20 Episode results for "Ted salon"
How teachers can help students navigate trauma | Lisa Godwin
"This ted talk features educator Lisa Godwin recorded live at Ted Salon Master Class Twenty nineteen. Everyone has a story and that story is filled with chapters. That have made us who we are today. Those early chapters of that story sometimes are the ones that define us. The most. The Center for Disease Control has estimated that over half of our nation's children have experienced at least one or two types of childhood trauma that adversity can have lasting effects. When I began to have opportunities to speak advocate for students and for teachers I found myself uniquely positioned to be able to speak about childhood trauma but I had to make a decision I had to decide. Did I wanted to share the bright and shiny parts of my life. You know those ones that we put out on social media that makes us all perfect or did I wanted to make myself loanable in become an open book. The choice became very clear. In order to make a difference in the life of a child I had to become transparent so I made the commitment to tell my personal story and this story is filled with people that have loved me and taken care of Maine grown me and have helped me overcome and he'll and now. It's time for me to help others do the same. When I first started school I was. The picture of normalcy was from a good family. I was always dressed nicely. Had a smile on my face. I was prepared for school but my life was anything but normal. By this time I had already become a victim of sexual abuse and it was still happening. My parents didn't know and had not told anyone else when I started school. I felt like this was going to be my safe place so I was excited. Imagine my dismay win. I met my teacher Mr Randolph. Now Mr Randolph was not my abuser but Mr Randolph was the epitome of everything. That scared me the most in my life. I had already started these self preservation techniques to where I took myself out positions where I was going to be alone with a man and here I was as a student I was going to be in a classroom with a man every day for a year of school. How scared I didn't trust him. But you know what Mr Randolph? Turn out to be my greatest advocate but in the beginning. Oh I made sure he knew I did not like him. I was noncompliance. I was that kid that was disengaged and I also made it really hard on my parents too. I didn't want to go to school so I fought them every morning. Getting on the bus at night I couldn't sleep because my anxiety was so high so I was going into class exhausted which exhausted children are cranky children and they're not easy to teach. You know that Mr Randolph could have approached me with frustration like so many teachers do with students like me but not him. He approached me with empathy and with flexibility so grateful for that he saw the six year old tired and weary and so instead of making me go outside for recess. He would let me stay in and take naps because he knew I needed rest. Instead of sitting at the table at lunch he would come and sit with the students at the student table. He engaged me and all of my classmates in conversation are now back at. I know he had a purpose for that. He was listening. He was asking questions he needed to find out what was going on. He built a relationship with me. He earned my trust and slowly. But surely those walls that I built around myself. He started chipping away at and I realized he was one of the good guys. I know that he felt like he wasn't enough because he made the move to talk to my mom and got my mom's permission to let me start seeing school guidance. Counselor MS McFadden. I started seeing Miss McFadden once twice a week for the next two years. It was a process during that time period. I never disclosed to her the abuse because it was a secret wasn't supposed to tell but she connected the dots and no. She did because everything that she did with me was to empower me and helped me find my voice. She taught me how to use mental images to push through my fears. She taught me breathing techniques to help me get through those anxiety attacks that I would have so often and she roll plate with me and she made sure that I could stand up for myself in situations and the day came where I was in a room with my abuser and one other adult toll much. Ruth told about the abuse immediately. My abuser began to deny and the person that is close to. They just weren't equipped to handle the bombshell that I just dropped on them. It was easier to believe the abuser rather than a child so I was told never to speak of it again. I was made to feel like I had done something wrong again. It was devastating. But you know what something good came out of that day mob user knew that I was no longer going to be silent. The power shifted and the abuse stopped. Shame and fear of it happening again remained and it would remain with me many many years to come Mr Randolph and Mr McFadden. They helped me find my voice. They help me. Fan the lie out there so many kids. That aren't as fortunate as me. And you have them in your classrooms. That is why it's important for me to talk to you today. So you can be aware and you can start asking the questions that need to be asked in paying attention to the students so you too can help them find their way as a kindergarten teacher as start my year off with my kids making box biographies and I encourage them to fill those boxes with things that tell me about them and about their life. What's important to you? And how they decorate them and I mean they really take Tom. They fill them with pictures of their families and of their pets and and then I let them present them to me into the class and during that time I am an active listener because the things they say the facial expressions that they give me the things they don't say can become red flags for me and can help me figure out what their needs are. What is driving them to? Maybe have the behaviors that they're showing me in class. How can I be a better teacher by listening to their voices are so make? Tom's to develop relationships with the much. Like Mr Randolph. Did with me a sit with them at lunch. I have conversations with them on at recess. I go to their gangs on the weekends. I go to their dance recitals. I become a part of their because in order to really know a student. You've got empties yourself into their lives. Now I know some of you are middle school teachers in high school teachers. And you might think that those kids have already kind of developed in and they're on autopilot at that point but don't be deceived especially the kids that you think have it all together because those are the ones that might need it the most. If you were to look at my yearbook you would see me on about every page. Because I was involved in everything I drove a school birth so I was that kid. That teachers thought was the overachiever. The popular person. The one it together guys lost lost and I wanted to ask me. Why are you here all the time? Why are you throwing yourself into all these things? Did they ever wonder was I? Running away from someone was running away from something. Why did I not want to be in my community here at home? Why did I want to at school all the time? No one ever asked now. Don't get me wrong. All overachievers in your schools are not victims of abuse or trauma. But I'm just want you to take the time to be curious. Ask them why you may find out that there is a reason behind it. You could be the reason that they move forward with their story. Be careful not to assume that you already know the ending to their story. Don't put a period where seamy colon should be. Keep that story going and help them know that even if something has happened to them that their life is still worth telling. Their story is for telling now in order to do that. I really feel like we have to embrace our own personal stories as educators. Many of you might be sitting there and thinking. Yeah that happened to me. But I'm not ready to share and that's okay. The time will come when you will feel it inside your soul that it's time to turn your past pain into purpose for the future. These children are our future. I just encourage you to take it day by day. Talk to someone be willing and just open. My life story came full circle in the spring of two thousand eighteen where I was invited to speak to a group of beginning teachers and mentors. I shared my story much like today with you. And afterwards I had a lady approached me. She had tears as she quietly said. Thank you thank you for sharing. I cannot wait to tell my dad everything that I heard. Today she must have seen the perplexed. Look on my face because she followed up by saying Mr Randolph is my dad and he often wonders. Did He make a difference today? I get to go home and tell him. You've definitely made a difference. What a gift. What a gift. And that prompted me to reach out miss McFadden's daughter as well and to share with her. What an impact Miss McFadden had made and I wanted her to know. I have advocated for more funding for guidance counselors for school social workers for psychologists for nurses because they are so vital to the mental and physical health of our children. I'm thankful for Miss McFadden. I heard someone say in order to find your way out of the darkness. You have to found the light today. I hope that you've leave this place and you seek opportunities to be the light for not only students but for adults in your your classrooms in your schools in your communities you have the gift to help someone navigate through their trauma and make their story worth telling thank you.
Our immigration conversation is broken -- here's how to have a better one | Paul A. Kramer
"This ted talk features historian writer and professor of history. Paul a Kramer recorded live at Ted Salon border stories. Twenty nineteen eighteen. Hello there it's Chris. Anderson hosted the Ted Interview. PODCAST next episode. I get to speak with these. Celebrated novelist awfullest suffolk leaf edges assault become more engaged citizens overall. What I believe in sincerely is I think faith is is way too important to leave to the religious and patriotism is way too important to leave it to the nationalists. Just like the tech world is way too important to leave to take one okay. Lease and politics is way too important to leave the politicians in all these fields. We can become more engaged. Citizens Subscribe to the view on Apple. PODCASTS spotify all wherever you listen. We often hear these days that the immigration system is broken. I want to make the case today that our immigration conversation is broken broken and it suggests some ways together. We might build a better one in order to do that. I'm going to propose some new questions about immigration the United States and the world questions. That might move the borders of the immigration debate. I'm not going to begin with the feverish argument that we're currently having even as the lives and wellbeing of immigrants are being put at risk at the US border and far beyond it instead of going to begin with me in Graduate School in New Jersey in the mid nineteen ninety s earnestly studying US history. Which is what? I currently teaches a professor at Vanderbilt University City in Nashville Tennessee. And when I wasn't studying sometimes to avoid writing my dissertation my friends and I would go into town to hand out neon colored flyers protesting legislation that was threatening to take away. Immigrant's rights are flyers. Were sincere here. They were well meaning. They were factually accurate. But I realize now they were kind of a problem. Here's what they said. Don't take away. Immigrant rights is to public education to medical services to the social safety net. They work hard. They pay taxes they're law abiding the US social services less than Americans do. They're eager to learn English and their children serve in the US military all over the world world now. These are of course arguments that we hear every day immigrants and their advocates. Use them as they confront those who would deny immigrant's rights or even exclude them from society and up to a certain point. It makes perfect sense that these would be the kinds of claims. These immigrants defenders would turn to but in the long term and maybe even in the short term I think. These arguments can be counterproductive. Why because it's always an uphill battle to defend yourself on your opponents terrain and unwittingly the handouts that my friends and I were handing out on the versions of these arguments. That we here today. We're actually playing. The Anti Emigrants Game. We were are playing that game in part by envisioning that immigrants were outsiders rather than as. I'm hoping to suggest in a few minutes people that are already in important weighs on the inside. It's those were hostile to immigrants the nativist who have succeeded in framing the immigration debate around and three main questions. First there's the question of whether immigrants can be useful tools. How can we US immigrants. Will they make us richer and stronger. The nativist answer to this question is no immigrants. Sprints have little or nothing to offer. The second question is whether immigrants are others can immigrants since become more like us. Are they capable of becoming more like us of capable of simulating are they willing to assimilate here again. The nativist answer is no immigrants are permanently different from an inferior to us and the third question is is whether immigrants are parasites. Are they dangerous to us. And we'll they drain our resources here. The natives answer is Yes yes and yes. Immigrants pose a threat and they sap our wealth I would suggest that these three questions and the nativist animus behind them have succeeded in framing the larger contours of immigration debate. These questions are anti immigrant and nativist at their core built built around a kind of hierarchical division of insiders and outsiders us and them in which only we matter and they don't and what gives these questions traction and power beyond the circle of committed nativist is the way that they tap into an every day seemingly harmless sense of national belonging an activated heighten it and inflaming nativist latest commit themselves to making stark distinctions between insiders and outsiders but the distinction itself as at the heart of the way nations that define themselves the fissures between inside and outside which often run deepest along the lines of race and religion are always there to be deepened and exploited and that potentially gives natives approaches resonance far beyond those consider themselves anti immigrant and remarkably even among some who consider themselves pro immigrant so for example when immigrants allies. Answer these questions. The nativist opposing. They take them seriously. They legitimate those questions and to some extent the anti anti immigrant assumptions. That are behind them when we take these questions seriously without even knowing it or reinforcing. The closed exclusionary. Mary borders of the Immigration Conversation. So how did we get here. How did these become the leading ways that we talk about immigration here. We need some backstory. Which is where my history training comes in during the first century of the US's status as an independent nation it did very little to restrict immigration at the national level in fact many policy makers and employers worked hard to recruit immigrants to build up industry and to service settlers to seize the content but after the civil war nativist voices rose rose in volume and empower the Asian Latin American Caribbean and European immigrants who Doug Americans canals cook their dinners fought their wars and put their children to bed at night were met with a new an intense Zeno phobia which cast immigrants as permanent outsiders who should never be allowed to become insiders by the mid nineteen twenties twenties? The nativist had one erecting racist laws. They closed out untold numbers of vulnerable immigrants and refugees immigrants and their allies did their best to fight back but they found themselves on the defensive caught in some ways in the nativist frames when nativist said that immigrants were useful their allies said yes they are when nativist accused imigrants of being others their allies. Promise that they would assimilate when nativist charged that immigrants were dangerous parasites their allies emphasizes their loyalty. Their obedience their hard work and their thrift. Even as this advocates welcomed immigrants many still regarded imigrants as outsiders to be pitied to be rescued to be uplifted. Lifted and to be tolerated but never fully brought inside as equals in rights and respect after. World War Two and especially from the mid nineteen sixty s until really recently immigrants and their allies turned the tide overthrowing join mid twentieth century restriction and winning instead a new system prioritized family reunification the admission of refugees and the admission of those with special skills but even then they didn't succeed in fundamentally changing the terms of the debate and so that framework endured award ready to be taken up again in our own convulsive moment. That conversation is broken. The the old questions are harmful and divisive. So how do we get from that conversation to one. That's more likely to get us closer to a world that is fairer that more. Just that's more secure. I want to suggest that we have to do is one of the hardest things that any society can do to redraw the boundaries of who counts of whose life whose rights and who's thriving thriving matters we need to redraw the boundaries. We need to redraw the borders of us in order to do that. We need to I take on a worldview that's widely held but also seriously flawed according to that worldview there's the inside of the national boundaries inside the nation which is where we live work and mind our own business and then there's the outside there's everywhere else according to this worldview when immigrants cross into the nation. They're moving from the outside to the inside but they they remain outsiders any power or resources. They receive gifts from US rather than rights. Now it's not hard to see why this is such a commonly held world view. It's reinforced in everyday. Ways that we talk and act and behave down to the bordered word maps that we hang up in our schoolrooms. The problem with this world view is that it just doesn't correspond to the way the world actually works and the way it has worked in in the past of course. American workers have built up wealth in society but so have immigrants particularly in parts of the American American economy that are indispensable and we're few. Americans work like agriculture. Since the nation's founding Americans had been inside the American workforce of course Americans have built up institutions in society that guarantee rights but so of immigrants. They've been there. During every major social movement civil rights and organized Labor that have fought to expand rights in society for everyone so immigrants already inside the struggle for rights democracy and freedom and finally Americans and other citizens of the global north haven't minded their own business and they haven't stayed within their own borders. They haven't respected other nations' borders. They've gone out into the world with their armies. They've taken over territories of resources and the extracted enormous profits from many of the countries. That immigrants are from in this sense. Many immigrants are actually already inside American power with this different map of inside and outside in mind. The question isn't whether receiving countries are going to immigrants in there already in Dan. The question is whether the United States and other countries are going to give immigrants access to the rights and resources that their work their activism awesome and their home countries have already played a fundamental role in creating with this new map in mind. We we can turn to a set of tough new urgently-needed questions radically different from the ones. We've asked before questions that might change. The Borders of immigration debate are three questions are about workers rights about responsibility and about out. Equality I we need to be asking about. Workers Rights how existing policies make it harder for immigrants workers to defend themselves and easier for them to be exploited driving down wages rights and protections for everyone when immigrants are threatened with roundups detention and deportation their employers know that they can be abused that they can be told that if they fight back they'll be turned over ice when employers know so that they can terrorize an immigrant with his lack of papers. It makes that worker hyper exploitable and that has impacts not only for immigrant workers but for all workers second we need to ask questions about responsibility or rule have rich powerful countries like like the United States played in making it harder impossible for immigrants. Stay in their home. Countries picking up and moving from your country is difficult and dangerous but many immigrants simply do not have the option of staying home if they want to survive wars trade agreements and consumer habits rooted in in the global north play a major and devastating role. Here what responsibilities do the United States European Qian Union in China. The world's leading carbon emitters have to the millions of people already uprooted by global warming in the third. We need to ask. Questions about equality. Global inequality is a wrenching. Intensifying problem income and wealth off gaps are widening around the world increasingly. What determines whether you're rich or poor more than anything else is what country you're born in which might seem great eight if you're from a prosperous country but it actually means profoundly unjust distribution of chances for a long healthy fulfiling life when immigrant send money or goods their family. It plays a significant role in narrowing these gaps. If a very incomplete point. It does more than all the foreign aid programs in the world combined. We began with the nativist questions. Things about immigrants as tools as others and as parasites where my these new questions about worker rights about responsibility and about equality. Take us these questions. Reject pity. And they embrace justice this these questions reject nativist nationalist division of US versus them. They're going to help. Prepare US for problems that are coming and problems alums like global warming. That are already upon us. It's not going to be easy to turn away from the questions that we've been asking towards this new set of questions chance it's no small challenge to take on and broaden the borders of us it will take wit inventiveness business and courage. The old questions have been with us for a long time and they're not going to give way on their own and they're not going to give away overnight and even if we manage to change the questions. The answers are going to be complicated and they're going to require sacrifices and trade offs and in an unequal equal world. We're always going to have to pay attention to the question of who has the power to join the conversation and who doesn't but the borders of the immigration debate eight can be moved. It's up to all of us to move them. Thank you for more. Ted Talks to Ted DOT COM.
What baby boomers can learn from millennials at work -- and vice versa | Chip Conley
"This Ted talk features, hospitals, entrepreneur, and author chip Conley recorded live at Ted salon, Verizon twenty eighteen. This TED talks daily episode is brought to you by Mariot hotels. Discover what happens when ideas have a place to grow together Mary at hotels and Ted are inspiring new perspectives through curated. TED talks available at Mariot hotels around the world stream talks and other original Ted content on your favorite devices and spark your next big idea while on the road. It was my third day on the job at a hot Silicon Valley startup. In early two thousand thirteen. I was twice the age of the dozen engineers in the room. I've been brought into the company because I was a seasoned expert in my field. But in this particular room, I felt like a newbie amongst the tech geniuses. I was listening to them talk and thinking, the best thing I could do was be invisible. And then suddenly the twenty five year old wizard leading the meeting stared at me and asked if you ship to feature and no one used it, did it really ship. Ship a feature in that moment. Chip knew he was in deep ship. I had no idea what he was talking about. I just sat there awkwardly and Mercifully. He moved onto someone else. I slid down in my chair and I couldn't wait for that meeting to end. That was my introduction to Airbnb. I was asked and invited by the three millennial co-founders to join their company to help them take their fast growing tech startup and turn it into a global hospitality brand as well as to be the in house mentor for CEO Brian chessy. Now I'd spent from age twenty six to fifty to being a boutique hotel entrepreneur. And so I guess I learned a few things along the way and accumulated some hospitality knowledge. But after my first week I realized that the brave new home sharing world didn't need much of my old school bricks and mortar hotel insights. A stark reality rocked me. What do I have to offer. I don't. I never been in tech company before five and a half years ago. I had never heard of the sharing economy, nor did I have an Uber or lift app on my phone. This was not my natural habitat. So I decided at that moment that I could either run for the hills or cast judgment on these young geniuses, or instead turn the judgment into curiosity and actually see if I could match my wise is with their fresh eyes. I fancied myself a modern Margaret need amongst them Eleni ELS. And I quickly learned that I had as much to offer them as they did to me the more I have seen and learned about our respective generations. The more I realize that we often don't trust each other Nuff to actually share our respective wisdom. We may share a border, but we don't necessarily trust each other enough to share that respective wisdom. I believe looking at the modern workplace, the. That trade agreement of our time is opening up these intergenerational pipelines of wisdom so that we can all learn from each other forty percent of us. Almost forty percent of us in this in the United States have a boss that's younger than us. And that number is growing quickly. Power is cascading to the young like never before because of our increasing reliance on d q. digital intelligence. We're seeing young founders of companies in their early twenties scale them up to global giants. By the time they get to thirty. And yet we expect these young digital leaders to somehow miraculously embody the relationship was Dems. We older workers have had decades to learn. It's hard to microwave, your emotional intelligence. There's ample evidence that gender an f.. Ethnically diverse companies are more effective, but what about age? This is a very important question because for the first time ever we have five generations in the workplace at the same time unintentionally, maybe it's time we got a little bit more intentional about how we worked collectively. There have been a number of European studies that have shown that age, diverse teams are more effective and successful. So why is it that only eight percent of the companies that have that have a diversity and inclusion program have actually expanded that strategy to include age as just as important of a demographic as gender or race. Maybe they didn't get the memo. The world is getting older. One of the pair of paradoxes are times as baby boomers are more vibrant and healthy longer into life. We're actually working later into life, and yet we're feeling less and less relevant. Some of us feel like a carton of milk and old carton of milk with an expiration date stamped on our wrinkled foreheads for many of us. In midlife, this isn't just a feeling. It is a harsh reality when we suddenly lose our job and the phone stops ringing for. Many of us justifiably. We worry that people see our experience as a liability, not an asset. You've heard of the old phrase or maybe the relatively new phrase sixty is the new forty physically right? When it comes to power in the workplace. Today. Thirty is the new fifty. All right. Well, this is pretty exciting, right? Truthfully power is moving ten years younger. We're all gonna live ten years longer do the math society has created a new twenty year irrelevancy gap midlife used to be forty five to sixty five. But I would suggest that now stretches into a midlife marathon forty years long from thirty five to seventy five. But wait, there is a bright spot. Why is it that we actually get smarter and wiser about our humanity? As we age our physical pique, maybe our twenties, our financial and salary peak, maybe age fifty, but are emotional. A peak is in midlife and beyond because we have developed pattern recognition about ourselves and others. So how can we get companies to tap into that wisdom of the midlife folks just as they nurture their digital. A young geniuses as well. The most successful companies today and in the future will actually learn how to create a powerful alchemy of the two. Here's how the outcome worked for me at Airbnb. I was assigned a young smart partner who helped me develop a hospitality department early on Laura Hughes could see that I was a little lost in this habitat. So she often sat right next to me in meetings so she could be my tech translator, and I could write her notes and she could tell me that's what that means. Laura was twenty seven years old. She works for Google for four years, and then for a year and a half at Airbnb, when I met her like many millennial of her cohorts, she had actually grown into a managerial role before she'd gotten any formal leadership training. I don't care if you're in the BBC world. The beat a SeaWorld SeaWorld are the eight zero world businesses fundamentally h. two h.. Human to human. And yet Laura's approach to leadership was really formed in the technocratic world, and it was purely metric driven. One of the things you said to me in the first few months is I love the fact that your approach to leadership is to create a compelling vision. The becomes a northstar for us. Now my fact knowledge as in how many rooms made cleans in an eight hour shift might not be all that important in a home sharing world, my process knowledge of how do you get things done based upon understanding the underlying motivations of everybody in the room was incredibly valuable in a company where most people didn't have a lot of organizational experience. As I spent more time at Airbnb, I realized it's possible a new kind of elder was emerging in the workplace. Not the elder of the past who actually was regarded with reverence. No. What is striking. About the modern elder. Is there relevance their ability to use timeless wisdom and apply it to modern day problems? Maybe it's time we actually valued wisdom as much as we do disruption, and maybe it's time not just maybe it is time for us to definitely reclaim the word elder and give it a modern twist. The modern elder is as much an intern as they are a mentor because they realize in a world that is changing so quickly there beginner's mind and their catalytic curiosity is a life-affirming. Alexa, not just for themselves, but for everyone around them. Intergenerational improv has been known in music and the arts think Tony Bennett and lady Gaga or Winton Marcellus and the young stars of jazz, this kind of business. This kind of riffing in the business world is often called mutual mentorship, millennial de cue for gen-x and boomer e q. I got to experience that kind of intergenerational reciprocity with Laura and our stellar data science team when we were actually remaking and evolving the Airbnb, peer to peer review system, using Laura's analytical mind and my human centered intuition with that perfect alchemy of algorithm and people wisdom, we were able to create an instantaneous feedback feedback loop that helped our hosts better understand the needs of our guests. High-tech meets high touch at Airbnb. I also learned as a modern elder that my role was to intern publicly and mentor. Privately search engines are brilliant giving you an answer, but a wise sage guide can act off you just the right question. Google does not understand at least not yet nuance like a finely attuned human heart and mind over time to my surprise. Dozens and dozens of young employees at Airbnb sought me out for private mentoring sessions. But in reality, we were offering often just mentoring each other in some CEO. Brian chessy brought me in for my industry knowledge. But what I really offered was my well earned wisdom. Maybe it's time we retire the term knowledge worker and replaced it with wisdom orcre. We have five generations in the workplace today, and we can operate like separate isolationist countries or we can actually start to find a way to bridge these generational borders. And it's time for us to actually look at how to change up the physics of wisdom. So. It actually flows in both directions from old to young and from young to old, how can you apply this in your own life personally? Who can you reach out to to create a mutual mentorship relationship and organizationally? How can you create the conditions to foster an intergenerational flow of wisdom? This is the new sharing economy. Thank you. For more TED talks go to Ted dot com.
The secrets of learning a new language | Ldia Machov
"I'm elise, Hugh. Ted Talks Daily today learning foreign languages seems like one of those things that some people can do really well, and for the rest of us is a hopeless pursuit, I tried learning Korean when I lived in Seoul and after three years, I can still barely order at a restaurant in this Ted Salon talk from two. Thousand. Eighteen polyglot language mentor, Lydia, Machava who speaks eight foreign languages, shares, her secrets, and those of other folks who can learn new languages such fast, you'll come away from it thinking. It's not as tough as you might think, even if you're missing that language learning gene like me. I'm Dallas Taylor host of twenty, thousand Hertz, which is a podcast. All about sound. Really. excited. The twenty thousand Hertz is the newest member of the family of PODCASTS. We unpacked the amazing sound stories behind movies, video games, cartoons, sonic allusions, the ocean, even other planets, and that barely scratches the surface. The show has won multiple Webby awards. It's fun ultra highly produced and appropriate for all ages. Go Tap subscribe to twenty thousand Hertz Omb each you there. Ted Talks daily is brought to you by beauty rest. Finally, luxury and responsibility can live in harmony with the beauty rest harmony lux mattress. This new mattress firm, the precision support system for added support where your body needs it most and innovative memory foams that unlock exceptional channel comfort plus beauty rest partnered with the sequel initiative to turn marine plastics into cool comfortable fabrics for clean ocean and high quality sleep beauty rest sleep, first class I love learning foreign languages. In fact, I love it so much that I'd like to learn a new language, every two years currently working on my eighth one when people find out about me, they always ask me how you do that. What's your secret? And to be honest for many years, my also would be I. Don't know I simply love leading languages. But people are never happy with an answer. They wanted to know why they're spending years trying to let even one language never achieving fluency and here I come learning one language after another. They wanted to know the secret of POLYGLOT S- people who speak a lot of languages. and. that. Made me wonder too. How to actually other polyglot. What do we have in common, and what is it that enables us to learn languages so much faster than other people. I decided to meet other people like me and find out. The best place to meet a lot of POLYGLOT S- is an event where hundreds of language lovers meet in one place to practice de Languages. They're several of such polyglot events organized around the world, and so I decided to go there and ask polyglot it's about the methods that they use. And so I'm met Benny from Ireland who told me that his method is to start speaking from day one. He learns a few phrases from a travel facebook. Goes to meet native speakers starts having conversations with them right away. He doesn't mind making even two hundred mistakes a day because that's how he learns based on the feedback, and the best thing is he doesn't even need to travel a lot today because you can easily easily conversations with native speakers from the comfort of your living room using websites. I also had lucas from Brazil who had a really interesting to learn. Russian. He simply added one hundred random Russian speakers on skype as. And then seriously, and then he opened a chat window with one of them and wrote high in Russian. And the person replied. Hi, how are you? Look US copied this and put it into a text window with another person. And the person replied, I'm fine. Thank you, and how are you? Look copied this back to the first person, and in this way he had to strangers have a conversation with each other without. And soon, he would start typing himself because he had so many of these conversations that he figured out how the Russian conversation usually starts what an ingenious method, right? And then I'm at Polyglot who always start by imitating sounds of the language and others who always learn the five hundred most frequent words of the language and others who always start by reading about the grammar. If I asked one hundred different polyglot S-. I heard one hundred different approaches to learning languages. If, everybody seems to have a unique way how they learn a language and yet we all come to the same result of speaking several languages fluently. S, I was listening to this polyglot telling me about their methods. It suddenly dawned on me. The one thing we all have in common is that we simply found ways how to enjoy the language. Learning, process. All of these polygraphs talking about language leading as if it was great fun, you should have seen their faces when they were showing me. They're colorful grandma charts and their carefully handmade flesh guards, and there's districts about learning vocabulary using APPS or even how they love to cook based on recipes in a foreign language. All of them use different methods. They always make sure it's something that they personally enjoy. I realized that this is actually how island languages myself when I was learning. Spanish, I was bored with text in the textbook I mean who wants to read about Hossa asking about the directions to the train station, right? I wanted to read Harry Potter in start because that was my favorite book as child and had read many times. So I got the Spanish translation of Harry Potter and started reading and sure enough I. Didn't understand almost anything at the beginning, but I kept on reading the book, and by the end of the book, I was able to follow it almost without any problems. And the same thing happened when I was learning. German. I decided to watch friends MY FAVORITE SITCOM IN GERMAN And again, at the beginning, we all just debris. I didn't know where one word finished and another one started. But I, kept watching every day because it's friends I can in any language, I, love it so much. And after the second or third season, seriously, the Dalek started to make sense. I only realize these after meeting other polyglot, S- we are geniuses and we have no shortcut to learning languages. We simply found ways how to enjoy the process, how to turn language learning from a boring school subject into a pleasant activity which you don't mind doing every day. If, you don't like writing words down on paper. You can always type them an APP. If you don't like listening to Boring, textbook? Not Real find interesting content on Youtube or podcast for any language. If you're more introverted person and you can't imagine speaking to native speakers right away, you can apply the method of self talk. You can talk to yourself in the comfort of your room describing your plans for the weekend day has been or even take a run them picture from your phone and describe the picture to your imaginary friend. This is how polyglot Lynn languages and the best news. It's available to anyone who's willing to take the learning into their own hands. So. Meeting Outta polyglot helped me realize that it is really crucial to find enjoyment in the process of learning languages, but also the joint itself is not enough. If, you want to achieve fluency in a foreign language. You'll also need to apply three more principles. First of all, you'll need effective methods. If, you try to memorize a list of works for a test tomorrow. The words will be stored in your short term memory and you'll forget them after a few days. If you however want to keep birds long-term. You need to revise them in the course of a few days repeatedly using the so-called space repetition. You can use APPs which are based on the system such as Anki or memorize, or you can ride lists of worse in a notebook using the goalies method, which is also very popular with many polyglot S-. If, you're not sure which methods are effective. What is available out there, just check out polyglot YouTube channels and websites and get. From them if it works for them, it almost probably work for you to. The third principle to follow east to create a system in learning. We're all very busy and no one really has time to learn a language today. But we can create the time. If we just plan a bit ahead, can you wake up fifteen minutes earlier than you normally do? That would be the perfect time to revise some vocabulary. Can you listen to podcasts on your way to work while driving that would be great to get some listening experience. There's so many things we can do without even planning that extra time such listening to. To podcasts on our way to work or doing household chores, the important thing is to create a plan in the learning. I will practice speaking every Tuesday and Thursday with a friend for twenty minutes I will listen to Youtube video while having breakfast. If you create a system in your learning, you don't need to find that extra time because it will become a part of your everyday life. And finally, if you want to learn the language fluently, you did also a bit of patience. Is Not possible to a language within two months, but it's definitely possible to make visible improvement in two months. If you learn in small chunks every day in a way to enjoy, and there is nothing that not as more than our own success. I vividly remember the moment when I understood the first joke in. German when watching friends. I was so happy and motivated, and I just kept on watching that day two more episodes, and as I kept watching I had more and more of those moments of understanding this little victories and step by step I got to a level where I could use the language freely and fluently to express anything. This is a wonderful feeling. I can't get enough of that feeling and why language every two years. So. This is the whole polyglot secret, find effective methods which you can use systematically over the period of some time in a way what you enjoy, and this is how polyglot Sloan languages within months not years. Now some of you may be thinking, that's all very nice to enjoy language learning, but isn't the real secret that you polyglot are just super talented and most of us aren't. while. There's one thing. I. Haven't told you about Benny and Lucas. Benny had eleven, years of Irish. Gaelic, and five years of German at school. Couldn't speak them at all when graduating. Up to age twenty one, he thought he didn't have the language gene and he could not speak another language. Then, he started to look for his way of learning languages, which was speaking native speakers and getting feedback from them and today Benny can easily conversation in ten languages. Look US tried to learn English at school for ten years was one of the worst students in class. He's friends even made fun of him. Give Him a Russian textbook as a joke because they thought he would never learn the language or any language. And then Lucas thought to experiment with methods looking for his own way to learn. For example, by having skype conversations with strangers, and after just ten years, Lucas is able to speak eleven languages fluently. Does that sound like a miracle. Well. I. See such miracles every single day. As the language center I help people in languages by themselves and I, see this every day people struggled with language learning for five ten, even twenty years. And then they suddenly take the learning into their own hands, start using materials, which they enjoy more effective methods or they start tracking the learning so that they can appreciate their their on progress, and that's when suddenly they magically find the language talent, they were missing all their lives. So you've also tried to learn a language and you gave up thinking, it's too difficult or you don have the language talent, get an detri-. Maybe you're also just one enjoyable method away from learning the language fluently. Maybe you're just one method away from becoming a polyglot. Thank you.
Fashion that celebrates all body types -- boldly and unapologetically | Becca McCharen-Tran
"The happiness lab is a new show hosted by Yale psychologist Dr Lori Santos she takes the latest science and translates it into practice this ted talk features fashion designer Beckham McCarron Tran recorded live at Ted Salon Trail Blazers Twenty nineteen uh unforgivable that we live in a society where it's normal or expected for teenagers to grow up hating themselves Phoenician beauty is damaging dangerous and destructive and we need to exploded immediately this limited time offer ends October twenty third good a fresh books dot com slash by now to get started voicing accept online payments Organiz expenses and much more get sixty percents off a light plus or premium plan for six months when you buy today hurry. The beauty that celebrates thin young white SIS gender able bodied models as the ideal is impossible not to be bombarded with irresponsibility one that can be utilized to exclude people or to empower others growing up I was obsessed fashion. I poured all different types of fashion magazine and my local Barnes and noble to be fashionable was to be tall be positive messages like Lizardo breaking into the mainstream thank God there's brands like area that have released campaigns without any as fashion designers are decisions have the power to change our culture we choose who's cast we've been fighting for fat acceptance and women's body autonomy since the sixties and there has been headway plus size models like Ashley Graham and musicians would images of models that have been photoshop to where there's not a single poor federal or stretch mark incite you don't need to look hard to find examples this I wanted to be like the models so I stopped eating it was a dark time in my life my eating disorder consume me all I could think about folks can make it easier fresh books accounting software is designed for small business owners. It's easy to use and keeps you very organized with fresh books you can automate life but when it did if read of so much brain space to think about what I was truly passionate about for so long fashion industry has worked hard to center early in fact it's par for the course I think there's a study that says ninety one percent of women and likely those of all gender identities are unhappy with the way they look any with long shiny hair that's what I saw is the ideal and it was reinforced everywhere I looked to be honest still this to the podcast science tells us that there's no biological barrier to being happier we can all get their subscribed to the happiness lab or ever you get your podcasts this counting every single calorie and waking up early before school every day so I could run a few miles it took me years to finally released the grip that the eating disorder had over they starting your business was no small feat imminent late nights early mornings and of course all nighters our friends at fresh the agree one of the worst things I've realized over the years is that my experience with disordered eating is not an anomaly runway shows and campaigns ultimately who is celebrated and consider beautiful and who's not having this platform narrow definition of beauty from the way they're taught in school and into the real world they drape on mannequins that are only four or sketch on bodies that are finishes beauty I believe it's by celebrating beauty and all different forms bold an unapologetically but many fashion designers continue to reinforce his body negatively is the norm so how do we change the stigma around looking different or not fitting into this narrow mm for but the conversation around exclusivity and fashion doesn't begin and end with size it's about seeing people of all different gender expression sharp retouching but we're still inundated with unrealistic expectations I love this quote by Liz who said body positively only exist however inclusivity means nothing if it's only surface level behind the scenes from the photographer to the body types to a garment that's fraught with insecurity on our runways UC curves cellulite and scars worn proudly where runway show yes super stretched out and not anatomically proportion different sized bodies aren't taking into account during the design process they're not thought of so who are these designers designing needs to be more options at all sizes and then all retailers somewhere has become a huge focus for me because of the power that this single garment can have over the way people feel about themselves we wanted to take our focus on celebrating Rosero Erica heart an emmy all activists in their own right I've always felt it was important to show a range of different bodies in our runway shows and campaign matt and we're committed to empowering women fans and non binary chroma Babes of all shapes and sizes through perfectly fit garments for every body celebrate cellulite body policing prohibited and intolerance not tolerated and this was enforced by guards Mama Cox Denise bidault gene the skills more designers would have the ability to design for all bodies reading a holistic inclusive output as fashion designers that do a lot of swim we wanted to rewrite the rules around having a bikini body so he has since different ability levels different ages different races and ethnicities celebrated for their own unique beauty my own work as a fashion designer I started a brand called black makeup artists Hey Fatuma Thomas who intimately understands how important it is to be able to work with all skin tones it's essential to so as fashion designers is our job to utilize our platform to explode this narrow restrictive definition of beauty Michael is that team of Babe Guards to enforce guidelines around inclusion and acceptance at the pool instead of no diving and no running how about cricket they WANNA be sold a dream they want to see something that they aspire to be implying that are models weren't that but I've realized but when launched it fell flat nobody was interested none of our department store stocked above a size large and if they did it was somewhere else in the building entirely housing director to the interns who's making the decisions behind the scenes is just as important as imperative to include diverse decision different identities thank you for more ted talks to Ted dot com there's so finally in two thousand eighteen norstrom actually place to order up to three x and this was a huge game changer for us to have so much more important to open up this dream to more people I want the consumer to know that it's not your body that needs to change is the close major retailer invest in adding these units so we could go to the factory and really go now we go up to four acts which is about size thirty thirty two having that Michael Effective happiness strategies lorries class psychology and the good life is the most popular class ever offered at Yale now you can get the class to by listening occurs in the process and it's always better to collaborate with different communities rather than trying to speak for them and this is an important means but it actually wasn't until recently that we were able to expand our size range in a major way we first launched our curve collection five years ago when we were so excited investment helped us to change and realign our entire design process we now have different sized bodies to sketch and drape on the studio and if more fashion schools top Sunday teenagers growing up don't feel the same pressure that I did conform and I hope that our work contributes to the fashion industry's opening up to celebrate many it's also a celebration I didn't start designing ten years ago with a mission to change the entire industry
How guest worker visas could transform the US immigration system | David J. Bier
"This ted talk features immigration policy analyst. David Beer recorded live at Ted Salon Border Stories Twenty nineteen and now you can get enhanced security for your home wifi network with Xfinity Xfi if it's connected it's protected. Now that's simple simple easy. Awesome go to xfinity DOT COM. Call one eight hundred xfinity or visit a store today to learn more restrictions apply. What if your email was organized by projects and not by date? Then it wouldn't be email at all slack. Choose a better way to work get it started at slack. Dot Com by October twenty eighteen Juan Carlos Rivera could no longer afford to live in his home in Copan Honduras as the Dallas morning. News reported game was taking ten percent of his earnings from S- barbershop. His wife was assaulted going to a pre K.. Teaching and job and they were concerned about the safety of their young daughter. What they do run away seek asylum in another country? They didn't want to do that. They just wanted to live in their country safely but their options were limited so that month Juan Carlos moved his his family to a safer location. Well he joined a group of migrants on the long and perilous journey from Central America to a job a family member said was open for him in the United States by now we're all familiar with what awaited them at the. US Mexico border the harsher and harsher penalties doled out to those crossing there the criminal prosecutions for crossing illegally. The inhumane detention most terribly separation of families. I'm here to tell you that not only. Is this treatment wrong. It's unnecessary this belief. The the only way to maintain order with inhumane means is inaccurate and in fact the opposite this is true only a humane system or create order at the border when safe orderly legal traveled to the United States is available. Very few people choose travel. That is unsafe disorderly or illegal. Now I appreciate the idea that legal immigration could just resolve the border crisis might sound a bit fanciful. But here's here's the good news. We have done this before. I've been working on immigration for years at the Cato Institute and other think tanks in Washington Washington. DC and as the senior policy advisor for Republican member of Congress new negotiating bipartisan immigration before and I've seen seen firsthand how America has implemented a system of humane order at the border for Mexico. It's called a guest worker program and here's the even better news. We can replicate this success for Central America. Of course some people will still need to seek asylum at the border but to tell understand how successful this could be for immigrants like Juan Carlos understand that until recently nearly every immigrant arrested by border patrol was Mexican in one thousand nine hundred eighty six. Each border patrol agent arrested five hundred and ten Mexicans well Over one per day by twenty nine thousand nine. This number was just eight. That's one every forty three days. It is a ninety eight percent rent reduction so where have all the Mexicans gone. The most significant change is that the US began issuing doing hundreds of thousands of guest worker visas to Mexicans so that they can come legally. WHO's as Vasquez Cabrera was among the first Mexican guest workers to take advantage of this visa expansion told The New York Times that before his visa he'd made terrifying illegal border crossings breathing near deadly heat and the treachery of the landscape? One time a sneak AAC killed a member of his group. Thousands of other Mexicans also didn't make it dying of dehydration in the desert hazards or drowning in the Rio Grande. Millions more were chased down and arrested guest worker. Visas have nearly. Ended this inhumane in chaos as Vasquez Cabrera put it. I knew longer have to risk mine life to support my family and when I'm here I don't have to live in hiding guest. Worker visas actually reduced the number of illegal crossings. More than the number of visas issued. Jose basilio another Mexican guest worker explained why The Washington Post in April. He said even though he hadn't hadn't received a visa this year he wouldn't risk all of his future. Chances by crossing illegally. This likely helps explain why from nine hundred and ninety six to twenty one thousand nine for every guest. Worker admitted legally from Mexico. There was a decline in two arrests of Mexicans crossing illegally. Now it's true. Mexican guest workers do use some really tough jobs picking fruit cleaning crabs landscaping and one hundred degree heat in some critics maintain. The guest worker. Visas are not actually humane and at the workers are just abused slaves but Vasquez Cabrera thought guest worker visa was liberating not enslavement. And he like nearly all other guests. Workers chose legal path over the illegal one repeatedly. The expansion of guest worker visas to Mexicans has been among among the most significant humane changes in US immigration policy ever and that humane change imposed order on chaos. So where does this leave. Central Americans like Juan Carlos US Central Americans received just three percent of the guest worker visas issued in two thousand nineteen even as their share of border. Arrests has risen to seventy four percent the US issue just one guest worker visa To a Central American for every seventy eight who crossed the border illegally in two thousand nineteen so if they can't get their papers at home many take their chances coming up through Mexico to claim silom at the border crossing legally even even if like Juan Carlos they prefer to come to work the. US can do better in needs to create new guest. Worker visas specifically for Central Americans this would creating incentives for businesses to seek out and hire central Americans paying for their flights. The United States and diverting them from the young legal dangerous trek North Central Americans could could build flourishing lives at home without the need to seek asylum at the border or crossing legally freeing up in overwhelmed system. Some people might say that letting the workers go back and forth never work in Central America or violence is so high but again it worked in Mexico. Even as Mexico's murder rate more than tripled over the last decade to a level higher higher than much of Central America and it would work for Juan Carlos who said despite the threats he only wants to live in Menia states temporarily to make enough money to sustain his family in their new home he even suggested that a guest worker a program would be one of the best things to help hundreds like him. Cynthia a twenty nine year old single single mother of three from hunters seems to agree. She told The Wall Street Journal that she came for a job to support her kids and her mom surveys of Central Americans traveling through Mexico by the College of the northern border in Mexico. Confirm and that one and here are the norm most not all but most do come for jobs. Even if like the Rivera's varies they may be some real threats at home. How much would in low wage job help? Honduran like wine or Cynthia Hondurans like them make as much in one month in the United States dates as they do in an entire year working in Honduras a few years work in the United States can propel repel a Central American into its upper middle. Class or safety is easier to come by with Central Americans. Lack is not the desire to to work not the desire to contribute to the US economy to contribute to the lives of Americans but Central Americans. Lack is a legal alternative to asylum to be able to do so legally of course a new guestworker program will not resolve above one hundred percent of this complex phenomenon. Many asylum seekers will still need to seek safety at the US border but with the flows reduced we can more easily work out ways to deal with them humanely but ultimately gently no single policy has proven to do more to create an immigration system that is both humane and orderly into net. The workers come legally. Thank you for more. Ted Talks to Ted DOT COM. What if your email was organized by project and not by date? What if everyone looked at the same thing instead of their own inbox? Then it wouldn't be email at all forget your fragmented. Fragmented Jumbled Inbox and Make Change Channels in slack spaces dedicated to individual projects topics or teams. All your communication is neatly organized is an everyone. Is maxine page slack. Choose a better way to work. GET STARTED AT SLACK DOT com.
How family separation at the US-Mexico border affects children's mental health | Luis H. Zayas
"This ted talk features social worker psychologist and researcher Louis H Zayas recorded live at Ted Salon Border Story He's twenty one thousand nine hundred for over forty years I've been a clinical social worker and a developmental liberal or conservative I want secure borders I also of children who have witnessed some of the worst violence in the world and are now sitting in detention but two little boys have stayed with me over these past five years we in America actually those of us here tonight will not necessarily be on the same page with respect to immigration back in twenty fourteen I've met some of the first children in detention centers but I think we can agree that America should not be doing harm the government the state should not be in the business corrupt ineffective then they get to our border and we put them in detention centers prisons as if they were common criminals and the children of families just looking for asylum now I could tell you story after story hurting children it should be protecting them no matter whose children they are your children my grandchildren optimism have been put to the test I've been so deeply disappointed in the way the United States government is treating families assaulted rape extorted threatened they have faced death and they can't turn to the police because the police are complete swept I sat in my car afterwards and I cried I was seeing some of were suffering I'd ever known tonight I wanNa tell you the children in immigration detention are being traumatized and we are causing the trauma he's and for all those years I've worked with hope and with optimism in the past five years though my hope want to keep the bad actors out I want national security and of course you'll have your ideas about those topics too and what against everything I believed in my country the rule of law and everything my parents taught me one of them was Danny Danny is seven years old when I met him in a detention center in Karnes City Texas back in twenty fourteen way the United States has handled the immigrants seeking asylum in our country over the past five years it's wrong just simply wrong I devoted my career to working with families in some of the toughest circumstances poverty mental illness immigration refugee. We'll disagree on how we'RE GONNA handle all those people want to come to our country frankly doesn't matter to me whether if you're a republican or Democrat we're just stupid he leaned in any whispered don't you see they smoke cigarettes who are coming to our southern border asking for asylum desperate parents with children from El Salvador Guatemala and Honduras rain so he said his wife go without me take our boys save our boys he's innocent he's charming and very expressive and he's drawing pictures for me and one of the pictures he drew from me was of these rebels leave or they will kill us so they set out but Danny's father was a single again with a crutch and he couldn't manage the rugged and they drink beer dan he had learned of course about the evils of drinking and smoking then he said they carry gun but I haven't forgotten Fernando and I know something about what kind of trauma stress and adversity does who only wants to bring their kids to safety insecurity they are fleeing some of the worst violence in the world they have been attacked by gangs disfigured I bullets and then he told me he saw his uncle's teeth coming out of the back of his head he was only six at the time sometime after that one of those rebels locals beat Little Danny badly severely and that's when his parents said we have got and so I'm going to get clinical with you for a moment and I'm GonNa be the professor that I am under prolonged and instead he was there with his mother and his brother and they had fled Honduras Danny's one of these kids you get to love instantly he's funny about the day his uncle was killed by those rebels locals and how he ran from his house to his uncle's farmhouse only to see his uncle's dead body his face it's in one of the pictures the stick figures of the rebels locals are shooting Birds People Danny told me being in the small office his mother burst in and she says they hear you there listening to you and she dropped her hands and knees Judgment Trust self-regulation social interaction are weakened sometimes permanently that impairs children's future locals that rebels locals these this is the name that they gave to gangs in the town that he was in I said the Danny do as he watched his mother spiral into this paranoid state I looked in his eyes and I saw utter terror after all ears night terrors depression and anxiety dissociation reactions hopelessness that is what the tension does the children now you may ask what do we do the the other boy was nonetheless now Fernando was in the same detention center roughly the same age as adult thinking and post traumatic stress disorders and they regressing their behavior like the eleven year old boy the room the floor the corner of ceilings at the lamp at the air vents. Looking for hidden microphones and cameras I watched for non we also know that under stress the child's immune system is suppressed making them susceptible to infections chronic illnesses mental health problems are linked to the breakdown of the body I have seen children in detention who have recurrent and disturbing night some ideas I we need to reframe our practices we need to replace fear and hostility with safe like diabetes asthma cardiovascular disease will follow those children into adulthood and likely shortened their lives or prisons we should create orderly asylum processing centers campus like communities the incompassion we need to tear down the prison walls the barbed wires take away the cages instead of prison what should our government do well I'm just a mental health professional so all I really know about children's health and development but right from his father and it's very likely father was killed by liberals locals because he had tried to flee I can't forget hence stress trauma hardship adversity harsh conditions the developing brain is hard and plain and simple it's wiring in its architecture are damaged. The child's natural stress response system is were children and families can live together we can take old motels old army barracks refit them so that children and parents can live family. I can't blame you well let me tell you that refugee camps all over the world are holding families like those in our detention centers a units in some safety normality where kids can run around in these processing centers pediatricians family doctors social workers would be conducting mental health evaluations and providing treatment for those who need it the social workers would be and she began to look under the table groping under all the chairs she looked at the electric sockets at the corner of some of those refugee camps are getting it right far better than we are the United Nations issued reports describing refugee who began to wet his bed again after years of continents and eight year old girl who is buckling under the pressure and was insisting that her mother breastfeed her so mom and the boys set off Danny told me he looked back said good biters father looked back a couple of times it's until he lost sight of his father and in detention he had not heard of his any Fernando was telling me about the twenty four hours he spent in isolation with his mother in the detention center place there because his mother had led a hunger strike Kenny what makes them bad guys then he looked at me with puzzlement the look was more like are you camps that protect children's Health and development children and parents live in family units and clusters our families that we treat children humanely you know I I can't forget Danny who would take care of him if she couldn't it was just the two of them the only had each other I could tell you story after story dentists and nurses would be screening examining treating immunizing children creating records that will follow them to their next medical provider acting families to services that they're going to need wherever they're headed and teachers would be teaching and testing children and ride bikes hang out with friends do homework and explore the world all the essentials for child development we can get a lot more and you probably you're thinking this is pie in the sky stuff I may cry as I did but I admire those children strength they keep alive documenting their learning needs so that the teachers at the next school can continue those children's education there's a lot more that we could do in these processing centers it's weakened of its protective factors regions of the brain that are associated with cognition intellectual abilities that would be the greatest tragedy of all thank you Eddie and respect we should do right
What's really happening at the US-Mexico border -- and how we can do better | Erika Pinheiro
"This Ted Talk Features Nonprofit Litigation and Policy Director Erica. Pineyro recorded live at Ted Salon border stories. Twenty nineteen gene support for. Ted Comes from luminary the only place where you can listen to New York Magazine's latest podcast tabloid the making of vodka trump. Get your first two months of access to luminaries premium content for free when you sign up at Luminary dot link slash Ted Society. Cancel anytime terms. Apply twice a week. I drive from my home near Tijuana Mexico over the US border to my office in San Diego. The stark contrast between the poverty and desperation on one side of the border and the conspicuous wealth on the other always feels jarring. But what's makes us contrast feel. Even starker is when I pass by the building that those of us who work on the border on affectionately referred to as the black hole all the black hole is the Customs Border Protection or CB facility at the San Pedro Port of entry right next to a luxury outlet mall. It's also where at any one in time. There's likely eight hundred. Immigrants locked in freezing filthy concrete cells below the building up top shopping bags and Frappuccino downstairs the reality of the US immigration system. And it's where one day in September of two thousand eighteen. I found myself trying to reach Anna. A woman who see bp had recently separated from her seven-year-old son. I'm an immigration attorney and the policy in litigation director of Aloe throw a BI national nonprofit helping immigrants on both sides of the US US Mexico border. We'd met on several weeks earlier at our T.. One office where she explained that she feared she and her son would be killed in Mexico so we prepared her for the process of turning herself over to see to ask for asylum. A few days after she'd gone to the port of entry to ask for help. We received a frantic phone call from her family members in the United States telling us that officials had taken a son from her now not should matter but I knew that Anna son had special needs and once again this news filled with a sense of panic and foreboding. That has unfortunately become a hallmark of my daily work. I had assigned authorisation to act as an attorney attorney so I rushed over to the port of entry to see if I could speak with my client not only VP officials. Not Let me speak to Anna. But they wouldn't even tell me if she was there. I went from supervisor to supervisor. Begging to submit evidence of Anna Sun special needs but no one would even talk to me about the case it felt surreal to watch the shoppers strolling idly by felt like a life and death situation after several hours of being stonewalled by VP. I left several days later. I found Anna's son in the foster care system but I didn't know what happened to Anna until over a week later when she turned up at a detention camp a few miles east now and I didn't have a criminal record and she followed the law and asking for asylum still immigration officials held her for three more months until we could win her release and help her reunify with her son. Anna story is not the only story I could tell you. There's Matteo in eighteen month old boy who was ripped from his father's arms and sent to a government shelter thousands of miles away where they failed to properly bathe him for months there's Ahmadou an unaccompanied African child silence. who was held with adults for twenty eight days and CBS's horrific facilities most disturbingly? There's Maria a pregnant refugee who begged for medical attention for eight hours before she miscarried. CB CUSTODY CBP officials held her for three more weeks before they sent her back to Mexico. Echo where she's being forced to wait months for an asylum here in the United States seeing these horrors day in and day out has changed me. I used to be refund parties but now I find myself telling people about how our government tortures refugees at the border and in the detention camps now people try to change the subject and congratulate me for the great work. I'm doing and helping people like Anna but I don't know how to make them understand that unless they start fighting harder better than ever thought possible. We don't know which of us will be the next to suffer. Anna's fate trump's mass separations of refugee families at the southern border shock the conscience of the world and woke many to the cruelties of the US immigration system. It seems like today more people than ever are involved in the fight for immigrant rights but unfortunately intimately the situation is just not getting better. Thousands protested to end family separations but the government is still separating families more than nine hundred. The children have been taken from their parents. Since June of two thousand eighteen thousands more refugee children have been taken from their grandparents siblings and other family members at the border. Since two thousand seventeen at least two dozen people have died in immigration custody and more will die including children now how we lawyers can and will keep filing lawsuits to stop the government from brutalizing clients. But we can't keep tinkering around the edges of the law. If we want migrants parents to be treated humanely this administration would have you believe that we have two separate families and we have to detain children because it will stop more refugees from coming coming to our borders. But we know that this isn't true in fact in two thousand nineteen. The number of apprehensions at our southern border have actually gone up and we tell people every every day at the border if you seek asylum in the United States you risk family separation and you risk being detained indefinitely but for many of them. The alternative is even worse. People seek refuge in the United States for a lot of different reasons in Tijuana. We've met refugees from over fifty countries speaking fourteen different languages. Gis We need. LGBT migrants from all over the world who've never been in a country in which they feel safe we meet women from all over the world whose own governments aunts refuse to protect them from brutal domestic violence or repressive social norms. Of course we meet Central American families where fleeing gang violence but we also meet Russian dissidents Venezuelan Activists Christians from China Muslims from China and thousands and thousands of other refugees fleeing all types the persecution and torture now a lot of these people would qualify as refugees under the international legal definition. The refugee convention was created created after World War Two to give protection to people fleeing persecution based on their race religion nationality political opinion or membership in in a particular social group but even those who would be refugees under the international definition are not going to win asylum in the United States. And that's because since two thousand seventeen seventeen the. US attorneys general have made sweeping changes to asylum law to make sure that less people qualify for protection in the United States. Now these laws are mostly aimed at Central Americans and keeping them out of the country but they affect other types of refugees as well the result is that the US frequently deports. It's refugees to their persecution and death the US is also using detention to try to deter refugees and make it harder for them to win their cases. Today there are over fifty five thousand immigrants detained in the United States many in remote detention facilities far from any type of legal help. NOPE and this is very important. Because it civil and not criminal detention there is no public defender system so most detained immigrants are not going to have an an attorney to help them with their cases. An immigrant. Who has an attorney is up to ten times more likely to win their case than one? Who Does it and as as you've seen? I hate to be the bearer of bad news but the situation is even worse for refugee families today than it was during family separation since January of Twenty nineteen eighteen the US has implemented a policy. That's forced over forty thousand refugees to wait in Mexico for asylum hearings in the United States. These refugees many of whom are families are trapped in some of the most dangerous cities in the world where they're being raped kidnapped and extorted by criminal groups and and if they survive for long enough to make to their asylum hearing less than one percent of them are able to find an attorney to help them with their cases the US government will point to the lowest asylum approval rates to argue that these people are not really refugees when in fact US asylum law is an obstacle obstacle course designed to make them feel now not every migrant at the border as a refugee. I'm meet plenty of economic migrants for example people who want to go to the United States states to work to pay medical bills for parent or school fees for a child back home increasingly. I'm also meeting climate refugees in particular. I'm meeting a lot of indigenous Central Americans who can no longer sustain themselves by farming due to catastrophic drought in the region. We know that today people are are migrating because of climate change and that more will do so in the future but we simply don't have a legal system to deal with this type of migration so it would make sense as start to expand the refugee definition to include climate refugees for example. But those of us in a position to advocate for those changes Are Too busy suing our governments to keep the meagre legal protections that refugees enjoy under the current law and we are exhausted. And it's it's almost too late to help. Nope and we know now that this isn't America's problem alone from Australia's brutal offshore detention camps to Italy's criminalization of aid to migrants drowning in the Mediterranean first world countries have gone to deadly lengths to keep refugees from reaching our shores. But they've done more than restrict the refugee deflation Dave created parallel fascist style legal systems in which migrants have none of the rights that form the basis of a democracy the alleged foundation of the countries in which they're seeking refuge. History shows us that the first group to be vilified stripped of their rights is rarely the last and many Americans and Europeans seem to accept an opaque and unjust legal system for non-citizens because they think they are immune but eventually these these authoritarian ideals bleed over affect citizens as well I learned this firsthand when the US government place me on an illegal watchlist for my work helping immigrants immigrants at the border one day in January of twenty nine thousand nine. I was leaving my office in San Diego and crossing the border to go back to my home in Mexico Mexican officials although they had given me a valid visa stopped me and told me that I couldn't enter the country because a foreign government had played a travel alert on my passport designating me. He is a national security risk. I was detained and interrogated in a filthy room for hours. I begged the Mexican officials to let me go back to Mexico and pick up my son who was only ten months old at the time but they refused and instead they turn me over to see. VP officials. I was forced back into the United States. It took me weeks to get another visa so that I could go back to Mexico and I went back to the border visa in hand but again I was detained interrogated because there were still a travel on my passport for shortly after leaked internal documents confirmed that my own government had been complicit and issuing this traveler against me and since then I haven't traveled to any other countries because I'm afraid I'll be detained and deported from those countries as well. These travel restrictions detentions winds and separation from my infant. Son are things I never thought I would experience as a US citizen. But I'm far from the only person being criminalised for helping immigrants. The US and other countries have made it a crime to save lives and those of us who are simply trying to do. Our jobs are being forced to choose between our humanity and our freedom freedom and the thing that makes me so desperate is that all of you are facing the same choice. But you don't understand it yet. I know there are good people out there. You're I saw thousands of you in the streets protesting family separation and that largely helped bring about an end to the official policy. But we know that the government is still separating children and things are actually getting worse today the. US government is fighting for the right to detain refugee children indefinitely in prison camps. This is over. We cannot allow ourselves to become numb or look away. Those of us who are citizens of countries whose policies caused caused detention separation and death you to very quickly decide which side we're on. We need to demand that our laws respect the inherent dignity of all human human beings especially refugees seeking help at our borders but including economic migrants and climate refugees. We need to demand that refugees refugee get a fair shot at seeking protection are countries by ensuring that they have access to counsel and by creating independent courts that are not subject to the political whims of the president. And I know it's overwhelming and I know this sounds cliche but we need to call our elected representatives and demand these changes. I know you've heard this before but have you made the call. We know these calls make a difference. The dystopia immigration Systems being built up in first world countries are a test of citizens to see how far you're willing to let the government go and taking away other people's rights. It's when you think it won't happen to you. But when you let the government take people's children without due process and detain people indefinitely without access to counsel. I saw you are failing the test. What's happening to immigrants? Now is a preview of where we're all headed if we fail to act. Thank you for more. TED TALKS DOT COM.
A wall won't solve America's border problems | Will Hurd
"This interview features congressman will heard in conversation with criminal justice reformer and milgram recorded live at Ted Salon Border Stories Twenty nineteen support for Ted comes from Luminary. The only place where you can listen to New York Magazine's the latest podcast tabloid the making of Vodka Trump get your first two months of access to luminaries premium content for free when you sign up at luminary dot link slash. Ted Politics cancel anytime terms apply congressman. I was about to introduce you and say a little more. Hi How you doing thank you so much for joining us tonight. We're so lucky to have you here with us and I've already explained that you're actually in Washington because you're working and I was about to tell folks that you represent the twenty third district of Texas but maybe you could tell us a little bit about your district and describe it for us. Dora in South West Texas. It's twenty nine county's two time zones eight hundred twenty miles from Eagle Pastel shirts all the way to ask so it takes a ten and a half hours drive drive across mobile eighty miles an hour which is the speed limit in in most of the district found out a couple of weekends ago. It's not the speed limit and all the dishes saying long. It's only a seventy one percents Latino district in the district that I've been representing. I'm for now my third term in Congress and and when you think about the issue of the border I have more border in any other member of Congress on my spence nine and a half years is undercover officer in the CIA chasing a bad people all across tree us when it comes to securing our border. It's something I know a little bit about one of the things I learned recently which I had no before is that your district is actually the size. I think of the state of Georgia that's right is large estates roughly the size of of the state of Georgia so it's pretty big so as an expert in national security and as a member of Congress you've been called upon to think about issues related to immigration and in recent years particularly about the border wall what is your reaction to President Trump's statement that we need a big beautiful wall that would stretch across our border and at eighteen to thirty feet high. I've been thanks. I ran I for Congress back in two thousand nine. This is not a new topic that building a thirty foot high concrete structure and see the shining scene is the most expensive and least effective way a to do border There are parts of order. Where would patrols response time to Brett is measured in hours to days If your response time is measured in hours today's than a wall is is not a physical barrier. I'm we should be having technology on the border. We should know what's called. We should have operation control of our border which means no everything's going back and forth across it into a lot of that technology we also need more within within a border patrol but but in addition to doing on this one of the things we should be able to do is streamline legal immigration. If you're going to be a productive productive member of our society elissa cheer as quickly as possible. Let's do it legally and if we able to streamline that you see some of the pressures are relieved along our order and allow men women or patrol the focus on human trafficking and drug trafficking organizations as well Congressman mm-hmm. There's also been conversation nationally about using emergency funds to build the border wall and taking those funds from the United States military. What is your position on that issue. I'm one of the few gins up here. That has opposed that effort. We are adjust now rebuilding our military taking funds away from making sure that our our brothers and sisters our wives and our husbands. I'm have the the training and equipment. They need in order to take care of us in far-flung places. I'm taking money away from them is not an efficient use of our resources sources especially. If it's going to build a you know I always say. It's a four th century a solution to a twenty first century or apple cool and the the reality is what we should be focusing on is some of the other root causes of his problem. Many speakers today have talked about that and and some of those key route problems are violence lack of economic opportunity and extreme poverty a specifically northern triangle El Salvador. I would or while the modern Honduras what would you should be work. I was GonNa ask what you would recommend. The United States government does to address the underlying underlying what we call push factors root causes in those three countries in Central America well one of the things I learned as undercover officer in the CIA as Nice with Nice guys in tough with tough guys. in one of the principles of being nice with nyc guys is strengthened our alliances we have a number of programs rams currently in these three countries that USA ID in State Department is doing to address at this violence issue. We know in El Salvador one of the problems uh-huh was that police will corrupt and so we've worked with the Salvadorians purged a police Rehire New Folks News Yup community policing tactics these are tactics that the men and women in America Abuse Forces a US every the day and when we did this Muniz guess what happened we saw increasing violets that was happening in those communities and then we also saw a decrease in the number of the people that were leaving those areas to try to come to those states illegally so it's a fraction of the car the saga of autumn there before or hit it ultimately reaches our order in one of the reasons that she have violin crime is audible corruption in the in the lack of of Joe governments governments to protect its citizens and so this is something we should be continuing to work. We should have been decreasing the amount of money that we have that. We're sending these countries. I actually think we should be increasing it. I believe the Earth One. We should have done this months. AGO is select a special representative northern triangle. That's a senior in your diplomat. That's GONNA work to make sure that we're using all of our levers of power to healthy three countries and coordinated coordinated effort. We should office with sinus apart from the United States Mexico. This is the problem for the entire Western Hemisphere so whereas the Organization of American States whereas International Development Development Aid and we should be having collective plan to address this these root causes and when you talk about violence a lot of times we talk about. I'm these terrible games like ms thirteen but it's also violence like women being beaten by their husbands and they have no body else go to and they are unable to to deal with this current problem so easily typesetting James at we should be increased in diplomacy increasing or economic please. I WanNa take you now from thinking about the root causes in Central America to thinking about the separation of children and families in the United States starting in April twenty eighteen. The trump administration began a no tolerance policy for immigrants is people seeking refugee status asylum in the United States and that led to the separation of twenty seven hundred children in the first year that that program. I'm was run now. I want to address this with you and I want to separate it up front into two different conversations one of the things that the administration did was file legal court papers saying that one of the primary purposes of the separations was to act as a deterrent against people coming to the United States and I WanNa talk for a moment about that from a moral perspective and to get your views we we should be done here is it's. It's real simple and guess what it wasn't a deterrence on you only saw an increase the amount of illegal immigration and when in your city debating strategy your strategy if someone's up with the idea of snatching a child out of their mother's arms. You need to go back to the drawing board. This is not what what the United States of America stands for this is not a Republican or Democrat or anything this is a human decency thing and so in that strategy it didn't achieve Oldman purpose in ultimately the the the amount mound of of John and the impact that the detention of children has especially if it's twenty one days as on their development and in their future is as Astra so we should be trying to hang on children for more than twenty one days and we should be getting children if if they're in our she taking Erin you're mainly and making sure there with that can provide them a save and lovey. I would challenge you even on the twenty one day number but for the purposes of this conversation I wanNA follow up on something you just said. which is that both that it's wrong to detain children and that it's not effective so the question then is? Why does administration continue to do it when we've seen nine hundred additional children separated from their parents since the summer of two thousand eighteen? Why is this happening while rats something that gets to ultimately ask the administration's questions that I've been asking the Tornado facility acidity is in my district. These are are eroding design. The hold anybody for for multiple days days let alone children we should be making sure that if they are in our custody a lot of times are the company children we don't have a we don't know of a patron or a family member the United States and we should make sure that they're in facilities where they're able to school ooh out of food in healthcare and if we're able to find a sponsor ranking member. Let's get them into that those custody while they're waiting afford their immigrant immigration work as on. That's the other issue here when you have a backlog cases. I think it's now nine hundred thousand. I'm cases that are back clog. We should be able to do an immigration hearing within nine months. I think most illegal a community thinks that is enough time to do something like this so that weekend weekend facilitates whether someone or individual was able to stay in the United States or be returned back to their own country rather other than being in this limbo for five years. If we think about the asylum system today where people are coming and saying that they have a credible threat that they will be persecuted back comb and we think about the fact that on average it's about two years for someone to get an asylum hearing that many people are not represented as they go through that process it makes me think about something that they say in the healthcare space all the time which is that every system is perfectly designed to get the results it gets and so as you think about this and think about how we would redesign this system to not do what we're doing which is years and years of detention and separations thousands and hardship for people seeking and again in asylum being lawful. United States government process for people seeking to enter our country lawfully awfully what should we do try to increase by four billion dollars the amount of resources that HHS as in order specifically we children. I think we need more immigration. Judges in order to process these cases and I think we need to ensure that that folks can get representation on. I've been able to work with the number of lawyers up and down the border. Make sure that they're being able to get access to the folks that are having problems in so this is this is something that we should be able to design an enormously when it comes to children doing everything we can or custody in order to in order to take care of so. I have two more questions for you before. I'm GonNa let you go back to work. The first is about our focus in the United States on the questions of immigration because if you look at some of the statistics you see see that of people who are undocumented in the United States. The majority of people have overstayed on visas. They haven't come through the border. If you look at the people who tried to enter the country who are on the terrorist watchlist they enter overwhelmingly through the airports and not through the border if we look at drugs coming into into the United States which has been a huge part of this conversation the vast majority of those drugs come through our ports and through other points of entry not through backpacks tax on people crossing the border so the thing I always ask and I always worry about with government is that we focus so much on one thing and my question for for you is whether we are focused and this conversation nationally about the border every day and every minute of every day whether it's were looking completely in the wrong on direction I would agree with your premise. I'm when you have. Let's let's start with nominee benefits when you have a three point six percent unemployment. What does that mean that means. You need folks in every industry whether it's agriculture or artificial intelligence so why aren't we streamlining legal immigration we should be able to make this market base in order to have folks come in and be productive members of society when it comes to when it comes to the drug issue talked about yes rests in our ports of entry is also coming into our shores co-stars only able to action twenty five percent of the known elegance they have on drugs coming Indian into our country the metric that we should be measuring receiving a decrease a task on overdose drugs overseas. These are reporting a decrease in illegal immigration. It's not how many miles NC I'm that we that we we have ultimately built and so we have benefited from the brain drain of every other time jeep last couple of decades. I WanNa see that continue and I wanna see that continue with a hardworking drain and I can tell you this this last Congress Ninety Lars Democrat from California. I had a piece of legislation USA strong voice security streamline legal immigration Datta one point two million kids who have only known the United States of America as their home. These kids are actually say young men winner other already Americans Americans. Let's let's not have them anymore. Uncertainty and make fat old houses. We had two hundred forty five feet willing to sign this law. It wasn't allowed to come forward and erase publicans speaker and also the current Democratic Speaker hasn't brought this bill students something that we'd be able to us so I want to close and you are perhaps most famous. I don't know if that's fair but you took a road trip with Beta rourke from from your district to Washington. DC and you become known for reaching across the aisle and engaging in these bipartisan conversations and one of the things I've seen you say repeatedly is to talk about how we are all united and I think when we think about the language of immigration and we start hearing words about enemies MEES and militarization. I think the real question is how do we how do we convince all Americans to understand what you say that more unites us thenn divides. US crisscrossing district bondage too busy busy percent Democrat again very clear to me as outweigh either focus things that we agreed will be all better off and now I'm going to get a perfect attendance award for going to church but I do remember when Jesus was in the second simple in the Pharisees asked him what's the most important commandment he said the love that work with all your heart mind and soul but people forget he also said said equally as important is to love neighbor likes myself and if we we number that and realized what it would meet and what you would have to go. I want to be living in that made. Send your child on a three thousand mile is she own or their future is that can you to make sure their future is bright. If we all remember that situation we will do Jewish. Thank you congressman. Thank you so much for joining us for more attacks DOT COM.
Where did the Moon come from? A new theory | Sarah T. Stewart
"This. Ted talk features. Planetary scientists Sarah T Stewart recorded live at Ted salon. Imagine if twenty nineteen. Hey, TED talks daily listeners. I'm Adam grant, I host another podcast from Ted. It's called a work life. And it's about the science of making work not suck on the latest episode. I get to meet people who are exceptionally good at that. Like Olympic marathoner, Amy crack we finished and I hear Chalene go was hard. I t's blood, and then she goes, so awesome. As like, you know, what I'm going to find out. Exactly what I made of here. Turn your rivals into your allies at work. That's on the next episode of work life without him Graham. We live in a world. That's creating a enabled everything a world with more not devices than people today technology has never been smarter. But smart only matters when you put it to work where it matters when we put smart to work, we can help save species increase crop yields and make progress, but not just for a few of us for all of us. So let's get to it. Let's put smart to work. Find out how at IBM dot com slash smart. Nobody likes to make a mistake. And I made a whopping one. And figuring out what I did wrong led to a discovery that completely changes the way we think about the earth and moon. I'm a planetary scientist, and my favorite thing to do is smash planets together in my lab, I can shoot at rocks using cannons. Like this one. In my experiments. I can generate the extreme conditions during planet formation and with computer models. I can collide whole planets together to make them grow. Or I can destroy them. I want to understand how to make the earth and the moon, and why the earth is so different from other planets. The leading idea for the origin of the earth and moon is called the giant impact theory. The theory states that Amar size body struck the young earth and the moon formed from the debris of disk around the debris disk around the planet. The theory can explain so many things about the moon, but it has a huge flaw it predicts that the moon is mostly made from the MARC's planet that the earth and the moon are made from different materials. But that's not what we see. The earth and the moon are actually like identical twins. The genetic code of planets is written in the hopes of the elements the earth and moon have identical isotopes that means that the earth and moon are made from the same materials. It's really strange that the earth and the moon or twins all of the planets are made from different materials. So they all have different isotopes. They all have their own genetic code. No, other planetary bodies have the same genetic relationship only the earth and moon are twins. When I started working on the origin of the moon. There were scientists that wanted to reject the whole idea of the giant impact. They didn't see any way for this theory to explain special relationship between the earth and the moon, we were all trying to think of new ideas. The problem was there weren't any better ideas. All of the other ideas had even bigger flaws. So we were trying to rescue the giant impact eerie. A young scientist in my group suggested that we try changing the spin of the giant impact maybe making the spin faster could mix more material and explain the moon. The mar- size impact or had been chosen because it could make the moon and make the length of earth's stay. People really liked that part of the model. But what is something else determine the links versity? Then there would be many more possible giant impacts that could make the moon. I was curious about what could happen. So I tried simulating faster spinning giant impacts. And I found that it is possible to make a disc out of the same mixture of materials as the planet. We were pretty excited. Maybe this was the way to explain the moon. The problem is we also found that that's just not very likely most of the time the disk is different from the planet, and it looked like making Arman this way would be an astronomical coincidence. And it was just hard for everyone to accept the idea that the moon special connection to earth was an accident. The giant impact Serey was still in trouble. And we were still trying to figure out how to make the moon. Then came the day when I realized my mistake. My student, and I for looking at the data from these fast bidding giant impacts on that day. We weren't actually thinking about the moon. We were looking at the planet the planet get super hot and partially vaporized from the energy of the impact. But the data didn't look like a planet. It looked really strange the planet. Was weirdly connected to the disk. I got that super excited feeling when something really wrong might be something really interesting. In all of my calculations. I'd assume there was a planet with a separate disk around it calculating, what was in the disk was how we tested whether an impact could make the moon. But it didn't look that simple anymore. We were making the mistake of thinking that a clan. It was always going to look like a planet. On that day. I knew that a giant impact was making something completely new. I've had Eureka moments. This was not one of them. I really didn't know what was going on. I had the strange new objects in front of me and the challenge to try and figure it out. What do you do when faced with the unknown? How do you even start? We questioned everything what is the planet when is a planet. No longer a planet anymore. We played with new ideas, we had to get rid of our old way of thinking and by playing I could throw away all of the data all of the rules of the real world and free my mind to explore. And by making a mental space where I could try out outrageous ideas, and then bring them back into the real world to test them. I could learn. And by playing we learned so much I combined my lab experiments with computer models and discovered that after most giant impacts the earth is so hot there's no surface. There's just a deep layer of gas that gets denser and denser with depth the earth would have been like Jupiter. There's nothing to stand on. And that was just part of the problem. I wanted to understand the whole problem. I couldn't let go of the challenge to figure out what was really going on in giant impacts. It took almost two years of throwing away old ideas and building new ones that we understood the data and knew what it meant for the moon. I discovered a new type of astronomical objects. It's not a planet. It's made from planets. Planet is a body who self gravity is strong enough to give it its rounded shape. It spins around altogether. Make it hotter and spin faster, the equator gets bigger and bigger until it reaches a tipping point push past the tipping point and the material at the equator spreads into a disc. It's now broken all the rules of being a planet. It can't spin around together anymore. It's shape keeps changing as it gets bigger and bigger the planet has become something new. We gave our discovery its name. Cinecitta we named it. After the goddess heftier, the Greek goddess of the Hirth and home because we think the earth became one. The prefix means altogether to emphasize the connection between all of the material. Asana is what a planet becomes when heat and spin push it over the limit of spheroid shape. Would you like to see a Sonesta? In this visualization of one of my simulations, the young earth is already spinning quickly from our previous giant impact its shape is deformed. But our planet would be recognizable by the water on its surface. The energy from the impact favor rises the surface. The water the atmosphere and mixes all of the gases together in just a few hours. We discovered that many giant impacts makes the Nesta's, but these burning bright objects don't live very long, they call down shrink and turn back into planets. While rocky planets like earth were growing, they probably turned into sin ST as one or more times. A sedan data gives us a new way to solve the problem of the origin of the moon. We propose that the moon formed inside a huge vaporous STA. The moon grew from magma rain that condensed out of the rock vapor. The moon special connection to earth is because the moon formed inside the earth when earth was a semester. The moon could have orbited inside this Nastya for years hidden from view. The moon is revealed by the snapped your cooling and shrinking inside of its orbit. The Sonesta turns into planet earth only after cooling for hundreds of years longer. In our new theory. The giant impact makes us the Nastya and the Sonesta divides into two new bodies, creating our Eissa topically identical earth and moon. Sinensis have been created throughout the universe. And we only just realized that by finding them in our imagination. What else am I missing in the world around me, what is hidden from my view by my own assumptions? The next time. You look at the moon. Remember, the things you think, you know? Maybe the opportunity to discover something truly amazing. For more TED talks, go to Ted dot com. Ex-?
How to lead a conversation between people who disagree | Eve Pearlman
"This. Ted talk features journalist e Perlman recorded live at Ted salon up for debate. Twenty nineteen. Ever want to twenty fifth hour in the day on before breakfast. Laura Vander camp can help you get a little more out of each day. Learn things like how to find more time to read or why planning your week on Friday is better every weekday morning. It'll help you feel like you're ready for the day one productivity tip at a time. Find before breakfast on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you listen. So in the run-up to the two thousand sixteen election. I was like most of us watching the rise in discord, and vitriol and nastiness in our public spaces. It was as crazy uptick in polarization. It was both disheartening and distressing. And so I started thinking with a fellow journalist. Jeremy, hey about how we might practice our craft differently. How we might go to the heart of divides to places of conflict like journalists always have. But then once they're do something, really different. We knew we wanted to take the core tools of our craft careful vetting of information diligent research curiosity a commitment to serving the public good to serving our democracy and do something new. And so we mapped out this process what we call dialogue journalism for going to the heart of social and political divides. And then once they are building journalism supported conversations between people on opposite side of opposite sides of polarizing issues. But how actually to do this in in a world that we that so divided? So deeply divided when we live in a world in which we cousins and aunts and uncles can't talk to one another when we often live in separate and distinct news ecosystems, and when we reflexively and habitually malign and dismiss those with whom we disagree. But we wanted to try. And so right after the two thousand sixteen election in that in that time between the election and the inauguration. We partnered with the Alabama media group to do something really different. We brought twenty-five Trump supporters from Alabama together in conversation with twenty-five Clinton supporters from California, and we brought them together in a closed. Moderated Facebook group that we kept open for a month. What we wanted to do was to give them a place to engage with genuine curiosity and openness, and we wanted to support them in building relationships not just with each other. But with us as journalists, and then we wanted to supply facts and information facts and information that they could actually receive and process and use to undergird their conversations. And so as a prelude to this conversation conversation the first step in what we call dialogue journalism. We asked what they thought the other side thought of them. So we asked. The Trump supporters from Alabama what they thought the Clinton supporters in California thought of them this some of what they said. Do you think we are religious bible thumpers that were backwards and hick and stupid? They think that we all have confederate flags in our yards that we're racist, and sexist and uneducated they think we're barefoot and pregnant with dirt driveways, and then think we're all Prissy butts, and we walk around and hoop skirts with cotton fields in the background. And then we asked that same questions of question of the Californians. What do you think the alabamians think about you? And they said this that we're crazy liberal Californians that were not patriotic or snobby, and we're elitist or godless and more permissive with our children, and we're focused on our career is not our family, and there were lead est pie in the sky intellectuals. Re rich people wholefood eating very out of touch. So by asking questions like this at the start of every conversation, and by dente firing and sharing stereotypes, we find that people people on all sides begin to see the simplistic and often mean-spirited caricatures they carry and in that after that, we can move into a process of genuine conversation. So in the two years since that launch California, Alabama project, we've gone onto host dialogues and partnerships with media organizations across the country and they've been about some of our most contentious issues guns immigration race education. And what we found remarkably is that real dialogue is in fact possible, and that we given a chance and structure around doing so many not all but many of our fellow citizens are eager to engage with the other. Too often. Journalists have sharpened divides in the name of drama or readership or and service to our own views, and too often we've gone to each side, quoting partisan voice on one side and a partisan voice on the other with telling anecdotal lead in a pithy. Final quote, all of which readers are keen to mind for bias. But our dialogue based process has a slower pace and a different center. And our work is guided by the principle that dialogue across difference is essential to a functioning democracy and the journalism and journalists have a multifaceted real role to play in supporting that. So how do we work at every stage where as transparent as possible about our methods and our motives at every stage. We take time to answer people's questions. Explain why we're doing what we're doing. We tell people it's not a trap. No one's there to tell you. You're stupid. No one's there to tell your experience doesn't matter. And we always ask for really different sort of behavior a repack turning away from the reflexive name calling so entrenched in our discourse that most of us on all sides, don't even notice it anymore. So people often come into our conversations of angrily. And they they say things like how can you believe acts, and how can you read y and and you believe that this happened? But generally in this miracle that the delights us every time people begin to introduce themselves, and they begin to explain who they are. And where they come from. And they begin to ask questions of one another and slowly over time people circle back again and again to difficult topics each time with a little more empathy a little more nuance. A little more curiosity. And are journalists moderators work really hard to support this because it's not a debate. It's not a battle. It's not a Sunday morning talk show. It's not the flinging of talking points. It's not the stacking of memes and gifts articles with headlines that prove a point. And it's not about scoring political victories with question traps. So what we've learned. Is that our state of discord is bad for everyone. It is a deeply unhappy state of being and people tell us again. And again, they said they appreciate to chance to engage. Respectfully with curiosity with openness, and that they're glad and relieved for chance to put down their arms. And so we do our work in direct challenge to the political climate in our country right now. And we do it knowing that it is difficult challenging work to hold and support people in opposing backgrounds and conversation, and we do it. Knowing democracy depends on our ability to address our shared problems together. And we do this by putting community at the heart of our journalistic process by putting our egos to the side to listen, I to listen deeply to listen around through our own biases. Our own habits of thought and to support others in doing the same. And we do this work knowing that journalism is an institution is struggling and that it has always had a role to play. And can we'll continue to have a role to play in supporting the exchange of ideas, and views. So for many of the participants in our groups, there are lasting reverberations. Many people have become Facebook friends, and in real life friends to across political lines after we closed that first Trump Clinton project. About two thirds of the women went on to form their own Facebook group, and they chose a moderator from each state, and they continue to talk about difficult and challenging issues and people tell us again. And again that they are grateful for the opportunity to be a part of this work grateful to know, the people on the other side aren't crazy grateful that they've had a chance to connect with people. They wouldn't have otherwise talk to. And a lot of what we've seen in learn despite the fact that we call ourselves spaceship media is not at all rocket science. If you call people names if you label them if you insult them. They're not inclined to listen to you. Snark doesn't help. Shame doesn't help. Condescension doesn't help. Genuine communication takes practice and effort and restraint and self awareness. There isn't an algorithm to solve where we are. Because real human connection is in fact, real human connection. So lead with curiosity emphasized discussion, not debate get out of your silo. Because real connection across difference. This is a Sav that our democracy sorely needs. Thank you. For more, TED talks. But at Ted dot com.
How do we learn to work with intelligent machines? | Matt Beane
"This. Ted talk features organizational ethnographer Matt being recorded live at Ted salon. The NextWave twenty eighteen. Here's a quick and freeway to finally stick to your New Year's resolutions. Start listening to podcasts on Spotify with more than one hundred and fifty thousand podcasts, including many of the world's most popular self improvement shows, you can learn just about anything even how to get better. At listening to podcasts about getting better at things. So start the year off right with podcasts on Spotify. And stay after this episode to listen to a bonus talk on making the most of the new year brought to you by Spotify. It's six thirty in the morning and Kristen is wheeling her prostate patient into the OR. She's a resident a surgeon in training. It's her job to learn today. She's really hoping to do some of the nerve sparing extremely delicate dissection that can preserve erectile function. That'll be up to the attending surgeon though. But he's not there yet. She and the team put the patient under and she leads the initial eight inch incision in the lower abdomen. Once she's got that clamped back. She tells the nurse to call the attending he arrives couns up and from there on in therefore hands are mostly in that patient with him guiding but Kristen leading the way when the prostates out, and yes, he let Kristin do a little nerve sparing. He rips off his scrubs. He starts to do paperwork. Kristen. Kristen closes the patient by eight fifteen with a junior resident looking over her shoulder and she lets him do the final line of sutures. Kristen feels great patients going to be fine. And no doubt she's a better surgeon than she was at six thirty. Now, this is extreme work, but Kristen's learning to do her job the way that most of us do watching an expert for a bit getting involved in easy, safe parts of the work and progressing to riskier and harder tasks as they guide and decide she's ready my whole life. I've been fascinated by this kind of learning it feels elemental part of what makes us human. It has different names apprenticeship coaching mentorship on the job training in surgery. It's called see one do one teach one. But the process is the same. And it's been the main path to skill around the globe. For thousands of years. Right now, we're handling a I in a way that blocks that path we're sacrificing learning in our quest for productivity, I found this. I in surgery while I was at MIT. But now, I've got evidence it's happening all over in very different industries and with very different kinds of AI. If we do nothing about this. Millions of us are going to hit a brick wall. As we try to learn to deal with. Let's go back to surgery to see how. Festival or six months. It's six thirty AM again, and Kristen is willing another prostate patient in. But this time to the robotic OR. The attending leads attaching a forearmed thousand pound robot to the patient. They both rip off their scrubs head to control consoles ten or fifteen feet away. And Kristen just watches. The robot allows the attending to do the whole procedure himself. So he basically does he knows she needs practice. He wants to give her control. But he also knows she'd be slower and make more mistakes and his patient comes first so Kristen has no hope of getting anywhere near those nerves during this rotation. She'll be lucky if she operates more than fifteen minutes during a four hour procedure. And she knows that when she slips up he'll tap a touchscreen. And she'll be watching again feeling like a kid in the corner with a dunce cap. Like all the studies of robots and work. I've done in the last eight years. I started this one with a big open question. How do we learn to work with intelligent machines to find out? I spent two and a half years observing dozens of residents and surgeons doing traditional and robotic surgery interviewing them, and in general hanging out with the residents as they tried to learn I covered eighteen of the top US, teaching hospitals. And the story was the same. Most residents were in Kristen's shoes. They got to see one plenty. But the do one was barely available. So they couldn't struggle and they weren't learning. This was important news for surgeons, but I needed to know how widespread it was where else was using AI blocking learning on the job. To find out. I've connected with the small, but growing group of young researchers who've done boots on the ground. Studies of work involving a I in very diverse settings like startups policing investment banking and online education like me, they spent at least a year and many hundreds of hours observing interviewing an often working side by side with the people they studied we share data. And I look for patterns, no matter the industry, the work. The I the story was the same organizations were trying harder and harder to get results from and they were peeling learners away from expert work as they did it start up managers. We're outsourcing their customer contact cops had to learn to deal with crime. Forecasts without expert support junior bankers were getting cut out of complex analysis and professors had to build online courses without help. And the effect of all of this was the same as in surgery learning on the job was getting much harder. This can't last McKinsey estimates that between half a billion. And a billion of us are going to have to adapt to AI in our daily work by twenty thirty. And we're assuming that on the job learning will be there for us as we try Accenture latest worker survey showed that most workers learn key skills on the job, not informal training. So while we talk a lot about its potential future impact the aspect of AI that may matter most right now is that we're handling it in a way that blocks learning on the job just when we need it. Most. Now across all our sites of small minority found a way to learn. They did it by breaking and bending rules approved methods weren't working, so they bent and broke rules to get hands on practice with experts in my setting residents got involved in robotic surgery in medical school at the expense of their generalists education. And they spent hundreds of extra hours with simulators and recordings of surgery when you were supposed to learn in the OR, and maybe most importantly, they found ways to struggle in live procedures with limited expert supervision. I call all this shadow learning because it bends the rules and learners do it out of the limelight. And everyone turns a blind eye because it gets results. Remember, these are the star pupils of the bunch now, obviously, this is not okay. And it's not sustainable. No one should have to risk getting fired to learn the skills they need to do their job. But we do need to learn from these people they took serious risks to learn they understood they needed to protect struggle and challenge in their work. So that they could push themselves to tackle hard problems right near the edge of their capacity. They also made sure there was an expert nearby to offer pointers and toback stop against catastrophe. Let's build this combination of struggle and expert support into each implementation. Here's one clear example, I could get of this on the ground before robots if you were a bomb disposal technician you dealt with an IUD by walking up to a junior officer was hundreds of feet away. So could only watch and help if you decided it was safe and invited them down range. Now, you sit side by side in a bomb proof truck, you both watched the video feed they control a distant robot, and you guide the workout loud. Trainees learn better than they did before robots. We can scale this to surgery, startups, policing investment, banking, online, education and beyond. The good news is we've got new tools to do it the internet, and the cloud mean, we don't always need one expert for every trainee for them to be physically near each other or even to be in the same or. The station, and we can build a I to help to coach learners as they struggle to coach experts as they coach and to connect those two groups and smart ways. There are people at work on systems like this, but they've been mostly focused on formal training. And the deeper crisis is an on the job learning. We must do better. Today's problems demand. We do better to create work that takes full advantage of a is amazing capabilities while enhancing our skills as we do it. That's the kind of future I dreamed of as a kid and the time to create it is now, thank you. For more TED talks to Ted dot com. With podcasts on Spotify. You can learn how to balance a budget, balancer diet, and how to feel balanced while meditating, even if you're still wondering if the cat's been fed you can also download episodes for those times when you've gone off the grid to get all that newfound balance in your life. So start the year off right with podcasts on Spotify this month in line with sticking to healthy New Year's resolutions. Spotify partnered with Ted to bring you a bonus talk on health and wellness here. It is. We hope you enjoy. What you're doing right now at this very moment is killing you. More than cars or the internet or even that little mobile device. We keep talking about the technology. You're using the most almost every day is this your tush nowadays. People are sitting nine point three hours a day, which is more than we're sleeping at seven point seven hours sitting is so incredibly prevalent. We don't even question how much for doing it. And because everyone else is doing it. It doesn't even occur to us that it's not okay in that way, sitting has become the smoking of our generation. Of course, there's health consequences to this scary ones. Besides the waist. Things like breast cancer and colon cancer are directly tied to our lack of physical activity. Ten percent. In fact, on both of those six percent for heart disease seven percent for type two diabetes, which is what my father died f. Now, any of those stats should convince each of us to get off our Duff more. But if you're anything like me, it won't what did get me. Moving was a social interaction someone invited me to a meeting, but couldn't manage a fit me into a regular sort of conference room meeting and said I have to walk my dogs tomorrow. Could you come that? Kind of odd to do. And actually that first meeting. I remember thinking I have to be the one to ask the next question because I knew I was going to huff and puff during this conversation. And yet I've taken that idea and made it my own so instead of going to coffee meetings or fluorescent lit conference room meetings. I asked people to go on a walking meeting to the tune of twenty to thirty miles a week. It's changed my life. But before that what actually happened was I used to think about it as you could take care of your health or you could take care of obligations and one always came at the cost of the other. So now several hundred of these walking meetings later of learned a few things, I there's this amazing thing about actually getting out of the box that leads to out of the box thinking, whether it's nature or the exercise itself, it certainly works and second in probably the more reflective one is just about how much each of us can hold problems in opposition when they're really not that way. And if we're going to solve problems and look at the world really differently whether it's in governance or business or environmental issues job creation. Maybe we can think about how to reframe those problems as having both things be true. Because it was when that happened with this walk and talk idea that things became doable, and sustainable and viable, so I started this talk talking about the Tisch. End with the bottom line, which. Walk and talk walk the talk. You'll be surprised at how fresh air drives fresh thinking. And the way that you do you'll bring into your life, an entirely new set of ideas. Thank you. Or? Ex-?
How bad data keeps us from good AI | Mainak Mazumdar
"Hi it's hugh you're listening to. Ted talks daily. Artificial intelligence is already a big force in our business world and daily lives but as data science executive might knock mazumdar lays out the data that. Ai depends on has fallen short. And that means we're building possibly harmful biases that hurt marginalized groups into our algorithms. His talk from ted salon. Twenty twenty raises some serious red flags but it offers a way to reset before biases grow. Even more damaging. Ted chuck daly is supported by the i n. t i'd like to pause for a second to talk to you about the i. N t v. i n. t is a global digital solutions partner for some of the world's biggest company for over twenty five years. They've been committed to helping business leaders drive growth and innovation but more than that. They're focused on creating purpose digital solutions. That make tomorrow a better place for all for more information on visit. Www dot make their tomorrow dot com. I could add sixteen billion dollars to the global economy in next ten years. This economy is not going to be billed by billions of people or millions of factories but by comparison algorithm we have already seen amazing benefits of ai. In simplifying tasks been efficiencies and inputting our lives however when it comes to fair and equitable policy decision making has not lived up to its promise is becoming a gatekeeper to the economy deciding who gets a job and who gets to alone is only enforcing an accelerating our bias at speed and scale which societal implications so is failing us are we designing these algorithms to deliver biased and wrong decisions as a data scientist. I'm here to tell you it's not the algorithm but the bias data. That's responsible for decisions to make a possible for humanity and society. We need a argenta reset instead of algorithms. We need to focus on the data. We're spending time and money to scale the i d- expense of designing and collecting high-quality and contextual data. We need to stop the data or the biased. We already have and focused on three. Things did i- infrastructure did a quality and did a literacy in june of this year. We saw embarrassing bias in the duke university. I model pulse which enhanced a blurry. Image into a d- recognizeable photograph off a person. This algorithm incorrectly enhanced on on white image in jock asian image african american new images where underrepresented in the training set leading to wrong decisions and predictions. Probably this is not the first time you've seen on a i. Miss identify a black person's image. Despite an improved a methodology the under representation of racial and ethnic population still left us with a bias. Resolves this research is academic however not all buyers are academic biases have. We'll consequences take the twenty twenty. U s census to census is the foundation for many social and economic policy decisions. Therefore the census is required to count hundred percent of the population in the united states. However with the pandemic and the politics of the citizenship question under counting minorities is a real possibility. I expect significant under counting of minority groups. Who are hard to locate contact persuade and interview for the census under accounting will introduce bias. A noodle the quality of our infrastructure. Let's look at undercounts. In twenty ten census sixteen million people were wounded in the final accounts. This is as large as the total population of arizona. Arkansas oklahoma and iowa put together for that year. We have also seen about a million kids under age. Five hundred counted in two thousand. ten census. Now under counting of minorities is common in other national census as minorities can be harder to reach their mistrust towards the government are delivering area under political unrest for example the trillion sensors in two thousand sixteen undercounted aboriginals and torres state propulation by about seventeen one five percent. We estimate under counting in twenty twenty to be much higher than twenty ten and implications of this bias can be massa census. The most trusted open and bubbly available. Rich data on population composition and characteristics while businesses have proprietary information on consumers to census bureau reports definitive public. Counseling age gender ethnicity race. Embalming family status as well as geographic distribution which are foundation of the population did infrastructure when minorities are undercounted. He model supporting of the transportation. Housing healthcare insurance are likely to overlook the communities that require these services the most first step to improving results is to make the database representative of age gender. It's an e city and race person statea sin census is so important. We have to make every effort to count hundred percent. Investing in this data quality and accuracy is essential to making a possible not for only few and privileged but for everyone into society most is systems. Use the data that's already available or collected for some other purposes because he is convenient and cheap yet to did applauded discipline that requires commitment real commitment. This attention to the definition did a collection and measurement of the bias is not only under appreciated in the role to speed skill. Convenience is often ignored as part of nielsen data science team. I went to feel visit to collect. Data visiting retail stores outside shanghai and bangalore. The goal of that visit was to measure retail sales from the stores. We drove miles outside. The city found this small stores informal hot to reach. And you re wondering. Why are we interested. In this specific stores. We could have selected a store in the city where the electronic data could be easily integrated into a data pipeline cheap convenient and easy y areso obsessed with the quality and accuracy of the data from stores. That answer is simple because the data phone these rural stores matter according to international labor organization forty percent chinese and sixty five percent of indians living in rural areas. Imagine the bias in decision when sixty five percent of consumption in india east excluded in models. Meaning the decision will. Favor are over the rural we all these rule arben context and signals on livelihood. Lifestyle economy and values retail brands will make wrong investments on pricing advertising and marketing or the arben bias will lead to wrong policy decisions with regards to held and other investments wrong. Decisions are not the problem with the algorithm. It's a problem. The data that exclude area intend to measure in the first place. The did on. The context is a priority not the algorithms. Let's look at another example. I visited this remote trailer park home in oregon state and new york city apartments to invite these homes to participate in nelson panels. Panels are statistically representative sample of homes that we invited to participate in the measurement or a bit of time our mission to include everybody in the measurement led us to collect data from this hispanic and african homes. Who use over the air tv reception to an antenna permian data these homes constitute fifteen percent of us households which is about forty five million people and focus on quality means. We made every effort to collect information from this fifteen percent hard to reach groups. Why does it matter. This is a sizable group. That's very very important to the marketers brands. As well as the media companies we all the data the marketers and brand and their models would not be able to reach these folks as well as show ads through this very very important minority populations and the ad revenue the broadcasters such as the mongol are univision would not being able to deliver free content including news media. Which is so foundational to our democracy. This data is essential for businesses and society are once in lifetime opportunity to reduce human bias in scotch the data instead of racing to build new algorithms. My mission is to build a better data infrastructure. That makes ethically i possible. I hope you join me in my mission as well. Thank you one more thing. Do you have an idea worth spreading. Ted is hosting a global idea search with a mission to hear big bold ideas from every corner of the world. A select group of people from the application pool will be invited to give. Ted talks either. Virtually or in person applied to give your own ted talk go dot ted dot com flash idea search applications due by twenty first. Twenty twenty one.
The paradigm shift toward equitable tech access across Africa | 'Gbenga Sesan
"It's ted talk. Daily emily's hugh teacher strikes student protests and a lack of basic supplies and technology. That was the reality for east african schools when social entrepreneur. Bengals grew up in his talk from ted salon. Twenty twenty he says centuries of wealth inequality is a global epidemic and he shares the work. He's doing to level the playing field in a way that's going beyond just putting computers in apps in the hands of poor. I once watched this video of a religious. The promise school in jamaica there are two teams the yellow team and blue team and the kids are doing great walking so hard and ruining so fast. I'm the yellow team. Asked the lead until this little boy gets the baton and ruins in the wrong direction. My favorite part is wonder of chases him looking like is a battle. Pass out trying to save this tuition and get the lead to run in the right direction in many ways. That's what it's like for many young people in africa. The many pieces behind the appears on the other side of the inequality and they're also running in the wrong direction because as much as we might wish otherwise and aspire to build economic and social systems awaits not the case global development is aries. And it's a race that my own country. Nigeria and own continent africa are losing inequality must seen as the global epidemic that it is from the boy who can afford to dream because of the disappointment that could come with it to the gal keep school in order to sell snacks in traffic just to fund our school fees it is clear that inequality is at the center of many of the world's problems affect and not just the bottom forty percent of us but everyone young men and women would get set on the path of opportunities become frustrated and may not like the choices to make in that tend to get what they think directed deserve or punish those that are zoom. Keep them away from those better opportunities by doesn't have to be this way. If we as humanity make different choices we have the ability. We need to feel that opportunity gap but we just have to prioritize it. I grew up many pieces behind. Even though i was a smart kid. Growing up in correct it town three kilometers from lagos. It felt like a list was disconnected from the rest of the world and one where dreams were limited. But i wanted to get ahead on. When i saw a computer for the first time in my i was spellbound and i knew i had to get my hands or whatever it was this was ninety one and there were only two computers for the entire school of more than five hundred students so the in charge said computers. Were not for people like me. Because i wouldn't understand how to use them. You would only allow my friend and his two brothers songs of a professor of computer science to use it because they already knew what they were doing in university. I was so desperate to be our computers that to make sure i had access to the computer lab. I slept there at night. Even when the campus was closed due to teacher strikes and student protests. I didn't want a computer. Until i was gifted one in two thousand and two but what i learned devices amid up four in drive and determination however company out in computer labs in order to teach of corden isn't a systemic solution which is why i started initiative to up all nigerians lend to technology to help them run faster and for thought to what they hope and dreams and help our nation and to our continent great leaps forward in development. You to put simply as possible. My goal is for everyone in africa to become famous. I don't mean like a celebrity. I mean i want everyone to be like famous. When famous inaugur iffy came to paradigm initiative yet completed i school but couldn't afford college and its options in life limited. When i asked famous recently about way would have been without our training program. You wrote out a list of avs including ending up on the streets jobless and ominous at risk of doing things proud of but luckily famous kim to pilot initiative in two thousand seven because his friends who were part of a youth group i thought about my plants kept talking about a free competitor program and doing training famous pit crews attention unexcelled when the united kingdom trade and investment team. Adi you deputy commissioner in lagos apsos to recommend if you potential interns were commended famous and a few of us to be interviewed. Good internship and while there he heard about an entry clearance assistant job at ukiah commission in buddha. He applied even though without a college degree. No one thought he had a shot. He was putting behind but it wasn't a technology that helped him get ahead. It was the extra training training route ted in this community. Twenty one hundred students context and his challenges training that helped him changes life for the better fit most got a job and then saved enough to pay his way. through university. Famous medical bump chemistry graduate from delta state university is now echarte content and since then manager with one of the wards beef for professional services firms wave one innovation awards consecutively for the last four years. But let's recap. The computer didn't do that. We'd without that additional trenin support famous wouldn't be way east. Today finishes not given everyone computer and especially program finesse is helping make sure everyone asks the same access and training that can help them make use of all the things to improve their lives when people will off for behind finis isn't given everyone dissimilarity to compete fairness is helping those were behind to get to the same starting line with everyone else and giving them a chance to run their own race in the right direction yet. There are millions of young people who have not been as fortunate a famous. And i still don't have the skills let alone the wheel to face insurmountable inequality as more workers and students now have to complete tasks or learn from home. This inequality is exponentially pronounced and we dire consequences. This is why. I do what i do through initiative but just like many intervision programs. There's a limit to how many young people we can reach through three centers. We've now taken the training to where the kids are but public. Schools are so illegit that we have to bring devices access. In many cases we have to provide power supply since two thousand seven with what we young nigerians in order to improve their lives and of their families to give just one example or go to kobi's father ktar our sisters and among out because he preferred to have a son but when she competed our program got a job and became family's breadwinner. Father came calling admitting that it was wrong about a w- off of the girl in addition to our work at the trade centers and in schools. We're not planning to acquire mobile units buses acute with access with devices and with power and conserve multiple schools. Yes when he'd better access to technology and policies that fascinated open internet access freedom of expression and more but the best computers in the world could fall in a democratic forest but no one will hear them let alone use them if they were mouth away hall in whatta from a well or foraging for scrap metal to pay school fees in a school that teaches them computer skills just like the fox's snickers in the world can help iran a mouse behind everyone else a never forget been invited back to my high school. While it was nigeria's information technology youth embassador it ten years after had been denied access to using the computer in that very same school but yeah was been introduced. Ihram model was supposedly shipped by the same school after my presentation. That teacher who said i could never not use. Computers was quick to grab the microphone and tell everyone that remembered me as a student and was sure i had it in me along. It was right. It didn't know it at a time. But i did have it in me. Famous additon him. Oga chew additon. How the bottom forty percent. I've written them. Are we going to see the life changing opportunities for people like them like that. It said while we're going to recognize that centuries of inequality can be solved by gadgets by training and resources that fully level the playing field fairness is not about giving every child a computer on an up fairness is connecting them to access to training and additional support that they need to take equal advantage of those competitors and ops. That's how we pass them the button and help them catch up and start running in the right direction. Unchanged lives thank you. Ted talks daily is hosted by me. Least hugh and produced by ted. The music is from allison. Leyton brown in our mixer is christopher phasing. Bogin we record the talks at ted events. We host or from ted ex events which are organized independently by volunteers. All over the world. And we'd love to hear from you. Leave a review on apple podcasts. Or email us at podcast. At ted dot com.
When technology can read minds, how will we protect our privacy? | Nita Farahany
"This. Ted talk features professor lawyer and author Mita a Fara Honey recorded live at Ted salon. The NextWave twenty eighteen. Hey, there you listen to talks daily to hear exciting refreshing, people in ideas. So we're excited to recommend another podcast. It's called. Here's the thing. And it's hosted by EMMY winning actor Alec Baldwin Alec talks with some of the biggest names of today and yesterday about art politics media and culture people like, Nicole Ferman, Tina, Brown and quest love checkout. Here's the thing from WNYC studios. Find it on apple podcasts or wherever you listen. In the months following the two thousand nine presidential election in Iran. Protests erupted across the country. The Orion government violently suppressed. What came to be known as the Iranian green movement even blocking mobile signals to cut off communication between the protesters. My parents who emigrated to the United States in the late nineteen sixties spent substantial time there where all of my large extended family live when I would call my family in Tehran during some of the most violent crackdown of the protest. None of them. Dare discuss with me. What was happening? They are. I knew too quickly steer the conversation to other topics all of us understood what the consequences could be other perceived dissident action. But I still wish I could have known what they were thinking or what they were feeling. What if I could have or more frighteningly what if the Iranian government could have would they have arrested them based on what their brains revealed that day, maybe closer than you think with our growing capabilities and neuroscience, artificial intelligence and machine learning, we may soon know a lot more of what's happening in the human brain as a bioethicist, a lawyer, a philosopher an Iranian American. I'm deeply concerned about what this means for our freedoms, and what kinds of protections we need. I believe we need a right to cognitive liberty as a human right that needs to be protected. If not our freedom of thought access and control over our own brains, and our mental privacy will be threatened. Consider this. The average person thinks thousands of thoughts each day as a thought takes form like a math calculation or a number a word neurons are interacting in the brain creating miniscule electrical discharge when you've a dominant mental state like relax -ation, hundreds and thousands of neurons are firing in the brain, creating concurrent electrical discharges and characteristic patterns that can be measured with electro and Seth lager Fyvie or EEG. In fact, that's what you're seeing right now, you're seeing my brain activity that was recorded in real time with a simple device that was worn on my head. Or you're seeing is my brain activity when I was relaxed and curious to share this information with you. I wore one of the early consumer base EEG devices like this one which recorded the electrical activity in my brain in real time. It's not unlike the fitness trackers that some of you may be wearing to measure your heart rate or the steps that you've taken or even your sleep activity. It's hardly the most sophisticated neuro imaging technique on the market. But it's already the most portable and the most likely to impact our everyday lives. This is extraordinarily. There are simple wearable device we could literally see inside the human brain. And learn aspects of our mental landscape without ever uttering a word while we can't reliably decode complex thoughts. Just yet. We can already gauge a person's mood and with the help of artificial intelligence. We can even decode some single digit numbers or shapes or simple words that a person is thinking or hearing or seeing despite some inherent limitations in EEG. I think it's safe to say that with our advances and technology more and more of what's happening in the human brain. Tan and will be decoded over time already using one of these devices an epileptic can no they're going to have an epileptic seizure before it happens. A paraplegic can type on a computer with their thoughts alone. A US based company has developed technology to embed these sensors into the headrest of automobiles so they can track driver concentration distraction and cognitive load while driving Nissan insurance companies and AAA have all taken note. You can even watch this shoes your own adventure movie the moment, which with an EEG headset changes the movie based on your brain base reactions giving you a different ending every time. Your attention weigh ins. This may all sound great. And as a bioethicist, I am a huge proponent of empowering people to take charge of their own health. And while being by giving them access to information about themselves, including this incredible, new brain, decoding technology. But I worry I worry that we will voluntarily or involuntarily. Give up our last bastion of freedom. Our mental privacy that we will trade our brain activity for rebates or discounts on insurance. Or free access to social media accounts. Or even to keep our jobs, in fact in China. The train drivers on the Beijing Shanghai high-speed rail the busiest of its kind in the world are required to wear EEG devices to monitor their brain activity while driving according to some new sources in government run factories in China. The workers are required to wear EEG sensors to monitor their productivity and their emotional states at work workers are even sent home if their brains showed less than stellar concentration on their jobs or emotional agitating. It's not going to happen tomorrow. But we're headed to a world of brain transparency. And I don't think people understand that that could change everything everything from our definitions of data privacy to our laws to our ideas about freedom. In fact in my lab at university. We recently conducted a nationwide study in the United States to see if people appreciated the sensitivity of their brain information. We asked people to rate their perceived sensitivity of thirty three different kinds of information from their social security numbers to the content of their phone conversations. They're relationship history their emotions their anxiety, the mental images in their mind and the thoughts in their mind. Shockingly people rated their social security number as far more sensitive than any other kind of information, including their brain data. I think this is because people don't yet understand or believe the implications of this new brain, decoding technology after all if we can know the inner workings of the human brain, our social security numbers are the least of our worries. Think about it in a world of total grain transparency who would dare have a politically dissident thought. Or creative. One I worried that people will some self-censor in fear of being ostracized by society, or the people will lose their jobs because of their waning attention or emotional instability, or because they're contemplating collective action against their employers. Check coming out will no longer be an option because people's brains will long ago have revealed their sexual orientation, their political ideology or their religious preferences. Well, before they were ready to consciously share that information with other people, I worry about the ability of our laws to keep up with technological change. Take the first amendment of the US constitution, which protects freedom of speech. Does it also protect freedom of thought? And it's so does that mean that we're free to alter our thoughts. However, we want or can the government or society, tell us what we can do with our own brains can the NS. Stay spy on our brains using these new mobile devices can the companies that collect the brain data through their applications sell. This information to third parties right now, no laws prevent them from doing. So it could be even more problematic in countries that don't share the same freedoms enjoyed by people in the United States. What would have happened during the Iranian green movement? If the government had been monitoring, my family's brain activity and had believed them to be sympathetic to the protesters. Is it so far fetched to imagine a society in which people are arrested based on their thoughts of committing a crime like in the science fiction? Dystopia society minority report already in the United States in Indiana. An eighteen year old was charged with attempting to intimidate his school by posting a video of himself shooting people in the hallways, except the people were zombies and the video was of him playing an augmented reality video game all interpreted to be a mental projection of his subject of intense. This is exactly why our brains need special protection. If our brains are just as subject to data tracking an aggregation is our financial records and transactions. If our brains can be, hacked and tracked like our online activities are mobile phones and applications the we're on the brink of a dangerous threat to our collective humanity. Before you panic. I believe that there are solutions to these concerns, but we have to start by focusing on the right things when it comes to privacy protections in general, I think we're fighting a losing battle by trying to restrict the flow of information. Instead, we should be focusing on securing rights and remedies against the misuse of our information, if people had the right to decide how their information was shared and more importantly had legal redress. Is there information was missed us against them say to discriminate against them in an employment setting or in healthcare and education. This would go a long way to build trust. In fact, in some instances, we want to be sharing more of our personal information. Studying aggregated information can tell us so much about our health and our wellbeing, but to be able to safely share our information we need special protections for mental privacy. This is why we need a right to. Cognitive liberty. This right would secure for us our freedom of thoughts and rumination our freedom of self-determination, and it would ensure that we have the right to consent to or refuse access and alteration of our brains by others, this right could be recognized as part of the Universal Declaration of human rights, which has a stab mechanisms for the enforcement of these kinds of social rights. During the Ronnie in green movement. The protesters use the internet and good old fashioned word of mouth to coordinate their marches. And some of the most Friesinger restrictions and Iran were lifted as a result. But what does the Ronnie and government had used brain surveillance to detect and prevent the protest. With the world has ever heard. The protesters cries. The time has come for us to call for cognitive liberty revolution to make sure that we responsibly advanced technology that could enable us to embrace the future while fiercely protecting all of us for many person company or government that attempts to unlawfully access or alter our innermost lives. Thank you. For more TED talks about at Ted dot com.
The crisis of leadership -- and a new way forward | Halla Tmasdttir and Bryn Freedman
"This interview features entrepreneur Hala Tomas odor in conversation with Ted institute curator Bryn Freedman recorded live at Ted salon. Imagine if twenty nineteen. Hey, TED talks daily listeners. I'm Adam grant, I hosted another podcast from ten it's hold work life, and it's about how to make work not suck. In our latest episode. You don't remediate your way to excellence, no one has ever excelled because they stopped making dramatic Lara's in their writing using your strengths to make you stronger. That's on the next episode of work life with Adam grant. So you keep talking about leadership as a real crisis of conformity. Can you explain to us? What do you mean by that? What do you see as a crisis of conformity? I think it's a crisis of conformity when we continue to do business and lead in the way, we always have yet. The evidence is overwhelming that the world needs us to change our ways. So let's look a little bit at that evidence. Scientists told us that we're facing a climate crisis. Yet forty percent of board directors. Don't think climate belongs in the boardroom, and we have kids marching in the streets now asking us to be accountable for their future. We have a crisis of inequality. We have yellow jackets not just in the streets of friends, but all over the world. And yet we continue to see examples of businesses and other leaders fueling that anger. Do you think the pitchforks are coming? I definitely think this is not sustainable, and the reason why it's so. For us to deal with this sort of these complicated crisis. That are interrelated is that we are at the lowest levels of trust we've ever been at and the UK three percent of people trust their government to solve the Brexit crisis. And that was in December. I think it's probably gone down since then what do you think new leadership actually looks like we need code Agius leaders yet they have to be humble, and they have to be guided by a moral, compass and the moral compasses the combination of having a social purpose. You can't have your license to operate any more without a purpose that contributes to society, but what to me has been missing from that dialogue is a set of principles. We cannot just define why we exist. We have to define how we're going to do business. A how we're going to lead and to us that has to be to solve these imminent crisis. The climate crisis the crisis of inequality on the crisis of trust. So at the beat team, we embrace sustainability equality and accountability. As our principals. Do you think this whole question of purpose is really window dressing? They're saying what they think people want to hear. But they're actually not making the fundamental changes that are necessary. Lot of people feel that way on. I think there's a growing momentum behind that. So I think the world is calling for responsible leadership now and any leader who wants to be around for the twenty first century really needs to start thinking and holistically how they're going to be part of the solution and not window-dress anymore. You have to do it for real. Now. Do you see anybody out there who's doing it in a way that you think is actually effective and has a real long term impact? Fortunately, we have some great leaders out there and just to give one example, Emmanuel forbear who's one of the newest members of the team. He's the CEO of the known, the world's largest yogurt maker and major food company a real global company. He so committed to sustainability that he's not only changing the ways of his own business. But his entire supply chain. He's so committed to. Quality that when he took on a CEO, and he said, Denver, balanced matters. He he created gender-balanced executive team and gave men and women equal maternity paternity leave. He's so committed to accountability that he turned his US operations into a b corporations. Now, many of you may not know what that is. But that's a company that holds itself responsible for not just prophet, but its impact on people on the planet and transparently report on their performance on all of that. It's the largest B Corp in the world. So to me that's holistic courageous leadership. And it's it's really the vision we all need to hold is this back to the future. I wonder when I think about companies Anheuser Busch comes to mind in America one hundred year company that invested in its community that gave a living wage before it ended up losing and getting sold. Are we really looking now for companies that are global and community citizens or is that something that is not even useful anymore? Well, you can do this. For the reasons that it's risky actually to continue without doing the right thing. Now, you can't attract the right talent. You can't attract customers, and increasingly you won't be able to attract capital, you might do it for risk research. You might do it for a business opportunity reasons because this is where the growth is which is why many leaders are doing the right thing. But at the end of the day, we need to ask ourselves who are we hold ourselves accountable for and if that isn't the next generation, I don't know who so I wanna just make very clear because we tend to think about leadership is only her those who sit in positions of power to me leadership is not all like that. There's a leader inside of every single one of us and our most important work in live is to release that leader. And I think one of the greatest global examples, we have someone who didn't know one gave her power is the sixteen year old girl, Greta Thurn, Burke cease from Sweden and a few years ago severely became season has Asper became passionate about our. Climate crisis learned everything about it and faced with evidence seat just felt so disappointed in her leadership that see started striking in front of the sweetest parliament. And now she has started a global movement on hundreds of thousands of school kids are out in the streets. Asking us to hold ourselves accountable for their future. And I know one gave her that authority and see now speaks to the leaders of the world heads of states and really is impacting the world. So I really think that when we think about leadership today, it can't be defined to those in positions of power. But they have this this proportionately, greater responsibility. But all of us need to think about what am I doing? How am I contributing and we need to release that leader inside and actually start making the positive impact this world is calling for right now. But we have such hierarchical leadership. I mean, I understand what you're saying. It's nice to release the leader inside. But in these corporations the truth is it's extremely hierarchy coal what can company. Due to create less vertical and more horizontal relationships. Why I'm a big believer? And I'm long been passionate about closing the gender gap. And I really believe gender-balanced leadership is the way to go in order to embrace a leadership style that has been shown to be more powerful. That's when both men and women and brace both masculine and feminine values. It actually is proven and resource that that's the most effective leadership style. But I'm increasingly now thinking about how we close the generational gap. Because look at these young children in the streets around the world. They're asking us to lead and Kofi Annan used to say, you're never too young to lead. And then he would add or too old to learn. And I think we have now entered this era where sort of we need the wisdom of those with experience, but we need the digital natives of the young generation to co mentor or to mentor us just as much as we can help with wisdom from the older people. So it's a new reality. And these old showed of hierarchical ways to think about things they're increasingly coming under pressure in this reality, and you've actually called the hubris syndrome. Can you talk about that? Well, yes, I I think Uber assists. Can't is our cancer and leadership. That's when leaders think they know it all can do it all have all the answers don't think they need to surround themselves with people who will make them better. With to me would income cases be more women and younger people, and and people who are diverse and have different opinions in general and hubris syndrome is so present than leadership still, and we know many examples of them, I don't need to name them and the problem with that. Yeah. We know them and all over the world not just in this country. But that kind of leadership doesn't and least leaders in others and no one person or no one sector even has the solutions. We now need to come up with the creativity and collaboration we need the. The bold and the brave leadership we need to come up with solutions that cross government private sector civil society. Young people older people people of all different backgrounds coming together is the way to solve the issues that are in front of us. Do you see that kind of leadership coming from the bottom up or the top down? Or do you think a crisis is going to force us into a reexamination of all of this as someone who lived through the most infamous financial meltdown in my home, country Iceland. I hope we don't need another one to learn or to wake up, but I do see that we can't choose one or the other. It is going to have to. We do have to transform the way we do elite from the top the boardroom the CEO's we really do have to transform that. But increasingly we will transform that. Because we have the social movements coming from the bottom and throughout society, and the solutions exist, the only thing that's missing is will. So if we just all. Find a way to embrace a moral compass of our own to figure out v exist and how we're going to lead. And if we embrace cuts and humility in equal amount, each one of us can't be part of this ten year period where we can dramatically transform the world we live in and make it just and make it about humanity and not just the financial markets. Well, we have a lot of people here who I bet have questions for you. And we have a few minutes for questions. So is there anybody that would like to ask a question? Hello. My name is Cheryl. I'm an aspiring leader. And I have a question about how did he lied when you have no influence if I am just an analyst, and I wanna speak to senior management about a change that I feel like will affect the whole company. How do I go about changing their minds when they feel as if they've had relationships that are set. That their way of business is set. How do you change minds when you had no influence? Well, thank you very much for that from tastic question. So sometimes people at the top won't listen, but it's interesting that with the low trust we haven't society right now the greatest trust we have is actually between them ploy and the employer according to recent research. So I think that relationship may be the most powerful way to actually transform the way we do things. So I would start by trying to build a coalition for your good idea. And I don't know a single leader who today will not listen to a concern that many of their employees hold. I'll give you an example from another team leader, Mark Benny of the see of Salesforce, he's really been outspoken on homelessness in San Francisco on on LGBTQ, I- rights, and all of the things that he's been standing up for he does because his employees's care about them. So don't ever. Think you don't have power. If you don't sit in a position of power find the way to go convince him or her and Mark for example, was convinced to close the gender pay Cup by two women who worked inside of his organization who told him we have a gender pay Cup. He didn't believe it. He said bring me the data. They did. And he's smart enough to know he needs to do something about it. And I was one of the first tech leaders to step up and do so well, and terribly so don't ever think that you don't have power, even if you don't sit in a position of power, but find other people to support to and. And make the case. Thank you. Anybody else any other questions? Hi, I'm overwhelmed by fascination with everything you're saying. So thank you. I just wanted to ask how like diversity in opinion, and thaw and also background has impacted your leadership ability. And what do you think is the barricade that is limiting the overflow of diversity in all business settings? And what you think can impact the change in that setting. But also to disrupt the overflow of like generations of people like staying in place in what you think is the next step to breaking certain like several glass ceilings, we're going to do an entire salon just on that question. I think Brent cited. Well, but let me try to touch up on it. So the way I see gender. It is a spectrum that's valuable to you know, men also have gender we sometimes forget about that. And I re-. We sometimes forget about that. And so I I actually played a very masculine woman early in my career because those were the rules of the games. I achieved some success with it. But fortunately, I've got to a place where I started embracing my feminine side as well. But I would still say that the best leaders embrace both both women and men, but I see gender. Also as one of the most powerful levers to shift values in culture. So the reason I'm so passionate about women and leadership and believe that that balances needed. Is because right now, our definition of success is incredibly masculine. It's about financial profit alone or economic growth alone. And we all know that we need more than money. I mean, we knew he'd wellness wellbeing of people, and there is no future beyond the wellbeing of our planet. So I think gender may very well be one of the most powerful levers to help all of us shift our economic and social systems to be more welcoming and the answer to your last part. It's to- complicated. But let me try to give you a short one. I believe that the way talent and consumption is shifting is going to increase in. They get companies to look at adding different into their leadership because sameness is not working and differences a superpower. The francis. A superpower thank you very much Hala. Thank you so much. I wish we can talk to you all day. And. For more TED talks to Ted dot com.
Love letters to strangers | Hannah Brencher
"Hey I'm elise. Hewa. Ted Talks, daily storyteller and writer Hannah Brent Scher grew up in our screen dominated paperless world. So when she was twenty two, she did something radical she wrote dozens and dozens of handwritten letters to strangers and left them across New York Bush's and benches. In today's archive talk from Ted Salon and Twenty Twelve, she recount this effort of hers and the moving impacted made on others. If you're at all like me you might find it will inspire you to return to letter writing. I was one of the only kids in college who had a reason to go to the Po box at the end of the day, and that was mainly because my mother has never believed in email in facebook in texting or cell phones in general and so all other kids. Their parents I was literally waiting by the mailbox to get a letter from home to see how the weekend had gone, which was a little frustrating when grandma was in the hospital but. I was just looking for some sort of scribble some unkempt cursive from my mother. and. So when I moved to New York City after college and got completely sucker punched in the face by depression I did the only thing I could think of at the time I wrote those same kinds of letters that my mother had written me for strangers and Tuck them all throughout the city dozens and dozens of them. I left them everywhere in cafes and in libraries at the UN everywhere. I blog about those letters and the days when they were necessary and I posed a kind of crazy promise to the Internet that if you asked me for a handwritten letter, I would write you one. No questions asked. Night my inbox morphed into this harbor of heartbreak a single mother in Sacramento girl being bullied in rural. Kansas. All asking me a twenty, two year old girl who barely even knew her own coffee order to write them better and give them a reason to wait by the mailbox. Today I fuel a global organization that is fueled by those trips to the mailbox fueled by the ways in which we can harness social media like never before to write and male strangers letters when they need the most. But most of all fueled by crates of male filled with the scripting of ordinary people, strangers, writing letters to other strangers not because they're ever going to meet and laugh over a cup of coffee but because they have found one another by way of letter writing. But you know the thing that always gets me about these letters. Is that most of them have been written. By people that have never known themselves loved on a piece of paper. It could not tell you about the ink of their own love letters they're the ones from my generation. The ones of us that have grown up into a world where everything is paperless and where some of our best conversations have happened upon a screen. We have learned to diary our pain onto facebook and we speak swiftly and one hundred, forty characters or less. But what if it's not about efficiency this time you know I was on the subway yesterday. With this mail crate, which is a conversation starter. Let me tell you and. Amanda stared at me and he was like, well, why don't you use the Internet and I thought well Sir I am not a strategist nor am I specialist I am merely a storyteller. And so I could tell you about a woman whose husband has just come home from Afghanistan and she is having a hard time on earth this thing called conversation and so she tucks love letters throughout the house as a way to say come back to me find me when you can. Or A girl who decides that she is going to leave love letters around her campus in Dubuque. Iowa only to find her efforts ripple effected the next day when she walks out onto the quad and finds love letters hanging from the trees tucked in the bushes and the benches I or the man who decide that he's going to take his life uses facebook as a way to say goodbye to friends and family. Well, tonight, he sleeps safely stack of letters tucked beneath his pillow scripted by strangers who were there for him when? You know these are the kinds of stories that convinced me that letter writing will never again need to flip back her hair and talk about efficiency because she is an art form. Now, all the parts of her the signing scripting the mailing the doodles in the margins. The mere fact that somebody would even just sit down, pull out a piece of paper and think about someone the whole way through with an intention that is so much harder to unearth when the browsers up and the iphone is being. We've got six conversations rolling in at once that is an art form. That does not fall down to the Goliath of get faster. No matter how many social networks we might join. We still clutch close these letters to our chest to the words speak louder than loud when we turn pages into Palettes to stay the things that we have needed to say, the words we have needed to write to sisters and brothers and even to strangers for far too long. Thank you.
Are indoor vertical farms the future of agriculture? | Stuart Oda
"This ted talk features urban farm innovators Stewart Oda recorded. Live at Ted Salon. Rethink Twenty nineteen. You can get enhanced security for your home wifi network with Xfinity X. Fi if it's connected it's protected now that's simple easy awesome go to xfinity dot com call one eight hundred xfinity or visit a store today to learn more restrictions apply what if your email l. let you see a projects entire history and not just the messages sent to you. Then it wouldn't be email at all slack. Choose a better way to work. Get GET STARTED AT SLACK DOT com. So if you who live on planet earth and you're one of seven billion people that he's food every day. I need you to pay attention. Because over the next three decades we all need to address one one of the most critical global challenges of our generation and I'm not talking about climate change. I'm talking about Food and agriculture. In twenty-fifty twenty-fifty our global population is projected reached nine point eight billion with sixty eight percent of US living in urban city centers in order to feed this massive assive population. We won't increase our agricultural output by seventy percent over current levels. Just to put this into perspective we will need to grow more our food in the next thirty five to forty years than the previous ten thousand years combined put simply not only is our global population becoming bigger bigger. But it's also getting denser and we will need to grow significantly more food using significantly less land. Resources complicating our our current efforts to address. These major demographic shifts are the challenges facing the Agricultural Industry today globally one third of all the food that we produce is wasted acquitting to one point six billion tons of food that spoiled on the way to the market or expired in refrigerators or were simply thrown out by supermarkets and restaurants at the end of the day every single year. Up to six hundred million people will get sick eating contaminated terminated food highlighting the challenge that we have a maintaining global food safety and maybe unsurprisingly the agricultural industry is the single largest consumer of freshwater accounting for seventy percent of global usage. Now you'll be relieved to know that. The agricultural industry three and that the global movement by universities companies and NGOs is putting together a comprehensive research and developing novel technology to address us all of these issues and many have been doing it for decades but one of the more recent innovations in food production being deployed in industrial parks in North America in urban city centers of Asia and even in the desert of the Middle East is controlled environment. Agriculture controlled environment. Airman Agriculture is actually just a fancy way of saying whether or climate-proofed farming and many of these farms grow food three-dimensional in vertical racks as opposed to the two dimensions dimensions of conventional farms and so this type of food production is also referred to as indoor vertical farming. I've been involved in the indoor vertical farming space based for the past five and a half years developing technology to make this type of food production more efficient and affordable indoor vertical farming is a relatively recent phenomenon phenomena commercially speaking and the reason for this is that consumers care more about food safety and where their food comes from and also the necessary technology to make this possible is more readily available and lower cost and the overall cost of food. Production Globally is actually increasing making this type of food production more competitive. So if you want to build an indoor vertical farm you will need to replace some of conventional elements of farming with artificial substitutes starting with sunlight in indoor vertical farms natural sunlight is replaced with artificial lighting like led's while there are many different types of led's being used. I the one that we decided to install here is called full spectrum which was optimized for the type of vegetables that we were growing also in order to maximize is production. Forgiven space indoor vertical farms also utilize in install racking systems to grow vegetables vertically and some of the biggest facilities ladies stack their production fourteen to sixteen floors high now most of these farms or hydroponic or aeroponics systems. Which means that instead of using soil they a US a substitute material like polyurethane? sponges biodegradable Peat Moss and even use inorganic materials like per light and clay pellets. Another unique aspect about these farms is that they use a precise nutrient formula that circulated and recycled throughout the facility. And this is pumped directly to the vegetables root zone to promote plant growth and lastly these farms use a sophisticated monitoring and automation system to significantly increase productivity the efficiency and consistency and these tools also provide the added benefit are producing food that is more traceable and safe some some of the obvious benefits of growing food in this way is that you have year round vegetable production you have consistent quality and you predictable output. Some the other major benefits include significant resource use efficiencies particularly water for every kilogram of vegetables grown in this away. Hundreds of liters of water is conserved compared to conventional farming methods and with the water savings come similar savings in the USA fertilizer. One of the highest I yielding farms grows over three hundred and fifty times more food per square meter than a conventional farm and weather proofing means complete control troll of incoming contaminants and pests completely eliminating the need for the use of chemical pesticides and not to be mistaken. These farms can produce produce enormous amounts of food with one of the biggest facilities producing thirty thousand heads of vegetables a day however as with any new technology or innovation. There are some drawbacks. As you would imagine. Growing food in this way can be incredibly energy-intensive also these arms can only produce a small variety of vegetables commercially and the overall cost of the production still is quite high and in order to address these issues. Some of the biggest and most sophisticated farms are making significant significant investments starting with energy efficiency in order to reduce the high energy usage there are efforts to develop higher efficiency. Led's these to develop lasers optimized for plant growth and using even fiber optic cable channels sunlight directly into an indoor vertical farm during the day to reduce the need for artificial lighting also to reduce the labor costs associated with hiring a more sophisticated more urban and also more high skilled labor force robotics and automation is used extensively in large scale facilities. And you can never really be too resource efficient building building. Indoor vertical farms in and around urban city centers can help to shorten the agricultural supply chain and also help to maintain the nutritional content in vegetables. Also there are food deserts in many countries that have little to no access to nutritious vegetables and as this industry matures it will become impossible to provide more equitable access to high quality. Highly nutritious vegetables in even the most underprivileged communities and finally only and this is really exciting for me personally. Indoor vertical farming can actually be integrated seamlessly into the cityscape to help repurpose idle underutilized and unused urban infrastructure. In fact this is already happening today. ridesharing services have taken hundreds of thousands of cars off the road and they have significantly reduced the need for parking under utilized. Infrastructure is not simply limited to large-scale civil engineering projects projects and they can also include smaller spaces like idol restaurant corners. This is an example of a farm that we instilled directly into the partition of a hotel L. entrance in order to grow fresh herbs and micro Greens onsite for the chefs. Honestly if you look around you will find underutilized space everywhere. Everywhere under around and inside of urban urban developments I get to be a part of all these cool projects and and working in the agriculture industry to improve improve access and affordability to fresh nutritious produce. Hopefully soon by anyone anywhere has been the greatest joy and also the most humbling mm-hmm and intellectually challenging thing. I've ever done and now that I've convinced you that agriculture can be quite sexy. You'll be surprised it shocked to know that I still have trouble fully articulating. How and why? I decided to work or and continue to work in the agriculture industry. But a couple of years ago I found a rather unique answer hiding in plain sight. You see I read an article about how your name particularly in your last name can have a strong influence on everything from your personality to your professional career. This is my Japanese last name and the characters. Translate literally into small-farm thank you what if your email was organized by project and not by date would if everyone looked at the same thing instead of their own inbox. Then it wouldn't be the email at all forget. Your fragmented jumbled box and make the change to channels in slack spaces dedicated to individual projects topics or teams all. Your communication is neatly organized. Everyone on the same page slack. Choose a better way to work. GET STARTED AT SLACK DOT COM
A video game that helps us understand loneliness | Cornelia Geppert
"This ted talk features artists and video game maker. Cornelia captured recorded live at Ted Salon. Bright Line Initiative Twenty nineteen eighteen. Ted Talks daily is brought to you by Gleam. The Gleam Electric toothbrush is built with a minimalistic timeless design. That doesn't compromise performance. The brush comes in two colors black and white and use a sonic technology for a gentle ineffective clean with user centric details just right vibrations. Abrasions and sleek finishes gleam is designed to be functional beautiful and affordable goto gleam dot com slash Ted and get free shipping on every order that's G. L. E. M. dot com slash pet have. Have you ever felt lonely. The urge of wanting to connect with people. But you seem to have no one really would want to contact or it's a Friday night and you want to be with us but you have no energy to go out to instead you sit at home all evening watch net flicks and feel more alone than ever you feel like monster between humans that know how to function. This is Watt looniness. Third like to me. So I'm an artist and I processed my emotional word by sharing my feelings from art if you share your feelings with someone and the understand and share those feelings to you create an emotional and deep deep connection this y you can be surrounded by hundreds of people jump from one day to the next but still feel lonely. It's because these deeper connections have been made so I wasn't always happy child. Both I think we nearly have noticing a photo of me where I don't smile. Broadly off or joke around and this went on until well. It still has a case. Yeah but I had many friends group a until as a young adult. I moved to another city for my first job as a comic artist and like so many young thriving people all over the planet. I concentrated all my energy into my work life. But if you spend like ninety percent of your daily capacity trying to succeed at work of course there's nothing left to take care of the important aspects in your life like your human relationships. Nourishing friendships as an adult is work. You need to be consistent with connecting. You need to be open and honest and this is all I struggled with because I tend to come with flash my real feelings but trying to appear always happy and trying to make everyone else happy to by. I try to fix their problems and I know a lot of us are guilty of this because it's an easy way to not think about your own issues issues isn't it. The turning point came mm-hmm when I fell into an emotionally abusive relationship just a few years ago he isolated me and left me feeling more alone than ever. It was lowest point in my life but it was also my wakeup call because because it was the first time that I really felt like loneliness. Many artists puts things into their art. There are endless books. Movies paintings music's all filled with real emotion of an artist so as an artist myself I did the same. I shared my feelings. I wanted to help people cope with loneliness. I wanted to make some understand. Understand it to really experience through my art in a form of an interactive story a video game so our game because it C- off solitude you are a person named k who are suffering bring from such strong loneliness that her in a feeling anger feeling of hopelessness worthlessness. Turn to the outside and she becomes a monster. The Game Well K. is actually a representation of me and the past. Because I went through to overcome my straights. The game plays actually in case. Mind so you walk through a word that is flattered by. I heard here's and the weather's changing by her mood. How the mood has changing her and well? The only thing he wears the only thing is her backpack. It's the baggage we all all carey throughout our life and K.. Doesn't know how to cope with our emotions. And the right way so her backpack becomes bigger and bigger until it bursts burst and she finally forced to overcome her own struggles so in our story we present. Many different manifestations Haitians of loneliness loneliness through social exclusion is very common in our game. The brazos of que get booed in his school and he just wants to hide and fly away and we portray him as a huge bird. Monster surrounded by thick faulk deplete asked to actually walk through his school experience. The really fields harm that the brother had been through because for a long time. I'm nobody really listens to him but the very moment like friends and family stopped to listen. The first step towards overcoming this form of loneliness had been made we also shown loneliness and relationships like when parents just stay together for the sake of the kids. End Up hurting the entire family. We put the play literally in between the two parents. Why are they fighting? And you get hurt in the middle. The don't even see that said Dawda K is right there until she breaks down. We also show loneliness through mental health issues with the boyfriend of K.. Who suffers from depression and show said sometimes it is most important to focus on your own wellbeing? I the boyfriend camouflage has feelings so he appears like a long shiny wide but the moment he starts into interact act with his girlfriend. Kay The mask falls off and we see the Black Dog beneath it depression. Sometimes sometimes we put on a smile instead of dealing with the issues at hand and that can only make it worse. Effective people people around us and damage or relationships so K. herself we portray as ripped apart into her basic emotions. Some help you some trying to stop you served out is a huge creature. HMO always telling Kay how worthless she is and that she should just give up like real-life saved hold is blocking the pass and it seems impossible to overcome it destroying the omnipresence of saved out. They'll slow protests but in the game like you slowly like shrink hers so she turns from Safed out to actually healthy doubt and you can finally trust her advice we also show save destruction. It's a huge monster always lurking nearby under the water surface. Construction is the main antagonist of the game and she's always trying to drown you in the ocean of tears but when she actually drowns you do you wake up just a few moments ago and you have a chance to progress again. We wanted to show that we all go through hardships chips in our lives. We all but if you at least like stand up and try to move forward you are very likely to make eh through. He'll straggles step by step. Joy Joy is something that cannot cannot really embrace a touch. It's always something in the distance. We've pro-trade joy as a version of like a yellow raincoat so she is burnable towards the ocean of tears but joy can also turn into obsession and start to be actually harmful for key like when she starts obsessing over her boyfriend Brent joy will not turn back to normal and take a kid is realizing that her happiness should not depend on anybody else but herself some element appeal Eugene scary but if you're Overcome your reluctance and approach them. You soon sees that they are no monsters at all. But just Frederick beings that are simply overwhelmed by what life throws at Sam all of those emotions be it saved out or even save distraction. Um Don't completely benesch our game. The key messages to not only Shays for joy or happiness but to embrace oil emotions and bringing them into belle-anse being okay with sometimes not being seeing okay so everyone had its own loneliness story to tell the so we allies ation changed everything for me being much more open with my emotions and concentrating much more onto my private life. My friends my family me. When we LISA game like literally thousands of hens wrote us all sharing their stories for us and telling US said they felt not alone anymore just because they played our game now? Many people brought our city held. Hope for for better future for the for the first time. Indicates many assets therapy null just because Yeah just a cause.. Play our game and hopefully to overcome their own struggles our game. It's not therapy. It's not meant to syrupy. It's just my friends me sharing our stories through video games but we are so deeply thankful for every single message that people feel better just because we shared. Our story was then so I I. I don't completely overcame my urge to help us but I don't want to overcome it anymore. I love it. I just needed to bring it to a healthy size so it doesn't stand in the way of relationships anymore about even helped me to connect puts people so if you have an in a monster that is born of negative emotions it. It is not only the GO-TO kill that bouncer but to understand. Unions are complex beings. Look at what part heart of your life is so big that others for short look at what emotion you barely fear or maybe too much and move to. What's lowering speaks most of all it's about understanding that all the wide range of emotions and struggles makes makes us what we are humans? Thank you for more tax DOT com.
My journey to thank all the people responsible for my morning coffee | AJ Jacobs
"This. Ted talk features offer AJ Jacobs recorded live at Ted salon bright line initiative. Twenty eighteen after the talk if you'd like to explore AJ's ideas further check out his new Ted book. Thanks a thousand available anywhere. You buy books. The right hire can make a huge impact on your business. That's why it's so important to find the right person. But where do you find that individual linked in Lincoln jobs matches people to your role based on more of who they really are there skills interests in even how open they are to new opportunities. That's why a new hire is made every ten seconds using Lincoln. Hurry to Lincoln dot com slash Ted daily for fifty dollars off your first job post. That's linked dot com slash Ted daily. Terms and conditions apply. Ted talks daily is supported by progressive saving is the name of the game. And with progressives. Name your price tool your in the driver's seat when it comes to car insurance. Tell them how much you want to pay and they'll find options within your budget. Choose your coverage and start an online quote today at progressive dot com. So I don't like to boast, but I am very good at finding things to be annoyed about this is a real specialty of mine, I can hear one hundred compliments and a single and salt. And what do I remember the insult? And according to the research, I'm not alone. Unfortunately, the human brain is wired to focus on the negative. Now. This might have been helpful when we were cave people trying to avoid predators. But now it's a terrible way to go through life. It is a real major component of anxiety and depression. So how can we fight the brains negative bias, according to a lot of research? One of the best weapons is gratitude. So knowing this I started a new tradition in our house a couple of years ago before. Meal with my wife and kids, I would say a prayer of thanksgiving prayer is not quite the right word. I'm I'm agnostic. So so instead of thanking God, I would thank some of the people who helped make my food reality. I'd say I'd like to thank farmer who grew these tomatoes and the trucker who drove these tomatoes to the store and the cashier who rang these tomatoes up, and I thought it was gone pretty well, this tradition. Then one day, my ten year old son said, you know, dad, those people aren't in our apartment, they can't hear you. If you really cared. You would go and thank them in person. And I thought that's an interesting idea. Now, I'm a writer, and so my books I like to go on adventures go on quests. So I decided I'm gonna take my son up on his challenge. It seems simple enough and to make it even simpler, I decided to focus on just one item and item. I can't live without my morning Cup of coffee. Well, it turned out to be not so simple at all. This quest. Took me months. It took me around the world because I discovered that my coffee would not be possible without hundreds of people. I take for granted. So I would thank the trucker who drove the coffee beans to the coffee shop, but he couldn't have done his job without the road. So I would thank the people who pave the road. And then I would thank the people who made the asphalt for the pavement. And I came to realize that my. My coffee like so much else. In the world requires the combined work of a shocking number of people from all walks of life, architects, biologists designers, minors goatherds. You name it. I decided to call him I project. Thanks a thousand because I ended up thanking over a thousand people and it was overwhelming. But it was also wonderful because it allowed me to focus on the hundreds of things that go, right? Every day as opposed to the three or four that go wrong. And it reminded me of the astounding interconnectedness of our world, I learned dozens of lessons during this project. But let me just focus on five today. The first is look up. I started my trail of gratitude by thanking the barista at my local coffee shop Joe coffee in New York her. Name is Chung and Chung is one of the most upbeat people. You will ever meet big smiler and gas Aston hugger, but even for Chung being a barista is hard at that's because you are encountering people in a very dangerous state. You know, what it is pre caffeine? Asian. So Chung has had people yell at her until she cried, including a nine year old girl who didn't like the whipped cream design that Chung did on her hot chocolate. So so I thank Chung, and she thanked me for thanking her I cut it off there. I didn't want to go into an infinite thanking loop. But Chung said that the hardest part is when people don't even treat her like a human being they treat her like a vending machine. So they'll handle their credit card without even looking up from their phone. And while she saying this, I'm realizing I've done that I've been that a hole, and at that moment, I pledged when dealing with people I'm going to take those two seconds. And look at them make eye contact because it reminds you you're dealing with a human being who has who has family and aspirations and embarrassing high memories. And and that little moment of connection is so important to both people's humanity and happiness all right second. Lesson was smell the roses and the dirt and the fertilizer after Chung, I thanked this man. This is etched Kaufman. And is the one who chooses which coffee. They served at my local coffee shop he goes around the world to South America to Africa, finding the best coffee beans. So I think that and in return Ed showed me how to taste coffee like a pro. And it is quite a ritual. You take your spoon and you dip it in the coffee, and then you take a big loud slurp almost cartoonish allowed. This is because you want to spray the coffee all over your mouth. You have taste buds and the side of your cheeks and the roof of your mouth, you gotta get them. All so Ed would do this. And he would he would has faced with light up, and he would say this coffee tastes of Honey, crisp, apple and and notes of soil and maple syrup, and I would take a sip. And I'd say, I'm picking up coffee this. This it tastes to me like coffee, and but inspired by I decided to really let the coffee sit on my tongue for five seconds. We're all busy, but I could spare five seconds and really think about the texture and the acidity sweetness, and I started to do it with other foods, and this idea of savoring is so important to gratitude psychologists talk about how gratitude is about taking a moment and holding onto it as long as possible and and slowing down time. So that life doesn't go by in one big blur. Has it often? Does number three is find the hidden masterpieces all around you now one of my favorite conversations during this year was with the guy who invented my coffee Cup lid, and until this point I had. Given approximately zero thought to coffee couplets, but I loved talking to this inventor Doug Fleming because he was so passionate and the blood, and sweat, and tears. He put into this lid, and that I had never even considered. He's says a bad lid can ruin your coffee that it can block the aroma, which is so important to the experience. So he he's very very innovative. He's like the Elon Musk of costly lives. So he designed this lid. That's gone upside down hexagon, so you can get your nose right in there and get maximum, aroma. And so I was delighted talking to him. And it made me realize there are hundreds of masterpieces all around us that we totally take for granted. Like the the on off. Switch on my desk. Lamp has a little indentation for my thumb that perfectly fits my thumb, and and when something is done well the process behind. It it is largely invisible but paying attention to it can tap into that sense of wonder and enrich our lives. Number four is fake it till you feel it by the end of the project. I was just in a thanking frenzy. So I was I would get up and spend a couple of hours. I write emails sent send notes make phone calls. Visit people to thank them for their role in my coffee and some of them, quite honestly, not that into it. The they would be like what what is the is this a pyramid scheme? Let's try what do you want? What are you sell them? But most people were surprisingly moved. I remember I called the woman who does the pest control for the warehouse where my coffee is served. I'm sorry, where am I Coffey is stored? And and I said this may sound strange. But I wanna thank you for keeping the bugs out of my. Coffee, and she said, well that does sound strange, but you just made my day, and it was like an anti crank phone call. And it didn't just the fact her it affected me because I would wake up every morning in my default mood, which has grumpiness, but I would force myself to write a thank you note. And then another and then another and what I found was that if you act as if you're grateful you eventually become grateful for real the power of our actions to change our mind are astounding so often we think that thought changes behavior behavior, very often changes are thoughts. And finally the the last lesson. I want to tell you about is practice. Six degrees of gratitude, and every place every stop on this gratitude trail would give birth to a hundred other people that I could thank. So I went down to Columbia to thank the farmers who grow my coffee beans, and it was in a small mountain towns, and I was driven there along these curvy cliffside roads. And every time we went around a hairpin turn the driver would do the sign of the cross. And I was I was like thank you for that. But. But can you do that while keeping your hands on the wheel because I am terrified, but we made it, and I met the farmers the Guarnizo brothers. It's a small farm. They make great coffee. They're paid above fair trade prices for it. And they showed me how the coffee is grown. The bean is actually inside this fruit called the coffee cherry, and I thank them. And they said, well, we couldn't do our job without one hundred other people the machine that deep hopes the fruit is made in Brazil and the pickup truck they drive around the farm, and that is a from made from parts from all over the world. In fact, the US exports steel to Colombia, so I went to Indiana, and I thanked the steelmakers, and and it just drove home that it doesn't take a village to make a Cup of coffee. It takes the world. To make a Cup of coffee, and this this global economy this globalization, it does have downsides. But I believe the long-term upsides are far greater that progress is real we have made improvements in the last fifty years that poverty worldwide has gone down. And that we should resist the temptation to retreat into our silos, and we should resist this upsurge in in isolation ISM, and and jingoism which brings me to my final point. Which is my hope that we use gratitude as a spark to action some people worry that gratitude has a downside that will be so grateful that will be complacent. We'll be so, oh, it's everything's wonderful. I'm so grateful. Well, it turns out the opposite is true. The more the research shows. Does that the more grateful? You are the more likely you are to help others when you're in advance state, you're often more focused on your own needs. But gratitude makes you wanna pay it forward. And I experienced this personally. I mean, I'm not Mother Teresa. I'm still a selfish bastard, a huge amount of the time. But but I'm better than I was before this project. And that's because it it made me aware of the exploitation on the supply chain. It reminded me that what I take for granted is not available to millions of people around the world like water coffee is ninety eight point eight percent water. So I figured I should go. And thank the people at the New York reservoir, hundreds of them who provide me water and this miracle that I can turn levering get safe water, and that millions of people around the world don't have this luxury and have to walk hours to get safe water. It inspired. To see what I could to help people get more access, and I did research and found a wonderful group called dispensers for safe water, and I got involved, and I'm not expecting the Nobel prize committee to knock down my door. But I it's a baby step. I it's a little something. And it's all because of gratitude, and it's why I encourage people friends family to follow gratitude trails of their own because it's a life transforming experience, and it doesn't have to be coffee. It could be anything. It could be a pair of socks. It could be a light bulb. And you don't have to go around the world. You can just do. A little gesture like make eye contact or or send a note to the designer of a logo you love. It's more about a mindset being aware of the thousands of people involved in every little thing we do. Remembering that, there's someone in a factory who made the fabric for the chairs? You're sitting in right now that someone went into a mind and and got the copper for this microphone. So that I could say my final thank you, which is to. Thank you. Thank you thousand for listening to my story. For more TED talks about at Ted dot com.