35 Burst results for "Tuberculosis"

"tuberculosis" Discussed on UN News

UN News

03:37 min | Last week

"tuberculosis" Discussed on UN News

"In the past, there were not enough presentations like syrups or dissolvable that serve to treat children. Nowadays, they are available. And part of our call with this report is to make certain that this inequality is erased that children have more access to retrovirals. At present, children represent about 4% of the new infections, but they represent 15% of the 8 steps because of lack of access to treatment. You had just mentioned that UNAIDS has a new report about this. What are some of the important issues that the report highlights? The report is called dangerous inequalities. It builds up on our midyear, our summer global report that we called in danger. And in dengue brings back the attention of the world and particularly of world leaders that aids is not over. I was mentioning to you of line how when I have met with war leaders, sometimes I hear them say, oh, is it still a problem? I thought that this was already taken care of. And I tell them no. It's still out there. And I compare some times with what happened in the 80s with tuberculosis and with malaria. We realized at the time, or at least the thinking was, oh, tuberculosis is weighing down. It's under control, malaria as well, and what happens 40 years later. We end up with multidrug resistant tuberculosis, spreading throughout the world. And we have malaria resistant as well. So we don't want this to happen with HIV and our report makes this call for action. And the motor we are using is equalize, making sure that we push for human rights, which we push for access to medicines. We push for decriminalization, particularly of key populations. And the call to action is for the government it is for all I would say because even in the community, there are still some misconceptions in grain. There may be a steel people who saw friends or relatives die back in the 80s. And that is not happening now. It's something that happened in the past. But we also need to make awareness in the general population that HIV is out there. And that people's rights needs to be taken into consideration. Stigma and discrimination, unfortunately, it's still around. And for world leaders, I know that the present situation in the economy, inflation has made countries take drastic steps in terms of their fiscal space. But making sure that the resources are made available for health is very important and making sure that resources are being made available for HIV response is key and it's essential. We believe that by dealing with inequalities, it's going to be a mayor step towards a sustained response. Is there anything else you might like to add? I believe I would like to emphasize that aids can be over by 2030 as the 2030 agenda calls for. I would like to say how proud we are of our global late strategy. And this is a collective owned by all member states, and the political declaration that was adopted last year lays the foundation for countries to respond in the most appropriate way, targeting the populations that need to be targeted and providing the response that is needed. So my message would be let's move forward. Let's take on those commitments and let's end dates by 2030.

tuberculosis malaria UNAIDS HIV dengue aids Stigma
"tuberculosis" Discussed on Bloomberg Radio New York

Bloomberg Radio New York

01:44 min | Last month

"tuberculosis" Discussed on Bloomberg Radio New York

"About two and a half percent after economic data pointed to slowing inflation. The Dow added more than 800 points to log its fourth straight weekly gain. At the closing bell, the Dow gained 828 points to 32 8 61. At least 6 people are injured after being shot outside of a funeral in Pittsburgh, police say it happened outside of the destiny of faith church this morning, a funeral was underway at the time of the shooting. The World Health Organization says tuberculosis cases and deaths are on the rise for the first time in years. Michael kasner reports more than 10 million people worldwide contracted the disease last year an increase of four and a half percent from 2020. The WHO also says there were more than one and a half million deaths partly due to an increase in drug resistant TB, the WHO says the COVID pandemic and ongoing conflicts have disrupted TB services, especially in Eastern Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Twitter's new owner says there will be no account reinstatements to the social media site right away. Elon Musk tweeted a content moderation council will be formed to evaluate the platform. He says it'll include widely diverse viewpoints. I'm Brian schuch. The Saudi Arabia back to live golf international series wraps up its inaugural season this weekend with its team championship at Trump national Doral. 9 11 justice president Brett eagleson can't forgive American players who joined live because of its money. Some golfers stated that they were just trying to provide for their families. Our brother Danny and 2976 others were just trying to provide for their families on that fateful

Michael kasner drug resistant TB World Health Organization tuberculosis Pittsburgh Brian schuch Elon Musk Eastern Europe Trump national Doral Middle East Brett eagleson Africa Twitter Saudi Arabia golf Danny
"tuberculosis" Discussed on The Times: Daily news from the L.A. Times

The Times: Daily news from the L.A. Times

02:50 min | Last month

"tuberculosis" Discussed on The Times: Daily news from the L.A. Times

"Dream. So there were formal and informal ways of doing this. I mean, some of the former ways with that there were these racially restrictive covenants that developers would put in to communities that were being built. We found an ad from 1925 in the times that touted that quote, the residents of eagle rock are all of the white race. There was legalized segregation that ensured that this sort of city of homes, which is a frequent theme among the boosters and what they like times in particular called what Los Angeles would be would only before white people. And Brittany that's when you started seeing the first catastrophic effects of overcrowding. Right, exactly. And we were seeing cases of house courts like groupings of small wooden shocks and sheds. It's often filled with four or 5 people per room. I mean, these were Mexican laborers who are crowding into these conditions, and that's when tuberculosis started to spread. And I think it's important to note, this is a hundred years before the pandemic that we're in now and this problem was arising in overcrowded homes in Mexican neighborhoods and Latino neighborhoods. It's the same as it is today. And so there was a warning sign for what was going to happen a century later in Los Angeles. And not only that, we should emphasize that a lot of our research found that these public health and political leaders knew that overcrowded housing was driving the spread of tuberculosis, which spread through the air just like COVID-19 is yet instead of realizing the housing was the issue in the conditions where the issue and the low pay was the issue for these Mexican laborers, they blamed Mexicans themselves, blamed blamed race and that will be a troubling

Los Angeles tuberculosis
"tuberculosis" Discussed on WABE 90.1 FM

WABE 90.1 FM

03:13 min | 2 months ago

"tuberculosis" Discussed on WABE 90.1 FM

"This phrase, but I can't copy, you know, I can't copy exactly. So it's a bit of a mix. Can you give us an example? Like, can you take a moment in one of these tracks and say, oh, well, so and so might have done it this way, but. Well, in misty, there's a live performance of Ella. And she's like. And a thousand viral speaking to play she does it. She like walks up and it's like, it's so beautiful and majestic. I was like, I have to do that. And I think I did. I think I recorded it like that. And a thousand miles into place, but I know that when we came up with the arrangement, I wanted it to be simple and just give the song space to breathe, but I added kind of a little bit of a scale in the beginning and at the end so give it some mystery and too much it. Looks. Me. There are also some of your own lyrics on this album. Tell us where we can hear them. You can hear my own lyrics on nostalgia. Nostalgia hit me as I recall the day I knew that I loved you. Nostalgia, the melody that you're singing here was originally a trumpet line. What made you decide to put words to it? I was in class. And my professor Jon fatis is like, what do you have to present today? And I was like, okay, I listened to nostalgia again. I really love it. And this is one solo that I knew that he would, I guess, appreciate me doing and learning. And this professor is a famous trumpet player. Yes. The way you smile was a work of art you wouldn't believe how it thrilled me. It was like yep, keep going. Keep going, finish it. Let's listen to a little bit of that. All right, she's still making embarrassed to hear yourself. Really? Wow. That surprises me. You're blushing. A little bit. But on stage you're just so chill and relaxed. I think the people help. I figured after all this time in all these years together all the memories made that you would be tired by now tell us about where these lyrics came from. So nostalgia, the album cover is a trumpet on a bench. And so I was like, um, you know, fast tomorrow he died from tuberculosis and he was only 26 years old and looking at that trumpet on the bench. I was like, well, what if he was, you know, 60 or 70 years old and he was able to look at the person he loved and, you know

Jon fatis tuberculosis
AJ Looks at the Cluster of Presidential Deaths on July 4th

AJ Benza: Fame is a Bitch

01:49 min | 5 months ago

AJ Looks at the Cluster of Presidential Deaths on July 4th

"The close cluster of July 4th, as really weird. Especially given the prehistoric prehistoric, the historic importance of that day. The first adult Thomas Jefferson was 83 years old at the time. And he was bedridden for a month with a bunch of different physical bullshit ailments. He called a fever on July 3rd, died the next day. At his home in Monticello, Virginia. Meanwhile, since hundred miles away and Quincy Massachusetts, 90 year old John Adams was also on his deathbed. And he died soon after that. Entirely unaware of Jefferson's passing. Adams oblivious last words were reportedly, Thomas Jefferson still survives, and it was the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. That's some crazy stuff. It really is. And president John Quincy Adams stuck struck by his father and Thomas Jefferson dying, not just on the same day, but on such an historic occasion, he called the timing visible and palpable remarks of divine favor. Those are such wonderful words put in a row. Visible and palpable remarks of divine favor. I'm not even sure how he came up with that. That's beautiful. There was a Saturday back then, Daniel Webster, and he agreed. He agreed remarking in a eulogy a month after Adams and Jefferson's death, he said they were proof that our country and its benefactors are objects of God's care. And then I know this is like a history lesson, but it's really important. It's July. It's July 4th, these deaths are saying. 5 years after Jefferson and Adams passed away, James Monroe dies of tuberculosis at 73 years old. At his daughter's house in New York

Thomas Jefferson Monticello Jefferson John Adams Adams Quincy Fever John Quincy Adams Massachusetts Virginia Daniel Webster James Monroe Tuberculosis New York
The Torture and Imprisonment (and Love) of Richard Wurmbrand

The Eric Metaxas Show

01:51 min | 7 months ago

The Torture and Imprisonment (and Love) of Richard Wurmbrand

"I'm sitting here in the studio with Todd nettleton. He is with voice of the martyrs. Actually, he's the host of voice of the martyrs radio on a thousand plus stations, you were just mentioning before, I want to get to your book when faith is forbidden. But you were just mentioning that when Richard finally gets out of prison, the communists, I mean, so wicked that he had been tortured, he'd had tuberculosis. So you said when you get out of prison, they told him, you know, your body is so broken that maybe you've got a year left. Yeah. There's so many amazing things about this story. The going rate for a political prisoner at that time was $1500 to the Romanian government. The price for Richard was $10,000. So he was considered a high value target. And like you say, will the doctors examined him? He'd had TB. He'd been tortured again and again and again. They said pastor Rembrandt, you know, you probably only have a year left. God allowed him 30 more years and he traveled the entire world, telling the story of his own torture, his own persecution, but then also, hey, there are still pastors behind the iron curtain. There are still pastors in those prisons. And really, the voice of the martyrs was founded when Christians like you and I, we hear that, and we say, okay, well, how do we help them? That's really how the voice of the martyrs was founded was to be a way to help you. And so let's be clear. There are people all around this world right now, imprisoned, suffering, persecuted, tortured for their faith, killed for their faith, we need to know that. We need to stop pretending like Christianity is my pathetic little church in the suburbs. Folks, we don't deserve to live in a country where we get to drive in our SUV to our church, whatever there are people around the world suffering. That's the

Todd Nettleton Pastor Rembrandt Richard Romanian Government Tuberculosis TB
"tuberculosis" Discussed on Bloomberg Radio New York

Bloomberg Radio New York

01:37 min | 7 months ago

"tuberculosis" Discussed on Bloomberg Radio New York

"That the pandemic has led to even greater mistrust for experts or am I saying that backwards did the pandemic reveal a mistrust that was already there You know would it revealed was an L 6 problem Right That there was so little honest concern about pandemics for such a long time That we had shoved that the role the actual job of controlling communicable disease of preventing disease from moving from person to person Had been shoved down on local public health officers who had very little social poorly paid no one knew who they were not important people And so if you want to find expertise in actually controlling communicable disease you go inside your really which you nobody does inside your local public health office And you talk to the local public health officer who handled the measles outbreak at the school or the drug multidrug resistant tuberculosis outbreak in the bad neighborhood They've been doing this and they have been a very aware of the political consequences of trying to constrain people's movements and very aware of how you actually stop people from getting sick and dying They've been fighting battles Really really fascinating Coming up we continue our conversation with author Michael Lewis discussing liar's poker now that it's nearly 35.

communicable disease tuberculosis Michael Lewis
"tuberculosis" Discussed on Bloomberg Radio New York

Bloomberg Radio New York

01:56 min | 7 months ago

"tuberculosis" Discussed on Bloomberg Radio New York

"And I think we need to understand why So let's bring this back to our previous conversation about experts It seems that the pandemic has led to even greater mistrust for experts or am I saying that backwards did the pandemic reveal a mistrust that was already there You know would it revealed was an L 6 problem Right That they were so little honest concern about pandemics for such a long time That we had shoved that the role the actual job of controlling communicable disease of preventing disease from moving from person to person Had been shoved down on local public health officers who had very little social poorly paid no one knew who they were Not important people And so if you want to find expertise in actually controlling communicable disease you go inside your really nobody does inside your local public health office And you talk to the local public health officer who handled the measles outbreak at the school or the drug multidrug resistant tuberculosis outbreak in the bad neighborhood They've been doing this and they have been a very aware of the political consequences of trying to constrain people's movements and very aware of how you actually stop people from getting sick and dying They've been fighting battles Really really fascinating Coming up we continue our conversation with author Michael Lewis discussing liar's poker now that it's nearly 35 years old You're listening to masters in business with Barry red holt on Bloomberg radio At Bloomberg.

communicable disease tuberculosis Michael Lewis Barry red holt Bloomberg
"tuberculosis" Discussed on WTOP

WTOP

01:32 min | 8 months ago

"tuberculosis" Discussed on WTOP

"Marine veteran Trevor Reed who's been detained there since 2019 CBS Natalie brand has more on the prison swap from Washington Senior administration officials say negotiations had been going on for months and were separate from Russia's war on Ukraine U.S. officials say Reed is in good spirits but his parents worry about his health We're praying that he doesn't have tuberculosis but we're still concerned that he was coughing up blood for months He administration says we're continues to try and release other Americans wrongfully detained including former marine Paul Whelan and WNBA basketball player Brittany griner Natalie brand CBS News The White House Poland and Bulgaria now say Russia is cutting off their natural gas supplies and for now it's not a problem The BBC's Adam Easton tells us why Spring is here Summer is coming demand is low Also the Polish government took the wise decision to fill up the underground gas storage It's now about 80% full So Polish ministers have been fairly calm in their response to this news The U.S. isn't out of the Woods yet but doctor Anthony Fauci says COVID is in a much more controlled phase now of the pandemic He says the availability of vaccines and antiviral drug packs livid is making a huge difference COVID cases are up still in the U.S. but deaths are down A packed cathedral in Washington D.C. for former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright former president Obama and Clinton were there This is what you would want.

Trevor Reed Natalie brand Washington Senior administrati Russia Paul Whelan Brittany griner Natalie Adam Easton Polish government CBS tuberculosis U.S. Reed WNBA CBS News COVID Bulgaria Poland White House basketball
"tuberculosis" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

01:58 min | 8 months ago

"tuberculosis" Discussed on Short Wave

"Disease may be evaporating before.

"tuberculosis" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

08:05 min | 8 months ago

"tuberculosis" Discussed on Short Wave

"You're listening to shortwave. From NPR. Aaron Scott here. And today we've got science desk reporter Ari Daniel with us. Hello Ari. Hey Aaron. So you've been reporting on Ukraine and in particular how progress made from decades of fighting tuberculosis may be erased in a matter of weeks. Yeah. And just as a reminder, TB is a bacterium that mostly affects the lungs. It was the most deadly infectious disease in the world until COVID. Exactly. And in my reporting, I found that there are all sorts of ways that the war in Ukraine is impacting public health. I've been talking with medical professionals there, including Olga. She's a doctor who'd been living in khaki in northeastern Ukraine. She worked at a couple different tuberculosis hospitals. And she said to me that before the war, people from all around hard give, some two and a half million citizens would go to a dispensary to be screened for the disease. She actually evacuated with her daughters several weeks back. Now she tells me the doctors are having a hard time getting to the hospital and hard give. It's too dangerous to move about outside. Public transit is shuttered and the roads are ravaged in her words destroyed. One of the physicians she knows walks a total of three hours each day to get to and from work. The head of a local dispensary is living in her office because her apartment was destroyed. Well, today on the show, how the war in Ukraine is inhibiting the ability to fight tuberculosis. With the country's weakened infrastructure and a population on the move, many public health professionals fear TB and its multidrug resistant form will spread within the country and beyond. You're listening to shortwave, the daily science podcast from NPR. This message comes from NPR sponsor Macy's, committed to helping people and the planet thrive together for a brighter future. Join Macy's and celebrating earth month by supporting trust for public lands community school yards initiative, whose mission is to transform underused blacktop playgrounds into beautiful green spaces. Round up your next in store purchase, customers can also donate online, shop sustainable products, and learn more from clean beauty business owners at Macy's dot com slash purpose. So Ari, we're going to be talking about how the war in Ukraine looks like it's going to affect the fight against TB. But tuberculosis is by no means a recent phenomenon in Ukraine, right? You're right, Erin. For a lot of the 20th century Ukraine was a republic of the former Soviet Union and tuberculosis was actually managed rather well, but when the Soviet Union collapsed, the economies of its republics tanked unemployment soared crime escalated and a lot of people went to prison. And I am guessing since TB spreads through the air that the close quarters that you find in jails and prisons probably made them easy breeding grounds. Exactly. Then after folks serve time, they would go back to their communities and introduce tuberculosis to their friends and families and neighbors and the rates skyrocketed. Wow. But between 2010 and 2020, Ukraine built back its infrastructure for treating TB. Rates for the disease were on the decline. Great. And then COVID hit. And in 2020, the percent of infected people receiving treatment fell dramatically. And now in many parts of the country, the war is only making things worse. Right, and that treatment is a big deal that is now missing for people because taking antibiotics, it can take anywhere from 6 months to two years to treat TB. Right. And that's because tuberculosis bacteria divide slowly, so the treatment takes a long time, and interruptions can lead to drug resistance, where the TB bacteria don't even respond to the drugs. In 2020, a third of Ukraine's new TB cases were drug resistant. One of the highest rates in the world. And that number is likely to grow. All right, all right, let's listen to your story. And we begin with doctor, who you mentioned earlier. In northeastern Ukraine, an extended family of 8 is crammed into a living room where a few girls are playing the game uno. The mother, Olga, recorded this scene for me on her phone. She and her three daughters fled here to her father's place a few weeks ago once bombs began falling close to her home in Hart give. A couple of houses were destroyed, totally. So it's very high risk. Constantinovich also had to leave her practice as a tuberculosis doctor. TB a bacterial infection of the lungs is a problem in Ukraine. The country ranks among those with the greatest incidence of the disease in Europe. And one of the highest rates of multidrug resistant TB anywhere in the world. Konstantinovskaya used to work exclusively with these patients. But the war zep ended that. Laboratory work in but every hour we have talks we have booms now for patients it's impossible to come to hospital to be inspected for tibia. It became impossible for as well back in harkey. Now from her father's home some 20 miles away, she remains in touch with her colleagues. I call to the hospital. And she said that hospital even has no potato and red. We have drugs, but we have no food. She's also on her phone trying to reach patients who haven't shown up for their treatments due to the war. We can't find so we don't know if they are alive or not. She worries about this kind of displacement since they're taking their TB with them, giving the disease more opportunities to spread. 11 patients right now are in other regions of Ukraine. They are trying to find the drugs because they stop the treatment to weeks ago. Stopping treatment is worrying. It gives the bacteria an opportunity to evolve ways to outmaneuver the drugs, which can lead to multi drug resistant TB. And once resistance emerges, konstantinovsky says it can pass from person to person, which is exactly what she and a small army of others in Ukraine have been fighting against for years. We try to fight to be with all our best knowledge and all the techniques. And it was working. TB rates fell by 48% over a decade. But then came the pandemic, lockdowns early on shuttered hospitals to routine screening without proper treatment. And dying more often from the disease. Now, the wars creating even more chaos. Salman Khashoggi directs the center for global health delivery at Harvard Medical School. In these moments of deprivation, as a result of war, as a result of being refugees, as a result of being crowded in not having enough food, et cetera, your TB rates go up. One reason is interruptions in treatment cause people to become contagious again. And TB disproportionately affects people at the margins of society, within Ukraine and beyond, including Russia, where TB and drug resistant TB have also been big problems. Russia's under sanction as funds and things get diverted to other efforts, you will see that the drug supply is going to drop. I've spent many years working with prison and other populations in Russia. I have grave concerns.

Ukraine TB tuberculosis Macy Aaron Scott Ari Daniel Hello Ari Hey Aaron NPR Olga Soviet Union infectious disease Constantinovich Ari harkey Erin drug resistance drug resistant TB konstantinovsky
The COVID Vaccine Causes Division, Not Immunity

Dennis Prager Podcasts

01:29 min | 11 months ago

The COVID Vaccine Causes Division, Not Immunity

"A guy wrote a comment, I know I read comments on articles that I read. It's an insight into people's thinking. So a man wrote ah yes, just another article attaching division and hatred to the vaccine. Well done tribune, pat yourself on the back. That is that true. Nobody spreads hate like the left. Among all the vaccines I have known in my life the theory of tetanus measles chickenpox hepatitis meningitis tuberculosis fluid pneumonia. I've never seen a vaccine that forced people to wear a mask and maintain their social distance even after being fully vaccinated. Good what? I'm not done. Among all the vaccines, okay, I have never witnessed the vaccine that spreads the virus, even after vaccination. Even after three shots, I've never seen widespread rewards and incentives to get vaccinated. I never saw a demonization and discrimination against those who didn't want a vaccine. I've never seen a vaccine that threatens relationships between family, colleagues and friends. I've never seen a vaccine used to threaten livelihoods or school. I've never seen a vaccine that would allow a child to override parental consent. The current vaccine does all these things. Except immunization.

Tetanus Measles Chickenpox Hep
"tuberculosis" Discussed on Risky Bitches

Risky Bitches

05:09 min | 1 year ago

"tuberculosis" Discussed on Risky Bitches

"Which, I would tell you more about that. Okay. I can weird. After the culprit was identified, there were a number of proposed ways to stop the attacks. The most benign of these was simply to turn the body over and its grave. In other cases, families would burn the quote unquote fresh oregons and rebury the body occasionally the body would also be decapitated, affected family members, so those affected, I guess infected with tuberculosis would inhale smoke from the burned organs or consume the ashes and a further attempt to cure the consumption. Spoiler alert did not work. This sounds like not the greatest place. This is their version of Ivermectin. We're not gonna be.

tuberculosis
"tuberculosis" Discussed on The Economist: The Intelligence

The Economist: The Intelligence

06:35 min | 1 year ago

"tuberculosis" Discussed on The Economist: The Intelligence

"Are genuinely very dedicated to what they see as their role as public servants in public representatives. I think there's no question of these being abandoned and I think that any measures that will be taken will probably be fairly minor. Joe, thank you very much for joining us. Thank you very much for having me. Support for this podcast and the following message come from Zoom. Half a million businesses connect using Zoom, a single platform for phone, Chad, workspaces, events, apps, and video, zoom enables real-time collaboration for teams around the globe, zoom secure and reliable platform is easy to manage, use and customize for large enterprises, small businesses, and individuals alike. Zoom. How the world connects. Until SARS CoV-2 emerged the most destructive pathogen on the planet was mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bug that causes TB. It costs well over a million lives each year, mutations in those bacteria can make them resistant to the dozen or so drugs used to treat TB, and those mutations are spreading fast. Scientists are constantly playing catch up to detect The New Mutants and come up with treatments for the infections they cause. But some new research looks to make that battle a whole lot easier. Drug resistance is a huge problem for the treatment of tuberculosis. Slavic a chunk of is The Economist's healthcare correspondent. Almost 500,000 of the 10 million cases of tuberculosis each year are resistant to one or often times several of the drugs available. And it's very difficult to determine whether the strain causing a particular case is resistant to a given drug, but now we have good news, which has just emerged from a big international research project which has found a new way of detecting any and every resistance inducing mutation in tuberculosis infection. Why is it been so hard to identify those mutations, though? Well, the usual approach that is still widely used around the world is you take a sputum sample and then the bacteria from that are being cultured in a Petri dish for a couple of weeks and then tracks our sprinkle on top of that to see whether the drugs inhibit the growth of the bacteria. That can take a month or even longer. And oftentimes, it's not very reliable because lab technicians has to look at those plates and work out whether the drugs are working or not. In different people, may see the difference result. However, about 15 years ago, researchers using gene sequencing technology began to identify specific mutations in the TB genome that were found to be resistance conferring. So that has led to the employment of PCR tests to search samples and patients for these specific mutations. And these PCR tests are the same as the test that we're now routinely to find COVID-19 infections. So it's just much faster to look for these specific mutations using these routine PCR tests rather than just throw a sample in some drugs in addition, see what kills off the bacteria? So with a PCR test, what you do is you take the sample and then you just put it in the machine and it can give you a result in this little S two hours. So much faster, but you have to know what source of mutations you are looking for. And that's where this big research project came in. So the idea is to figure out which mutations are responsible for resistance to which drugs, right? But getting the genetic sequences is only half the story. How do they test the various drugs against all the different mutated bacteria from human samples? So instead of Petri dishes, the participating laboratories used culture plates, which contained various amounts of tuberculosis drugs. After the drugs had time to act, the plates were photographed and then the images were entered into a database. For examinations by 9000 volunteers from all over the world. And those volunteers looked at the culture plates to work out whether the drugs were inhibiting TB. And what the researchers then did, they combined those results with full genome sequencing of the bacteria involved in a sample to work out which specific mutations or combinations of mutations were responsible for drug resistance. Okay, so now they have a long list of mutations thanks to the newer PCR method. And cross correlated those with which drugs work thanks to the old watch it in a dish method, but how to turn all of those data into a clinical tool. The results are the most comprehensive catalog. We have TB mutations that confer resistance. So the way this information will be used is for developing better PCR tests to identify drug resistance in TB cases. And as rapid genome sequencing becomes increasingly available and cheaper will probably see more and more TB samples being sequenced completely so we can identify absolutely all of the mutations which are in this catalog produced by the research projects. So we'll be able to know whether a particular patient's infection is caused by a bacterium resistant to any of the drugs or any of the amounts of the drugs because sometimes the mutation matters for that. And then we can have a really personalized treatment for everybody. And does going about it in this way have implications for tackling drug resistance in other pathogens? The whole model of the way the research project worked with the sequencing and volunteers helping to look at those culture plates means that you could do this for many other pathogens. Antibiotic resistance is a massive problem globally, patients in hospitals, routinely have infections which are antibiotic resistant and being able.

tuberculosis TB Drug resistance SARS Joe Antibiotic resistance antibiotic resistant
Tuberculosis deaths rise for 1st time in years, due to COVID

AP News Radio

00:42 sec | 1 year ago

Tuberculosis deaths rise for 1st time in years, due to COVID

"Tuberculosis deaths have risen worldwide for the first time in years the World Health Organization says a million and a half people died of TB and twenty twenty a slight rise from the one point four million who died in twenty nineteen the W. H. O. says the increase was mainly due to fewer people getting tested and treated last year as resources were diverted to fight the corona virus pandemic far fewer people were diagnosed with the disease last year five point eight million compared to seven point one million the year before the countries with the highest number of TB cases include India China Indonesia and the Philippines I'm my company

W. H. O. Tuberculosis World Health Organization TB India Indonesia China Philippines
"tuberculosis" Discussed on MonsterTalk

MonsterTalk

03:29 min | 1 year ago

"tuberculosis" Discussed on MonsterTalk

"They'll have a specific organism but they're using as a benchmark so they're saying kills ninety nine point nine percent of like this and usually be a lot of color forms which are most of the bacteria that we're able to culture that they've in your gut or the flu virus can. Can we recover it. But i would really like to see those studies replicated. We even had like professional kits to come into our lab that we don't use anymore. That would say oh. Our kid is ninety percent effective at diagnosing. This and then we do our own studying. We're like we're getting like sixty percent. We're not using your kid anymore. I'm a. I'm more than a little skeptical of in-house studies worth testing the advocacy of their own product. Most of the time is under the most optimum of conditions. Yeah like they'll say you know what. The surface has to remain wet for five minutes. In france you sprain your lysol on on there for five minutes and most of the time. Fifteen minutes recontact. Time for a lot of Things to kill like really nasty bugs. Yeah we a lot of our tuberculosis regions either. Originally designed to kill tb and the lab. They'll say you know it has. It has a dry for like ten fifteen minutes which means that surface has to remain moist for ten minutes. Well that's like you know if you quickly rinse your hands in the bathroom verses really really really washing them you know. But it's the by the i don't know. Is anybody besides me sick of the happy birthday song this point. That's say single ladies to ten what he's supposed to count to ten seconds but he's discounts very very quickly. Sir is also doom thank mind is the. Here's the mind killer. That's also twenty seconds. The the We actually my wife got a shark soap dispenser that plays the jaws theme so basically. Just keep playing the jaws theme until you're supposed to finish washing your hands so we also now can all tell when someone's not washing their hands because we were all listening expectedly for the jaws the key difference too between contact time to killing organisms and say. Wash your hands. Is that when you're washing your hands. What you're doing a mechanical action of just trying to take the dirt and the things that bacteria living on off of your skin whereas like cleaners are. It's a chemical reaction that where they're trying to break down and keep that like organism is actually still under counter until you wipe wipe it off. It's just dead able to replicate whereas when you wash your hands like basically scrubbing that off. And that's where he's twenty seconds because that's giving that the soap time to form those little missiles they make little soap bubble around the organism and then it floats away with water. Yeah that's fantastic so the soap is not breaking down the dna new. I mean it's too bad. I would say there's like some subset antibiotic. Yeah so what is the. What's the difference. Yeah i would like to see the efficacy once again on how well it kills versus just creates antibiotic-resistant bacteria like just like real world. Yeah what about bleach. Bleach does break down the dna right. That's what it does that destroys. Dna yeah now cures fun fact. You want to like really disinfect. You do not want to use one hundred percent bleach a nine percent hypoc low-rate solution which means you want to look at your bleach bottle and see what. The percentage of hypoc low-rate is on your sub bleach bottle for regular bleach. That six percent for the concentrated bleaches that are sold frequently. Now that's more like eight point eight nine percent and then you.

flu tuberculosis tb france Sir
Russia's Navalny on Hunger Strike to Protest Prison Treatment

BBC World Service

00:55 sec | 1 year ago

Russia's Navalny on Hunger Strike to Protest Prison Treatment

"Arrests outside the prison where opposition leader Alexei Navalny is on hunger strike to protest a lack of medical attention. NPR's Lucian Kim. Reports from Moscow, a correspondent for CNN, as well as other journalists were briefly detained. Supporters of Alexei Navalny trek to the penal colony about 60 miles east of Moscow, demanding independent doctors be allowed to examine him. Navalny declared a hunger strike last week, saying he was being denied medical care for back pain and the loss of sensation in his legs. On Monday, Navalny's allies said on social media, he had a temperature and bad cough. That three other prisoners were being treated for tuberculosis. Navalny was imprisoned on an old conviction after returning from Germany, where he'd been recovering from a poisoning he blames on President Vladimir Putin. Putin spokesman says Navalny is receiving all necessary medical attention Lucian Kim. NPR

Alexei Navalny Navalny Lucian Kim Moscow NPR CNN Cough Tuberculosis Germany Vladimir Putin Putin
"tuberculosis" Discussed on 600 WREC

600 WREC

02:01 min | 1 year ago

"tuberculosis" Discussed on 600 WREC

"One back program, George Orwell wrote 1984. While he was dying of tuberculosis. He said. It would have been better Had I not been under the influence of tuberculosis at the time, but he's not entirely dissatisfied with 1984. He saw the future. He said. This is the direction the world is going at the present time before his death, he said, Quote in our world, there will be no emotions except fear, Rage, Triumph and self. A basement. Sex insect instinct will be eradicated. Will we shall abolish the orgasm. There'll be no loyalty except loyalty to the party. But always there will be the intoxication of power. Always at every moment, there will be the thrill of victory, the sensation of trampling on an enemy who is helpless. If you want a picture of the future wrote or well, imagine a boot stamping on a human face forever Moral to be drawn from this dangerous nightmare situation is a simple one. Don't let it happen. It depends on you. And in a time of deceit, telling the truth is the ultimate revolutionary Act. Can you tell the truth? Well in a revolutionary act parlor is back online Way. Talk to the interim CEO Mark Meckler in 60 seconds. Glenn Beck program. Well mowing season is about to arrive in Texas. Next week. It's gonna be 68. It is one in Texas today. Next week, 68. Ah, we have snow Storm.

George Orwell Texas 1984 Next week Mark Meckler 60 seconds today Glenn Beck CEO 68 One back program tuberculosis one
"tuberculosis" Discussed on Newsradio 970 WFLA

Newsradio 970 WFLA

02:08 min | 1 year ago

"tuberculosis" Discussed on Newsradio 970 WFLA

"Hear the fusion of of entertainment and enlightenment. This'll look one back program, George Orwell wrote 1984 while he was dying of tuberculosis. He said. It would have been better Had I not been under the influence of tuberculosis at the time, but he's not entirely dissatisfied with 1984. He saw the future. He said. This is the direction the world is going at the present time before his death, he said, Quote in our world, there will be no emotions except fear. Rage, Triumph and self. A basement sex. Insect instinct will be eradicated. Will we shall abolish the orgasm. There'll be no loyalty except loyalty to the party. But always there will be the intoxication of power. Always at every moment, there will be the thrill of victory, the sensation of trampling on an enemy who is helpless. If you want a picture of the future wrote or well, imagine a boot stamping on a human face forever. The moral to be drawn from this dangerous nightmare situation is a simple one. Don't let it happen. It depends on you. And in a time of deceit. Telling the truth is the ultimate revolutionary Act. Can you tell the truth? Well in a revolutionary act parlor is back online. We talked to the interim CEO Mark Meckler in 60 seconds Glenn Beck program. Well mowing season is about to arrive in Texas. Next week. It could be 68. It is one in Texas today. Next week, 68. We.

George Orwell Texas Next week 1984 today Mark Meckler Glenn Beck 60 seconds 68 CEO one one back program tuberculosis
"tuberculosis" Discussed on Raw Talk Podcast

Raw Talk Podcast

02:56 min | 2 years ago

"tuberculosis" Discussed on Raw Talk Podcast

"Tv's always been sort of a little bit fragmented because the most affected people who reside in resource poor settings or the marginalized communities in higher income settings but by and large they. Have you know relatively little power to rally together and fight for political and public sort of attention. There's been very little inclusion of their voice. The tv world in the tv space. I get another reason is that there's been some consensus right from the get go from bacteria. We know that it can cause death. If it's not treated you know spreads so the public is not had a reason to will get involved in the science behind. Tv because those questions came about quite quickly quite concertedly. Everybody sort of agreed upon. That was not any decisions around policy. Tv happened behind closed. Doors where francis medical practitioners policy makers allowed in the community without necessarily seem to have any need by contract any debate about the origin and treatment about hiv came a confession in the nineteen eighty s. There was constant questioning about the origins of hiv led to the suit of aids denial ism and so the patient and the public at large by necessity had to get involved. And ironically this exact. Denial isn't that helped to facilitate people with hiv to find a seat at the table at that decision making people very early on it was no consensus and so they sort of had to rally for seat at the table. Ateb is also disproportionately affected the gay community who were vulnerable to the disease but also had an immense social strength in numbers and already quite familiar with grassroots sort of human rights equity frameworks around advocacy so any policy hiv. That's going to have been autocratic. Coercive diminish the rights and dignity of people were affected by heavy was quickly questioned and fought it was also prevalent in have blended very high income countries among people who have wealth and they can support those moments. Yeah tb with thankfully. I got you know we're moving towards that yet. Was a lot of efforts. Now people with lived experience will coming forward advocating against tokenism for right food feet at the decision making table. But it's really been spurred would say in large part by the hesitant rollout of these new drugs that have come about in over four and five decades. This is the first time was you knew. Tb drugs come out and so it's the first time our community has had to come out and say wait a minute. Don't hesitate make their access equitable. And now there's a reason to settle rally the troops and demand access and and really spearhead advocacy efforts in tb. That's it for today's episode. As always this episode would not be possible without the time and expertise of our gracious guests. Dr june new pasera fortune and dr amrita after many. Thanks.

today first time june new pasera nineteen eighty s. five decades dr over four amrita Dr
"tuberculosis" Discussed on Raw Talk Podcast

Raw Talk Podcast

05:06 min | 2 years ago

"tuberculosis" Discussed on Raw Talk Podcast

"It's been six to nine months of antibiotic therapy and even has come down now to as little as a couple of months a once week. Twelve doses of a single pill so really really seeing some headway in this direction. But not all. Tv's easy to treat drug resistant tb. For example is very severe very debilitating complicated diagnose requires one to two years of treatment with at least eight plus medicines which translate to. I don't know anywhere from fifteen to twenty five calls a day so that really where we need greater investment and there's new human now on the horizon so i'm very much looking forward to their will out because he requires daily doses of oral medication to cure. That often have side effects. I've heard it's really important. That patients take their medications every day to avoid the development of drug resistance. Find it really. Interesting that tb is a reportable illness. Which means that. The government gets notified of every positive test result. Every country has not be control program known as dots so what's dots dots strategy that was adopted by the w retrial. Back in the nineteen nineties. A has sort of five key amend this political commitment financing things case detection based on high-quality tests standardized treatment together with patient support and supervision of thousand votes supply management system and a monitoring screen evaluation to measure impact the acronym really came about from desire direct observational treatment. Dot which is the practice of direct absorbing a patient. Heat that medicines or just their pills rda basis to ensure that they remain here into treatment. Yeah as a means to prevent transmission 'cause if you're taking medicines your urine calling the bacteria spreading Else this really came about at a time. When tv rates it spiraled out of control and primarily because of a rise of hiv which was leading sort of driver tv epidemic in in parts of southern africa and also the because those arising resistance to tv in many many parts of the wall so w israel needed to find universal strategy to to control the epidemic. But we really shift away from that approach. Now have something called the end. Tb strategy it's the latest blueprint for global tb response. It does look for political commitment. It still has many of the tenants of that. It's he's communities and civil society is a huge player in the in the fight and It a is trying to address issues on equity human rights. Patient centered care. So there's progressively lead Autonomy taken away now because there's really no other disease no other condition in the entire world where we've decided. This is the way that we need to monitor patients. Tomato cbs's literally the only disease where dot has been the mainstay treatment monitoring so there are there things which you know. People have really used dog in a patient way. The toronto public health program for example users dot As yes. they're observing the patient. Take medicine but they're also using that opportunity to connect to the patient to explore..

six Twelve doses one fifteen southern africa nine months two years nineteen nineties twenty five calls a day a couple of months least eight plus medicines a single pill israel five key once week thousand
"tuberculosis" Discussed on Raw Talk Podcast

Raw Talk Podcast

05:33 min | 2 years ago

"tuberculosis" Discussed on Raw Talk Podcast

"Twenty thirteen believe we. We complete the whole genome sequencing for thirteen. Different abusive distributes including some of the most widely used is japan. Bis gerasch show to cleanest jazz to americans jan basic geographical for the british basic Basically around Thirteen different Around the world and once will connect all the data than the the biggest question. Is you know it doesn't matter the genetic mutation. How do you coordinate the with the idea which gene mutation of faxes the africa's. That's the most difficult questions. So we went back to the his historic data. The lot of study done inkling to study looking at both the efficacy and imagine is not unfortunately as mentioned as a number to try to down nobody has able compelled to different abuses trance. Inducing trial so it is difficult to compare different language. Fires you know because so many variables so essentially we don't have any data to suggest whether one pieces substrate is better than the others horrible. You know nineteen seventies after the debris to realize maybe some differences among the basic gist chin produce. Different country. the asta everyone to freeze dried to preserve it. They also did. The study compelled even abusive stress and they look at it. Immune response so basically necessities so there was a study that publish ninety seven and four compare about eleven different strengths in children and the notice just looking at the immune response the pd reactivity basically and they found that the Proc consistent is on ultralight. It has mushroomed ingenuity compared to other passages students now in two thousand or so when we look at it the Proc genome secrets. And i noted that was a single after that insertion in one of the gene. Kofu psy Four auditory component transition factor for for the mtv and this single incision disrupt the dean abandonment of the she. So i immediately back to the data that people the updated data that shows Prices a lillian juicy. And because the food Act positively actively a number of entities. So i thought this could be the reason. So that was the first crew week with since we found one gene that's important for the ingenuity and potentially advocacy so we dissect tested ideas. How we would basically company manila-based With a.

thirteen ninety seven Twenty thirteen two thousand four nineteen seventies japan one pieces british both Prices a lillian africa first crew week food Act one one gene Thirteen Kofu eleven different single
'There's No Quick Fix For COVID-19,' Cautions Pennsylvania Secretary Of Health

All Things Considered

07:56 min | 2 years ago

'There's No Quick Fix For COVID-19,' Cautions Pennsylvania Secretary Of Health

"Going to talk more now about how states are preparing to distribute those vaccines as they become available, and to do that, we're joined by Dr Rachel Levine. She is the Pennsylvania health secretary and also president of the Association of State Health Officials. Dr Levine welcome 12 Things considered. Thank you very much. I'm very pleased to be here. Will you walk us through the logistics for when Pennsylvania first receives its initial shipments of vaccines? I mean, where does it go? How do you keep it cold? What do you actually have to do? Sure. So we're all waiting the meeting of the FDA on December 10th. And then they will consider all of the data of submitted by the Fizer Corporation for the first vaccine. When they issue their emergency use authorization or you away, then operation Warp speed will distribute the vaccine. To hospitals in Pennsylvania and throughout the nation just to get specific is the federal government or or fives or corporation, sending it to the state of Pennsylvania to distribute it to hospitals. I I asked, because this vaccine has to be kept incredibly cold. It's not just like you can send a bottle of aspirin, right? So you are correct. This is an ultra cold chain vaccine that has to be kept at minus 80 C or or Celsius. So it will be operation works speed that will be sending it to the hospitals that we designate now will depend, of course about how much we're going to get, and it comes in trays of 975 bottles. So these have to be hospitals that can Deal with the cold chain and can deal with that amount of vaccine to then administer. Now, the CDC recommends that health care workers and residents of long term care facilities should get first access to these vaccines. That's a large number of people have you decided whether you're going to start With older healthcare workers or people with underlying conditions are only doctors and nurses who see covert patients. I mean, how are you going to prioritize within the priority groups? Sure. So we're going to be developing a decision tree for hospitals to use and we'll be finishing that this week. I want to point out that the distribution for the nursing home and other long term kitchen facilities Goes in a different way. So operation works speed working with Walgreens and CVS will be receiving the vaccine with those two pharmaceutical companies, and then they will be working to administer the vaccine in nursing homes and other long term care facilities. Do you have a sense of how many doses The first shipment is likely to include and how that compares to the number of people in this top priority. First group, so we don't exactly know how many doses we're going to get in the first shipment. So you know, we had lots of discussions with Operation Warp speed, you know, will be looking to attack the end of next week or certainly when they're going to be sent out to know exactly how many doses we're going to get in the first week. And then the expectation our weekly shipments to the hospitals and to Walgreens and CVS for those distributions. I gotta ask a lot of depending here on the ability of operation Warp speed to carry this out effectively And with Corona virus testing, the federal government kind of fell down. I mean, There weren't enough tests. Some of the tests were not accurate. Initially. How confident are you in the ability of this Trump Administration program to get this very difficult job done? We have heard directly from General Purna. You know, we have confidence in them, but I'm sure it will be a significant logistical challenge. This has to occur throughout the United States, all at the same time to all of the states, the territories. And then some specific large cities. And are you also concerned about the smooth handoff from one administration to another? I mean, if the distribution depends on Operation Warp speed, which is a Trump administration program will the Trump Administration only has so many more weeks in office. Now, the Department of Defense under General Karna, you know, will still be there in terms of continuity, But in terms of the representatives from helping human services and the administration, we would like to think that they'll be robust conversation. Nation and communication as the administration transitions. Obviously, that has not happened as much as it should have yet, But we're hoping that all those communications will be going on forthcoming. Just to get back to the scale of the logistical challenge here. This is a vaccine requires two doses weeks apart. Do you have the infrastructure to track and time who has had a first dose when yes, we do. But that is a information technology challenge in terms of making sure that we get the right vaccine into the right person at the right time. And then not only the visor vaccine, but the Madonna vaccine that also is a to dose vaccine. We've heard so many states talk about the extreme budget pressure that they are under and this is an expensive undertaking. Do you have the money? You need to do it? And if not, do you think the federal government is ready to provide it well, it will be essential for the federal government to provide more funding to the States territories in cities that will be tasked with ministering the vaccine. Operation works speed cost billions and billions for the development of the vaccine on Lee $340 million has been allocated for the next part of the mission, the distribution and the administration so clearly states and territories and cities. They're going to need more funding from the federal government to finish and accomplish this mission. These issues you're talking about could occupy you for more than 40 hours a week every week, and you are at the same time dealing with a spike in Corona virus cases and having to contact trace people who may have come in contact with exposed individuals, overcrowded hospitals. How are you juggling all of this at once? Well again. This is the public health challenge of a lifetime. I don't think any of us have seen a 40 hour week. You know, in our memories I stand corrected three ways to deal with the pandemic. You can work on containment that involved the testing and contact tracing very hard to contain a virus that has spread this far. For example, Today we are reporting 11 over 11,000 new cases. In Pennsylvania. It's impossible to contact that many people, so we have to prioritize. We prioritize to congregate, setting such as nursing homes and other long term care facilities, Correctional institutions, schools, etcetera, Then we have mitigation. Basic mitigation sets his mass and hand washing and social distancing. And then in Pennsylvania, you know we had to have a stay at home advisory. And you know, we have really tried to recommend that people avoid not only large gatherings but small gatherings. And then they'll be the vaccine those of the tools and the public health to box that we have to work with. When you're dealing with community spread on the level that we are seeing now, where there is so much of this disease and so much transmission of it. Do you have to change your approach? I mean it, Zeke gone from hand to hand combat to fighting an army out. Imagine it has And so the basic public health tool of containment, which we would do for a small measles outbreak or for it outbreak of tuberculosis? That is extremely difficult for public health to do when we're seeing this type of widespread community transmission, and then we have to pivot to more and more mitigation. It's a very unpopular it is made public health officials sometimes unpopular throughout the nation, but they're absolutely essential to try to stop the spread. And then we have the light at the end of the tunnel, which is the vaccine, but there's no quick fix to hope in 19. After Rachel Levine, Pennsylvania Health Secretary and president of the Association of State Health officials. Thank you for talking with us in the middle of everything else that you were doing. My pleasure. Thank you very much.

Pennsylvania Trump Administration Federal Government Dr Rachel Levine Association Of State Health Of Dr Levine Fizer Corporation Walgreens General Karna FDA CDC Department Of Defense Madonna United States Corona LEE Zeke
The Road to Bouillon

Gastropod

05:09 min | 2 years ago

The Road to Bouillon

"Today's story starts as soon as many good stories. Do with a german chemist whose family vig was one of the people who invented modern chemistry as a field and his contributions are vast in laboratory science and culture in nutrition. And once again we have the wonderful flavor historian nadia bernstein on the show and for the purposes of today's episode leagues contributions to agriculture are. Not the most important. We're interested in his nutrition. Science at the time in the eighteen hundreds scientists were hard work trying to understand. What the heck food actually was. This is kind of what chemists were up to you back then in the nineteenth century they were like. There's all of this stuff in the world what is it made of. Let's figure it out and name it. It's not just name it but decide which bits of it were essential chemists. Were trying to break food down into its elemental parts and understand exactly which parts we needed to survive in the eighteen thirties. Scientists named and identified protein and they found it particularly fascinating so why not just keep breaking things down was the trend at the time and scientists noticed that different protein-rich foods seem to be made up of slightly different building blocks. These are what we call amino acids today. If you think about proteins as molecules i mean most of us aren't thinking about perkins molecules. But if you imagine it it's sort of long molecule that's composed of a lot of different component parts of which are amino acids and what hydrolysis is basically this process of blasting that big molecule apart into these constituent pieces. This is in fact. Exactly what did hydrolysis he took hydrochloric acid and used it to break down or dissolve matt and then figure out what the different kinds of amino acids were lee bigs. Big breakthrough was identifying one particular amino acid creating which he then also found in the muscles of living animals. He found it in especially high levels in the muscles of a fox that died while it was running. And that's what led him to the conclusion that creating was the key to muscle action. People had been claiming that meat was important for health for a really long time but leagues contribution was to show at least based on his science at the time that the protein in meat was critical for muscles and so it was an essential component of a nutritious diet. League went as far as to say that the protein element of food was the only true nutrient meet. Was it said when his friend's daughter came down with typhoid league. Knew exactly what she needed me but she was too sick to digest solid foods. So league took some cook chicken. He grounded up. He soaked it in hydrochloric acid to dissolve it altogether at what he thought was critical creating. Then he added another chemical to neutralize the acid and turn it into table salt and then he gave the young girl this salty savory broth and she recovered and this led to what became one of his most popular discoveries at the time league was able to use chemistry to create a modern version of beef tea leaf. Tea had been popular with the sensitive and the sick leave for a few decades. The idea was that invalids. He were too delicate to eat. A great big steak could still get all its goodness by boiling that stake in water straining it and then drinking the resulting meat juices. Basically the idea is if your sickly. If you're wasting away with any of the numerous diseases that may have afflicted the dickensian populace mid nineteenth century. What you want to do is to get an easily and readily absorbable. Both sort of strengthening food of protein leagues was different from traditional beef t. He didn't need to boil meat for hours. To break it down. He could use hydrochloric acid to league. This meant he could keep in more of the good stuff from meat in the broth. He thought boiling. It was less effective. So liebenberg's beefed. He was kind of this. Concentrate at this sort of hydrolysed blasted part beef proteins made into a liquid broth that sickly little orphans and delicate women could sip and thus beyond the way to restoring their health lee big published his beef tea formula and a quickly became all the rage with fragile elite searching for something to pep up their delicate constitution pharmacists would make up a big batch. Evaporated and zealot under the name extract. Carney's extractive meet. It was classified as a legal drug. in germany. in fact it was considered so essential that pharmacists were required to keep it in stock. Doctors reported that league's formula for extractives. Carney's could be useful for tuberculosis. Typhus various dumped arrangements. and scruffy. One doctor said it could be a useful substitute for brandy and cases of exhaustion. Depression and despondency. I'd rather have a brandy but the point is leaving. High tech version of beef d. was a wonder drug in the eighteen fifties. It was thought of as a way to give the goodness of muscle forming meat to the week in puny

Nadia Bernstein VIG Perkins Typhoid Matt Liebenberg Carney Typhus Germany Tuberculosis Depression
Janet Martinez Of The Navajo Nation

The Storyteller

06:00 min | 2 years ago

Janet Martinez Of The Navajo Nation

"Style. Good day welcome my friends to the storyteller where you'll find first nations people from across native north america who are following. Jesus christ without reservation on today's program we'll hear from a navajo woman who grew up in difficult circumstances but it was in those hard times that she learned to survive. Hello my name is janet martinez manappl- ending from the novel reservation. Though i'm in oklahoma now where ken and having a family here. My thoughts always back to the childhood. That i have had under vacation. I have two brothers and one sister that i grew up with and My father was the fifth generation of medicine. Man my two brothers never took up the trade so he was the end of the medicine men in our generation. My mother was A high school graduate and was attended a nursing school when she Got sick and she had to return home. She was one of two children of my grandmother. Who was who was a deaf mute. So that's how my father mother matt. He was married to my aunt and since she came back and started taking care of my oldest brother. I never thought of him as As a cousin. We've always said you know he will. All brothers and sisters would never made that distinction between the family but she had returned home and she died of tuberculosis. My mother and dad got together like that. Taking care of the the one son that he's had and eventually they had gotten together and hit the three of us which We grew up on a reservation. Like i said my two older brothers and my sister went to private school on reservation. They called ganado mission but My family always well especially my dad. He always wanted me around. Hit at want me to leave. He said that three kids had gone on to a private school. And but this is my last daughter out you know. Let me let me. Just keep her at home. Some of the head agreed. And i went to cornell. Highschool ganado is a little bitty town probably about ten miles or fifteen miles from st michael's and it was a public school but was About six years old. When i first started kindergarten because my aunt had died of tuberculosis my mother head caught that the burqa losses and also my grandmother and so they were sent to colorado springs for two years to sanatorium to get well and come back and she made that sacrifice for my sister and i to go to that boarding school all we did were were housed there and then we were bus. After two years. She was cured and she came back to the reservation. We went back with our father in Went to the public school. We got we move closer to the highway. Which will walk in like about eight miles to the highway to catch the bus in the during the wintertime. That was real trying time for us and so we move closer to the highway which was like a quarter of mile off highway. We move to continue to go to canario graduated from colorado high school. But all during this time. That i was going to school and in my My teenage years my parents. My mother didn't drink but my father was an alcoholic. I remember him times coming home and beating up my mom and pour wine on her head because she wouldn't drink it and it was. It was a very scary time for for my sister's nine. Somehow sometimes we she would get away and she takes the two of us and we run away and stay in the woods and just huddled together and freeze and until he went to slave or he passed out or you know our gone went somewhere would come home and it was. It was difficult childhood that we've had but still my mother didn't drink and so that was. That was good for us. But for some reason she started drinkin- we were when i was about eight years old. I had a couple of beers and just graduated by the time i graduated from high school. She was a full blown alcoholic. I mean it just. It just took care of everything from from our home. They were never home. When you're under the summertime out of school. I would have to herd sheep with my death mute grandmother. We were out there weeks at a time and they would never return home that go on a drunk and they'd never come and there was times that we just practically run out of food and so i told my grandmother one day i was probably ten or eleven which is out of food and she head she had noted some grease in the some lard in a little pain and she put salt in it and she and i had a piece of bread and we just dip our bread and in the in the make sure there was what we had for dinner

Janet Martinez Manappl Ganado Mission Tuberculosis North America Jesus Christ Colorado High School Oklahoma KEN St Michael Matt Cornell Colorado Springs
The Skeptics Guide

The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe

06:24 min | 2 years ago

The Skeptics Guide

"Hello and welcome to the skeptics guide to the universe today. Is Wednesday June third twenty twenty and this is your host. Steven Novella joining me this week or Bob Novella everybody Cara Santa Maria, had a Jay Novella Guys Evan? Bernstein good evening. Folks you all doing today well pretty. Trying hard, it's been a tough week and a tough week. That's happened since our last show. A little bit co vid. UPDATES I like we usually do so. The numbers are continued to increase of course, but you know in the US definitely is a leveling off. The parts of the country that peaked I are starting are the the new cases, the number of new cases are declining, but some other parts of the country where that peaked later are still on the upswing, and some are even spiking a little bit, and so we're you know again as I said before beginning that transition to the next phase where we're starting to partially roll things out, and I think the next month or two. Two is going to really tell a lot about how things are going to go, you know. Do you think that's because like the most populated cities it did tend to peak I and so even if like the more rural areas or suburban or less populated areas are now starting to see their cases peaking, it's just like in terms of gross numbers. Fewer people yeah I. Think so. Yeah, this is Dan. We're definitely getting into the more rural phase of the spread of the virus now right absolutely plus also in the news. No zombies have showed up yet Let's get. Out about that a little of both j little both all right Bob I'll I'll surprise you. One of these nights I'll come over your house. I'll dress up. I'll do the whole thing. But I imagine. How another hydroxy chloroquine study came out. This one showing does not protect people from acquiring Kovic. So you can give it as a preventive to people who are not does not reduce their risk of getting it. On the good side the study, the first study of convalescent convalescent plasma plasma from people who are who covered nineteen and got better. Show that it was safe. This was an open label trial. Not Out of control try. This is a phase. One safety trial showed that it was safe, and the I think it was like twenty people, or whatever in the study they rose more than ever one thousand nine of them recovered, so they they did. They did well the. Test, yeah, yes. This April plasma is with antibodies and so again not wasn't an efficacy trial, so we can't say really that it works based on this trial. We didn't feel them, but yeah, but it looked. It looks preliminarily positive, but we'd now. This will pave the way for for an efficacy trial where we compare it to. Control. So that's good and. Now half with you my second week working in the hospital and he'll nap. Have you had a recent test? Now? I've been tested. They're only testing happy only testing symptomatic hype. Initially we record the show last week I'd only were there for a few days and it is a bit of a shock know after two months of being in lockdown to be stroll around the hospital. Full of sick people was. Different experience. Culture shock yeah in a way, but now I'm sort of seeing the other side of it. Yeah I think we got this lockdown pretty tight in that. The people working in the hospital are all really diligent. What I mean like everyone's wearing a mask wearing gloves washing in and out of patient rooms are guarding the protective gear you know. Doing doing social. And and you know we've made lots of workflow changes. You know we're not doing the on mass rounds that we used to do. We've really changed how how we're doing things and they'll probably be like the new normal for quite some time absolutely. The next year's fair Paris fashion show is going to be you know gowns and masks, and all sorts of protective equipment might be you never. Know. What it! Might be, that's just how how interesting so I mean this is this is. A risk of four hundred and fifty thousand people, healthcare workers have contracted covid nineteen around the world. Aches so. Out Obviously it's a higher risk than. Being in the hospital I. Mean you think about it? A hospital is the worst place to be. Spreading disease covert, which was thinking about it, so it's a space. Building. Con- confined to some extent with tons of people. Many of whom are sick and you're people, large groups of people are moving around the hospital like literally going into different patients rooms. You know what I mean, so it's like it's a complete setup for the trainer allows all of totally this is why. The precautions have been have been increasing over the course of my career. You know over the course of historical time as infectious diseases get more menacing, and this is just the latest iteration of that, and I do think that there's going to be permanent changes to how hospitals functions function in response to covert one, thousand, nine, hundred, probably because over nineteen, going to be a permanent addition to our Germans fear so. Did you like there were changes after after Mersa started to become A. Hundred thousand people are in hospital. I mean there's there's specific protocols. If someone's mercer positive as specific protocol associated with that I, have one patient on my service now. WHO's positive? It's a gown and glove. Every time you go in, and that's always been the case since mercer was discovered. And it's very common so same things same things with other antibiotic resistant. Bacteria and also certain respiratory. Infections and tuberculosis like every time there's a new big infectious disease pretty much permanently changes practice, so, but the thing is so i. am feeling better I. think in a way is like we got this. You know we're doing everything we can do. We're of minimizing it. The professionalism is definitely there and I think. Healthcare workers is getting more experience with covenant. We're learning a lot about it, so we're sort of getting a grip on it, but there's just no way around the fact that it's a risk and that already there's been a huge price paid by healthcare workers for for being on

Bob Novella Steven Novella Mercer United States Bernstein Cara Santa Maria Chloroquine Evan Paris Kovic DAN Infections Aches Tuberculosis Mersa
The coronavirus may surge this Australian winter. Here's why

Coronacast

03:42 min | 2 years ago

The coronavirus may surge this Australian winter. Here's why

"Monday the first of June the first of winter. And give it is beginning of winter. Maybe we could talk about whether we can expect things to get worse as we come into the called a months. Do We know Norman? What effect it has? On covid nineteen transmission, the short answer to that question is that the experts think it probably will make a difference, but it depends in which environment you're in so in countries where you've got a rising epidemic, pandemic or very large numbers of cases, you probably won't notice the difference of winter, but you could in places like Australia in New Zealand where we've got very little virus around in a small increase could give you a significant blip. And essentially what we're talking about here is that we're indoors more more likely to transmit the virus to other people indoors. We've spoken about before is the high risk area it could be that the environment in winter favors the virus as well because it does other corona viruses, so you would expect it to get a little bit worse winter, but you might not notice it in amongst the noise in countries like the United States in the United Kingdom. You might notice it in Australia one of the things that we were sort of worried about. About, a few months ago is coming into winter. At the same time of these new pandemic was that perhaps it was going to coincide with the flu season, but everyone's staying harm. So is it a we? Is that still something that we're worried about? Or maybe? Is it going to be a good season for US hard to know? We are now coming back out of isolation, and maybe I'll be that seasonal flu remarriages, but there's also been quite a high uptake of influenza immunization, so it remains to be seen what we see about. Flu But you would expect seasonal flu to make a bit of a resurgence as we get out and about a bit more over the next few weeks. Another thing that we were hearing a bit more over the weekend about was this name that just won't go away. The Ruby Princess so passengers on board. The Ruby Princess cruise have have led to one of the biggest current of ours clusters, but there's been another health warning issued around that boat. A cream has been diagnosed with tuberculosis. Yes, you another reason not to call on crucial think, but you know just when you thought it was safe to go out here's somebody with Berko losses. The probably health artists are saying that the risk is low to other people on the ship, which it certainly lower than corona virus. Temecula losses can actually be quite infectious. Just remind you what this is this is. An inch a very very ancient disease. It's been around longer. Probably than humans have been around and was scourged, particularly in the nineteenth century, causes a lung disease, but can affects your kidneys can almost any part of your body, so it's pretty nasty and high high degree of fatality particularly if you're immune, compromised such as HIV AIDS. You can get clusters of tuberculosis. I covered the story a story a few years ago and outbreak of tuberculosis in Adelaide and when the traced back the outbreak, it was sprayed. It was a man on boss. He caught the bus each morning from the Adelaide hills down into the city, and he spread it to other people on the bus. So Tobacco can be infectious, but it's not as infectious as corona virus. Do We know given byes? Lung Diseases is they a people with take a at higher risk of complications from Iris very good question. Don't know the answer to it intuitively. You'd say yes, you've got. Got Pommery TB you would be you. You'd think that you're more susceptible. although TV does funny things to your immune system, and that may affect responses well to the corona virus, because sometimes the things going on in your lungs and the immune response, they are helped to dampen the immune response to covid nineteen, so it's complicated story, but I don't think anybody's published on that yet.

FLU United States Lung Diseases Australia Norman Adelaide Adelaide Hills United Kingdom Iris HIV New Zealand Aids
The Future of Surveillance

Coronavirus: Fact vs Fiction

05:30 min | 2 years ago

The Future of Surveillance

"The cove in nineteen pandemic is changing our lives in so many ways. And what's going to happen in? The future is still unclear. Are we going to have to download APPS? Will those under quarantine have to wear responds? Will we BE SCANNED FOR FEVERS? Every time we step into an office or restaurant I've been hearing all sorts of questions like these so I wanted to speak with Jennifer nozoe. She's an epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. I wanted to know what role technology might play in our fight against this pandemic. Could we soon be using these contact tracing APPs here in the United States I think it's inevitable and in fact it's actually already happening? That public health agencies are going to use APPS to help them conduct contact tracing whether these APPs fundamentally change tact tracing is done remains to be seen. I personally it would be a little bit worried if we used APPs instead of people. It's not clear to me that we would get better data that way. The question is how are we going to use it? And what features of the technology are we going to use? It's one thing to use it to keep track of data and to help you analyzed data. It's another thing to use it to figure out exactly where someone's been over the last fourteen days and I think there are some important operational questions that need to be answered about those approaches as well as some potential legal and ethical questions we do use contact tracing in this country for other diseases. A lot of people are hearing this term for the first time but with foodborne illnesses and things like that. That already happens right yeah. It's a traditional tool of public health. Tr- instance in tuberculosis outbreaks measles outbreaks. And there is You know case investigations that happened with Woodward outbreaks to I would say the frequency with which it's used has probably decreased in recent years purely due to resources it's incredibly resource intensive to do contact tracing as public health departments over recent years have suffered budget cuts and declining resources their abilities to do contact tracing has declined and that's I think one of the unfortunate kind of preparedness erosions that we've seen over time that we're now in the midst of a pandemic trying to make up for by hiring possibly hundreds of thousands of new contact tracers when you think about the APP based technologies again in merging that with some of these human contact tracers to help supplement that sort of work. Can you give some idea of what life would look like then so there are a few different approaches? There's one method where the phone tracks your movement things off of Cell Towers and it knows where you've been and authorities potentially could take advantage of the ability of your phone to say where you've been to once you become a case potentially look back at where you've been for the last fourteen days and then use that to identify places where you may have exposed people to try to get in touch with people who may have also been at that same place. There are other approaches. Where you use the phone's ability to kind of tell who you've been near and to try to find people that you may have exposed that way that's seen as slightly less invasive because it's more about identifying who's been near you rather than exactly determining where you've been typically in the US and we do contact tracing it starts with an interview where you ask the patient basically remember all the places they've been when you're talking about fourteen days though it can be tough for people to remember exactly and so sometimes you have to use other methods to maybe fill in the gaps for instance for foodborne outbreaks. We try to figure out where you spend money over the last fourteen days as a proxy for where you may have been but we haven't yet in the. Us seen widespread use of the cellphone based technologies the Location Services or the more Bluetooth ones. That tell you who you've been Aaron. I think there has been some interest in potentially using these technologies but in my view these are the ones that have some questions around them in terms of public acceptability and what the limitations for their use are. So what does this mean for all of us? Are we moving toward big brother surveillance? State government officials are now calling upon Silicon Valley's tech leaders to try and help. We need to view this as an information problem when we need to come up with estimates for where the disease is and when we can find hotspots. Put Schmidt used to be the CEO of Google. Now he's leading up a fifteen member commission to help guide New York toward using new technology in the wake of Kovic. Nineteen the Google Apple. Collaboration preserves your privacy but it's completely voluntary apple and Google are collaborating to develop software that would enable Bluetooth base tracking on their devices if users opt in this data would be shared with governments and public health authorities and then there's clear view a facial recognition technology company. What we do is we have database from day one of over three billion photos. We have a mobile APP and a desktop and we also have the highest accuracy out there in the market. The company claims that they can scan public surveillance camera footage to identify people who might have been in contact with confirmed corona virus patients last month they told NBC News that they're already in talks with several state and federal agencies to help with contact tracing

Google United States Johns Hopkins Center For Healt Fevers Jennifer Nozoe Nbc News Apple Cell Towers Woodward Silicon Valley New York Measles Tuberculosis Aaron CEO Schmidt
How Infectious Disease Shaped American Bathroom Design

Short Wave

07:58 min | 2 years ago

How Infectious Disease Shaped American Bathroom Design

"The next time you go to take a trip to the loo look around because Elizabeth. Yuko bioethicist journalist. Wants you to know that. A lot of the things in our bathrooms are designed the way they are in part because of infectious disease the sink the toilet the bathtub. The toothbrush holder didn't expect that one towel racks the floor. I have white tile floor and White House in the wall so pretty much. You're telling me like almost all of the above. Yes Elizabeth wrote about this story for city lap to Bricusse cholera. The flu as our understanding of these diseases evolved how they spread the role hygiene plays and preventing them. So did the American bathroom and when we realized that built architecture and design could have some sort of influence on our health that became something that people wanted to adopt within their own homes today on the show. We present a brief toilet timeline and talk about how the current pandemic could bring about a new wave of bathroom. Related Innovation Now I think I'm going to be thinking about the bathrooms a lot more than usual. You're welcome we're talking with Elizabeth. Yuko about how infectious disease influenced the American bathroom. So let's start in the mid to late. Eighteen hundreds when Elizabeth says we started seeing the first sanitation and sewer networks in urban centers around the country. This made indoor plumbing possible so if you were wealthy there might be a small sink in the corner of your bedroom but it did take folks awhile to come around to the indoor toilet the toilets at this point. We're still outdoors even though while your families could put them in the house. There was this idea that sewer gases asthma's were coming up through the toilet and could make you sick so they were still using chamber pots in the House. And then having an outhouse to go outside so These chamber pots. If a you know wanting to spruce place up a bit had a wooden box that went over it and they were pretty looking sometimes. Intricately carved wooden boxes to stop. Hide the fact that it's a pot that you go to the bathroom and in your home. I wasn't sure you were going to send a theater so I'm going out together. It was a journey. So yes once that became a fixture then when bathrooms themselves sorted springing up and bathtubs became the norm and indoor plumbing became more prominent the fixtures. The bathroom work typically covered in would not the insides but the exterior parts of the toilet. The bathtub sink anything to make them look like real furniture and not part of a bathroom. Because at this point we still don't want we don't think about what we do in the bathroom and you know anything could make it look than that was was seen as a good idea in that changed right like in the Early Twentieth Century Nineteen early nineteen hundreds Kinda shifted away from would. Why was that so would was dark and porous and at this point we realized that germ theory was a thing and do that. These little crevices could house dirt and germs and dust and so the idea was to make everything as clean as possible and as easy to clean as possible so would really was not a great option. Especially this like intricately carved Victorian patterned would that they had all over their bathrooms and then also Taurean bathrooms. You had heavy drapery around the windows wallpaper. Sometimes rugs carpeting so it was a very kind of ornate plush kind of fuzzy set up in these Victorian bathrooms and that will change. Thank God essentially medical folks were able to convince people that indoor toilets connected to a public sewer system were better at stopping the spread of infectious disease. Also around this time. Elizabeth says there was a quote sanitation craze. Which meant goodbye. Would Hello Enamel. So a lot of brands would use sanitation as kind of marketing technique. Like we're the most sanitary restaurant or something like that. So this was something that was catching on and colour pre you probably know from toilets and bathtubs they pay your type of enamel that went over cast iron for bathtubs which then became our became used in the rest of the bathroom as well and that was marketed. As being sanitary hygienic right in in like someone around that time there was like a huge amount of curriculum in these communities and tuberculosis actually played a role in our bathroom design. Right yes because in the time before antibiotics rest sunlight and fresh air were the best known cures treatments for circular and when people got sick they if they had the opportunity went to a to Burkina Sanatorium to cure and these were purpose built. Buildings really had a big windows. Make sure there's enough and elation and sunlight air everything inside was white and easily cleaned and this idea of having the sterile white healing environment caught on for sin hospitals but then also when people's homes. Yeah so what about influenza? How did that shape things in in bathrooms back then so after the in one thousand nine hundred eighteen flu epidemic which also coincided with high levels of October Kilo says? There is an idea of having a second bathroom on the ground floor of your home. And this is in wealthier homes where you had an indoor bathroom little onto and yet here was that because we're getting daily deliveries things like ice and coal. You had this delivery person who was traipsing around your neighborhood. Going into all of your neighbor's homes picking up. Who knows what type of diseases and then coming into your home. So this person to wash their hands or use the restroom. While they're in your home they could do so right on the ground floor without having to go up the stairs and use the family's personal bathroom and spread germs up there which is so brilliant. I mean it's like it makes so much intuitive sense to me and I guess I never really thought about like the powder room being a bathroom for the stranger. I thought about it in like weird. I don't know what kind of Weird Puritan things are going on my mind but it was like away so you don't have use my bathroom in. I don't have to be embarrassed but it makes way more sense that it's like a bathroom that keeps people from coming all the way into your house. Yeah Brilliant Brilliant. Bathroom stuff okay. So can I just ask about one? Specific thing short is going on with like the fuzzy rugs and like the Fuzzy toilet seat covers. Why Elizabeth tell me why those exist. I wish I had better answers but once we got to a point where we understood germ theory. We had antibiotics. We're pretty confident. In our ability to cure ourselves of a lot of these illnesses. We got a little lazy when it came to decoration. Although lazy is not really the word. It's less focused on sanitation and hygiene and we had a vacuum cleaner and a washing machine. Just tossed that thing in the Washer and everything would be fine so we stopped thinking as much about how easy things to wipe or clean. And that's when stuff like. That came into bathrooms. So how do you think you know? It's it's it's hard to talk about this without thinking about the fact obviously that we are in the middle of a pandemic that might shape. You know or probably will shape us in a lot of different ways. Do you think bathrooms are going to change now after this virus outbreak? I don't know if they're gonNA change but one thing that I did write about was Lloyd alter one of the people interviewed from the Ryerson School of Interior Design He predicted that. We'll see a rise of vestibules and sink specifically end vestibules. So since they will you encounter as soon as you walk into. Someone's home so you could wash your hands right away And I think that absolutely makes sense. Yeah I I've started coming in my house through the back door because my kitchen sink is right there just to like wash my hands immediately when I come in the house if I leave. Yes we think that will be moving forward. That will be a focus and think any design is really going to be made with. What if we have to self isolate for months at a time again? We might have a day for example. Because you know that's not something that is common in America as it is in other parts of the world but now as people running at toilet paper. They're seeing that. It's actually a pretty great invention you know. I know that as journalists were not supposed to be political. But I'll just say I'm prob- A day and I just keep thinking about how much toilet paper I wouldn't need right now if I had one. Yeah I I'm pro day as well and And a user as well so it's yes I'm a fan and I'm glad that I mean I wish it didn't go pandemic for us to realize this is a useful thing but I'm I'm glad we're there. Yeah so you wrote about how overtime humans kind of went back and forth between responding to you know like trauma that comes along with massive infectious disease by trying to make ourselves feel a little bit more comfortable or by implementing design features that make our homes and bodies easier to clean. And I just think it's going to be kind of interesting. You know what combination of those things happen with corona virus. Have you thought about that? Yes I think? A lot of people probably have even if they haven't realized it because the past few weeks we've been spending almost all of time in our own homes staring at the walls of our house or apartment in ways that we probably never had before. And so whether we're in the bathroom washing our hands for twenty second intervals or for sitting in the kitchen or living room looking at how we've decorated moving forward. Republicans take this pandemic and this time you've spent at home into consideration when making design choices right and I think there's going to be like kind of a renewed focus about even just like thinking of those spaces because you know I didn't think about the fact that I needed to come in and wash my hands as soon as I came from the outside until this and so now I know this seems silly but like I enter my house differently now. It's not silly. It's I mean. We have to adapt changes because of public health situations all the time and this is just another example of that okay. Elizabeth honestly thank you so much for this piece so so interesting. Thank you so much. Glad someone else's enthusiastic about bathrooms. Also I mean yes I mean seriously though. I will not think of a bathroom the same way when I enter it now. And that's on you. I'm touched

Elizabeth Yuko Bioethicist Influenza White House Early Twentieth Century Ninete Tuberculosis Burkina Sanatorium Ryerson School Of Interior Des America Lloyd
South Africa's TB, HIV history prepares it for virus testing

AP News Radio

00:37 sec | 2 years ago

South Africa's TB, HIV history prepares it for virus testing

"South Africa one of the world's most unequal countries with a large population vulnerable to the new coronavirus may have an advantage in the outbreak honed during years battling HIV and tuberculosis the know how and infrastructure to conduct mass testing health experts stress not the best way to slow the spread of the virus is through extensive testing the quick quarantine of people who are positive and tracking who those people came into contact with the most people the new coronavirus causes mild or moderate symptoms but for some it can cause severe illness and death I'm Charles de Ledesma

South Africa HIV Charles De Ledesma
Airborne, Explained

Reset

07:58 min | 2 years ago

Airborne, Explained

"There's lot of conflicting information out there right now about whether or not this novel. Corona virus is airborne as recently as this month. Some public health officials have said that it's not airborne but I just needed to confirm. This is the corner virus able from what we knew. It's not a gun. It's spread by droplets. We certainly stone. Cnn evidence of airborne spread in based on our local experience. The virus is not airborne. This is very different than infections that are transmitted by the airborne route such as measles. Roxanne Kenzi is a science reporter and she says that we need to take a closer look at this claim. You can't get scared by one word but you have to know what the word means if you break down at literally just means something's in the air so if you're coughing into your elbow and and your cash all that droplet into your elbow I mean at some point. It was in the air between your mouth and your elbow but it got caught. I I think that what the mistake is to think that something that is airborne is something that as soon as you cough. It's everywhere like that's that's just not the way to look at something so given all that. What exactly does airborne mean so? There is not a great answer to that question. I think that you can take a very simplistic view. Which means Airborne Indians? Something is in the air? I mean if you're open the dictionary that's what it means and if you were to ask people who are era. Biologists so the people who study how pathogens spread in the air. They'll say the same thing they'll say anything. That's in the air as airborne but a lot of fire Especially a lot of public. Health officials. Have the idea that something is airborne if it is spread by Aerosol and not by droplets now you're wondering what is the difference between droplets Arizona's right. Yeah that is one hundred percent what I'm thinking right now. So traditionally public health officials at least recently have been defining the droplet as something. That's like a ball of mucus and virus and salts that is larger than five microns in diameter. That you're GONNA COFFIN UP SPEWING OUT AND ANYTHING SMALLER THAN that. Could be an aerosol. That floats around like indefinitely in the air. Because it's lighter and it's floating her you know it's kind of imagine like a feather like floating in air okay. So there are large droplets that can float around in the air and they are fine aerosols that lasts longer in the air. That's the distinction right. And if you trace back where they came up with this. It goes back to these equations from the Nineteen Thirties where people were trying to figure out like tuberculosis. And how it spread. So we're talking about a really antiquated point of view on these things and hugely arbitrary like I asked the. Who How do you know that this Kobe thing is airborne? Had you know? It's like droplets and I did not get good answer from them. So why are some scientists still sing that we don't know if the virus that causes cove in nineteen is airborne because we don't I mean the thing is we actually don't have evidence to say whether it's airborne or not in a normal setting in settings where people are getting intimated and it's kind of spewing this thing into the air even the WHO says there is a risk of being airborne in the situations but we're operating in an absence of evidence? What I'm getting from us that there's really no like you can't tell me right now in the context of this interview. You can't tell me right now whether it is or it's not we just don't know exactly so the People. I spoke with who witnessed SARS almost twenty years ago and dealt with that public health disaster. They're saying that. We should operate on the precautionary principle that this is more easily airborne than were saying it is or assuming it is because technically does travel in the air so it is quote unquote airborne. So is this just a language thing? Is it just that most virologist think of something being airborne as being transmitted through fine aerosols as opposed to large droplets completely? We're talking about a failure of language in my opinion. So we're talking about of a a word that is failing us because it can't really capture all the nuances of the different situations. So if you're standing in front of an ocean and you feel the splash of the huge droplets of sea spray. Those are pretty big droplets. But it's the wind that's carrying it to your face. So could we not consider those airborne? I think that's what a lot of the people that study. This type of transmission are saying. Why do you think understanding this whole airborne situation when it comes to cove in nineteen and the virus that causes it? Why do you think that's important? I think it's important to understand how easily transmissible this viruses in the air first and foremost for Public Health Workers. So if we say as like the CDC said it's okay to wear like Bandannas in some situations with this if you're like encountering patient's or whatnot I think that's a problem. I think that we're loosening standards. Maybe a little too easily. Because this mantra has been repeated over and over that it's not airborne. What are the top three things that you think people are getting wrong right now? I think that the top three things that people are getting right now are that the virus is only transmissible by touch which is not something that I think we can assume. The second thing that they need to know is that we need to find out information about this before we can understand exactly how airborne it is. I think we have to reserve judgment and hang on for that and I think that the third thing that people need to know is that they need to be kind of up in arms about getting production of ninety five mass which are more effective than abandon. Ah in protecting health workers to increase than that. The government should really kind of be stepping up for that speaking of masks. There's a question that I know is on a lot of people's minds right now. Which is that. It's really hard to hear that People who work in medical fields should be wearing masks. These n ninety five masks but then to also here officials say to the public. Please don't purchase these. You don't need them. So how do you talk about that issue? How do you talk about to the public about this problem? So I'll speak about this issue about whether the public needs to buy masks on kind of personal level and that's I know right now. There's a shortage of mass and the people who need those masks most are doctors. Nurses people on the frontlines. And that if you're basically doing the social distancing that you're supposed to be doing right now you don't need a mask right if you earn keeping far apart from people and stay home like you don't need a mask right so I'm not here to say that masks don't work. I'm just here to say let's get them to the people who need the most. This whole confusion over the word airborne whether it's okay to use it maybe it's a matter of not necessarily using the word airborne but talking about people coughing in and talking about those kinds of risks a little bit more and in some ways. I would say that that's why we've been told to stay six feet away from people right. You're so smart because actually as I'm talking to you like I'm thinking what if we just didn't use the word airborne at all because it just means in the air so like what. If we started talking about measures that could just be more practical. You know right I mean I think I think that's probably part of what we're seeing right now. This whole speedway thing this whole. Don't stand next to somebody. Who's coughing thing. I think? Unofficially that is a way to talk about the fact that this is transmitted through the air and not just on surfaces But the word airborne evokes so much anxiety and fear that it is just not even worth using right now because we just don't understand it and and it hasn't been communicated to people properly

CNN Nineteen Thirties Public Health Workers Roxanne Kenzi Arizona Reporter CDC Kobe Bandannas
How does the new coronavirus compare with the flu?

Dr. G Says

10:13 min | 2 years ago

How does the new coronavirus compare with the flu?

"Coronaviruses are RNA viruses they're very infectious the cousins are measles and if buyers is that cause the common cold which are also corona viruses but they're not novel corona viruses the ones that cause the common cold we've had around for years and years and when your listeners get Sniffles and you know start to cough it said Trinh and it's usually early winter or early spring this is corona virus as a rule but the novel coronavirus the corona virus of twenty nineteen is a specific mutant to which we have no immunity we've had a herd immunity from the old corona viruses that infect us and cause the common cold but we don't have any specific immunity to the new coronavirus now these viruses are very infectious so you breed on somebody and you can transmit the disease the reason you do that is because you have receptors for these viruses in your tongue the cheeks your nose your lungs and even in your heart and so when you get loaded with virus your immune system has got to fight this virus that it is never seen before so there's all kinds of new immune processes that go in which are very complicated they go into effect to try to overcome this new infection and that is primarily corona back now the which reason it's called corona viruses the covering of the virus and this is extremely small virus which can only see under the electron microscope so it's invisible to the naked eye these viruses have projections that stick out that make them look like they have a crown and that's why it's called the corona or crown virus so how does it spread and what's the life cycle like from the time of infection to win symptoms may begin to present themselves to when someone's all better yes so that's that's a good question now the problem with this virus is that you can have it and not know it when someone is exposed to somebody who's definitely infected proven infected it takes about five days at the least to show symptoms and the median time is eleven point five days so we would like to quarantine people for two weeks because we know that within two weeks you're going to show signs of the infection so that's the rule of thumb now the problem with this virus as I just said is that you can have it and not know it and about eighty percent of people that are infected with this will have something that you would consider a head cold or mildly scratchy throat and that's it nothing else and then there's twenty percent of people who may have what we in medicine call call morbidities that is either have diabetes run chemotherapy you're an alcoholic you smoke too much you have bad asthma you have COPD if you're older you have emphysema people like that that get this virus from somebody else wind up with bad kinds of rest a Tory problems lung problems and most of the deaths that occur from pneumonia and overwhelming lung infection and that's why everybody has to be checked out everybody has to be careful because we don't know who those people are that have these these glitches in their immune systems we're talking to the chairman of medicine at Saint Joseph university hospital Dr Baba heater here on I heart radio there's two other types of illnesses that a lot of people are dealing with at the moment the flu and allergies how can people tell them apart from Kobe nineteen will cover nineteen S. as Tony Fauci the head of the N. I. H. St is about ten times worse than the flu that's when you get the bad infection you'll run a high fever but you do that with the flu if you haven't been immunized you'll get muscle aches and pains you have no idea perhaps vomiting maybe some diarrhea all of these things are similar to that which you would get when you get the flu and it's extremely difficult to tell the difference but the difference is we have a vaccine for the flu and we also have a rapid test we do in the emergency room to determine whether you have the flu we can do it on site most hospitals have flu swabs in flu tests that they can do and you can get a result within an hour the allergies are very easy you don't run a high fever with allergies you you have Sniffles you do your you know your nose turns red you cough up a lot of gunk but that's not the same thing as the flu and it certainly is not the same thing as cobra nineteen you just product testing can you explain for a moment what we should know about tasks for this coronavirus and why they seem to be a bit more complicated than say a test for the flu yes so the reason they are difficult is that the testing because coronas are very common the regular garden variety coronas we have to be able to discern which one is coded nineteen there's a very complicated process which revolve is around the fact that this is a DNA virus and we do something called polymerase chain reaction on the sample that's why regular hospitals don't have at this point the capability of testing for this virus it has to go to the state health department and before that it had to go to the communicable disease center better known as the CDC you know the P. C. R. which we routinely do for things like diarrheal infections we do the PCR for tuberculosis now this has this is a test that has stream Leist as streamlined diagnosis of infections thirty years ago we don't have anything like this we would have to culture you for T. B. we would have to find out you know when your school if you had organisms that cause diarrhea now we can do the same thing for corona virus but we have to be able to produce the markers namely the R. N. A. ribonucleic acid from the virus which we can get we have to multiply that and then we have to create these little tests that will define and show us that you the patient has an antibody or that is something that really reacts with this in in what's called the polymerized chain reaction the polymerized chain reactions a little complicated to describe your listeners but suffice it to say that that's the reason we haven't had test up front really quickly we're talking to the chairman of medicine at Saint Joseph university hospital Dr Bob Lee Hida a lot of information is floating online suggestions for how people can keep themselves and their families better protected what are some practices are products that we know actually work hand washing with soap works pure rail or hand sanitizers work if you can get a hold of some we have them on the walls here I have a bottle right on my desk in front of me here I have several bottles at home and I wipe my hands down and I also get those you know those wipes we use in the gym yes things right like Jim stop if you're going to a gym in your working out with a lot of other P. people you want to really wipe the machines that I should be doing that anyhow but now you really should do that if you go to the theater you should wipe the chair down before you sit down and watch a movie and most people are going to go to theaters and movie theaters and sit with two hundred people today nor are they going to go to Broadway shows and do the same thing or flying an airplane you got a white you should have done this before corona you got to wait to see down you got to wait the tray table down and make sure that things are pretty clean because these viruses can stay on surfaces for upwards of two days and some people are saying even longer what about face masks well with my patients that have certain illnesses I make them wear face masks now the face mask they wear is the cloth face masks the N. ninety five facemask to the basement that grips around your nose and is any seamless you you you breathe through that mass but there's no leakage of air around it the regular cloth face masks does one thing it protects you from touching your face because if you handle some object that's been contaminated with the virus can you touch your face and that's a problem you'll get the infection it'll go right up into your nary's of your nose or into your mouth and everybody touches their face so we're saying we're a mask a regular cloth mask it'll prevent you from touching your face also wash your hands as much as you can and keep their hands as sterile as possible now if you are infected and you're coughing up phlegm and you're hopping up what you think maybe virus you should wear a nice N. ninety five mask or at the least the surgical mask where ever you go and frankly shouldn't go anywhere you should stay in your house don't go to the emergency room don't go to your doctor's office because you're going to contaminate everybody else that's there if you have trouble breathing or you're running a super high fever then you go to the emergency room where then you go to your doctor's office dial nine one one get an ambulance and get over there or have somebody drive you that's my advice is there anything else about this disease or outbreak do you think it's important we now I think I think there's not much we need to know right now there's very little known about the course it's going to take whether it's going to fade away in the summer or whether it's going to continue into the fall I do hope that we have a vaccine in the early fall September October time so that we can all get immunized with the flu at the same time we can get vaccinated against corona nineteen covert nineteen because that was that's the only surefire way that we're gonna be able to control this infection as you know it's it's devastating certain countries in Europe like get Lee and countries like China and and it's just been devastating to all sorts of populations especially the elderly those elderly people who were quite ill with lung disease or people who chain smoke probably even people who smoke pot you've got a big understanding that your lungs are irritated and when you have an irritated long it sets you up for roaring infection with this virus because their receptors in the long for the

Sniffles Trinh
Do health care providers have a duty to work during pandemics?

Second Opinion

03:42 min | 3 years ago

Do health care providers have a duty to work during pandemics?

"Physicians and nurses and others at the University of California. Davis are facing a time honored dilemma. They have a social contract with society to provide healthcare in both sunny in stormy weather for the most part over the past one hundred years. The forecast has been generally rosy antibiotics and public health interventions have kept. The American public generally healthy today. The major killers of Americans are chronic diseases. Things like Diabetes Heart Disease and cancer infectious diseases like TB and polio and Spanish. Flu are no longer serious public. Health threats these chronic diseases do not pose a threat to health workers the way that infectious diseases did and still do over the past forty years the world has been challenged by a series of new infectious diseases. Hiv SARS Ebola murs and now covert nineteen they threaten the public's health and perhaps place healthcare workers at an even greater risk of contagion so the question is do health care. Workers need to assume a risk to their own health to assure that patients receive care for decades. Ten percent of each medical school class would develop tuberculosis in the early nineteen. Hundreds hundreds of doctors died from Spanish flu and the same was true for those caring for people affected with Ebola. I can remember in the early years of caring for HIV infected patients and in covering the HIV epidemic for NPR. I met providers who refuse to care for HIV infected persons perhaps because of fear but also because of a hostility toward the victims homosexual men and drug users the stigmatized received inferior care returning to co vid if all providers get sick that would be a disaster to current patients. But so would it be a disaster? If healthcare providers refuse to come to work. What would it be like if a firefighter was only willing to fight? Small fires or a police officer would only respond to parking violations out of fear for their own safety. We cannot ask health providers to assume risks to their own health. Unless we're doing everything to minimize those risks but today we have protective where that we didn't have a generation ago masks gowns disinfectants. In the like we also have powerful medicines and ventilators that can increase the chance of people surviving but we need healthcare providers to accept some personal risk and a moral commitment by adhering to their social contract that provides for a duty to treat people. Medical students understand the inherent personal risk when they arrive at medical school and they are immediately reminded of this risk in our opening ceremonies. That welcomes them to the profession. The public depends on our commitment to put their welfare above our own to our commitment to provide unbiased compassionate care and to our willingness to place ourselves at some risk by simply coming to work albeit with reasonable protections. I am proud that my colleagues at UC Davis are standing tall and they are united in their commitment to provide care to all those in.

HIV Davis University Of California Ebola FLU Uc Davis TB Tuberculosis Officer NPR
Coronavirus: Utah man moved from cruise ship to hospital amid quarantine

Radio From Hell

02:15 min | 3 years ago

Coronavirus: Utah man moved from cruise ship to hospital amid quarantine

"I usual man who's been stuck on board a quarantine ship off the coast of Japan has in fact factor tested positive for coronavirus drawn herring of to Willa was a sailing on the diamond princess cruise line with his wife Melanie when the two became quarantine David that an outbreak of coronavirus on the ship well John felt fine at first he said he developed a fever that lasted for three days he said it reached a hundred and four degrees at one point and with no medicine available he use cold towels for relief on the fourth day herring said he woke with no fever felt much better that's when the doctor called him and said you're going to the hospital an ambulance took caring to a hospital in Chiba near Tokyo hearing learn Friday morning that he and Tess back tested positive for covert nineteen which is what they're calling the novel coronavirus he's now isolated in his small hospital room and herring showed fox thirteen how medical staff were serving him meals through a cabinet in the wall but they can access from the other side so there are people just trying to not even go in them at all he said he's been talking to family as he passes the time alone in his room I remember my mother as Billy was telling me stories about when she was a kid you would see signs on people's houses they would quarantine I think if there was a measles outbreak in the neighborhood they go around hang signs on people's door saying this this home is quarantine measles and that's how they tried to deal with the spread and I think tuberculosis was another one as I recall she said it was not uncommon to see quarantine signs just on people's houses can I do that so people leave me alone sure maybe yeah if you if you can get a wheelchair at the airport without being really in need of one I think you can probably do that he said his doctors will tested again in three days to see if he still infected in order to be released from the hospital herring said he needs to test negative for coronavirus twice in a row that means he could be in the hospital anywhere for more than a week to more than a

Japan Willa Melanie David John Fever Herring Chiba Tokyo Tess FOX Billy Tuberculosis
Scientists just discovered a better way to use the tuberculosis vaccine

News, Traffic and Weather

00:32 sec | 3 years ago

Scientists just discovered a better way to use the tuberculosis vaccine

"Scientists believe they figured out a way to make the tuberculosis vaccine better about a hundred years after the vaccine was developed scientists now believe they found a way to improve its potency simply give a shot a different way the national institutes of health conducted a study with monkeys and checked in the vaccine straight into the bloodstream instead of under the skin and that method dramatically improve the shots effectiveness a senior author of the study says more safety studies are required before testing the approach in people to Berkeley Loews's kills about one point seven million people globally a

Berkeley Loews Tuberculosis