35 Burst results for "Thousand Kilometers"
Huawei SF5 Electric SUV Debuts at Shanghai
"Wa wa famous name in terms of mobile devices. Chinese tech giant wa wa technologies has the s f five electric. Suv developed that done in partnership with automotive brands. sarah's which will be sold and marketed by wa wa through its flagship. Stores across china says the driven the s s f five apologies boasts to electric motors. All wheel drive five hundred and forty-three holes palette. It's very impressive nor to sixty two miles them out. North one hundred kilometers now in four point six eight seconds again really impressive. All electric range of one hundred eighty kilometers. That doesn't make any sense because they say it will do that in pure electric mode and by now you might have out. I had to take a while to get to because there's pressure least doesn't explicitly say it. This is a range extender. They said that the range extended family topped up in the tangle to a thousand kilometers. It's a one point five liter four cylinder engine. Which is the rex. But we're worried about the battery bits. And so
Africa's Great Green Wall to combat desertification secures $16.8 billion in international finance Impact
"Now we have science writer. Rachel danske with an update on africa's great green wall project which will soon see an infusion of billions of dollars from the world bank and others this project. The great green wall is intended to serve as a bulwark against desertification of the land south of the sahara desert while at the same time supporting communities that live in this region. Okay rachel how're you doing. I'm doing well. Thanks for having me sure. This is a rape big wall. This is a big project. It's basically supposed to be this green band that spans about seven thousand kilometers across the whole hop of africa. It launched back in two thousand seven. Rachel what would you say. The progress has been since two thousand seven now to two thousand twenty one almost non-existent which is why they launched this new round of funding last month. There was an assessment that found that a fraction of the goal had been achieved so far and the goal is for twenty thirty so they realized that time was running out right throughout this piece. You make this really important distinction between planting a tree and growing a tree. Why is that so important to think about when you know thinking about restoring lands or planting trees to help prevent desertification. The first time. I heard it. I just thought well. That's a really good way to put it. And then when racer after another would phrase it that way that we don't plant trees we grow them because that's been one of the missing pieces in restoration. Efforts globally not even specific to the great green wall but just in restoration landscape and forest restoration. Generally there has been this focus on planting trees but little focus really on looking at what gets planted in the first place in paying attention to the species diversity in the planting material and making sure that it's the right tree for the right place. There's also last follow plus maintenance of the tree then there needs to be talked to someone in west africa who was saying that. He's traveled to so many countries throughout the continental. Seen so many trees planted. But where the forests. Yeah that's a really interesting way of thinking about it. Basically tree planting mania that's been happening has come from all these different projects foundations quotas. That are saying oh. It costs a dollar to put a tree in the ground and we're going to offset our carbon. We're going to green the world but no one's looking after these trees and making sure that they live beyond that for sheer gas so now that we know that. That's not a good way to go about this. There's actually a lot of research. That's found some of the best practices for restoration projects. What are some of the recommendations have come out from research. In the past ten years when paper published last year talked about ten golden rules for reforestation. And they think those summed up a lot of the recommendations really well in addition to just protecting existing forests which probably sounds obvious. But there's a lot of research on the new. I don't have the same benefits that existing ones do and it's hard to replace that beyond that involving local communities has been just incredibly important component that researchers are saying was not really part of the focus before because the restoration ecologists are focused on the physical research and they aren't trained to think about how people play into the picture and it's just so important to the survival of the trees because it's people who are planting trees and it's people who are maintaining the trees and if you don't have community by an investment in rye these trees there and interested keeping them there. The trees aren't going to last and the trees only have their benefits when they last going back to trees here for a minute you mentioned keeping old us in place for protecting them. What else is being looked at. So that's when using a diversity of species so that there can start to be restored. Biodiversity rather than just monoculture of trees. They're starting to be focused now. Also on the quality of the seeds. And what you're actually planting. And how do we build. The systems and infrastructure for collecting and improving. Seeds is going to be the most resilient seed for that species but then it's also about the genetic diversity because there can be inbreeding with plants. If you're not collecting from wide enough geographic area than you can start to sort of limit. The gene pool and that can be problematic. You talk about this example in ethiopia of a seat initiative a network that is supposed to improve the quality of seats. Can you talk about how that would work. And how it would involve the community. The provision of adequate trees deep portfolio or pets. Bo is a project in ethiopia that they're calling it a functional trees seed system. It's a multi-pronged effort. They're trying to develop standards for seed collection and sharing that. There's high quality seed that will ensure that the trees that are planted can be their most resilient they're developing maps for how to source those seeds they're trying to strengthen the research system the infrastructure and the the research system to improve seed quality and they're linking all of that to the people who will use the seeds seeds there's technical training for farmers and the local language and there are diagrams of how to store different types of seeds. They're really trying to get that knowledge to the community to farmers and local nurseries to scale up the capacity of local decentralized infrastructure. Is there another model project that people might be looking at to expand as the money comes in. Are there other areas. That are doing good things. Yeah there was one of their project that i came across the one billion trees for africa project. And it's led by this man from cameroon tabby jota. He talked about how he grew up in this thriving economy system and he went off to university and when he came back the lands that he new as a forest with no longer for us. He started planting marina cheese and cola nut trees and mingo trees and all these different trees that would restore some of the soil health that he thought had been lost but also produce food and income generating opportunities for people so that they would be invested in keeping the trees there. He called his approach. The contagion approach. Because it's just sort of caught on. He got a bunch of men and women in this one community to be involved in the tree planting the neighboring communities saw what was happening and he was very clear that it's not like a drastic change where their community sedley rich where they weren't before but the small benefits were noticeable and so the neighboring community wanted to do something similar. And so it's just been a word of mouth approach so as he developed this very grassroots success he's gotten funding from more international sources than use it to do the work on the ground in these different communities mostly in west africa. And he's starting to do more and more with the great great wall which seems very exciting so there are a couple of different findings that we talked about that suggests the way forward for this type of restoration project involving the community diversity of. They're planting making sure that they're not just putting stuff in the ground but they're actually supporting plant growth and the communities around it but another thing that comes up a lot in your story is now we kind of what should happen. Researchers have come to a lot of conclusions that are very useful. But then there's the practice what's actually happening on the ground and maybe even what will happen on the ground. What are some of the biggest impediments to implementing the results of this research. One interesting comment. That i heard was that the implementing partners people with the money don't have scientist on their teams. They don't realize how complicated it is to plant a tree into get it right and to make sure that grows the lack of knowledge in the right places and the lack of communication between the people with the money and the people with the knowledge and also the community who is going to be involved. Those conversations aren't being had something else that a here is the expectations that donors have. They want fast results. And that's not. How trees in general work. But it's especially not how effective restoration works because all of these things need to happen and they take time getting communities involved. There's a lot of upfront investment. That needs to happen. In developing all of this infrastructure and research systems with a lot faster to just go and say just plant a bunch of eucalyptus trees. Because that's what they have the seeds and planting materials for. There's a disconnect between the speed that donors want to see results and the reality of what needs to happen. I've seen that you've written about this project for years now. What do you think you're going to see if you check back in two years. I hope to see that things. Like the pats project and this other effort the one billion trees for africa a hope that they have scaled and and that they inspire or serve as models for other projects. I don't know where. I'm placing bets. It feels like there is enough of a resounding message coming from the research community about the importance of this and the importance for the effective ecosystem function restoration and the community development but also for the climate benefits and if the global fenders governments who want to plant trees for the climate benefits if they are serious than they will start listening to these researchers. This is like thousands of miles. Four thousand miles. That's like the us plus another third right east west a huge huge area to cover an across countries. And all these different people's. How is this. possible. Rachel i mean this is a global scale. This is a huge project. it's huge. It's huge and that's probably why it sounded like the great idea when they announced it. And why didn't go anywhere for ten years but it's the partner agencies that i've spoken with involved in this project. The great queen wall are really clear that it's an environmental program but it's also the social alliance when that's meant to economic development but also really impart some resilience. See into these communities. Who are the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. That's why they're really ramping. Up this funding now because they see the value for the planet from a climate change perspective but also for the millions of people across this gigantic area. Pinks rachel thanks for having me. Sure rachel Danske is a science writer based in denver. You can find a link to story on the episode page for the podcasts. At science mag dot org slash podcast.
Red Knots (?!) and Science with Spinach
"Hello and welcome to earth rangers podcast. I'm ruth ranger. Emma and i hope you scurry ready because today we're going to learn all about not free a hearty yes. I am a few different pieces of rope here. And i've been practicing all morning. Oh hands on deck scalawags. Are you ready to learn about knots. Old is gonna get your shipshape. The no time. Shogo nods radna acknowledgments. Big nods overhand. Handmaid's the anchor hitched. The these not. Oh that kind of red. Not oh well you know that makes a lot more sense as an episode topic. Do i know what a red nod is Ya i certainly do. I mean the real question is do our listeners. Know what a red not is. It's a type of bird right right. Hey let's see what else you know about this creature. It's time to false or fall off. Okay earth rangers. Here's one for the experts out there. Sure false red knots born in brazil and they are so into their habitat that they never fly further away than five kilometers from their nests. What do you think Well if you said fulls you're right. The red not in fact born in the arctic this colorful hand piper is a striking bird with terra. Cotta orange gold and black feathers. Retinoid start their lives. Eggs and nests building. Rocky creeks old mother and father. Birds incubate their eggs for about three weeks and after the chicks are able to fly. The family moves to lake shores and meadows to eat a lot bigger a really long trip ahead of them and they need to fill up before they leave the prefer seafood. Mussels clams shrimp ben horseshoe. Crab legs are all favorites. After they're all fueled up right not out on an long journey set up to fifteen thousand kilometer. These spend the winter in south america before heading back to their northern home. Now right not. Aren't the only birds that migrate a really long way. In fact there are lots of birds that can make a terrifically long trip. You i think this calls for a top five countdown top five migrating birds number five. Have you ever wanted to fly. High like really high. If that sounds like your idea of good time you'd love being a bar headed goose. They're the highest flying migratory birds. How can they find over eight kilometers in the air. These birds are native to asia and have even been known to fly over the himalayas number. Four we could hardly have a top five list with that. Our old friend the red nine when the red not goes on. Its epic flight. It needs to stop over to rest. And where do they stop. A one of the places is here to san antonio a protected area in argentina earth rangers is working with the international conservation fund of canada and the argentinian researcher patricia gonzalez to keep this area safe from human interference number. Three have you ever heard of a northern we talk. It's a strange name for a tiny songbird with a really cool ability. These little songbirds are only about sixteen centimeters long and only way about twenty five gramps but despite their diminutive size they can fly for over fourteen thousand kilometers each way between the arctic and africa huckabee long distance traveler number two. Just because they can't fly doesn't mean they don't travel heavily. Penguins travel all around and up to thirteen thousand kilometers. These adorable penguins. Follow the sun north from the ross sea and stick close to the edge of the ice of expanse so the easy access to their favorite fishing foods and finally number one. Okay what if i told you that. There's a bird that makes eighty thousand kilometer trip every single year meet. The arctic tern heard the bird with the world's longest migration all the way from the arctic to the antibiotic and back again an arctic tern. Does this trip every year. For thirty years they will have flown equivalent of three trips to the moon and back
Hindou Ibrahim, President of the Association for Indigenous Women and Peoples of Chad
"Welcome to come home conversations. Today we are joined by. Hindu abraham founder and president of the association for indigenous women in people's of chad hindu is also the co chair the international indigenous peoples forum on climate change and a un sdg advocate. Thank you for joining us today. It's a pleasure. Thanks for reminding me you have been a steadfast champion for human rights and sustainable development. What was the inspiration behind your lifelong dedication to bettering our planet. Yeah i mean. I'm so excited to championing a sustainable development god's because for me the app talking about our life so when we take from the objective one who is the fighting poverty or to the five with the gender or not with climate change. And now the seventeen of them to take patents. She dead talking about how we can improve our life how we can improve our society and how we can make it better than now by respecting people's in climate so for me. It is obvious because roma the communities that i come from we always all the problems and all the crises to get north resort on them. So that's why. I am so excited to championing the sustainable development goals for my peoples in for all indigenous peoples in the end of the day for the planet in gender so we're seeing how climate change is impacting every corner of our planet in many ways. Can you share with us. How climate change is affecting your country and your region so i am coming from saharan regions in coming from chad. Who have a different landscape. Are we have hundred percent visiting the nov and now we have savannah in suheil in the middle and then we have the tropical. Ford is the busy in this hour. So when you need three different In a land lock in when your life is the pump from the ecosystem. You not exactly the impact of the climate change. You do not need in the book or watching. Tv you levi. And now i give example of how we add really impacted an we get any central michigan dishes from ninety nine now check is already on last one point five degree increase and why we see that every day our dry season become much longer. We've evenki very long san in heavy son. That's coming up to fifty degrees celsius when you go through the death at its bauer fifty four degrees celsius in that impact our environment in impact therein therein. Season also check. It's become much shorter. Incoming the higgin construct all the places for example this year where we have all this ahead on the floor you even. In the towns people take the can we go from one neighborhood to another one and sought months before it was the heat in very dry heat. Swear the caps can grow up in an end back with the food insecurity because when you don a half Lateran is cannot penetrate win. It's cannot leave the vegetation who genetic and that impact the food insecure of the and at the end of the day. the letter might impact. It's good shank the social life of peoples. It's create conflict among the communique that fighting to get access to and one of the example. I add you add on the chat. Nature is the wider that we do have at our lake in nineteen sixty. It was twenty five thousand kilometers square. These freshwater chatted check. Cameroon nigeria nigeria Probably and known delek shouldn't came to two thousand clinically squirrel freshwater. So you have ninety percent of the wider Because of the heat in seven league that is more than fifty million people who needing depending from his Them that farmers that fishermen end postulates homemade micro-mini so web does people have to do because they done depend from the end of the month salaries from the rent for the fund from the ecosystem of this area of me so yesterday fight amer get access to resources some of
Science briefs from around the world
"Hi, I'm scientific American Assistant News Editor Sarah Frazier, and here's a short piece from the August. Twenty twenty issue of the magazine in the section called it. He dispatches from the frontiers of science technology and medicine. The article is titled Quick Hits And it's a rundown of some non corona virus stories from around the globe. From Canada a new study models how gigantic morphing Blob of liquid iron in Earth's outer core underneath the Canadian Arctic is losing its grip on the north magnetic pole a second intensifying. Blah below Siberia is pulling the poll away. From Scotland, a geologic dating efforts suggests the fossil of millipedes creature found on the island of Cara formed four hundred, twenty, five, million years ago making it possibly the oldest known fossilized land animal older land animals have been spotted indirectly through preserve tracks. From Tanzania researchers discovered Africa's largest ever collection a fossilized human footprints left in volcanic mud about ten thousand years ago. Many of them came from a group of Seventeen people mostly women all walking in the same direction. From Norway archaeologists excavating a twenty meter. Viking ship buried below farmers field to stop a would eating fungus from destroying it. Ground penetrating radar had found the ship in two thousand eighteen and a new woods sample analysis revealed that could not be preserved underground. From Zambia in Mongolia. Spring satellite tagged Kuku completed an epic twelve thousand kilometer journey from one country to the other. It had originally been tagged in Mongolia in two thousand nineteen and traverse sixteen countries in his round trip migration. From Antarctica, scientists found that King Penguin excrement releases nitrous oxide also known as laughing gas. It forms a soil bacteria eat the droppings nitrogen rich compounds.
Ghost of Tsushima: Creative Director Interview (with Spoilers)
"Have a very special guests with us this week that we're both very excited to talk with Jason. Connell from sucker punch. Thank you so much for joining US A. Awesome ear. Very happy to have you of course to go super in depth on Kgo Suma, so for those who are watching end jumping in. Be warned there will be some spoiler fil talking here if you haven't played through the game if you haven't. Checked out everything you want to in the game beforehand. Please do that first and then come back. There's a lot to dive into. We're going to be jumping into as much as we can. Of course if you want spoiler free impressions. We did record episode that a little earlier. Even can go check that out, but. There's so much that we can jump into this game I off. Jason I. Just want to say congratulations for recording this on the day. The game is starting to roll out on launch. Worldwide is already available in some territories as where speaking so congratulations to you on the team on that It's very exciting for to finally be out there as a fan of it and I'm sure it must be exciting for the team. Yes, it's a super exciting to have it out. There cited everybody host their photo mode favorites sin. Just enjoy the Games. I feel like an Brian I think this is true for both you and me. We could probably spend the next forty minutes talking exclusively about photo mode. Yeah, no I. Just get into that very quickly. What you've created, my favorite voted in video game history, but also. You might notice you. Create one of the most not-so-subtle advertising tools. That is perfect for this game. Because every time I seen pictures of it I WANNA? Play it again, and I think for a lot of people who were just sort of like on the outside, looking in a video games in general like people who aren't just totally head down on stuff all the time. They're like wait what that's! That's a video game. Where do I play I play it? They're going to get that so Yeah, that's a very very smart. If you guys it's absolutely stunning game. A cool. Photo of his crazy because we were one of the first, you know infamous second son was one of the first. At least I know of modern games that have put like a like a photo mode in in that game. It was just like this cool idea to show off all the cool particles and lighting. That game was a while known for. But it was wasn't crafted as a personality around. It was the cool photo mode, and then over time over the last few years. You have these games that out and Spiderman my favorite of version of this where they like adds the flavor of their game to its photos like tied to the personality of that gain. On, the building tops, doing like little cell fees and Doing it with a phone. That was awesome made it. You need to spiderman so when we were like. Hey, what are we gonNA do for voter mood? To? Whatever the ghost photo mode. One, it's gotta be way better than our first one because. Our, follow up one and two. It's gotta be semantically. You know connected to the game, so we're like. Well motion in Wind I. Haven't we like? Make it less about a static image. You can do that, too, but have be about moving frame that I think is so beautiful about our game kind of spun out from there. I didn't think it was odd that you give the main character, a Selfie, stick and the iphone. His drone that goes along with. Little you know little out of place, but I thought butyl. Oh God you know it's been incredible thing to play around with, and you can do what Brian said. Every time I see more of it. It's one of those things where I've been playing every night. Still in, it's like Oh, no, I need to go jump back in the middle of the day. Because like Oh. That's a great spot I never thought. I could take a photo of I've been a particularly obsessed with going to bamboo strike locations and trying to get all the great photos. I cannot have those spot often. You know like perfectly placed at an edge or something. I sort of wondering. Because obviously this was built more with like the photo mode in mind as you development went on, because it's become so much bigger, what was world creation influenced at all by the photo mode, or were there any aspects of designing this game that were influenced by it because it is more like prevately used feature these days I guess than back when second came out. You know. A little secret you know we. We always knew we'd have a photo modem. We knew that this ambitious version of like I. said a second ago better and more dramatically connected. Owning, really work on it until pretty late, so you know we were so. Dedicated to the stories in crafting the world, so when it came to the beauty of the world. That add add everything that's in the game. I would have to imagine that that had the most iterating over anything, because it's one of the first things you do before you have the whole story articulated and put into the game. Certainly don't have cut scenes. You know it's like you're laying out terrain and at that like how does the island look and then it gets into the direction the feeling Cutting, trees down growing trees, making procedural tools like the world is the by far the most iterative on thing now. There was a point where we're like. This is how we make our game. Look good clearings. Big giant swath of like in forests, you know that you can see for miles. Off using color as like landmarks again, the Golden Forest, or read flower fields, and then, and then a you know, certainly that sort of made its way into some of our features of a photo, but the the world designed stuff. took the lead on on end photo mode. Okay, now that we've created this amazing awesome place. How do we utilize the photo mode in like critical photo that will. Take advantage of how great our team at did at creating a beautiful world. I think one of my favorite things about this game is the sort of balanced that it's constantly striking Between being sort of completely serene, and then the music swells up and swords or out, and they're slashing against each other. How hard was it to sort of get that that tone down because I could see. You know I think in in lesser hands I could be a very kind of dangerous. Push and pull, but I feel like you totally nailed that and I think that that's like some people when they look at an open world game want like nonstop jam-packed activities in in your team made the decision to pull back and let things breath every now and then How did all that come together? Well you know for me. It's the first game that I was certainly a visual director on, and so I I would I you learn something about yourself with everything you create, and for me I personally learned that I don't have a natural tendency to like create incredible. Violence, I just wasn't that was uneven. Favor Games, bloodborne like as absolutely my favorite game. Guide. You're on this show. This is gonNA be worthwhile and. About it anytime. But no, seriously like. That's my favorite game, but. When we were crafting the world would I navigated towards with Joanna. Who's environment our leader? This did this amazing a blog post recently on playstation bar. was the beauty of it was taking taking a moment to breathe in, and then I realized that some of my favorite games that are not. Show the classes certainly embraced the idea of atmosphere in a sense of this and you know I donate Fox's is is resonates. Conversations resonated with him as well so then then the conversation shifted into. Okay well. We definitely have it. We have a summer game. So you know without saying anything else as you say Amer game, you know you're going to be hitting things with a four-foot razor blade so. You know violence is GonNa come so we certainly work on that stuff. allied and we wanted to be great and gritty, and the you know like you really WanNa feel like you have contact when you have contact but the other stuff doesn't come as natural, and you have to actually work on that stuff to balance it out, you really do, and so that means like the idea is about creating Haiku, which was actually named idea You know really. Or believe it was taking a moment to. Allow the beauty to take hold, and not what I think is cool about the ICU that I hope people enjoy about it is is that they're not tied till like progression like you're not. You're not like intrinsically forced to go, do it? You know there's a sense of you have to have the wonder and curiosity desire to do it. It's not like game telling you go do this to reach next level certainly, a lot of that is tied to corporation auto out to have to consider that, but it is. It is a work philosophy to try to get that balance of that contrast It takes years to get right for sure. I really enjoyed the Haiku sections actually He was like you said. It's sort of provided like this. This relaxing breeder and I did like the you were able to select different things who essentially collate them into one kind of fresh Haiku each time. Yeah I I mean I did every single side quests in every single objective in this game, but I I really enjoyed those wow awesome. The accuser, some of my favorite ones to the cinematography. You know it was at the moment to like. You know certainly we call them breathing. Moments definitely say that studio, but it was kind of a moment. Regis Art Geek out a little bit like the people who do the cameras. Mottaki, they can place it in to get the right motion and you know, and then the writers have an opportunity to like. Give you give you a couple of cool options. Just the beauty kinda comes through which is which in the end has been a very positive thing for the experience. Yeah, the balance that Brian was. Speaking to how you were sort of describing how that all came together? I could imagine. It's a very fine line between making sure it's peaceful and calm in certain areas, but. It's still engaging for the player because you could always run the risk of it. Being something that the player doesn't want to engage with, but as Brian. Saying like finding those high coups feels like this wonderful moment of solace after I have assassinated an entire Cam Mongols. And need to reflect on Jin's life, but also just the world I, it's this really great balanced that a I think as Brian was sort of saying you always get in games, but it feels so refreshing to hear. And it's a huge part of our philosophy. How we treat. Treat the game. Whether it's a Haiku great example, he could probably keep talking about, but you know the music style music how the music comes on not having things like combat while you're doing, shrine climbs or anywhere near them so that we can let those be their own experience, and so are these, are we? Everything wanted these features that are not mainline missions. Our conversation is like about how much combat how much non-combat and what is the purpose and what are the? What's the feeling for its existence like what what is the emotional goal for for these features and these are conversations? We have a lot and sometimes triple times over we try. We don't like it. We try something else. Well and for me, what's really interesting is sort of the place that all of these features and the things you go on, have sort of in the context of sucker punches past work, because it is I've been such a huge fan of both cooper franchise and infamous. Stir a year and. You know you get increasingly larger, but often more urban. City expenses that you're exploring a lot. In both of those franchises to certain extent here you're out in the wild. There are of course settlements and encampments and things like that, but there is a there's a lot of stretches where it can just be the world around you that you're exploring and I was sort of wondering on a world design level. How do you? How do you balance? Making all of these locations unique to explore as well and interesting. Even though you know a lot of can just be more, the environment's like what are the challenges that come with that? Yeah, so one of our. Our Contractors Jeff He. He talks a lot about content density, and what is the correct density and I really am really thankful that he brought that conversation up to light so much because It's such a you know Thinking about if you're currently doing something, you're going across the world and run into something. How much further would you have to ride your horse before you might find the next thing, or can you see the next thing from where you currently are? How how dense is it and I really enjoyed that conversation? Because it let us think about what's the right philosophy for for our game and it it certainly it allows us to you know if we want to in one place, you just completed something, and you should be able to generally speaking, look around and find one more thing on horizon or see the shrine trying on top of the mountain. It influence our world design alive, because when we first had the game built for the I you know I'd say maybe two years. It was a lot of forest. It was a ton of trees and it was cool, but you always were felt like you were in this like. Tunnel beautiful, but really deforestation. which does a couple things one is? It is very cool, but. It makes it really hard to know where you are without a compass or many map. Something telling you kind of giving you that extra information that your brain is just really needing. So what we did is we started opening up fields and I definitely some shadow, the classes photos out and was like fields as as reference vm. Because it just feels so epic when you're going through field, but but you know the criticism it could be that it's boring or something like that, and and really have to embrace a philosophy that it won't be boring because there's beautiful music. There's five things now that you can see what you want to do next because you're in a field, there's more clearings and it created a Great beauty in the game, but also more opportunity to engage with that density and I I. Really I think that that was one of the conversations that was ongoing throughout the project, but we landed in a really. I think unique spot for. When when when you? When your team was the helping this game, you obviously weren't anticipating a significant portion of the world's population to be stuck indoors for months on end, but At one I mean there were obviously there. Are you know a lot of sort of like entertainment? Things that have come out during quarantined. That didn't really. Fair as well due to their. SORT, of like the way they were delivered or their subject material something that, but this is a game that I really more than ever appreciated as a guy who's in a two bedroom apartment really appreciated huge open fields and. Mountains in like sprawling rivers and seas and stuff like that but I think one of my favorite things about the big open fields is that there's always something? Or there is like a lone tree. And you're just sort of naturally drawn towards it, and I found that like that sort of like beautiful use of negative space to be like so powerful. In terms of like never felt to me like there's nothing ahead of you. This is boring. It always felt to me like this. Is this is this is like a sort of triumphant use of minimalism and and charging towards something. To reveal that there's like one loan item in the distance was so much more engaging tomato like at a mini map that had a hundred time trials, but Hamas other stuff like I. Found Myself uncovering the dog on the entire map which. I was I was like basically riding around in spirals like in that movie alto like I was trying to. Five is in half the time I was on foot to. It was really wonderful game to explore so I. WanNa ask you about that the. The the sort of the way exploration on unfolds in this game is something I. Really Really Love and I think a lot of open world games are going to take note of following the wind and talking to people and following Fox's two locations rather than just you know overtly stating the player. This is where you're GonNa go, or you go to. The map in this big thing opens up. All that come together. What was the push and pull on that to sort of find the right way to keep players in the no, but without making like overwhelming them with information. Yeah I'll talk about kind of our studio kind of struggles, but I also kind of throw in my own, maybe personal philosophy, too. So I. I judge Games my favorite game, especially them really harshly by. How does it feel if you're? You're actually not doing anything on the sticks. I would if you're just sitting there. Just sitting in the world, you're standing in the world. You're on your horse in the world like is there. Is there a what's the feeling and some of my favorite games by just sitting there? There's like things that go through your mind. Like why do we? What are you anticipating? That are stuck on the story or like. Where's that next objective like you're just what's going through your mind? because. That's when you're not doing anything. That's what you're thinking of next like. You're just taking in the beauty looking around our game I hope that translates into that sense of exploration and sense of curiosity like if you do stop for a second yearly, you're not already on kind of a train of thought it is more. One of curiosity is one of like. Hey, what? What do I want to do next? Oh, there's something over there. There's something of their. Oh, I wonder band before, so they're having gone to could check it out and I. think that the more information you were to have on your screen compasses many maps. It kinda answers those questions before you even have time to ask the question. It's just like the dots right there. Let's go do the DOT. It doesn't matter what the DOT is. It's just there's thing let's go do it, and so that that to me is is a really important part of what I think. The Games, Tries to do in the world, and and certainly we did not have the wind when we started on this project at all. In fact, what the wind was which is has got this cool story I'll say quick is. on the first direction slides on the you know we did. A presentation is like one of the first presentation out the way look and feel and everything moves was was one of them like a wind. We're going to double triple quadruple down on win, and you know there's a lot of attack that has to go into that. He got Capes moving I gala hair moving. You gotta get trees and Bushes, and especially for procedurally generated now artistically procedurally generated world. That's really tough. Two years later. Something like that. That became true and you've standing I'm standing in this world and we had other elements we were helped. Augmenting are kind of navigation and get around the world and I'm just like holy crap. The wind is amazing. It actually works at that time. It always like went from East West or West. East or something I can't remember always just directional and it's just. It's really good. And then we started having conversations like how going to get more stuff off the screen to stay in the is like beautiful world more and more because it's just. It's really stunning even years ago. And a one point I had this idea like. The Wind. It sounds kind of crazy and Adrian is like our longtime worked on has been sucker punch. Long Time. They tried a little quick prototype with me. We had like fifteen people play at were removed all the you I just to hey. Can you just just try to follow it and just and it sounds crazy, but follow in if you can get to that hot spring or that on. And it worked like the first prototype fourteen out of the fifteen people were able to easily get there so cool. Yeah and I. I was like Oh. Yeah, we have to do this. Question. Like. This is something that is going to be unique to the game and then an analyzing. Say on them about the wind because I can do it all day, but is it had like the matic ties to the island in historical kind of. Poetic, Tian's to you know. The Mongols came in as typhoon sweeps them all out to see and. You know we name the sword the sky storm after that you know him being a storm, a metaphorical storm on the island for for the island, rooting for the island, and then it was like about nature, and then the animals came along, and I, you know it just felt like a bunch of like one of these critical pieces you don't know exists, and then you find it, and you're like that fifth straight there and does and then nearly. Oh, I, think we have a good. I can see the puzzle now so. Cool, it was cool journey. Having having that comes away. It all it feels so true to the world that the team has created in those moments. Because you know, I'm I'm a completion is player like if you give me a list of a thousand things to go collect if you give me, you know like an infamous. Charge to go collect I. Collect all of them, but there's something that I think does speak so much to this world and end you wanting to be invested in that. It is really by pulling everything. Out of the screen that you're looking at and just letting you look at the world you get more familiar with it, and you start to learn more about Oh. Yeah, I've taken that pass before. That leads to that pillar of honor or there's that cemetery over there as you start to. Trek across the land. It really gets you invest in the world in a way that I think just having a list or a neon sign to tell you where to go would. Deliver it in the same way. Yeah, that's great. That's so. That's the goal so I'm glad you had that experience. And I it's one of those things you know that the open world I think speaks so well to what the team really accomplish with this game, but one of the things I was curious about wasn't and I know. We talked about this a little bit, but released, but since we can. Talk to the island as whole, but what was the? I? Guess the poll the. The back and forth poll of wanting to make sure you stay true to the spirit of this real world location, and honor the history and the people that are but also create a world that at the end of the day would be fun to run around or write a horse around in as a game. Yeah and it's a great topic, and it's kind of been the the struggle for and I would say struggle in a creative sense. It's the creative. From from from once, we actually knew we were making Susha and we started doing all this research, and and you learn so much about the island. Like the fact that at that time it was likely to be like ninety five percent covered in dense forest. Which again I told you we tried. We tried very dense forest in. It's just hard to ride a fun horse through tree. Trees it's. Pretty tough. Also, it's incredibly hilly. We went there just like it's just hill after hill after mountain after Mount After Mountain, also challenging to create a interesting layouts in combat spaces in so. So, we worked with our team in Japan. We're like hey, this is how we were planning on You know being inspired by the shape of the islands. It looks very similar to the actual shape, but here's some kind of Ford as we'd like to take or game reasons you know, make the game more fun to to roam around. The landscapes in have layouts that have. Have Cool puzzle climbing challenges, or what have you were interesting missions, and and they were totally for it you know. And they gave us feedback of maybe when we went too far and then they also they know is in a fun way. They gave us feedback of win. Hey, you could go further with us, and so that was. It was a lot of ultimately. We're super inspired by history, and what happened and then the general beauty of greater. The greater nature of Japan as a whole, it's definitely hugely inspiring to us but we also make in a game and a PR and original story and a lot of things that. Have to Challenge it, but work in tandem with it, so it's it's definitely been a challenge I'm in a good way and we learn so much. And I will say the last thing I'll say on that. Is that within Joyon on the environment? Our team myself in the constitution. We talk a lot about like realism. And You know like A. Maybe painted realism, or maybe, how can we do it like a slightly stylized version of that? And and and you know this is not even if you've ever been to Seattle only did infamous. It wasn't really a stone by stone. Kind of recreation. Roads aren't lined up exactly. It's sort of like if you blur your eyes, you're like Oh. Yeah, that's definitely definitely Seattle like it rains. A lot of people drink coffee. PUNK ROCK and grunge music. It's You know the things that are there the spacing? Like the things you would expect, but it's not the like. Let's put a magnifying glass over, and let's get it like perfectly accurate and we take that same philosophy here. We want to feel like that. This is plausibly. Dass what it could feel like. That's what if we could do smell through it. That would we would try to. Feeling into music, we're going for a as a is a is a main heart. Smell will actually be unlocked on the playstation six. Thirty I. Have Rumor, we have an today since three. Hey listeners. We know you love gaming and have excellent taste, so we want to tell you about the official. The last of podcast in the show writer podcasters stand up comedian and huge fan of the. Host Christian Spicer we'll revisit the first game and talk with the people who created that critically acclaimed work hit. Also give you what you've all been waiting for. A behind the scenes look into the last of US part to Christian wanted to crawl into the minds of these visionaries and talents who created this highly anticipated game the podcast. We'll recap the news story. Story and episodes five through eight while also diving deep into the making of the game in the first episode. Christian will talking with Troy Baker and Ashley Johnson also known as Joel and Ellie may land combat designer, Anthony Newman, and the writer and creative director of the last of US Neil Druckman. The whole series is crammed with conversations with developers invoice actors. The official, the last of podcast episode one arrived on June ninth, and they'll be releasing new episodes of this limited series every Tuesday for the following eight weeks available now on Itunes spotify, and all your favorite audio sources, stream, or download the official, the last of his podcast from June ninth. The the combat in this game is awesome, and that's coming from somebody who to be completely transparent. Wasn't crazy about it. At first 'cause my immediate reaction was. There's no lock on. Think what do you mean? There's no lock on like you can't. You can't have a certified again without lock on and as as I grew to. Appreciate. The sort of dynamic happenstance of a dashing between those four stances and. Fighting different types of enemies. In synchronicity while switching and switching back and forth using my sub moves and everything I was like. This is one of my favorite combat systems interview ever But what what? How did how did that decision? Come to not have have lock on? was that was at a debate internally in the studio? Because that's to me, that's one of those things that people just expect from a video game and I found myself not even thinking about it after a few hours in. I. It's definitely debate right like it's A. It was heavily debated and talked about how you know. From all corners of the CEO there was not some like. I mean because it's a it's a standard. There is a standard anytime. You go against the standard. You need to prove it out and. I'm glad we tried something different than you know. As person bloodborne like my favorite game, I like games that allow you to really kind of hone in and focus, and and control that since a control comes, comes with locking, but and you know, and certainly as a samurais sense of control is a huge fantasy so Yeah, man. We talked about it a ton Maybe when it comes to combat, I would say it's in the top three conversations that we had over the entire course of the project while. But I have to give massive. Shout out to you know. One of the studio heads. You know I've found Sucker Punch Christopher. Men he's he's behind the core design, a lot of the combat and he he works out of the code for it, and there's another Guy Ted. Who is awesome designer? And he liked those two brains man. They worked together, and they figured out a way to create something that is first of all feels like you're hitting the person when you do hit them like it's a tandem as animation, so it's not like a hit box based. It's like these. This animation links up to this one. Is I very newbie? Animation Brain. And it's not just like the slash through thing right, and so they feel like you're hitting the person it feels. A goal is a gritty feeling, but it's also incredibly fast paced at times. You know as you get like five or six people around you you can be, you could be like. Changes. In planning, and when you're going to do the smoke bomb, go around the building and do another. Jump down from the top, you know. It's just like a it. Almost like a the style of it is is better with how the walk on. That's kind of the thing that we found over time especially when she became pro at it. And locking on actually with slow down, maybe in some ways and a sense of control will be got out of it instead was things like standoffs in duels, obviously assassinating somebody having that jump on, somebody gives you that, too, but we decided to really push that those moments or mythic abilities I think are. Usually will help take out people pretty quickly. The mythic abilities are interesting because I I think i. I I'm really glad that this game never really went like supernatural despite having the Word Ghost, in the title. There's. There's other there's an alternate version of this game. Were you guys just want preserved and people are summoning dragons and stuff like that. I appreciate that a lot of the crazy stuff that you got away with felt grounded even like the fire sort is ridiculous, but there's like. Oh there's there's sort of like a scientific explanation. Yeah. And then when you start doing some really intense stuff that feels deliberately over the top like dude, get terrified and they starts crawling away like. Is Watching people just straight up running around. Disappear and stuff like that. It's crazy like this is a i. mean even when we pitches his game. This was another heavily debated. Topic is going to be fantasy based or not, and obviously nate and I felt really strongly as well as many other people that we should not make it fantasy base in like high fantasy base because. It really those first of all there's. Several of those games out there already, and they do a wonderful job and I love neo I love sector, Oh, these games are awesome and they lean on that a little bit more as their unique. You know and so. Good. It's smart of us not to do that, but the reason why we didn't do the reason we did was because we were definitely were focusing a little bit more on the Human Story certainly one of the world to feel plausibly real. And you know if you like, I'll take the example. You just threw out there like having people fall in there, but get scared. Scoot away, man if you could just like, pull out a fucking dragon every five minutes. Scares them like I feel like a real challenge to overcome like and so you have to be constrained. So that when we do pull out something that's really incredible or scary or something like that that it actually has wait to it, you know and. I one of the things I do love about our game in might be some of my favorite content, actually mythic missions because. They. A build up the idea that people were legends like they talk about people in their connection to the island. The lightning one is a great example where you know, they burn the black sand, the sands black, which always like wire, the sands black back answer black, and it just bill out as they build up this legend of people that may have come before you, which is Kinda cool because? because. You're kind of building your own legend. To maybe one day, people talk about mythic stories of the ghost You know that humans can do maybe slightly crazy incredible in your living, example of that and people tell tall tales. I think that's cool. I love win. Jin would go around to the stories and people would be like. There's ghosts in the woods and he's like. No, there's not. Watching watching the people run away after a battle, though my favorite things in the game because it's it teeters on like on on like. Comedy, you would find in like vintage Kung Fu movies where somebody would come and kick. A bunch of Bass and one guy would be like away. Runaway ended every single time was I would let him run like maybe like hundreds of feet pull out my arrow. Cruel Man I know you you put it there. You know you gotta sit there, don't. If you give Brian the high ground. He will let them run as far as he wants to. I what I do love going back to the mythic tells them. You know maybe people one day telling the story of the Ghost I. I'm always sort of a sucker for. Stories that are about storytelling to a certain extent, because I do think you get so much of the human nature that we all deal with on a day to day basis of why we tell stories and everything and I I love that that permeates so much of this game, and not just in the quest, but on the on the ques- structure as a whole in this game I think is really unique, but it works really well. Because as Brian was saying earlier, you can go to a house in. Someone's saying Oh. There are nearby. Please help me or someone one of my favorite stories early on one of the side missions I found was. A woman send you to get food from the bandit that stole it from her. And then you bring the food back and she's like. Oh, thanks! I finally have food down. You're like. Wait a second. That wasn't yours to begin with. I just killed all those guys because you can't, there's. There's this. Stark sadness to a lot of the stories that I think really works in this game and I was just curious on like a total storytelling. Horrible 'cause there are moments of levity. You know like everything with Kennedy I think is so great, but how do you you know balance? I think this is a land and a group of people who are under siege. They're under attack by the suppressive force. At the same time. They are living their lives. There's this humanity going on the island. Hugs, what are some of the struggles that come up and try to tell those stories? Yeah, well first of all. When you started telling me, which story were, I was like racking my brain like which? It was so many. I I know it's crazy and I'm gonNA. Play through a bunch probably that I've played through in a long time, I play retail, but. You know It's balanced because you don't want it to be this like we did not want our game to be this like heavy thing that was constantly hitting you over the head with a that was just not what we wanted for this particular game. Think anybody really goes from bad particularly. I think they're always in goal, but but in it's hard, though because invasion and you wanna see desperation, and you WanNa see like these people have struggles. And frankly you know we want to. You know it's not always like dude. Go kill things, and so you WanNa hear you know people having. Their kids, or this or that like our parents like I. Don't know you just want to hear something that sounds like these people are struggling a little bit. But you know the when it comes to the writing and those stories, most of the stories do most of them do exist to try and reflect at the world has been in invaded, invaded place and. For people that are like these allies, and you engage with those those will get a little bit more in depth than traveling of their story, and for these little small one off encounters. Just say look even even the hasn't class is affected greatly by this and hopefully feel a sense of remorse for them or sadness for them, maybe a sense of duty that why you're doing this stuff, but as for the tone of it. I genuinely like a somber tone in general, I think Sambre is is not dark. Sombre is not grotesque. Sambas is just like a like A. Light sadness to things and I felt like that light sadness in a world that is so incredibly. Beautiful is kind of a nice. Balance and I think we look at it now that way and to some extent. That's a really good way putting now that now that you say that. It makes perfect sense because. You have all these incredible like you know. There's Fox's in this you know. Like. Rainstorms the beautiful trees and yellow leaves, but then you go, do these side quests on. You're like Oh. Wow, that was. Your family died and you can save them and you're like damn. That hit me hard that one. Particularly, there was one side quest for like now I know, too. Hard that one's talents so hard and You know there that one people on on the team who? Created that one, and then like you know as we get through the Polish face like Alan, somebody went through and added a bunch of extra work to that one for animation, and like kneeling down, and you know I you know in from liking that mission to really like connecting with more, and this is a small thing right like this is not a. Two hour long you know big big mission. It's very straightforward and simple cement to just reflects the tone of the world, a little bit and Alan Dow was one of the ones that, even though it's a small moment in your entire through I think improved a lot of the last course of the project I'm glad it exists. That's awesome. Yeah, I I, don't even know if I necessarily have a question about it, but I'm just curious to hear more about the the construction of the the site quests when it comes to the side tails when it comes to those the supporting cast that you get because I do I do think one of my favorite things. Throughout sucker punches, history has been that there is of course he usually a pretty great main character, but also this really great supporting cast as well, and you know going back to sign infamous now with ghost. I loved finding out more about Yuna and lady Moscow and just everyone at the pace that you want to in the world. And that balance I guess my question is because I. do think that's some of my favorite story. Telling him the Games in the game comes from those lines. How do you balance having this stuff? Be Optional I guess if you if a player just wants to go through the main story, but also encouraged people to want to keep going back and revisit these stories in these characters. Yeah Yeah! It's a question you know we From I is long as I can remember. I think I, think earliest pitches of the game we talked about. How we really wanted to create sort of this. Anthology of short stories. know these little little side branches off the main trunk. You know that you could. You'RE GONNA. You'RE GONNA get invited to them on the main truck main story. You'RE GONNA. Get invited them and maybe even once or twice in an engaged with them, but it's up to you hopefully, engaging enough for that story relates to you. It's up to you to kind of go. Finish out the rest of that branch, and we do a lot of stuff like we try to reward you for doing these things but I find that those things are They're good and I'm super glad. Glad reward you in different ways for playing these, but I find that the beauty of those those allies missions. If you will Masako. Norio characters is that they're just they're. They're far more developed in terms of like there are like what they need out of the world in their stories are interesting, and and they all have a different perspective on you and life, and you know in an what I what I think is kind of cool about creating a world like this is that you have to be okay with having content that exists. You're not forced to play. And you have to embrace that you have to because that. That is what makes it joyful when you go on your own ambition to go through it. It's not that you were told to go. Do it was in the Golden Path? And there were versions of the game earlier that a lot of these characters stories were more interconnected to Go Path. Through play, testing and feedback in her own kind of iteration process. We ended up where they are. Which I think is the right spot. which is you introduce them and then? Over your curiosity, we can push them push. You can go enjoy them your own Yossi, and there. Some of them are five or six missions long. And I think that's the right model, but it takes some iteration to get to that that that's spot for us. Even having late in the game the I think it's two missions for Eureka that pop up after you've revisited home. Just was such a such a Gut Punch. In the midst of as Jin, story is starting to come, full circle meant to have this exploration both more into him, but also into her life It's it was like as you were saying I, it felt so much more rewarding because I, saw it out that story within the. Yeah I think that that's A. It's not an easy philosophy to hold you now. as a director or as a contributor designer artist, because it means that somebody is going to get a bunch of people, not GonNa, play your mission bench people are not going to see your artwork, and and it's really hard to like talk about that because I want everyone to who worked on this game at Sakkara Punch to just like the super proud of it and love every moment that they cred tributed, too, but that's one where it's like. Yeah, but your thing is optional, and I can really bad, but it. In these cases it is for the for a greater feeling that. The people that will engage with it will probably tear out will probably love or be maybe even their favor mission of the game, even not the golden path I gave might be their favorite moment in the game nest. Because you, you let them engage it at their own will in. That's A. that's a hard philosophy to to. kind of stomach, but I think it's I. think it's a really healthy one for the type of game that ghost is. It absolutely plays into who I I think. My favorite thing about the game. Is that Me In the act of playing the game, so has to the game halfway in a presents all of these options, but I have to go exploring too, and I feel encouraged and want to explore and of my favorite times playing have just been putting a dot on the map letting the wind guy. A thousand kilometers, and if I if something stops me, stop if it doesn't I just keep going until something else. Interest me awesome. It's a calming experience which I don't often say I think about games at the moment. That's exactly how I played, too I would just put a marker somewhere completely random very far from me and just go there and see what I ran into along the what along the way with stories popped up which new characters I would meet, that would show me points of interest and stuff like that. and I think that that loop was really smart in terms of having sort of random gangs of bad guys. Patrolling the land and you'd run into them, and they'd have somebody kidnapped, and you'd rescue that person and that person would tell you another place to go. It felt like you're constantly pulling on these little threads. and I loved that so much was did that did that all take awhile to come together? Like outside of the wind is sort of the way the. The optional stuff and the sort of like randomize character you know excursions and stuff all interconnect. How how was it bringing all that stuff together to create the flow that you guys ended up with? The I I you both sound like you've played it exactly the way that I would recommend somebody to play, which is like hey, you know every now and then just throw down and go that direction and see what you find, and and if you don't find some great than go to your Golden, Pastora that's awesome, but try it, and because it's. In this is true for even when we're doing play testing that we did find that that was some of the ways that people would enjoy the game the most which is awesome. will you're talking about that? Like the ecosystem imbalance of people who tell you where stuff is in? How many patrols are there that stuff I'll tell you? We tweak that probably. Maybe until weeks before gold I think. Exactly the number on no top ahead, but is very late. We tweak those numbers because. because the sense of owning the curiosity, and like not having everything told you. was so important to the global feeling of enjoying just like exploring throughout the world, and as soon as you're told, were too much. Stuff is or too many things around your map. It becomes a different problem like you're kind of you either you either go into. Let's just go through the checklist which. Is Fine I think if you found them on your own but can be exhausting for some people because they're like Oh God. There's a ton of stuff to do, or it's kind of a turn off because you already know what it is, and you don't think of anything else over there, but they're actually might be if you if you actually went look, so we actually ramped down the people that the amount of people that would tell you where things were quite a bit. It used to be far more. part of the emergent processes I've almost everybody who talked to tell you. Something is, and it would put a thing on your map and We found that to be Super Smart System, and I'm so glad that we have it, but we put it in a very specific way in a very specific amount of things on the map total. Total that it would ever tell you about so that you still had your cool moment of like i. don't see anything over here on this. I'm going to head that way and finds things along the way now balance. It's really it's really tricky. Because again it goes up to that thing. I was talking about early. Enough loss of being okay with things being skipped and. That if you don't want to be so much that you don't have any information, that would be bad too right so it it is takes time to to work out, but the team did that. No, no a healthy fund way but I think even when you like clear. Mongol, Camp and Clears up a little bit. You still get a question mark. It's not even like yours, a hotel or something like that. And it's sort of it to me. It fell It felt like A. SORT, of natural to the universe that you guys were setting your game in this is this is like a long time ago. There is those no yelp. There's no google. So it seemed natural that you'd find a random person on the street and be like Oh. Thank you so much. There's this awesome restaurants. You should go check it out. Right I really doug. That I played a ton of the game in Kerr. Asala Mode Oh cool and that was. It was really it was really difficult for me. 'cause you made such beautiful game central? And I think it's I think it's. Beautiful in a different way in Curacao mode. But there was just something so special about about like heading into conflict or a story be or coming into a new environment. or it's all black and white, and there's that film green crackling, and a I read that you guys even did some stuff with the music to make it feel almost like it was coming through old speakers or something like that. Yeah, how how how how did how did you develop that? I I know. That's like obviously. It's something that you're studios. Really proud of especially since you've got endorsement from the family. It was a that was A. That was a I. I probably will put that in my top list of my entire career as like being apart process because. I mean it's just. It's just why just kind of a wild thing that you don't go into making video games because you expect to go through that process one day, yeah. which is probably why it's cool is that it's different. You know, but. The. We knew that we WANNA. Do Black and white mode I mean I think i. I don't remember when we first talked about it, but it was definitely really early Redo black and white vote, but again it got kind of pushed towards the end of the project, and then once things started to. You know you can sit in the world and you could be like. Oh, my goddess stunning! It's really a beautiful I feel I. Do feel like I'm. There's moments of this I feel like movie. It's coming. It's coming together. And, then we're like okay well. We definitely have that mode. Let's are planning for it. And an I got version of it in that was a very early version of it with a sliding team and Like what do we call this thing? and You Owe Samurai cinema or classic. Why can Wyatt our traditional La just things? You know cool cool names. And member WHO's I may was Brian Studio head. I don't remember somebody was like. When we see if we can call it, Chris Allen Mode. And I thought that was brilliant and I was like. Yes, can we? What was that process so I reached out to. One of the people that I think he deserves a special shout at his name as a relay Katami. He's on our Japanese producer. He's a helped us since the very almost since the very beginning, and he helps coordinate all of our feedback through Japan, and said Hey, you hey, who's now a dear friend of mine. I was like. Is this possible. Could you look this up? And he and the Japanese team reached out to their to their state across our state and worked out You know. They wanted to see video so I. Put together a video, and then I redid it like three times because enough. People on time video, but I was like Austin. Even Brian Our leauge rendering Guy Jasmine. He was not good. No. Though I kinda Redid it a couple of times and then eventually Is this. Is it I? I looked at so many movies measured the black and white. You know in our game. You know as you both played it. Daytime Times. There's indoor's whether there's rain. There's fog and so like you have to look at movies that have all of these things you can't just be like. Here's a movie. Here's a sample. It's the black. Man Like you gotTa. Look at all these because they exist in our game and it's a filter that'd be going over all of these and so I finally got to the point where I was, I had good black levels. White levels has cool noise. We sent them a video and and It took a little bit of time back and forth, but eventually we're like asses cooling reach an agreement. They were cool with it so. Yeah it was a it was a coup processing showed up. Is Mode teams all shit? It's called. Is it was pretty cool goal process. It has a dream come true. It's so awesome on a historical level. Because obviously you're seeing the game through its you know from the reveal trailer to now there's clearly a love and Joe Majd to the cinema and the storytelling that come in the John Mara, before it, and so to have that encapsulated as a mood that you can jump into starting to such a great I. Think like touchtone full circle thing as a fan of genres well. Also I mean the. The audio! From from like A. A gigantic Blue Tang Fan. It's it sounded like like RISI's sampling. VHS, tapes of sword slashes, and like there were moments. Paint that game and I was like I expect like method man rapid right now because. If anyone was intended, but that sort of got me on a very very like neural level I was like Oh my God like this is. This is quietly the best. Wu Tang game ever made since. The fighting gave. The quote somewhere I feel. That's. But. Our audio director Brad he that's all him he was like. I have an idea that guy's a wizard, so that usually meant something cool and he. It was like we have this special thing that we developed internally at Sony that replicates old processes from like you know fifty sixty s something like that radios and TV's and and And and he he kind of took that filtered it and figured out the right 'cause he was like. If you do too much over, you know, we wanted people to play lengthy amount of times and if they wanted to the Chrysanthemum. View too much, and it becomes incredibly fatiguing. Like, not watching move hours possibly thirty hours. You know so. You got a nice balance between that and something that you can you know Listen to over and over again? I- legitimated Curacao Mode for Poly Twenty five thirty hours and I think that I like maybe fifty sixty into the game. So how yeah! That's incredible. Yeah, along along with that and to me. It was surreal to play an open world game almost entirely in black and white. That was just I've never done anything like that before and. It was such a cool. It was such a cool experience. One of the challenges with eggs I would add is like since it's black and white. There's there's missions that use color as guiding, and so there are. There are a few missions of. It really struggles with, but for the most part we redesigned icons on the map so that it would work with answer, so you're not just looking at two icons ones. This color ones that color and we just changed the icon Lopate, but but yeah it, it's it's generally speaking. You can play through most of the game with it, which is just crazy. Yeah I think there was one mission where they're like find. The purple flowers was like Oh! I was to right back on, so that was good. Leads to so many great visual moments, and as you were saying I know we're running short on time I. don't want believe the too much, but I, genuinely really loved, and as pointing to earlier the the soundtrack and the way both game uses it. It comes in from quiet to loud, but also how the score changes both from the combat setting to the open world setting you know. Moments I would say not settings, but. That Jackson position as well as even on the side, the remixes that were coming out sort of in the lead up to the Games launch. There's so much great musicality and artistry. Bear that I think really. Elevate, so much of what's going on there on visual rebel to a works so well in tandem. You know there is no single discipline that contributes more to the game. The music like a known this case we have to composers, a team of people that obviously help implemented like their artistry is like. White just level things up so much like a scene without music in a scene with music. There's a world of difference in generally speaking I know it's not one contributor. There's quite a few people that make it happen. Processing and implementation, but it's insane. What music can do in for this game? It's it's. It's one of the best parts of the Game I. Think is the the the artistry behind the music in the soulful fullness in is is really I listened to it a lot. I love and then we tokens the glitch mob. Which is just? RIDICULOUSLY COOL! Yeah, it's an awesome combination i. do think as you were saying. It elevates so many great moments, but really. A drills home like the emotional undercurrent of everything that's going on in the game. Unfortunately. We're pretty much out of time. I think Brandon I could keep talking there so much. We love and really enjoyed about the experience and are continuing to enjoy. Time in this world, so Jason Thank you so much for taking time. We really appreciate it. SUPERFUND and thank thank you to your studio for. bookending this entire console generation with my favorite games. I I don't know if that was ever the plan, but the way that
Will the Fires That Made Centralia a Ghost Town Ever Go Out?
"The smallest municipality in Pennsylvania is Centralia a former mining community located about two hours north west of Philadelphia. Records tell US had one thousand, four, hundred and thirty five residents in the year nineteen sixty. Today fewer than ten people still live there. The US Postal. Service revoked and trailer Zip Code in two thousand two and the local portion of state route sixty one was permanently closed off nine years before that. We can't blame. The areas decline on the usual socioeconomic suspects. Its problems run deeper literally since at least nineteen sixty to a coal seam fire has been smoldering right below the town. Yes, in. The Earth has been smoking. An ash has been raining down for over fifty years. No one knows exactly how the coal fire got started, but whatever set the thing off this long lived. Blaze isn't some kind of one off luke. Naturally occurring coal deposits are called seems in the mining industry, and wherever such veins occur whole seem fires like the one under Centralia may break out and commonly do. China's three thousand mile or five thousand kilometer coal mining belt is notorious for its seemed fires a so as a town in India where fires have claimed about forty one million tons of coal since nineteen eighteen. We spoke by email with a new TMA per cash, a geologist at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. She said the issue is more prevalent in areas. Where coal was extracted in the past with limited efforts to ensure that the whole left, the extraction was filled up. She explained that mines that don't provide structural support to keep ground from collapsing. Likewise risk seem fire outbreaks. Granted humans aren't always responsible. Though down in new, south Wales Australia, there's a famous coal seam that's been burning for six thousand years straight scientists think it was first ignited by an ancient brushfire or lightning strike. A coal doesn't need much encouragement to catch fire under the right circumstances, the material can actually light itself ablaze through spontaneous combustion. We also spoke by with research geologist Alain Coker. He explained the decomposition of Pyrite President in coal produces heat, and in some cases, the self heating can start the coal on fire. This is a problem even where coal is transported long distances and ships. By most accounts, Centralia great fire began at a dump near the local odd fellows cemetery on May, twenty seventh of nineteen, sixty two. This landfill was intentionally set ablaze was six volunteer firefighters, standing by. It was all part of a yearly cleanup effort by the local government. Controlled Burns were popular garbage disposal technique back then, but things didn't always go according to plan. Perhaps this fire ran deeper into the trash than anybody realized if so, it could have spread through the refuse and entered the nearest coal mine pit with no one being the wiser. Than again, be the town. Government had nothing to do with it. Some have argued that different garbage fire at the same site. A lit by an unidentified truck driver is what really sealed Centralia fate. Another less popular theory claims the coal seam fire started all the way back in the Great Depression and went unextinguished for decades before the nineteen sixties gave it a new lease on life. Regardless. The inferno made itself right at home, sweeping through mine tunnels and coal seams, flames descended as far as three hundred feet, ninety meters below the ground, sometimes nearing temperatures of one, thousand, three hundred fifty degrees, Fahrenheit or seven hundred thirty Celsius. According to an investigation in two thousand twelve has a tway's underlying. Some four hundred acres or sixty hectares of land, had been touched by the blaze at sometime or other. Coker said uncontrolled coalfires have all the potential environmental impacts of burning coal for power generation with none of the benefits in addition to emitting carbon dioxide, trace metals, such as mercury and harmful. Fine particles are emitted. Per, cash noted that methane and sulfur dioxide are also common and so distinctive that just talking about these fires virtually floods her with memories of the sent. To this day, smoke rises from the earth through fishers around Centralia. Meanwhile, the terrain has become perilously unstable over time. Her cash said these fires are dangerous as land can suddenly collapsed or sink as the fire just eats up the ground underneath such collapses can damaged houses roads. Train tracks etc.. That's why Pennsylvania closed off four thousand feet, or about one thousand two hundred meters of route sixty one back in nineteen, ninety-three subterranean pillars held up the pavement, were destroyed or weakened by the flames, making the roadway totally unsuitable for motorists. So Wilson Trail is fire ever burn out? Extinguishing so-far haven't paid off. Between nineteen sixty to nineteen eighty-two assorted government agencies spent seven million dollars fighting. This entrails a qualifier openings sealed trenches were dug, and the minds were stuffed with non-combustible. And crushed rocks, but nothing worked. Nearly all of Centralia former residents are long gone. Many took advantage of a forty two million dollar tax payer funded relocation initiative, which saw five hundred buildings destroyed. The final holdouts have been granted permission to spend the rest of their lives in the town as per eight thousand thirteen settlement with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. According to the state's Department of Environmental, protection the fire might keep on raging for over a hundred years yet to come. But as bad as they can get coal seam, buyers aren't invincible. Kosh said good policies on mining safety and reclamation go a long way as preventative measure, if a fire does start taking quick action to contain it by isolating the fire, dousing the fire, cooling the area and continued monitoring to ensure that the fire does not start again are important measures. Centralia? Hellish effect made it part of the inspiration for the two thousand six horror film silent. The departure from the video game series that it was adapted from. And over the past thirty odd years town Centralia not silent hill has become an unlikely tourist destination. One former attraction was the abandoned stretch of route sixty one dubbed the graffiti highway at attracted masses of street artists who added a rainbow of cartoons and signatures to the pavement. However in two thousand twenty, the corporation that owns the undrivable road, had covered up with piles of dirt. Dissuade visitors from swinging by during the covid nineteen pandemic.
Rocket Roundup for June 3, 2020
"Twenty twenty. Today's livestream was hosted by Anne Wilson. And our audio is reported by me Allie Pelfrey. Most Mondays through Fridays. Our team will be here putting science in your brain. Usually Wednesdays for rocket roundup, and we have some catching up to do. Let's get to it, shall we? A JAKSA H. to be rocket launched the H. T. V. Nine Mission Aka. WHO NATORI Nine on Wednesday may twentieth, twenty twenty at five thirty one PM ut see. The mission patches a gold ring around a blue and yellow graphic of the H. T. V. Capsule with a yellow image of the ISS in the distance against a black background. The text H to transfer vehicle and mission designation HDTV, nine, or in the yellow ring. The Japanese characters say Kuna Tori nine. There were to last for this flight. This was the last flight for the H. to be the first flight of the H. Three is planned for later this year. This was also the last Katori. A new Japanese cargo vessel is expected to launch and twenty when he to. A lot of cargo went to the ISS ON HDTV nine. Six thousand two hundred kilograms to be exact. That's four four thousand three hundred kilograms in the pressurized compartment and one thousand nine hundred kilograms in the unpressurised compartment. This includes a solid combustion experimental module. The module will continue research on combustion in microgravity, also on board were six new lithium ion batteries for the space station and fresh bell, peppers, Kiwi and citrus fruit for the crew. All fresh fruits and vegetables were grown in Japan. One of the other experiments was a wireless. Lan Demonstration or W. L. D. pronounced wild. Wild was an experiment that was performed during Kuna Tori nines flight. This was tested during Katori nines approach where video taken by a camera attached to the craft's propulsion module was broadcast in real time on board, the space station via a wireless data link the technology tested by wild will enable ISS cruise to monitor approaching vehicles during an autonomous docking. This was the first time to spacecraft communicated using w LAN during a rendezvous. On May twenty second at seven thirty one am ut see Russian. Armed Forces launched a Soyuz two one B rocket with the cosmos, two five four six mission. This was a military mission. So details are a little scarce. Here's what we do know. The payload was the Tundra Fourteen L. satellite that will be used for an early warning system, replacing the aging US K. and US Komo constellations. This is the fourth satellite and the newer. Tundra Constellation. The satellite was placed and ammonia orbit, which is a highly. The satellite was placed in a Molnia orbit, which is highly elliptical and highly inclined. When I say elliptical I. Don't mean a tiny bit. egg-shaped were straight into severely stretch territory with altitudes ranging from six hundred to nearly forty thousand kilometers above earth. At that long oval of an orbit and place it at sixty three degree angle relative to Earth's equator, and you get the highly inclined orbit. The what's the purpose of this orbit? Thanks to orbital mechanics. Ammonia orbit is uniquely suited to providing useful satellite coverage for earth, observation and communication services needed by ground terminals operating in high northern latitudes. Those areas are not easily serviceable from satellites in the typical geosynchronous orbits over the equator. Because any antenna you're using would be pointing at such a low angle that a small hill could easily block the path of the signal. And even though polar orbiting satellites can reach these same latitudes, they only have coverage of any given spot for several minutes at a time. The MONJA orbit is inclined in such a way that the desired areas are not only clearly visible. The satellite is pause for a time at its highest point. Thanks to orbital mechanics, which provides several hours of uninterrupted coverage that. L. E. O. AND GAO satellites simply can't
Ebola resurfaces in Équateur Province, north-western Democratic Republic of the Congo
"You cases of Ebola have been confirmed in the Democratic Republic of Congo their concerns that the health care system destroyed by conflict and they collect will struggle to tackle a new outbreak on top of the corona virus pandemic merry Harper reports the health minister attendee long Gondo said four people had died from a burglar in the western city of fond Dhaka the location of the new outbreak is alarming it's more than a thousand kilometers from the center of the current epidemic which is in eastern DRC two months ago the authorities were poised to declare an end to the second largest it burned out brake on record button you chain of infections was found the DLC is also struggling with corona virus with more than three thousand confirmed
The Churchill Fire
"Formally known as Hazelwood Churchill was purpose built to accommodate workers involved in the construction and maintenance of the Hazelwood power station in nineteen sixty five to ten was renamed in posthumous owner of Foam British. Promised us so Winston Churchill and grew into a commuter suburb for those working in neighbouring areas. Like Hey did one. Hundred and sixty kilometers southeast of Mobin. Churchill phages a commercial centre for its several thousand locals with Wad pock land separating residential areas industrial estates dense tree plantations and national park and dig- Ridges of farmland frame the township which is home to the Seaney Colli highland and two golden tail nine locally is the beat cigar after Winston Churchill's trademark smoking habit at one thirty two PM on Sunday February. Seven two thousand nine triple zero. Emergency services received a call regarding a wildfire just sawed Churchill. The blaze was full. Columbia south east of town near the intersection of Glenn Donald Road and Jealous Outlet to unsealed stretches of winding roadway that cut through the rural outskirts. It had emerged from the bottom of a natural basin the Bennetts creek catchment which consisted of blue gum. Eucalypt and upon plantations surrounded by hazardous surface fuels such as shrubs wag grass and blackberry bushes. Three minutes after the coal a pilot flying firefighting aircraft ten kilometers from Churchill. Saw Did a column of doc smoke hundreds of feet high rausing from the fires location within ten minutes the flames troubled roughly one Columba and were in the vicinity of forests managed by Timber Company. Hancock Victorian plantations the plantations surveillance planes. Which were Riva's seeing the entirety of the latrobe valley that day would deserted to Churchill to carry out reconnaissance work despite being in its early stages. The fires behavior was noted. As extreme by the Tom. First responders arrived the blaze had spread rapidly and was burning on both sides of jealousy outlet spot. Fires Begin igniting a rounded straining resources and impacting efforts to tackle the central inferno directly requests? Were made for more tankers and dare support however de intense hate was causing water to evaporate before it even hit the ground. The focus then shifted to warning surrounding communities of the urgent threat. Road blocks were established. Durant the file as emergency services personnel visited nearby residences to raise the alarm but two pm the fire had been raging for those often Allah and remained out of control despite the arrival of additional firefighting crews. It continued to move in southeasterly direction through the Broad Valley of benefits. Craig ECRU observed the fire cresting to reach along. Jira lying North Road and by the fifty minute mark. It had traveled about seven kilometers. More spot. Fires were reported and by three PM. The blaze had burned through a plan plantation and to damage the communications our efforts to protect assets continued as emergency relief centres were established in nearby townships at three twenty pm. The fire had destroyed. Its first time. Stead at the intersection of Thomson and to Jira Lying. North roads but five fifteen pm it was approaching the slopes of men tasr e ten kilometers juice out east of Churchill and spotting to the mountains east side as emergency crews tackled they surrounding spot fires. The apex of being funar raged on woods. Elliott that day a strategy is bureau of Meteorology had predicted a severe wind. Change that would hit land between six and eight. Pm shortly before. Four o'clock there. Prediction was amended to the window of five thirty and seven. Pm The planning officer responsible for the Churchill Fire Unaware of the amendment told the Incident Management Team to expect at the midpoint of seven when they change arrived and now earlier than anticipated at sent seventy kilometer and now a gusts through the region that suddenly shifted the fire in a northeasterly direction. The winds posed a significant threat to way across and forced them to land as fifteen kilometer. Long uncontrolled flank of. Phya developed that ran from the origin. Point Nature Chill through to the east side of Tozzi as it progressed fullwood burning debris rained down and ignited the surrounding vegetation almost instantly. It was accompanied by an east bleeding rush of what noise described by witnesses as the sand of immense pressure. Lucca that of a jet engine. Following this hurricane like wind change the file was at. Its most dangerous threatening multiple townships as well as the one wrong state forest residents working fervently to defend their himes when now blinded by an Ol- encompassing blackness composed of Smokin Dash. All of a sudden the in band firestorm had peed through the dock. Luckily Sunrise Churchill Resident Greg. We stated on you. The fire front was coming. You could hear it. You could smell it. You could feel the hate coming up out of the valley. The flames were right there. And where the heart of the trees and to that again. Three hundred Fateha plus there were big swirling vortexes is just a big swirling masses of flames that would burst and explode out of the treetops' shortly after six PM. Three water tankers belonging to volunteer. Fire Service the country fire authority were involved. In a series of Burn I've is wherein their crews were forced to take shelter where possible as the firing trapped them the boon either hit with quote great ferocity firefight at Graham Chesterton recall blackwood say MBA's thought the full was locked out coming from everywhere. The became very smokey and everything started to burn rapidly. That was spot FIS on the ground. All the rant me and the trees dotted burning at that stage aghast. I had about ten to fifteen seconds until I would have to make a move. Within those seconds the conditions deteriorated so rapidly. That are realized that wasn't safe too late truck. At that time a did not night where rule Marc crew members. Were on the decision to make a May Day call us said something along. The lines of we are completely surrounded by fire Tabun. I've lasted an estimated ten minutes firefighting crews elsewhere listened. Says their colleagues frantically broadcast may calls. I've Aradio but were unable to approach the scene due to the level of danger or they could do was respond. There is nothing we can do for you incredibly. None of the firefighter discord in the burn. Iva lost their lives the via finally slowed at eight PM. And by the following day of Sunday February I it was mostly brought to a whole l. Dive burning continued in heavily feud areas the Churchill fire named after its point of origin was not a visually listed under control until eleven days later on February nineteen more than six hundred firefighting personnel battled the blaze supported by one hundred and five vehicles and appliances in total. It had burned more than twenty five thousand eight hundred and sixty one heck Dez and destroyed one hundred forty five times elsewhere. Four hundred separate bushfires had devastated the Victorian landscape with the most destructive and deadly being the king like into Marysville FIS in the sites northeast collectively the fires had released eighty thousand kilowatts of. Hey the equivalent of five hundred atomic bombs. One hundred and seventy three. Papal had perished and four hundred and fourteen were left injured more than two thousand times and ten thousand kilometers of fence. Lon had been raised and an estimated one million animals were killed. Buerry seven two thousand nine became the deadliest bushfire. Catastrophe in Victoria's history and was henceforth referred to as black Saturday
Automating Electronic Circuit Design with Deep RL w/ Karim Beguir
"Kareem is CO founder and CEO at Institute Kareem. Welcome back to the Tacoma area. Podcast pleasure to speak again. Absolutely so if Kareem's name sounds familiar. That's because we spoke We're trying to figure this out. It was between a year and a half a year ago The show actually was published in September. Was Number three hundred two and you should definitely check it out for Kareem's full background But croom wanted to give us a brief overview of what you're up to as well as an update from when we last spoke absolutely so I it's a pleasure to be back in. Continue our conversation on aside. He's been pretty invent follow. The Lot has happened as you know instead. Deep is a decision making a startup. So we focus on Problems related to making complex decisions We also do our own innovation and the tried to be helpful to the community and we've made progress basically on this three areas. We've been able to release innovative products. In decision making we've also been able to publish innovate in research Publishing original you know like pieces. That were actually. What come that nervous where we got the spotlight presentation for example with Google declined? And we've also been very active on the community side organizing major events in Africa and basically lots of young talents. Find say super -tunities in there and the we most recently saw one another at Nuremberg and had a chance to catch up briefly at the black dinner where you really piqued my interest around one of the company's new initiatives or products which is called DP. Cb tell us about what is absolutely so this'll be actually started with with conversation Two years ago I I had a dinner with a good friend of mine. Who is actually an expert in hardware design worked on like no chips for a well known phones etc and we were speaking about like. What is he doing this particular sector? And he was like not that much like particular like busy stunt for printed circuit boards so basically those ships that you will find with all sorts of Consumer Electronics Products Iphones Speakers Bluetooth etc and You know the situation in that market was that auto routers basically automated systems to connect the different components like built. Basically the electrical secretary have been going on for many years but they were not that make and we were like. Hey that sounds like an interesting problem to to look at. We started looking into it eventually. This good front now. Be True was now meeting or hardware team joint steady and we've worked very hard on this project and we're very proud to have been able to achieve goals and in November last year we've released it in. Beta form and it is a world first for the first time we have a system that is end to end fully deployable and scalable on the cloud capable of understanding how to route chips essential and now last time we spoke we. Our conversation was focused on the work. Your company was doing applying reinforcement learning to logistics is deep be also based on reinforcement learning absolutely and this is a very strong commonality and like design philosophy between or or products. So in a sense. Let me give you an example. We've we've continued to do great work in logistics and the recently last September. We've won a major contract for example with that. Chaban the German railway company and to give idea this is about routing trains on a large scale talking about ten thousand trains a day and some think on some thirty three thousand kilometers of railway but downs out their communities between routing trains and routing chips on a board and so we realized that the projects and the type of research that study is doing is actually applicable to multiple fields. And when it comes to imbed Ziegler printed circuit boards. They're putting compelling so. We went full speed ahead and this turned out to be office product. Alrighty so when you initially met with your friend your mention that they're you know while this these auto routers have been in place or have been in use for many years. They were not without their challenges and problems. What were some of those challenges and problems? And what was the opportunity to introduce? A I think Reuters have been the they've been. There's been a lot of great work. Donald Reuters but in terms of like design philosophy. The design philosophy is all about essentially using ristic's to solve problems and we spoke a little bit about this in Bester conversation so it's very similar to let's say what was the status of software for chess before out. Fazio came out the systems which were very well actually but still are built on your way. Sticks fought for the hardest problems. Ristic's have limits and a system that can essentially mobilize learning can. Learning get scale can get better results when it comes in particular for in the status of printed circuit. Boards it is actually incredible and we are in twenty twenty that actually complex sucrets still designed manually and the reason why people design those Mandy is because auto routers essentially a failed to deliver the goods to the degree of quality which is expected by high quality customers so we see a really compelling opportunity with modern built on the latest innovation. Some of it actually developed in house we actually have patents on the work done for the. There is an opportunity to accelerate the design cycle of products. Because it's not just about quality you mean. Engineers do absolutely amazing work and have amazing intuition. It's about the speed. Human engineer could take in certain cases multiple weeks if not months to completely root complex with more than we do believe instead that this timing can be proud to twenty four hours this if done at scale it would be tremendous for the industry and it would accelerate the product cycle. We are using consumer electronics to have a cycle every six months of the year. There's a new version coming. We believe that any I could actually accelerate A. That's that's a that psycho and as a consequence also make it easier to design new products and experiment and ultimately unleash more human creativity and mobilizing gay. You mentioned complexity of the boards as being one of the challenges. What are we talking about when we talk about complexity? We I'm assuming we're measuring that in for example number of components but having worked with circuit boards before there are also issues like the number of layers and things like that when you talk about a complex board. What exactly are you talking about? So about really consists in basically an. Kyi's that we need to connect and as a consequence like those guys they can be what needs to be connected so you have fairs of components essential get need to be connected and they could be thousands of those and as you mentioned rightly there could be multiple layers simple designs start with two or four layers that you could have a lot more and the more you have layers the more components you have to connect the heart of the problem. It is an empty heart problem and so this is where I can help. But you can you when you're looking at the most difficult designs that we take human engineers significant amount of time to solve
Flight Lines: The Heroic Story of Two Migratory Shorebirds
"Have someone sitting opposite me just twitching to tell his story. The book is flat. Lines and the author is Andrew Dobson Andrew. Welcome to three C- I thank you. David I'm curious about the would twitching. I haven't really made a close study of twitching despite writing. This book. Twitching is a word that is used by dedicated. Some say obsessive Burgers and sometimes they detractors to Indicate their preoccupation with finding the next bird. An observing bird minded research. Because it's not actually mentioned in the book the twitching behavior of Howard Medhurst who was one of the leading birdwatchers in the nineteen fifties and sixties. But this book in other words is about birds or in particular one species of birds the grey plover a daoist wallflower of the shorter dance. It spreads thinly around the world's margins and is often overlooked. What's the fascination with the Gripe Lot? Well let's start by working our way towards the bird from what we are. Probably the closest bird that we know to this is the masked left wing. It's often colder plaza. But it's sexually left wing but that's what we know as a plot now go through that gate and think about the kinds of things that the left wing does transfer them to the tidal flats of the world the far-flung tidal flats of the world. And there's this small bird not much begun a blackbird gray when it's out of the breeding grounds highly colored up when it gets to the breeding grounds and it is commonly found with others in the group of Long Distance Flying Margaret lowrie shore. Birds the ultramarathons birds. Now when you say ultra-marathon sort of distance are we talking so the two birds that I particularly follow which were satellite tag in South Australia and flew north on the first flight. Each of them flew over the entirety of Australia of Indonesia the Philippines to land one of them in Taiwan and the other in southern China so each of them took a nonstop flight of more than seven thousand kilometers. Just to give us a sort of indication in layman's terms. When you're holding this bird. How much are you holding? Well you're holding about a cup of sugar not a big white. You're holding something that really can be quite placid in the hand. Despite its wildness. And you're holding. I guess the promise of many generations of optic life birdlife and they transcend boundaries in many ways in the journey. We've got apple tree boundaries as people on borders and they bicycling cross all of those hemispheres international borders and such like. It's it's quite a phenomenal feet. If you want to get carried beyond the trivialities of human life like borders then migratory long distance migratory birds are a really good way to start because there will pass through the margins of many countries but is not off one eye and they have total disregard for human borders. Now one of the things that the book sort of touches on as you look this journey other various forms of tagging that have occurred or the ability to follow from banding to rocket nets and now two satellites. The satellites would give you an inordinate amount of opportunity to try and be particular about what you say quite revelatory. They are Give you almost near real time information. About where on the planet this bird is and what it's doing even because if you have a lucrative say on a breeding ground you'll see it move from point to point to point as it fades and then goes back to the central point which is the nest So yes it can be unrivaled information and It really is hugely illuminating. As opposed to the banding which was more happenstance abandoning as the book suggests started in the lighting hundreds. But that would rely on. Someone actually catching the Buddha game. We'll exactly Either catching the again or killing it or finding a dead. The doyen of Australian Migratory Schubert's studies like Clive Minton when he lived in England. Has I band on? A migratory shortbread was on a lovely good coach spotted. Red Shank and he was really pleased to have it in hand really priest to put the band on it and some weeks later he got the band back because it had been shot by the mayor of putting your in France who returned the band with the address on to Clive. Now a couple of things fascinated me about. The birds are reading this book. I'm the song lines. There's a connection here with an indigenous song. Lawn is moving up. Moving from group to group and changing as guides and there's an equivocal mention of what the birds was well yes we'll I'm careful to not impose my description on indigenous cultures. But I hope that I have drawn out of the records of indigenous couches The great variety of names. This bird has as it travels not just from Australia. But through China up to Siberia and across to North America where? It's pretty circum Paula. It has a series of lovely nines. And the they are run there are really illuminating series. Too you know they describe often. I described the bird by its phonetic. Call sometimes they describe it by its coloring in Alaska where I went It was cold emphatic. And that means the scorched bird. But so there's a similarity through the sort of landscape in many ways. Yes depending on which part of the world now for such a fragile creature. They are quite a number of threats in this day and age the threats for the gripe the mind well. We've got a bird here. That has persisted down through evolutionary generations for about one hundred and thirty million years so it's not easily removed from the face of the earth. But while it's doing well other others. In the group of long distance migratory shore birds are not doing so well And as a whole the contracting in numbers. I'm this four that have been listed on Australia's critically endangered list in recent years. Because of the problems they face pardon the analogy but the canary in the coalmine. Well certainly you know I think migratory shore birds. We Stu people generally in Australia particularly and when we look at the coasts we should think about the health of Alco spy. The prison or absence of birds like
How Does Saturn Work?
"The Planet Saturn takes its name from a Roman God of agriculture and of all the planets revolve around our sun. It's cultivated if you will the greatest ring system by far shining rings filled with ice dust and rock orbit its equator. The whitest one called the phoebe ring has an outer edge. That's millions of miles away from Saturn itself. For comparison the average distance between Earth and our moon is a paltry two hundred thirty nine thousand miles or three hundred eighty four thousand kilometers once again. Astronomy PUTS THE HUMAN EGO IN CHECK. Saturn's rings get all the attention but we shouldn't ignore its other attributes the sixth planet in our solar system. It's also the biggest after Jupiter. Those two are in a league of their own. If you mushed every planet from Mercury to Neptune together Saturn and Jupiter would account for over ninety percent of the cumulative mass of that planetary mass but despite its immense size Saturn is the least dense planet in the sun's orbit and the spherical to. We'll need to look at. Its physical makeup to understand why research published in two thousand nineteen showed that a day on Saturday and lasts just ten hours thirty three minutes and thirty eight seconds. It's spin rate helps explain one of the ring. World's stranger qualities is he. Saturn is ten percent wider than it is tall. A difference of over seven thousand miles or nearly twelve thousand kilometers. Astronomers call that kind of disparity an equatorial bulge every planet in the solar system has one but Saturn's is the most extreme saturn rotates around its axis at a very high speed. Hence the brevity stays. And here's where density comes into play like. Jupiter Saturn is a gas giant such worlds predominantly consists of hydrogen and helium and whereas Earth is solid on. The outside gas. Giants are not they may however have hard intercourse now. Saturn is downright huge in terms of volume. Some seven hundred sixty four earth sized objects could fit inside of it and the planet is ninety five times as massive as our home world and yet relative to its size. Earth is eight times more dense. In fact water yes. Plain water is denser them Saturn although that doesn't mean the planet would float. It's not cohesive enough so thanks to its low. Low density zippy rotational. Speed Saturn's been deformed into a oblong world that looks kind of squished in profile Jupiter's southern hemisphere famously has an ongoing storm called the great. Red Spot Saturn's answer to. This is the great white spots which are periodic tempests that arise every twenty thirty Earth Years I detected in eighteen seventy six. These weather events are colossal scale ness as Cassini spacecraft spent thirteen productive years hovering around Saturn on December fifth of two thousand ten. It witnessed the most recent iteration of the great white spot phenomenon. The storm was about eight hundred miles by sixteen hundred miles long when it first began. That's about thirteen hundred twenty five hundred kilometers but over the next six months. The spot expanded Longitudinal early until it had looped itself around the planet in a gigantic circle. Some researchers think the great white spots might be part of a cycle that sees the outer layer Saturn's atmosphere slowly lose heat allowing the warm air from lower levels to burst upward. Meanwhile Saturn's North Pole. There's a cloud pattern shaped like giant hexagon. This pleasantly symmetrical jet stream spins counterclockwise measures about twenty thousand miles or thirty two thousand kilometers across and includes a hurricane. That's been swirling right over the poll ever since it was discovered back in Nineteen eighty-eight. Of course it's not the hexagon earned Saturday. A place on. Chucky festers T. shirt you know from rugrats anyway. The gas giant is most famous for the spectacular ring system encircling it a planetary rings aren't rare per se Jupiter Uranus and Neptune. Have the well yet. In terms of sheer scale network around Saturn is totally unrivaled. Most of the primary rings come with letter names. The closest one to Saturn is called the D ring which has an inner radius of about forty two thousand miles or sixty seven thousand kilometers a lot closer than our moon. It's surrounded by these C B A F G and earrings in that order by the way. The rings aren't arranged Alphabetically. Because the naming system reflects the dates of their discovery Abmc recited before the rest when measured from its outside edge. The earring showcases an impressive. Three hundred thousand mile radius or four hundred and eighty thousand kilometers. Or at least that looks impressive until you get to know the big bad fearing that. We mentioned earlier. I spotted in two thousand nine. This one was named after one of Saturn's moons untold trillions of ice rock dust particles. Make up these rings. Some bits are the size of a sugar grain. Others could probably Dwarf Your House in any case. The ring material is stretched. Remarkably thin Saturn's rings may be as thick as two miles or kilometers wide. Found just thirty two feet or ten meters wide so proportionately. The gas giants iconic rings thinner than a typical sheet of writing paper as noted by Astronomer. Phil plait whereas Saturn itself is probably around four point five billion years old. The age of its rings isn't as clear. Some scientists think that they were formed ten million to a hundred million years ago when an icy comet or some ice covered moons came too close to the planet. The visitor or visitors would have met a grisly end. Getting ripped to pieces by Saturn's gravity as those fragments collided they grew smaller and multiplied giving rise to the skinny but brilliant system. We all know today on the other. Hand a twenty. Nineteen paper argued that the rings might have originated at an earlier stage in the history of our solar system. We'll have to see how the debate unfolds as new evidence arises. There's lots about this planet that we're still learning in October of two thousand. Nineteen the international astronomical. Union heralded the discovery of twenty newfound moons orbiting the gas giant with these bodies added to the mix. There are now eighty two verified. Saturn moons altogether no other planet in the solar system has that many natural satellites not even mighty Jupiter. You can find Saturn's moons in around and beyond the ring system before Cassini was retired in two thousand seventeen it revealed that some of them gather clumps of ice and dust. From the Rings Saturn's Moon Titan is especially well-named it's our solar system second-biggest moon overall and it's dotted with seas lakes and rivers of liquid methane and pain. There's only one other body within the Sun's orbit that has standing pools of liquid that we know about. And here's a hint. You're sitting on it right now. Tighten is also noteworthy for having an atmosphere and it's theorized that there could be ice volcanoes that spew water instead of lava like Earth Saturn gets auroras at its poles. They're invisible to the unaided human eye. But the Cassini spacecraft and the Hubble Space Telescope have captured footage of them using infrared and ultraviolet
Wildfire disaster worsens as Australian Navy rescues evacuees stranded on a beach
"It's Saturday in Australia in the country was bracing for a furnace blast if he wins and raging wildfires in apocalyptic conditions deputy fire commissioner rob Rogers for the state of New South Wales said firefighters were under no illusion they would be able to halt the spread of the bush fires they were just hoping no more lives would be lost we're unfortunately very likely we will lose times tomorrow but will be very happy in local XSS if there's no lives lost that is S. single focus tomorrow latest news is two more people did die in the fires more than two hundred fires are burning and warnings of extreme danger to come prompted mass evacuations of tens of thousands of people in what may have been the largest such evacuation in Australian history the climate field wild fires are unprecedented traffic was gridlocked as people fled firefighters escorted convoys any evacuees's fires threaten to close roads navy ships were called in to pluck hundreds of people stranded on beaches the prime minister of Victoria declared a disaster across much of the eastern part of the state allowing the government to order evacuations in an area with as many as one hundred forty thousand permanent residence and tens of thousands more vacationers New South Wales declared a fire emergency Arthur Stevens a feature story news has more on the evacuations the evacuation of the communities and surrounds in the south of New South Wales and they know the studies to Victoria continues with potentially up to sixty thousand people like to be moved out the evacuations come as prime minister Scott Morrison who's a Tory devastated areas was jeered and tries out of cannot go with locals telling him he should be ashamed of himself after leaving the country to burn while she went on a Christmas holiday in Hawaii on Friday local firefighters were joined by thirty nine others and to lay eyes on officers from the U. S. one of the sixty one for the US the dead from Canada should be on the fire ground next week other Stevens Melbourne this week at least four hundred forty five homes were destroyed on the New South Wales southern coast and dozens of burned in Victoria ten deaths were confirmed in the two states this week Victoria authorities also said twenty eight people were missing fires also burning in Western Australia South Australia and Tasmania the navy evacuated about a thousand people from Malibu tell a coastal town in Victoria cut off for days by fires that forced as many as four thousand residents and tourists to shelter on beaches landing craft ferry people to a ship offshore evacuees waiting to board the ship to strive Smokin embers flying everywhere when the fires were at their worst prime minister Scott Morrison cut short a visit to co Bargo in New South Wales when locals yelled at him called him an idiot a scumbag and worse and criticized him for the lack of equipment to deal with the fires in town Morrison said he understood the anger of people affected by the fires Leslie to do was to provide the support of the calm of government and to assure them of of everything we are doing to support them in this time of night whether it's three direct assistance payments or whether it's the work of the strand defense force were getting in behind the emergency services if it here flying in fuel flying in supplies in an interview late in the day with the Australian broadcasting corporation Morrison was defensive about his handling of the crisis he did not I did you dig nor the warnings of fire chief said Australia was heading into a catastrophic fire season the prime minister repeatedly has asserted the fires are a natural disaster not the result of climate change experts though say global warming caused by burning fossil fuels has exacerbated the unprecedented wildfires in Australia and elsewhere around the world like California seven marks a feature story news spoke with the fire science professor who said eight thousand kilometer area of the Australian east coast about six hundred twenty miles a roughly the distance from you Rico telus Angelus likely will be affected this weekend the Australian prime minister Scott Morrison was forced out of one devastated town where residents of furious over his government's response the situation is beyond unprecedented wave sort of entering of scenarios that you couldn't Graeme out there if you want to tell you fire science professor David Bowman from the university of Tasmania the next activation but the weather conditions are going to deteriorate was this trial it will be impacted because then substrate has mine yeah and then the eastern part of the Korean something because you suck wiles expecting conditions possibly eclipsing what happened earlier this week it's going to be basically old huge thousand Cologne bottle on a full and that's gonna be driving up the age because and who knows what's going to get taken out by that smoke from the fires has now reached the shores of new Zealand's twelve hundred miles away I think yellow hazes descended on glaciers in the country's self island a popular tourist destination for No Way in Australasia is the crisis going to be resolved soon with FSN spotlight I'm Simon marks a Sydney university ecologist told the Sydney morning Herald that nearly five hundred million birds reptiles and mammals are likely to have perished in the state of New South Wales a lone frog bats and insects are excluded from his estimate making the toll on animals much
Why Are Macadamia Nuts So Expensive?
"First things first macadamia nuts are not actually ups. Yes I know it's ridiculous. It's right there in the main for goodness sake but much like Brazil L.. Nuts again what is it with. These misleading names. The Macadamia is in fact a seed and although they've become a signature staple of Hawaiian Agriculture Macadamia. His are actually native to Australia. We spoke with Glen Soko an economic development specialist with the Hawaii County Department of Research and development he explained leaned Macadamia. Nuts are originally from Australia but much of the early research breeding work quality development were done by the University of Hawaii on the island of Hawaii. These cultivars are suited for the Hawaii. Climate and do not produce the same high quality nut when grown in foreign conditions cultivars is short for cultivated varieties and these are specific types of plants selected and cultivated by humans. In this case. The plant is a large bushy tree that starts producing macadamia nuts spy the time. It's about four or five years old. So how exactly did these Australia cultivars and up in Hawaii for that you can think. One William Purvis office. Who planted the first Macadamia tree on the Big Island in eighteen? Eighty one purpose didn't initially intend for the tree seeds to be a hit. He planted the trees as wind breaks as for the sugar cane fields. The plants were functional and also happens to be quite pretty but he didn't suspect they could bear such delectable and profitable. See it's about a decade later. One are Jordan planted some macadamia trees on Oahu. The trees that researchers think is the ancestor most of Hawaii's trees and the not quickly became a popular snack among businessmen who came to Hawaii to profit off of sugar plantations in the early nineteen hundreds. The Hawaiian Agricultural Experiment Station was established published to get new crops growing on islands since this newly established United States territory was relying almost exclusively on sugar following the collapse of the coffee market. In the nineteen twenties. The government offered a five year tax exemption on land that was used solely for Macadamia production. But most farmers were interested. That is until roasted it. BECA Damian that's started popping up in stores and consumers went wild demand finance went up and the number of trees planted for nut production more than doubled from nineteen eighteen thirty two to nineteen thirty. Eight sales slumped a bit after that. But by the Nineteen Fifties Hawaii was turning out macadamia goodies to stack fans throughout the world and major companies. Ladies were making a pretty penny off of them speaking of why are Macadamia so expensive while Macadamia is clearly have an interesting past. And they've tastes taste heavenly coated in thick layers of chocolate. Do they really merit they're often exorbitant price tag after all around twenty five dollars a pound. They're considered the most expensive have nuts in the world. So what's the deal. A bunch of factors go into the price but a lot of them. Come down to the fact that Macadamia can't be grown effectively. On the continental dental United States and shipping them in from Hawaii is costly and growing things in Hawaii is costly to begin with because it's a small archipelago that some three thousand miles title. That's nearly five thousand kilometers away from anything in two thousand. Eighteen Macadamia has made the news for a seventeen percent price. Increase which sacco attributed to Hawaii's fixed harvest acreage and a higher global demand. Furthermore Issaquah said it takes seven years for a Macadamia nut tree to produce a crop. Demand remains high and prices are up to a dollar twenty per pound despite this. There's tremendous pressure on the industry. The agricultural labor shortage continues and that's caused wages and benefit costs to increase invasive. Pests continue to affect the Orchard Health and production. The Hawaii land prices are so high. Hi Orchard Expansion is too costly and producers can't wait for seven years therefore the production acreage remained steady despite the increased demand for the nuts. Okay so that explains the cost but are they actually good for you. High fat foods used to be the most demonized of all kitchen staples basically because of a very effective and sort of insidious marketing campaign put out by the sugar industry but thanks to current research and slightly Leila systemic marketing hype such things as nuts oils and seeds are getting their due as healthy options. We also spoke with registered Dietitian than yell. Birger she said Macadamia nuts are high in monounsaturated fats. Low in net carbohydrates and a good source of copper manganese and thion monounsaturated unsaturated fatty acids have been shown to lower. LDL cholesterol levels. The bad kind especially when they're used in place of saturated fats and refined carbohydrates in one's diet it net carbs are important. Consider because it clues you in on how much fiber something contains in relation to the amount of total carbohydrates present. Having we're fiber is crucial to gut health copper assists with iron absorption and transport in the body while manganese and vitamin are central for carbohydrate metabolism. And while all of that sounds sounds great we still live in a society that tends to obsess over numbers. So at two hundred and three calories and twenty one grams of fat per serving a single serving being just ten to twelve nut kernels. and that's just nuts. Nuts dust chocolate are macadamia is really a wholesome snack. Birger said Ed. Although nuts are high in calories they're also packed with fiber heart healthy fats proteins vitamins and minerals essential to our diets. Having a small handful is a filling rolling nutritious snack to tide you over between meals or can be used as a way to round out a meal on top of a Salad or yogurt bowl. They are particularly good substitute for packaged packaged. Ultra processed snacks. Like potato chips calorie-for-calorie. An ounce of chips than outs of nuts are equivalent but the protein and fiber in the nets will keep you energized full. Oh and focused. She said don't fear fats. They're essential for hormone health optimal brain function and absorption of nutrients and end. According to Sacco Macadamia. Aren't just a delicious treat for humans. They can be healthy. Snacks for rodents to he said some pet owners by the nuts in the shell L. to give to the rats to not on this wear down the rats teeth.
NASA’s Parker Solar Probe Is Unlocking the Sun’s Mysteries
"Just over a year ago NASA launched the parkers solar probe towards the Sun. It's an ambitious mission is going to get closer to our star than any spacecraft has ever done and to do so it has to withstand the Sun's intense heat and radiation in fact the probe job is literally going to touch the sun and take measurements inside the corona the Sun's outer atmosphere to help us better understand our star and the space weather it creates before it gets there though the probe has been slowly testing the waters with ever-closer approaches gathering. Data's does so and this week scientist a just released. The first batch of research from those fly buys one of the scientists getting their hands on this hot data. Was Dr Justin Casper. He's a professor of space. Sciences is an engineering at the University of Michigan Dodger. Casper welcome to quirks and quarks. It's great to be here. Thank you now before we get into your new findings Give us a quick overview of the mission in What are its goals and where we're at right now? Short so parker solar probe is the the largest helium physics mission. NASA has ever undertaken And it has a few main objectives one is to figure out why the Sun's Corona is about a thousand times hotter than the surface of the sun. So something really interesting is is happening that can take the six thousand degree visible yellow surface of the sun and produce a million degree corona glowing x rays ultraviolet light The second the thing is we want to figure out how the existence of that hot corona produces a really fast solar wind a stream of particles ions and electrons Iran's that travel out in the space away from the Sun at Millions of kilometers an hour now and to do this. You're actually going to the Senate's how how close are you going to get the way I like to think about. It is in units of the radius of our Sun so earth is about two hundred and fifteen solar radii away from the sun and to date the closest the spacecraft has ever gotten to the sun was seventy solar radii away from it What Parker solar probe does as it has Multiple orbits around on the Sun. where it plunges close to the sun and then pops back out again and then repeats Every few months and so far we've been closing within thirty five solar RADII but but over the next five years we're GONNA fly by the surface of Venus six times then each time we do that. Venus Bend our orbit closer and closer to the sun at the end of the mission will be about ten solar radii from the Sun. Wow well how is your probe able to survive getting that close to our star. This is very very difficult so at closest approach the spacecraft has a heat shield That reflects her absorbs about five megawatts of sunlight It's front gets up to about fifteen hundred degrees Celsius but it's back is only about three hundred degrees c wow that's astounding. Well tell me about the the latest data Ada even getting from the probe as it's on its way there. Yeah sure so. One has to do with how the silicone is being heated. Now when we've put spacecraft aft- into the solar wind in the past in her planetary space they see this constant stream of a special type of magnetic wave moving away from the sun. We call call those Alpha waves Think of it like Plucking Guitar string but the guitar string is a magnetic field line the magnetic field wiggles and the particles wiggle wiggle with them And those Al Fain waves carry a lot of energy So we were wondering when we got closer to the sunlight would just see more of these random Alvin fain waves may be there. There are a little larger amplitude. Could that possibly be the source of heating the Corona And what we found to our surprise is these he's Instead of just a random ocean of waves. That's maybe a little more intense. There were these huge rogue waves traveling by very coherent well-defined. Uh Spikes and the velocity in the changes in the magnetic field so just to describe the spacecraft would be coasting along through the solar wind And then suddenly within in seconds the speed of the flow jumped by about five hundred thousand kilometers an hour And we'd be sitting there in this weird jet of of flow flow And then just as suddenly a few seconds or hundreds of seconds later we pop out The other side. And we've left it. And when we analyze the data ada looks like these things are kind of s shaped kinks in the magnetic field. It's a it's a wave that so violent it's actually twisting the sun's magnetic field field around on itself so they're carrying an incredible amount of energy and this is really exciting because it could potentially explain the energy source that heats the corona. It does the data you have so far. Tell us anything about space weather. Since we're affected directly by that here on Earth. Yes absolutely so so. When it comes to heating the corona I'll give you a very specific example of this Coronal mass ejections are like violent eruptions of material from the Sun's Corona Rona. A A large mass ejection might involve an amount of mass Roughly equivalent to the water in Lake Michigan Going from rest to moving moving at a few million kilometers per second in just minutes That's incredible amount of energy expelled out in space. And if those hit earth they can you know disrupt Communications radar navigation electrical power. So he really wanted to be able to forecast whether or not a cme criminal mass ejection is GonNa hit Earth. The same way we're able to. With some reliability forecast weather hurricanes going to make landfall given place the speed of a wave in the sun's atmosphere as a function of the temperature of the atmosphere. So if we don't know how how things are you know. We're missing out on very fundamental things. Like just how faster waves going to to travel around Are we going to good job. Forecasting the path of interruption. If we if we don't even know how fast the waves are moving so this information is directly. Are you going to improve our our models in our simulations that we use to forecast based weather. Where's the pro right now? So the program now is actually pretty far away from the sun but it is headed towards Venus and on December. Twenty six. That's GONNA pass Just two thousand kilometers above the surface so Venus And that's going to deflect its orbit's so in January we can have our next perihelion down twenty eight solar radii instead of thirty five. What are you looking forward to most in this mission? There's a point that I really WanNa Cross with the spacecraft so these Al Fain waves that travel travel away from the Sun. There the fastest wave that moves through the sun's atmosphere And as you go away from the sun the solar wind speeds up and the speed eight of the Alpha waves drops down and at some point. The wind is escaping faster than an Alpha brain wave could travel back to the sun. The material truly disconnects from the sun on and becomes the solar wind. We call that point the AL fame point and if we get the spacecraft below the AL fame point will truly be in the extended atmosphere era of our sun. will be basically touching star for the first time I like to think about it And so I'm I'm very hopeful that between now and our final final orbits ten solar Radii we're going to cross elfin point And touch a star for the first time after Casper. Thank you very much for your time. My Pleasure
Why Do Bees Beard?
"Lauren vocal bomb on here. Did you know that one bee has to fly approximately ninety thousand miles. That's one hundred and forty five thousand kilometers or about three times around the earth and gather nectar from some two million flowers to make a mere pound or half a kilo of honey. That's a lot of work for just one. Little Apis Mala Faira. So it's a good thing. That honeybees are well organized task oriented insects who stick together in huge families of several thousand workers per hive. And did you. I know that the honeybee is the only insect produces food eaten by humans end. Honey never expires. Archaeologists have found pots of still edible honey and ancient corruption tombs. That are thousands of years old. That's because honey is hygroscopic. It's great at absorbing moisture so it'll basically desiccated any bacteria or mold that try to eat it and sick with a Ph somewhere between three point five and four point Oh it's about. AS ACIDIC ORANGE JUICE A groundbreaking. Twenty eighteen eighteen study led by biologists the University of California San Diego Consolidate Scientific data from around the globe to show that the honeybee is the most successful pollinator in the world. hold the most important single species of pollinator natural ecosystems and the single most frequent pollinator of naturally occurring flowers and non crop plants on on earth. That's a pretty big vital deal for the planet and no small feat for creatures with a brain the size of a sesame seed. They're amazing B. Two B. Communication skills. Allow them to pipe. That is buzz. Wagle or dance and beard In order to protect themselves and their life's mission making making honey. But let's go back to that last one. What the heck is beard ing? And why do honeybees do it. It's about keeping cool. HONEYBEES are able to regulate the temperature of their hive throughout the year. In winter months they raised the highest temperature by huddling together in vibrating their wings to generate body heat and keep warm. It's sort of like if you were to jog in place or Rub your arms to warm up. But in the summer months the average temperature of the high of should be between ninety and ninety five degrees Fahrenheit. That's thirty two to thirty five Celsius it gets too hot. The bees will fan their wings to lower the temperature and circulate air throughout the hive. Sometimes they collect collect in place droplets of water inside the hive and then queue up at the hives entrance and fan their wings. Creating air currents that evaporated the water and push cool air inside and while the fans are outside thinning there on the inside fanning as well in summers severely hot weather. When the temperatures rise to extremes and the highest population Asian is large and crowded due to an abundance of nectar flow the bees head and mass out of the nest and cluster outside the hive to try to remain cool and keep the high from overheating heating which could kill the next generation of bees? That are growing are hatching busy. Be actively inside. The HIVE generates a lot of heat
How Does Venus Work?
"After the moon the Venus is the second brightest natural object in the night sky partially because this planet is covered by reflective clouds that make it is an optical telescopes can't penetrate eight with the Venetian surface hidden from view generations of fiction writers used to speculate wild about the mysterious terrain beneath those clouds for example Tarzan Creator Edgar Rice burroughs portrayed Venus as a world with lush forests in our boreal cities in a nineteen eighty-four pulp novel but then science intervened B eight at Venus's habitable pretty much imploded during the Cold War in Nineteen fifty-six Radio Telescope observations showed that the planet had surfaced temperatures in excess of six hundred and eight eighteen degrees Fahrenheit that's three hundred twenty six degrees Celsius and believe it or not those readings were kind of low we now know the average surface temperature on Nisa blistering eight hundred sixty four degrees Fahrenheit or four hundred sixty two Celsius it's the hottest planet in our solar system even though mercury is closer to the Sun on the face of Venus the atmospheric pressure is crushingly extreme and lead would melt into a puddle but as hellish as this place sounds actually has in common with Earth the two worlds are quite similar in size if you were to stuff venus inside our planet matric doll style it would occupy roughly eighty six percent end of earth total volume Venus has earth beaten in some key regards though earth displays a slight midsection bulge being wider around its equator than it is from one pole to the other conversely Venus is almost a perfect sphere what gives well when a massive celestial body like a star or planet spins quickly around its axis centrifugal force will give it a more dramatic bulge around its equator however Venus has an ultra slow rotation speed it takes the equivalent of two hundred and forty-three earth days for Venus to complete one full rotation around its axis and only two hundred twenty five earth days to finish a new lap around the Sun so in other words a day on Venus lasts longer than Vanesian year does and get this from our self centered perspective Venus spins backward word most of the planets in the solar system rotate from west to east Uranus and Venus Buck that trend on those two worlds the sun appears to rise in the West and set in the East nobody knows how that came to pass. Astronomers think Venus us to move in a counterclockwise direction like Earth but at some point it's been I have reversed alternatively perhaps the sun's Gravitational influence or a collision with a large object caused the entire planet to flip upside down in December of nineteen sixty two Venus became the first planet to get a fly by visit from a manmade spacecraft exploiting brief window of opportunity NASA's Mariner two probes studied this world up close from distances as near as twenty one thousand miles that's about thirty four thousand kilometers onboard instruments taught us a great deal mariner two firms that Venus does not have an earth like magnetic field and it recorded surface temperatures within the expected range a young Carl Sagan helped design the mariner to probe yes successfully lobbied to have the space craft fitted with a camera because close up pictures of Venus might quote answer questions that we were too dumb to even pose by the time Mariner to launched scientists already knew that there were high levels of carbon dioxide in the vision atmosphere and that composition should give us pause carbon dockside makes up a whopping ninety six percent of Venus's atmosphere scientists attribute this to a runaway greenhouse effect theoretically the planet used to have a more temperate climate that could have remained stable for billions of years back then oceans of liquid water may have covered its surface though we don't know for sure things changed as are growing son became hotter any oceans would have evaporated during this time astronomers think much of the carbon dioxide invasion rocks leached out and traveled guy word while the atmosphere changed it got better at trapping heat creating a vicious cycle that worsens the problem inevitably temperatures spiked and stayed since our own planet has a major greenhouse gas problem Venus could offer us important insights regarding climate change but sending probes to explore it has always presented major challenges on Venus the surface gravity is comparable to what you and I experience on earth what's not comparable is that atmospheric Asher which is ninety two times greater on the face of Venus than it is here faced with extreme temperatures and high pressure it's no wonder that manmade objects don't last long long in the planet's environment when the Soviet venire thirteen probe landed on Venus in Nineteen eighty-two it stayed intact for record setting one hundred and twenty seven minutes before it was destroyed mind you this wasn't the USSR's first Rodeo previous Venero spacecraft's successfully visited the planet's atmosphere and touched down on its outer crest brief though their visits were these probes captured the first ever photographs of the Venetian surface Nasr's Magellan spacecraft provided further insights has it mapped ninety eight percent of the planet's face all in all Venus boasts more than sixteen thousand volcanoes and volcanic features but we don't know of any these are still active highland plateaus deep canyons and meteorite impact craters have also been discovered there although Venus's about four point six billion years old crest is thought to be much younger with an estimated age of just three hundred to six hundred million years Venus lacks tectonic plates as we know them on earth nonetheless Sunday August think that upwelling magma occasionally recycle sections of the crust long before it was an object scientific study or of Edgar Rice burroughs. goals Venus mesmerized our ancestors bright and beautiful the cloud adorned planet derives its name from the Roman Goddess of love into mathematicians mapped it's progress across the sky and Galileo took detailed notes about its moon like phases somehow knowing that Venus is a stifling hot house doesn't diminish its allure with every new discovery inspires curiosity aw
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on Invention
"Herd. You might well require a dependable road to connect winter and summer grazing lands. And indeed we see examples of this in the cannot realists in Spain. These are Drovers roads covering some one hundred twenty five thousand. Kilometers. Another example of the w-. The Welsh roads of England that linked Scott at Scotland and Wales to London markets, again, just moving domesticated animals from one place to another. Yeah. Roads are necessary for the development of trade. And in many ways, you could say for the development of culture. I mean, almost everything that we think of in culture comes alternately from the connections of people's to each other. You know, the meeting of different minds across distance, and that's all enabled by roads and trade. Yeah. And even though a lot of these roads change over time, obviously. And you don't find a lot of path that remained in use for extended periods of time. But deduc-, these wonderful examples of some of these pathways particularly in North America and Britain, where just they've have centuries of of where and tear, and they've essentially become a little trenches just from all of the foot traffic, and that is pretty amazing. Yeah. Though, the Roman roads were dug out to begin with I believe or at least some of them. I'm were right. Like they would dig down a trench in a way to become the road. Oh, yeah. And that's where we're getting in really into the serious construction of roads in alternately. That's what we need to talk about at this point is when when you start constructing a road, it's not merely. Well, we should move those goats from from here to there enough times that there's a best way to do that. No, what happens when we get into the idea of of planning a road manufacturing, reinforcing, caring and maintaining it when we start asking that question. Well, lay says, quote, the creation of major lowland ways required a degree of engineering skill organization that began to develop around four thousand BC he points out that the oldest British quote planned and engineered pathways date back to Glastonbury UK thirty three thousand BC and good local roads ultimately helped the Britain's defeat the Roman legions and fifty five the enough..
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Menu
"There are more than ten thousand kilometers between the Philippines and the British Council, but this did not still shot from opening Amazon's Filipino Dorsey always cream Pala in London, Camden town shop selling cheese, ubaid flavor. Ice cream turned out to be a success. Brompton. The onus opened a new venue in China sound these September amid rising bubble Zeo Filipina queasy in Omaha, sales, Monaco's on a chevette ska about the importance of ice cream fulfill Pinos and food that brings back childhood memories. Yes. I took a little trip outside for the beans and came back. There's nothing like this UK maybe the rest of the world. I mean the the only access we get ice cream in living growing up as a London is does on your Filipino festivals, could body fiesta held in house low London and as a kid. That's why went voice just for a scoop of ice cream. So I knew that was my generation had that kind of connection with ice cream connection with food, and I'll call fruit food. We connect to culture as of unique flavors like EBay, like kessel like wheel Bano and nothing's been done before. I mean, every every flavor we put on the menu had to have an IRA of how to have a reason why he was something from an fruit that was that relate to Philippines. So something that people able to time even like things go bond, got him onto cattleman, see made really serve as is screaming, Philippines, but it's such a great ingredient as a great flavors they use for over types of cooking and try to ask, you know, as a day and it what really well. So, I mean, Philippines has a lot of. There's so many types of ingredients which we haven't even talked to surface. Mama, sons, duty, ice creams. For a reason, it's a nickname endearing name. We give to the street vendors out there. I had one one reason why it's just nickname because it's sold on the street. You can't really get the ice cream experience outside of the street. You know, the guys will come same here. You'll have your ice cream vandal come with the little caught, push it around and scream out is screaming, sir, bets us in Ghana. So that was one reason because soda share number reason, why is apparently the the children will always their parent's money for why scream and one in a one of the the urban myths that mom's always said to the kids know ice cream just of with giving them anymore money. My is a member of the team at MoMA zones. She tells me more about one of the ice cream desserts. And is to shnell Philippine of his very poke law. The bottom has jetties some cooking strings is red beans also check for, and then we put shaved ice over evaporated milk and took over the homemade UB ice cream, then covertly, some Oreo cookies than lakes, Metra fan. Then we took over the way. There's a very textual experience on that very vibrant experiences. Well, I think of Hasha do with, you know, the type of influences we've had in the history of Philippians, you know, vis China's fluence Malaysian influence from the Spanish influence remote recently, the American infants and like in southeast Asia, textual textual element of food is a big thing. I never really appreciated annoyed these when I was younger Nile Moda accede about what goes into it and I and I missed that tick, Sean mix, a missed out flavor. When I, when I see something purple. Wow. What does that they gotta try to. So it's one of these things way. Just it brings back memories and I think now I appreciate a lot more we, we found this hundred like this really old technology. One of the first ways of churning ice cream and I enough of it is like a long vertical on that kinda breathe and make a really good machine couldn't FA six and they don't actually set it in this country make six liters at time. So a small batch wanted to find it, and it's like that like the marshalls Janata, you know, so anything to do with gelato and make into lots which is very similar. Italian will make an ice cream is very similar milk base, very, very similar to what we use in the Philippines as well what what it was..
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on C-SPAN Radio
"Late last year we learned from the supreme leader and the commander that iran had declared similar to its thought what it would never develop nuclear weapons that they would limit the range of their missiles to two thousand kilometers so guess where the negotiation with the europeans came on ballistic missiles anything over a two thousand kilometer missile tests a missile is capable of traveling farther than two thousand kilometers that would win international sanctions anything in their existing arsenal would not so around gets to keep the delivery mechanisms that michael just told you about richard goldberg with the foundation for defensive democracies with regard to inspections one of the key concerns that the trump administration has raised over and over again and several experts in the nuclear field have raised is that there is an impossibility to truly verify the without access to military sites in addition to the sites that are currently under surveillance in iran has declared it will never allow single inspector into a military sites so what are the european say okay well we agree with you we should we should strongly urge and encourage and pressure the i e eight to inspect military sites but unfortunately the i could do that today if they wanted to they could have done that for the last couple of years and from tradition and a fear of breaking down the deal those requests don't happen because they know the iranians will say no and that dynamic won't change based on the fix that was being to go she it and as we also learned last week simple warehouse that apparently was housing the entire nuclear weapons archive of iran we don't always know what we don't know and certainly the doesn't know what it doesn't know the final piece of course was on the issue of sunsets and when the deal could expire on certain key provisions that restrictor on on the enrichment side on the installation of centrifuges and on delivery of arms import of arms and this is a key issue for the trump administration and it's a key issue for around because for iran and for obviously for.
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on Flash Forward
"So this episode is about a future in which a huge underwater volcano erupts breaking the surface of the ocean forming new island and generally wreaking havoc this episode was suggested by listener and longtime friend of the show charlie lloyd and in fact while this might seem far fetched it's actually not at all there are tons of volcanoes underwater so on earth there are over sixty thousand kilometers of mid ocean ridges and they're really just a long line of all keynes's so it's the largest volcanic chain of mountains on the planet but we don't see it because it's underwater my name is tracey greg and i am an associate professor of geology at the university at buffalo in buffalo new york and my area of expertise are volcanic eruptions and i have studied them everywhere from the moons of jupiter to the bottom of the ocean so there are sixty thousand kilometers of mid ocean ridges which is the equivalent of over thirty seven thousand miles for those of us still imprisoned by the imperial system to put that into context these comference of the earth is just under twenty five thousand miles so there is enough mid ocean ridge to circle the earth one and a half times approximately and along all of those thousands and thousands of miles of mid ocean ridge there are volcanoes and those while knows are actually erupting all the time we just never know about it on land scientists use high tech monitoring systems to detect volcanic eruptions before they even happen we listen for earthquakes that are i say listen there's subsonic we can't actually hear them but we have instruments that can feel the vibrations caused by magma molten rock moving underground and that's a much better signal that something's happening than than our is so on dry land there are.
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe
"Yeah that's that's that's deeper than than they thought it could be so so then from there once you know how deep it probably is then you calculate okay how big is this is this weather that's orbited that essentially you know flying around jupiter these amazing speeds and they figured that that this this weather this this atmospheric weather around jupiter is one percent of jupiter's mass so one percent okay that doesn't sound like a lot necessarily but that is three earth math masses so just as a roy number that's a huge it's just a huge amount of mass and ben if you compared to earth i mean earth has a tiny atmosphere that's only one millionth of the mass of the earth so so so the ratio of earth's atmosphere to earth masses tiny compared to what we're talking about jupiter one percent and then so then so now we can imagine that you've got this atmosphere this weather happening on the outside of jupiter that goes down three thousand kilometers at least two at the bottom of that when you traveled to the bottom of that than the rest of the planet behaves essentially like a solid and so it's really neat it's not you know it's not a salad as you know it it's it's kind of liquid like mixture of hydrogen and helium but it rotates like regular solid and so now that we have this most basic of pictures of what the what uber has made of you've got this you've got this huge core type area that's that's rotating as a solid and then you've got like three thousand kilometers of basically weather atmosphere then then we could also extrapolate to other gas giants like like saturn like neptune like other guess giants and elsewhere in the solar system and you can kind of it could help us figure out what's going on with them if they have kind of a similar setup so so that's it about about the interior of jupiter the other thing that really caught my attention where the cyclones have you guys heard about those.
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on Rosewood Church Sermons
"Maybe it was just a couple of weeks ago i was told about vehicle with only twenty five thousand kilometers was just under four years of age and i went and picked it up got some information on and i went to pick it up to try it out you know test drive and also see if i could park it where we live and so on and one of the unique things about this vehicle some of you might be very acquainted with this what are the unique things is it has a lane departure safety system i don't know what the full official name of it might be but it's something like that anybody know what do they call it lanedeparture send us as you probably know this lanedeparture in other words it basically it basically let you know that when you're driving especially on the highway if if you're not in the middle of the lane on the highway four one for instance if you're getting too far to the left to for the right there is a flashinglight a light comes on a late starts the flash away to basically warn you that hey you're getting off track you're not you're not proceeding fully the way you should be and then what i also discovered was that this vehicle this vehicle had what i think is called a blind help me out bill ebbs what is it all right i just want to see if you're thinking this morning yes blind spot detector or something like that and and i heard i heard that this thing called the blind spot detector if you go to make for example if you're in highly for one and you go to make a left change to go into the left lane and there's a car that right beside you then you don't see i heard that this safety the safety feature will actually start to be pat you so of course i took to the the crowd on how we four one and i thought let me just this out because these new features have been kind of a new to me although some of you have probably been exposed more to them already so i took it on the highway and i thought wow isn't this isn't this wonderful uh from a safety viewpoint now i want you to know normally when i'm driving i stick.
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on AP News
"Two complementary devices designed to deliver high resolution images from an orbit a thirty six thousand kilometers the agency says if the tests are successful the next stage would be a space mission it's the first time europe and china have worked together to test and build an instrument current satellite systems are unable to gather the temperature and humidity data needed to accurately monitor storms the tropical cyclones in the northwest pacific known as typhoons pose a serious threat to china and other countries in the region each year the remind actually be some good mosquito in miami that are killing off bugs that spreads eka and other viruses miami dade county mosquito control has been releasing nonbiding male mosquitoes infected with a naturally occurring bacteria and they'll make with wild female mosquitoes the bacteria are not harmful to humans but they will prevent any mosquito offspring from surviving to adulthood during a sixmonth field trial approved by the epa more than half a billion of the mosquitoes bread by mosquito mate will be released in a suburban neighborhood near the university of miami for now it's just a test in the lab mosquitoes won't replace now let the pesticides sprayed from airplanes during the 2016 zico outbreak fans of game of thrones can't spend the night in a specially made hotel dedicated just two the hbo tv show but they have to be stonecold ban through think game of thrones is really really cool the hotels above the arctic circle and kill the finland and it's made entirely of ice the hotel has the blessings of the shows producers because they're involved it it's part of an annual snow village in lapland and ice than snow construction project for those fans who find true love in the arctic circle the hotel also has a chapel for weddings the game of thrones aycell tell stays open until april and the management suggest that guest stay only.
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on AP News
"Two complementary devices designed to deliver high resolution images from an orbit of thirty six thousand kilometers the agency says if the tests are successful the next stage would be a space mission it's the first time europe and china have worked together to test and build an instrument current satellite systems are unable to gather the temperature and humidity data needed to accurately monitor storms the tropical cyclones in the northwest pacific known as typhoons pose a serious threat to china and other countries in the region each year apples banking on a tax break to build a new corporate campus entire twenty thousand us workers the announcement came less than a month after congress approved a sweeping overhaul of the us tax code besides dramatically lowering the standard corporate tax rate the reforms offer a one time brake on cash held overseas apple plans to take advantage of that it will bring back most of its roughly two hundred fifty two billion dollars in offshore cash generating a tax bill of about thirty eight billion dollars apple ceo tim cooke is now delivering on a longtime promised to bring back most of the company's overseas cash if the taxes on the money were slashed apple just spent an estimated five billion dollars building a headquarters in california it plans to announce the location of a second campus devoted to customer support later this year building a second hollywood sign is being suggested as a way to cut down on traffic congestion in los angeles one of the suggestions from a study seeking ways to ease frustration about traffic was to build a second one on the other side of the hill since locals and tourists alike appreciate the worldfamous sign the los angeles times has a few of the other ideas being offered include a shuttle to bring visitors to trails near the sign and an aerial tram to offer birds i've use.
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on AP News
"Designed to deliver high resolution images from an orbit a thirty six thousand kilometers the agency says if the tests are successful the next stage would be a space mission it's the first time europe in china anna have worked together to test and build an instrument current satellite systems are unable to gather the temperature and humidity data needed to accurately monitor storms the tropical cyclones in the northwest pacific known as typhoons pose a serious threat to china and other countries in the region each year boston celtics great and hall of famer georgia white has died a piece mike rossi reports along with his two rigs white was also the mvp of the 19th seventy six nba finals light played ten seasons for boston winning two and be a championships he also played for the golden state warriors and the kansas city king's before retiring in 1980 one white averaged eighteen point one points for the 1974 celtic's championship team a star collegiately at kansas white was a member of the gold medalwinning us olympic team and 1968 joe joe white was seventy one i might rossio the eyecatching new us embassy in london his opened despite president trump thing it's too expensive and poorly located the building sits in the formerly industrial nine elms neighborhood in south london the old embassy building was solves and a likely get turned into a luxury hotel well it would have cost the us hundreds of millions of dollars to upgrade security at the older building and bring it up to modern safety standards still trump tweeted last week he wouldn't come to london to open the new embassy because it represented a poor investment trump blamed his predecessor former president barack obama four the expense of new embassy in his angry tweet but the embassy was a project a former president george w bush and was announced in october of two thousand eight these are processing was beginning at the new embassy in a soft roll out about fifty applicants were process tuesday the embassy initially planned to process two hundred people per day for the rest of the week but double that figure to four hundred.
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on AP News
"Complementary devices designed to deliver high resolution images from an orbit of thirty six thousand kilometers the agency says if the tests are successful the next stage would be a space mission it's the first time europe and china have worked together to test and build an instrument current satellite systems are unable to gather the temperature and humidity data needed to accurately monitor storms the tropical cyclones in the northwest pacific known as typhoons pose a serious threat to china and other countries in the region each year clearly loads could become a neverending process for customers with their quick turnaround in high interest rates and that was a piece mike ross reports obama era rules put in place to protect consumers may soon be repossessed by the trump administration hay day lending rules enacted last year are being reconsidered and could be repealed by the consumer financial protection bureau which the trump administration took control of late last year after a court battle in november obama appointee richard cord race stepped down as cfpb director and appointed leandre english deputy director effectively putting her in charge but president donald trump but white house budget director mick mulvaney in charge in a move ultimately upheld by a federal judge the cfpb was created by the obama administration in july 2011 in the wake of the banking scandal that spawned the great recession mike rossio washington thank you for listening to the ap radio network hey did you know that the associated press produces newsrelated books the latest installment is first cut first cut brings t moments in presidential pet history to life than the vast keith photo collection highlights include checkers the dog that was the focal point of nixon's 1950 to checkers speech and the clintons beloved cat socks first ted is perfect for animallovers and his rebuffed of all ages first peta's available on kindle look and ibooks ap radio news i'm tim mcguire congress continues to struggle.
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on AP News
"Devices designed to deliver high resolution images from an orbit a thirty six thousand kilometers the agency says if the tests are successful the next stage would be a space mission it's the first time europe and china have worked together to test and build an instrument current satellite systems are unable to gather the temperature and humidity data needed to accurately monitor storms the tropical cyclones in the northwest pacific known as typhoons pose a serious threat to china and other countries in the region each year a collision involving a movie vessel last year killed seventeen sailors laid piece mike rowse her reports now five officers are facing charges connected to their death the navy has charging to ship commanders and three other officers with negligent homicide for involvement in two navy ship collisions that killed a total of seventeen sailors last year in june the destroyer uss fitzgerald struck a commercial ship off japan killing seven us sailors in august the destroyer uss john s mccain collided with an oil tanker off singapore killing tenuous sailors among those being charged are commander brice benson who commanded the fitzgerald and commander alfredo j sanchez who commanded the mccain charges will be presented to an thirty two hearing to determine whether the accused will be taken to trial in a court martial mike rossio washington thank you for listening to the ap radio network hey did you know that the associated press produces newsrelated books the latest installment is first cut first cut brings t moments and presidential history to life through the vast eight t photo collection highlights include checkers the dog that was a focal point of nixon's 1950 tim checkers speech and the clintons beloved cat socks first had is perfect for animal lovers and his rebuffed of all ages first peta's available on hindle look and ibooks ap radio news i'm tim mcguire congress continues to struggle.
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on Baseball Tonight with Buster Olney
"What if i told you that you can ordinary people can be on top of the world a team of women gets underway the ethic events you will take the never thousand kilometers of hazardous ice it's firms of miles of the firm's for them and so i find myself moved into this water and then sinking seeking up to bring them i honestly honesty through i was going to die in the arctic only thirty for 30 podcast subscribe now in the east be an app or apple podcast thirty for 30 mug as is presented by meaning we're finding the best sports stories for you right now and to do that were behind the wheel of a new many countries the biggest yet perceived the find great sport stories is to get out in the world and follow your instincts that's where the new mini countryman's all wheel drive comes in hand with all four we can chase down a story in the city the country in most places in between no matter what story you're chasing the new mini countryman we'll help you find it it's available now and so we're thirty for 30 podcasts please call podcast this is the baseball tonight podcast four wednesday november verse two thousand seventeen combustion only our producers josh maccari every day and josh this is in game 7 today after the dodgers winning game 6 on tuesday night and i thought george springer had a great observation after the astor's lost the dodgers in game six give a lesson to george spring are talking about a game seven i don't ever think you your practice as a kid playing and three four or five games in the world series it's it's it's always in seven and and you know this i know we lost but this is this is awesome to to to have a um a chance to to come out here again and and we'll see what happens.
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on The Right Time with Bomani Jones
"What if i told you that he can ordinary people can be on top of the world blessed attempt on the north pole team of women gets on with the ethic eventual take the never thousand kilometers of hazardous ice for instance of miles of pearl's multiple and so i found myself wolf into this water annoncing simply up to my won't i honestly honestly thought i was going to die in the mountain the all new thirty for 30 podcast subscribe now in the easy an app or apple podcast thirty for thirty podcast as his presented lightening were finding the best sports stories from right now and to do that were behind the wheel of the new many countries the biggest persons the find great sports stories if the get out in the world and following your instincts that's where the new mini countryman's all wheel drive comes in hand with all four we can chase down the story in the city the country in most places in between no matter onestorey you're chasing the new many countryman will help you find in it's available now and so we're thirty for thirty podcasts welcome to the right time podcast the right time with go jones ladies and gentlemen welcome to the right time my name is beaumont he jones thanks for listening on espn radio in the espn app we are presented by progressive insurance says the tweeted 1800flowerscom twitter feed that is at vaal monte underscore jones path is came out on top of the patriots this weekend pages lost two games at home all red d they do not lose a lot of games at home they lost to daves at home already cam newton had looked pretty lacklustre through this season you could attributed to recover from the injury whatever it else he had not looked good he threw an awful interception in the first half of this game like if whole our plant status though i have no reason to believe necessary that that was his play but he did not look good there and then act daddy was pillow pillow pillow film do they were on it on it pages defense whack.
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Smith iran sensitive successfully tested his new khorramshahr ballistic missile it was unveiled at a military parade in tehran on friday and his head to have a range of two thousand kilometres of khorramshahr missile was launched in general but blew up in midflight china has tightened sanctions on north korea announcing an immediate end to textile imports and the gradual hutu exports of oil products in line with new un sanctions thousands of people in puerto rico have been evacuated from their homes near a dam which has been breached off two days of heavy rain the structure is said to be in imminent danger of collapse that the evacuation zone has no be narrowed an african american woman who played a key role in the us space program has opened a new space was says center named after her in virginia katherine johnson a mathematician now aged ninety nine helped to ensure the success of some amasses most important missions including the 19th sixty nine moon landing chancellor merkel anti main rival in sunday's german election martin schulz to make their final appeals to voters the people of new zealand's have voted in a general election with prime minister bill english fighting to stay in office after closelyfought campaign opinion polls had put mr english of the conservative national party neckinneck with his challenger to send their artem neto charged with the centreleft labour party last month a student has been rescued in indiana and the united states after being left behind by fellow members of the pothole in club and spending nearly three days trapped in a cave lukaskenko survive by licking moisture from the cave walls is no known why he became separated from his colleagues and the rocha experience companies holding a huge public sale today of costumes used in productions going back twenty years the are sec says it's running out of storage space bbc news ooh will not be constrained by mastery and mastery comes got of love a non beater his wings and farewell he's gone love is a thing as any.
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Are based in tokyo india has tremendous needs to overhaul its venhuizen sort of jagged into the kind of modernity that we've seen china's gene we develop what would the last decade or so china already lead down twenty two thousand kilometers of highspeed shack in the last decade india has yet to start but it has great ambition and you've already got plans to lay down around ten thousand kilometer cuts that this is a very lucrative opportunity and japan is not the only one best interest stay china has also been and i thought now that european companies have also been interested in many of the feasibility study is the fact that japan has snagged the very first bullet chained homebuyer and that by bullet qari doll is quiet who fought tokyo not just an economic colbert a geostrategic one given that there is this competition with china in a juice strategic aspect to it does japan expect to make money as well and giving india very generous and favourable financing for into the projects should be costing around seventeen billion us dollars and japan is i think giving a soft loan that will cobble almost eighty percent of aid to wake up fifteen ahmad victoria monte inland since the line so in many ways i am i expect that they do hope to make money off of it in the long term but it has a significance that cia thin jeff the economic in many ways it could have amplify the growing closeness between the two countries at the time when both of them are struggling to find their footing in asia and that is increasingly being redraw i am ascendant china i think are some are there are concerns a bit about different cultures things like punctuality absolutely ah and i'm not surprised in many ways you know you can't imagine tool well culture that are as different as the japanese nb indians we have our country very much i'll i'll one regarded you which is improvisisation method of dealing with last minute changes and as an of living in chaos the japanese tend to be very ruled bound for extremely pouch ya are now which is something that indians are not they must fall so there are bound to be cultureclash is this.
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on WCHS
"Out ten thousand kilometers that means from north korea they could hit most of the united states seattle los angeles denver new york probably even washington dc joe sheeran's zuni president of the global security foundation ploughshares fund i would expect that by the end of donald trump's first term they will have the confirmed bility to hit the united states with a thermonuclear warhead the us will take all necessary steps to ensure the security of the american homeland and protect our allies in the region was a statement from president trump president will sign the bill slapping tougher sanctions on russia north korea and iran says a statement from the white house president trump may have talked to police officers today on long island new york but asking congress for more money to hire more immigration police but it's this remark that's getting noticed who police officials mr trump telling officers please don't be too nice when handling prisoners like when you guys put somebody in the car and you're protecting their head you know the way you put the hand of like don't hit their head and they've just kill somebody donate dad i said you could take the hand away okay suffolk county police tweets that the department has strict rules and procedures relating to the handling of prisoners and that as a department it does not and will not tolerate roughing up with prisoners rights priebus being replaced as white house chief of staff by general john kelly who will quit being homeland security secretary priebus this is not like a situation where there's a bunch of ill will feeling other health care rope form plan discussed by republican senators with president trump today we'll give money to the states to do their own thing south carolina senator lindsey graham who was at the meeting wall street had a mixed day you're listening to abc news prices offer base buildings will include windows accessories economic recovery we've all been waiting for his final here stocks are soaring and construction spending across america has been on the rise if you've been waiting to build the time is now whether you want to expand.
"thousand kilometers" Discussed on KSFO-AM
"One thousand kilometers from where he was standing it was an unprecedented event north korea had just run its first simulated nuclear attack on an american military base the scene from march six described in government propaganda shows how the north seemingly crazy suicidal nuclear program is neither crazy nor suicidal rather this is north korea's very deliberate strategy to ensure the survival of its ruling regime back in the days of kim ilsung north korea's eternal president and kim daejung whose grandfather the ruling regime decided it needed to things to survive reliable longrange missiles and small but potent nuclear warheads for small and relatively poor country that was indeed a distant and very ambitious goal but it detonated its first nuclear device october ninth two thousand six today north korea is testing advanced ballistic missiles faster than ever a record twenty four last year and three in just the past month still forget for the moment how radic kim john thune and his generals may seem north korea conducted two nuclear tests last year one was the strongest nuclear device it ever detonated and the other pyongyang claims of its very first h fought the us for its part is also escalating in an explicit warning to pyonyang it successfully shut a target icbm launched from the pacific island out of the sky with a californiabased interceptor missile on tuesday the question is this if war breaks out and north korea launches of preemptive nuclear strike on an american military base in japan for real would the us recoil and retreat put it strike back and risk losing washington dc in a second wave of nuclear attacks for pyongyang's forcing washington to seriously way that calamity is the win and it may become a real world possibility on president.