22 Burst results for "Thirty Million Years"
The Most Distant Black Hole Ever Seen
"Astronomers of sudden you record for the most distant quasar ever found the quasar dating back some thirty point one. Three billion years is a thousand times more luminous than the milky way galaxy and is powered by the earliest known supermassive black hole a true monster more than one point six billion times. The mass of the sun the newly discovered quasar jazeera three one three minus eighteen o six and reported in the physical journal letters and on the pre press physics website archive dot. Org doesn't just provide new insights into the evolution of massive galaxies in the universe. It also raises profound questions. About how such massive black holes could have existed just six hundred thirty million years after the big bang. And that's a point underlined by the study's lead author for enjoying from the university of arizona. Who says black holes created by the very first massive stars simply could not have grown that large in only a few hundred million years the most distant quasars a crucial for understanding how the earliest black holes formed and for understanding cosmic realization the last major phase transition of the universe from the cosmic dark ages before the first stars quasars a powerful jets of mass and energy generated by black holes feeding on surrounding material as matter falls into a black hole it forms an accretion disc around the black hole event horizon a point of no return beyond which material falls forever into the singularity a place of infinite density and zero volume scientists understanding of the laws of physics breaks down material on the creation disc is ripped apart of the subatomic level by friction and gravitational forces releasing huge amounts of energy radiating out across the electromagnetic spectrum. The amount of energy emitted by quasars is enormous with massive examples such as this one being visible right across the entire universe. J zero three one three minus eighteen. O six was first spotted in data from the pan stars new kurt hemisphere survey with follow up specter from the keg in north telescopes to measure the size of its central supermassive black hole measurements from spectral lines that originate from the guests around the quasars. Accretion disk allowed astronomers to determine the black mass and study its rapid growth influences. Its environment for such distant. Quasars important spiritual lines are red shifted to knee infrared wavelength by the physical expansion of the universe over the past thirteen point eight billion years. The and jim nine north observations and covered an extremely fast emitting from the quasar in the form of high-velocity winds travelling at twenty percent the speed of light the energy released by such an extreme. I city flow easily. Large enough to impact star formation in the entire quasars galaxy as for the galaxy itself. Well it's undergoing a spirit of star formation producing you stars two hundred times faster than the milky way the combination of this intense star formation a luminous quasar and the high velocity outflow makes jazeera three one three minus eighteen. O six antos galaxy a promising natural barberie for understanding the growth of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies in the early universe.
Scientists Have Found Some Truly Ancient Ice, But Now They Want Ice That's Even Older
"It's chilly across the country today. Highs of just fifty eight in miami and sixteen in minneapolis which makes minnesota colder than an arctic as mcmurdo station but the cold weather doesn't last forever in the twin cities and in antarctica. It does ice their last hundreds of thousands even millions of years and as npr's nell greenfieldboyce reports that makes an arctic the perfect place to find some of the oldest ice in the world. Just how old is the oldest ice. On earth john higgins says. Nobody really knows you know. Would i be surprised at this point. We had five million-year-old is i mean. I'd be surprised. But not it's not unfathomable i think he and some colleagues recently collected ice samples in antarctica. That were later analyzed and shown to be as old as two point six million years. It's beautiful stuff when you pull out. The is it. Essentially as crystal clear accepted filled with tiny bubbles the bubbles contain air from when the ice formed and this trapped air is what scientists are really after higgins says if you want to understand how gases like carbon dioxide have affected the climate throughout history. You know you can't really do better other than getting a time machine and going back in time and taking an air sample then using these ice cores which physically just trap samples of ancient air to release that ancient air. All you have to do is melt the ice. That's the sound of a research camp manager in antarctica making drinking water by melting scraps of two hundred thousand year old ice in a metal pot to actually collect an analyze the release gases however ancient is has to melt in a lab. Sarah shackleton studies old princeton where she gets to watch the trapped air bubble out and that is something that i don't know if i'll ever get sick of watching. It's actually like pretty mesmerizing and one thing. That's released surprising every time to muse. Just how much gas is actually in the ice. She says it's a lot and samples from time. Periods undergoing past climate changes could be used to help make predictions about the future. One of the biggest questions in terms of kind of the modern warming and look anthropogenic. Climate changes helmich warming. Do should we expect with the amount of co two that we have in the atmosphere now. Antarctica has been covered by an ice sheet for at least thirty million years. But it's actually pretty hard to find really old ice. John gooch is a geologist. At the university of minnesota he says while snowfalls constantly add new layers of ice to the top of the ice sheet the oldest layers at the bottom can disappear. That's because of geothermal heat coming up from the ground so the rocks are giving off heat of slowly over time and so that has the potential to melt ice at the bomb. Still bits of super old ice like that two point six million year old sample can sometimes be preserved at the ice sheets edges the older snippets of ice. That we've been able to find come from places where the ice has flowed up against a mountain range and been exposed at the surface in those spots though. The ice can be all jumbled up and messy. It's not nice layers that have been laid down sequentially over a long continuous stretch of earth's history to get a neatly layered ice sample like that. Scientists need to drill straight down through the thick icesheet so far the oldest ice collected that way goes back eight hundred thousand years. Gooch says the goal now is to drill down a couple of miles to reach ice. That's older a million to two million years old whether or not we'll be able to find it at the bottom of the ice sheet where we can recover a relatively simple continuous record. Is i guess. That's the sixty four thousand dollar question at team from china has drilling underway a group from europe. We'll start in november. What everyone wants is i-i samples that cover a key time period about a million years ago. When there was a dramatic shift in the planet cycle of ice ages. Those had been coming every forty thousand years or so but for some reason that pattern ended and it changed to every one hundred thousand years instead unto us working on climate. That's a really big deal. Eric wolf is a climatologist with the university of cambridge in the united kingdom. It's a really big question as to why that change is fundamental tower climates. Work in a way you could say. We don't really understand today's climate. If we don't understand why we live in one hundred thousand year will draw the forty thousand year world. The coronavirus pandemic basically ruins the arctic research season. That would've been happening now but starting next fall researchers will be backed down there searching for really old ice nell greenfieldboyce npr news.
Flight Lines: The Heroic Story of Two Migratory Shorebirds
"Have someone sitting opposite me just twitching to tell his story. The book is flat. Lines and the author is Andrew Dobson Andrew. Welcome to three C- I thank you. David I'm curious about the would twitching. I haven't really made a close study of twitching despite writing. This book. Twitching is a word that is used by dedicated. Some say obsessive Burgers and sometimes they detractors to Indicate their preoccupation with finding the next bird. An observing bird minded research. Because it's not actually mentioned in the book the twitching behavior of Howard Medhurst who was one of the leading birdwatchers in the nineteen fifties and sixties. But this book in other words is about birds or in particular one species of birds the grey plover a daoist wallflower of the shorter dance. It spreads thinly around the world's margins and is often overlooked. What's the fascination with the Gripe Lot? Well let's start by working our way towards the bird from what we are. Probably the closest bird that we know to this is the masked left wing. It's often colder plaza. But it's sexually left wing but that's what we know as a plot now go through that gate and think about the kinds of things that the left wing does transfer them to the tidal flats of the world the far-flung tidal flats of the world. And there's this small bird not much begun a blackbird gray when it's out of the breeding grounds highly colored up when it gets to the breeding grounds and it is commonly found with others in the group of Long Distance Flying Margaret lowrie shore. Birds the ultramarathons birds. Now when you say ultra-marathon sort of distance are we talking so the two birds that I particularly follow which were satellite tag in South Australia and flew north on the first flight. Each of them flew over the entirety of Australia of Indonesia the Philippines to land one of them in Taiwan and the other in southern China so each of them took a nonstop flight of more than seven thousand kilometers. Just to give us a sort of indication in layman's terms. When you're holding this bird. How much are you holding? Well you're holding about a cup of sugar not a big white. You're holding something that really can be quite placid in the hand. Despite its wildness. And you're holding. I guess the promise of many generations of optic life birdlife and they transcend boundaries in many ways in the journey. We've got apple tree boundaries as people on borders and they bicycling cross all of those hemispheres international borders and such like. It's it's quite a phenomenal feet. If you want to get carried beyond the trivialities of human life like borders then migratory long distance migratory birds are a really good way to start because there will pass through the margins of many countries but is not off one eye and they have total disregard for human borders. Now one of the things that the book sort of touches on as you look this journey other various forms of tagging that have occurred or the ability to follow from banding to rocket nets and now two satellites. The satellites would give you an inordinate amount of opportunity to try and be particular about what you say quite revelatory. They are Give you almost near real time information. About where on the planet this bird is and what it's doing even because if you have a lucrative say on a breeding ground you'll see it move from point to point to point as it fades and then goes back to the central point which is the nest So yes it can be unrivaled information and It really is hugely illuminating. As opposed to the banding which was more happenstance abandoning as the book suggests started in the lighting hundreds. But that would rely on. Someone actually catching the Buddha game. We'll exactly Either catching the again or killing it or finding a dead. The doyen of Australian Migratory Schubert's studies like Clive Minton when he lived in England. Has I band on? A migratory shortbread was on a lovely good coach spotted. Red Shank and he was really pleased to have it in hand really priest to put the band on it and some weeks later he got the band back because it had been shot by the mayor of putting your in France who returned the band with the address on to Clive. Now a couple of things fascinated me about. The birds are reading this book. I'm the song lines. There's a connection here with an indigenous song. Lawn is moving up. Moving from group to group and changing as guides and there's an equivocal mention of what the birds was well yes we'll I'm careful to not impose my description on indigenous cultures. But I hope that I have drawn out of the records of indigenous couches The great variety of names. This bird has as it travels not just from Australia. But through China up to Siberia and across to North America where? It's pretty circum Paula. It has a series of lovely nines. And the they are run there are really illuminating series. Too you know they describe often. I described the bird by its phonetic. Call sometimes they describe it by its coloring in Alaska where I went It was cold emphatic. And that means the scorched bird. But so there's a similarity through the sort of landscape in many ways. Yes depending on which part of the world now for such a fragile creature. They are quite a number of threats in this day and age the threats for the gripe the mind well. We've got a bird here. That has persisted down through evolutionary generations for about one hundred and thirty million years so it's not easily removed from the face of the earth. But while it's doing well other others. In the group of long distance migratory shore birds are not doing so well And as a whole the contracting in numbers. I'm this four that have been listed on Australia's critically endangered list in recent years. Because of the problems they face pardon the analogy but the canary in the coalmine. Well certainly you know I think migratory shore birds. We Stu people generally in Australia particularly and when we look at the coasts we should think about the health of Alco spy. The prison or absence of birds like
How Did the Ancient Land Blob Called Gondwana Become Today's Southern Continents?
"Lauren Bogle bomb here sometimes. Good Science Science can happen just by looking at a map of the world and letting your mind wander for instance observe how Africa and South America seemed to have been very recently cuddled together even though there are currently a couple of thousand miles of ocean between them similarly Madagascar fits perfectly into a little nick in the eastern edge of Africa and the Middle East seems seems to be pulling away from the top of Africa like a corner being pulled off of a hot cookie with a reasonably good representation of the shape and arrangement of the world's continents in front of them. Anyone could easily assess the earth's land masses have definitely been speaking around the name for the southern landmass that once was is Gondwanaland and also known as Gondwana but it wasn't just the shape of the continents that clued researchers into its former existence. They've also looked at similarities. Among plants and animals that live across the modern separate continents from those clues. Gondwana was an idea long before anybody figured out how or why. It worked the secret of course being plate. tectonics and idea that didn't really start gaining steam. Until the mid twentieth century but a nineteenth century Austrian geologist named Edward Seuss put a name to the concept of the supercontinent in his book. The face of the earth the first volume of which was published in eighteen eighty. Three SEUSS didn't come up with many completely novel ideas ideas. But he did a great job of synthesizing. A bunch of the research of the day to conclude that the southern continents and landmasses we now know as South America Africa Arabia India via Sri Lanka and Madagascar had at one point in time been connected because one well just look at them and two. They contained the same rocks and the same fossil's from an extinct feathery leafed tree called gloss of terrace Austria and in Arctic. Oh would be added theory. Thirty years later Gondwana on what was named for a densely forested region of central India where the first fossil evidence of the supercontinent was found in the nineteenth century. WanNa is a word for forest in Sanskrit and the guns are tribe that European explorers. I found living in the region. Even though we now know a lot about the mechanism by which Gondwana China was formed. It's extremely complicated and still being investigated. There's at least one. Peer Reviewed Scientific Journal devoted entirely to the study of the supercontinent. It's it's called appropriately Gondwana research however. There are a few things that we're pretty certain of I got Wada wasn't built in a day. The the making of Gondwana was a long process. Most likely through three major mountain building events driven by the movement of Earth's tectonic plates we spoke spoke via email with Joseph Merit professor in the Department of Geological Sciences. At the University of Florida he explained during the interval from about six hundred fifty to five hundred in fifty million years ago. Various pieces of Africa and South America collided along an ancient mountain chain called the Brazilian belt slightly older but overlapping with the Brazilian. Oh seven seven hundred and fifty to six hundred and fifty million years. AGO is the east African Oregon or Mozambique Belt that resulted from the collision between East Africa and Madagascar India Tree Lanka and parts of East Antarctica. The final collision was along the Kouanga Oregon between all those assembled pieces and the rest of Antarctica and Australia between five five hundred eighty and five hundred and thirty million years ago so it was a couple hundred million years of extremely slow continental car wrecks the created this Beta Ada version of Gondwana. But it wasn't done yet later about three hundred million years ago other landmasses join forces with it to form the giant ball of land. We now no no as Panja. But one continent rule them all couldn't last and sometime between two hundred eighty and two hundred million years ago. Hingis started started disintegrating as magma began pushing up from beneath the mega supercontinent creating rifts in the land that would later become seafloor as Penn.. Jia cracked the top part was pushed to the north creating the continent Laura Asia and Gondwana headed south back when Gondwana was just a baby supercontinent between five hundred and fifty and four hundred eighty five million years ago it hosted some of the very first complex life forms like trial abides bracket pods but since it continued to exist I didn't the drastic period lots of plant and animal. Evolution went down there merit said Gondwana contains evidence for evolutionary changes in the very first complex complex animals. The very first fish amphibians and reptiles the most famous fossils are the gun doina flora such as the loss of terrace fern a freshwater reptile called. Messo Soroush Soroush in a land. Reptile called Lyster Soroush Gondwana existed as a single landmass for more than three hundred million years because of its humongous assize by covered an area of one hundred billion square kilometers or about thirty nine billion square miles and because the continents moved a lot during that time Gondwana experienced many different climates said during the Cambridge. When Gondwana I formed the earth and Gondwana were in a greenhouse state in the late order vision? Four four hundred fifty million years ago gun was moving over. The South Pole and the climate was very cold. Gondwana continued to move through variety of latitudes and depending on where you are located hated. The climate might have been quite warm or more temperate. The continent was so large. That one part of Gondwana might be located at the quarter while another might be located at the poll. It's true it would have been cool to see Gondwana in its prime and although you won't personally get to see its victorious return. That doesn't mean that it's not possible. Possible the continents are always moving and scientists have a lot of ideas about what our next supercontinent is going to look like.
"thirty million years" Discussed on KQED Radio
"I spent most of her career trying to capture the attention of monkeys not because she's especially excited about monkeys didn't come to this walk after a childhood of being obsessed with curious George now nori is fascinated by humans there's no way to study what makes human special if you only study humans you actually have to turn to all the other critters in the animal kingdom monkeys are really important population because they can tell us the kinds of things that are unique to the human species you can get very valuable information by comparing monkey mines with human minds doing this can help us distinguish between things in our heads that are the product of nature from things in our heads that are the product of nature you know we have lots of human culture we have lots of human teaching you know for really looking for the pure things that the human mind has in the absence of those different processes it's not great to study adult humans now presumably it would be easier if you could actually eight study human ancestors if you could go back and and look at you know human beings who lived a seven hundred thousand years ago but but they're not around anymore to run research experiments yeah that's the joke you know we you know we come undergrad study pools to see if there are any under falls are home where acticin up there if you fantastic to study them but but honestly for many of the things that we've been studying you know these basic aspects of social cognition or these basic aspects of decision making these are capacities that are old enough that you might expect them to be shared with our common ancestor with rhesus monkeys say and so in some ways for the particular cognitive capacities were studying you know it's good to kind of rewind the evolutionary tape as it were as far back as we can in some way starting the monkeys then becomes a form of building a time machine does it not it really is and it's worth knowing that were not directly studying human ancestors know these monkeys have also been evolving for around thirty million years as humans have been evolving here so that the best time machine would be to go back and study that ancestor directly but we can't do that but they're they're pretty good proxy in the sense that you know they've had a different kind of environment when we see capacities that are shared and monkeys and humans it really gives us a glimpse that that's a capacity that really is evolutionarily old I want to get your experiments in a moment but just being on this island is apparently revealed all kinds of similarities between humans and other animals one problem you have to guard against on the island is unethical behavior tell me about the monkey thieves that you've encountered on kind of Santiago well as in you know this kind of sad to admit that you're getting ripped off by monkeys but happens more than you think on the island you know they're they're wily creatures who are often pretty hungry and humans have backpacks filled with things like lunches and delicious fruit objects for studies and so on and one of the big inspirations for it to some of the work we are trying to do on on deception and kind of how monkeys think about other mines came from this active staffed on behalf of one of the monkeys we were running a study about number where you're showing monkeys different numbers of objects and there is one research day that we actually had to go home from the island early because the monkeys had ripped off all of the fruit we were using to display the numbers in the study and I think that's really on that boat ride home that I started thinking you know they're they're doing this in a successful way you know it's not just that we're we're done researchers and they get out smart us they're specifically trying to steal from us when we're.
"thirty million years" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Is our modern theory of gravity and how it works and built into the equations of relativity are exactly the gravitational waves that we're talking about a gravitational wave is basically a ripple in space caused by a massive disturbance and they're a really big deal because they allow us to see back in time and even unlock some of the mysteries of the origins of our universe so for example one huge collision that was detected in two thousand seventeen it was a collision that happened a hundred and thirty million years ago far outside of our galaxy out there in the darkness. there are these two really wonderfully strange objects each of them is a failed star a star that has lived its life and blown off its outer core and collapsed leaving behind only an incredibly dense mass of neutrons and the key thing here is that when they start out as a as a you know an honest to god star these are huge young big box of stars just really ravenous lead you know eating through their nuclear fuel and then by the end of their life there are these dying hoax these little racks up but not just any dying rack they're incredibly dense so as they get smaller smaller and spend off the last remaining little ounces of whatever's left the club down and form a neutron star with nothing but neutrons and nothing to cook and so there are these final coals of the fire of an earlier Star City certain that the embers of two stars hang out hundred thirty million years ago the galaxy and. what happened these two coals find each other and. and as the orbit each other they slowly slowly get closer and closer and the reason they get closer itself is really cool. they get closer and closer because they're moving through something space itself and as they move through space the scent of ripples in that space. and those ripples we call gravitational waves. the spread out like waves in a pond if you throw a rock in and as the spread out. the Kerry way energy just like a wave in upon carries away energy. and because that energy is going away. those two neutron stars fall closer and closer and closer together. so as those to get closer and closer and start revolving around each other faster and faster with every revolution they start pushing off sending off more waves like someone putting their hands through upon and those waves spread out and as the go faster and faster as the two neutron stars go around each other faster and faster the wind that they send out get bigger and bigger and stronger and stronger until finally the two neutron stars collide. and what happens is when the most spectacular events we know in the universe a huge set of waves is launched out into space in every direction and it will continue moving at the speed of light all the way across the cosmos and nothing nothing can stop the gravitational wave wow so that collision happened a hundred and thirty million years ago the waves from it didn't reach earth until August seventeenth twenty seventeen.
"thirty million years" Discussed on KQED Radio
"Is our modern theory of gravity and how it works and built into the equations of relativity are exactly the gravitational waves that we're talking about a gravitational wave is basically a ripple in space caused by a massive disturbance and they're a really big deal because they allow us to see back in time and even unlock some of the mysteries of the origins of our universe so for example one huge collision that was detected in two thousand seventeen it was a collision that happened a hundred and thirty million years ago far outside of our galaxy out there in the darkness. are these two really wonderfully strange objects each of them is a failed star how star that has lived its life and blown off its outer core and collapsed leaving behind only an incredibly dense mass of neutrons and the key thing here is that when they start out as a as a you know an honest to god star these are huge young big box of stars just really ravenous lead you know eating through their nuclear fuel and then by the end of their life there are these dying hoax these little racks up but not just any dying rack they're incredibly dense so as they get smaller smaller and spend off the last remaining little ounces of whatever's left the clamps down and form a neutron star with nothing but neutrons and nothing to cook and so there are these final coals of the fire of an earlier Star City certain that the embers of two stars hang out hundred thirty million years ago the galaxy and. what happened these two coals find each other and. and as the orbit each other they slowly slowly get closer and closer and the reason they get closer itself is really cool they get closer and closer because they're moving through something space itself and as they move through space this enough ripples in that space. and those ripples we call gravitational waves. they spread out like waves in a pond if you throw a rock in and as the spread out. the Kerry way energy just like a wave in upon carries away energy. and. because that energy is going away. those two neutron stars fall closer and closer and closer together. so as those to get closer and closer and start revolving around each other faster and faster with every revolution they start pushing off sending off more weeks like someone putting their hands through upon and those weeds spread out and as they go faster and faster as the two neutron stars go around each other faster and faster the wind that they send out get bigger and bigger and stronger and stronger until finally the two neutron stars collide. and what happens is one of the most spectacular events we know in the universe a huge set of waves is launched out into space in every direction and it will continue moving at the speed of light all the way across the cosmos and nothing nothing can stop the gravitational wave wow so that collision happened a hundred and thirty million years ago the waves from it didn't reach earth until August seventeenth twenty seventeen.
Illinois denies permit for concert hosted by R. Kelly over protest concerns
"Of wrongdoing. A new museums being unleashed New York. AP's Warren Levinson reports it's one that invites visitors to come sit and stay the American kennel club's museum of the dog which opened in New York in nineteen eighty two and decamped to the Saint Louis area. A few years later is back reopening next month in Manhattan. The museum will feature dog paintings dog sculpture, a thirty million year old dog fossil and a device that will. Show you what breed you look like one thing it won't have actual living breathing dogs. We're an office building. If we had too many that might be a little bit of the noise factor. That's mainly concerned about executive director. Alain fossil says some dogs will be brought in for special occasion exhibits. Warren Levinson, New York. Missing teen is back home. I'm Tim Maguire AP news minute thirteen year old Jamie cloths abducted last October from her Wisconsin home after her parents were killed has been reunited with relatives in Barron. Wisconsin Barron county sheriff Chris FitzGerald says the twenty one year old Jake Paterson had no known contact with the close family before the attack. We don't believe there was a social media connection. And we're determining how he became aware of Jamie the girl escaped yesterday from the cabin where she had been held in a rural area near the town of Gordon at some sixty miles from baron Patterson as a court appearance on Monday, partial government, shutdown likely to be the longest in US history. President Trump's softens is pushed to issue an emergency declaration to take the wall funding issue out of the hands of congress the absolute right to do it. But I'm not gonna do it so fast because this is something congress should do some eight hundred thousand federal workers are affected by the
"thirty million years" Discussed on Data Skeptic
"You could say that colonies are intelligent in that they can adjust to changing conditions and do a lot of complicated things, but really it's not a matter of intelligence. It's. Matter of how all of those very simple interactions in the aggregate producing outcome, and that's very analogous to computer. Yeah, there's certainly an emergent property to it when these simple procedures kind of fit together very well, I guess, would it be fair to say then that ant behavior is really more the product of evolution than of learning? Well, absolutely, yes. So the algorithms these simple rules that answer using are the product of Lucien. So what's evolving is the way that the rules that put together simple actions produce some outcome in the behavior of the colony. And that's what natural selection acts on. So do ans-. I know they specialize to some degree in tasks. Are they able to improve and learn something about their task over their lifetime? Well, first of all, they don't specialize this much as people may think. I know it's part of the popular version of aunts that each ant has its job. You know, in the movie aunts, each larva is assigned. Task at birth by bureaucrat with a clipboard, but in fact, and do move from one task to another early on in many species. And of course we don't know what goes on in most species, but the ones we do know about the ants work inside maybe taking care of the other younger and the juvenile forms, the larvae and the pupae when aunt is young and later in its life, it moves to work outside the nest into forage. An aunt moves through a series of casks, but to get back to your question, we don't really have any evidence that an aunt gets much better at a task by doing it with the not being specialist. The way popular opinion seems to have formalized. How does that determine if and when they should switch their task? Again, they seem to use the rate of encounters we to experiments in which we change the need for ants performing some task, an answer, switch tasks in response. It seems as though when there's some condition that creates a need from our aunts, maybe the answer meat for. Example more and doing cleanup work, and there's some positive feedback on that. So answer more likely to switch when they meet other doing a certain task. Probably the rules for switching task depend on encounter rate, and we have found that for some tasks in some species. We don't know yet if that's generally true, but it looks like it maybe. Yeah, that's another great point. I mean, ants seemed to be a pretty diverse label. Can you talk a little bit Texan omically about the amount of species there are and the diversity and Evelyn path they've taken? Yes, there are fourteen thousand species of ants that have been named so far. There are probably many going extinct in the tropical forest as tropical forests are being cut down while we're having this interview. So we don't know how many there are. There are probably many more species in that they've been around for about one hundred and thirty million years and they're very, very diverse. So there are aunts that live in every conceivable habitat on earth. They're everywhere. And they make a living in all kinds of amazing ways..
"thirty million years" Discussed on Spoilt Milk Movie Podcast
"Them view them tell me how would you never just stab at them with large needles i guess that brings i don't know i anyone to look tar degrades they are cool as f i have never heard of these all this pink one oh looks like a monkey pitches of him this could have some todd degrades on you right now in stock dot smallman that you would never see them i think you can maybe see i think that know how execs mobile i'm sure you do need imax see raving about them but you don't know i come home moving on interesting scientific facts i bring you fucks every week good fox's lobster factors i feel so bad about the brain visa been around long than the dinosaurs vote down that fact five hundred and thirty million years old i feel like that's the kind of ship if we found life on mars or another planet school alien i is going to be right okay so i'm going to go an altar i would want to be an too warm because i mean they've just case the best time and carry the young on them which is find really funny but the mobile yet look into alters all phony they love to chat which is yeah almost website is talking about good about autism woman's supachai and this around the night thanks the proper dix i watched a program news one of these like zoo programs and the autism enclosure with another animal can't remember something like.
"thirty million years" Discussed on News 96.5 WDBO
"Espn for some birds in particular a lot of woodpeckers several types i've had all four species of woodpecker on my on my feet or at one time and i really quite an amazing bird you open your book with this chapter burge the dinosaurs that made it what does that mean well consensus and science these days is that dinosaurs evolved to become the birds that we see flying around our feeders or flying in the sky those are the dinosaurs that survived a hundred and twenty or thirty million years of evolution and so when you look out your window and seeing a bird you can realize that one many years ago it was probably a lot bigger and a lot more of a predator than it is now tell us about hummingbirds and the magic of flight hummingbirds are some of them way as little as two paperclips they can flying for hours their default is to fly they don't like to rest they like to keep going and they can fly upside down and backwards and the people here in montana at the university study them and put them in wind tunnels where they crank up the wind to about thirty miles an hour as they feed which keeps him in place and they can take photos of them are videos and understand how it is they can perform this miracle of flight and then they can use that that study to kind of design new aircraft because hummingbird can do things that we have not come close to being able to do we may think that our airplanes and jets and so on or you know sophisticated technology but as one of the scientists i interviewed said you know a bird can go from forty miles an hour two zero and land on a cat tale it's waving in the wind and we have nothing that comes close to that so they're still looking at birds to learn more about flight now i want you to tell us about canaries and black backed woodpeckers and you call them birds is flying sentinels philipson i'm all ears on this one okay well canaries were used the used to take them into the the minds and wales and even in the us you're and.
"thirty million years" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"And they're a really big deal because they allow us to see back in time and even unlock some of the mysteries of the origins of our universe so for example one huge collision that was detected in two thousand seventeen it was a collision that happened two hundred and thirty million years ago far outside of our galaxy out there in the darkness are are these two really wonderfully strange objects each of them is a failed star how star that has lived it's life and blown off its outer core and collapsed leaving behind only an incredibly dance mass of neutrons and the key thing here is that um when they started out as us as a you know an honest to god star these are huge young big bucks of stars just really ravenous lee you know eating through their nuclear fuel uh and then by the end of their life there are these dying hulks these little rex up but not just any dying rack their incredibly dense so as they get smaller as more and spend off the last remaining little ounces of whatever's left they collapsed down and form a neutron star with nothing but neutrons and nothing to cook and so there are these final coals of the fire of an earlier star cities are bit the the embers of two stars hang out higher in thirty nine years ago the galaxy m what happened these two kohl's find each other and orbit and as the orbit each other they slowly slowly get closer and closer and the reason they get closer itself is really cool they get closer and closer because they're moving through something space itself and as they move through space they sent off ripples in that space and those ripples we call gravitational waves these spread out like waves in a pond if you throw a rock in and as they spread out they carry way energy just like a wave and upon curry's way energy and because at energy is going away those two neutron stars fall closer and closer and closer together so as those to get closer and closer and start revolving around the cia other faster and faster with every revolution they start pushing off sending off more waves like someone putting their hands through upon.
"thirty million years" Discussed on Houston We Have a Podcast
"Question for a scientist answer because you know truth be told were all paid to pursue our hobbies and so we all have our own hobbyhorses say it as i as i mentioned um you know my particular interest sarin ignace processes i mean you know when the earth moon mars asteroids i i like uh uh magnetic rocks and you know i couldn't tell you why just the way i am uh on so one of the things one of the things it's very curious about asteroidal ignace rocks is that asteroids were melted very early in the solar system probably within a couple million years of the formation of the earliest known solids in the solar system so something had to heat up relatively small objects may be a few hundred dick kilometers neil two hundred miles in diam earn radius something like that to the point where they were melted and then cooled down and then they comply lately shut off after that so was a very very intense heat source said acted early died out and then never came back now we think we know what what caused this um but there are a you know in the so the um uh the leading contenders radioactive heating by a very short live isotope of aluminum it has a halflife of about seven hundred and thirty million years and so and aluminum is a is a major element in in rock so if you if you uh accumulate an asteroid early enough when there is this aluminum 27 still live uh you've nieto who's you've then encapsulated a very potent heat source inside that rock and so that's what we think happened but still um e e nieto we can emit as scientists we can imagine this process going on but geology is always much more complicated than our imaginations so.
"thirty million years" Discussed on All In The Mind
"Nazarbayev and they are from either fingerprints are dna so it's been really effective for the madden hopefully it's gonna be something police departments around the world are gonna be starting to make use of so overall what is the study of facial recognition tell us more broadly about the brain well the reason i originally got interested in tastes processing is because i think it's a really great example of lease machinery that's highly specialized for particular task and that natural selection has endowed us with because of the importance of that task and so it's a great example of that the brain can be really tuned to one particular property the world that's all is designed to do in many ways similar the organs in your body that they're each specialized from carrying out a particular task and we see similar things in neurons in the brain for evolutionary important tasks the other thing that i think it makes quite clear is that even which you might think of as a fairly simple task like recognizing the face it's actually going to be dependent on a pretty calm located network of aries and so it takes a a distributed network to solve this sort of problem you can imagine and when you're talking about more complicated sorts of cognition it's going to be drawn on an even broader range of neural areas so what excites he most about future research infection recognition who good question um i'm really excited about trying to understand the amal aji between human face processing and monkeyface process in we've learned an awful lot from monkeys think they're going to teach us an awful lot more about face processing and i'm really interested in understanding how this face processing network has changed over the say twenty five thirty million years since we split off from a tax and i'm interested in understanding how it relates to the face processing systems and other primates so i think it really gives as an exciting opportunity to look at cognitive evolution.
"thirty million years" Discussed on Wow In the World
"Hundred and thirty million years ago yes game giant enormous explosion in distance space and explosion that is so far away it took a hundred and thirty million miers for us to see it here from earth now that sort of like when we were looking at the stars earlier tonight exactly we were looking at the star proximus tari and and that stars light to four years for us to see it now right because proximus and tori is a star that's about four light years away from earth which by my calculations would take us up about one hundred in sixty five fouls in human years to get to on the space shuttle wow really will yeah because we humans don't have the technology to travel as fast as light does mindy what happened two hundred thirty million years ago was so powerful so incredibly huge that that it had created a gravitational wave dressed like i'm a trampoline just like in my brown back so what caused the explosion well two giant neutron stars collided in explosions so big it's called a hill in in neutron stars are small stars but very very powerful stars so powerful men that in that moment when those two neutron stars crashed into each other it produced an explosion more powerful than all of the energy our own son could make in 10 billion years that you're talking about a gamma ray bursts that's exactly what astrophysicists believe they all witnessed and even though that explosion has long past the energy from that explosion trust reached us here on earth in 2017 dan.
"thirty million years" Discussed on Science for the People
"Out into space um and then in that in that material you start getting reactions going on where um you know these new heavy elements are being created like gold an in it that material kinda glows and you get light from that and that they detected um that lasted for for days um and you also get right after um the coalition you get a bright uh a burst of gamma rays which is a high energy light um that's very short um and happens just after they detected the the collision and gravitational waves and that uh you know when when there's a collapse into a black hole for example you might have matter that kind of uh a crease into the black hole and and creates this energetic uh late and we detect sued ver vis gravitational waves and these spurt of war in 2017 but light and waves take time to travel so this neutrons star crushes actually all the wind this really happen yeah so they a galaxy that they located this too is hundred and thirty million lightyears away so that means that actually took a hundred and thirty million years for the light and the gravitational waves to get here because both of those two signals travel at the speed of light um so it really happen one hundred thirty million years ago uh which is kind of any thought because you know we were to earth was totally different one hundred thirty billion years ago and in the time of that light was traveling you know we had life evolving into something intelligent that could conceive of what a gravitational wave was and then detected eurobonds ruin verb hundred brunner's gobert was for cretaceous um i think walls no one of the cool things that you mentioned the this observation taught us was where're precious metals like gold come from so where do they come from like howard views medals warming yes so there is innis material that gets spurted out from the neutrons star.
"thirty million years" Discussed on WIBC 93.1FM
"Radiation and that could affect life on the earth as well in fact there was one lawyer station event uh about four hundred and thirty million years ago uh quite a long time ago uh that some people think was caused by a nearby supernova uh bathing the earth in in deadly radiation just it's just not w if it's just a matter of when isn't it now we're going to get here again we think happened in the past and will certainly happen again in the future chase is for asteroids uh we hope we can find the the uh the biggest one and and see you know if they have our name on it uh maybe we could do something about it and deflect these things in some way of volcanoes in other problem because there's no way to stop of volcano from erupting uh that we know of uh and so it's a hard problem even than asteroid impact what would be more damage and asteroids that sits on land or one that hits in the ocean and let's say it's six hundred seats zia in diameter that well that's a good question uh in the ocean you would have salamis we could go out from the point of impact and if at all the coastline and so if there was a uh asteroid impact in the middle of the atlantic ocean there would be very very large denali waves all around the atlantic in addition you know these things are are very large go school water they penetrate into the cross through your below the ocean and they blow this stuff out in the eu's you use explosion and so they'll also would be material that goes up into the atmosphere uh water for one saying ordering vigo would go up there uh their be dust from the ah rocks that were crushed by the impact that would spreading around and as i said before cut out the sunlight and that is you problems for for growing seasons being lost and the uh food reserves eu's though could be the potentially largest catastrophe facing earth in national widely yeah i think the bigger asteroid something a few miles environment her you know when you're out there uh hitting the uri would cause a a tremendous catastrophe uh and that.
"thirty million years" Discussed on WCBM 680 AM
"In your category of cataclysms there are a problems with solar flares that happen from time to time and they may be in the past where much larger than ones we seen even in historic times and there's also a supernova explosions of of the sars and might be relatively nearby uh giving off a tremendous amount of radiation and that could affect life on the earth as well and in fact there was one large extinction event uh about four hundred thirty million years ago uh quite a long time ago uh that beep some people think was caused by a nearby supernova uh bathing the earth in in deadly radiation just it's just not won't w if it's just a matter of when isn't it that we're going to get hit again we think happened in the past and go certainly happened again in the future chase is for asteroids uh we hope we can find the the uh the biggest one and and see you know if they have our name on it uh maybe we could do something about it and deflect these things in some way of volcanoes is another problem because there's no way to stop a volcano from a ruck thing uh that we know of uh and so it's a hard problem even an asteroid impact what would be more damage an asteroid that hits on land or one that hits in the ocean and let's say it's six hundred feet the in diameter that what a good question uh in.
"thirty million years" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"The cavity snow we've signal arrived at those different observatories we could work backwards tweet it must have been coming for all in the sky on we could tail the signal was coming from a skied egion club thirty square to get these which as i think is the hundred twenty fool means but i would i would have to check took into the all too cowardly for you and so if the exact region of the sky can you tell how far away this is from the gravitational waves we can thought is one of the very special things the transportation of we've signal is that we get the distance to the source that is also bell entered the chart that we get this one was a four t mega par six that's eight hundred thirty million lightyears suite of course a late years the distance that light travels in a year which turned to the source was the closest source of gravitational wave cycles that we've detected so far i too far that extreme it is this just a wobble in space and it tells you about things that happened hundred and thirty million years ago and a very different we i mean graffiti were very lucky knows that we both evil to start to do astronomy with this kind of information rt to to the and this case optical intellectual nate except those that were produced when these two neutron stars collided with one another and thought putting these together putting the pieces of the puzzle together is opening up a whole new say of science studies that we can to gamma rays the highest energy form of life kicked off.
"thirty million years" Discussed on WGN Radio
"Entire thought that's a little bit more than that incredible we take a teaspoonful of this stuff weighs ways but lunches like michigan equate oh my how much rhonda how densely thing to other world in around each other credible being speed here tens of thousands of uh of locals jacket and as they do that they're gravity bends space and time and sort of as they get closer and closer to each other more and more energy has been sent out in the bend lena space imagine if you sort of there if you're orleans openinground at and that ripples at a sheet but gonna take them all the energy away and so they lose energy nice world closer close rental splendor they slammed together like a third of the speed of light just incredible speed an incredible matches two and soaps what results with explosion oh boy and this huge pole gravitational wave a good all the way here and it takes millions of years one hundred thirty million years to get here hundred thirty million years to get your and then how do we know that they should wait and now because we know how far away it is right how far away yeah so we we've measure the distance this galaxy of alerts telescopes okay optical telescopes and radio telescopes and then we measured the the gravitational waves whipped this do as they said a shakes space and everything inside space and so they shake well everything here just a tiny that and so it to her face detector the belie go in the virgo detectors are like the wolves most sensitive or graf being limping shape just a tiny tiny dead amtrak they can tell of things shaped by less than a million out which is incredible i don't believe in myself by it doesn't the earth mean i mean how how.
"thirty million years" Discussed on KFI AM 640
"Paycheck and take control of your own life become your own boss we don't has to be poor get out the surface now for uh about a decade and i have had some independent people who i think do have some genuine um i'm gonna just put it in the category of military information uh that may or may not parallel what uh people such is cory good and david wilcock uh they have been reporting information and let's just say that what is just what if there is archaeology meaning hieroglyph on dark blackstone and that doesn't exist naturally on on earth and what if it is a mile under the ice two miles under the ice we heard um the protests are being them talk about how uh maybe thirty million years ago uh there was uh not deep ice in uh a lot of antarctica well if there are structures that have been found confirmed and maybe not even entirely uh uh excavated in the sense that they might be under ice and we found them in some other way what is the true uh evolution of not just life as we think of humans but what about earth being used as a variety of bases by other intelligence is that have come through this solar system have needed something wanted something been on this planet if there is real archaeology deep under the eyes the input cajun's are that it's been there are a very long time who constructed it certainly not human humans get pushed back a couple of million years something it's thirty million years old if we would have that shown to the planet it would once and for all say that this cannot have been done by humans and therefore there must have been some things some one here who could build the in large uh let's say structures with hieroglyph and that he isn't there now it hasn't been proven but he keeps being discussed by a variety of people and that raises this big question why did buzz aldrin go to antarctica why did john kerry go there antarctica why did that uh three uh from greece go to add ardhika why has there been yeah what what is it and if there.
"thirty million years" Discussed on TalkRadio 630 KHOW
"Theorized push mc the great dario for kirch the overs the boy kim jong decides these new icbm it was just hitting like seattle san francisco he wants to hit them for because he's heard that we smoke doping denver that's evil lob would overdose at a great mushroom cloud will be absurd these windows but we'll just won't you're right here on facebook the core erlich champion predictions predicting it is in this nineteen serve the declaration that air pollution is certainly going to take hundreds of thousands of lives in the next few years alone he schedules scenario which two thousand americans who die 1973 three small disasters of new york in law saying delays warned the 1970s issue audubon ddp other chlorinated hydrocarbons by virtually reduced the life expectancy of people born to protecting 45 erlich warned that americans born in 1840 six meryl have a life expectancy of only thirty million years some people said i'm dan look there must be and he predicted give patterns continued this expectancy would lower the forty two years by 19 80 when he said the will of my level why do i say all of that because of currently at seven twenty one this morning agent kid a rhodes mass extinction why continue you're stupid show explained the bar player email we may have already entered the next period of the mass extinction of humanity the ebola believe the pending why bother with the show instead you spend the remainder what little time you have left with family and friends you're not one of those mass extinction the vet the lawyers or you well as a matter of fact a damn sure him oh energy this what we need be on satellite i wanna make fun or something like can't make fun of and why nobody make fun of it would be a big.