is probably bigger than the moon. It's a fairly. What's the word is it's suddenly not a dense area of dust. It's reasonably tenuous that as motion of the dust particles themselves within the cloud, and that's you know, anything that's got this sort of excited motion about tends to be bigger. If particles in a sense what's happening is these individual dust particles are no obese around Lilla grounds point which sounds a bit weird. How can you be over in orbits around nothing while gravity lights, you do that? But the the other thing that they sound his have done his model the way that they dust cloud is being replenished from the general dust within the solar system and to try and get a measurement of how long it blest. In other words, what its lifetime. Is it looks as though it's fairly stable feature. Probably will last for many billions of years unless my wife finds out about it. And she's up there with her vacuum cleaner. And just the why she swings. I was before. Andrea. I'm not going there. But we we have an answer. That's Dr Fred Watson and astronomer with department of science speaking with Andrew Dunkley analysis, the program space knots, and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary. The Russian federal space agency ause cosmos will recommend manned spaceflights to the international space station next month, the decision to launch follows detailed investigations into last month's of sent a boat of the Sawyers m ten flight from the bacchanal cosmodrome centralization Republic of Kazakhstan the emergency on Taibbi the eleventh code as the fullest strep on liquid fuel boosters will being jettisoned a minute and fifty eight seconds after launch the boost program the flipped backwards in clear, the co stage in a spectacular maneuver known as a cargo of cross, however, one of the boost is the debut STA failed to separate cleanly fatally damaging the Soyuz f g on vehicle process the Soyuz capture which was carrying two crew members was safely jettisoned landing in a high g ballistic descent heading the ground five times before coming to rest on its side. Four hundred kilometers down range of the launch pad. The failure was traced through the foam sensor on the strap on boosters which had been in. Properly installed during the Soyuz rockets final assembly the damage that was I would open a cover on a reverse thrust nozzle designed to help the boost the separate from the coast age, this coz, the boosted a crush back into the coast, ripping open the fuel tank and cozine explosion Moscow is since successfully launched the Sawyers to I'm bayrock it carrying six thousand kilogram. Russian low toss military spy satellite into orbit from the Plesetsk cosmodrome eight hundred kilometers north of the capital another on man. So it is will be launched on them of the sixteenth from bacchanal carrying progress. Kaga ship loaded with fresh supplies foot. Space station that flight had been slighted to launch type of the thirtieth. But was scrubbed because the Tiber failure. What else Cozma says the silliest embassy Levin flight which was sled? It's launch on December the twentieth. Carrying three crew members to the international space station will now instead fly on the end of the third than you. MSU living crew were replaced as commonly on station will now attend. With seven days behind shit doing the center the twentieth. Abode therein so MS nine capsule. That's the same. So is M nine which vented atmosphere into space from the orbital module while it was docked to the space station. That foot was eventually traced to hall which inadvertently being drilled then covered up in the space craft. I the it was being manufactured at the plant or after the rive at the assembly integration, boating bike and all the way it's still interesting times for the Russian space agency. I'm Stewart Gary this is space time. Japan is launch the new spacecraft designed to monitor greenhouse gas. Emissions. The go set to was fine abo- than HOA rocket from the panic Ashim space center. Three hundred kilometers south Turkey out. The one thousand eight hundred kilogram pro will be renamed bookie to once. It's in its correct orbit and operating nominally. The new space craft continue the work of its bookie predecessor, which was launched back in two thousand nine it'll monitoring Recode long-term date house of man-made atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions causing climate change. The spacecraft carries cloud and aerosol image and thermal near infrared spectrometer allowing scientists monitor carbon dioxide maintain ozone carbon monoxide and notch Jin dockside levels. It'll fly in a six hundred thirteen kilometer high circular sun synchronous. Oh, but the research will help scientists predict how the emission of fossil fuel pollutants is accelerating. Global warming the mission also carried several smaller satellite payloads, including. Three hundred thirty kilogram Khalifa, set remote sensing light for the United Arab Emirates also piggybacking on the mission with several small microsatellites sets California residents have been treated to spectacular evening launch. With a SpaceX falcon nine rocket lighting up the Pacific sunset skies. The mission from space launch complex four at the van big air force base carried the calm one af ups of Asian satellite for the Genton space agency ten nine. Seventy six. Four three two one. The tower power nominal punter stations of receiving nine rocket as it a sense of the atmosphere carrying these SouthCom one eight satellite to lower or right now vehicles passing through Mexico, which is the point of maximum dynamic pressure on the airframe you'll actually throttles down for this portion of the flight in order to reduce structural stresses out there to kilometers tweet did have a successful lift-off from the Pat advantage air force base at seven twenty pm ten twenty one PM just as expected coming up at t plus two minutes and nineteen seconds. We're going to have a series of five events happening all very very quickly together. That's going to be main engine cutoff stage separation. Second start boost back burn start and fairing deploy one hundred Biko, and there you have it. We had a successful main engine cutoff. And then a good stage separation of that. I can stage Merlin vacuum engine lighting up right now heating up and preparing to. Boosts that payload the rest of the way towards us intended orbit stage moves back. Good faring apply confirmed as its Merlin vacuum engine continues to push that SouthCom won a satellite into low-earth orbit each will boost back ship out that second stage will continue burning its Merlin one vacuum. Mention all the way until ten minutes into flight fentor, ticker nominated a grid fins on the side of the rocket have extended puffs of gas coming from the rocket to are the reaction control system on that. I did as maintained its attitude coming back down towards the pad the boost back burn is now complete from that first aid. The next thing coming up at five minutes and fifty six seconds will be the start of the entry burn. This entry burn happens. Just as the first stage hits the thicker regions of the atmosphere. So against slow itself down and avoid damage. Those nine Merlin engines which are entering I into the atmosphere periodic bursts from those cold gas thrusters in the side of the first edge. The first stage is a heads back towards the ELLs e four at Vanenburg airforce base there it is that's the starry introvert talking nine. I this burn is. Only about thirty seconds right now that first aid is mostly empty of fuel. So it's actually pretty light doesn't need that much force to slow it down actually shut out. And that looks like the shutdown of the entry burn one up the funneling I eight sip ration- and stage ignition the falcon nine co state successfully returned to with landing on SpaceX newly built landing Padden and his linings on full located just four hundred meters from the launch complex there. It is. That's the start of landing started that falcon nine I should be approaching the ground just about and five seconds. For the falcon handed appears that that talking nine I landing Ford Vandenberg Air Force base. This is great news for everyone here. It's base. X reminder that this is the first time we've ever landed a rocket. I h back at Vandenberg Air Force base than you landing peds being constructed on the side of the full myspace complex food w from which titan rockets were previously flown, the three thousand kilograms come one. A is the first of two Muko wave ups evasion said lights being launched full. The gene space agency into sun synchronous polar obits, the second will be launched. No earlier than June next year, the spacecraft's quick with an ill. Ben full Paula metrics, Fetig aperture Rada designed to monitor agriculture vegetation, cover and oven. Planning. The flight was the sixty second loans of falcon nine rocket and space. X is sixteenth fought this year. Well United launch alliance. Atlas five rocket is Boston into stationary Ovid carrying a new US military communication satellite. The fourth advanced extremely high frequency satellite lifted off from space launch complex forty one at the cat can ever if stationed in Florida shortly after midnight range status range green three s reduced for guy status. Check. Oh app goes Centaur. Go ahe four t minus ten nine eight seven six five four three. We have initiative. One and liftoff of the eight four mission carried by United launch alliance. Atlas five rocket for the United States air. You're hearing the voice of Patrick more providing launch. Mach one that was five enough to percent passing twenty seconds Biden, where parenting twenty about in the Denver data station point the light already one eighty should be throwing backup hundred percent q. Now one minute into flight the right normally. Rushton? Envious data now at one minute twenty five seconds into flight. Atlas five rocket now. Wait, just one half of what it did. It launch bring at a rate of sixty nine hundred pounds per second. And we have burnt out on all five our bees are you one eighty throttling backup to pull thrust one minute. Forty five seconds into flight one minute. Fifty seconds end. Yeah. We have jettison of all five solid rocket boosters, the atlas loons vehicle flew in its five five one configuration, which is currently the most powerful in the atlas fleet includes a five made a payload fairing five strap on solid rocket boosters assisting the ID one eighty main liquid fueled engine and Santo oppa stage equipped with a single arrow ten liquid fueled engine. Twin engine version of the center stage has been developed it'll be used with Boeing CS T one hundred stylized space station crew transfer vehicle, which led it to begin flying. Next year, the six thousand one hundred sixty eight kilogram pilot for this mission. It's the full of seeks new advanced extremely high frequency communication said. Let's being built by eight Martin for the United States if. Space command that is on to replace the old Milstar telecommunication satellites providing more secure communications for the armed forces of the United States Britain, Canada and the Netherlands building cooperate frequency hopping ready. I take allergy as well as face to Ray antennas that can debt radiation patents in order to block out potential jamming the two remaining satellites in the constellation a slated Philo inch next year as well as being the fiftieth. United launch alliance flight for the US air force. The mission was also the company's eighth launch this year and the one hundred and thirty first successful low since the company was formed back in December two thousand and six. The United launch alliance is next flight will be the classified NRL seventy-one mission for the National Reconnaissance office that'll use the delta four heavy slated for launch. In November, the twenty ninth from space launch complex six at Vandenberg Air Force base in California. Entertainment designed just for you, then checkout. Customizable, streaming TV from Finnity it makes your life simple easy. Awesome. Expended? He gives you, customizable, streaming TV options. Enjoy the most free shows anywhere on any device and even access your streaming apps right on your TV with x one. Go to expend dot com. A one eight hundred Finnity or visit a store today. To learn more restrictions apply. And turn that attack. Another brief look at some of the other stories making news in science this week with a science report. And you study claims oceans have absorbed sixty percent, hey, an previously thought the findings by scientists from Princeton and the scripts institution of ocean Agassi at the university of California San Diego show that h year between nineteen ninety one and twenty sixteen the world's oceans absorbed in amount of hate energy. That's one hundred fifty times the G humans produces Elec trysofi annually, the fundings reported in the journal nature based on a network of Budig census known as ago, which compiles comprehensive measurements of ocean. Temperature salinity across the globe. The data suggests that earth is far was sensitive to fossil fuel emissions than previously thought it recommends that emissions of carbon dioxide chief greenhouse gas, but just human activities must be reduced by around twenty five percent compared to what was previously estimated. Ed led researches have dove into the realm of style. What was and created a powerful tractor beam? A lot driven energy track for atoms in this case it rather than sucking spacecraft into a space station the track the bane pulls Adams into a microscope at the center of a special optical fiber. The findings reported in the journal physical review applied opens the way you quantum experiments that may one day lead to secure communications or advanced sensing technologies. And you study shows that the first Austrailia arrived on the continent by crossing Indonesia NEW GUINEA when they were both still pot of a single landmass between fifty and sixty thousand years ago, the findings by researchers from the Australian National University indicate that c levels back then we'll between twenty and fifty Mehta's low than what they are. Now, the new research reported in the journal of human evolution challenges, the popular theory that these early adventures traveled from southeast Asia through the nature and team all for crossing the to raise a strain shows in what he's now territory for Ciccio say, the older states human occupation on the Australian you Guinea continent. Soul represent the earliest indirect evidence seafaring by humans anywhere in the world, the islands directly north and west of Seoul to a known as relation when never connected to the mainland requiring multiple successful water crossings aced from the mainland southeast Asia than non as soon to these people up the way across these islands pro. Looking for a place to live with it could have access to reliable food, Staples and other resources, scientists say the visibility between the islands would have been very favorable in terms of enabling the so of adventurous spirit. Iranian military infrastructure involved in the legal nuclear weapons research has come under attack from a new stacks net. Like computer virus, the original Stuxnet whim was used in twenty ten to seriously damage delay Tehran sacred nuclear weapons program stock Smith, specifically targets programmable logic controllers causing fast Benny centrifuges, which it used to produce weapons-grade uranium to literally ten themselves upon the new viruses described as being more violent advanced and sophisticated data of the new attack came just hours of Israel said it's must intelligence agency at water and rainy mud applaud in Denmark and two days after Iran had acknowledged that prison to sun her run his mobile phone had been bugged infected fellas a string of Israel intelligence coups against the ran, including the extraction from Tehran in January by my set of the contents of a vast archive documenting these republics illegal nuclear weapons. Program and the daytime at the United Nations of secret Iranian nuclear and missile assets inside Iran, Syria and in the Lebanon. Your listening space time, I'm Stewart, Gary, and that's the shy Fano. You can subscribe and download space time as a free twice weekly podcast through apple podcast. I tunes stitch-up dot com. Puckett costs soundcloud YouTube audio boom from space-time with Stewart Gary dot com. Oh from your favorite podcast. Download provider space times also broadcast coast to coast across the United States on science three sixty radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and available around the world on tune in radio. If you want more space time check it out blog what you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well. As loads of images me stories, videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart, Gary dot tumbler dot com. That's all one would and in low a case, and that's time without the you can also follow us on. At through at Stewart. Gary at space time with Stewart Gary on Instagram and on Facebook, just go to WWW dot Facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary space-time is brought to collaboration with Australian sky. Tell us magazine you'll window on the universe. You being listening to space time. With Stewart, Gary this is being another quality podcast production from dot com. This the space Tom's made possible with the help of the great courses. Plus learn anything anytime from the leading professors and experts in their field. Sign up for your free trial now by going to a special Yaro. That's the great coast plus dot com slash space, the great causes plus dot com slash face that way, they'll know you came from us and you'll be hoping to support program. That's the great courses plus dot com slash spice. Phone driving. Crazy excuse me, sprinter and from sprint Sharma, new iphone ten hour with an amazing liquid retina display this his amazing photos that color. I love this. This. I'm back. 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