35 Burst results for "Thousand-Year"
Interview With Shane Balkowitsch
"Well hello everyone and welcome to another podcast from frames magazine my name is scott olsen and today we are going old school and we are going deep into a really really wonderful type of photography. That's not practice very much anymore and really frankly when you see it. It's going to knock your socks off. We're talking with shane belkevich. Shane happens to live just a couple hours. West of me out here on the great plains of north america up north dakota chain that afternoon. How's everything out in the middle part of the state. good scott. thanks for having me on. We've got a little snow last night. Which was a very welcomed. Got a little snow over here. It's cold it's january is imagine about winner on the american that should be asked should be. You're absolutely right shane. You are just absolutely mesmerizing with the work. You're doing you do wet plate colin on photography. You do when one of the earliest styles of photography and admit you know. When i first heard about it i thought why in the world would anyone want to go through that amount of work for an image that i can do in my mirrorless. Dsl are very quickly. And then i realized how wrong. I was can't do that image and i certainly can't come up with a product that you've come up with so first question for people that that are familiar with the process. What is wet plate photography. What is the whole call it on process. Yeah so a wet plate clothing. Photography's invented by frederick scott archer in. He started working on about eighteen. Forty eight we believe in eighteen fifty one. He came out with a journal article in a scientific journal and presented it to the world. So what we're doing. I'm sure many of your listeners. Know about daguerreotype process which was invented by the declare. The frenchman About ten years. Before what plaguing frederick scott archer wanted to improve on that and This is what he came up with and the final product. And what your comment about why. You can't capture wet played in a modern a digital camera. Is that this is completely analog and the final images the images that i make. I an amber typist. That means i make my photographs on glass specifically for me black glass and these images are made out a pure silver on glass. And what's about silver silver does not degrade so these images that i have Have made over the last eight years of made a three eight hundred of them all by ten most most eight by ten black last amber types of they'll be here thousand years from now broken which which is not something you can save for princeton pigments in paintings and other things like that so the these are very archival images and i. it's just a very very romantic process. i was never photographer before. A two thousand twelve took my first exposure on october. Fourth never owned a camera. And i just find myself chasing this this historic process. It is really really interesting and we need to tell people that there is a movie out. There is called belkevich b. a. l. k. o. w. i t. s. c. h. on video. It's on amazon. Prime it is a documentary about you and your work and folks. You need to go there. You need to watch this film if you are in the any kind of photography. You need to do this but shane one of the things. That really intrigued me. Watching the film is that most of us that are in the photography files were making digital files. Or you know. We're coming up even if we're still dealing with old thirty five millimeter film or that kind of stuff Medium format film. You know we come up with a negative but then you know actual print is a temporary thing. You much more like a sculptor are making an object's this glass plate and it's not revisable you can't go back and tweak the highlights you can't go back and ask grain if you want. What is the appeal of making that object versus a kind of idea. We have to understand most web play. Cloudy and artists There was one here in bismarck. North dakota orlando scott gough. When he he was known for capturing the first ever photograph of sitting. Bull here bismarck. In the in this process that i practice and i i happen to capture ernie lapointe the great grandson. The city hundred thirty five years later in the same town in the same process but goth would have made a negative like you had said he would make a glass of so instead of putting his images onto black glass which you cannot contact with. He would have used clear glass. Clear glass as you insinuated. You can make multiple copies and you can enter. The final product in that scenario is a print. Because you want to be able to sell you know apprentice shayna print scott where wants to print you can make as many prints of these want is your business and it. Did you know good to have a one off plate because you and you know when you're talking about eighteen fifty one is no way of duplicate and they didn't have scanners and we couldn't do anything like that so you know. I think there's something very special about the the fact that these images are one offs and they can never be duplicated in they can never be replicated. When i make one of these images. I've for instance. I've dropped an image once and tried to go five minutes later. Ten minutes later tried to make this image with the same sitter the same camera. The same lenses saint chemistry. And i can never get back to that so if you look at this romantically. I'm not actually taking snapshots people actually making ten second movies. I'm still life movies. Because my exposures in my natural studio that i built here in bismarck. It's called nostalgic glassware plate studio the first one in in the country bill of the ground up and over a hundred years. I'm making ten second exposure. So there's heartbeats and there's blood flowing through the person there's a couple. Maybe a blinker to and what. I really love about this is. Maybe there's a thought so. I'm capturing thought on that piece of glass pure silver. That'll be here on.
Accepting Our Needs
"Every one of us has needs. There's no avoiding them when our needs aren't met it's natural for us to feel stressed and worried frustrated and hurt but equally. Sometimes it can be really uncomfortable to accept that we have needs in the first place. And it's common for many people to enter a cycle consciously or otherwise where. They're both frustrated that their needs aren't being met and frustrated at themselves for having needs at all. Today we're gonna talk about needs including importantly how we can identifier core needs get better at accepting those needs and maybe even find some healthy ways to meet the needs of other people. Tell us. do that enjoyed today. As usual by dr cancelled so dad. How are you doing today. I'm actually really good for us. Thanks for asking and some adult children. Stop asking their parents how they're doing so regular opportunity. That's very welcome. If you're a got adult kids you know you'll maybe get a chuckle out of this part and also. Yeah that's pretty real very real and also the subject is enormously interesting in part because it is grounded fundamentally he and three and a half billion years of evolution of life on this planet nets as real as it gets the life and death struggles of all of our ancestors reaching back in an unbroken line of descent of course to the very earliest creatures who somehow managed to live to see the sunrise to pass on genes that passed on. Jane's that became eventually the blueprint for us. Today that's the framework fundamentally for addressing our needs and soda nest. That discussion of needs. That can seem very psychological. A little woo may be in superficial in that. Had profound life and death forging of our capabilities to meet needs. Survival and passing on. Jeans is wonderfully interesting. Yeah so let's kind of talk about that and let's just start there in our book that we wrote together. Resilient we talked about there being three core needs safety satisfaction and connection. You've kind of already done that and your little deduction there but would you mind kind of explaining these briefly including sort of where they come from. We've covered some of this material in the past so we might do this kind of quickly. Great well this notion of the three major needs having to do with safety satisfaction and connection as umbrella terms is fundamental model really in biology and also in psychology and boil down. If you think about yourself maybe. Twenty thousand years ago excluding around the south of france during an ice age trying to avoid sabertooth tigers. You're a hunter gatherer. You're trying to get a meal or yourself. A million years ago in a small hamad band who were able to make fire and manufactured tools with brains roughly half to two thirds of the size of you today even further back about yourself starting to crawl out of the primordial sees three pro izzo well three hundred and fifty million years ago. Your early lizard like creature. It had i- hop scotched a little bit rock. Anyway what are you gonna do. What are you gotta do. What do you need will number one. Don't get don't die today strata. That's a big one number to get a meal. Get fed each some today. Okay so now. We're we're moving the satisfaction satisfaction the then third if you can procreate pass on your genes or fast forward it to stone age humans or us today. Basically don't die today get fed today. Get a hug today That kind of summarizes our needs. And if we don't meet our needs fundamentally especially biologically for a protracted period of time you know what happens for us. i. I have some guesses. You die yeah okay. Yeah so it can get very very real. Yeah for sure. So maybe bringing it into people's experience these days one of the reasons that the pandemic and all of its associated challenges has been so tough for so many people is that in a manner to attacked each of those core needs. It's attacked her. Need for safety because while it's a pandemic it's a deadly virus. It's attack our need for satisfaction because we can't get as many of the things that we used to get and certainly attacked our need for connection where we're more disconnected from people. Were more isolated. We feel more separated. Were doing this through zoom rather than doing it in person you know whatever. Your personal example is the ultimate anchor for meeting needs is raw physical survival so at the ultimate point where potentially dealing with hazards or situations could be in terms of physical body continuing think of that is the most route challenge to the need for safety and we can also be in situations where we starve to death. We cannot access food a lot of hunter gatherers and even agrarians even fairly recently face starvation and even in america today there are millions of people who day to day live with what's called food insecurity and it's estimated loosely that about a billion people worldwide. Go to bed hungry every night. And so this is a real to okay. That's an example in which the lack of satisfaction in a sounds as anchored physically. And we can even say it as well. Socially there's research that shows that certainly in early childhood if infants toddlers who are put into really situations because they're given up for adoption and then they're just languishing and some hospital and nobody touches them for long periods of time or prematurely born infants. Who were not touched. That too can pose a lethal threat but much of the time especially in modern developing countries challenges to the sense of safety tend to be more psychological indicated by feelings of anxiety where anger or helplessness. Those are three big flags challenges to the need for satisfaction that could have to do with accomplishing things or feeling successful or making more money. Being able to access pleasure of different kinds well impediments to the meeting of these for satisfaction are marked by feelings of disappointment loss frustration or immobilization or marked by driven us too extreme and addictions
Take A Trip To The Island Of Crete
"Let's start today's show with a look at what you can find when you visit the largest of the greek islands crete. It's where the earliest advanced civilizations in europe were found more than four thousand years ago. We're joined by greek travel. Experts david and anastacia guy tanu. Our conversation was recorded prior to the covid. Pandemic closures david. How're cretans. The people who live on crete different from greeks and their outlook. I don't think there's a proud of person to be found in greece than creighton. Credence are extremely proud of their long history. There island and they're wonderful food. The people from crete really see themselves as being a little bit different to the people from the greek mainland anesthesia. When you think of the pride of crete people and the traditions. How does that survive in their dress. In the way the look when we travel there you can find that still worn by older people in the largest cities bad. You find it definitely in out in the country and in small villages and the further up you go on the mountains the more you find that and you have this. Very particular scoff. That they were on their head. It's black of course and usually there is also big moustache underneath definitely because that's Masculine thing and they have a black shirt in. They have brown trousers. That up. The very distinct and to create and usually black boots and i was struck when i went to crete that these traditions survive more there than elsewhere in europe. I mean everything's becoming modern in the same issue travel around more and more but increased. You do find those traditions alive David i was an increase just last june and having been there for a while i was wondering with ride. See some of these things like the old britches and the long boots and the the coach but to my great surprise they have not disappeared in fact they've now become trendy and symbols for the young symbols for the young. Would that be. Is that sort of an expression of independence. I think it's because they see themselves different and they wanted to let people know that they're proud of their traditions. There's lot of guns returned. There used to be synonymous with crate guns. But you see less of these days although when you go walking plenty of cartridges from the hunting season is that right what would they be hunting farm firm and anything that moves birds. Rabbits has if you're an athens. How easy is it to get down to create. It couldn't be more simple because there's Boats that do the trip overnight. And there's lots of lights with a gna so let's see you got five days crete. What would you do david. If you're helping me plan my very if going have five days. I would stick to the north and i would stick to iraq leo which is the capital and access point fo the famous minoan palace of knossos. And then i would go across honey. Which is the second city on crete. And it's just a beautiful Old venetian city from honey. Can't you go up to the top of the mountain in hike down the gorge of samaria. Have you ever had that. yes i have. what's it like. well you have a very long descend and the beginning. It's in kilometers about four kilometers to go down. You just go down a winding backing back inbound down and then you move through the gorge. But they're really beautiful spots at that gorge in you meet people. There are people there. There is once goal the gate in the result shepherd they who knows of course every guide and every person who goes often through that gorge unusually. He has cheese. And if you know you can well he can bring some other stuff out as well and you see. Also a lot of the very unique flora and fauna of crete and the. Raise your liking usually. You're uc wild ibex. That they have their only on crete and has a very funny name. Actually it's called click critically. Can i xe david. If i remember correctly the tourist generally catch a minibus or something up for the almost like at sunrise and then they walk switch backing down then. They have a long hike along the river with little places to swim along the way they reach a very very narrow part in the gorge where you can almost stretch your arms out and touch either of the sheer cliffs and then at the bottom you have a beautiful remote beach and boat waiting to take you to the next town from where you catch the shuttle bus back to your home. Base is still basically the routine that is still the routine la. They have come up with an alternative for the lazy person who does not want to do the whole walk. You can take a boat to. I think it's really the base of the gorge and you can do what they say. The gorge short way. When you simply walk up to the iron gates and walk back again undone to all the other stuff okay. So there is for the quick tourist and for the person wants to spend a little more
Explorando el Instante con Camila Ibarra
"Let me like. Oh my staff human trafficking from alabama's. Yes we need the dmv n. o. J. except for learning list twins getting blisters. What's your heritage dive. Amelia's go was out those took on a separate Have asset one of your grammy gonna separate the Here is more useful elegance thousand years when he was Hoan as soon as i've ever lay story is pay scale. Get super porno instances lemire. They'll is presented scare you key. The is the joe. Go they alimony. You ain't got it's at been announced. Ucla overnight he gonna berto hamblur key. Less prisoners am doesn't the latin america unofficial said which was issue the most and believe that ian in the biens and thumbs. His nose is go acrimonious. You and he therrien russillo or is he in bigalow. Alert secret can make Geeky lucas that sioux city and the mutual is colonie said. Donald visit goes independent amid the to the question. Those is colonie semyon. Though be an exploration they have gannett is no porchet woman which Erasure sybil wrong lays the low sixty s fulfillment you to learn new jersey amusement. As course those the is is is lebron. look at percents. K alita is komo is muslim. Acela columnist mass mental pocket system. Paseo in every way bnb system muzzle celebration municipal expenses. Who program blake. Join me and explore under the semi and see as lucas as como que argument that ms must be an algebra. Neither is komo mail buddy mall. How do i address myself by son does say an low system operas us conspiracy though and thune says boorda hemp illiteracy. They don't have is opening. Meet a man. Oh it means is that they don't send. Peter is on a never known as if communication commission progressive limited colonie cello until Wisconsin than either eating here. We should christiane in three mahyco. In san jose california themselves stella me just Product style out of flick cinemas. Already give a distinct will not take to maintain meet unloading will not precipitating e of manal. Tatham makeable reverential. He our position luciano to limit the the that whole in salsa music. Don't go with people. He recommended real. Sarcoma is a component. This extreme wow it's surprenant that was on the border gate of blood you go. You're news alerts. You have done this. I forgot that you make the. So isn't this young. Little green ghanem into borough bar see less anger and thumbs his eye on them per se is exponential Make the give me. He was bobble premium pastas and which isn't spectacles spectrum. Your level or hemlock jingle mochis amigos de ultra spices. they're latin america hamblur. Mamiya where may i may. I is run swollen on. Wbz which he go. E which are the spaghetti said. It's kissy your rail coma. He supreme you out to the pasta seniors. That different this mandate is in manila's which is quintas ghalib's seon gone lows. Maria's gone alkaloids meet lessees mock exist and where he cook as as can him which simple does better we via name which are the was established. Those particular graphic does doesn't necessarily as much and does this glenda abbas lane. Guess it shut respect though who's just a witness Literal alcohol but still look in the radio. I'm gonna win in the industry in california that Sat on how it is toga. Promise on experience como que a head on commerce you your quake-hit has indicated quicker hip.
Emerging Opportunities and Exciting Business Lessons with John-Paul Iwuoha
"Now. We are talking about africa. I wanna know john paul. Why why do we need to keep africa on our radar very interesting question. So one one thing that keeps me. Loyal to entrepreneurs on fire is the quality of stories and experiences of ultra preneurs. Who've made it that's one big reason. Why listen and. I'm also sure that's why many people listen to the show but interesting is what being on entrepreneur means that you're able to live in the now and also prepare for future so it's almost impossible to think about the future and nothing about and here's why when you look at the population of the world. Africa correctly has the youngest population of people. Right now sixty percents of people on the continent of the age of twenty five. So this is more or less looking at china. Before china became china up to date china more or less the second biggest economy in the world the factory of the world and all of that so you can imagine that people who saw china. The china became china. Actually the ones who got in on the meat of the game. So that's exactly what africa represents but more importantly there have been events in the past couple of years that have put africa in the centerpiece. The very most the most recent one which is very interesting is covid now all the time most companies have built their supply chains around china and south east asia but then when it hits it was obvious that supply chains with very vulnerable. And if you're going to diversify your supply chain. It's impossible not to look at africa if you're looking at affordable label if you look at them. The truck symmetry of the continental either north america or europe. And what are the means. Most countries on the continent either speak english or french and these are more or less global line. Which is you're going to penetrate any of the big markets and. It's really now happening. Because what the chinese are doing is the chinese. Market is starting to specialize in advanced high-tech stuff. I most of those low cost production that brought business the whole of storing from america. When are beginning to see going to places like vietnam. Bangladesh and other countries in southeast asia. But then you cannot forgo a population of one point three billion people which is what africa presents and what we're seeing is some companies setup accretions within the african continent places like rwanda at the opium ghana senegal. And what they're doing is they are preparing. These guys are digging for the future and one interesting. That's happened in the last four years in america. Is the people in africa. So in america when you think about africa the image that comes to mind is charity and philanthropy. Africa needs. Needs help and help and help. So the approach of the americans this time and even europe has been to help africa give africa aid. Give them all of that. What the chinese are doing is they're coming with more or less trade and business and things. What africa needs really because you have this population of very young people enterprising people. I mentioned that sixty percent of the world's uncle beats at arable. Land is in africa so in most parts of the world with maxed out the land space. Yes we're doing. We're using technology and other means to increase the yield on the land. But when we're talking about virgin space. Federal land arable land. Most of it is still in africa. Still cultivated and we're looking at a global population that is set to double back at least by the time we reach two hundred fifty or more according to the un and if we do not keep pace with globe with population growth would amount of food were producing then the world is going to be faced with serious threat of hunger so these are just a few examples of why africa needs to be on your rita. Yes so thinking about now. It's great but you're thinking about the future you need to remember that even before could hit five of the top. The top ten fastest growing economies in the world when africa. These are not really things. We've seen the mainstream media. Why i'm happy that chain. Is that the approach of the chinese in africa. Doo controversial is a big difference. This guy's coming here boots on the ground and they're dealing with the market. The previous relationship with africa has been to deal with africa's governments give african governments money for age and they develop africa unfulfilled years. It's never happened instead. It's helped enhance corruption. A sense of entitlement and dependency so most of the problems never get so because that's free money free money fluent in from europe money flowing in from north america so what people like us exist to do is to show that the people we should be voting. For with our money is the entrepreneur's they're the ones who have the incentive and the motivation to really solve africa's problems and guess what's global money starting to call me and i'm sure many ago minova listeners. On on on entrepreneur no stripe the big global player in in payments strike just acquired an african company. Niger company for two hundred million dollars. That's a major exit and it's stories like this that are starting to prove that africa is not a charity case. Africa is opportunity. The programs are trying to solve through eight. Actually need to be solved through entrepreneurship and the process. We create more jobs more wealth and greeted big happier world john. Let's talk about what you see as the most interesting opportunities that exist right now. I mean you talked about a lot of opportunities. I love how you really are hammering home. The fact that entrepreneurship is what is going to turn africa around and really bring that continents into the as we move forward into twenty twenty one and beyond but specifically what are the one or two most interesting and fascinating opportunities in the business world that you're seeing right now. The first interesting one is more or less. I talked about it earlier. In terms of africa's potential to produce food because right now we're looking for the next food basket of the world and one interesting that africa offers is the or what's we've we now know as superfoods so for example there's a grain that's grown in west africa. It's a green code for new now. This green is so rich in cultural significance for example when the tombs of ancient in jim ships are more or less opel excavated amongst other materials. Like honey. and things like that four new for new f- who is one of the greens that it that the ancient egyptians actually put in the the pyramids in the borough chambers of dead feroz. That's tell you how important it was back. Then this is like one of the longest growth one of the greens has been grown the longest in history almost five thousand years now. The reason why new is important is when you look at the american market and european market more or less developed world and you see how important health and wellness is this all about eighteen. Organic food. Gluten free food and things like that you announced that to see if like for new is actually superfood but in africa is grown by people in africa eating by people that i start to see what america has done with them a green assira like we know what which is more or less breakfast zero before quinoa became like a blockbuster serial in america it had the same profile as phone. You in south america. So what we're beginning to see. Is they celebrate to ship in. New york is named spear pm. He's now taken for neo his packaged. It's not just in its physical formats but in the narrative that used salads and last year. I think it's early this year. It got the national distribution across the united states in whole foods. You know to distribute this kind of food and new just one. I know listeners may be familiar with moringa which is another superfood. it grows in the wild in africa. We really take you for granted over yet. But then we've sent entrepreneurs coming here and repackage it into something that selling like a lot because it resonates resonates with the health and wellness movements the big trend going on in the
Saving Sea Level Records: What Historical Records Tell Us About The Rising Ocean
"So lauren you sent me a picture of one of these century old title logbooks and it's so cool. It's really detailed. You can see where it says one. Am someone's written thirteen feet one fifteen. Am fourteen feet one inch in this. Really lovely old penmanship tracking tied. Did people really do this. Twenty four hours a day every day of the year they did. They had technology. That actually made it easier though In the late eighteen hundreds they developed an automatic system which had this float that rested on the surface of the water and then fed information to kind of a pen that recorded the movement so then people just had to read off the values and put them into the ledgers and this was done in other places to lake near hillary island. The port of liverpool also has a really long running title record. That makes sense because this was the era of ships rights. Watercraft was the way that people and things got around. Yeah exactly you had a lot of ships going in and out of port and so they were shipping companies. That had to keep track of the tide so it can be done safely two day. Some of those old records are archived at the permanent service for mean sea level which is an organization in the uk that gathers ocean data worldwide Andy matthews a data scientists. There told me the data are pretty reliable. You know most of the time. Those woman over on point is a little hand square school saying they. They sweet because the Tyja for was sick. You get little insights now with him. Everybody needs a sick day right. Of course andy says they're trying to organize a bigger effort to find these records. Because you know since kind of obscure they're hard to find yet but it can be anywhere these kind of things now in libraries from people that we all kaisei done coin. Doug well they are. Yeah this is quite the quest and an even bigger issue. I imagine is that when they find them. The data is still stuck on those pages. Yeah his colleagues scanned about sixteen thousand pages. But the numbers are on the page and they haven't been digitized so they're really not usable by scientists. They're trying to use computers to do it through character recognition. But i mean you saw that writing right. It's kind of like the script and the formats can be really hard to decipher so india's hoping that the public will help he recently put the images on zoom verse. A website and so volunteers can kind of in and and read the numbers. Type them up. I love this approach. I mean we're all bored at home looking for something to do this pandemic so why. Not some historical data as tree right. Yeah i mean data entry for a greater good seriously but to get into the nitty gritty of it. Why exactly is an important to look at data from the eighteen. Hundreds to understand sea level rise today an into the future right. What does that matter. Yeah right. I mean it has to do with how complex sea-level rise is because it's been caused by a number of different things. I mean i. You got glacier's melting temperatures causes them to shrink and that water runs off into the ocean and the same thing is happening in greenland and antarctica. Where there are these massive ice sheets on the land and there's so much is melting in gigi tons tapping increasingly fast. And i know that oceans are also rising because the water itself is warming up and hotter things expand so the water slick taking up more space. Yep you got it and actually. This is kind of cool. Sea level rise did slow down in the nineteen sixties and seventies because that was the era of dam building around the world. When you know when these big reservoirs were being constructed. They held back so much water. It was actually measurable. Ooh that is so strange and it really shows how we humans do impact the oceans. That's like a tangible detail of how quickly we can do that. It's a huge scale. But it's not really a factor anymore because you know dams aren't really being built at the same rate these days got it. Yeah anyway since one thousand nine hundred there's been about eight inches of sea level rise and by the end of this century. We couldn't be looking at three to six feet of sea level rise or even higher depending on how much carbon humans emits but. that's globally. The water is rising at a different pace depending on where you are. Yeah how exactly does that work. Because wouldn't the phil evenly kind of like when you fill a bathtub. And here's where it gets a little weird. The earth is slowly changing slowly getting a different shape lake. You know when you've been sitting on the couch while and you kind of get up and the cushion rebounds like morphs back into its old shape. Yeah not all couches but sure theoretically Well okay that same thing happens to the earth's crust During the last ice age Kind of started waning. Eleven thousand years ago. There was a lot of ice on canada and greenland super heavy and was pushing down the earth's crust since that melted the crust has been slowly rebounding. And that's actually not good for the east coast especially around the mid atlantic region. Because you know it's on the same tectonic plates as canada and greenland and when one side goes up. The other side goes down So what you're saying is where i live on. The east coast is on the lower end of the see-saw basically your thinking about that slowly. I mean the east coast is seen more sea level rise than other parts of the country. And then there's a whole bunch of other things that can cause that to you. Know ocean currencies big things that span hundreds of miles in the ocean. They cost the water on one side of them to be higher on the other side. You know so. Because of currents and gravity the oceans themselves are just kind of lumpy which is why sea level rises different everywhere. I am learning so much right now. You're basically saying is that sea level rise is local essentially and if cities want a plan for this and figure out what an who is at risk they'll need tailor-made information for their location. Yeah that's where these historical records come in. You know they reveal what these geologic processes and ocean conditions are doing in each place right right and i signed us refine their computer models. Which are those high powered ways that we get forecast about climate change. I spoke to scientists. Tomas friedrich's at nasa's jet propulsion laboratory about this and he said local records really matter. If we don't have that information for these see to be like a few feet off the local records of sea level so especially when we try to projects like high water levels of like extremes sea levels that's how we call them It's very difficult to to get an accurate picture of that but there is a big issue with a historical records. They already have almost all of the ones that have been digitized. Come from europe and north america So what you're saying is we gotta find more places. More hillary islands so to speak with historical sea level data all around the world. Yeah and this is a problem across many kinds of climate data. actually the southern hemisphere hasn't been covered as well with things like whether stations and other kind of data collection historically So there's just this big effort to find these historical records outside of europe and the us in argentina. They're working to digitize records from nineteen o five that were taken at the port of raise But to go back farther in some countries it means looking at the records of former colonial powers that took control because when countries like the uk and germany and france extracted. Huge amount of resources from colonies often through force. They did it largely through shipping colonialism stealing and keeping a record of it yeah pretty much so right now in france the national hydrographic service is digitizing these title records from dozens of their former colonies from madagascar vietnam Some of those records though aren't as long running you know they were gathered. As part of geographic mapping or you know to study an area where they were putting in port project. But i spoke to one person who is working with the french to stitch together a longer running record dating back through his country's colonial history marbella unika for seafood unique is from cameroon and he's a phd student in france right. Now he started in german archives. Because that was the colonial power in the late. Eighteen hundreds until france took control so he's gathered the french records as well and then he the cameroon records after it became independent in nineteen sixty. Yeah that's really interesting. Project and just a clear example of how the legacy of colonialism continues to impact science today. Yeah yeah i mean. It's digging through. His legacy is how he's kind of finding these records And there's really only one other long-term record in africa and that's from the car senegal so he knows cameroon could be crucial for improving global climate models But it could also be really helpful for cameroon itself. Nieto's just told me that. The country's largest city douala right on the atlantic coast and estuary and it's extremely vulnerable to flooding already. I'm just last year. There was a huge flood that displays thousands after really heavy rains. So when you add sea level rise to that it just makes the flooding issue worse. So he's hopeful that the historical records he's finding will lead to more detailed forecasts about just how fast the ocean is rising there because twala like other cities needs to start preparing now communities need to decide whether to move out of the way or build some kind of protection and
The Code of Hammurabi
"Hemmer robbie was the king of the babylonian empire from approximately seventeen ninety two to seventeen fifty bc. Just to put that into perspective. This was over a thousand years. Before the city of rome was even founded as babylon emperors went hammurabi was pretty successful when he rose to power babylon was still a relatively minor player in the region and when he died he had conquered most of potato along both the tigris and euphrates rivers. The region was almost entirely in. What is today modern iraq. Like any good king win. Hammurabi wasn't conquering nearby kingdoms. He was passing laws and making sure that his kingdom ran smoothly and efficiently. It is believed that hamurabi sent out scholars to the various kingdoms. He conquered to collect the various laws of all realms and then collected them into a uniform code of laws for everyone. The result of this was the code of hammurabi which is believed to be two hundred and eighty two laws regarding any number of different infractions. Crimes and disputes the laws were inscribed on a stone and clay tablets and spread around the kingdom. The stele which was found in one thousand nine hundred one is exceptionally well. Preserved the object itself is a hard blackstone known as diorite. it's shaped like a giant human finger at the top is an image of hammurabi receiving the laws from the babylonian god chumash. There is then a preface which states the following quote and who in bell called me by name hamurabi the exalted prince who feared god to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land to destroy the wicked and evil doers. So that the strong should not harm the week. So that i should rule over the black headed people like chamo- and enlighten the land to further the well being of mankind unquote about six hundred years later. The was taken by the king of elam. Shrek know if you've ever watched the two thousand two movie the emperor's club with kevin kline. You'll remember that should noonday was as the example of someone that no one remembers except that i just mentioned him in podcast and he was in a movie under the reign of Dante was believed that he erased two three dozen of the laws. Originally written by hamurabi researchers have been able to recreate the deleted laws by finding other clay tablets. That had the law's written on them sometime after that it was buried as ancient things tend to do and it was rediscovered in one thousand nine hundred one. So what does the code of hammurabi say. Many of the laws are examples of what is known in latin as lex talionis which is a law where the punishment is similar to the crime. You might know better as an eye for an eye. For example law one hundred ninety six states quote if a man destroy the eye of another man they shall destroy his. I if one break a man's bone they shall break his bone unquote however the rules were different depending on what social class. You're in for example. I didn't read the entirety of law. Ninety six just now the rest of it is as follows quote if one destroy the eye of a freeman or break the bone of a freeman. He shall pay won gold meena if one destroy the eye of a man slave or break a bone of a man slave. He shall pay one half his price unquote so the social status of the victim of a crime was a consideration in the law. If some of this sounds familiar. That's because it's very similar to the laws that are in the bible in the book of leviticus the code of hammurabi was written well before the book leviticus so it's quite possible if not probable that some of the laws from leviticus were adopted from babylonian laws the final version of leviticus was written after the jewish babylonian exile. So it's in fact very possible. There are laws in the code deal with commerce divorce rent liability and even medical malpractice there even laws dealing with contracts and the issuing of receipts. It's true that most of the laws are of a rather brutal. If x than wide variety with punishments ranging from drowning burning severing hands gouging out is that cetera. Most of these type of laws are no longer on the books in most countries. Obviously however there are some surprisingly forward thinking laws for something that was written down thirty seven hundred years ago for example law one hundred forty nine states quote. If this woman does not wish to remain in her husband's house then he shall compensate her for the dowry that she brought with her from her father's house and she may go unquote that is basically an ancient version of no fault divorce. However there was one concept that was in the code of hammurabi which was revolutionary and is still with us today. That is the concept of being innocent until proven guilty. In fact these are the very first law's written down in the code. Here are the first three laws in the code of hammurabi quote law one if anyone in snare another putting a ban upon him but he cannot prove it then let he that ensnared him be put to death law to if anyone bringing accusation against a man and the accused goto the river and leap into the river if he sink in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house but if the river prove that the accused is not guilty and he escaped unhurt then he who had brought the accusation shelby put to death while he who leapt into the river shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser law three if anyone bringing accusation of any crime before the elders and does not prove what he has charged you shall if a capital offence charged put to death unquote so basically they had really harsh perjury laws and they made it really hard to pass frivolous lawsuits. So while i don't think anyone would really wanna live under the code of hammurabi today. It's an important part of humanity's legal history old hammer. Arby's two hundred and eighty two law's written in stone with a very first step in creating a system which has led to the one hundred and seventy five thousand two hundred and sixty pages of the united states code of federal regulations today
"thousand year" Discussed on The Boxcutter Podcast
"I just thought that we would but there would be An inner fee intervention right. Yeah yeah. I'm not necessarily against it but I thought it was interesting. I found these passages by The corinthians that were written by paul Which kind of frame it in a way. That believers will see the great white throne. So i wanted to read though. Second corinthians five. Paul writes for. We must all right here before the judgment seat of christ so that each one may receive what is due for what he has done in the body whether good evil so he frames it in that sense as not entirely judgment but as an accounting. Yeah as as a sore teen you know like so Yes some will be judged but some also be rewarded. Which i thought was interesting because you don't read that revelation. Now maybe they're not talking about the same event. I mean you could go down that path. But first corinthians three he writes this and this is the one. I like more more. So than second. Corinthians i corinthians three verse thirteen and the quality of each person's work will be seen when the day of christ exposes it for on that day. fire rule reveal. Everyone's work the fire will test to ensure it's real quality if what was built on the foundation survives the fire. The builder will receive a reward. But if your work is burnt up and you will lose it but you yourself will be saved as if you had escaped through the fire. What he's talking about here are believers solely exclusively exclusive. Because he says at the end you yourself will be saved as if you had escaped through the fire but his point is do you want to be someone who barely like. Your mom used to say rolls into heaven with smoke. Billion of off their back. I don't personally want that or do you want to be someone who when your work is tested. It's found to have r- show real quality. Yeah right.
"thousand year" Discussed on The Boxcutter Podcast
"They marched up over the broad plain and the earth and surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city but fire came down from heaven and consumed them and the devil who had the seeds them here. It is bloomberg thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur were the beast and the false prophet were and they were tormented day and night forever and ever okay so there it is. Yeah lovely finally can't wait so i these those years of being restrained it's changed nothing about his hatred towards god's people because man he comes out and he starts deceiving the nations into turning against all the people of god and you just been put in jail by an angel and he thinks he can come out and actually i know i actually do something and so. Then there's the names of gog and magog. I talked about it last week. It is based on two Prophetic words from each chapter. Thirty eight and thirty nine of ezekiel. Check that out if you want to read a little bit more about it. They're kind of mysterious nations but there is a quick history so gog was a prince of distant northern land in israel so gog is the prince and magog is the region totally bizarre. This is mentioned in i. Chronicles one magog or gog is actually listed Let me think here of jap japheth. Who was an ancestor of a non-jewish according to hebrew texts and i thought this was interesting. This was super interesting. He was euro asian. How would they know that. This is what the commentator said. That's a good question that interesting. Yeah well here's the deal ezekiel's vision and this is what the lord ultimately stroz the army of gog and magog on the mountains of israel logs. People have attempted to figure this out and this actually is one of those things that also lines up with loads of people trying to figure out. daniels words of this con- confederation that rises up against israel. The people of god most people. I didn't say this sunday. But i just think it's interesting to toss out there. Most people believe that the final conflict is going to come down between russia and china. That's what they're saying based on where gog and magog is and the makeup of the history of the people and the interesting You were busy typing on google over there so or look name. I was looking up with the name. Gog means it means roof. We're okay so the the battle. It's it's Short and finally praise..
"thousand year" Discussed on The Boxcutter Podcast
"But in the end. I said you know what you guys. Here's what i'm going to tell you. Maybe you instead of calling me on all millennial all you need to call me a pan millennial because in the end it's all going to pan out. My opinion is if jesus comes back. He reigns a thousand years. I've literally praised god. I'm with jesus. If jesus comes back or he raptures all of us praise god. I'm with jesus. If jesus comes back and and does what i say i believe which is the millennial aspect praise. God i'm with jesus. That's what matters. I almost wasn't ordained because of this. Can you believe it. It's ridiculous. Because i said i was a pan millennia and they said i was being flippant millennial ever heard of this ever heard of such a walk and i just was like i was so you know the irony is when i left that denomination and i started the warehouse. They stripped me of all my credentials. Anyway so in the end it didn't matter it was a man i wasted all of my life not really. I learned a lot. But i'm just saying you know that the kudos of man are so insane. Just ridiculous we say so. There's my little story is. Just what baffles me is how your bias can be more important than truth Because everything you just said there is true. I mean even if even if you had a completely different view than me and everything that you said i disagreed with if you brought it back to look whatever happens. I'm with jesus that's really where my foundation is. I mean that'd be like great. That's what i believe to. I mean we're in the same boat. Yeah right yeah now houston. I'll be that way right. Yeah you were super calvinist. And i was armenian so right in in the idea. There is like if you don't have the right view. Then you don't have the right theology and if you don't have the right theology then your life you're not gonna live your life the right way for jesus right and the irony is that it's actually the opposite. I feel like the people who are like really dogmatic about their views are not generally speaking kind of not really fun to be around. No they're not like especially when they're when they really want to drag me drill you with their view and i was going to say this has taken years. I'm saying that as someone who right. Yeah and i'm saying that this is the thing it's taken years of just pushing and pulling back and forth on topics like this not where. Hey i'm right and you're wrong but hey this is what i believe. What he you think. Now let's kinda pull this apar- where's the strengths. Where the weaknesses. That's kind of how our conversations have gone now over all these years. i think. yeah no. I'm not even saying now. That i know of i think my view is correct. I'm not either. I'm not a mature man right. So i there's so much more to grow so much more to grow in our knowledge and understanding of g for me through all right so quickly. How long has this gone. Do i even go into this. Were forty one mile. Where i guess she just went on for. So it's my voice. My voice is really like a law boring. It's like ben stein talking anyone bueller okay so In so what happens is that in seven through ten when the thousand years are ended however that all ends satan will be released from prison and will come out and deceive the nations so interesting at the four corners of the earth gog and magog to gather for battle. Their numbers like the sand of the sea..
"thousand year" Discussed on The Boxcutter Podcast
"Say there are a ton a ton of great modern on molyneaux teachers out there today who are really They've actually bringing this three host. Yes you were shown me one. Yeah bringing this view into the forefront of a lot of people's minds so i think that's helpful because it challenges challenges us to think critically about our view Again figurative interpretation here. I'm o'neill's would believe that as believers. We are currently living in the figurative one thousand year reign of jesus and the good case that you can make for this is that satan has been defeated at the cross. We know that gap now whether or not that means that. He's bound in the abyss. That's a big question. Mark but jesus is ruling right now says jesus will rule with his people on earth a thousand years. Jesus is ruling right now at the right hand of the father. He's told us yeah. Years on thousand years is like a day right. Yeah and he's ruling in the hearts and lives of believers. So yeah you could make a case a pretty good case. I think scripturally that we're living in the thousand year reign and the thing is that if that is the case then when as the scripture goes on that satan is finally released again for a very short time that would all add up with right now even though it's hard to believe with how awful our world is that he is still restrained so there would be this moment so that would make sense to because there would be this moment of just where the holy spirit's like okay have at it see what happens type thing right and that would fit into that as well. Okay yeah so let me give you the time line on molyneaux on how differs from post. We're living in the thousand year reign. They would say now but they believe that the tribulation is yet to come whereas post millennials believed. The tribulation was john's time. So i'm lineal would believe things are going to get horrible tribulations going to hit. And then jesus returns. The second coming is the same as the final judgment. He's going to do exactly what he said that he would do. Create a new age judge the nation's etc etc the strength of this view. The figurative style does match. The figurative interpretation does match the writing style of revelation. Jesus rain thousand year reign. It does not depend on political or human power or his physical presence. Thought this was interesting in order for his kingdom to be established. Nice kingdom within us even right now. Dow what scripture teaches us physically. I mean he said it was better for him to go away. So i see that as a strength the weaknesses of the millennial or are really found in the details. Like i said if we are living during the thousand year reign is saying really bound. Can we really say that. And what does that. Even mean and then in revelation. Twenty as you read. It says that this is the first resurrection. So is the first road resurrection. There in revelation twenty is a bodily resurrection and is it. Only a regeneration has already are terrestrial reaction right. Those are all the in and you could actually go further with those details of for the millennial view but those are the four of us. And so let me just say to key to cap off all of them. There's really not a perfect view as you can see right and i think it's interesting. The church denominations scholars even have flip flopped over the years. Yeah completely change. Just like i have So that right..
"thousand year" Discussed on The Boxcutter Podcast
"This view was actually popularized by the left behind series. Which i would say. I to me dispensational. I think is probably what most people know when they think of. I think probably i. It was so funny because on sunday. You said have been indoctrinated. You actually said that word have been indoctrinated by the left behind series. It kind of was forced on like this. Yeah yeah right. Yeah so. I mean that's how i feel personally that i was speaking from my own opinion but the strengths of this would be again. It does follow a little. Keep saying that. Literal reading very well of revelation. It fits really well with the old old testament prophecies so all of those like read a couple of them from zachariah where The jews are going to on the one who they mourned in there or the one they killed in. They're going to mourn his death and they're gonna turn to him in this final hour Does do fit well in dispensational view. the weaknesses particularly the rapture for me is a major weakness because of several reasons. I it wasn't even a thing until the early eighteen hundreds. We said that before. He just let that. Let your minds wrap around this though. Eighteen hundreds was when the theology of the rapture. I took place. yeah and it was actually Had to believe it was like eighteen. Thirty yeah i thought it was like eighteen thirty six. So yeah right in there so that's that's a weakness. And i believe i think that it's also a weakness because the original readers that are getting these letters from john. They were not ruptured They suffered persecution. Who suffered through all the ages. Yeah yeah so. I think that a lot of the passengers were jesus talking about You know he talked so much about standing firm Standing firm you wouldn't need to stand firm necessarily if you're going to be taken away if you're gonna be raptured if you're going to be saved from all the great tribulation you don't really need to think you made a great point in your explanation that you're heading towards now Is i think that people are more careless in their fate. If roy are resting in jesus gonna rapture me. And i don't have to deal with this and so right. Oh gosh we're probably going to get hate knows. i mean. This might not be you or not not accusing anybody of this. But i've met people who are like well. I don't have to worry about any of that. Does jesus to rapture me in their own fairly shallow. It can become shallow. It can affect your witness..
"thousand year" Discussed on The Boxcutter Podcast
"Have to consistent with your interpretation. You can't say. I'm gonna take this passage literally jump over here and just go back and forth literal metaphorical there are there are accused in scripture. I th i believe that. Allow us to determine that something is more liberal or more figured. If it's not just a throw a dart on dr board to decide right but you have to be consistent. Yeah there has to be some consistent. So i don't know what that criteria is but historic pre millennial. Well let me let me. Just say so. Post millennial would mean jesus returns after the thousand year reign so those are those. Were the two differences really. Split in post millennials generally speaking have a less literal view of scripture so historic pre millennial from my research. They really want to put the church age front front and center They want tie all the old testament prophecies to the church age and in the end times their belief would be that. It's going to be the church not necessarily the jews who were going to be the main focus. Okay so did the church age. You might not know this up holidays. The church age began with the resurrection of jesus. That is when it begins. Not when the holy spirit came upon everybody In acts and the actual church the church age began with the resurrection. I believe so okay. Curious go on. I mean i think there's probably some people that would say not until the the holy spirit right all right so anyway so the strength of this view would be that it does follow a little a literal reading of revelation very well so if john is writing literally jesus returns in revelation nineteen In revelation twenty. We see thousand year reign. So that is why people often say will john is writing from a pre millennial perspective because they assume that he meant to put chapter nineteen before chapter twenty chronologically speaking. Now what's interesting is that can also be a weakness because there are some people who would point to the fact that there's some passages in revelation twenty that are almost verbatim of revelation. Six all the way back with the with the seals the seals on where where the if you study I mean you can just google revelation six revelation twenty and you can find those verses that are almost identical in so there are some who would say well no john's describing the same events from different perspectives. And there's no chronological order necessarily so. There's convincing evidence both ways of that. This is why. I'm eventually going to land on the fact that there is no good view in my opinion but again i said the early church fathers they subscribe to the historic pre millennial the weaknesses that i would see. I think it's difficult to tie every prophecy to the church. Especially when any old testament. It's it's referencing israel Yeah i thought that was a great point is true. Yeah that that's a problem to me..
"thousand year" Discussed on The Boxcutter Podcast
"Look like. what does it mean where are believers add in the mix of this even you that are listening. You probably have a definite opinion about this I mean honestly there's probably no greater passage in. I'm going to say revelation. I was going to say scripture. That captures more imagination. Though as to what this looks like because it is so ambiguous. And if you're going literal or if you're going metaphorically and all that other stuff that's added into it so to my knowledge there's no the passage in scripture that talks about the thousand year reign right. That's correct okay. There is not so. I'm about ready to hand this over to brad as he jumps in dives into some of the four. There's four main views we'll actually then there's like sub us but they're part of the main views but here's what we want to let you as the listener know that an and i'm being serious here. We are firm believers that all of us need to wrestle and contend with scriptures and not believe something just because somebody's told us that or because it's how that we've even been taught let's say from whatever dominant denomination we were. I mean. I think that part of the refining of the holy spirit is us allowing him through our research to continue to mold and shape us and transform us. So why am i saying that because we definitely brandon. I have opinions about this entire thing but we don't. We're not saying we have the corner on it. Not at all not at all we are saying. This is where we are in. This point of our growth and brad has actually done. Would it be one eighty s up the right way to. You've really done a one eighty in what you're thinking is On a lot of matters but to your point here's been the difference I believed i had a view initially bit. That was based on what other people told me. And what i had learned that was taught from one perspective right once i actually opened up the bible and started to look for myself and pray that the holy spirit Show me through my own study. Yeah i started to see a lot of different contradictions. That i realized i'm not can't hold his few anymore. So really the challenge here is True believers should not have to rely on man to give them what they believe right to establish what they're gonna believe. Each one of us can now. I understand that not. Everyone of us is a scholar. Some of us are really intimidated by studying the bible and doing a deep study but all of us are capable. The bible is was written. You know and there's so many translations out there now right they make it so much easier each one of us can study it and each one of us if we have the holy spirit..
"thousand year" Discussed on The Boxcutter Podcast
"Its mark on their foreheads. Or their hands and they came to life and they reigned with christ for thousand years. Yeah i did really need to do this tonight. The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were ended. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is the one who shares in the first resurrection over such the second death has no powers and they will be priests of god and of christ and they will reign with him for a thousand years. You know what. What were we thinking by preaching about this. My gosh this is so controversial right. Yeah and but i would say that mean. Some people might say that. We copped out. But it really didn't weighing in much. We kinda well okay. You guys can decide. What is that. You did it a and we decide. Wait now whatever okay. So gosh. here's the bottom line. Satan has no moves left. Angel descends from heaven. Whoever this angel is cast with a key throws him into the abyss of the bottomless pit. Now the abyss. This is the place that we've learned from jude which disobedient spirits are locked. This place that we know that when jesus delivered the man from garrisons who had a legion of demons. They begged not to go into the abyss. So this is something that is there. This is a within their jewish in whatever all was in the earth deep wherever it is yeah Is that where they go for their punishment. So this is where this is take. Obviously they don't like it no obviously and even though there's one last event at the very end where satan show he he's let out on bail basically It's pretty short lived What do you think about the fact that it's an unnamed unidentified angel that comes down and sees as satan and chains him up this just this like you don't even know who it is rice angel so you know easy knock depending on what you're feeling knock has some pretty fascinating stuff in it and it was referenced. So here's what. I do find enoch fascinating is he is referenced by jude who i just read and Some of the other apostles will will reference. Paul also referenced. Something with e knock actually names a bunch of other aimed right. Yeah i think there's a raffaelle. And i don't know it doesn't matter. It's kind of like the ninja turtles. Yeah it is. Did they base that. Maybe maybe say cowabunga. Yeah yeah they did okay. So is that any knock. No ninja turtles were based off like artists. Okay well land right. It was yeah. Sure the names. I don't know anyway but there is a there is allegedly allegedly a raffaelle angel. Yes there is right. Yeah so maybe it was rafael. Who grabbed maybe. So it's this. I mean who's the angel that stands astride the c- in the land that is one gigantic shoeless angel that can straddle that if they're probably big anyway but i'm just saying like we don't even know there's so many unnamed angels true true. I just thought it was interesting because you would have expected jesus to be the one to come down and sees them. I know it's true he's done. Well the last image we had as jesus writing on the white horse with king of kings. June yeah yeah so okay. So there's a lot of thousands going on there and this is really you know what is that..
"thousand year" Discussed on The Boxcutter Podcast
"The back and have prayer before our service starts and you came back. And you're like well. There's more visitors here today which we haven't had forever and great. We're talking about the thousand year reign. Yeah let's bring in old town of visitors when we talk about controversial yes. This is crazy controversial. Don't you think yes. i think. This is super controversial. Well are pretty opinionated about what they believe but they may not even understand the full effects of what they believe why they believe it right on this right. That's the issue. Is that if you wanna talk Unbiased if you if that's even a thing that you can do with with the thousand year reign if you want to try and address it from that angle You're you're probably going to take off everyone because everyone wants to hear at least the people that are passionate. I'm not saying everyone in certainly. I'm not i'm not Like insinuating that everyone in our congregation has a strong view but the of the people that have a strong view man. If if you're not in line with the view if you're not teaching their view they can get really get their feathers rough. Yeah this is true. Now we're not talking about the view. The television program are we. Would you rather. Oh watch the view the rest of your life no. We're not going to go there. No because the view that would be a room in health that would be a complete room in hell to have to sit and watch the view for eternity. I thought it was your favourite show brad. I've never seen it. And that is blasphemous. Okay so anyway So let's keep in mind that peter wrote that with the lord one day is a thousand years one thousand years is one day so now what have you always thought about that. Passage just curious. It's metaphorical okay. The right and it's i mean it's basically that time is nothing to nothing to outside of time right so thousand years to him as well..
"To understand millan kovic cycles. We have to understand each of the cycles which the earth goes through individually. There are several of them. And it's gonna take a bit of visualization to get the concept via podcast where there are no visual aids. But it shouldn't be too difficult. We'll start by going through the cycles that the earth itself goes through to understand these need to think of the earth as a spinning top when the top spins. it's usually not perfectly upright. The top will be tilted somewhat just like atop. The earth has a tilt to rotation currently the earth tilts twenty three point five degrees. And that is what is responsible for the seasons. However that tilt known as obligatory isn't static it actually wobbles back and forth between twenty two point one degrees and twenty four point five degrees right now. We're in the middle of such a cycle. The time it takes to complete one full cycle of going from twenty two point one degrees to twenty four point five degrees and back again is forty one thousand years the greater the tilt the more sun the polar regions will get in the summer and the more extreme the seasons are the next part of the cycle is axial procession if you can imagine the spinning top again as it. Spinning the axis of the top is rotating. Circle isn't just tilting. In one direction on the earth the direction of our access in the north currently points to the north star players this temporary over the course of twenty five thousand seven hundred and seventy one point five years. The earth's axis will go in a circle that means that not only will the north star. Not be the northstar at some point but twenty five thousand seven hundred and seventy one years from now it will be the northstar again while the earth is going about it cycles on it's wobbling and spinning access there are also things happening to the earth orbit itself for this part instead of a spinning top. I want you to visualize a spinning plate. The edge of the spinning plate would be the orbiting. The earth and at the center of the plate would be the sun the first orbital cycle is the orbital eccentricity cycle the orbit of the earth around. The sun isn't a perfect circle. it's slightly elliptical the shape of that ellipse changes over time. And how much it deviates from a circle is known as eccentricity the eccentricity cycles between point zero zero three four which is almost perfectly circular two point zero five eight which is more slightly elliptical the changes due to the gravitational pull of large planets like jupiter and saturn. This cycle takes about one hundred thousand years. The next cycle is called app sill procession. If you can imagine that played again this time imagine it. As more of an oval plate as the earth is going around its orbit around the edge. The plate itself is rotating that means be closest and farthest point that the earth is from the sun will change over time. This cycle is about one hundred and twelve thousand years. Finally there's a cycle for orbital inclination. That rotating plate isn't flat and actually tilts and the tilt changes over time as well. This cycle is about one hundred thousand years as well and is very close to the same length. As orbital eccentricity cycle each of these cycles involves relatively small changes over long periods of time however they can compound each other or they can mitigate each other all of these cycles have been known for a while somewhere known back as far as antiquity and others were more recently discovered in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in one thousand nine hundred eighty s serbian astrophysicists named bulletin. Millan kovic put all the pieces together. He realized that these cycles closely followed the patterns of ice ages in particular three of these axial tilt eccentricity and procession all affected the amount of sunlight that would fall on the northern hemisphere. These cycles could either cancel each other out to moderate the strength of seasons or they could compound each other making the seasons even more powerful in particular. What really mattered was the amount of sunlight falling on the northern hemisphere. In the summer why the northern hemisphere that is where most of the land is sixty eight percent of the land on earth is in the northern hemisphere land. Can't store heat as well as water. Which means that ice can form on it. Easier ice reflects sunlight which can cause further cooling during an ice age most. The ice accumulates in the northern hemisphere in the south is can only accumulate to a point before it hits warmer water and the ice will cleave off to form icebergs. Glaciers depend on how much of the ice melts during the summer when the earth is at its maximum tilt more sun is hitting the northern hemisphere in the summers if the orbit of the earth is such that it's at its closest point to the sun. When this happens summers will be very intense and ice will melt when he opposite happens when the tilt is at a minimum and the earth is farther away in the summers ice will not melt as much and glaciers will grow. All of these factors individually are rather small at its closest point to the sun which currently happens on january fourth. Remember back to my episode on why we celebrate new year's day when we do there's only about six percent more solar radiation hitting the earth than when we are at the farthest point likewise the axial tilt of the earth only changes a few degrees however these effects can be big enough when they work in conjunction to cause an ice age. The observed strength of ice ages is usually found to be stronger than the millen kovic cycles would suggest leading some climatologists to think that there might be a positive feedback mechanism at work. Something which causes the planet to cool faster than expected. The timing of ice ages is still being worked on. Kovic predicted that i would be about forty one thousand years apart and that was true up until about one million years ago since then ice ages have come at about one hundred thousand years which corresponds to the eccentricity cycle. Milne kovic cycles aren't just unique to earth like the earth. Mars has all the cycles. I just mentioned except that the timing and the extent of the cycles are different. Researchers estimate that mars has had between six and twenty ice ages over the last eight hundred million years. The martian milankovitch cycle might bring about an ice age every four hundred thousand to two point one million years. Some of you might be wondering if mellon kovic cycles are responsible for the recent climatic changes measured over the last several decades and the answer is no milakovic's cycles take thousands. If not tens of thousands of years to change their effects. Camping noticed over periods short as a decade so the next time you think about the earth as a spinning ball in space realize that the spinning the orbit isn't a static unchanging thing it's always slowly changing and there are cycles within cycles within cycles
"thousand year" Discussed on The Boxcutter Podcast
"Who cares. it's one hundred dollars. It's one hundred dollars in e. Coli it's okay. it's okay you know what just to make it interesting. I would stand there as i grabbed it. And then i'd lick my fingers just a freak. You out wouldn't actually wouldn't out that much although i wouldn't do i that's sick. I'm just trying to say this stuff doesn't bother me at all like that kind of weird do you. If you drop something in the toilet that is important. Do freak out that you have to i freak out because my wife's germophobic but for you personally personally. No there's been times where. I hope she's not listening where i've dropped things in the toilet and i've retrieved them very quickly right and just rinse them off. Disinfected them but sure. Yeah right. I don't to me. I mean i probably would not If if there was waste in the toilet. And i dropped something. I probably would be like Hopefully that doesn't clogged drain..
Ancient Dogs Had Complex Genetic Histories
"Dogs were the first animals to be domesticated stuck with us as we changed lifestyles from hunting gathering to farming to city living. The dog is a species that is intimately linked to hyun history. Anders bergstrom a post. Doc at the francis crick institute in london. He and his colleagues studied the genomes of twenty seven. Ancient dog bones dug up around the world. They found by eleven thousand years ago. We see the dog to start to diversify united kalihi so we find evidence of at least five major lineages of dogs already at this time. Dog remains have been found in europe asia in the americas in a pattern similar to help. Humans moved mixed to a large degree. The history of dogs dog seems have been shaped by human history. So like the reflecting. How what you must moved. They would have brought her dogs with them. Ancient humans clearly found dogs to be very useful in the arctic. Evidence at sled. Dogs actually emerged very early on people. Use them for the purpose of leading perhaps as early as ten thousand years ago. A few modern breeds like the african basenji new guinea singing dog or australian dingo are similar to one of the five ancient lineages most other modern breeds derived at least in part from european dogs which came to dominate dog genomes. Back for five thousand years ago. There's a great diversity of dogs in europe but at some point there was probably a single population that expanded in basically replaced other populations in europe. So this was something that we did not predict sunday. You couldn't really see just from studying. Archaeology look the dna with all this diversity. In the past that is not represented in present-day dogs. The study is in the journal. Science where you'll find maps of dog migrations over time one odd finding about eleven thousand years ago it looks like dogs. Spread more widely than humans did does actually opposes. We don't understand. So how could the dogs spread so quickly widely. We're we're not aware of any human migrations. At this time that could have facilitated this spread of the dog but some of it spreads very quickly to two human groups all across the world perhaps because he was a very useful thing for his early human together. The groups humans were also useful to dogs prehistoric. Petco didn't exist so dogs. Probably humans did and is human started to form oath species quickly adapted to digest more grains. The number of copies of a starch digesting gene in both humans and dogs increased in the generation following the invention of agriculture. Yes oh that. That's a very striking example of convergent evolution between humans. And dogs. way it's gonna be interesting to think of the dog. As kind of a evolutionary experiment that runs alongside human history and undergoes. Same lifestyle changes that we do
3 ways to upgrade democracy for the 21st century
"I want to talk to you today about democracy about the struggles that it's experiencing and the fact that all of us together in this room might be the solution but before i get onto. That owns. Take a little detour into the past. Place called the penick's which is where about two and a half thousand years ago. The ancient greeks ancient athenians gathered to take all the major political decisions together. I say the ancient athenians that was only the men actually was only free resident property ending men but with all those failings it was still a revolutionary idea that ordinary people were capable of dealing with the biggest issues of the time and didn't need to rely on a single supposedly superior ruler. It was you know it was a way of doing things. It was a political system. Was you could say democratic technology appropriate to the time fast forward to the nineteen th century when democracy was having another flourishing moment and the democratic technology that though using then was representative democracy the idea that you have to elect a bunch of people to look after your best interests and if you think about the conditions of the time the fact that it was impossible together everybody together physically and of course it didn't have the means to gather everyone to give virtually it was again a kind of democratic technology appropriate to the time fast forward again to the twentieth century. And we're living through what's internationally known as the crisis of democracy what i would call the crisis of representative democracy. The sense that people falling out of love with this as a way of getting things done that. It's not fundamentally working and we see this crisis take many forms in many different countries so in the uk. You see a country that now at times looks almost ungovernable in places like hungary and turkey. You see very frighteningly authoritarian leaders being elected in places like new zealand. We see it in the. Nearly one million people could voted at the last general election but who chose not to now these kinds of struggles these sort of crises of democracy many roots of course but for me one of the biggest ones is that we haven't upgraded democratic technology. We still far too. Reliant on the systems that we inherited from the nineteenth and from the twentieth century and we know this because in survey after survey people tell us they say that we're getting fish year of decision making power decisions happen somewhere else. They say we don't think the current systems allow government to genuinely deliver on the common good the interests that we share as citizens they say. We're much less differential than ever before and we expect more than ever before and we want more than ever before to be engaged in the big political decisions that affect us and they know that awesome of democracy have just not kept pace with either the expectations all the potential of the twenty first century. And for me. What that suggests is that. We need a really significant upgrade of our systems of democracy. That doesn't mean we throw out everything this working out the current system because we always need representatives to carry out some of the complex work of running the modern world but it does mean a bit more athens and a list victorian england and it also means a big shift towards what's generally called everyday democracy and it gets us name because it's about finding ways of bringing democracy closer to people giving us more meaningful opportunities to be involved in it giving us a sense not just part of government on one day every few years when we vote. But we're proud of it every other day of the year now that everyday democracy has to key qualities that obscene seen proof. They with time and again in the research that i've done. The first is participation. Because it's only if we as citizens as much as possible get involved in the decisions that affect us. The will actually get the kind of politics that we need. The will actually get our common good served. The second important quality is deliberation. And that's just a fancy way of saying high quality public discussion because over well people participating but it's only when we come together and we listen to each other. We engage with the evidence and reflect on our own views that we genuinely bring to the surface. The wisdom and the idea is to what otherwise remain scattered an isolated amongst us as a group. It's only in the crowd really become smarter than the individual so if we ask what could this abstract idea this everyday democracy actually looked like in practice. The great thing is. We don't even have to use our imaginations because these things are already happening in pockets around the world.
Plant of The Week: Bristlecone Pine
"With a plan of the week mark is one that is of structure it is a good nature. And it's very specially grown here at my house. It is one of the oldest plants on earth as far as anybody knows they're they're assuming that between four and seven thousand years old. They won't even tell the public where the tree is out on the west coast and then there are others in the two thousand to four thousand year range. I don't know who can tell anybody's been living. That long probably is not able to write much but at the same time they can do borings they can do various tests bristlecone pine is normally in the eight to twenty foot. Now that makes it a small tree for for your consideration also on rare occasion given extreme age they'll hit up into the fifty foot plus range but very very very slowly. I happen to have one that It was ready unique. It fell off the truck when it was delivered to the nursery but forty years ago. and it's Got badly broken onside matter of fact or one side off so all of a sudden now. There's a plant this just The one eighty part. I thought well. Now here's the chance. I took it home brought it home. I finished proper pruning of it. And i planted on a west facing brick wall between my porch and garage door. It is presently now mrs about a forty year period. It's presently standing. Maybe six and a half to seven feet tall. It is leaning against the brick wall. The west afternoon sun gives it the brilliant son that it needs. Then it's the hang which. I was delighted with the way. It took a hold It's it's pretty dry. Under most overhangs and with sufficient inadequate initially it took a whole and it grew like crazy about four inches a year. and that that's one of the beauties of it it's a rather Sculptured tree now you. You could look at that as a well. Let you say any of several words for recommendations. But it's irregular it's decorative and in my case. I've trimmed it to stay along the wall now. It isn't much to trim probably every other year. I have to be sure nothing on the side. Branches are sticking out beyond about ten inches from the wall. I don't want it to be able to pull itself away from the wall. Should we get snow or ice. Or whatever on it I have only anchored in two places over the long haul and rest of. It is handled with pruning and i won. One landscape showed up at my house a long time ago and was lamenting the fact that he needed to plant exactly like that and i said well you can have mine at the right price. Yeah he said. What's the right price. And i told him and he said okay. I'll have a truck here monday morning. Whoa whoa not serious. Not certain beauty now you can grow it. let's just say you're regularly It does require son and then the beauty of it is you. Don't handle darn near any soil now not not excessively wet by any means it prefers out west growing it well. The big one is untold is a very rocky gravelly soil. Sandy When it rains which is not too often it will soak up enough water down deep enough that the roots can stay alive until the next rain which may be a whole year or some portion thereof so anyhow a very tolerant plant very very interesting and I highly recommend it. But don't don't don't plan where you need to get screening from the neighbor in short order because it isn't going to happen that way.
The Blood Libel Accusation with Magda Teter
"I'm jason leg. And i'm joined today by magden tater to talk about the history of the blood libel accusation and its continued relevance listen in for a wide ranging conversation about the history of the blood libel its origin in mediaeval europe and how it has transformed over the centuries and what it tells us about misinformation and how it spreads magdi. Tater is professor of history and the fiddler chair of judaic studies at fordham university. She's the author of numerous books. Most recently blood libel on the trail of an antisemitic. Myth which will talk about today. The blood libel is one of the long-standing false accusations against the jews. It is the myth in different variations and incarnations the jews murdered christian children and used their blood for various rituals. And it's obviously patently false but somehow people still believe it. And it has persisted. Across nearly a thousand years from medieval england to nazi anti semitism and beyond we can see the ways in which the imagery of the blood libel and it's false narrative persists even in new reconfigured forms like the conspiracy theories of cunanan as mark the these accusations across the centuries and different places and in different times became a vehicle for different anxieties about jews and about people's lives at large. And so we can see the blood libel in a certain way as a mirror of the fears that people had not just about jews but about all sorts of issues nevertheless the blood libel is not just a relic of medieval superstition. Or something like that. It's something which has changed with the times and which in many ways has piggybacked off of new technologies and new developments and this is one of magdi key arguments which is that. It's the printing press that enabled the proliferation and persistence of these false myths and disinformation which when published allowed them both to spread more widely. And also give these false accusations in air of quote unquote respectability because the existed in print in the first place and so this allows us to think deeply about the role of media technologies both image evil and early modern europe and also more recently with things like the radio. The newspaper even the internet as avenues. Not for the spread of information but rather of information. Thank you so much for listening in to this conversation. I hope that you'll check out. Magas book blood libel and also the accompanying web site the blood libel trail dot org where you can learn more about the book and also check out some really fascinating maps and other media about the anti semitic myth of the blood libel. Thanks again for listening. Hi magda welcome to the podcast. Hi jason thank you for having me. This is such an interesting topic. It's i think unfortunately very relevant to talk about bible accusations. Yes unfortunately i'm a scholar of premodern history and we always want to be relevant. But as i always said be careful what you wish for. Suddenly my book became quite rather than to although when i started. It was an academic exercise. Yeah i mean. I think that we are going to get to the question of the ways in which the historical blood libel accusation is still very relevant today but before we do that i think it might be useful for us to think kind of really brawley. What actually is the blood libel accusation manafort putting it into the context of thinking about how this is similar or different to other kinds of accusations that we see throughout history thinking about for instance the accusation of decide the accusation that jews had murder jesus and then also things like the accusation of the desecration of the host the totally kind of bizarre accusation. That jews would steal the the wafers from the church. You're right blood. Libel is one of a series of accusations against jews that emerged in the middle ages. And it's one that has relevance today decide was a theological belief and obviously accusation but became embedded as a believe and maybe then projected onto jews causing violence especially during easter. But it was so to speak a victimless crime. Every year whereas a number of other accusations emerged in the middle ages justice christianity catholicism where also solidifying certain and defining certain types of buildings and then there were also libels that emerged in moments of crisis such as epidemic. So poisoning of wells for instance. So blood libels one of the three medieval accusations. The so-called ritual merger. Acquisition are. Although i prefer to call it murder liable. But it's an accusation that emerged in twelfth century that claim that jews killed christian children to reenact the passion of jesus so that connects to the this site as it projection onto contemporary jews and reenactment that emerged in england and then in the thirteenth century it emerged in a new way on the european continent. And that's when it became blood. Libel that shoes killed christian children to obtain their blood. Although the very first accusation claimed of perhaps some other kind of form of cannibalism of eating a heart or something like that they reason why blood became so central is that this was the moment when the catholic church in the thirteenth century has affirmed the dogma of trans substantiation that is the communion wafer that was consecrated by a priest during mass turned into the actual body and blood of christ therefore blood becomes central motif in christian worship. So this is a moment where we have this both the transformation of the murder liable into blood libel of killing but the purpose of blood but also the emergence of not their occupation that you mentioned day host the secretion accusation that jews obtain steel by the consecrated wafer and then tried to stab it to obtain the blood of christ and both are connected in the sense that the blood becomes a even because jews cannot make their own consecrated way for they needed this blood of the innocent christian to be added to mater effectively making it into both the body and the blood of christ night but a accusation that jews stole the consecrated wafer then desecrated and blood flowed dot accusation kind of waned and disappeared after the reformation the blood libel and the murder liable kind of continued the life of their own. The reason for is is that they are related to deaths of children and to some perhaps victims perhaps accidentally killed drown children so it becomes a very intimate actually charge because it involves a death. Having a way for stabbed doesn't sound as unless you really believe what this way for means but accusing someone of a child. That may be found dead on sometimes. It wasn't even body that may have been somebody's child that becomes a very kind of an intimate accusation and very embodied accusation even that transformation from the murder libel that is of reenactment of the passion of christ which emerges at the moment when christians are beginning to liturgically focus on the passion of christ. So you think about jews and reenactment and all that stuff but the transformation to the blood libel shows you that this begins to be a very malleable accusation that can change depending on needs and the needs to came that connection between the new liturgy and the new theology of the blood and body of christ in the thirteenth century
Scientists Have Found Some Truly Ancient Ice, But Now They Want Ice That's Even Older
"It's chilly across the country today. Highs of just fifty eight in miami and sixteen in minneapolis which makes minnesota colder than an arctic as mcmurdo station but the cold weather doesn't last forever in the twin cities and in antarctica. It does ice their last hundreds of thousands even millions of years and as npr's nell greenfieldboyce reports that makes an arctic the perfect place to find some of the oldest ice in the world. Just how old is the oldest ice. On earth john higgins says. Nobody really knows you know. Would i be surprised at this point. We had five million-year-old is i mean. I'd be surprised. But not it's not unfathomable i think he and some colleagues recently collected ice samples in antarctica. That were later analyzed and shown to be as old as two point six million years. It's beautiful stuff when you pull out. The is it. Essentially as crystal clear accepted filled with tiny bubbles the bubbles contain air from when the ice formed and this trapped air is what scientists are really after higgins says if you want to understand how gases like carbon dioxide have affected the climate throughout history. You know you can't really do better other than getting a time machine and going back in time and taking an air sample then using these ice cores which physically just trap samples of ancient air to release that ancient air. All you have to do is melt the ice. That's the sound of a research camp manager in antarctica making drinking water by melting scraps of two hundred thousand year old ice in a metal pot to actually collect an analyze the release gases however ancient is has to melt in a lab. Sarah shackleton studies old princeton where she gets to watch the trapped air bubble out and that is something that i don't know if i'll ever get sick of watching. It's actually like pretty mesmerizing and one thing. That's released surprising every time to muse. Just how much gas is actually in the ice. She says it's a lot and samples from time. Periods undergoing past climate changes could be used to help make predictions about the future. One of the biggest questions in terms of kind of the modern warming and look anthropogenic. Climate changes helmich warming. Do should we expect with the amount of co two that we have in the atmosphere now. Antarctica has been covered by an ice sheet for at least thirty million years. But it's actually pretty hard to find really old ice. John gooch is a geologist. At the university of minnesota he says while snowfalls constantly add new layers of ice to the top of the ice sheet the oldest layers at the bottom can disappear. That's because of geothermal heat coming up from the ground so the rocks are giving off heat of slowly over time and so that has the potential to melt ice at the bomb. Still bits of super old ice like that two point six million year old sample can sometimes be preserved at the ice sheets edges the older snippets of ice. That we've been able to find come from places where the ice has flowed up against a mountain range and been exposed at the surface in those spots though. The ice can be all jumbled up and messy. It's not nice layers that have been laid down sequentially over a long continuous stretch of earth's history to get a neatly layered ice sample like that. Scientists need to drill straight down through the thick icesheet so far the oldest ice collected that way goes back eight hundred thousand years. Gooch says the goal now is to drill down a couple of miles to reach ice. That's older a million to two million years old whether or not we'll be able to find it at the bottom of the ice sheet where we can recover a relatively simple continuous record. Is i guess. That's the sixty four thousand dollar question at team from china has drilling underway a group from europe. We'll start in november. What everyone wants is i-i samples that cover a key time period about a million years ago. When there was a dramatic shift in the planet cycle of ice ages. Those had been coming every forty thousand years or so but for some reason that pattern ended and it changed to every one hundred thousand years instead unto us working on climate. That's a really big deal. Eric wolf is a climatologist with the university of cambridge in the united kingdom. It's a really big question as to why that change is fundamental tower climates. Work in a way you could say. We don't really understand today's climate. If we don't understand why we live in one hundred thousand year will draw the forty thousand year world. The coronavirus pandemic basically ruins the arctic research season. That would've been happening now but starting next fall researchers will be backed down there searching for really old ice nell greenfieldboyce npr news.
Best of 2020
"Up next we meet one of ireland's finance jeff's kp mcmahon based in galway the michelin starred chefs. Culinary accomplishments include any restaurant and anne robotic cookery school as well as his. Release the irish cookbook. One of the most beautiful cookbook releases off. Twenty twenty till's the story of irish feud and how it has evolved over thousands of years showcasing the richness and variety of food from this green islands with its five hundred authentic recipes. The author jp mcmahon jones me in the studio back in march to discuss the book on how irish food is about so much more than just lamb stew and potatoes as was initially. It was a bit apprehensive because there are many many irish food cookbooks in the twentieth century. But i suppose. I found that a lot of them had been written for an irish audience or perhaps people travelling to ireland. It was important for me to try and give an international dimension and was one of the reasons why publishing with fight on made a difference because they have a global reach and it was in order to try and change the perception of irish food. I think also because we have a restaurant called a near which is will mission star restaurant. We've had it for ten years and we've been investigating irish food for ten years and i felt a lot of the things that we've been doing over. Those ten years weren't in cookbooks. And some of them are very old things like using seaweed using wild food in different ways. And i wanted i suppose that a record of that and that was the start i think the initial for doing it was a had traveled a lot to different places and taking part in chef events and i realized that are affected that we had really good produce in ireland. I'm we just weren't singing about it now. I took part in events in mexico in america and canada in europe and we were always celebrating the cuisine of a particular area. And as why are we doing this. And why aren't we kind of like saying well. We have really good food where shellfish or or whatever so. They were kind of the driving forces behind the book. Now what do you think. Ireland has been so modest about its food on its culinary legacy heritage. I think there's a certain humbleness modesty to irish people and they're probably not the best people at selling themselves like i think we're frustrated capitalists and we want to do things but at the same time we don't want to come across as being bombastic. I think that's worn element. I think the second element is the famine and the subsequent diaz before that happens. I think that impacted irish food particularly of the twentieth century and on the one hand you had people that did not have that much access to food in art and even though there was a lot of food and then the second part you had people who did have access that is food. Who were i think. Predominantly from the anglo-irish irish element and some has be would call the west brits so the people who would be associated with england and these people who had food. I think we're not considered to be irish often. This kind of tension between the tradition that it goes all the way back at least a thousand years between people on the island and people who have food and people don't have food on who we consider irish what we consider irishness tried to take a very broad perspective on it. And so when you go into the archives of the recipe books that you find are from landed gentry anglo-irish aristocracy mostly on. I think when became independent in nineteen twenty two. We kind push that assignment. But that's not really irish. You talk about going to the archives of research did you actually conducts to gather all these five hundred recipes. You having this book. Some of it was looking at best. Baseball's cookbooks from the nineteenth to twentieth century and looking through tried to pick recipes that i thought represented ireland in that respect i found stuff like say pollen is a river fish that is almost forgotten and offend a wonderful pollen recipe. I think in the nineteen seven book and interest. Enough are fishmonger had just been talking about pollen and nobody easing it and it all goes to europe and his fish from nee in northern ireland. That was one thing. I think looking ass older manuscripts was wonderful thing. Because i love history as well and looking at how people wrote recipes and how they i suppose. There was a certain assumption in recipes that the person who was reading new it already so the method was very very scant and often the recipe books were household management books. That would be passed down from mother to a daughter to a granddaughter so people could be able to cook the recipes. Were very interesting. A lot of pickles. Stuff a lot of preserve stuff because there was no frigid. So a lot of salting like i suppose. There's almost like how to live because if you couldn't do these things then you in trouble. Did you come across many recipes that had been practically forgotten already. Yeah like one or two some that we probably would not eat now. One was pickled herring. Which i thought was really interesting because i did a story and friend of mine because i thought didn't they meant herring and she was like no. That's terron lake orion and i was like wow because there's one heron galway and flies up and down and if anyone was to pick them i be in trouble but the interesting thing was that it reminded me of like an s quebec spanish dish where they cook fish or chicken and they covered in vinegar and wine solution and essentially that was the recipe and the recipe started off was like chopped the heads off one hundred hereon got and viscera them. That was the start of the recipe. And i was like wow. That's already a big mess. Some of the other things that are still useful. I think i put it in was quincy and quincy eric. Something that are not native to ireland but there was a lot in the seventeenth and eighteenth century that would preserve a lot of quences and so preserved. Quincy was what i would call mark cross again and again and again and also recipes would almonds. The irish were obsessed with amines. Which again is one of those interesting things to think about because again. Do not come from ireland.
Show #45 "2 Acts 85' Style" Jay Leno, and O'Brian & Valdez - burst 2
"But i always like to come back to sacramento. Go to my favorite a little bookstore over here goldman. You've been a place where it g. It's hard to believe you were the one that went this positive trying to pull off your sister again sir that it raised some extra money for fatty foods. No doubt the old days about a guy. Sister get punked punch guy no. Please make one of my sister. Have you been to goldie surfer. Really you get down there. No abso- no. God forbid use the how shocking that i would have picked you. I think if god does not destroy gold easy really owes sodom and gomorrah apology. You know i always liked those little signs. They have mature adults. Only most mature adults like to stand little booths with their pants as their ankles watching movies. It's a pretty good sign of maturity. Isn't it. I mean god forbid of some immature person should somehow sneak past tight security that they have the ones that pretend to have something legitimate. They have signs like we sell marital aids. I love with these people. Find america eight. I mean somehow to me. Four foot vibrated. It takes thirty d size batteries. This is not a maratha lay. This is a jackhammer. As far as i'm concerned mean your wife goes out of town you could break sidewalks with this thing. Well she's a small woman. You sure i won't kill over this model. You know sparks flying out of it. It's not you will approve for electrical friend. Now the big item the inflatable party these dominant and take home. They blow it up. It looks like a girl i can do. Whatever they want with this thing. This amazing two thousand years of civilization man has progressed to the point of screwing balloons.
A Man of Wealth of Taste
"The quest for immortality the urge to escape the inevitability of death has long been a preoccupation for us as evidenced by the ancient sumerian poem the epic of gilgamesh the oldest example of written literature known today in the poem written sometime around eighteen hundred bc in mesopotamia. The titular gilgamesh part hero part. Arrogant demi-god undertakes nordic Mission to find the secret to immortality ought to being confronted by the inevitability of his own death though we might not be demigods like gilgamesh his desperate refusal to accept the inevitability of his fate is a deeply human one and something that many of us can sympathize with whether we elect to place our hopes in the promises of religious teachers or in the invention and imagination of our leading bio gerontologist those that studied the mechanics of aging throughout many of us. Who haven't contemplated the possibility of existing forever in one form or another however although some of those may want for it being mortal israeli portrayed as something desirable and at the very least. There's something that can only be achieved at a great cost from the burdens of connor macleod in his pursuit to become the only remaining highlander to the pitiful efforts of melmeth the wanderer to convince another soul to take on his pact with the devil in return for another one hundred fifty years of life. In fact we take great pains to dissuade ourselves from wanting it. Perhaps this is simply to provide some comfort in the face of such a futile desire. But it doesn't stop us trying back in october this year. A team led by tel aviv. University professor shy f ratty published the results of an extraordinary study in the journal aging study to determine the effect of pure oxygen on the aging process involved placing thirty five adults over the age of sixty four in a hyperbaric chamber and giving them pure oxygen for ninety minutes a day five days a week over the course of three months through this process of frats team found they were able to successfully limit the build-up of senescent cells in the body cells. The today's to the point where they can no longer replicate leaving the body. Susceptible to many age related diseases incredibly not only to this delay the aging process but actually reversed it. Aubrey de grey. One of the best known by. Oh gerontologist has long insisted that medical technology will one day allow us to control the aging process. Even making the stunning claim this back. Two thousand and eight that the first person who lives to one thousand years old is already alive today through some however who'd say that this person isn't just a live right now but they've already lived to be a thousand years old. You're listening to unexplained. And i'm richard mclean smith. It was sometime in the seventeen. Seventies that counted adema marie-antoinette's personal attendant. I met him for her. It was his is most stood out. They were like nothing. She never seen before his teeth to were immaculate and all the more noticeable for being framed by such a thick head of luxury jet black hair and his clothes were simple they were nonetheless made from the finest materials decorated with the most exquisite jewellery. It wasn't a period. She assumed would be accompanied by a certain steely if not arrogant countenance however when she finally plucked up courage to approach one afternoon at the court though was penetrating so too. Was it soft and inviting despite everything countess. It heard about the man. It was quite something to see him. Finally in the flesh looking no more than forty five years old and yet it was back in seventeen forty three over thirty years previously. The first appeared mysteriously one day at the palace of versailles home to king of france. Louis the fifteenth looking exactly the same age
Just What is Going on at the Esports Stadium Arlington?
"Sports stadium in Arlington is the largest Esports arena in North America this week. They laid off almost all their employees including former president. Jonathan Ogden Josh. Whose been at the Helm of the company for the past few years made it clear. There was plenty of discontent behind the scenes. He tweeted quote would love to talk about what's happened a t Sports stadium and my fears what will happen with the new Direction off all the details but need to tread lightly from a legal perspective and quote in other tweets. He makes it even more clear that the exit wasn't pretty and that the new leadership represents a drastic change from the team driving the stage over the last few years. The new president will be luke Bauer Bauer doesn't have much experience in E Sports at all. Jacob Wolfe tweeted yesterday quote Bauer is a 2020 University of North Palm. Just graduate and Linkedin shows experience running a pressure washing company power is a friend of Luke lights means and quote. Luke is the other figure involved with the company and he's a bit controversial Thousand Years. Apparently the grandson of Ray Davis a majority shareholder of the Texas Rangers who helped launch the venue according to Woolf the current CEO of Esports Arena Arlington is Neil Lyman a minority shareholder for the Rangers. And if that name doesn't ring a bell, here's a refresher Infiniti sports and entertainment. That's the company that bought optic gaming back in 2017 and made an absolute mess of it before selling it off to a mortal's about two years later. Now, it seems like Neil is taking another popular is Esports institution run by a gaming veteran and moving it in a direction of wage earner nepotism Bauer didn't interview with Kevin hit at the Esports Observer, which I will link below in it hit questions Bauer about an odd tweet from Luke leitzman lights been again appears to be Bridge between Bauer and the Texas Rangers owners who are making the decisions here lights been tweeted and then deleted e Sports Stadium Arlington will not at any time require requests or inquire about the vaccination record of anyone. I will be buried in the ground before this changes. That's just an odd statement to make from a public health perspective, especially as venues have been one of the hardest-hit industries by the covid-19. Demek Bauer claims lights been does not have the authority to make that call but his entire page was wild with feared claims. And now as I searched for it today does not exist. So weitzman's actual role at the company is not clear whatsoever. Jonathan quotes who did the article and said there is much much more to this and is in no way being transcribed fully booked. It's not a fault of hit. Of course. It's a fault of Bauer who just is not going to provide the full situation. We likely won't know the full story until Jonathan's NDA expires, but for now given meals poor history. Use words to say the least. We certainly aren't going to give him the benefit of the doubt here.
Round (Circles and Spheres)
"Merrill what do you think is cool about spheres in circles and all that from top logical standpoint spheres are pretty much the simplest shape you can think of. It's like join everything anything to a spear and it's still the same shape like take a taurus. Join us to it. just glues. fear. It's the same thing. It's kind of like the identity of top logical objects. Explain what you mean by joining us via taurus. So suppose he had just a tourist like a regular old donut and let's say you cut a hole out of that. Any cut a whole lot of the sphere and you glued those two together. The sphere would just kind of disappear into that torres just still be the same donut would still have the same donut hole. So tom logically. They're interesting interesting for other way for other reasons. I mean i like. I like the fact that they could be extended to any Dimensioned even though they're continuous objects could do that. With hyper hyper parabolas and pre aids. And all that stuff. But we're doing an episode on spheres. Just because they're cool they're the simplest object but we have all this math related to them. I mean you played as we're going to see to find his entire system of math using spheres and straight edges and so without further ado regal history of sears in circles which is a very difficult thing to do because planets are spherical. I mean spirited just exist naturally but i guessed We could talk about the early history. The early history. I mean people didn't understand spheres very well. They interested in a long time the study of pie until about a thousand see people that was between three and three point. One two five which is not very accurate finally euclid started using spheres and circles to do different proofs and he did this with compass straight edge geometry and merrill say anything about straight as geometry like doing explain maybe the limits of what you can do with head. I mean it's proved by construction. I mean as just like you can drop circles and he can drop fears and you can like get things such as length and circumference through them and you. Can you know do division to find out. it's like what ratios are things like pie. What's interesting though. Is ed using a compass straight edge. You can't do a lot of elementary things like You can't make us fear of twice volume of another sphere or you can't divide an angle by three or even five. There's a there's a very limited of stuff they can do with it however for a about a thousand years it was like the golden standard for math and geometry was euclid elements which we've talked about many many times on the show the proof that he had For the area of a circle being half the area of a rectangle is that divided the circle into a bunch of pie basically and made the slices of pie instantly thin and noted that those are triangles about the size of the radius tall with the total base length of the circumference of the circle. Right with you. Basically proved that a circle has area of a triangle with a base of the circumference and height of so. You could imagine this as listen. You take an orange right right and you peel apart the orange slices down so that all the points of the slices are facing up other orange skin. Really give you did that. In the in the orange an infinite number of segments you could make those segments simple triangles right. Yeah and then they together would all have the the area of the circle. Okay so pretty much you taking a bunch of triangles and adding them up to the area. The circle is what you're saying. Yeah and so the circum- the basis of all the struggles all put together. is equal to the of the circle and the height of all those triangles. Because they're all segments of the circle is our so the radius the radius and so one have ten circumference which is two times are leads us to the very familiar formula pyre squared or one half tower squared right. Because you know those of us who follow by heart will refuse to accept pi and tau which is to pie is the real circle constant or and then we go onto archimedes who proved that the volume of sphere is a two-thirds volume of the including cylinder and We did this problem episode or something but simply done what d- simply put. He did this by taking cylinder that encloses a hemisphere right and then a Cohen that starts at the top of the cylinder and goes down to the bottom and they noted that every with every slice the slice of the cylinder mine is a slice of the code was equal to the slice of the sphere so since the volume of cone is one third the volume of a cylinder. It's one of mine is one thirty goals two-thirds again. We might do this on a problem. Episode
"thousand year" Discussed on The Dave Ramsey Show
"Cool? Well, you're ready. How much do you make about picky? Thousand-year good for you. What do you do operator in the chemical industry? Cool very cool. So how long have you been dating or? We've been dating for five years, and we're high school sweethearts. Yeah. Obviously. Wow. Very cool. Very cool. So thinking about getting married. Hopefully within the next year to. Okay. Cool. All right. Well, do the jewelry stores are not in the financial advice business there in the jewelry business. And so I will give you a different number than they will give you okay? The rule of thumb, I use, when you're buying an engagement ring is no more than one month's income. Which is a pretty stinking nice ring in this case. Okay. So I mean, your take home pay is what thirty five thirty or thirty eight hundred bucks a month. Is there something like that? Yeah. Okay. That's nice ring. And it's, it's not a five carat, but you're twenty one years old, and you're getting married. Who cares right? Okay. So I mean thirty eight hundred bucks. And, and here's the thing. The learn a little bit about anything you're gonna put money into, and as you start to shop for diamonds, you'll learn about clarity cut carat and so forth. I'm afraid I have a lot of dollars tied up in diamonds. None of which are on my person. That means they're on the other person. So but I've learned a lot about it. And I will tell you this don't fall for the oh, if you get this one, it'll go up in value, more, it's clearer. You just don't want something that to the naked eye when waved around under somebody's noses noticeably, a bad color or noticeably, a bad cut or noticeably has flaws in it? Okay. For clarity and so call her clarity and cut. That's in carat, of course, carrot is the size and so forth. So it's not an investment. I own a bunch of them. We've never sold any of them, and they've never gone up in value in thirty years. So that's a bunch of crap. Okay. The only thing they're good for is. It makes the girl smile. That's all they're good for. Okay. So and they're worth it for that because my girl needs to smile. And so every so often she gets one, that's how that works. Okay. But they're not good as an investment. Don't that's just a bunch of garbage. Okay. So what are we going to? We're going to get a deal. I. I never by a perfect stone. But I never buy junk when either I try to land in the middle and I learn about it a little bit for I get into it. A really good place. If you can land somebody in your life that knows a little bit about diamonds that will go with you knows more than just a little bit. You actually can find steals on diamonds at a pawnshop. There are high end high quality pawn shops out there that you will get stuff for probably quarter on the dollar what it would be the jewelry store..
"thousand year" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Thousand year old baby female mammoth w and she was found to have adult mammoth poop in her digestive system. This seems to be just a part of how you first of all wean and then also prepare the the the micro by oughta of the young elephant calf. Now, speaking of similar large mammals with also very cute babies. I was reading just little bit about the importance in the the freshwater food chain of some rivers of hippo poop, you know. Hippos do a similar thing. They come up out of the water to eat a whole bunch of, you know, rough plant matter, and then they retreat back into the water to just poop it all out and move it all out straight into the water. And this this ends up forming an important nutrition source for fish and other organisms downstream. But of course, too much hippo poop can lead to problems like eutrification where there's too many nutrients in the water. I imagine this is one of the many challenges of keeping. Hippos in an artificial environment seven to clean water all the time. Oh, I was actually reading something about this. I wish I could remember the details, but in regards to public Escobar's hippo who. Yes, his his hippos, which sweat supposedly still running amok something like that. Yeah. I also I've done some hippo poop research in the past actually fair amount of I guess just hippo anus research because you've got like a special variety of Leech that is only attracted to the hippo Amos. They also do that great thing with their tail spinning. Yeah. It's the wording entail. Poopie go round. Yes. Like a sprinkler system for fresh hippo feces. Well, now that we have that image in your head. Let's turn to what I think might be the most impressive of variety of copper Phages organisms. This would be the order Lygo Morphou or the leg amorphous bunny rabbits. Yeah. Rabbits hares pike is presumably. Easter bunny as well. I don't know. I think I warned people when we mentioned this episode was coming up that they would be treated to an utter ruination of the cuteness of bunnies. But maybe instead if you're open minded enough, this will even expand your bunny cuteness appreciation into higher dimensions of consciousness. I think I'm more in that that that area. Like when I first started looking into it. I was like, yeah. Maybe this is a little gross. But knowing no, this is amazing. Like, I'm not sure I had any reason to find wonderment in bunnies. And rabbits before you know, the accepted, if it's some sort of cool predation method by something that eats them. But no this. This is amazing. What we're gonna talk about here and it forces you to rethink not only rabbits. But I think digestion itself. Okay. So what is normal rabbit? Feeding look like what are they eating? What do they do? Oh, well, you know, they're in carrots come on the cartoons. If they've taught mcreilly they eating plants a diet of with a lot of a lot of greens. And you know, the gardens of of English gardeners when they can get in there, though. Funny. Cide fact, I was actually just reading paper that mentioned some opportunistic carnivorous of rabbit not re not over Abbas by rabbit. Oh, that would make sense given everything we've learned about squirrels. Yeah..
"thousand year" Discussed on WRVA
"You've heard on how this storm is tracking. Well, of course, the the latest out this hour, and I mean, it's good news to see that she slowing and getting a little torn apart from the I it's not good news. We're still looking at storm surges of you know, tend to thirteen feet and rain falling from the sky out another foot of potential rain. And none of that is good in a place called the low country. And that's not for nothing. I was three years ago, you were dealing with the the worst rains in a thousand years anybody anybody warning of a similar outcome here. Yes. Absolutely. So there are a lot of people that didn't live here through Hugo in nineteen eighty nine which was just devastating for our region myself. I mean, we lived inland twenty five miles, and we were without power and running water for almost a month. So people have never been through a storm like that. So the the only thing we could sort of reference most recently when it came to flooding was the thousand year flood event from Joaquin which was what three years ago last year. We had Erma Erma was torn apart by going through Florida, and sort of raking up across, you know, back during us from from Georgia. So that was nothing, but Irma did bring a very high storms are one of the records actually that I can think of so Erma was kind of a test before that it was Matthew. And then the Joaquin. Slash our thousand year, flood of it. So we've been through in the last three years some stuff. But Gordon these numbers? Yeah. Yeah. Just correct me geographically or topographic Charleston. I think is surrounded on three sides by water. Right. So even in low country, you're used to flooding. However. But you've got a vacuum going on we do. And you know, we actually put, you know, a Twitter poll up to ask, you know. Hey, are you evacuating because the floor fifty five percents? They know. I mean, this is a concern for people, obviously, our first responders are emergency ops officials are every day becoming more dire. As you hearing in the sound that you're playing as well saying, listen, if we're going to have sustained winds, it's the it's the amount of time to this is dragging on which is the most concerning if we're going to have sustained winds between anywhere from forty to seventy possibly ninety. You know, it keeps waxing and waning. But let's just say between fifty and eighty miles an hour. Drive down the interstate at a good clip with all the windows down in your car for four straight days. And then we'll ruin blinding rain. I mean, you know, it's just unprecedented cheese. We're speaking live this morning with Kelly. Golden she's hosted the morning program at NewsRadio ninety four three told USC in Charleston, South Carolina. So has the attitude of Charleston area. Residents changed with the flooding. You've had lately, you would've you would've thought I think more people on the roads. Finally, of course, they reversed our interstate to just leave. The message continues to be for the last three or four days. Just leave. I think more people heeded the warnings as they saw the storm toggle, you know, to the south into the west I there's a little bit of a northern toggle this morning, but all of that's going to continue to change. You know, what hasn't changed is? This is a very slow moving storm. It's still a very powerful storm that will rent back up as it gets over warmer waters and closer to the coast. How will the radio station handles? Well, good news. We actually have a new operations emergency operations center built right across the street. If we have to flee literally by foot, we will we will do so were set up across the street at the new emergency operation center. So we're lucky to have that. Well, very good. Hey, thanks for sharing a few minutes. It was nice talking to you again. Kelly Kelly, golden hosted the morning program at NewsRadio ninety four three WSC in Charleston. South Carolina are Philias. It is fourteen minutes. Now after the hour on This Morning, America's first news. Dr award winning chief.
"thousand year" Discussed on Masters in Business
"Babylon civilization, Greek and Roman civilization, the middle ages, the renaissance and the early modern history right up to the present. I can assure listeners at the rates that are experiencing right now are the lowest in Uman history. That's fascinating. Oh, we really at thous-. Thousand year lows. Two thousand year lows in interest rates are closer to three thousand year lows. That is in all of recorded. History rates never got to be quite as low as they have been in recent years. See if the Romans knew about quantitative easing, they'd still be running the world, perhaps that's possible. So so let's discuss interest rates and put them into a little bit of context. I the obvious question. Why are interest rates so far away from their traditional averages? I, it just seems like this is an unprecedented era of low rates while it is an unprecedented era. I would say the main reason rates have been as low as they've been in recent years is the financial crisis of two thousand seven to nine. I call it started in two thousand seven kind of peaked out after the Liman failure and continued into two thousand nine. When on employment, we had a great recession, you know, in tissues unemployment, and it was the response of the monetary authorities. To that basically to buy up a lot of financial assets and balance sheets of central banks doubled tripled quadrupled. And I think it was that these massive purchases of securities, some call it quantitative easing that basically drove interest rates to very low levels. And the central banks did that because they wanted to bring us back from the depths of the crisis and they succeeded. But they only succeeded after keeping interest rates at very low levels for a long time, the lowest levels in human history. I, if I recall after the dot com crash in two thousand and then the recession that lasted from March of a one to October of that year. Alan Greenspan had taken rates down not quite zero, but they were under two percent for a couple of years and they were at one percent for at least a year. How significant was that era of interest rates to what. Came afterwards or you know, Barry, I wrote these last addition of the history of interest rates, updating it in two thousand four and five. I think it was published in two thousand five and I was working on it in two thousand four. And at that time I thought that maybe we had reached the low of the interest rate market. And you mentioned the recession of two thousand one Greenspan's fed responded to that by driving their policy rate down to as low as one percent. I think in two thousand two and two thousand two thousand three, the we had a Federal Reserve policy rate of about one percent, and then the fed began raising in two thousand four, the middle of two thousand four. And I thought, well, maybe two thousand three. I can even give you a month the the tenure bond got to three point three, three percent in may of two thousand three. And I was updating the book a year later, and I said, well, you know, rates have come up and now the fed is. Raising. So maybe that may of two thousand three as a low today we laugh when we say the ten year bond at three point, three, three percent. We haven't seen that for quite a while. It's about two point, eight percent right now, and that's up from less than two percents. So I think that then I thought that while we turned the corner, what I couldn't foresee in two thousand four and five, and I don't think anybody else force Saudi there was that we were going to have this financial crisis starting in two thousand seven and eight may maybe I should have paid more attention to what was going on in the mortgage market. But I, I didn't foresee the crisis, lots of people, sore parts of it. Very, very few people manage to see the whole overall collapsed coming. Certainly not with any degree of of successful time in some people during that era were saying, well, these low rates are are of function of cash glut. We have, China has a ton of cash. That's what's driving rates down what? What's your your view. You on that?.
"thousand year" Discussed on Blamestorming
"Welcome to blame storm in the blames to win in a post truth world this plenty of blame to go around twenty a plane go round plane to join dave cyrus amoruso smith as they blamed still blame store as they blamed storm about today's hot topics guys this is blame storming i were assessment we are back with dave cyrus yes i'm joey gay right and we are joined with rob ryan i just came here yes thanks for coming in so let's just jump right in rob name three celebrities you think are actually innocent of their sex charges no this the show this is the show create create a buzz a buzz trying to create controversy yeah you invite a comic and then you yes do them i think the charges laid against you dave yeah and technically are more than three well played yes so trump recently said that he thought that teachers should be armed in schools like does anyone think this is a good idea no i don't even like teachers being teachers and schools give them guns now do you ever hang out with a teacher like i have a friend who becomes a teacher they start off like the beginning of some hollywood movie they're gonna make a connection three years later the like i hope they all kill themselves he's gonna pass they've lost bill to live there drinking in the afternoon these are the people where arming it's like you've made people cops and then retroactively given them guns.
"thousand year" Discussed on The Fun Kids Download
"Mary on koa get side emailer heard let's before his sasi these the super bowl or crazy assumption to make that he's a bull like shape what he could very easily be lowered as bba play then if he's on your team early playoff owner of the last defender so east trades essay plays up front great days am scale accident will that's that's that's brilliant are to detune also mary personable and had look leila more excellent bomb god sonoda rival reality on online on us okay through every single droid install wars and took a by that personnel asia thing that's probably enough adjust by a cheese jasper that question may i feel as and question ovitz robot fun kids log dot com such breakfast is waiting skype up next on the phone kits download we're going to be brushing up on our polish with another episode of the poland fast files learn polish remember when everpresent we get for bruno has to face in his suitcase i guess a fifth boys doubt dan i'm sure he likes today well you have to ask him then do you like food bull is to leash kusunose known chain ill beach peel nausea that's right and if he does he'll say loopy in pukekohe notion that i like football right and they floor well then its nubian pugh kenosha thing i don't like what if he is the same as man next listening to music instead moro music is music so how mind you say that you like music and look beyond moves it.
"thousand year" Discussed on The Science Hour
"Now we know that the one thousand year old manuscript was written by the monks phone cough skin apart from woman page it's made of sheepskin that was a surprise discovery and the dna information is leading geneticist matthew tisdale to dig even deeper for insights into the ancient animal breeds the people read back then we know quite a bit about modern animal breeds so they've quite well studied some have low genetic information we know where the majority of breeze comes through great books and breeding programmes but we have less of an idea of what the animal genome look like prior to that the selective breeding the last set of two hundred yes so parchment has a as a record with gives you a time slice through that history so it goes all the way through those breeding programmes and one of the problems we hides of when when we start in this work looking the genetics is finding a technique that we could use to sample is may documents as possible so it's unlikely to be able to destructively sample many documents and this raises technique gives us a window into documents otherwise we wouldn't have been able to study another surprise was the sex of the animals used to make the gospels parchment mine naive sort of expectation would be the if you managing an animal had physically cattle you generally kill males young so you would expect coughs to be the majority be male but we found in excess of female so this sort of reason surprising result for us and we when we try to think why would this be the case so it could be that you a using female animals it may be a more highly prized at the time to say we're using the best on those who confidence documents or could be i'm there is some evidence of amoco plague in the years before so that might have just been more animals to make caution from at the time the minute it's it's speculation on the result we have in a more analysis is needed to sort of sure of this result.