18 Episode results for "Ted dot"
The next software revolution: programming biological cells | Sara-Jane Dunn
"This Ted Talk Features Computational Biologist Sarah Jane done Stay tuned after this talk to hear sneak peek of this week's episode the Software Revolution the ability to program electrons fundamentally changed the way the world works the first half of this program biochemistry on material called Biology and doing so Charles or even build programmable operating systems out of biochemistry Harrison and that's because living software would transform the entirety of medicine affectively or resist emerging fungal pathogens or even programming crops confed or imagined programmable immunity designing and harnessing an aging population healthy we already have many of the vettix circuits out of DNA but figuring out how we'll an all too often difficult to reproduce and you know we have a tendency in biology simple as programming your computer and then to make much as worse living systems self organize they operate molecular scales and these molecular level interactions like that one side on your mantlepiece at home that you keep forgetting to water every that's a decision that has to be made at the level of the whole organism that applaud doesn't have a brain and how they must be a program running inside these cells a program that responds to the plant can grow and flourish if we could understand not because if we understood these programs we could debugged them when things go wrong my passion about this idea led me to a career in research at the interface of maths and how can we uncover these biological programs and I going inside a unique type of cell an embryonic stem cell this naievety it sets them apart but it also ignited the imagination of the scientific community he realized another we might be able to harness them to generate cells that we need repair diseased oft conception within a day or so they're gone they have set off down the different about thirteen years ago some scientists showed something truly revolutionary and it's a process that's actually known as reprogramming and allows us to imagine without patient might need whether it's brain cells parcels but over the articles they're still inefficient and we lacked a fundamental understanding so we wanted to understand the biological programme running inside an embryonic system actually has to do now computer science actually has a set optionality you want to prevent bugs they can cost you a lot so when a developer writes technology exists that allows us automatically to check whether in the lab they correspond specifications of what the biological programme in your jeans and you found that if gene is active than gene be or gene then B or c now this is a very simple example okay it's just to experiments and so by translating our observations into mathematical and we developed a tool to do just this we were able to use this tool to encode observations to uncover the genetic program running inside embryonic stem cells to see gratification so we started with a set of nearly fifty different specifications other program that could explain all of them now that's kind of a feat in and of itself because we've got this kind of understanding could go one step further we could use this program to and that we tested in the lab we found that this program was highly predictive up process we even found the program predicted the order in which genes would what a massive that's specific to stem cell biology rather it allows us to make sense if the computation astound biological computation more broadly and at different levels from DNA Ryan liable but to program biology we will also need to develop down to the machine code of the Salads Biochemistry so that we could then build those structures kind of an understatement but if it's realized it will be the final bridge between Software Mary it needs to bridge the physical and the life sciences and scientists from each of the giant software companies and the technology that you and I work with every day could hardly have been imagined we'll see some of the steps that we need to take on the way to make that a reality talking about the potential of bacteria engineered to evade them. There might be people willing to do he's not going to be something you'll be doing in your garden shed but because we're at the outset of think about our ethics we'll have to think about putting bounds on the implementation of biological but the ultimate prize the ultimate destination on this journey would be one day we could be powering the planet sustainably on the ultimate green energy if we could mimic understood that program of quantum interactions that allow plants to absorb sunlight so efficiently the fundamentals of this right now so perhaps if it got the right attention and the right investment it could tation is the critical first step and if we can realize this we would enter into the era go to Ted dot com driver crazy until she started talking back to them the voices of ultimately become into the Ted Radio. Hour wherever you get your podcasts.
"A Bird Made of Birds" | Sarah Kay
"Hi, it's Sarah, Katya, you're about to EuroPol by me recorded at Ted twenty nineteen. I hope you enjoy it. I also have some exciting news. I'm the new host of another podcast from Ted called sincerely axe. Each episode features powerful ideas and stories from a non ass- guests here from a former cult member rewriting the script of her life or a woman who unearths a hard truth about her birth father through DNA technology, and a lot more you can hear sincerely acts on the luminary podcast app. Find out more at luminary dot link slash Ted. That's luminary dot L. I N, K slash TED. Thanks for listening. Hi there before we get started today. We have a favor to ask of you. Ted talks daily is conducting our annual audience survey. So we can learn a bit more about you, and we'd really value. Your feedback. Could you take a few minutes and tell us a bit about yourself and share some things you like? About the show. Please visit survey nerds dot com slash TED talks to take the survey today that survey nerds dot com slash TED talks. Thanks. I have a friend named kava Akhbar who's a fellow poet and kava found this photo online of the anatomical heart of a blue whale, that scientists had hung on a hook from the ceiling, which is how they were able to observe that the heart of a blue whale is big enough that a person can stand up fully inside of it. And when kava shared this photo online, he did, so with the caption, this is another reminder that the universe has already written, the poem. You're planning on writing when I first saw that I was horrified. I was like, come on, man. I'm trying to invent new metaphors. I'm trying to discover beauty that hasn't been discovered yet. What do you mean? The universe is always going to get there before me. And I know this isn't a uniquely poet problem. Mm-hmm. But on days when the world feels especially big or especially impossible, or especially full of grandeur. Those are the days when I feel. What do I possibly have to contribute to all of this? Not long ago. I saw this video that some of you may have seen. It makes the internet rounds. Every couple of months, there these birds that are called starlings, and they fly in what's called a murmur, ration-, which is generally just a big cloud of birds and someone happened to catch a quick video on their phone of these starlings flying. And at first, it's just a amorphous blob. And then there's a moment where the birds shift and they formed the shape of us Starling in this. And as soon as I saw it, I was like the universe is already written, the poem you were planning on writing. Except for the first time it didn't fill me with despair. Instead, I thought, okay maybe it's not my job to invent something new. Maybe instead, it's my job to listen to what the universe showing me. And to keep myself open to what the universe offers so that when it's my turn. I can hold something to the light just for a moment. Just for as long as I have. The universe has already written the poem that you were planning on writing. And this is why you can do nothing but point at the flock of starlings whose bodies rise and fall in inherited choreography, swarming, the sky in a sweeping curtain that for one blistering moment, firms, the unmistakable shape of a giant bird, flapping against the sky, it is why your mouth forms on oh but is not a guest, but rather the beginning of, oh, of course, as in, of course, the heart of a blue whale is as large as a house with chambers tall enough to fit a person standing, of course. A fake but comes possible when a lady waas, lays her eggs inside a flower dies and decomposes the fruit evidence of her transformation. Sometimes the poem is so bright, your silly language will not stick to it. Sometimes the poem is so true, nobody will believe you. I am a bird made of birds this blue heart a house, you can stand up inside of I am dying here inside this flower. It is okay. It is what I was put here to do. Take this fruit, it is what I have to offer. It may not be I or ever best. But it is the only way to be sure that I lived at all. For more TED talks to Ted dot com.
How we're helping local reporters turn important stories into national news | Gangadhar Patil
"I'm a journalist and I knew how frustating gibbs when most of your stories go unnoticed I felt it when I this Ted talk features journalist Ganga's Dr Patel recorded live at Ted two thousand nineteen I learned reporting skill but also gives credibility to their studies in June two thousand seventeen one local reporter sort of Shurmur he said the story of hundreds of religious protesting against a nuclear power plant was reported by local media six months before reporters by paying them three times more than the existing rates better pay and commission is giving them confidence to dig deeper and Expos corruption the Nick Nommik Times in December fourteen for next six months I freelanced also built a database of twenty thousand local reporters percentage of India's mainstream media coverage is about real issues even though almost seventy percent of India's pop and last three years of operations we have reported more than two thousand five hundred students to publish them for reporters today we have more than thousand two hundred supporters in our network covering stories like nuclear power plant from India during that time I saw editors we're looking for more and more contributors as News Org Michika don't cost by getting rid of hundred estimate society recently reported a story from northeast India where Tilden have to cross the river in huge cooking pot risking their life the region impact we have partnered with sixteen leading media houses put happy to take them as it brings costs down by not editing or managing pretty much before it is picked up by national media but like me that did not have a platform to share them according to two thousand eleven media study only everyone specially poor I was convinced that there's a need to build a platform to bring on this important the at NASA level so I quit my job five hundred subdistricts in India covering entire nation to ensure that none of this important stories go unnoticed fulltime reporters I saw an opportunity to highlight this important if I can train this local reporters and connect them with the mainstream media and because there's no Brit there's no boat the story was picked up by mainstream media and it caught attention of a local elected representative who promised to build a bridge the next time you see a story from coincide please do not ignore them India's three national newspaper doing my stint are used to travel from uh stories it was in early two thousand twelve I traveled thousand miles won an international award from European Commission for history on hardships faced by young girls living on St we also trying to correct market for this from Mumbai to a coastal village in south India I was there to do story on and women's risk of a nuclear power plant when it's local activists that's exactly what we are doing our tech platform for the first time this course local reporter groom stem and helps them right for national international publication Asian one point three billion published liberal villages this is disturbing for a democracy country like India where transparency is key to ensure justice a team of experienced editor works closely with this local reporters on each and every story filed but then this process not only helps the local assist that either ignored by Simedia never covered a next five years we plan to have one reporter in each of five thousand do read and share them they might breaking stories this way we can ensure none of the important stories go unnoticed thank you national. TV channels picked it up. I had similar experiences when I travel for the stories it confirm a belief that in local reporter noses for more Ted talks to Ted Dot com there's a local reporter in my hometown gum in India I thought maybe joining a national newspaper would help so went through
In & Out Of Love
"This is the Ted Radio Hour each week round breaking Ted Talks Ed Technology. Entertainment Design Design. Does that really what's ten. I never known delivered a Ted conferences around the world gift of the human imagination. We've had to believe believe an impossible thing. True nature of reality beckons from just beyond those talks those ideas adapted for radio radio from NPR garage. Today show you in an out of love. Yeah so I was out on a date and let's start with a story about falling in love. It was one of those dates. Where our Initially I didn't know it was a day. This is Mandolin Katrin. Who's written a lot about love? He had presented the idea of going to the art gallery so casually really like he mentioned the instagram search suggest. Something about how how casual it was. I really Oh. We're just two people going to look at some aren't together but pretty soon mandy realized it was date. Yeah it was a date to Mandy the and mark. That's her date mark to me. Do want to go grab a beer and okay sure and then we started talking about love and relationships and he said you know I have this theory that you could fall in love with anyone and if that's true like how do you choose someone and I said Oh. Yeah that's that's an interesting theory. There's actually this this study that I read about one time where these scientists tried to create romantic love in the lab and I was pretty skeptical but it sounds interesting and then just on on this like impulse I feel like I'm pretty shy on dates feeling brave and I said Oh you know. I've always wanted to try it. And immediately he was like great. Let's do do it. And so he did right there and then right there in the bar you decided to turn your date into a science experiment. we spent several next several hours to sliding my phone back and forth across the table. Taking turns asking the questions. The questions thirty six questions to be exact and let me pause to say that some of you may have heard about these Mandy wrote about the questions for the New York Times Times a couple of years ago number one given the choice of anyone in the world. Whom would you want as dinner guests? This is Arthur Erin. I'm a research which professor at Stony Brook University and I do research on relationships and Arthur. He wrote the thirty six questions. As part of that number four. What would constitute a perfect day for you? These questions were designed as a laboratory procedure to create closeness. Usually not romantic romantic closeness. Just a sense of connection with another person quickly and the questions do this by getting increasingly more and more personal name the three things you and your partner appear to have common if a crystal ball tell you the truth what is your most treasured member. What is your most terrible memory? What roles do love and affection play in your you feel? Your childhood was happier than most other people. Tell Your partner at what you like about being things that you might not say to someone. You've just I just meant number. Twenty people pretty consistently report fueling a sense of closeness with whoever they do this with which is not the same thing as falling in love but it's kind of the is not unrelated. Let's say it's it's one of the essential steps in that process so mandy the in mark take that step and for the next several hours they get to know really intimate details about each other's lives and then it was over and I remember thinking like wow that was like super intense. We just had this deeply vulnerable intimate limit experience and then suddenly we needed to leave like we needed to end the dates. Yeah we're just thinking like it was so weird to how small talk with someone after telling them these details about my entire life. Yeah just remember walking along and feeling like I had nothing but we went out again so yeah it worked out pretty well and let's see uh next. I guess two weeks two weeks will celebrate our five year anniversary. Meet someone new ask each other questions and Bam of an wedding bells. Of course. It's not that simple mark and Maddie's love certainly wasn't destined but many says those three six questions they mattered. Like if you were to ask my partner mark would we have fallen in love. If we hadn't done the thirty six questions I think his answer would be. Maybe probably even. If you'd ask me that I am less sure. They didn't know him well but I could see how much is friends. Seem to really admire him and I got. Oh this is a good good sign like this would be a good person to fall in love with and doing the questions really sort of like convince me that in fact he was like a really decent human human being and was worth bothering to get to know and so I think that mattered. We think through variety eve influences whereas with its media or literature or just human interaction. I think most of us believe that love is not something you can necessarily control or engineer ear or that. It's one of those things that kind of happens. You'll let fate take you by the hand. This whole concept suggests that that that isn't and true. Yeah it's not entirely true. There are real things that are happening inside our brains in inside our bodies when we fall in love there is this whole biological dialogical component. But we also have these cultural scripts about how love is supposed to work and having spent a decade of my life writing about these things like the thing that it's left me with is the notion that we have a lot more say over experiences in Romantic love than our cultural stories would lead us to believe. We often think of love as this mysterious unknowable force. Something thing that happens to us on a timescale beyond our control but what if we could control it. What if we could decide when we fall in love and even when we might need to fall out of love so on the show today? We're GONNA explore ideas about falling in and out of love and for Mandolin Katrin Patron. She argues our understanding of how love works begins with how we talk about it. The words and metaphors we use. Here's more from Mandy On the Ted Stage so most of us will probably fall in love a few times over the course of our lives and falling is really the main way that we we talk about that experience. And I don't know about you but when I conceptualize this metaphor what I picture is straight out of a cartoon like there's a man he's he's walking down the sidewalk without realizing it. He crosses over an open manhole and he just plummets into the sewer below and I pictured this way okay because falling is not jumping falling accidental uncontrollable. It's something that happens to us without our consent sense and I would like to argue that many of the metaphors we used to talk about love. Maybe even most of them are a problem so in love we fall. We're struck we are crush we swoon. We burn with passion. Love Mix this crazy and it makes us sick. Our hearts ache and then daybreak. Sore metaphors equate the experience of loving and someone to extreme violence or illness. I mean why is is is love at least popular in in our culture is so associated with pants suffering. I think that's because it can cause lots of pain and suffering like I think when you are I I in romantic love. You can't stop thinking about the person you always Wanna be with them like. You do feel really high when you're together. It does muscle really sad when you have to be a part for a few days like those metaphors make sense. But I think the fact that we position ourselves so passive suggests. There's nothing we can do about this and that we should take these feelings as a sign that this is a meaningful connection and we should act on them like like if we think that love is supposed to be painful or or it's supposed to cause us suffering. We're supposed to be crazy in love. Yeah if we think about it that way you you know. It is very easy to get into relationship dynamics that I think are really unhealthy or maybe even rationalize being in a relationship that is abusive. I'm so actually think the way we talk about this and the way we think about it really matters in that there are real world stakes for it so if we understand that this is a and this is like the wrong way to frame love. Metaphors or off in our language is often which attack like hundreds of years of the literature deeply entrenched in toiletry. It's right it's super entrench. How do we begin to even reframe the way we talk about love? Yeah you know I think if we think about a relationship as an opportunity for kindness Jason Generosity as something that we have some say over so in their book the metaphors we live by linguists Mark Johnson and Georgia Lake off suggest a really interesting solution to this dilemma. In my talk I talk about the metaphor that lake off and Johnson suggest which is the collaborative work work of art love is a collaborative work of art. And I really like this way of thinking about love. Linguists talk about metaphors is having entail mets. Let's which is essentially a way of considering all the implications of or ideas contained within a given Metaphor Johnson and lake off talk about everything dinged collaborating on a work of art entails effort compromised patients shared goals. We think of art often is beautiful or inspiring but it also means like love requires effort right like you can't make a work of art without putting time and energy and critical thought and attention into it so I think it puts us in a much more empowered position right like it's not something that happens to. You is something you do together. It's not something that comes easily. It's GonNa be challenging at times but it's something that you get to decide what it looks like you have some say over it. Yeah you have to. You have to be intentional about it. Yeah and actually mark and I have tried to build that into our relationship been like really intentional ways like oh we're making something together. How do we want it to work? What do we want to look like so we have a relationship contract and the contract tends to sound really controversial two people It is not a legally binding document. It's more like just a statement of our intentions and we kind have sit down together every year and say okay like what do we want this relationship to be like going forward and we adjusted and it covers everything from who does which tors around the house to like what our goals are together as a couple and steps we can take to support each other. disassemble thing. But like to me. It makes it feel like this relationship isn't something that I've gotten myself stuck in because I had had strong feelings for this person one day. It's like it's a thing that we're making together that's Mandolin Katrin. She's a writer and lecturer at the University of British Columbia. You can find her to talks at Ted Dot Com on the shoulder day in and out of love. I'm Guy Rise and you're listening to the Ted Radio Hour from NPR. Everyone just a quick thanks to two of our sponsors you help make this podcast possible. I two traderjoes podcast inside trader. Joe's takes you on a journey through world cuisines. Innovative takes on frozen foods. Fresh approaches to plants and flowers new ways to think about produce and everything you've ever wanted to know about wine and cheese and then some them. You'll find new innovative astonishing and fascinating episodes of inside trader. Joe's wherever you get your podcasts. More at Traderjoes DOT COM and at traderjoes Joe's on instagram. Thanks also to capital one with the capital one walmart rewards card you can earn five percent back at Walmart on line. Two percent at Walmart in-store restaurants and travel and one percent everywhere else when he won all that you need the capital one Walmart rewards card. What's in your wallet? Terms exclusions apply capital one. And I know we'd all love the holidays to be this happy stress-free joyful time but let's be real that is not always the case. NPR's Life Kit is answering your holiday questions and helping you. Navigate family dynamics Paul season-long new episodes every Tuesday and Thursday. Listen and subscribe to life. Kit All guides it's the Ted Radio hour from NPR news on the show today ideas about falling in and out of love. We are playing with one of the most powerful brain systems comes in every vote. I mean this is survival. Mechanism evolved millions of years ago. And I'm not surprised that people suffering love this is Helen Fisher. I'm I'm a biological anthropologist. And I steady love in. Helen is actually the chief science advisor to match DOT COM and one of the country's leading experts on love. Let me just ask you about love mean I know I don't mean to sound reductive. It's much more complicated but can we. You say there's a place in Bremer love or feelings of love resides. There's a place in our brain where all feelings are reside every time you think something Indu something feel something. There's something going on in the brain. I came to believe really that. We've evolved three distinctly different brain systems from baiting and reproduction one as the sex drive. Second is feelings of intense romantic love and the third is feelings of deep attachment. And I became quite convinced that All three resided in the brain and that if I looked I could find some of the brain circuitry of romantic love and feelings of attachment and according to Helen. Romantic Anti Glove and attachment. Aren't even feelings. There drives meaning they fulfill a biological need in fact the basic brain region. There generates the feelings of intense. Romantic love that factory lies at the base of the brain right near a factory that orchestrates thirst and hunger thirst and hunger. Keep you alive today. Romantic love enables you to focus your mating energy on a particular individual and drive your DNA into tomorrow so I in my brain scanning partner. Lucy Brown have come to believe that romantic love is a survival mechanism. So so if love is primarily Dr Right it's driven by biology right like how. How much agency do we actually have in that process? Well I think that We have a lot of agency. Were constantly making choices. I mean you know. We tend to fall in love with somebody who has the same socio economic background. Same general level of intelligence same general level of good good looks but you can walk into a room and everybody's from your background and good looks and you don't fall in love with all of them we make choices and you know we carrying our head what I call Love Map and unconscious list of which are looking for in a partner and when the timing is right and if somebody comes by who fits within that general perspective of who you're looking for you can instantly trigger that prince circuitry refer romantic love and be off to the races. It's amazing because there is both I mean there's this there's a drive our brains as you say are smart and they figure out the person that thinks we will be most compatible with but then we also have agency to like we also can engineer it. There's no question about it the one of the problems when once. You've fallen madly in love Basic Brain Regions League with decision making begin to shut down and so you can overlook a lot. Oh He's so cute doesn't marry as a wife you'll divorce her. Oh she's just so charming she'll get over her anger bigger problem. So what you gotTa do is make your choices. That's like you said you gotTA use agency before you fall in love you know if you begin to fall for somebody who knows lying to you. The way out is through the door. We've evolved huge cerebral CORTEX. We can overcome our drives. I mean people have a drive to eat sugar. We can say no. Thank you but you gotta realize who you are understand your assets and your your defects eggs and cognitively think of a work arounds. We can do. This does our brain chemistry. Make it harder to fall out of love than to fall in love. It's extremely family difficult to do You know we I and my colleagues of put Fifteen people who had just been rejected in love into a brain scanner and we we ended up finding that those people who are still madly in love with somebody who would just dumped them They still showed activity in the ventral. Take Malaria Larrea little factory near the base of the brain that pumps out the Doberman gives you that elation We still found activity in a brain region league with feelings of deep attachment to the partner partner You don't stop loving somebody just because they dumped you. We found activity in three brain regions linked with addiction particularly the primary brain region. It's called the nucleus accumbens that is associated with all of the addictions. So you still crave the person and we even found activity in a brain region liquid physical. Oh pain not only the the distress that goes along with pain but physical pain so You know the brain is really in overdrive and To conquer all of that you really have to treat it as an addiction Throw out the cards and letters. Don't all right don't call. Don't show up assemble what you know about the situation Create a story and after built that story. Can you can throw it out and finally of course You put your life back together and you move on. And matter of fact we've proven that in the brain When we put these he's rejected people into the brain scanner we ended up finding that Those people who had been rejected quite awhile ago. Let's say several months. As opposed to several days. We find less and less activity in this brain region linked with attachment as time goes by feelings of attachment. I can probably romantic. Love also begin to decline so time does heal. So how my last question for you about a sort of the science of love right and wondering like even with all of the advances in technology analogy all of our abilities to measure brain activity are we. Are we still at a place. We've just scratched the scientific service. We've just scratched the scientific Service but we've come a long way. I mean you know when I was growing up People believe that Romantic Love was part of the supernatural. We've proven that it's not the this is a very specific brain system that it is triggered under certain circumstances that you can get over it if you treat it as an addiction and do certain things we have more and more cognitive control over this powerful survival mechanism. That's Helen Fisher. She said biological anthropologist. You can see all of Helen's talks at Ted Dot Com and by the way. Helen actually inspired our next next guest to try to use neuroscience to fall out of love to get rid of her feelings for an ex boyfriend. Yeah I wanted it out. I don't want to spend like all my good years obsessing on this dude who I can't win with this desa. She's a musician and you're actually hearing one of her songs for a long time. Desa was desperately trying to move on from an unhealthy relationship. It was one of those volatile ones. It's almost like difficult to to put the relationship up against the tape. Measure to figure out how long it lasted because it was on and off for so long but I would say that we first met and fell into love when we were twenty one years old and we were still tempted to try. Try to give it another shot bike. Fourteen later wow ooh only me and was like how how would you characterize your relationship. The most confident description that I could give it. We'd be passionate playful Unconventional I think I would also say it was bitterly sad jealous slowly and I think that I've learned about the smallest of my feelings. Like I really got the worst of me in that relationship. So here you are in a situation that I think millions of people can relate to write the irrationality of being love. Somebody Buddy who you know is not right is the right person yes. Did you feel trapped. I felt I felt spun. Spun out felt sad. I also felt sort of embarrassed like it did not jive with my feminist intuitions to be so torn. Run up over a dude for so long. It started to get harder. So it's like even the if you can imagine being on stage it's loud and there are bright lights and everybody's had a few shots of whisky like that bomb blasts and that Home that big victory feeling both hands in the air and the big bow at the end. It was just getting harder to do because I knew that when I got off stage I I was going to be so sad again. Here's more from Desa on the Ted Stage and even though I knew it wasn't doing either of us any good I just couldn't figure you're out how to put the love down then drinking my wine. One Night I saw Ted talk by a woman named Dr Helen Fisher. Her and she said that in her work she'd been able to map the coordinates of love in the human brain. And I thought if I could find my love and my brain maybe I can get it out so I went to twitter. Anybody got access to FAMARA lab like at midnight or something. I'll trade for backstage passes and whiskey. And that's Dr Cheryl Ullman who works at the University of Minnesota's Center for Magnetic Resonance Research. She took me up on it. I explained the doctor officiers protocol and we decided to recreate with the sample size of one. Me So I got decked out in a pair of forest screens scrubs and I was late on a Gurney and wheeled into an effort mariah machine. If you're familiar with that technology essentially at Adam ray machine is a big eighty two bueller magnet that tracks. The progress of oxygen aided iron in your blood so essentially figuring out what parts of your brain are making the biggest aced metabolic demand at any given moment and in that way it can figure out which structures are associated with the task like tapping your finger for example always light up the same region or in my case. He's looking at pictures of your ex boyfriend and then looking at pictures of a dude. Who just sort of resembled my ex-boyfriend but for whom I had no strong feelings? He was the control central. And when I left the machine we had these really high resolution images my brain after she'd had time to analyze is the data with her team. And a couple of partners. Andrew Phil Cheryl's sent me an image a single slide. It was my brain in in cross section with one bright dot of activity that represented my feelings Stu. I had known I was in love. Wrestle reason I was going to these is outrageous lengths but having an image that proved it felt like such a indication like yeah. It's all in my head but now I know exactly where and I also felt like an assassin. who had her mark? That was what I had to annihilate. Wow so there was like a red beacon just coming out of this part of your brain when you saw photos of your expert which I guess meant that your feelings for him resided in that very spock was in exactly the places that Dr Fisher study at thought so like the anterior cingulate yet and the venture take mental region. And I started crying coffee shop because I I don't know it was really emotionally salient. All right. So you've identified the part part of your brain that is in love and now you know you know it is and maybe you. Can you know do something about it. Maybe you can actually ZAP it. Sort of right. I ended up putting out another call on twitter I knew that I wanted to try to change that. Dot Dot in my head. It was almost like like I imagine like you know. PX Ninety ads in magazine Yeah. There's like the before picture. Yeah Yeah and the before picture before four picture and you're looking to your after picture like the picture of your brain without the red dot exactly. Yeah so I ended up. I ended up working with this woman named Penny Gene Grace as fire and she was a clinician for neuro feedback. So essentially you've got all these all these sensors affixed to your scalp and they're measuring the electricity that your brain is generating like right through the bone into the hair. See you can see what parts of your brain are active in real time. She done some research. Tell me what parts of the brain were responsible for emotional regulation and she thought okay. I think we should target these areas in your in your head to try to see if we can get them to be a little less vigilant to chill out and we worked at my dad's house because he has a flat screen TV. So I could see my brain big. I could see like waves of color passing over December of my brain that indicated which parts were. We're hyperactive which parts were hypo active. And then the way that she described which I found helpful is like we're not trying to blunt your your brain's ability to fall in love we are trying to do is like analogous to the way that you you might train a muscle at the gym. You're trying to strengthen it you're trying trying to make it more flexible. What really what you're trying to do is is make sure that it can respond in a way that is appropriate to circumstance? Yes whatever my brain would a dip towards lower levels of activity. Not only could I see it but I could hear it every time. My brain operated in that healthy threshold. I got a little run of harp or vibraphone news. I watch my brain rotated roughly the speed of your own machine. My Dad's flat screen TV. She said the learning would be essentially unconscious. But then I thought about the other things that I had learned without actively engaging my conscious mind when you ride a bike I don't really know what like my left calf muscles doing or or how am awesome is Dorsey nose to engage wobbled to the right and the body just learns and similarly like Pavlov's dogs probably don't know a lot about like protein structures or the wave form of a ringing bell but they salivate nonetheless because the body paired stimuli finish the sessions went back to Dr After Cheryl Omens FM machine and we repeated the protocol after she had time to analyze that second set of data she I said Dude as dominance of your brain seems to essentially have been eradicated. I think this is the desired result comma. Yes question Moore Oy. It wasn't the case that That I felt like I was now a like a loveless robot. You know what I mean. I didn't feel like spock and it wasn't indicates that I'd forgotten anything if that makes sense like I hadn't erased any memories but I did feel some relief. You did feel like you extracted and some of those feelings of love the strong feelings of love that compulsion. Yeah I just wasn't so wrapped around the axle. I wasn't you know I wasn't crying on it like like I used to and I wasn't I don't know I just had felt so like obsessively compulsive you know. Yeah and I mean obviously like Emma sample size as of one right but on the other hand to be frank. It's like I have been trying to get over the so many ways for so many years. that yeah. I haven't gone back to that place that I was beforehand. A fan really kinda out of like out of my own control does it. Does it make you feel more open to meeting another person interesting. I mean okay. I don't know if mrs this may be wishful thinking on my part but before this I thought you have to get over this guy Completely if you're ever going to have an honest relationship again bright and I think that makes sense like you don't i WanNa you don't WanNA hamstring a new relationship by being cluttered with some strong old feeling but by this point I think I think the task is to be like as generous to your next partner end to yourself. Be Frank about how much like emotional capacity. Have and I don't know I have the feeling that That demand that I love next. We'll have some passionate loves in his rear view mirrors. Well we've we been close naming go. That's the musician Desa you you can find her full talk at Ted Dot Com on the show today in and out of love. Stay with US guys. And you're listening to the Ted Radio Hour from NPR PR this message comes from NPR sponsor Tiaa. President and CEO Roger Ferguson knows that planning for retirement is a journey with many different paths. We've got to get them to retirement before he can help them through it. And that does mean both saving all along the way for retirement but it means using other products and services wisely sites around all the other financial issues that confront people as they get older and older to find out if you're eligible or to learn more go to Tiaa dot org slash. Never never run out. Guarantees are subject to the claims paying ability of Tiaa annuities are issued by Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of America. New New York New York. How do you make an older parents? Struggling with health problems happening. Being a tell him I was getting engaged or photographer. And that he and I just bought a parakeet named Gino this week on NPR's invisibility. Ah What happens when the roles were used to performing with our loved ones get mixed up. It's the Ted Radio hour from NPR. I'm Guira arise and on the show today in and out of love we just heard about falling out of unhealthy love but what about love. That's dangerous dangerous and abusive. Everybody knows a punches wrong. But if somebody punched you on the first date that would be the last day right. That's not what happens. What happens is you start out at doored and you think this is it but you miss some of the signs that it's not really love? It's more about control and possession and being whisked off your your feet is not such a good thing. If you're being tethered to this new person and you're being pulled away from everyone else that loves you this is Katie Hood and I'm the CEO of the one Love Foundation Dacian and Katie spends a lot of time teaching young people how to create healthy relationships and to notice the warning signs of abusive ones. One Love was started in two thousand ten to honor the memory of a young woman named Yardley love who was beaten to death by her ex boyfriend. that year Her her family was as in shock. As anybody could be that this had happened and they really hadn't understood that she'd been in an abusive relationship. As time passed they realized that had how domestic violence expert been in the room they would have understood the signs that she was in an unhealthy and increasingly dangerous relationship. Katie Hood Explains Lanes some of these signs from the Ted Stage. Maybe it's when your new boyfriend or girlfriend says I love you faster than you ready for or start showing up everywhere texting and calling a lot. Maybe they're impatient when you're slow to respond. Even though they know you had other things going on that day it's important Porton remember that it's not how a relationship starts that matters. It's how it evolves. Are you comfortable with the pace of intimacy. Do you feel like you have space and room to breathe. Are Your requests respected. A second. Marker is isolation we talk a lot what about isolation in my opinion this is like the most missed sign. And it's missed because it's coated in things like you guys just like each other so so much you WanNa spend all of your time together or I just don't want you to be with other people because they just want to be with you. I think about you all the time and some of these are normal feelings and a new relationship but but again a lot of what we're trying to teach. Is You really have to be listening to your gut and thinking about. Are you comfortable with that. Do you feel pulled away from your support networks because you you know when I think about characteristics of people who become abusive I think this need for sort of control and possession and having you tethered to them as opposed to others. This is really at the center of it. So we're really trying to teach that normal instinct to want to spend all your time with this new person but pay attention to when it doesn't feel comfortable anymore anymore. As the honeymoon period begins to fade extreme jealousy can creep in conversations that used to be fun and lighthearted turn mean and embarrassing. Maybe your partner makes fun of you in a way that hurts or maybe they tell stories and jokes for laughs at your expense. We try to explain that your feelings have been hurt art. They shut you down and accuse you of overreacting as tension rises so does volatility tearful frustrated fights writes followed by emotional make-up's hateful and hurtful comments like you're worthless. I'm not even sure why I'm with. You followed quickly by apologies and promises. It will never happen again by this point. You've been so conditioned this relationship roller coaster that you may not realize how unhealthy and maybe even dangerous. Your relationship has become I think for most of us when we have a friend or somebody we care about who who is in this kind of relationship. Asian ship that we can we sort of think we can identify from the outside. Our instinct is to be like get out like what are you doing. This person is so bad for you and I think oftentimes the the person who is the on the receiving end of of much of the abuse knows that they understand that intellectually that this is not healthy but something Prevents it from ending. I think it's a few things we've educated almost seven hundred fifty thousand kids over the last five years. There's through in person workshops and the number one question is always how to help a friend In the first answer is you know a person who's in an on abusive relationship spends a lot of time listening to this other person. Belittle them berate them. Tell them what to do if you mimic that person's behavior you're you're not helping so you may not think you're belittling them when you go. Are you crazy. This guy is crazy right. You're not being supportive. It comes across as Sorta the same sort of dictatorial statement right and I would say frequently. You're definitely not sharing. How bad it really is? People on the outside so sometimes friends missed the signs. It's I just think in general what happens in an abusive relationship and I I frequently referred to it as a rabbit hole. You lose your footing. Yeah you sort of feel paralyzed. I've talked to more people than I know who just feel like they can't take the next step and so you may be telling them. I'm an offering support but on average take seven times for a person to leave an abusive relationship. It's not easy. Which is why our focus on teaching the signs ahead of time so that people avoid the rabbit hole so that they have clear sight coming in? Because once you're down the rabbit hole. There's no doubt it's it's much harder the biggest thing in my work that I'm continuing surprised by just we have so much stigma around this issue. I think I think about like maslow's hierarchy of needs so Safety Safety is such an important part of it and I think the idea that someone we love could hurt us or abuse us. It's it's impossible for us to think about survived it. No it makes no sense and if that's true then it sort of threatens everything right. I mean everything in life feels a little unstable if that's true and so it's easier to think it happens to someone else somewhere else then to think it could happen to us or if someone we love and by the way if you've survived abuse many times you've survives by like putting it in a box putting it on the shelf walking away and never talking about it again because it's deeply it's deeply harming but we're optimistic about is if this is an issue that affects so many of us abuse and if the level above that unhealthy relationships affects all of us then it seems like there is the possibility to make a major impact and drive change Katie Hood She's a CEO of the one. Love Foundation you can see her. Full talk at Ted Dot Com on the show. Oh today ideas about falling in and out of love and for a lot of relationships the end point is when one person has fallen out of love of and the other is still desperately holding on. There is some kind of debate about whether love should actually be classified as an addiction fiction. This is psychologist Guy Wench. It's a little cynical and it's a little probably unpopular but if we're just looking at what happens in the brain rain than it might need to be regulated by the FDA okay he's not actually serious about the FDA but guy knows now how addictive love can be because for the past twenty years. He's counseled hundreds of patients through heartbreak. Does nothing else and tones of a human experience that can make a perfectly reasonable person go absolutely crazy and you will see the biggest possible deviations deviations from normal behavior when somebody is out broken and it's hard to think of another human experience that would cause that what kind of extremes but with heartbreak you see it all the time. I know people who literally stayed in bed for weeks at a time. They don't go to work or they go to work but spend the entire day in the bathroom crying and then to try and get to the person. Listen to try and change the person's mind they will call and call and call the person's not answering or they've blocked them they will spend the entire night online line trying to see if they can get to them or their social media. Page through some avenue outlet the desperation people feel is profound and that's because on a chemical level romantic love really is kind of like drug guy wins. Continues this idea. Nia from the Ted stage. Rain studies have shown that the withdrawal of romantic love activates the same mechanisms in our brain that get activated evaded when addicts are withdrawing from substances like cocaine or opio is almost every one of us will have a heartbroken. My patient Kathy. Plant her wedding. When she was in middle school she would meet her future husband by age? Twenty seven get engaged a year later and get married a year after that but when Kennedy turned twenty seven she found a lump in her breast. She went through many months of harsh Josh chemotherapy and painful surgeries and then she found a lump in her other breast and had to do it all over again. Kathy recovered though and soon afterwards she met rich and fell in love. The relationship was everything she hoped. It would be six months later after a lovely weekend. The New England captain knew he was going to propose and she could barely contain her excitement. But which did not propose the county that night. He broke up with her. Cathy was shattered. Her heart was truly broken and she now faced yet another recovery but five months. After the break-up Kathy still couldn't stop thinking about rich her heart was still very much broken. The question is why. Why was this incredibly strong and determined woman unable to marshal the same emotional resources that got through four four years of cancer treatments? Why do the same coping mechanisms that gets us through all kinds of life? Challenges fail US so miserably when a heart gets broken. What I've learned? Is this when your heart is broken. The same instincts. You ordinarily Everley rely on will time and again lead you down the wrong path you simply cannot trust but your mind is telling you. heartbreak can make even the most reasonable and measured of us. Come up with mysteries and conspiracy theories where none exist. Kathy became convinced. Something must have happened during her romantic getaway with rich that soured him on the relationship and she became obsessed with figuring out what that was and social spend countless hours. Going through every minute of that weekend in her mind searching for clues that were not there he he simply wasn't in love. heartbreak is far more insidious than we realize. I mean it's amazing. We can think of so many challenging human experiences like battling a life threatening ailment or dealing with a crushing injury right and yet as you describing your talk. There is something about heartbreak that is as you say more insidious than we realize. It's actually much more insidious because the pain. It generates so severe when you're dealing with a terrible disease or e terrible. Oh injury or even if you're grieving a loss the pain certainly can be very severe initially But the difference between emotional pain and physical pain is such that. If you and I discussed the time you broke your leg and you described it to me in detail one thing will not happen and that is your leg. Egg will not hurt from the description but emotional pain is different. If you twenty years after the fact tell me in detail about the time your heart was broken. You will reactivate that a little bit. You will be scratching what was left of that heartbreak. He's a master manipulator the ease with which gets our mind to do the absolute opposite of what we need in order to recover is remarkable. We spend hours remembering this mile. How great they made us feel that time we hiked up the mountain and made love under the stars? All that does is make a loss feel more painful. We know that yet. We still allow mind to cycle through one. Greatest hit after another like we were being held hostage by passive aggressive spotify playlist. heartbreak will make those thoughts pop into your mind and so to avoid idealising you have to balance them out by remembering their frown not to smile. How bad they made you feel the fact that after the love making you got lost coming down the mountain argued like crazy and didn't speak for two days what I tell? My patients is to compile an exhaustive list of all the ways. The person was wrong for you all the bad qualities all the pet peeves and then keep keep it on your phone and once you have your list you have to use. It will not hear even a hint of idealising the faintest the with of Nostalgia in session. I go phone please. Your mind will try to tell you. They were perfect but they were not and neither was the relationship. And if you want to get over them you have to remind yourself that frequently. Now that is not the vilifying vilifying the person but that's just a balance out the idealising to remind yourself of all the Times that you feel miserable because of them to remind Kosovo The Times. You thought maybe I should break up because this is just not making me happy. How much control do we have in in getting over heartbreak? I mean we have a hundred percent control over it or ninety percent control over. Can it can even be quantified. That's that's a very important question because what most people do. When they're heartbroken is nothing they just ride it out? We cannot let a mind just do its thing. Our mind might be the most brilliant piece of you've machinery in the universe but it requires adult supervision and that means that we have to assert what the right things are for us to do and not do we have to battle thoughts that are unuseful or harmful title or damaging to us when our mind says Oh you know. I know you're not supposed to be in touch with the person that much but wasn't Second cousins wedding this weekend. I'm sure we spent seven to eight hours on instagram. I could find some kind of images of it from other people when I mind. Has that brilliant aliens idea. We need to take over and go. That's not going to be useful for me as tempting as it is and it is we then have to find ways to distract ourselves. Call a friend start watching a movie. Go for a run. Do something that prevents us from doing that. Thing that our minds thought it was a great idea but actually is a terrible one so in terms of how much control we have over our recovery from heartbreak however much we have we we need to assert how we have to have the fight with a mind. We might win some lose some but the fight has to be. That's guy winch. He's the author of the book. Had A fix a broken heart you can see both of his talks at Ted Dot Com Hey thanks for listening to our show in and out of love this week if if you WANNA find out more about who was on it go to Ted Dot. NPR Dot Org and to see hundreds more. Ted Talks Checkout Ted Dot Com with Ted APP our production staff at NPR includes Jeff. Rodgers Sanaa's Michigan Neva grant. Casey Herman Rachel Faulkner Dipoto Sean James Dila Lucy JC Howard and Katie Monterey. Own with help from Daniel Shchukin. Our intern is Kiera Brown. Our partners at Ted are Chris Henderson Colin Helms and a Phelan shall clint. I'm garages and you've been listening. The ideas worth spreading right here on the Ted Radio Hour from N._p._R..
S5 EP3: Can Big Tech Be Healed?
"Hi, I'm Elise Hugh host Ted talks daily the podcast with fresh thought provoking ideas from Ted, each day. The team at Ted is thinking about what the future will look like given these unprecedented times and Craig. Silman of horizon does the same for the tech giant he's responsible for supply chain, realestate, public policy, legal regulatory, and security groups. That's a lot to manage. So naturally, his work requires streamline communication across a massive network of business and stakeholder interests. He recently sat down with Ted's technology curator Simone Ross to talk about how verizon is navigating the current moment and what lessons they're learning in the process. Stay tuned after this episode to hear a few insights from that conversation. So do you remember? First of all, who are you? My Kid. And the. Older you. Thirteen. Okay. So do you remember when I gave my Tedtalk I guess three years ago. Yeah. And I don't know if you remember this. But when I showed you my slides for the talk before I went to. Vancouver. To to deliver it there was the first picture was a picture of you do you remember that? No not. Really. But sons, vaguely familiar. And you remember what you said. No idea three years ago. Okay you said mom I, really value my privacy I. Don't want you to use that photo of me. Oh. Boy We're going into this now. Aren't we? Only yeah. We're getting into this again. I'm a new summer Odi in this is zigzag the business podcast about being human. My son was ten years old when he's my Ted Talk. By then I've been researching reporting and advocating for tech companies to act more ethically for several years. I don't share photos of my kids on social media I've written numerous up Ed's cautioning consumers like you about those companies ability to track people and their spending habits from cradle to grave. And so really why was I surprised when my kid insisted that I removed the be photo of him in that presentation, which has now been seen over three million times. If you go to Ted Dot Com to watch mytalk, it's about the importance of boredom and the business models of technology companies that keep us from knowing ourselves my son and the iphone were born three weeks apart anyway. If you go to dot com to watch the talk, you will see that the very first slide is a photo of generic. Stock Photo baby a baby definitely not as cute as my baby was, and as I say in that talk, my kid and the iphone were both born in June of two thousand seven. And now that baby is thirteen years old, he's in full-on essence still kid but showing lots of signs of maturity. Just like the tech. Industry. No seriously, some of those companies didn't realize they had responsibilities to any of us like kids. Were just a platform not immediate companies eight say. But. This summer read it finally ban some forms for hate speech twitter put fact checking labels on the president's tweets and facebook gut grounded by advertisers for letting all that misinformation flow on its network. According to the National, Institute of Health Adolescence is roughly between the ages of ten and nineteen years old and it ends when an adult identity and behavior are accepted. Look adult behavior for tech companies include accepting at least some of the blame for the polarization of our society, all the blatantly wrong and dangerous information that they spread and Oh. Yeah. Creating a new kind of economics surveillance capitalism that makes money off our every move and data point. Social media companies definitely aren't grown up yet. But they are starting to accept that their actions online have serious consequences in the real world. And maybe they're even learning that building products to reflect the values of your customers and your employees. Well. That takes time and deep reflection. A sense of belonging not just to the cult of Silicon Valley. But belonging to humanity. So who are the people who can help them bridge that gap between feats of Engineering and network effects and plain old decency and humanity and humility. I think one of those people is this. My name is Greg. Epstein I am the humanist chaplain at. Harvard Mit. Greg's job is to convene the smartest young people who are building the next big experiments and technology. And get them to think about what it means to live an ethical life. No God involved. But here's the weird thing. Greg recently also got kind of an unusual side Gig. In the past year, I've also been working as what's now called the ethicist in residence at tech crunch, which is a leading publication about a tech and silicon valley and startup. Culture. been writing a lot of different kinds of pieces for techcrunch about. In the tech industry and unfortunately the lack thereof at times seriously when I. Okay. So the way I found you was I read an article at extremely thorough article that you wrote, for tech, crunch. My editor said it was one of the longest pieces mo the most in-depth pieces tech crunches ever published. Okay. So the title of it was will the future of work be ethical and I was like I have to talk to this guy who is not even a journalist he's a chaplain, and then I discovered I read a lot about you over the last couple of weeks Can we start with the fact that because I think it's very crucial to our conversation that you are a devout atheist correct. That's one way to put it I. Mean I certainly won't say that's not true I am a passionate humanist That's my favorite word to describe what I. Am I. my idea is, and it's not something that I invented or that I'm the only one of the humanists. were non religious people were deeply committed to living ethical lives into trying to figure out together. What that means. How did you come about to humanism because you you grew up in New York City right as a as a secular Jewish person I've been pretty much I. I grew up in a pretty secular Jewish family and so. Religion just it wasn't really all that important to me growing up, but I got fascinated with it in college because I wanted to try to study in college the big questions, not just philosophy from an academic perspective. But why do we live the kind of lives that we live? Who are we really trying to be? What what kind of society are we actually trying to build and how do we get there? So I was a religion major I was majoring in Chinese I wanted to be a become a Buddhist priest or something along those lines, and then you know even that fell apart like. Well, bottom's just another religion that was created by people. So I ended up as a humanist, but you have this extremely sort of traditional title as chaplain I want to know the moment where you were like, oh, I can combine my thinking my wanting to think philosophically about the world with this sort of framework or structure that comes with that I associate with the word chaplain, your the title chaplain something that's conferred on me by Harvard, and now also by MIT, and what it really refers to is just the idea that institutions like universities or hospitals or military regiments, prisons, etc.. Have often since. About one hundred or more years ago had people as religious advisors to basically council the people within the walls of that institution that maybe can't go and seek whatever religious institution they want with their. Religious Freedom as as is ideal in this country according to our founding documents right? And so you know originally, those were I just Protestant than President, Catholic than process and Catholic and Jewish, and then around the nineteen sixty seventy s people started to figure out we the second if we're going to have. Protestant. Catholic and Jewish leaders advisors whatever in our institutions doesn't that have to apply to everybody and the humanist chaplain at Harvard. The first one was my predecessor his name was Tom Ferrick and he was the first humanist chaplain at any university in the world. He was here at Harvard for about thirty years. He was a former Catholic priest who lost his faith and wanted to do something meaningful with his training. And I met him in the middle of Grad School about twenty years ago and I just thought this is amazing e. you can build a moral and ethical community with people where no one individual can ever be the arbiter or decider of what is moral. That's something that we just have to have a dialogue about and build consensus around you can talk about philosophy and ethics and psychology and anthropology as sort of all this one thing that human beings have created to figure out how to live life and what it means to be human. Is Part to me of what makes a healthy society so you've been at Harvard for while when you started. Being a humanist chaplain at MIT as well. Religion I'm guessing is probably not a huge part of most of their lives. Yeah the statistics on who is religious and nonreligious in the United States of America as a whole are really changing and evolving very quickly and and the. Population is growing, but at Harvard or at Mit, it's exponentially. So almost it's it's the the numbers are really skyrocketing and in some demographic groups within Harvard or Mit, you'll see something like seventy percent of the students list themselves as non religious theft. That's way more than the average in the United States right? Yeah. It's it's beyond beyond right? It feels crazy for those of us that studied religion and learned about how America's this supposedly incredibly religious society but you know there it is. And Yeah I had been the humanist chaplains since two, thousand, five I. I'm still am and and You know have been working with students for a long time and really across the period of time that we now know as the rise of the Internet. The rise of social media the rise of of these new industries that have taken over the world I mean, how else would you say it right? I mean what industry is not basically completely impacted by technology today yeah. And so Are you finding that there is some sort of. Gap that you need to fill for these students who are clearly a very crucial point in their lives when they're trying to figure out who they are and what will give them meaning but they also probably have crazy amounts of student debt and they're also some of the smartest most I mean they're the people to build these amazing tech platforms and APPS and the hardware as well. That seems like an incredibly vulnerable place to be. It's I mean it's a big question rain. First of all I would say I sometimes I admire and sometimes feel badly for students that end up in that position where you know where we all talk about them as the the most brilliant the the best the ones that you know that build everything, right? In. The last couple years few years I would have these dinners for students at my house. and. It would be these really diverse and interesting groups of students that come from less privileged backgrounds, young people that really had to work tremendously hard to get here and too. Often you know show up here and navigate things for themselves that that other students would take for granted because it just all been spoon fed to them throughout their life and what boggled my mind when I would be having dinners like that United? Start? Asking like. So you know tell me about what kinds of futures you have in mind for yourselves what kinds of experiences you you think it'd be most meaningful to you in the next few years. I'm always I'm a sucker for trying to get people to reflect on that and I would have these same students say to me. Oh, I want to be the next. Elon Musk doesn't everybody. It had just taken over it was it was like some massive a dose of Deland Musk is I'm had been poured into the water that was running through the faucets at Harvard and And I. I. was trying to figure out why why is that? What does that change represent? What I found was this the sense that technology is the thing that's going to. Liberate us. It's the thing that's going to enrich us. It's the thing that's changing the world right now it's it's the thing that we should all be paying attention to. And I started to realize from my background studying religion. If you look at what we call Tech. Capital T. or the tech world. It's different than than an industry. It's different than a country. It's different than a lot of things to me. It seems a whole lot like a religion. It's got its structures. It's got its hierarchies. It's got its myths. It's cut its sacred texts. It's got its rituals. It's got its costumes It's it's you know holidays we created a society that is basically in the interest of corporations that want to sell US products that want to sell US identities that WANNA sell his beliefs that want to sell us a feeling like Oh yeah. I've got my community through these purchases that I make and It plays into the interests of really powerful people who exploit us. It's just about acknowledging that the industries that were all serve trapped inside of right now because of our lives online because of our in measurement with technology, these are the industries that are are basically shaping what it means to be a human being. Okay we're GONNA take a quick break when we come back Greg explains his own White Man Pitney. And why he thinks so many of us believe that we have to be so damned special it's exhausting right? Be Right back. Hey everyone maneuver. Sheer quick shout out to cognizant for sponsoring this season of Zigzag. As you know, investigating the transformation of tech and business is kind of my thing and it's what cognizant. Center for the future of work does to. They research how work is changing and will change because of new technology and big global events. One of their recent reports that caught my eye five green. Collar, jobs of the future. It describes specific that will help us all fight climate change and can help you strategize your next business or career move I mean have you ever heard of a tidewater architect? Very cool for all their reports, books, podcasts, and more head to cognizant dot com slash future of work that Z. O. G. N. is E. A. N. T. dot com slash future of. Okay. So Greg Epstein. The chaplain turned tech crunch columnist. He's been taking all he knows about religious studies and community building and journeying into the belly of the Silicon Valley Beast. He definitely has a different. More humane perspective on what's going on there. So I just felt a kind of calling or a just an immediacy and see to get involved in that and to try to be part of something that's helping shape all that technology, all of that effort in industry in in a positive direction because right now, I it strikes me that there's a lot of discontent and a lot of stress in in the tech industry that is leading some of these leaders to take it out on you and me. I've been trying to kind of take my skills as a chaplain and community builder and apply them. They're like facilitating discussions like that among people who are trying to figure out with their career and look like or what are industries ought to look like, and it's giving me this opportunity to meet with executives in tech companies to meet with VC's to meet with scholars of the ethics of technology critics of tech companies, employees of the various companies that literally every level from. Interviewing Uber lift drivers to you know interviewing major executives and you know people are definitely realizing right now that there's this very dangerous. But also potentially inspiring moment where people are are not content to let these companies be what they've been. So this show is really about you know it's called Zigzag in it's about how people are changing things up because they have a similar sort of awakening that you described that they want their work, they want their business to reflect what their values are in their life, and so we're really trying to map the individual journey that people are on to the greater economic business journey that that that our country is on how technology has really. Changed what work and business are in some ways and I, guess I'm wondering like what are the questions that you pose to people to help them try and sort themselves out and figure out ways that they can pay the bills but they can also adhere to the values that they know they have deep inside and it sounds like you're trying to get them to question that maybe they might have to give up some of their power. Yes We all might those of us who have it Look I. I think this question of You know the idea that you have to work twenty, four seven and that you can't go home to anything beyond just your career because you're so obsessed with your career and making a mark in it, it's something that I've been observing for certainly the sixteen years or so that I've been at Harvard and really the fact that I ended up at Harvard in the first place is reflective of anything of the fact that I've been observing not my whole life I've been around 'em vicious people and I've been an overly ambitious person myself and you know my mom when I was growing up, my mom was a refugee from Cuba. Came here by herself with nothing at age thirteen and was separated from her family and you know how to learn English from the start from scratch as a teenager and became a hippie in all sorts of things and and And she would try to get me to chill out as as a student in high school or College. She'd be like, why are you working so hard? What are you trying to be the best all the time? Like would you please go out? Go to a party have a drink, take a drug whatever you're going to just relax. And I'd be like, no mom I wanna you know I was doing speech into competitions at the time. I was like I to be the national champion like I have no idea why decided that? I wanted to be that where did that come from? Like? Did that drive come from? Okay. You want it in psychological terms where it came from I think yeah. Okay. So So. There's a psychologist earlier in the in the twentieth. Century. Her name was Alice Miller and she wrote a book called The drama of the gifted child that I think has a lot of insight into this sort of phenomenon that we observe around places like Harvard and MIT and Basically, what it says, a lot of US got this message that we need to be obsessed with excellence we need to be obsessed with success and we're running around maniacal pursuing it to the detriment of entire society and what Miller said in that book is that essentially we got this message. then. Our parents didn't mean to give to us or our loved ones in other cases didn't mean to give to us but they nonetheless did, which is the kid does something and does something that indicates promise right? You know the the little kid writes her first poem or she you know solves her first math equation or she Says something or does something that you know that make the parent think Oh you know look my kid is brilliant. My kid is is all the things that I'm hoping they'll be and they would say something to the kid basically to reward them for their little accomplishment, their intelligence they are standing this right but then what happens is the kid gets the message that oh Yes I'm loved but I'm loved for what I just did. I'm loved for what I just demonstrated that I'm special that I'm unique that I'm brilliant that I'm a genius whatever it is, and the kid serve ultimately gets the idea absorbs the idea from their family from the culture. That's the only way to truly be loved because being average is not good enough being special is what everybody seems to be looking for but the kid, we all do have this intrinsic sense that you. We're not special all the time nobody special all the time. That's the very definition of the concept of special rate and so. The kid knows like I'm kind of faking it here in some ways, and then you sort of internal as well. I gotta continue to fake it. Otherwise I'm not going to be loved, and if I'm not loved I'm not worthwhile and if I'm not worthwhile than what am I and so you have all these people in our culture who are running around trying to be special trying to be brilliant trying to be loved for their exceptionalism when by definition, nobody can be exceptional all the time and and there's just not enough love out there in the world for a society where everybody needs to be exceptional. And I just think you know if we're trying to diagnose what's in the water in places like I'm sitting that's what it is. And it's in highly concentrated doses in what we call the Tech World Today you've got toxic masculinity you've got racism. You've got cutthroat business models right and left and what it really comes down to you know from a psychological perspective I'd argue is this idea that we're trying to prove. So many of us are that we are special and exceptional so that we won't suffer the feet of being average or. Worse which is just psychologically unacceptable and so you know you've got people trying to make millions and billions you've got people trying to to to show You know how brilliant they are. You've got people trying to you know to create the next Unicorn you know the center cannot hold. It's too much. It's that kind of world will eventually and sooner rather than later really collapsed under its own weight. I, think you called it in one of your pieces, the official pathology of the Protestant Work Ethic. And that really resonated with me and you said left unexamined though it leads us to constantly try to demonstrate are worth by outworking people out earning them an out grading them. We rarely stop to simply connect with other normal human beings or to allow ourselves to experience vulnerability I. Think I cried when I read that actually I mean look you know the the question that I have for for people in tech or or people at Harvard Mit, and I'm trying to to work this through in my own life to is. Really have to be that way like do we really have to keep pushing or could we not build a society together? Where we feel enough of a sense of community, we feel enough of a sense of just being loved for being human. that. It's not so important to work all the time to serve bludgeoned ourselves to death with work all the time because we're getting enough of what we really need as human beings from one another. I mean. Look I. Didn't get it at all until my son was born in two, thousand sixteen, and so by that point I had already been a chaplain at Harvard for ten twelve years and you know I was pretty steeped in this culture and you know like I wanted to ask these meaningful questions to people about what you know, what is a human life worth and what should we really believe and all that I think I I was right about the God or not God part from my own perspective. But what I was wrong. About was just this I. I had this feeling that even as a chaplain had to prove my greatness to people had approve my exceptionalism two people. To be the best chaplain like what is that even right but I, you know I it's hard to admit but I have to admit it like that's where I was and then. My son was born. And I didn't think I was going to be a particularly great father especially of a young kid like. My Mom's only and I was pretty much the youngest person in in my entire family I never around babies babies were like my phobia I just felt like I couldn't even go near them. Anyway so My son is born. And Give me a second I know I want to tell the story, but it's it's tough to talk about Anyway. So my son is born. And My wife had had a really difficult pregnancy Where She was pretty badly physically injured. By the process of giving birth. And you know by the bedside in the operating room of an emergency operation and She's basically out of it when they take my son out of her. And you know they they kind of hand me to him him to me really the hand meet him. And You know I reach out to touch him and his little tiny fist grabs my pinky and surrounds it. And you know. I know now and I I really knew in a sense then even the. Biological Mechanism right like like a you know that's built into a an infant's brain to do that or newborn's brain do that. But it felt to me Like a profound life changing moment where what I realized was this I realized in that moment. Having had. A mom who really trauma filled life and Childhood and having had a dad who was also wrecked profoundly traumatized sick. Most of my childhood died when I was a teenager really didn't know how to love me or even communicate with me. And sort of had felt spent my entire life trying to prove stuff to people. My son took my pinky at that moment and. Like I am going to love you for the rest of your life and I could care less what you accomplish what you do, who you are in any external sense. Just completely for existing. And only for just existing as my son, I love you. And never had that feeling before like people you know. Especially, like I went to divinity school for goodness sake like people talk about unconditional love you know over breakfast every day you know and like I honestly never really understood with that concept meant. and. So you know now I, understood it. And I think we every single human being deserves that and it's absolutely infuriating. and horrifying that. So few of US have it. This is a country. Let's call it as as it is. This is a country that as the New York Times. So brilliantly put forward Magazine few months ago we're our founding myth is the myth of sixteen nineteen. Where you know this is the country whose identity was shaped by the declaration of independence in seventeen seventy six. This is the country that was shaped by the narrative that we can bring other human beings here. And exploit them. For their, entire lives for arguing. This is this is a country where. where systemic racism and. Gender exploitation to write the lack of of rights to women has basically made us what we are. It's what made us economically dominant power. And it's what made us so. Morally, flawed and the tech companies are the serve chief means of delivering it in this twenty-first-century economy. Greg, thank you so much for taking the time to talk to be I. Really really appreciate it. Thank humanise. Chaplain Greg. Epstein Love Him. So I checked in with Greg right before this. was about to go out just as Harvard was deciding that virtual learning is indeed going to continue for the next academic year. Greg's been really worried about his students but he says he's already seen what he thinks could be a positive change in some of their outlooks on life and work he recorded a message for us. There's been this tremendous confusion, a kind of whiplash the Benz you could say where students have had to cope with protests and their own physical safety and health and where to live and had afford living there, and also just what to do with life that that the simpler. Pace. Of Life that we've many of US witnessed these past few months the the idea that you know it's okay to just sit around at home and talk to your family and cook a meal and take a walk which for a huge bunch of overachievers like I'm used to hanging around with at a place like Harvard or a place like mit is just a really big deal this this this idea that. There is a different life out there that that doesn't require as much money that doesn't demand as much external sunshine of success or proof of success. But rather is about nurturing other humans. To all you college students out there my four nieces included. This great reset of society that's happening. A hope you can think of it in some ways as an incredible opportunity to help us all get on track. To a more equitable world. Okay So we are now officially halfway through season five of Zigzag. And I have a favor to ask. Could you please take just a moment to rate and review the show on Apple podcasts or whatever after listening to? A No it's annoying but it makes a huge difference for letting more people know about the show and I would so appreciate it. And while you're there hit subscribe so you get next week's awesome episode which I am calling the Troll slayer Kerry Goldberg per story of becoming the lawyer. And changing the laws for all of us I can't really decided. It was like frasier craziness but I put my super stable job at a nonprofit and started the law firm with the whole goal of just serving people who are dealing with a psycho stalker. I love how Carey has built this thriving business solo end. She's changing society at the same time. Oh and I almost forgot a link to the article I mentioned earlier that Greg wrote that I love so much and lots of other stuff in the newsletter you should subscribe. To Zigzag pod DOT COM, I will not spam you I will protect your privacy also, here's my question for you. This week you know Greg is this Weird Combo of chaplain and tech writer is your life a weird Combo of jobs that unexpectedly complement each other or are you thinking about combining two jobs in an unusual way? Please tell me about it record voice memo, send it to Zigzag at stable D DOT Com. The email is zigzag at stable G. DOT COM. That's S. T. A. B. E. G. Dot. com. Credit for making this episode. Possible goes to David, Herman Maria wardle Dan Zula Arms Amore Odi, and Cairo happen. Also. Thank you. Jen Point. So. Much gratitude to my partners at Ted, for all their support to because zigzag is a member of the Ted family of podcasts and it comes from stable genius productions. I'm Manouche Summer Odi, and thank you so much for being here and listening. Who Record again please. What changes has a global giant like verizon had to make as it relates to company communication and Decision Making during the cove nineteen pandemic Greg. Silliman of Verizon, recently gave us a sneak peek as to what they've done thus far and what they aim to continue. Once the pandemic is over, it doesn't matter where you are low everyone has seen seat around the table and so a lot of what we're talking. About now is the future of the enterprise. How do we take the best of what's happening right now and applying for it? How we make sure we break down the geographic barriers and if you're in headquarters versus away from headquarters, don't have different had access to decision making that everyone has equal seat around the table in the equal voice. So it's things like that but communication shared sense of mission that we build. That democratization across the company's technology the things that were really looking to build on even after the Coen prices. To check out the interview head to Ted Dot com slash verizon that's Ted dot com slash V. E. R. I., Z. O. N..
Listen Again: Climate Mindset
"Hey everyone. It's Manouche and I want to tell you about an important Ted event that you can join in on countdown is a new global initiative from Ted to champion and accelerate solutions to the climate crisis. It kicks off on October tenth with virtual. Day of talks on Youtube to learn more go to countdown dot Ted Dot Com. And meanwhile, in honor of countdown, we've got an episode for you that you may have missed back in May. It's about the mindset that we need to tackle the climate crisis because it is so hard these days to not feel burned out or overwhelmed to stay positive. Will this episode offers some good reasons why you should stay the course and be part of the solutions? So after you listen to it, go to countdown dot Ted Dot com turn your mindset into action. Thanks so much for being here and enjoy the episode again for the first time. This Is the Ted Radio Hour. Each week groundbreaking Ted talks our job now is to dream big delivered at Ted Conferences. To bring about the future we want to see around the world to understand who we are from those talks. We bring you speakers and ideas that will surprise. You just don't know what you're going to find challenge. You have the acts ourselves like why isn't noteworthy and even change you I literally feel like I'm a different person. Do you feel that way ideas worth spreading. From Ted. NPR. I'm a new, Maroney. In for the past couple months while we've all been doing our part to keep ourselves and others safe. We've also had some time to think about what we value most. Walking through the woods home, just a few minutes walk away from. The village that I live in southern. England and for a lot of US including Tom Rivet Karnak it's planet. Beautiful Parks Audi May. See The light can trees Tom Is an expert in climate change policy back in two thousand fifteen, he helped bring together nearly two hundred countries to support the Paris Agreement, which was the UN deal to curb greenhouse gas emissions. But of course, right now, Tom's been spending his time closer to home when the amazing things about this forest over the last few weeks of course is deserted. Now, there's no one hand. For many of us, the pandemic marks, the first time, the whole planet is having one shared experience. Maybe the first time we feel like we are one species and Tom says, this moment is an opportunity none of us who are alive right now have ever lived through anything like this. We are all facing one challenge, which is how we collectively going to deal with this moment. Now the best outcome of this is that we as humanity remember that we can no longer afford the luxury of feeling powerless. Like. The rest of the world, the Ted Stage is now happening remotely. So Tom Rivers Karnak delivered his talk from those woods near his home. Right now we are coming through one of the most challenging periods in the lives of most of us, the global pandemic has been frightening whether personal tragedy has been involved or not, but it has also shaken our belief that we are powerless in the face of great. Change. In the space of a few weeks we mobilized to the point where. Of humanity took drastic action to protect the most vulnerable. Friday morning, the twentieth. Since by shift yesterday I came back into find the emergency department full. It's like a war room in the respiratory report room. So many people trying to figure out what a summit to take. Tired. Just, been running around unfortunately, it's not over we're still going up. And so I'm still going back to work tomorrow. These people are keggers and nurses who have been helping humanity face the corona virus cove in nineteen. Now. That's interesting because it shows us that humans are capable of taking dedicated and sustained action even when they can't control the outcome. But leaves us with another challenge. To. The climate crisis. Because make no mistake. The climate crisis will be orders of magnitude was than the pandemic. If we do not take the action that we can still take to avert the tragedy that we see coming towards us. There's a line in your tedtalk that kind of hit me like a brick wall where you warn us that the climate crisis will be worse than the pandemic. You know we're just so in the pandemic right now that it's hard to take belong review on that. Make the case for why we? Yeah I mean one simple answer to that question is that the climate crisis will be permanent. The pandemic is. A major global emergency that we are right in the throes of right now, but we will find vaccine we are learning about this virus time we are working on social measures to reduce it spread. We're working on back scenes. Those will take months maybe years, but we'll come to that point and we'll come through it and world will return to some form of normality although it will probably look quite different. In the climate emergency, the climate crisis if we allow ourselves to pass these tipping points. After which we begin to lose control of the climate system itself because certain things about the planet change like when the Sea ice reduces, it exposes the dark water underneath that water absorbs more sunlight which leads to more sea ice law. So you get these feedback loops where it becomes runaway. So you lose control of the climate system if we get to that point. We can't find a cure for that. That's just the planet flipping into a different hottest Dane. Before the pandemic climate change and our struggle to do anything about it was on a lot of our minds like a consistent dull ache. Now, coping with covid nineteen end fighting the climate crisis. What can feel emotionally overwhelming with climate change isn't going away and like Tom said, the way communities have reacted to the pandemic might prove we can come together and fight an invisible threat and so on. The show today, can we make the psychological shift? We need to stop global warming and capitalize on this moment. Corona virus and climate that there are many ways in that that connected that both global challenges that are coming out us. At this moment, they both require us to step up as individuals and our society requires to replenish our trust in. Our Faith and science they require us to collaborate and they make us realize that we are only as strong as the weakest member of our societies and the other thing that they do is they required to take strong action without being able to control the outcome. No one individual can take action that can prevent the spread of coronavirus in my talk I talk about some of these healthcare work and what was kind of instructive to me as I looked at it was I realized that as long as you feel like you're you're what you're doing has meaning and purpose you'll take action even if you can't control the outcome, that's why those nurses. So in such an inspiring way, takes action put themselves in such risk to do these different things. That's also the story of transformation of the world going back generations in in times of great challenge conflict and difficulty people can controller, but they felt a sense of purpose and meaning in engaging with the issue. So. Let me give you a historically story to explain. On September, nineteen, thirty, nine. German fall begins its ruthless March of conquest. In the late nineteen thirties, the people of Britain would do anything to avoid facing the reality that Hitler would stop at nothing to conquer your. Robes must the eagle wave in the breeze fadiman speech? Now that meant the concentration camp. that. They were terrified of Nazi aggression. And would do anything to avoid facing that reality in the end the reality broke through. Churchill is remembered for many things and not all of them positive. But what he did in those early days of the war was he changed the story the people of Britain told themselves about what they were doing and what was to come. We should go under the and. Visual defend. Whatever they got maybe. On the beaches. Fighting the fields and in the streets. Shall never surrender. An island alone. A country would fight them on the beaches a country that would never surrender. He wasn't promising an easy ride. He wasn't promising victory. He was promising blood toil tears and sweat. That's literally what he said but he was promising meaning he was promising something that people could. Get. Engaged in an as a result, be part of a great shed indefinite and that's what motivated people to Action. It's not actually the sense of an easy victory. And I mean I live in the west of England dotted along the river right? By my house is a series of little brick buildings. Were constructed by the old man of the village during the war because they wanted to feel like they were part of this great shed endeavour the Germans were never going to come up the river F- room to attack Britain right but they felt like they wanted to be part of this great deficit. They built these things to contribute and everybody felt that what they were doing. WAS PART OF THIS Pompous Fold Shad mission. Now, that doesn't mean it was always easy right or it doesn't mean that every day was filled with joy, but it does mean that it provided a north staff. Now on climate, we've allowed ourselves to not feel purposeful to not feel meaningful to have the sense of if I can't control it all myself. Therefore, the meaning and the PUP has drains away and that is a major mistake. We can do big things together. It's not beyond our ability to cooperate top shad objective to walk together towards it to yes. have national interests but also have international solidarity and. We can live enormously purposeful a meaningful lives right now by deciding to take action on these collective issues and thereby transforming the world through our own actions. I mean it almost sounds like what you're saying is that we need a leader who can reframe the narrative around climate change around things that are outside of our control. I'm actually saying that I can see why you would draw that conclusion from what I've said. What's needed is an animating story that we can get behind and that provides meaning for us. There's probably going to be multiple different stories for different people in different ages and different industries. Different countries what I'm saying is we can choose what story that is and we can actually choose to have a more animating narrative that moves us towards action. I mean if you look at the components of this crisis, right, it is overwhelming odds it is clock ticking down. It is great peril. If we fail, it's all the ingredients of a great adventure story. We're either GONNA do this or we're not but no one else is going to do it. And if anyone's going to do it, it's going to be. and to me, that's kind of the beginning of a really inspiring narrative. I WANNA do I want to be part of the generation that face this challenge decided it wasn't too much for us, and then we'll always be the generation that was able to do this. That's still a chance for US right? But what do we need to be that generation like how do we even start motivating ourselves to do this? Optimism Gritty determined stubborn. And when I say stubborn optimism what I mean is relentless right it's a relentless choice. This is Cristiano Figures Tom worked with her on UN efforts to curb climate change and she says to keep making progress we need stubborn optimism it's a relentless commitment it's a gritty determination to move forward no matter what. Now mnuchin I am woman and I'm a Latin. American and Latin American women are known for being exaggerated a very happy with the use of hyperbole. This is no hyperbole we are now at the most critical crossroads in the history of humanity. Say Oh. My God that paralyzes me was fear Yes. Well, okay. Wonderful. I'm glad that you're paralyzed with fear. But. Here's the thing. It is always at the moment of greatest darkness that we actually need the brightest light. When we come back Cristiana describes how she realized that she had no choice but to be optimistic. I'm a new summer ODI and you're listening to the Ted Radio Hour from NPR. Support for this podcast and the following message come from the American Jewish World Service working together for more than thirty years to build a more just and equitable world learn more at age aws dot org. I'm Rodney Komar and Sydney man. On our new podcast louder than a riot, we traced the collision of rhyme. Punishment in. America. We were hunt -opoly were literally physically stand on corner drop squad Pulo everybody. KNEW FROM NPR music. Listen to loud is in a riot. It's the Ted Radio Hour from. NPR. I'm new summer Odi on the show today. Can we make the psychological shift? We need to fight climate change before the break Tom Rivett CARNAC and Cristiana vigorous told us that optimism stubborn optimism is the key to how we approach global warming. Is. Always at the moment of greatest darkness that we actually need the brightest light. But Cristiana didn't always feel this way back in two thousand ten she was appointed as the executive secretary of the United Nations. Framework. Convention on Comma Change which is quite a mouthful Basically, what that means is, now what that means is that she had to bring one hundred, ninety, five countries to a consensus on how to manage climate change. It was actually an impossible task. It was a very doom and gloom moon a sense of overwhelm a sense of helplessness. That's because just six months earlier, the negotiations for a global climate agreement had totally broken down. People had tried to come to an agreement in Copenhagen and failed and they had concluded. It's too late anyway to address climate change we're just GonNa have to accept the ravages that is going to bring. And so this was the mood when you gave what was your first press conference on the job? Yeah. The press conference that I remember. Best. I've done many press conferences. But. This is the one that I remember best because it was just very painful. On my first press conference. A journalist asked Christiana Figueres picks up the story from the Ted Stage. Miss Figures. Do. You think that global agreement is ever going to be possible and without engaging brain I. Heard Me Utter Not In my lifetime. Well you can imagine the faces of my press team who were horrified at this crazy Costa Rican woman who was their new boss. And I was horrified to now I wasn't horrified at me because I'm kind of used to myself. I was actually horrified. Consequences of what I had said. Horrified because I thought. Okay. Well, that expresses the mood. But is that what we really want for our future generations? Are we going to give up now just because? This was an incredible attempt and we failed is that a reason to give up and to condemn future generations to the ravages that will be brought upon them and I very quickly. I said No. I can't do then there's no way that I could live with myself knowing that I had just been given responsibility and what was I supposed to do just hold failure in my hands for several years and just admire the failure admire the problem I. It was just not something that I could do is just not morally responsible. It was frankly a horrible moment for me and I thought well, no, hang on. Hang on. Impossible. Is Not a fact. It's an attitude. It's only an attitude. An I decided right then and there that I was going to change my attitude and I was going to help the world change its attitude on climate change. So, kind of sounds like you walk off the stage and you're thinking to yourself like you know we don't have a choice here. We have to keep going no matter what happens children are depending on US exactly exactly and so it was definitely, I think my maternal instincts thinking certainly of my two little daughters but frankly of your daughters as well. And everybody's children because climate change is something that affects everyone and it especially affects people who we don't know either in the present or in the future and I just felt this huge moral responsibility fully realizing than high did not have a blessed idea of what we could do to change it. So. You have this this epiphany this moment, and then what exactly were you committing yourself too I actually call it stubborn optimism, and for me optimism is actually more of a choice. It's a moral choice. So then I have to change my attitude I, and then I have to figure out how to be contagious about that I didn't have a blessed idea of how we're GONNA get that. But if I could harness collective wisdom, we would be able to figure that out. But as you say for you like it, it wasn't enough that you felt this you. You had to corral every one person going to if it comes to something as global as addressing climate change. Obviously, it's never one individual far from it and has to be a critical mass of people who bring their ingenuity, their innovation, their creative thinking, and their solution development together if we're GONNA do this and has to be an everyone in effort. So we went from something that was impossible in two thousand, nine to something that was came maybe maybe possible over the years we moved from possible to likely, and then eventually into thousand and fifteen to unstoppable. So that arc of possibility is what eventually led to the Perez. Women. There is no way you can deliver victory without optimism. And here I use optimism as a very simple word. But let's understand it in its broader sense. Let's understand it as courage. Hope Trust Solidarity. The fundamental belief that we humans can come together and can help each other to better the fate of mankind. Then you see the governments were able to go to Paris and giant the Paris Agreement. Okay. So optimism clearly played a pretty big part in reaching an agreement Paris but you know, let's let's fast forward to two thousand sixteen donald trump was elected president and he announced that the US was leaving the Paris Agreement Rolling back regulations. It's it's hard to figure this out because I mean, I, know reducing emissions as possible. The science says so and we have even seen it since the pandemic began, but it also feels like so often politics is the reason that optimism can be so hard to muster right well. But then we haven't understood my definition of optimism US optimism is not the result of the reality it's a choice it is an intentional choice. We have to be able to say, okay, there are going to be barriers in this case the U. S. White House. Okay. But that's not going to be a permanent event in our life an event, and at some point that is going to change don't confuse the waves with the current. If. You live in the ocean you see tides, there's a low tide and there's a high tide and those are constant inconstant following each other. So we have a low tide in the White House right now we also have a high tight in many other places of the world, but let's not confuse that with the current. The. Current that we have, which is the underlying trajectory of the global economy. Independent of the political tides is definitely toured the carbonation. It's not just possible. You said that it's possible. Honestly it's necessary. It's the only thing that we can actually accept neither are parents nor our children have the capacity. Our parents did not have it and for our children, it will be too late. So if today collectively we stay in the grief and the despair and the helplessness, we will never get out of this black. That's the point. We are at the moment in which we need the brightest light. Something very powerful. Happened to me when I read your book called the future we choose and I mean I hear all the doomsday scenarios and it completely freaks me out. But what you did in the book that was different to me was you laid out what it would be like to actually live in a carbon neutral regenerative world and so I wonder if you could do that, what does it look like when we see companies and governments and investors and citizens coming together in a way we've never seen before beyond nation states but as a species. Well yes. We actually set out those two futures that were choosing between and it's important to understand that under a business. As usual scenario. If we continue to do what we're doing, we are possibly choosing the world of doom and gloom, which we describe in the book instead of possibly choosing if we actively intentionally choose to do differently. Then, we create a future that is very different from the doom glue so both are possible right now but none of them is currently. A destiny, neither of them we have to choose which destiny do we want? The other world that honestly was a little bit more difficult to right because there's more information about the doom and gloom than there is about the new and much better world and we wanted to write a scenario that is actually science base but picture this. Picture the Ju- live in a city. Walk out of your, House and actually the air is fresh and moist. Why Because humanity has actually done a mega planting of trees across the entire world and we have replenished the forest cover than had been lost and dot forest cover is actually helping us to clean the air and to bring temperatures down. We will have a regenerated soils and we will have regenerated the oceans. Now, you have oceans that are plentiful. And you have soils that are fertile and producing on less land, they're producing much more foods. Imagine that you walk out of your home and instead of getting into your singly own gas guzzling vehicle. You actually have a smart vehicle that comes around it picks you up, and of course, it's an electric Queen Vehicle and it takes you to where you WANNA go no parking and all that area that used to be for parking. All of these stupid vehicles is actually now transformed into gardens. Imagine that all of the buildings will have on the roof. They will either have solar panels for electricity or they will have food gardens. Imagine that every single surface is actually going to be capturing sunlight to produce the energy for that building. It's going to be contributing to clean the air and bringing down the temperature. The sounds wonderful. It sounds like Topi. Cristiana. Well, maybe you know maybe it sounds like you told me about the fact is we're on the way toward many of those things were totally on the way toward an electric smart transportation we are totally on the way of smart design of cities. It is not science fiction. If you look for examples of any of this, it's all already underway Listening to you, you are full of energy and conviction and yes optimism. But surely, there must have been moments in the last couple of years especially since Peres where you have had to. Collect yourself and check your doubts and really re commit to this climate optimism. Absolutely. I've had moments of deep anger and frustration and. Used very strong language cussing line. Points because it makes me so angry that we are so stuck in reality of the past and we see ourselves as being victims of the past is we do nothing about it and that is totally untrue. We're not victims of the past we are creators and Co creators of the future. Yes. I. Do get angry and yes, I do get upset and. I use the energy of that anger to actually move forward because if I stay in that whole of anger and despair ingred tonight, I'll do anything. If you're angry if you're despairing of whatever what that is is energy. The only thing you have to do is harvest that energy and change the characteristic of it, and then you're contributing to the solution. It's Cristiano. She. Tom. Rivett CARNAC ARE CO authors of the book the future Lee choose surviving the climate crisis. They also host a podcast together called out read and optimism. You can see both of their talks at Ted Dot Com. So. What does stubborn optimism actually look like like what does it mean to be part of the solution for some young people? It's about focusing their entire lives on the issue of climate change. Asking one billion. Out For more sustainable journal like the students Beacon High School's Environmental Club in New York City. So we wanted to start with little debry I. Think we're just GonNa Kinda go over like what we've been doing for what you've been doing if it was anything related to the environment dying that you want to share. So anyone went to visit them a couple months ago back when the kids were still in school. So talk to about when you first started hearing about climate change and things like that, right? What what were what were you feeling? For me what freaked me out the most was Insci- class just seeing pictures of how much glaciers were disappearing and to me that was the moment where I was really like, wow, this is happening rapidly. It is truly horrifying to me. It's something that. Sits. On me and makes me feel like I can't I can't get up and I think it's even more like a weight on our shoulders that we have to be the ones to deal with it because we can't really like go back and fix our parents and grandparents mistakes. It's like how unfair is it to us that the future that we're given is like got to live their lives, pursue their career paths get married have kids, and then you think about your future in your life and it's like all of us have talked with each other about wanting to be good dads and wanting our grandchildren to be able to like live in A. Safe. Healthy world and then you have to fight to. Break even I guess. By the time, we even get to the positions that these are adults in power in its frankly is going to be too. Late we need adults who have means to support the youth join us in. Lake. Come out with us organized with US recycle take time out of your day to research like the issues find local town hall e concern, and like just educate yourself. What really helped me what really calmed me down was like coming to these meetings and just talking to other people who care about the same things that I care about and who are fighting for the same cause. To come together and really off to put our heads together and our bodies together and take on together because. It seems like such an insurmountable thing and it is but The the only chance behind as if we really come together and really listen to read the signs and believe it has to be an everyday thing and a lot of people don't realize than order to make actual change you have to. Keep keep going. And now that the Begin High, school activists are all stuck at home the organizing online with other young people as part of the youth climate movement. Everyone. It's nice to see you again. I am talking about countless slack channels, zoom calls I think your muted hours and hours of planning virtual event. report. This is a this is a huge part is the biggest party we've had all day like Earth Day in April I'm so glad everyone can make it to talk with us today. So why don't we just good started the organized three days of talks, workshops, performances, and conversations with policymakers. Hello everybody we are here with the icon. How How do you see the linkage between the coronavirus pandemic and economic crisis? Corn. Change your activism blessed. That's a great question I. Guess I'll start hope is that people? These are really good points I will keep in mind. One Beacon High Student at the center of all this Shia busted. My name is Shia st that and I am a seventeen year old climate justice activists I. Know that a lot of people look at me in the hallway and say like all the climate girl or whatever. But what I'm seeing is that we inspire others through action and through example because there is no hope without action. Just a minute she had tita tax about staying optimistic while dealing with the pressures on young climate activists on the show today the mindset to face the climate crisis. It's the Ted Radio Hour from NPR I'm a new summer Rhody, stay with us. Support for NPR and the following message come from INVESCO as children were all inventors possibility inspires us and we imagine how the world might change. Most of us don't grow up to design self driving cars or create tools for robotic assisted surgery. But both of those innovations have something in common ordinary people who put their money behind ideas that inspire them by tracking one hundred of the largest non-financial companies on the Nasdaq Invesco Q. Q. gives you the opportunity to access some of today's most innovative companies and put your money where your imagination. To learn more visit INVESCO DOT com slash Q. Q. There are risks involved with investing in es including possible loss of money ATF's are subject to risks similar to those of stocks and investment cannot be made directly into an index before investing consider the funds investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses visit INVESCO DOT COM for prospectus with this information read carefully before investing in vesco Distributors Inc... Billie. Holiday helped shape American music with her voice and unique style but her like a C- extends way beyond music with one song in particular how strange fruit became an unexpected hit and brought on serious consequences for Billie holiday. Listen now to the through line podcast from NPR. It's the Ted Radio Hour from NPR I'm a Newsham Roti. On the show today can we make the psychological shift? We need to fight climate change. Just hearing from Shia Bastida about all the work that goes into helping lead the youth climate movement. A lot of pressure for a seventeen year old. There was a long time I would have three or four calls a day. And I would to meetings I would you know do my homework late at night I'd. Sleep for four hours and get on called because I needed to call Germany's to get an a calling the middle of the night. and. I was just exhausting myself because I thought that the world on my shoulders. And the beauty of this movement is there are so many kids who are willing to do work. That you don't have to do all the work yourself. You can ask others to the gotomeeting. You can ask others to run the social media. and. Sharing the responsibility makes us way stronger than trying to do everything yourself means you have to share the limelight though doesn't it? Oh? Yeah. You're okay with that. I don't know in the era of instagram. Oh, like honestly the more people who get a platform for climate activists in the better because. This is something that is going to last for a very long time. This fight is going to last very long time so we can get too tired and then put it in this little box reminds and think that we can just keep on going like we are. And a Wayne which I deal with it is what I want to see. The World Do I do myself? So. It's kind of leading by example. With me on all the other Clement activists when we organized, there is no hierarchy. We just do it through consensus and it is harder and it's more time but things turn out better because we listen to everybody and we listened to all the different points of view and. I love having friends who are climate activists because then we can share our feelings with each other. For example I told my friends the other day I was the first time in seven months at the beach. And I was just sitting there hearing the ocean and thinking for the first time ever actually thinking my kids are never going to be an beach. Because, we're going to have flooding on the ocean is GonNa come up all the way to the streets, but beaches take thousands of years to form. So that was the first time which I thought. Are. My kids ever. GonNa see a trivia on an island. And the type of things that I can share with my friends and they will say this is what we have to kick harder. You know this is what we have to. Share, how we feel because stories touched people and data doesn't. Do you said there's power in story. So let's let's talk about your story. What is your background? How did you first start thinking about climate change? So. My family background is crazy my Momma Chilean my daddy's Mexican. But I was born in the highlands Mexico. In. This. Small Town about ten thousand people called some Beck. And that means the town Nov Dula, which is this plant that you can. We've and make things out of, and that's my what my grandfather did his whole life aside from playing music, and so I was raised with this understanding that we had to take care of our surroundings and we had to thank the Earth for everything that it's providing us. I remember when I was younger and my family and I would go in the highlands of central Mexico by the Lake tweet lunch. She Abyss Tito Continues Her story on the Ted Stage. My mom would take out the food that we brought and I report to clearly remember her taking out tortillas. And so the prayer would begin. Thank you to mother Earth for gifting us with air water and places for our food to grow. Thank you to the hand supplanted the. Think you to the Hansel harvests that the corn. To the hands who made the tortillas and for the transplant patient that it took for all of us to come together and shared this beautiful moment. That is how I grew up. With the mindset that we have to thank everything, we have to thank beepers. Because, it gives us everything we need to bip it gives us shelter food. And all that it asks is that would protect. And to grow up with that, love for the earth and that reciprocity and that reciprocal love understanding. was just how my whole world was. The picked it to me. And when you grow up, you think that everybody thinks the same way you do when you understand that people don't. That's when your bubble gets like you know pop. I also remember when I was driving by L. Riera. It's the most polluted river in Mexico and it's right. By my hometown. I was driving by it with my dad. And we had to drive with a windows up because the smell would be so bad due to the toxins. And he told me you know I used to be able to bathe in this river when I was your age. In one generation, there were very went from being a source of life beauty and culture. To being one of the most neglected places in our community. How does that happen? You're talking about different generations in your family yours your fathers, your grandfathers. And it makes me think of this question that every generation has which is you know, will things be better for the next generation and most of us think will yes of course they will. But now maybe that's not necessarily true. Yeah, I think that. People who I know the grandparents struggled to get under feed. The parents did a better job our here. We're getting this great education but I don't know. My kids are going to have the childhood that I had. How does how do you tell your kid? The planet is ending and I think that's a question that I've gotten from parents. When do I start telling Michael about the climate crisis they're asking you they're asking me that as if I have an answer and I. I don't. Think I. Have An answer because I would never want to do that to a kid. And your child had kind of ends when you find out. Because then you have to do something about it because so much of the hope is placed on us. I mean that doesn't seem very fair that adults are coming to you and asking you what they can do that I mean, the tables are turned their. That's a humongous responsibility. And that is why we're trying to shift the conversation intergenerational. Cooperation. So it's actually about telling adults, we want to work with you. We want you to have internships for us. We want you to open your doors for us to come in and say. We cannot waste our time blaming each other we have to come together. And not that we can't support each other to move forward. I love the sang that says. We don't inherit the land from our ancestors. We borrow it from our children if we have that thinking. Every time than I am thinking right now I'm gonNA. Take care of this earth for my children and. Then, my children are going to think the same and it's this very basic notion of. You live the place in which you are better than how you found it. That's she a sta she is a youth climate activist. On the show today making the psychological shift, we need to fight climate change because it's going to take a kind of collective fortitude and maybe need more reminders that we all have at least one thing in common the celestial orb we live on. Hello. I'm sure by the time I get to the end of the sentence. You'll all figured out that I'm from a place called planet. Earth. This is author and illustrator Oliver Jeffers a few weeks ago on Earth Day Oliver shared his poem an Ode to living on earth and we wanted to end our episode by sharing it with you. Earth is pretty great. It's home to. Germs. Take a black sleep at the time being because believe it or not. They're not the only thing going on. This planet is also home to Carson. Brussels, sprouts those weird fish things that have their own headlights art fire fire extinguishers, laws, agents, balls of Beer Lemons, and light bulbs Pinot Noir on Paracetamol Ghosts, mosquitoes, flamingos, floors, ukulele elevators, and cats cap. The Internet Iron Beams, buildings, and batteries all and bright ideas all known life. And a whole bunch of other stuff pretty much everything we know ever heard of. It's my favorite place actually. This small orb floating cold and lonely part of the cosmos. You may think you know this planners but chances are you probably haven't thought of it the basics in alive I thought I knew it until at is I had to explain the entire place on heart supposed to work to someone who never been here before? was actually my newborn son I was trying to explain things to. We never been parents before my wife. I am so treated him like most guests arrived home for the first time by giving him the tour. This sweetness on the shrimps will remake foot discrim. We keep our collection of chairs so on it's refreshing explaining our planet works to Assyria rolled but after laughs once the magnitude that you humans, no, absolutely nothing sells on you and our little you know either. Explaining, the whole planet becomes quite intimidating. But I tried anyway. As I walked her on those first few weeks narrating the word as I. saw it. I began to take notes of the ridiculous things. I was saying, some things are really of this. Like the planet is made of two parts land and see. Some less obvious until you think about them like time things can sometimes move slowly on. More often they move quickly. So use your time. Well, it'll be gone before you know it. Or people. People come in all different shapes, sizes and colors. We may look different act different signed different don't be fooled. All people. I didn't want to tell my son. The same story of countries that we were told were I was growing up in Northern Ireland that we were from just a small parish which ignores life outside its immediate concerns I wanted to try to see what it was like to see our planet as one system as a single object hanging in space. To do this, I would need to switch from flattering Sir Books to Three D. Sculpture for the street and I need almost two hundred, eight a New York. City. Block to build a large scale model of the Moon, the earth and us. His project. Honest place on New York City's highland. Park Last Winter on the fiftieth anniversary of Apollo Eleven's mission or on the moon. After its installation I was able to put on a space with my son and launch like Apollo Eleven Day, I've century go towards ooh one. Zero all engine running. Dog We have. Thirty minutes past the hour looked up on a roll eleven. We circled around look back at us. Back. What I felt was. Lonely. Cemerin the darn. Away. And I was just pretend the moon is the only object even remotely close. And at the skill of this project were our planet was ten feet in diameter. Moore's next planet will be the size of a yoga ball on a couple of miles away. Consider briefly story of human civilization on Earth. It tells of the engine unity elegance generous nurturing nature of species that has also self-focused vulnerable into finally protect. We the people she the flame of our existence from the raw vast elements outside our control, the grid beyond. Yet it is always to the Flam look For All, we know when said is a statement means the sum total of knowledge but said another way for a we know it means that we do not know it all. This is beautiful fragile drama of civilization. We are the actors and spectators of cosmic play that means the word us here but means nothing anywhere else. There is actually only one point in the entire cosmos that is present in all constellations of stars and that presence presences here planet earth. Those pictures we have made up of the clusters of stars only makes sense from this point of view dined hear their stories only make sense here on earth. Only something to us. We are creatures of stories. We are the stories we tell where the stories were told. On this planet, there are people looking up by drawing lines between the lights in the sky we've attempted to make sense of chaos. Looking down John Lines across the land to know where we belong and where we don't. We do mostly forget that these lines that connect the stars and those lines that divide the land live only in our heads they to your stories we carry our everyday routines and rituals according to the stories. We most believe in it these days the story is changing we write it. There's a lot of fear in this story, and until recently, the stories that seemed to have the most par those bitterness of all going wrong for US individually collectively, it has been inspiring to watch are the best comes from the worst? People are waking up in this time of global reckoning to the realization that our connections with each other some of the most important things we have. But stepping back. Role we've had to lament spent very little time relishing single biggest thing that has ever gone right for us that we are here in the first place that we are alive at all that we are still alive a million and a half years after finding a box of matches, we haven't totally burned the High Stein. Yet. The chances of being here are infinitesimal it here we are perils. There have never been more people living in ours using more stuff and it's become obvious that many of the old systems we invented ourselves. Are Obsolete, and we have to build news. Wasn't germs. Our collective fire may suffocate. US. Before. As we watch the WE'S OF INDUSTRY GRIND TO. A halt. The machinery of progress becomes silent. We have the wideness of opportunities take the reset button. Take a different path. Here we are on earth. And Life on earth is a wonderful thing. It looks big this earth. But there are lots of us on here seven and a half billion last kind with more showing up. Every day. Even. So there is still enough for everyone if we all share. So please. Be Kind. When you think of it another way if earth is the only place where people vince actually at least lonely place in the universe. There are plenty of people to be loved by. I'm plenty of people to love. We need each other. We know that nine more than ever. Good night. That's all jeffers he's created over a dozen children's books including the illustrations for one of my kids favorite books the day the crayons quit. His latest is the fate of Faust, and you could see the beautiful video that goes with his talk at Ted. Thanks so much for listening to our show about the mindset, we need to fight climate change to learn more about the people who were on the episode Goto Ted Dot Npr Dot Org and to see hundreds more ted talks checkout Ted Dot com where the Ted. Our productions staff at NPR includes Jeff Rodgers Sanaa's Michigan Poor Rachel Faulkner. Diba Multi Sean James delahoussaye JC Howard Katie Monty Leon Maria Paz Gutierrez Christina. Collar and Matthew. With help from Daniel Shchukin, our theme music was written by Teen Arab Louis Our partners at Ted are Chris. Anderson Cowan Helms NFL feeling and Michelle quint I'm a new summer Odi and you've been listening to Ted Radio Hour from NPR.
How To Be Better
"This episode is sponsored by the Federal Communications Commission with a message for everyone using a TV antenna to watch local channels plants are rescan as TV broadcast broadcast frequencies change for more information go to F._C._C. Dot Gov Slash T._v. rescan. This is the Ted Radio Hour each week round breaking Ted talks and talks technology entertainment design design. Is that really what the ten groups I've never known the delivered at Ted Conferences around the world gift of the human imagination we've had to believe in impossible thing true nature of of reality beckons just beyond those talks. Those ideas adapted for radio from N._P._R.. Iras so when you're inviting family Lee your friends or co-workers over for dinner the rules of etiquette say you should steer clear of three subjects sex politics six and religion the rule of the norm never talk about sex politics or religion at the dinner table comes from a very good intention attention. This is Priya Parker. Some of the earliest charters of the freemasons have rules about basically not talking about difference to what they call Toco preserve harmony when you were in mixed company whatever that might mean and it comes from an away to find common ground Preah knows a lot about dealing with mixed company when she was little her parents divorced and the created two separate very different households and so every other Friday afternoon I would leave my mother and stepfather's home. which is this kind of Indian and British Buddhist Atheists Vegetarian you know World Banke Liberal Democratic Credit Household and travel you know about a little over a mile away to my father and some others home and step into this white evangelical Christian conservative Republican in twice a week churchgoing climate skeptic family pre ahead to navigate all that as a kid something she's continued to do as an adult professionally rationally PRI as a conflict resolution facilitator and she's mediated conversations around race relations Middle East politics business deals and the rule no sex politics or religion prio is not a fan part of the danger of this rule isn't basically it squeezes out heat heat relevance interest identity values figuring out life together grappling and to think that everybody in the room is basically an opposition with with one another is very flat way to both look at people but also to look at conversation and Preez? We're really not ever taught at a have a group conversation nation right or you're not really ever taught that in school. You're not taught that in frankly even like business score managerial programs like how do you actually ask questions that open the people up in a way that is interesting and what I'm arguing is that you can talk about these various basically the core elements of living in ways that are or meaningful help people connect and help us frankly like sort our beliefs and our opinions and our decisions and our ways we live together precincts. There's a way to deepen these get togethers to make them more meaningful and frankly to make them better browse through the self help island any bookstore and you will see a lot of ways to get richer or happier or thinner and in reality there are no shortcuts. That's we all know that but there are also ways to reframe the things we already do to think differently about them about stress or self confidence confidence or decision making things that can actually make us better versions of ourselves so today on the show. We're going to explore some of those ways to be a better you and for pre Parker. A simple way is to start with better conversations. Pre has a step by step guide. Would she introduced on the Ted Stage. The first step of creating more meaningful everyday gatherings is to embrace a specific purpose and expectant mother. I know was dreading reading her baby shower. The idea of pinned the diaper on the baby games and opening gifts felt off and irrelevant so she pause to ask what is the the purpose of a baby shower. What is my need at this moment and she realized it was to address her fears of her and her husband's transition to parenthood hood and so she asked to friends to invent a gathering based on that and so on a sunny afternoon six women gathered and I address her fear of <unk> of labor she was terrified? They told her stories from her life to remind her of the characteristics she already carries bravery wonder nder faith surrender that they believe would carry her and help her and labor as well and as they spoke they tied a bead and for each quality into a necklace reckless that she could wear around her neck in the delivery room. Now you might be thinking this is a lot for a baby shower or a little weird or it's a little intimate. Uh Good it's specific. It's specific to them. Just as your gathering should be specific to you one of the biggest mistakes we make in our gatherings. We assume the purposes obvious. How do we fix it? Like how do we make the gathering you know more specific riddick was the first question to ask before you even invite your guest is what is the purpose of this. What is the need in my life right now and then who can come together to help me kind of fulfill it now? Don't give a simple example. <hes> there was a a friend of mine who had a fiftieth birthday party and at the beginning of the night he rung his class and just said something like you know I'm turning turning fifty and I realized that most people when they turned fifty I've watched this thing where they begin to contract like in the friends. They make the decisions I make the city's as a move to the the risks they take and there are a few people who continued to expand and what I WANNA do is continue to expand and everybody everybody here are people who rather you're fifty or older or younger are people who have always encouraged me to expand and in that single moment it's thirty seconds. He's transformed the context of the night so I'm interested in. How do you Orient Group to have meaningful conversation? That's connected to the purpose or the need need of that gathering. The next step of creating more meaningful everyday gatherings is too 'cause good controversy. You may have learned as I did never did talk about sex politics or religion at the dinner table. It's okay so this brings us back to sex politics and religion which are you you know like no goes for a lot of people but but you're saying those topics can actually create good controversy what do you what do you mean by good controversy so good. Controversy is the idea that controversy can be generative. It can lead us into conversation that helps us better understand something or helps make a decision often when you avoid controversy or heat altogether what you're doing is avoiding the question that actually people care about at at some level so so what's an example so one of the people I interviewed is <hes> one of the General Secretaries of the Society Friends of quakers she I share this example with me. Gay Marriage was extremely controversial and they finally decided to have a quaker meeting the sort of the business of the day to face in this specific topic head on and she said that many of the young people in that community were speaking up and explaining why this was such an important. It's you and why this is something that the quakers absolutely should lead on and this was a deeply quaker thing to not allow it and then an older older parts of the community in particular. She said one one man stood up and basically made the argument against it and part of the power of that conversation was everybody was willing to actually say what they thought and part of what happens in a community is if you don't allow people to process and to voice and to speak out the can't be transformed by one another's ideas. You can't actually litigate you can't debate you can't be moved by the experiences that stories in the room. If you just keep what you think in your head and they finally at the end of that conversation uh-huh voted and agreed to allow same sex marriage in their in their community but they didn't by pass the conversation so often good controversies anything that it allows people to figure out what they actually believe together and finally to create more meaningful everyday gathering create a temporary alternative turn it world through the use of pop up rules so a team dinner where different generations are gathering in don't share the same assumptions of phone etiquette whoever looks at their phone first foots the bill. Try It for a mom's dinner where you want upend the norms of what women who also happen to be mothers talk about when they gather. If you talk about your kids you have to take a shot shot. That's a real dinner. Rules are powerful because they allow us to temporarily change in harmonize harmonize our behavior and in diverse societies pop rules carry special force they allow us to gather across difference to connect to make meaning together without having to be the same. I imagine that some people might find some of these rules. You Know Blake a little grading seen it's again it depends on the context and the reason I love this is because if it is grading to people you can opt out so I think we under serve people on our invitations nations because we are gathering the social contract so a lot of times. These rules are basically ways to to Orient people to what the purposes so. I WANNA going back to family for a moment because families the most complicated right so so let's say <hes> I think anyone listening will either have been in or we'll be in a situation like this. Where there's a holiday? Everyone comes from different parts of the country. Maybe there's baggage between the siblings or this between the children and the parents maybe the parents are divorced and there with other partners and they don't really like each other. You're all in this room. That's different political views. How do you make make that work? Had He actually make that work. How much time do you have no <hes> I know I sound like a broken record but you I you say what is the purpose? Why are we all getting together so often? If like there's a divorced couple coming together with the new partners and they're like holding their breath and they're coming. They're usually doing it for their children right or for their for a daughter or for for for something and then depending on the nature of the group the pitfalls or the minefields are so great. It's actually just kind of amazing to spend time together and be together and in those contexts you probably should play games and maybe the maybe the heat is like everyone actually playing the same game not every not like the different families each playing monopoly in their own corners. Another example could be like at different points to two toasts but to ask questions like what has this last year taught. You know something. That's like a little bit risky but you invite people to take their own level of risk. So how do you know so when you walk away from a gathering that you know that it worked that that it was successful he oh gathering is an act of meaning making and so at some level well. I think gatherings are powerful when people leave changed by them. People think like Oh my Gosh Oh gathering where you change people like that's a pie bar but we're changed by like stories. Stories were changed by one specific fact that someone might say at a dinner table at thanks. I've never thought about that in that way before but I'm going to. I'm going to think about that again. You know next time or if you go to a wedding and people change the ritual in a way that's really profound. Perhaps you just think <hes> you don't always have to do do things the way you think you have to do things right like change doesn't have to be so deeply And I think that gatherings that allow people to both think about themselves each other and the relationships of the world are meaningful transformative gatherings. That's pretty Parker. She's a conflict resolution facilitator. The author of the Book The Art of gathering you can find her full talk at Ted Dot Com on the show today ideas about how to be better. Stay with us. I'm Gyros and you're listening to the Ted Radio Hour from N._p._R.. <music> hey everyone just a quick thanks to one of our sponsors who helps make this podcast cast possible I to capital one capital. One knows life doesn't alert you about your credit card. That's why they created iino. The capital one assistant that catches things that might look wrong with your credit card like over tipping duplicate charges or potential fraud that sends an alert to your phone and helps you fix fixing. It's another way capital. One is watching out for your money when you're not capital one. What's in your Wallet See Capital One dot Com for details? I'm Sean Covey Daunton this week. On hidden brain we kick off our annual summer series. He's you to point out ideas and advice about how you can respond to life's chaos which to just check to my inbox. Just check just checked my phone real quick wisdom listen to hidden brain from N._p._R.. Every week it's the Ted Radio Hour from N._p._R.. I'm Guy Roz and on the show today ideas about how to be better better better things like managing stress or connecting with people or being better decision makers all right so being just a please. Tell me Your name him and <hes> and how we should identify you in the story. The My name is Sabine Doa and I am an assistant professor or incoming Assistant Professor <music> at George Mason University tease there or what will you tease there. I will be teaching developmental psychology and one of the areas he is the Sabine Researches is our executive function our ability to consciously control our thoughts actions and it's what allows our conscious brain to override override things we do automatically by habit so like if I like when I wake up in the morning and get out of bed and I put my slippers on. I'm not using my executive function just doing that. That's something I don't even think how hard is it to get out of bed every my slippers on. It's like an automatic thing for some people. It's not as automatic. They WANNA sleep in so it takes effort right so there will be differences but yeah there's a lot of things you can do in life without thinking too hard about it. You just Kinda do it but I think executive Russian comes in to play when you need to be more conscious and you have specific goals goals and there's like specific things that you need to execute right especially when there are underlying habits and that kind of go against what you're trying to do here's more from Sabine Dogo on the Ted Stage so we use executive function every day in all aspects of our lives. It's what we I used when we need to break away from habit inhibitor impulses and plan ahead executive function is really complex. It's shaped by numerous factors. It's no surprise that researchers like so interested in understanding it and figuring out ways to improve it but lately executive function has become come a huge self-improvement buzzword people think you can improve it through brain training iphone apps and computer games well. I'm here to tell you that this way of thinking about executive function is all wrong. Brain training won't improve executive function in a broad sense because it involves exercising in a narrow way way outside of the real world context in which we actually use it. If you really want to improve your executive function in a way that matters for your life life you have to understand how it's influenced by context and success in real world situations depends on things like how motivated you are and what your peers are doing now. Let me give you an example for my research. I recently brought in a bunch of kids to do the classic marshmallow test which is a measure of delay delay of gratification that also likely requires a lot of executive function so you may have heard about this test but basically kids are given a choice they can have one marshmallow mellow right away or if they can wait for me to go to the other room and get more marshmallows. They can have to instead now most kids really you want that second marshmallow but the key question is how long can they wait now. I added a twist to look at the effects of context ah I told each kid that they were in a group like the Green Group and I even gave them a green t shirt to wear and I said your group waited for two marshmallows in this other group the Orange Group did not and then I left the kid alone in the room and I watched on a Webcam Cam to see how long they waited so what I found was that kids who believed that their group waited for two marshmallows were themselves more likely to to wait so they were influenced by appear group that they've never even met so what this all shows is just how much context matters it's not that these kids had good executive function or bad. It's that the context helped them. Use It better. I mean that would suggest that you can actually improve a child's executive function if you can somehow convince them to wait would suggest that it's possible to change the way that people make decisions. I totally agree. I mean there's all kinds of examples where this seems to happen. I've been <hes> you can really exploit things like social influences to help you do things that you wanna do like to help you use I executive function tend to get out the door and go exercise for example <hes> and to maintain an exercise routine like group exercise. I think a lot of people have already picked up on this like group. The exercise works because you get used to being in an environment with other people that have friendly phrases that you know and they expect you to be there <hes> and it becomes more meaningful for you so in a way like I think you have to trick yourself where you have to tell yourself like right now. You might say like there might be some area of life where you want to improve you feel. He just can't that figure out how to change. Your decisions are better make better decisions if you can make that more meaningful for you than it'll be easier for you to Kinda use that effort effort to achieve those goals. So what does this mean for you and for your kids well. Let's say that you WANNA learn Spanish <music>. You could try changing your context and surrounding yourself with other people who also want to learn and even better if these are people that you really like that way. You'll be more motivated motivated to use executive function or let's say that you want to help your child. You'd better on her math homework. You could teach your strategies to use executive function in that particular context like putting her phone away before she starts studying or planning to reward herself after studying for an hour now. I don't WanNa make it sound like context is everything executive. Function is really complex and it's shaped by numerous factors but what I want you to remember is is if you want to improve your executive function in some aspect of your life think about the context and how you can make your goals matter more to you and how you can use strategies strategies to help yourself in that particular situation. Don't look for quick fixes. The key part of this is knowing how context shapes your behavior and how you can use that knowledge to change for the better tow boats the slow fix. I think the slow fix this first figuring out what it is that what area of life it is or what particular situation is that you want to improve your executive function or how you use it and understand Dan more about that situation. Like how much does it really matter to you. What can you do to make it matter more to you and go from there like for example I used to smoke smoke and <hes> like I cut down a lot but it's very hard to let go of that last cigarette and like there was one cigarette have before he went to bed and that was really hard and I just could not do it <hes> but I moved to a new apartment and there was no smoking allowed and I lived in Canada has recalled in the winter as not one of those people who's going to go outside to have cigarette and that was it that was it? I never smoked again. Some it was like the environment will support you in using your executive function. You'll still need to use it. You still need to use conscious control but so much of how we function function in the world depends on what matters to us in like what how well we know ourselves and how much we can exploit that knowledge in our favor whoa that's being double. She's developmental cognitive scientist and Assistant Professor at George Mason University. You can see her entire. Talk at Ted Dot Com on the show today ideas on how to be better and even more confident <music> confidence has been an essential element of the fuel for everything else. This is Britney pack that she's devoted her life to social justice. <music> confidence made me brave enough to be a teacher. Confidence helped me be brave enough to step out on the streets of Ferguson confidence helped me be brave enough to sit next to President Obama. Tom Talk about issues of policing and I think that I am obsessed with confidence in part because I know what it is to live a life without confidence <music> that I absolutely grew up as a young woman of color in a country where people like me are socialized not to be confident than either we are not deserving of confidence or that are confidence is intimidating or threatening you might know Britney's voice from the podcast pod save people where she tackles some of the the biggest issues around race and social justice each week Brittany Pacman. I'm at Miss Bechetti on all social media before all that Britney was a teacher in Saint Louis and she noticed that her students never felt like they had permission to feel and to be confident as she described on the Ted Stage <music> when I was a teacher. All of my students were black or Brown. All of them were growing up in a low income circumstance. Some of Van were emigrants. Some of them were disabled but all of them with the very last people. This world invites to be confident. That's why it was so so important that my classroom be a place where my students could build the muscle of confidence where they can learn to face each day with the confidence. You need to redesign designed the world in the image of your own dreams. Not everyone lacks confidence. We make it easier in this society for some people to gain confidence confidence because they fit our preferred archetype of leadership we reward confidence in some people and we punish confidence in others others and all the while far too many people are walking around every single day without it for some of US confidence is a revolutionary revolutionary choice and it would be our greatest shame to see our best ideas though unrealised and our brightest dreams unreached all because we lacked the engine of confidence. That's not a risk. I'm willing to take so what do you do when you get a kid. Who's you know who sort of looking around and saying you know this country or or the society or this community wasn't made to to give me opportunities? Like what do you do when a kid like this as you know. What do I have to be confident about like? How do you make the case? It's it's so interesting because young people don't start out that way. The world teaches them to lack confidence. That's not how they begin. <hes> you know sociologists would About a cycle of socialization where you're born into a family and if you're fortunate right that family is encouraging you there showering you with love of <hes>. They're giving you all of the reasons to believe in yourself but as you start to interact with the world more and more for reasons of identity for reasons of economics for reasons uh-huh I've geography for reasons of gender and gender identity the world will start to teach you that either who you are will be punished or it will we celebrated socialization moves young people especially young people on the margins to a place where they start to lose that confidence we see girls tapping <music> out on confidence in middle school. <hes> these are the times when they're being told well. Actually you shouldn't be in this advanced math class or maybe you should move out of this science section right so the world is actually teaching people not to be confident in who they are. It has nothing to do with young people intrinsically are and so in answer to your question. It's about helping young people recognize the assets that they already have in them yeah. So how do you do that. How do you teach confidence to someone yeah? He no really confidence is built in community that we learn to be our most confidence elves who are least confident cells by the folks that we model ourselves after and by the people that give us permission to be curious about ourselves in the world around us and those really are things that are essential to building confidence in all people but certainly young people because the earlier we can get to young people to help them build their most confident sells the better. My family used to do everything together. including the mundane things like buying a new car and every time we did this. I've watched my parents put on the exact same performance we enter the dealership ship and my dad would sit while my mom shops when my mom found a car that she liked they'd go in and meet with the dealer and inevitably every time the dealer would turn his attention and his body to my dad assuming that he controlled the purse strings and therefore did this negotiation reverend pack net they'd say how do we get you into this car today. My Dad would inevitably respond the same way he'd slowly and silently gesture toward my mother and then put his hands right back in his lap it might have been the complete shock of negotiating finances with the black woman in the eighties but whatever it was I watched my mother worked these car dealers over until they were basically giving the car away for free. She would never crack smile. She would never be afraid to walk away. I know my mom just thought she was getting a a good deal on a mini van but what she was actually doing was giving me permission to defy expectations and to show up confidently in my I skill no matter who doubts me. There's it's interesting to me because there's there's this idea that came came into vogue like in the last ten years which was fake it till you become a part of me. I have to admit like a partner really loves that like I'm going to fake being confident until until I start believing that I am but then there's a part of that. which is you know which is fraudulent? It's like the Silicon Valley model like the woman who wanted to you know take a pinprick of blood from your finger and transform the world who was a total fraud right but I mean is there an argument that you can fake fake confidence or that. You should fake confidence at least to give you a you know like a jump start you know. I don't think it's about faking confidence. It's as much as it's about understanding your worth. I'll never forget <hes> the first meeting of President Obama's twenty first century policing task force. I was one of of the youngest people on the task force and I walk into the room and there's Connie Rice who has spent her entire career. Dealing with police violence issues dating leading back and Beyond Rodney King in Los Angeles. There's <hes> you know professors and lifelong activists and people who are running their own non profits Prophets Bryan Stevenson impersonal hero of mine and I'm trying to focus on the paper in front of me and not fan girl about the fact that he's sitting across from me <hes> and in that moment I had this terrible feeling of imposter syndrome actually just didn't belong you thought what am I doing here. Why how in the world am I qualified to be at this table of people handpicked by the President of the United States to have this conversation for and across the entire country right <HES> and I had to remind myself that I have expertise to that? I have a responsibility to community that I'm representing here too that wasn't about faking vacant confidence that was about understanding my fundamental worth as a human being and as an activist in someone with real expertise because I was on the front lines of this thing right and I am worth sitting here and we're learning. I'm worth growing and I'm worth contributing my voice. I didn't have to fake that when I got real with myself yeah. That's the thing right like you. You almost have to be your own coach. Adams have to kind of kind of have to quiet the voices of doubt because we're all susceptible to that right. We're all susceptible to like like doubt negative thoughts like you suck. What are you doing here? This is this is part of the reason why I am hopeful that we reach a day sooner rather rather than later where mental health care is free and accessible to everyone because my ability to engage in positive self talk has everything to do with the therapy that I've been through over the last few years and the first thing I had to change was how I talked about into myself. That was the most fundamental shift in my ability to be a a confident person and literally to this day. When I hear myself thinking you can't do that? No one is going to care having to counteract that with with a different conversation with myself and saying what is this fear coming from. What has led you to believe this? What are the things that you did just us last week that you thought you couldn't do the week before and who are the people you can contact with the passages that you can read that can bring you back to yourself? These are the kinds of exercises that we have to be intentional about in order to do the constant work of confidence because it is a lifelong battle and self doubt <unk> out will inevitably come but we have the power to change that if we change it that's Brittany magnet. She's an activist and Co host of the PODCAST pod. Save People Bernice upcoming book is called. We are like those who dream you can see her full. Talk at Ted Dot Com on the show today ideas about how to be better. Stay with us. I'm Guy Roz and you're listening to the ten radio hour from N._p._R.. Support for this podcast and the following message come from the Walton Family Foundation career opportunity takes root more information is available at Walton Family Foundation Dot Org to restore your faith in humanity. Get the story core podcast from N._p._R.. Uninterrupted conversations between real people about the things that matter most this season. We're hearing from L._G._B._T._Q.. Voices in what life was like before stonewall from lesser known victories two conversations across generations integrations listened to all twelve episodes now. It's the Ted Radio Hour from N._p._R.. I'm Gyros Arise and on the show today ideas about how to be better more confident more calm more intentional even more healthy what you're doing right now at this very moment is killing you. This is writer Neil for merchant on the Ted Stage and the things she says that's killing you sitting down. Here's more from Neil for merchant on the Ted Stage. Nowadays people are sitting nine point three hours a day which is more than we're sleeping at seven point seven hours sitting is so incredibly prevalent. We didn't even question how much for doing it and because everyone else this doing it. It doesn't even occur to us that it's not okay in that way. Sitting has become the smoking of our generation of course there's health consequences to this scary ones besides the waist things like breast cancer and colon cancer are directly tied Torah lack of physical activity ten percent in fact on both of those six percent for heart disease seven percent for type two diabetes which is what my father died of now. Any of those statute convinced each of us to get off our duff more but if you're anything like me it won't what did get me. Moving was a social interaction action. Someone invited me to meeting but couldn't manage a fit me into a regular conference room meeting and said I have to walk my dogs tomorrow. Could you come that seems Kinda odd to do and actually that first meeting I remember thinking I have to be the one to ask the next question because I knew I was going to huff and puff during this conversation -sation and yet I've taken that idea and made it my own so instead of going to coffee meetings or fluorescent lit conference room meetings. I ask people to go on a walking looking meeting to the tune of twenty to thirty miles a week. It's changed my life but before that what actually what happened was I used to think about it as you could. Take care of your health or you could take care of obligations and one always came at the cost of the other so now now several hundred of these walking meetings later. I've learned a few things I there's this amazing thing about actually getting out of the box that leads to out of the box thinking whether it's nature or the exercise itself it certainly works and second and probably the more reflective one is just about how much watch each of us can hold problems in opposition when they're really not that way and if we're gonNA solve problems and look at the world really differently whether it's in governance or <unk> business or environmental issues job creation. Maybe we can think about how to reframe those problems as having both things be true because it was when that happened with this walk and talk idea that things became doable and sustainable and viable so I started this talk talking about the Tisch saw end with the bottom line which walk and talk walk the talk. You'll be surprised at how fresh air drives fresh thinking and the way that you do. You'll you bring into your life. An entirely new set of ideas. That's writer Neil Merchant. You can find her full. Talk Doc at Ted Dot Com on the show today ideas about how how to be better better about things like stress. The aren't really stresses me out. Tell me is reading studies about how stress dress takes decades of life like that stresses me out more yeah I used to love reading studies like that and every time study that came out I'd be like yes more or fodder for my message that stress kills. This is Kelly macgonagall. She's a research psychologist at Stanford University and I will tell you I came across a a newly published study and from the title of the study. I thought it was going to be another one of those studies. That says yes stress kills you another thing I can tell people to motivate them. I'm to reduce or avoid stress and I read that study. My mind was blown. Her mind was blown because that study said that stress isn't necessarily a bad Experiencing you experience it all the time all the time like in this interview like right now. Are you experiencing it. Yes can you describe how you're feeling right now. Like your symptoms symptoms. Why wouldn't describe the symptoms I would just buy them as changes that are taking place in my brain and body to help me rise to a moment that matters so I am feeling alert? I'm feeling a little bit raw and vulnerable as if I'm more open to the world around on me and I can sense my heart beating it's not racing but I definitely feel I sense this type of stress. As a surge urge of energy that is encouraging me to engage for most people are unfunny feelings like most of us. Don't don't like that feeling well. It depends on the context people like it when they're falling in love me like it if they're in a roller coaster but the the feelings themselves actually can be he quite positive <hes> depending on the context and how you think about them. Kelly macgonagall picks up her idea from the Ted stage can can changing how you think about stress make you healthier here. The science says yes when you change your mind about stress. You can change your body's response to distress your heart might be pounding you might be breathing faster. Maybe breaking out into a sweat and normally we interpret these physical changes as anxiety eighty or signs that we aren't coping very well with the pressure but what if you view them instead as signs that your body was energize was preparing you to meet this challenge that pounding heart is preparing you for action. If you're breathing faster it's no problem. It's getting more oxygen to your brain. Now that is exactly what participants were told in a study conducted at Harvard University they were taught to rethink their stress response as helpful and participants who learned to view the stress response as helpful for their performance while they were less stressed out less anxious more confident but the most fascinating finding to me eh how their physical stress response changed now in a typical stress response your heart rate goes up and your blood vessels constrict and this this is one of the reasons that chronic stress is sometimes associated with cardiovascular disease. It's not really healthy to be in this state all the time but in the study when participants has been viewed their stress response as helpful their heart was still pounding but it actually looks a lot like what happens in moments of joy and this is really what the new science of stress reveals that how you think about stress matters so my goal is a health psychologist has changed. I no longer want to get rid of your stress. I want to make you better at stress. We actually know from the research that having more anxiety diety you're probably going to perform better than people who have no anxiety. We know that that adrenaline you're feeling. That's causing your heart to pound. That's maybe makes you feel like you're a little bit constricted. Maybe you're sweating. Maybe you're breathing faster that is literally energy being made available to you. You basically see a response that is your body going into <hes> peak performance mode almost a flow state and often the only thing that's required to to make that shift is just to stop fighting it to recognize that this is a human experience to get this flood of energy and it doesn't always feel great but if you didn't have it you would not do your best and one of the simplest <hes> beliefs are thoughts that allows people to have this kind of positive challenge response is simply. I can handle this. I can handle this. I might not be able to control it but I can handle handle this yeah so it does sound like it is possible to to kind of TAME stress. I guess I I think it's possible to transform stress when our default response to stress is harmful and I think that's how I think about also the stressful circumstances as well. You can't always control what happens in life and what's going on in the world just like you can't always control your heart rate you can't it always control the hormones that are flooding your body or the neurotransmitters that are coursing through your brain but you can surrender to the reality of that and and then ask yourself in this moment what something I can do that shifts. What's happening in a more positive direction? We're GONNA take this as the starting point. I am stressed. My heart is pounding. I'm feeling lonely. I'm feeling confused. I'm feeling overwhelmed. What something I can do in this moment that is going to to accept that figure out what it is that matters most and then use some of this energy use some of this biochemistry to make choices take actions that are consistent with what matters most you know whenever I have to like present in front of a big group of people you know get a little bit nervous and and I'm just I don't want to talk to people before I just want to kind of be by myself and it just Oh yes you know right like I just I just don't want you know what I mean? I I do know what you mean it. You know what's really interesting to me as you said that you didn't WanNa talk to the people around you and you know there's a response at your brain and body can have in moments of stress that encourages you to connect with others and gives you all the Nur- chemistry you need to do that and to feel good about it. <hes> that really nudges you in that direction of connection and then we also have these stress responses that can feel more like we're shutting down or more like we have to defend ourselves more like we need to escape this reality get out of here and they're both totally natural instincts but in that you you can do in a moment where if you're going to choose your own stress response. This is a moment to find that part of you that knows how to do that under stress and to not make it all about yourself but to look around you and see who else is in this moment with you. I want to tell you about one of the most under appreciated appreciate it aspects of the stress response and the idea is this stress makes you social to understand the side of stress we need to talk talk about a hormone oxytocin and I know oxy chosen has already gotten as much hype as a hormone can get it even has its own nickname the cuddle armone because it's release when you hug someone it primes you to do things that strengthen close relationships but here's what most people people don't understand about oxytocin. It's a stress hormone. Your pituitary gland pumps the stuff out as it's part of the stress response. It's as much a part of your stress response as the adrenaline that makes your heart pound and when Oxytocin is released in the stress response it is motivating you to seek support. Your Stress Response Wants to make sure you notice when someone else in your life is struggling so that you can support each other. How is knowing this side of stress going to make you healthier well? Oxytocin doesn't only act on your brain. It also acts on your her body. oxytocin helps heart cells regenerate and heal from any stress induced damage. This stress hormone own strengthens your heart and the cool thing is is that all of these physical benefits of oxytocin are enhanced by social contact and social support. Your stress response has a built in mechanism for stress resilience and that mechanism is human connection election okay so this is not easy right like this is not like flipping a light switch because sometimes it's it's hard to sort of push yourself to reach out other people especially when you're feeling stressed right in your default reaction is to kind of close up right. Yes what I've learned from. The research on stress is that we all have these sort of stress habits and sort of left unchecked we might respond to every stressful moment with our most comfortable after bowl and habitual stress response and there are these other stress responses. We may need to more actively cultivate so for example. I am the kind of person who likes to learn from stressful experiences but I can get very paralyzed by fear and anxiety and and I've had to practice courage as a response to stress now. I'm the kind of person who for a long time. If something was making me scared I would look for the way to avoid it. I often talk about my fear of flying as an example of that where I refuse to fly for years because I just didn't WanNa feel it. I didn't WanNa feel the fear and I had to cultivate courage as response to stress which for me meant choosing to view doing something as being in service of something higher than myself and <hes> our ability to see the meaning and the things that are causing us stress by taking a bigger than self perspective is another thing that is I think profoundly human and it's one of the ways that I <hes> choose to deal with stress is to say I'm I'll take it lemme experiences fear right now now because I have a sense that this is playing a part of a bigger story and that is a story that has a human story of all of us having to deal with our fears and my willingness to do so oh in ways that I may not even always know might be helping others do so as well so I mean it seems like in some ways stresses since like a call to action yeah but having read through all this research like <hes>. Do you feel like we all have similar levels of stress just deal with it differently or or there are people who are just not really affected. This is a yes end kind of situation. There are a lot of things that seem to be rooted in our genetic temperament ferment that <hes> influence how we respond to stress in addition to life experiences but if you're talking that sort of basic personality trait <hes> and that trait isn't so much whether you you are negatively affected by stress it's whether you are sensitive to learning from experiences and being changed by experiences and some people seem to be genetically really primed to be strongly influenced by important experiences most of which people define a stressful so it's not so much that some people are good at stress and some people are bad at stress. Some people seem to be more sensitive to this this <hes> biological mechanism we have to learned from experience. I'm okay dealing with some of those side effects like being anxious a lot of the time or maybe not being able to sleep at night because I'm trying to replay the most stressful experience and and figure out what I can learn from it. I'm I'm okay with that because I also believe it's part of what what makes human beings able to learn and grow and also have empathy for others others. There's something so interesting about how fundamental stresses to who we are as humans <hes> to how we learn grow and also to how we connect with others so I'll take it. That's Kelly Megani ago. She's a health psychologist and the author of the book the upside of stress you can. Let's see her full talk at Ted Dot Com uh-huh. Hey thanks for listening to our show on how to be better this week. If you WANNA find out more or about who was on it go to Ted Dot N._p._r.. Dot Org and hundreds more ted talks checkout Ted DOT COM or the tap production staff at N._P._R.. Includes Jeff Rodgers Roger's son Has Michigan Poor <unk> grant Casey Herman Rachel Faulkner Diba Mohtashami James Dila Lucy and J._C. Howard with help from Daniel Shchukin and Brent Bachman. Our intern is Emmanuel Johnson. Our partners at Ted are Chris Anderson on Helms Anna Phelan. If you WanNa let us know what you think about the show please go to apple podcasts and right review. You can also write to us directly at Ted Radio Hour N._p._R.. Dot Org and you can tweet us. It's at Ted Radio Our guy rise and you've been listening to ideas worth spreading right here on the Ted Radio Hour from N._p._R.. This episode is sponsored by the Federal Communications Commission with a message for everyone using TV antenna
Manoush's Favorites: Gender, Power, And Fairness
"Hey everyone it's Mnuchin Marotta here as you may have heard I am the new host of the Ted Radio. Hour and brand new episodes will be coming your way in just a few weeks so while the team and I work on those I want share some of my favorite episodes from over the years on today's show we're looking at how the conversation on sexual violence and harassment has changed in the years since me to how the movement defined an era of reckoning and where we go from here it's called gender power and fairness and this episode originally aired in February Twenty nineteen. Enjoy this is Ted radio hour each week round breaking Ted talks technology. Entertainment Design Design. Is that really what Stanford? I've never known the delivered. A Ted conferences around the world gift of the human imagination. We've had to believe an impossible thing. This true nature of reality beckons from just beyond those talks. Those ideas adapted for radio from NPR Guide Roz and on the show today ideas about gender power and fairness and just a quick warning their stories in this episode about sexual violence and harassment. That may be difficult to hear High Toronto. How are you Skyros here? How are you good? Thank you coming in. Thank you Sanjay in Lena? My Name is Toronto burnt and I'm the founder of the metoo movement. So it it came to me in parts and it started the idea of wanting to address deal with sexual violence certainly came to me before the words to blur that sued using a deal with it. So you know I'm a survivor of sexual violence and had been grappling with my own journey around healing had been grappling with what that looks like and just how it was affected me just coming to terms with that and it was just painfully clear to me at some point that we didn't have any conversation about sexual violence and I saw so much I had a moment in my life where I met a child in my early twenties. Who was in my camp whose reminding US leadership program and basically confided in me that she had been molested by his stepfather but she did so at a time when I really did not know what to do with that information and only thing that came to me to say was that this happened to me too. You know like this thing. It just didn't feel like the appropriate bigness. Say at the time. But that's what was like ringing in my head while she was saying it like it was a moment of me confronting my own issues as well but so that words to came from that moment because it was after it happened and she like walked away in a moment was over. I realized I wish I decided that to her. Because I wish somebody would have said it's a me you know. I wish I didn't go through my formative years thinking I was the only person in the world me and my Angela would only two people in the world. This had happened to which is what I thought for Awhile. I often think about the numbers of adult decisions. I made between six and Mike. Twelve all related to going through and experiencing sexual violence. If there was somebody would have said listen. I don't know what's going on. This thing happened to me. And if you are experiencing it you're not alone. You're not nasty. You're not bad and it's not true fall if there was somebody who would have just interjected that. I think it would have changed the trajectory of my life. So this I mean this idea of me to really began as a way to to recognize and to sort of say you're not alone and that that is really how it began in about ten years after you created this idea it exploded into the consciousness of the world with reporting and social media and What do you remember about how that began well but even before that I wanted to say before me to explode into the world and twenty seventeen? It started this idea of making sure that survivor new. They weren't alone but it quickly evolved into also knowing that we have to do the work of innings sexual violence collectively and so more than just a declarative statement. It was about survivors coming together to organize and do the work of healing ourselves in our community so when two thousand seventeen happened and it exploded it. Was You know I was initially very worried that that sentiment would be lost? You know we live in viral aid. And I've clearly seen numerous other hashtags go viral. And I've seen them come and go and then I've also seen black women and people of Color at the center of those things be removed or be replaced or be Erased in one way or another and so all of those were concerns in. Probably the first few hours but it was necessary. Because there's not a scenario that I can think of that. I could have generated myself to bring the work of ending sexual violence into the public consciousness in a way that it has. The Meteo campaign is giving voice to many women who say they've experienced sexual harassment and abuse. Something the Hashtag me too campaign metoo movement me too me too. Mobilizing women seeking office also known as the me too congress. Act The guy behind me pretending to perform a sex act on me with all the other guys watching and all the other guys laughing. I didn't tell anyone afraid that I wouldn't be believed if aluminum my and here today not because I wouldn't be as much as one story. I'm here because I believe it is my civic duty. But many stories the metoo movement has changed how we sink and talk about gender power and fairness behaviors that were once downplayed or even ignored in the workplace in social settings. Even at home are now part of a dialogue. That's moved beyond just the Hashtag. There's now a conversation between women and men that's affecting real change today on the show we're going to explore how this movement moved the world to find an era of reckoning and what will take to move it forward and for Toronto Burke the way ahead. We'll be necessary but not easy because for every step forward some days it feels like there are giant leaps back. Here's more from Toronto Burke on the Ted Stage. I've been trying to figure out what I was. GonNa say here for months so I searched and searched for days on end trying to find the right configuration of words and although intellectually I could bullet point the big ideas that I wanted to share about Metoo and this movement that I found it I kept finding myself falling short of finding the heart. I wanted to pour myself into this moment and tell you why. Even the possibility of healing or interrupting sexual violence was worth standing and fighting for. I wanted to rally. You'd see your feet with an uplifting speech about the important work of fighting for the dignity and humanity of survivors. But I don't know if I have it. The reality is after soldiering Supreme Court nomination process and attacks from the White House grossness characterizations into naturals and marches and heart wrenching testimonies. I'm with my own heart troops. I'm Numb Yeah. I mean it must at times feel discouraging mixed disappointment frustration and sadness but I feel sad sometimes that so many of us lack the ability to empathize people to try to understand one of the things that became painfully clear for me around the Cavenaugh hearings with Dr Fort. Testifying was just how little people understand what survival looks like. We have sort of law and order. Svu Idea of what that looks like. And so. When I heard the backlash she got a lot of the like hockey. Forget this and it was a lot of. It came from other survivors. There are people who wrote on our page is like I was assaulted when I was six and I remember every single moment of it and she's lying because how could she not forget this and that and I thought you know we don't have enough conversation or even examples in pop culture of what the act of surviving looks like and it doesn't look the same for everybody so like identify it with her because as survivors of sexual violence one of the ways that we survive is by practicing forgetting right like. I actually have a bad memory. Because I've spent most of my life trying to remember Most social movements start out ahead of where the culture and the society is. It's it's that's why they start right because they started conversation is a backlash and then down the road. We sort of reflect on it and say yeah. That was really important. But do you do you when you look ahead you know. Do you imagine this conversation leading to a better place in our in in a short period of time I think of this in long term and short term. So there's in the short time. I am very clear that this moment has started. Changing people's lives individually. Because I've heard over and over again this last year people coming to me saying I thought I would go to my grave with this but I was able to tell. My mom and my mom told me. Her story told my dad and my dad told me his story but beyond that also think that people are ready for action and so in the long term. You know we can't go back. There's a y'all Avanzado self-help personality Has a book called faith in a valley and is a quote in that book about when a light goes on? And shows you something? You can't unsee it so I don't think we ever go back from here. I think we continue to move forward. And when we get distracted by naming list of Predators Mike. You know these articles that come out and say here's the two hundred or four hundred men who have fallen since metoo. Those things are distractions. People need to be called off at Ed Behavior. But beyond that their behavior doesn't happen in a vacuum it happens in the context of a society that creates space for that kind of behavior. There's a little boy right now. Being socialized to disrespect women to not respect. Somebody's bodily autonomy to think that he's better because he's a male so we can fire Bob from in accounting and we can take songs off the board. But if little timmy and little Jamal and not learning learning what we know now then we're just GonNa create a replacement for them so I think that the work that we're looking at moving forward is one helping people figure out where they fit in puzzle but also there's GonNa be a unrelenting core group of people who are just absolutely focused on getting us to a world where people don't have to save me that's Toronto Burke. She's the founder of the metoo movement. You can see Toronto's full talk at Ted Dot Com on the show today ideas around gender power and fairness Garros. And you're listening to the Ted Radio Hour from NPR. Hey everyone just a quick thanks to two of our sponsors who help make this podcast possible. I to capital one with a capital one venture card. You earn unlimited double miles on every purchase everyday and you can use those miles to travel expenses like flights hotels rental cars and more just book and pay for your travel using adventure card and redeem your miles toward the cost capital one. What's in your wallet? Credit APPROVAL REQUIRED CAPITAL ONE BANK USA. Thanks also to indeed when it comes to hiring you need help getting to your shortlist qualified candidates fast was indeed dot com. You can post a job in minutes. Set up screener questions than zero in qualified candidates using an online dashboard. When you need to hire fast accelerate your results sponsored jobs. New USERS CAN TRY FOR FREE INDEED DOT COM slash T. R. H. Terms conditions and quality standards apply offer valid through March. Thirty first twenty. Twenty astrology is as old as civilization itself. And today it's easier to access than ever before thanks to the Internet and smartphones this week on through. Line how astrology almost one extinct and made a remarkable comeback through line from NPR. Podcast where we go back in time to understand the present it's the Ted Radio Hour from. Npr I'm Gyros and on the show today ideas about gender power and fairness and ever since me to help to open up a whole new conversation it also helped to unearth stories about all the daily indignities that up until now had been a normal part of women's lives. I can tell so many similar stories from where I was coming home quite late at night and it was dark and as I pass two men one of them very casually turned to the other and I'd hold a knife to that the kind of thing that makes you feel terrified. But you're so used to happening that you end up punching your shoulders little tighter and working a little faster and rushing home and then carrying on because you to buy society from a very young age that this is a normal thing to experience as a woman and you just have to get on it. This is Laura Bates. I'm an activist and a writer and back in twenty twelve Laura. Lunch website called everyday sexism. Where people could share their experiences and discover that they weren't alone. It started because I had a week. During which a bunch of these experiences happened quite close together one of which included being on the bus on the phone to my mom on my way home one evening and suddenly looking down to realize that the man next to me was stroking my thighs and my legs and eventually kind of putting his hand in my nfl and coming up to. It's my crotch and being on the phone. I was in that bubble that you're Nyu didn't quite feel like you're in public. So as I stood up moved away from him. I said out loud to my mom on the phone. I'm on the bus. This man just groped me and everybody on that bus hud and everybody looked out the window and sent me such a powerful message. This isn't something to talk about. Don't bring this up. Nobody will respond and actually years later back on it and realized it sends such a powerful message to the man on the bus as well. You can get away with this. If the person says out loud what is happening? Nobody will challenge you. React it just for the first time ever made me sit down and ask myself. Why is this normal? Which led me to just start asking other people particularly women and girls mostly. Have you ever experienced anything like this and I honestly thought that maybe a few of them would have a single story to tell and instead it was a flood was every woman I spoke to and it was hundreds of stories? Not just one or two. That was really what prompted me to start the everyday sexism project it. It gave people place to talk about it to be heard to be believed but it also I hoped create a kind of database. That would help other people to realize the scale of the problem and not to ignore anymore Laura Bates picks up the story from the Ted Stage. Fifty thousand women from all over the world added stories in eighteen months. They were women and men. From countries everywhere people of all ages races ethnicities sexual orientations gender identities religious and nonreligious disabled non-disabled employed and unemployed. We had from a seven year old disabled wheelchair and a seventy four year old woman in a mobility scooter have encountered almost identical experiences screamed abuse about female drivers female reverend in the Church of England with asked if there was a man available to perform the wedding or the funeral. Service nothing personal. A man was congratulated for babysitting his children. A woman working in the city was asked if she would sell her boss's lap. If she wanted her Christmas bonus a woman who worked in a video store found that every time she went up the ladder to get fresh. Start from the storeroom hypothesized smack on the bum and when she came down again he looked on top. And say you know why I hired a waitress was told to make a choice between having an abortion or resigning when she fell pregnant a fifteen year. Old Girl that she knew that she was clever and funny and she could do anything she wanted to do. But really it didn't matter if she became a doctor or a lawyer because she knew from the world around her and from the media that the only thing that really mattered was whether she was sexy with her breasts and her waist narrowed whether boys found her attractive a thirteen year. Old Girl right to say that she'd been showed a video of sex at school on a mobile phone video of porn and that now she says scared to have sex that she tries every night because she didn't realize that what sex was. Was the woman hurting trying. So it's clear that you are trying to make a bigger point about about this behavior. That his all around us and how. It's all connected but you know a lot of people see stories about like Harvey Weinstein or or Bill Cosby. And they'll say those people are ill and what's going on in their minds and it becomes easy to distance ourselves from from everything. Honestly I think that that it's I think that it's an excuse away not to confront the reality of the fact that actually we are talking about a really really widespread problem within our society within the men that we know and socialize with and go to work with and interact with but also if you look at the men that we see being arrested for these kinds of crimes they are Stand up guys in the community. They are men with large networks of loving friends and colleagues and family they are men of course like Harvey Weinstein whose enormously respected and successful and. I think we have to confront that uncomfortable. Truth that these are not outliers. They're not freaks. They're not monsters. They are normal man within our communities once you started to gather all these firsthand accounts onto the site. What started the change so the project? I started out as something very quiet as Estero sharing stories on the Internet and people having the choice to come and see those stories but very quickly for me. I think that sort of anger that fueled those stories drove me to take those offline entity that we took specific sections of the stories that we received we put directly in front of people who had the power to change that one specific thing so we took the stories that we just received just from women on buses and jeeps and public transport and trains and we took those two The British Transport Police and use them to retrain about two thousand thou- offices to change the way in which they dealt with sexual offenses on the transport network because at the time survive is not feeding believed or supported and so they really weren't coming forward and safe. Are We know that that project project Guardian has raised reports of harassment and assault on the cheap? By Up to twenty percent. We were able to start talking to Gaza universities about the UK definition of sexual assault which is very simple and the UK law. If someone touches you anywhere on your body and the touching is sexual consent and they don't have reason to believe that you send it's a form of sexual assault and girls come up to me saying but that can't be sexual assault because it's normal economy sexual assault. Because that's what happens when I go out with my friends economy sexual assault. Because I wouldn't be able to call it. That people wouldn't take me seriously. I couldn't go to the police and we were able to start to change. Their attitude enabled start get reports of people had reported things that previously. They'd had no idea they had the right to object to but we will started. Hearing People's individual stories of standing up there were stories of women men around the world finding that in very unique and individual ways to stand up for them and made a difference in their lives and if the everyday sexism project to show anything is that this is a continuum all of these things are connected. The same ideas and attitudes about women underlie those more minor incidents of sexism and harassment. That we're often told to brush off and not make a fuss about of the same ideas. And attitudes about women underlined mysterious incidents of assault and rape. And what that means. Is that by helping to contribute to a cultural shift? In the way women perceive whether it's in the media and the professionals fair and the social economic sphere we help to shift the way that that perceived and treated in other spheres as well. You started this project in two thousand twelve and give your tedtalk in two thousand thirteen and in talking you mention this idea of needing a major cultural shift and I just wonder. Are we seeing that cultural shift happening now or or is this something you imagine a decades long centuries long process. I think that we are seeing this enormous conversation. This moment of reckoning we're seeing millions of women all over the world for the first time feeling able to speak out about what's happened to them and that shouldn't be underestimated. That is a big deal. Do I think that this is something that we will see a complete end to in my lifetime? No I think that there is still too far to go to say that with any confidence. I do feel positive that we all making progress and we will continue making progress but I will say that very long way to go and it will take a very long time and I against the fact that people like to say well you know change is happening. Things are improving. If you look back. A few decades things have gotten much better and their implication often is leave it alone. Things are getting better if we just wait patiently it will sort itself out and what that fails to take into account is that things have got better. But only because of legions activists of women in particular feminists to have fought tooth and nail for these changes to happen every step of the way and so we can't stop fighting now. That's Laura Bates. She's a writer and founder of the everyday sexism project you can watch for full talk at Ted Dot. Npr DART so most men hear the term sexual harassment or gender violence from your experience. What do they think that means for them? Yeah I think. Most men don't see these issues as their issues Even though the overwhelming majority of domestic and sexual violence is perpetrated by men and a lot of men will say These are problems but they're not my problem. This is Jackson cats. I run educational programs. Gender Violence Prevention programs in colleges in the sports culture in the military in in schools. Just looking at all the issues that relate to how gender specifically masculinity contribute to men's violence against women and against other men and against themselves. So how'd you? How'd you first get involved in this work? It was as basic as this. I was living in a co Ed residence hall and I remember feeling quite free to come and go as I please and being able to walk home from parties a two or three in the morning without really worrying about my personal safety. The women in my on my floor had a completely different experience. They were constantly worried about how they were. GonNa get home who they're gonNA get home with constantly changing their plans based on safety issues and I remember thinking as a man. How would I feel if I had a worry constantly about my personal safety and I couldn't come and go as I please and I remember thinking I'd be ticked off? Jackson cats picks up his idea from the Ted stage. I'm going to share with you. A paradigm shifting perspective on the issues of gender violence sexual assault domestic violence relationship abuse sexual harassment sexual abuse of children that whole range of issues that are referred to in shorthand as gender violence issues. They've been seen as women's issues that some good men help out with. But I have a problem with that frame and I don't accept it. I don't see these as women's issues that some good men help out with in fact. I'm going to argue that. These are men's issues first and foremost now. Obviously obviously they're also women's issues so I appreciate that but calling gender violence. A women's issue is part of the problem. This is one of the ways that dominant systems maintain and reproduce themselves which is to say the dominant group is rarely challenged to even think about its dominance. Because that's one of the key characteristics of power and privilege the ability to go unexamined lacking introspection. In fact being rendered invisible men have been largely erased from so much of the conversation about a subject that is centrally about men. And I want to share with you this Exercise that illustrates on the sentence structure level. How the way that we think conspires to keep our attention off of men it starts with a very basic English sentence. John beat Mary. John is the subject of the verb. Mary's the object. Now we're GONNA move to the second sentence. Mary was beaten by John. We've shifted our focus in one sentence from John to marry the third sentence. John is dropped and we have. Mary was beaten and now it's all about Mary. We're not even thinking about John. It's totally focused on Mary. Over the past generation the term we've used synonymous with beaten is battered so we have. Mary was battered. And the final sentence in this sequence flowing from the others is. Mary is a battered woman so now. Mary's very identity is what was done to her by John. In the first instance and those of us who work in domestic and sexual violence field victim blaming is pervasive in this realm. When we say things like why do these women go out with these men? Why are they attracted to these men? Why do they keep going back? Why was she drinking with that group of guys in that Hotel Room? But let's be clear asking questions about Mary's not gonNA get us anywhere in terms of preventing violence. We have to ask a different set of questions. The questions are not about Mary. They're about John. Why does John Beat Mary? Why is domestic violence? Still a big problem in the United States and all over the world. What's going on. Why do so many men abuse physically emotionally and other verbally and other ways the women and girls and the men and boys that they claim to love? What's going on with men so right now. We're in a very complex moment. Where for so long? Women have silently endured everything from humiliation. Too Serious violence and assault and many prominent men have been exposed as perpetrators of of all different kinds of abuse. But at the end of the day there is a perspective that it doesn't matter what the act is abuse is abuse and it needs to be called out and that is complicated for some men who say well. Different behaviors should be treated differently and should be punished differently. What do you think about that idea? Let me just say as somebody? Who Does this work? There are differences there are nuances. You can't just make categorical statements about forms of abuse. But all of it is wrong. Any form of abuse is wrong. But of course there's complexities and what we're talking about. Here is changing social norms. About what is acceptable. Because I think that's really the the alternate issue here. Is that so many of the problems that are surfacing are not just about individual perpetrators who are horrible men and I think that's why Harvey Weinstein and Bill Cosby while it was important that as high profile men that their cases became cultural touchstones. It also distorted the issue a little bit because their behavior is so awful that a lot of men could then distance themselves from them and say that guy's just sick right. That's not me that's not me. I think that the real reckoning is not with the pathological individuals but it's with the norms that have guided so many of us for so long. This came up in the cab. Brad Kavanagh hearings. I mean a big part of the subtext of the cavenaugh hearings was. How are we going to think about behavioral? From decades ago that was in some cases seen as normative in certain parts of male culture but is no longer being seen as normative. And how much are we going to retroactively? Hold people accountable for that behavior. It wasn't about whether somebody believed her or him. I think the vast majority of people in the country believed her sure but I think the split was between people who believed her and said that as a result his behavior made him unfit for the Supreme Court and the other half the country said we believe her and his behavior is okay because even though it's not great it's kind of like that's just how it is and get over it so here we are two guys and let's be honest over the course of life and I'm sure over the course of your life. You have heard other men speak disrespectfully about women. You've heard Pretty vulgar things from other men. You may have set it. I may have said it in my teens. That's true I mean pretty much every man that you know that I know has heard these things or the course of much of my life that language. That behavior was around. And it's still very pervasive. That's right one of the points that I often Make two men is that you don't have to be perfect as a man to speak out on issues of domestic and sexual violence and sexual harassment. Part of the process for men is to think about. Okay how have we contributed over the years? Either through our silence or through our actions and then how can we use whatever influence we have today in our own lives to get on the other side of that and I think honesty works much better than self righteousness so for example? I never say that. I have no sexism in my bones or I've never acted out in ways that are sexes. But also going to say that. I'M NOT GONNA stop speaking out on these issues just because I'm I don't consider myself perfect because there's no such person that's Jackson cats. He's an author and anti sexism. Educator you can see his full talk at Ted Dot Com on the show today ideas about gender power and fairness Guy Roz. And you're listening to the Ted Radio Hour from NPR. Hey everyone just two quick things to one of our sponsors who helps make this podcast possible salesforce. Have you ever wanted to know what salesforce does? Salesforce is a customer relationship management solution to give your employees a three hundred and sixty degree view of your customers that makes it possible for every department in your company to work together as one to deliver the seamless personalized experiences that customers want salesforce. Brennan companies and customers together visit salesforce DOT COM slash learn. More astrology is as old as civilization itself and today it's easier to access than ever before thanks to the Internet and smartphones this week on through. Line how astrology almost went extinct and made a remarkable comeback through line from NPR. The podcast where we go back in time to understand the present it's the Ted Radio hour from NPR. I'm garages and on the show. Today ideas about the new conversation. We're having around gender power and fairness and just a warning some of the stories in language in the segment. Maybe hard to hear. Hello this is Ashley. Actually Good Morning says garage. I'm the host of the program. How are you? I know your voice. Well Guy I know yours to this is Ashley Judd and I am a writer. A humanitarian and an actor. Actually it was one of the first women to speak on the record about being sexually harassed by Harvey Weinstein but she's actually been speaking out about gender violence for much longer for years. She's been on the receiving end of intense online harassment harassment. That is routine for so many women. I would venture to say that I began receiving gendered hate speech and misogynistic messages on social media from the very moment that I joined like in one instance at a basketball game in two thousand fifteen. When Ashley tweeted a complaint about the wraps the response to that was a huge sexist pylon where it really started with a you know the outrageousness of my thinking that as a female basketball fan I was entitled to have an opinion about officiating to just a generalized. You should die. I want to rape you. I want to evacuate on your face. You shouldn't be taking oxygen. There was a picture of you. I wish it was a picture of your death. All the stuff that I got Ashley Judd picks up her story from the Ted Stage. It is routine for me to be treated in the ways already described to you. It happens to me every single day on social media platforms such as twitter and facebook and I have responded to this with various strategies. I've tried to rise above it. I've tried to get in the trenches but mostly I would scroll through these social media platforms with one eye partially closed trying not to see it but you can't make a cucumber out of a pickle what is seen goes in. It's traumatic and I was always secretly hoping in some part of me that what was being said to me about me wasn't true because even I an avowed self-declared feminist who worships at the altar of Gloria internalize the patriarchy. Patriarchy is not boys men. It is a system in which we all participate including me on that particular day for some reason that particular tweet after the basketball game. When I was sitting at home alone in my nightgown I got a phone call and it was my beloved former husband. And he said on a voicemail left one what is happening to you is not okay and there was something about him taking a stand for me that night that allowed me to take a stand for myself and I started to write sharing the fact that I'm a survivor of all forms of sexual abuse including three rapes. So I wrote this feminist op-ed it is entitled. Forget your team. It's your online gender violence toward girls and women that can kiss my righteous house. And I did that alone. Published it alone because my chief advisor said please don't the reign of retaliatory garbage. That is inevitable. I fear for you but I trust girls and I trust women. I trust our allies. It was published it went viral. It proves that every single day online misogyny is a phenomenon endured by us all all over the world and when it is intersectional it is Worse Sexual Orientation Gender Identity Race ethnicity religion. You name it. It is worse online. Misogyny is a global gender rights tragedy and it is imperative that it ends. I mean the digital spaces opened up a whole new world that was almost unanticipated right. When when this technology came out I think most of US thought well. This is going to bring the world together. It's going to democratize the ability to to amplify share messages and views. But I don't think anybody anticipated that it would become this repository for violence. I think it's a concentrated space in which violence against girls and women happen just like me to in times up pulled the curtain back from the every day sexual aggression with which hundreds of millions of us live the Internet I think simply exposed some of the patterns of thinking that boys and men hold about girls and women specifically the sexual objectification and commodification of our bodies. And you know I I think that all gender and sexual violence is on a continuum. One end is nuanced and subtle. It's unspoken but it's thought and then it's the microaggressions and of course it goes all the way to the other end of the spectrum with homicide and the Internet is a place where all of that can flourish and I do believe that the Internet itself is neutral and it's a tool and it can be used for good or it can be used for ill. When it's in the hands of misogynists it's a powerfully destructive force. You know I think their stories we tell ourselves right like You look at black and white films of angry mobs protesting against civil rights and most of us will see those who are those people. How could they behave that way? Right and we think we've progressed. You know and I think there's a similar story we told ourselves about gender equity you know but I wonder whether do you think that social media has fueled a regression or do you think that that's just the way we have always been as a society and social media just allows it to be amplified. I absolutely believe that social media just exposes the thinking that was already there and an example is I was the speaker at Nashville sexual assault centers recent annual fundraiser and a man said something to me that was he made a reference to my pubic hair. So outrageous so inappropriate. But that's what was on his mind. And he just said it and the Internet simply facilitated and exposed what is already on people's minds and in that sense. It's a helpful tool because it shows us that are thinking needs to heal and to change in that so much of what Mya to is really about. It's about censoring survivors. And it's about radical community healing. And what's you know ultimately helpful about that remark that was made to me. Is I talked about it from the podium that night when I spoke I said look? I'm here for an event about sexual assault and this remark was made to me by someone. Who's a good person with good intentions and puts their money where their aspirational at least values are? And of course he knew I was talking about him and he's reached out to me and I've offered to have coffee with him so that we can hash this out and when I can sit down with this guy and say look this is how it made me feel and this is why I hope if that thought ever occurs to you again that you have the integrity to examine your own thinking and change it and certainly not. Let it pass out of the gate of your mouth. That is so important you know we have to get together to do. Our radical community healing. There are a lot of solutions. Thank goodness I'm going to offer just a few and of course I challenge you to create and contribute your own number one. We have to start with digital media literacy and clearly it must have a gendered Lens Kids Schools Caregivers Parents. It's essential to let's talk about our friends man. You have a role to play an a choice to make. You can do something or you can do nothing online. Violence is an extension of in-person violence in twenty fifteen. Seventy two thousand eight hundred. Twenty eight women used intimate partner violence services in this country that is not counting the girls and women and boys who needed them. We need to grow support lines and help groups so victims can help each other. When their lives and finances have been derailed we must as individuals disrupt gender violence as it is unfolding and lastly believe her believe her. So Ashley You gave this Tedtalk in twenty sixteen and what was remarkable. Was that just a year later. When stories about Harvey Weinstein came out You spoke publicly about what happened to you. I mean you were. You knew all these things and you couldn't talk about on stage because of the fear and the whole infrastructure of Hollywood. That prevented people like you from talking about this for so long. I mean you gave this talk and yet there was. There was so much more that you couldn't say or I guess feel safe saying well. The good news is I'm a teller and when I was molested for the first time when I was seven years old the first thing I did was run to two adults and express exactly what had just happened to me now. They were neither equipped nor prepared to respond to me in an appropriate way because they said he's a nice old man that's not what he meant and when I was harassed that Peninsula Hotel Room in the summer of nineteen ninety seven when I was making 'cause the girls my dad was visiting me from Kentucky and he was downstairs in the lobby I came straight down and he could tell by the look on my face. That's something devastating. Had just happened to me and I told him right away. But we didn't know what to do with the information except to try to steer clear of Harvey Weinstein which was a really difficult thing to do at the Peninsula hotel. He loomed ominously large at that place and then variety was doing one of their women in film issues and I was speaking with them and they asked me in. This was in two thousand fifteen whether or not I had ever experienced sexual harassment and I told them the entire Harvey story in even greater detail than than is included in the New York Times piece. That Megan twohey and Jodi Kantor wrote that the differences. The world wasn't ready to hear it yet. No one was paying attention. You know when when I made the decision to be the name source in the New York Times. I went on a run on my favorite little country road near where I live in rural Tennessee. I thought you know I've made tougher decisions. This is not a significant decision. It's simply my truth and I am entitled to share my truth into autonomous and dignified and hold my head high in my lived reality. What is it that in your experience? What is it you think? Many men and some women don't understand about the conversations we're having around gender now. I think that one of the difficulties for boys and men is to accept that this really is the water in which we swim in the air that we breathe and that these microaggressions and more overt explicit aggressions occur on a routine basis and so it takes courage on my partner. My stomach even feels funny when I say that to be really honest about my lived experience as a woman you know. The invitation hopefully is that men can have the stamina to listen to our experiences in equal measure to the way that we have endured those experiences. And when I talk with men who are honest and vulnerable enough to express their discomfort. It's not a competition to say a good. You're uncomfortable while I've been uncomfortable for a long time. It's about empathy and shared understanding. I recently spoke at the International School in Leipzig Germany. And it was very interesting that the girls were crying because of the street harassment. The experience this young woman shared that she saw a woman being harassed at a tram. Stop all these people stood there and watched and she was the one who walked over and disrupted it and when she did the perpetrator of followed her from car to car in the tram and then followed her home and so the girls are already experiencing gendered violence and interestingly the boy asked more questions than girls which is consistent with the data when kids get to high school and so I said Hey. I want to be conscious intentional here. I've called on about five or six boys in a row. I'd like to call on a girl in this boy shouted at me. That's sexist and I said well let's talk about that and it was interesting to experience a little microcosm of what we might call the backlash but as long as we stay in dialogue with each other and we have the spacious nece to hold complexity into hold paradox in to allow for everyone to be exactly where they are in their evolution of this journey. Then we're going to get there together. Ashley. There must be people who say okay. I hear you you know. You're you're having these empathetic conversations with people but like why. Why should they get our empathy? Systems of power don't change easily and those with power are generally reluctant to let it go but I can sit with those with whom I differ with dignity and respect even as I oppose everything about the way. They're thinking and I don't know that I can explain that. It's just the way that I'm walking in my life right now. You know. Someone asked me how I could forgive Harvey Weinstein and I said because I do it for myself. It's no favor to him. I do it for my own peace of mind to cut the string of resentment you can forgive Harvey Weinstein of course of course I. Don't you know he's a sexual predator? He's done reprehensible things that hurt hundreds of of women and you know. My career is very different. My pocket book is very different because of him. But I don't like to drink poison hoping someone else is going to die. G think things are getting better that this conversation is slowly. Starting to change things. We're making strides. We're living in an age. That is probably revolutionary. I think we'll look back and go. Wow you know it was all happening. It was messy and imperfect and joyful and difficult and exciting radical. I mean I go to bed with hope and I wake up with hope. I've done a lot of work on that. I've been to treatment for sexual trauma. I regard my recovery is the most important thing in my life. I have a place to go and people to talk to folks who understand and the creation of of Egalitarian Systems. Like time's up. You know social movements like me to allow me to have the dignity of my experience with my truth and my integrity without being minimized the way it was when I was seven years old and I went to those adults and said Oh no no no. He is a nice old man. That's not what he meant. No it is what he meant. It is what Harvey Weinstein meant. And it's not okay anymore and that's that is a day that will come. That's Ashley Judd. She's an activist and actor. You can find her full talk at Ted Dot Com. Hey thanks for listening to our episode on Gender Power and fairness this week if you want to find out more about who is on it good Ted Dot. Npr Dot Org and to see hundreds more. Ted Talks check out Ted dot com or the Ted APP our production staff at NPR includes Jeff. Rodgers son is Michigan Poor Janie West Grand. Casey Herman Rachel Faulkner Duomo Tom. James Dill Hussey. Jc Howard was help from Daniel Shchukin. Embarrassed gaels our intern. Katie Much Leone. Our Partners at Ted Chris Anderson Colin Helms and Janet Lead Garages. And you've been listening to ideas worth spreading here on the Ted Radio Hour from NPR.
"Support for this podcast and the following message come from Google from Connecticut California from Mississippi to Minnesota. Millions of businesses are using Google tools to grow online learn. How Google is supporting businesses in your state at Google Dot com slash economic impact guy here so there are so many complex problems out there in most of the time we think they require complex solutions but what if some of those problems could be solved by simple answers staring staring us in the face well in this episode how sometimes the best solutions are the most simple ones it's called simple solutions and it originally aired in November twenty seventeen? This is talk radio hour each week round breaking Ted talks technology entertainment design design. Is that really what I've never known delivered at Ted Conferences around the world of the human imagination your nation. We've had to believe in impossible thing is true nature of reality beckons from just beyond those talks. Those ideas adapted for radio from N._P._R.. Guy Raj what is simplicity mean to you. Simplicity full me is something that performs its function in a vase and bananas. What's really really effective smart? A smart product need not be something that's high tech you know so for me. That's the definition of simplicity says Malaysia Malaysia has an industrial designer her and she takes ordinary things like vegetable peelers bookshelves and she tries to make them better and simpler but some of her earliest ideas when Malaysia was still in school were maybe her most personal so it started actually from we had of course in our study which was designed for special needs and that's usually what they tell you that you can take any specially that you want to work on and we will guide you with principals burgum guidance and how to do it Somalia immediately thought of her uncle who was struggling with Parkinson's <hes> I think traumas were quite prominent thing for him. He had to use a walker to walk so <hes> sometimes oh even on flatland he needed help sometimes so his wife was always next to him combined with that he also had osteoporosis so if he fell it would take way longer for his bones to heal slowly even his a speech <hes> changed so sometimes you couldn't understand what exactly he was saying so for me. Those were really <hes> shocking things and I saw deteriorate of course it was over yours but still it was quite drastic. <hes> suddenly yeah so so you're thinking I am not a med student. I am not going to be able to cure Parkinson's but maybe there's something else I can do yeah. Since there is no cure right now for Parkinson's. I was really like okay. How can I make his everyday life simple? That was my goal to find his everyday problems things he does and try to solve them. I guess I have always preferred simple solutions oceans so that was maybe something at the back of my head always and that's why I did not choose to design one big complicated solution but doug it his small needs and dog different products solutions towards today on the show ideas about how complex problems are often solved by simple solutions sometimes even the one staring right at you the elegant answer that don't require lots of money the or technology so we're going to explore some of those solutions like how to make schools better for kids or how to prevent disease with very little effort or in the case of Malay- Hassan Edgy how to improve the day-today life of her uncle especially as the symptoms of his Parkinson's got worse and worse L._A.. Have picks up the story from the Ted Stage the first thing I did. Let's Trama right. My uncle told me that he had stopped drinking coffee or tea in public to start an embarrassment so but I design the no spell cup it works just barely on its form the goal on top deflects liquid back inside every time they have tremors and this keeps the liquid inside compared to a normal cup but the key here is that it does not tagged as Parkinson's patients product it looks like cobb could be used by you me any clumsy person and that makes it much more comforting for them to use to blended so the shape of the actual copies is like what yeah it's it's actually like an orange it's brought on top and clothed and towards the bottom it's way narrower and so it's almost like an apple. She feels compare like an upside down pair. Yes yes yes. I agree yeah so it's like an upside down pair and then there's like a this go wide handle on it so you can put four of your fingers in it yeah yes four and the Tom goes on the other side so actually the cup also has grooves on it. <hes> that indicate that hey your fingers go here so it's a subtle way telling you wear your fingers sit so that was also key detail that I thought to add so that they don't hold the handle because it's very natural for a person to go straight for the handle but the idea was known this handled goes around your mom and you hold the cups and and is it is it made out of ceramic <hes> not because ceramic is something that could break so psychologically avoid those cups. The idea Jio was to make it really just plastic Suki C. Designers Cup which is very simple the idea is that because it looked it's shaped like an upside down pair. It's harder for the liquid to spill out yeah the liquid keeps going up and down up and down but the curve keeps deflecting it back inside but the key hill was also that it did not look like a cop that was you know designed for special person it was really designed for all for any clumsy person and that was really he also key because frankly my uncle or anybody can sensation could use a simple right like baby super yeah you're like. Why don't we need a new product but hey this is an adult a confident adult? Why would they need a support? You need something that everyone can use and so what happened. When you brought this Cup to your uncle he was really happy? It was amazed and it really worked I also you tested with some other patients and that had more intense tremors and it actually worked quite well even with intense tremors so they've avai happy to drink out of it and did he go back out and drink coffee outside. Yes he did really extremely proud and confident about it in in fact some of my friends as well like hey I'm clumsy. I need that Cup those also for me urge really nice moment where not only Parkinson's patients but even other people asking so wealth one problem solved many more to go all this while I was interviewing him questioning him and then I realized that I was getting very superficial information or just answers to my questions but but I really needed to dig deeper to get a new perspective so I thought well that's absurd him in his daily dusts while he's eating he's watching TV and then when I was actually observing him walking to his dining table it struck. Let me this man who finds it difficult to walk on flat land. How does he climb a staircase so he told me well? Let me show how I do it and then all of this while I'm thinking Oh my God. is He really going to do it. Is He really really GonNa do it without Walker and then this person who could not walk on flatland besides me a pro at climbing stairs on researching the allies that it's because it's a continuous motion this other the man who also suffers from the same symptoms and uses a walker but the moment he is put on a cycle all has symptoms vanish because it is a continuous motion so the key for me was to translate this feeling of walking on a staircase back active flatland out so imagine you look at a flat print <hes> so it's flat but it looks like it's a staircase so it's painted status. That's extremely flat but as two-dimensional version exactly it's an illusion so the way you sketch it. It looks pretty but it's actually just flat so it's like an emcee escher drawing of a circus but you just you just dry it and what you put it on the ground. <hes> what I did I went home and since of course printing a big staircase like that it's complicated you need fancy printer. I just took a four sheets and quickly print and <hes> stuck them with Celo tape and that's actually the prototype by quickly took to his house and put it in his house and I said okay now walk on this wait wait. Did he think you were not actually he's like what what wouldn't I actually if Israeli I saw him walk on the staircase in the evening <hes> so that was in the morning and evening I was back at his house and I was like okay. Try Walking on this now so he did think I was not yes so he gets to the his walker assuming record he needs a walker just to walk and he gets to this optical illusion which is just looks like a staircase but it's it's flat ground and what does he do. He just takes a while to get to the edge of this sort of optical illusion the staircase illusion and then he suddenly he walked on it and you could see Hebron lifted his walker and just walked straight on it. Wow it lasted he walked completely fine line and then he again got back and he froze a when it ended so soon he used as walk again so he walked across these pieces of paper that looked like a staircase without the use of his Walker simply because it looked like a staircase yes amazing amazing. He was amazed as and you could see his wife was like what you walked faucet on that so yeah wow if I had gone I would bang the Gong and I would say that's a simple solution. It was tested it in different parts of his house just to see if it still works and it worked quite brilliantly what to do is to make every Parkinson's patient feel like my uncle that he told me that I made him feel like his old self again. SMART in today's world has become synonymous to high tech and the only getting smarter and Smarter Day by day but why can't smart be something that's simple and yet defective. All we need is a little bit of empathy and some curiosity to go out there observe but let's not stop at that. Let's find these conflicts problems. Don't be scared of them. Break them boil them down into much smaller problems and then find some solutions for them. Testy solutions fail if needed but with new ironsides to make it better imagine what we could do if we all came up if it's simple solutions or the world be like we combined lesson to solutions. Let's make smarter but with simplicity. Why do you think we associate <music> smart solutions with complexity? I don't know the word has transformed from its original meaning as the digital world has evolved you know the moment internet came in and everything like smart just became something that's yeah that's digital or high-tech but smart was something. I think a smart product is the moment it's connected. It's connected to the user it's connected to a system. The principal makes it complicated but. The main thing is that it helps us. It's intuitive. It's simple. It's effective so that for me is still smart and I think the meaning has just changed it works as a product designer in the Netherlands. You can see her full talk including images of that staircase allusion and Coffee Cup at Ted Dot Com. I'm sure today ideas about simple solutions is coming up too simple ways to make kids do better at school. I'm Ghairat and you're listening to the Ted Radio Hour from N._p._R.. <music> hey everyone just a quick thanks to our sponsors who helped make this podcast possible I to simplisafe home. Security who believes fear has no place in a place like home. That's why they made a completely wireless home security system that can be self installed in under an hour simplisafe's sensors are built to protect every point of access to your home including doors windows and garage more than three million people have already protected their home with simplisafe. Get Free Shipping and a sixty day money back guarantee at simplisafe dot com slash radio hour. 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I'm Gyros and on the show today ideas about simple solutions too complex problems like getting kids to do better at school. It's one of those challenges that virtually every city in every country faces some kids do well and lots of kids just struggle mood and there's no shortage of experts and analysts and policymakers and consultants who spent a lot of time trying to figure out how to solve this so-called achievement gap but it turns out there may be one solution. That's it's pretty simple. Food all these other interventions that we're talking about using technologies or innovative approaches or whatever it might be. I think are all going to fall short or at least be completely under leveraged if kids are feeling hunger pains this is Sam. He's a chef and of the former senior policy adviser for nutrition and the Executive Director of let's move in the Obama Administration and Sam's simple idea is that if schools rules could provide every kid with enough nutritious food well those kids would obviously be healthier but their brains would also be more attuned to learn. Here's Sam on the Ted Stage. What do we think the connection is between a child growing mind to their growing body? What can we expect our kids to learn if their diets are full of sugar an empty of nutrients? What can they possibly learn an if their bodies are literally going hungry and with all the resources that we are pointed to schools? We should stop and ask ourselves. We really sending our kids up for success. Food is that place war. Collective efforts can have the greatest impact. Let me give you two stats that seem like they're on opposite ends of the issue but are actually to size of the same point on the one hand one in six Americans face as hunger every year including sixteen million children almost twenty percent in this city alone New York City four hundred seventy four thousand kids under the age of eighteen face hunger every year on the other hand diet nutrition is the number one cause of preventable death and disease in this country by far and fully a third of the kids that we've been talking about tonight on track to have diabetes in their lifetime. Now what's hard to put together but it's true is that many times these are the same children so they fill up on unhealthy and cheap calories that surround them in their communities and that their families can afford but then by the end of the month food stamps out or hours get cut didn't work and they don't have the money to cover the basic cost of food. Just think about how hungry a young person is because they're growing right there expending so much energy because they're growing and they're learning being in their brains are taking a lot of information and we're asking a lot of them. There's no way that a kid can learn if they haven't gotten basic nutrition because if you're sitting there and you haven't eaten all weekend for example on your show up the school on literally you're experiencing hunger pains or you haven't eaten since launch the last day because a lot of kids go home. There's no food in the house. You're not going to be able to do a math problem so I think it's one of those starting points that we have to take care of their basic wellbeing all being before we can expect them to excel in the classroom so when you are in the Obama White House where you guys able to make changes to solve some of those problems yeah and so one of the changes that we made it was called the community eligibility program which allowed schools that had significant populations of low income children to serve breakfast to everybody as part of my work in the White House. We instituted a program that for all schools does that had forty percent more low income kids we could serve breakfast and lunch to every kid in that school for free. This program has been incredibly successful because it helps us overcome a very difficult barrier when it came to getting kids a nutritious Tristesse breakfast and that was the barrier of stigma see schools serve breakfast before class before school and it was only available for the poor kids so everybody knew who was poor and who needed government help now all kids no matter how much how little their parents make they have a lot of pry so what happened well the schools that have implemented this program they saw an increase in math and reading scores by seventeen eighteen point five percent and research shows that when kids have a consistent nutritious breakfast chances of graduating increased by twenty percent twenty percent when we give our kids the nourishment they need me. We give them the chance to thrive. It's amazing that you you change just as one thing free breakfast and it has this enormous impact on on like health and educational allow comes absolutely test scores. Tell you a very clear story and it's this is nothing that this is common sense. We can all just test ourselves. Go two days without eating much or just eat a few bags of chips and then go take some kind of test and see how you do <hes> I guarantee you. You're not GONNA do that. Well kids make many more mistakes. Their cognitive ability slows down and on the flip flipside when they get the nourishment they are much more proficient in solving problems in comprehending reading their behavior goes up their stress levels. Go down. I mean the other thing that happens when you're hungry is during Zaidi naturally rises you become more aggressive and unsettled so it leads to a lot of other behaviors that absolutely undermined the educational experience. I mean all these things are connected right like if you've got a kid who who is eating high fat and high sugar diet that's what's feeding their brain and that's what is going to feed their behavior and then you've got a disruptive classroom. Teacher can't teach all the kids in the classroom like it's all connected Yep and then it actually reverberate saudi-owned further then those kids get sick more frequently which means they have to stay home which means that their parent has to stay home from work which has an impact on their performance at work and their productivity <hes> and if we really focus our resources the questions like if we have a few dollars or spend words the most impact we can have. There's not too many interventions are going to give you you know fifteen to twenty percent improvements on test scores with just a relatively small amount of increase in resources and focus around nutrition. We only see upside. We only see benefit from it. I've not seen any statistic that showed any kind of negative outcome here Sam cast. He's a chef and the former senior food policy advisor at the White House under President Obama. You can see his entire talk at Ted Dot Com so Wendy Sam Casas talking obviously about food and how could change schools. If I were to ask you to give me one idea about something that could have a huge impact on kids in schools. What what would it be more sleep more sleep? They could actually have like measurable impact on on like how else students do at school absolutely and we have evidence to bear this out. This is Wendy trucks. Will I'm a clinical psychologist sleep medicine specialist and I'm a senior and behavioral social scientists at the Rand Corporation and when he's research focuses on teenagers so high school age kids and she says the results well. They're pretty clear kids who get adequate amounts of sleep deep perform better in school. They're more likely to show up for school. On time. <hes> have better graduation rates there bill to think and perform better their attention is better kids who are sleeping sufficient amounts also have better mental health south and physical health <hes> all of which we know goes into the factors that contribute to a whole healthy child who's able to performance exceeding school now. This may sound painfully obvious right. Kids need more sleep but it's not bad easy as Wendy trucks will explains from the Ted Stage Sleep deprivation among American teenagers is an epidemic only about one in ten gets the eight to ten hours of sleep per night eight recommended by sleep scientists and pediatricians now. If you're thinking to yourself few we're doing good. My kids getting eight hours. Remember eight hours is the minimum recommendation. There are many factors contributing to the epidemic but a major factor preventing teens from getting the sleep they need is actually a matter of public policy. Not Hormones social lives or snapchat across the country. Many schools are starting around seven thirty A._M.. Or earlier despite the fact that major medical organizations recommend that middle and high school start no earlier than eight thirty A._M.. These early start policies have a direct effect on how much or really how little sleep American teenagers are getting. I mean basically what you're saying that because school starts so early for teens and they still wake up you know obviously much earlier than that to get ready for school and even get to school there. You know if they're walking taking the bus so of course they're not gonNA get enough sleep exactly glades a simple math problem right if you have a school that starting at seven thirty five A._M.. Like my own child's that means that they're getting on a bus between six thirty six forty five A._M.. Often so if you simply back up the clock your child has to be going to bed by ten PM at the latest noticed and that's simply not possible for most teenagers but the truth of the matter is all of this is truly an artifact of a decision that was made years and years ago frankly before sleep research was really as robust it as it is today and before we knew. Do the consequences of sleep loss at occurs and adolescence so we're setting them up for failure failure in their ability to sleep and failure in their ability to perform well at school. Adolescence is a period of dramatic brain in development particularly in the parts of the brain that are responsible for those higher orders thinking processes including reasoning problem solving and good judgment in other words the very type of brain activity that's responsible for reining in those impulsive and often risky behaviors that are so characteristic of adolescence in fact many of the shall we say unpleasant characteristics that we chuck up to being a teenager moutainous Penis Irritability laziness depression could be a product of chronic sleep deprivation around the time of puberty teenagers experience delay in their biological clock which determines when we feel most awake and when we feel most oh sleepy this driven in part by shift in the release of the Hormone Melatonin teenagers bodies wait to start releasing Melatonin until around eleven P._M.. which is two hours later than what we see in adults or younger younger children? This means that waking teenager up at six A._M.. Is the biological equivalent of waking an adult up at four A._M.. So Teenagers Biological Oh clocks are delayed by by two hours. That's correct sort of like how you might feel if you travel west to east and your brain still is on the on the west coast time zone but local time says oh well. It's it's locally ten PM but your brain thinks it's only only seven P._M.. You can't make yourself go to sleep at a time when your brain's not ready and that conflict between the internal biology of adolescence and sort of clock time that poses the real problem so this seems like all all of the problems that we're talking about on the show the seems like the easiest one to solve the most doable you just you just change the start time of schools. He just go to school and you say hey schools you know <hes> move your start time from seven thirty two eight thirty and you're done right. Yes and I really wish it could be that easy and yet in if I was only asleep researcher if I hadn't been involved with boots on the ground in districts where we've actually tried to get this done I would have the same attitude because it should be a no brainer however the truth of the matter is start times really can have ripple effects on the entire community so there are legitimate concerns when you shift the day later for any group of students you have an impact on other students and if you're dealing with a tiered bus system somebody eventually has to go first and people are going to get out later so there are many implications when we shift start times there are impacts on after school sports and other extracurricular activities. There's issues of <hes> care for younger children both before and after school there's also issues of after school jobs and other factors such as traffic and and transportation related issues so as much as it seems like a no brainer. It's not as simple as it sounds wound. We'll see now. I feel like you've just made a really compelling argument against your original argument like now I'm like yeah I think Wendy's wrong. I'm with the school districts here well then. Can I tell you about the consequence really start because frankly yes. You're right if it was is all about what's most convenient for adults then keep the status quo right but what we know is that when school start later one school district found a twenty five percent reduction in <hes> school absences enough school attendance is critically important for big issues like reducing the achievement gap when we delay start times children are actually more likely to get the bus and for many of our <hes> low income students or racial and ethnic minority students tunes. If bussing is the only option for transportation if they missed that bus they are not likely to go to school so when we delay start times we see an increase in attendance rates. We also see an increase in graduation rates. This has a direct impact on their lifetime off time earnings teens from districts later start times get more sleep to the naysayers who may think that a school start later teens will just stay up later the truth is there bedtime stay the same but they're wake-up sometimes get extended resulting in more sleep not surprisingly they do better academically standardized test scores in math and reading go up by two to three percentage points. That's as powerful will as reducing class sizes by one third fewer students their mental and physical health improves and even their families are happier. I mean who wouldn't enjoy a little more pleasantness from our teens and a little less of crankiness. Even their communities are safer because car crash rates go down a seventy percent reduction in one district. The findings are unequivocal and as a sleep scientist. I rarely get so to speak with that kind of certainty. I feel like like this. This period like the teenage period in our lives is is where our biology requires a specific schedule right like it seems so obvious that we should figure this out to to change our institutions are environment to accommodate that exactly and one of the things I often here <hes> I hear the comment. Oh let's stop coddling are teenagers. They need to toughen up. We need to get ready for the real world but that's missing the point that this is a developmentally specific issue. They don't have these shifted sleep wake schedules for the rest of their lives. It is only during adolescence similarly like if you look at how you treat sleep in your younger child we recognize that younger children have specific sleep needs and we honor that for instance by allowing them to nap up. We don't say though well you know this two year old will we shouldn't let them nap because eventually he's going to be going to kindergarten and he won't be able to map in kindergarten. We know it's development with specific. A two year old needs a nap sleep sciences clearly shown there is this change in sleep wake cycles such that adolescence naturally go to bed later in sleep in later so by depriving them of sleep in adolescence. We are not doing anything to toughen them up. We're just <music> hurting them. In this critically important developmental phase in the truth of the matter is by trying to overcome this biology and and putting start time this indirect conflict with their biology really hurting their chances for success us in their health trucks. She's a clinical psychologist studies sleep. You can see her entire. Talk at Ted Dot com today ideas about how simple solutions nations can be the answer to some of our most complex problems. I'm garage and you're listening to the Ted Radio Hour from N._p._R.. Hey everyone just a quick thanks to two of our sponsors who helped make this podcast possible. I two Lincoln jobs. 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Don't do business without terms apply learn more at American Express dot com slash business while while you're sleeping a whole bunch of news is happening around the world up. I is the N._p._R.. News podcast that gets you caught up on the big news in a small amount of time spent about ten minutes with I on Weekday Mornings from N._p._R.. News it's the Ted Radio Hour from N._p._R.. Gyros and on the show today ideas about how we can solve some of our most complex problems in simple ways so one huge problem that you probably hear a lot about is that every single year millions of children all around the world dive from common diseases. I think some some of the top diarrhea ammonium so they're real disease kills more than half a million children globally every year more than -ived malaria and measles combined public health advocate Miriam Sediba the maximum numbers. There's of these children are dying because of preventable disease that we can do something about and for the last twenty years Mariam's been working to fix this problem and her solution it doesn't require a new vaccine or a massive passive health initiative or huge grant from the gates foundation. Marianne described her simple solution from the Ted Stage what we can do to prevent disease is one of the world's oldest invention we'll borrow soup washing hands with soap a habit we all take for granted can reduce diarrhea by half can reduce respiratory infections by one third hen washing was soap can have an impact act on reducing flu trachoma SARS and most recently in the case of cholera and Ebola outbreak and while she was so keeps kids in school it stops babies from dying handwashing with soap. He's one of the most cost effective way of saving children's life. He can save over six hundred thousand children every year. I think you'll agree with me that that's pretty useful. Public Health Intervention Statistics actually showing that four people out of five don't wash their hands when they come out of the toilets and the same way we don't do it when we've got fancy toilets running water and soap available. It's the same thing in the countries where child mortality is really high. I mean that's pretty surprising to me that so few people wash their hands after he's in the bathroom because it seems like that idea is programmed into to our brains from a berry young age. I think there's a couple of reason I would say one day. Environment is not always adequate <hes> so when you take a lot of the rural areas or or areas where you know water supplies not always flowing going out of your tap it might be very difficult for you to make it a habit so routinely because having water and super the same places not often there. Why is it that my young? This young boy that I met in India isn't washing his hands. Well in my family. Soap is used for bathing soap is used for laundry. Soap is us for washing dishes. He's parenting sometimes. It's a precious commodity so they'll keep bitten cupboard. They'll keep it away from him so he doesn't waste it on average in my family they will use SOPA washing hands once a day at the very best and sometimes even once a week for washing hands with so what's the result of that children pick up disease in the places that supposed to love them and protect them the most in their homes so that's one reality to even though people have access to soap and even when they have access to water. I'm transforming it into a habit. Regularly is usually not found okay. So how do we get people to wash your hands more often. It needs to be transformed into social norms so that everybody is basically monitoring. Everybody Betty Ellison checking that everybody's washing their hands so it's about washing your hands before you eat washing your hands after the toilets are making sure that those are embedded into routines in the household nine years ago I decided with a successful. Successful public health career in the making that I could make the biggest impact coming selling and promoting the world's best invention in public health so we run today the world's largest handwashing programme by any public health standards over the last four years child mortality has reduced in all the places where soap users increased last week my team and I spend time visiting mothers that have all experience the same thing the death of a newborn. I'm a mom I can't imagine anything more powerful and more painful and we know that the majorities of children that actually die die in the first month of their life and we know that if we give Baracoa to every skill birth attendance and that soap is used before touching the babies we can reduce and make a change in terms of those numbers and that's what inspires me inspires me to continue in this mission and next time you think of a gift for a new mom and her family don't look for buyers soap. It's the most beautiful invention in public health. I mean it's amazing because we think about complicated solutions to big health challenges right but it does make sense in a way when you say that soap is the world's best invention in public health because it's it's cheap doesn't require refrigeration. It's it doesn't require careful transport transport it can be made locally. It's available everywhere and it's soap. Yes that's that's right. I mean there's nothing fundamentally new about that. But what is absolutely needed is that you know to be thinking about what the simple Paul solutions can have in terms of impact in two big public health issues and it's not just so I mean it's similarly the same with toothpaste and and school absenteeism and what you do in terms of of that being obviously in the number one reasons for children missing on schools and I think ultimately that is you know the reasons why prevention becomes so important in some of the public health problems today. I'm going to wash my hands. After this Maria you should and and you should make sure that all the people around your washing their hands because otherwise you'll shake somebody else's hand wash their hands and his back to the same thing. I I know the whole Ted Radio. Our team is going to go wash their hands right now. Okay guys they should. That's very e._M._C. Bay. She's the social mission director for Unilever of Africa and we reached her at her home in Nairobi. You can see her full. Talk at Ted Dot Com on the show today simple solutions tends to some pretty complex problems but the thing was simplicity is that sometimes it requires a lot of complexity to get there. I agree right yeah because to make something simple and cheap in reliable often takes very rigorous engineering. This is Amos winter. He's a mechanical engineer at M._I._T.. And his research group tries to build solutions to problems in developing countries and the common theme and all that we do who is even though it may look simple in be constructive cheap simple elements the math and the physics and the engineering rare that went into it was not simple like one specific problem that was presented to him in Tanzania with wheelchairs. Yeah I spent that summer talking to wheelchair users <hes> wheelchair manufacturers in disability advocacy groups <hes> to get a sense of what the lay the land was and how well current products were meeting people's needs and you might think what's what's the problem wheelchairs a wheelchair. It's already pretty straightforward simple solution. No a wheelchair is not a wheelchair depending on where you are much of our country. I'd say is accessible and has been designed to meet at the needs of wheelchair users that is not the case in most other countries particularly if you're living in a rural area and so if you have to go a few kilometers from your house to your school or House to job just a small crack in the road can be a major barrier earlier if you're using a conventional hospital style wheelchair which is what most people get typically you would be dependent on a family member to push you around your village <hes> but actually even more commonly. You're probably going to be stuck in your house most of the time and maybe even viewed as a burden on your family Amos winter spoke about the problem on the Ted Stage what stood out to me is that there wasn't a device available that was designed for rural areas that could go fast and efficiently on many types of terrain so being a mechanical engineer being M._I._T.. And having lots of resources available to me I thought I tried to do something about it now. When you're talking about trying to travel long distances on rough terrain I I immediately thought of a mountain biking mountain bikes good at doing this because it has a gear train and you can shift to a low gear if you have to climb a hill or go through mud or sand and you get a lot of work but a low speed and if you WANNA go faster say on pavement you can shift to a high gear and you get less torque but higher speed so the logical evolution here is just make a wheelchair with mountain by components which many people have done but these are two products available in the U._S.? That would be difficult to transfer into developing countries because they're much much ch two expensive and the context I'm talking about is where you need to have a product that is less than two hundred dollars in this ideal product would also be able to go about five kilometers day so you could get to your job get to school and do it on many many different types of terrain but when you get home or WanNa go indoors at your work it's gotta be small enough in maneuverable enough to US inside and furthermore if you want it to last a long time out in rural areas it has to be repairable using the local tools materials in knowledge in those contacts see how this idea for a mountain bike wheelchair and then what do you do from there so I worked with a team of students at M._I._T.. Through many iterations is trying to make this cheap simple fast and efficient offroad wheelchair device <hes> to give you a low gear to climb hills and high gear to go fast and we failed a number of times we could not do that with the Conventional Mountain bike solution because you I need a chain to switch from gear to gear to get those different gear issues and then about a year and a half later. I was actually back in Africa at a conference now sitting there just doodling in a notebook and I realized boy you know we could get a variable mechanical advantage manage to get this mountain bike effect very simply by grabbing lever at different points and that was the I'd say the real breakthrough four US realizing how we could make cheap simple bike part based solution that would revival in this context of developing countries okay so we're talking about simple solution. So can you like simplify this and walk me through it. You like you said of levers like I'm imagining like like broom handles or you know like sticks on a wheelchair chair. <hes> how does that simplify things so if you're in a wheelchair your power sources your upper body right and so you conventionally you'll grab the wheel or you could do some other motion. That's engaging the muscles in your chest and shoulders news and so <hes> one reason I thought of levers is because it engages the largest muscle groups in your upper body your chest muscles and so what was nice about a lever is if you imagine a person sitting in a wheelchair grabbing two levers in front of them that if they are pushing Ford and back on those levers if they just shift their hands up or down a little bit it effectively changes the length of the lever so the distance between where their hand is in where the pivot is of the lever so if they grabbed high on the lever they get along lever get a lot of leverage and get a lot of Torque if they grab low on the lever they're able to push through a bigger angle every push which makes the wheelspin faster so if they're in the wheelchair air on rough terrain or going uphill they can grab up the top of the lever and it's easier to get through that rocky area and if they're on a straight path on paved concrete they can just grab lower and go fast yup exactly so I mean this is not new technology. I mean leverage and levers are like this is like ancient Egypt stuff. Yeah and even levers on wheelchairs is ancient technology. People have done many many different iterations of that idea the critical cofactor in the in the critical value idea was that ability to shift your hands up and down the levers yeah so cool about this is your kind of taking this this old technology to something that most people would think to innovate with like mechanized changes like making them electronic or or or more complex yeah and again. I have to come back to the constraints of the problem. We are trying to solve you know think about out in a village. What parts can you service this thing with? What how would you ever recharge it? If if it's electric and that's what drove us to this simple cheap solution the leverage freedom chair now also being engineering scientists we're able to quantify the performance benefits of the leverage the freedom chair so here's some shots of trial in Guatemala where we tested the N._F._C. on village terrain and tested people's biomechanical outputs their oxygen consumption how fast they go how much power they're putting out both in their regular wheelchairs and using the A._f._c. a- and we found that the N._F._C. is about eighty percent faster going on these terrains than a normal wheelchair. It's also about forty percent more efficient than regular wheelchair and because of the mechanical advantage from the levers you can produce fifty percent higher torque and really muscle your way through the really really rough terrain. I think this project worked well because we engage all the stakeholders that that buy into this project and are important they consider in bringing the technology from inception of idea through innovation validation nation commercialization and dissemination and that's cycle has to start in end with end users. These are the people that define the requirements of the technology and these are the people that have to give the thumbs up at the end and say yeah it actually works it meets our needs and this picture was taken in India in our last field trial where we had a ninety percent adoption rate where people switch to using our leverage freedom chair over their normal wheelchair and this picture specifically is of a show and show had a spinal injury when he fell out of a tree and he had had been working at a Taylor but once he was injured he wasn't able to transport himself from his house over kilometer to shop in his normal wheelchair. The road was too rough but the day after he got an l._l._C. he hopped in it row that kilometer opened up his shop and soon after landed a contract to make school uniform started making money started providing first family do you do you think that that most of the time the simplest solution is the best one. I think I I think about the word simple. Maybe differently than you are. I think the best solution is the best solution and I and I I'm so sensitive about imposing unnecessary constraints on a design problem. I try not to design in in terms of simplicity. I try to design in terms of what is the what is the solution that will give you the required performance for as little money in his little complexity as possible and so I think the idea of simplicity implicity that you're touching on is that that I'm thinking about that. I don't want to overcomplicate things. I want to make things robust. I want to have his shoe parts as possible but I don't want to compromise value in performance spy making it cheap in simple and so I think people will sometimes confused like developing world technologies as low quality in cheap and not as functional and I don't think that way at all people have a core level of functionality optionality. They need to be met for that product to be successful and there's a price point in there's maybe a serviceability associated with that in those design requirements you have to satisfy in order to be successful in our wheelchair absolutely does do that. <music> Amos winter wheelchairs called the leverage freedom chair so far his team is built about two thousand of them. You can see his entire talk and the wheelchair at Ted Dot com the chip sample the way of doing simple. Hey thanks for listening to our show on simple solutions this week. If you WANNA find have more about who is on it go to Ted Dot N._p._r.. Dot Org and to see hundreds more ted talks checkout Ted dot com or the Ted APP. You can also listen to this show anytime by subscribing to our podcast. You can do it now on apple podcasts.
Heartland Newsfeed Radio Network: TED Radio Hour (July 20, 2019)
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Yes no maybe anyway see you practice tonight. I got new lyrics for the rap Break Progressive Casualty Insurance Company and affiliates price and coverage match limited headed by State Law. This message comes from N._P._R.. Sponsor indeed if you're hiring with indeed you can post a job in minutes set up screener questions then zero in on your short list of qualified candidates using an online dashboard. Get it started at indeed dot com slash N._p._R.. podcast hey it's guy here so there are so many complex problems out there in most of the time we think they require complex solutions but what if some of those problems could be solved by simple answers staring us in the face well on this episode how sometimes the best solutions are the most simple ones it's called simple solutions and it originally aired in November of twenty seventeen. This is the Ted Radio Hour each week round breaking Ted talks technology entertainment design design. Is that really what I've never known delivered at Ted Conferences around the world of the human imagination. We've had to believe an impossible thing that's true nature of reality beckons from just beyond those talks. Those ideas adapted for radio from N._P._R.. Gyros what is simplicity mean to you. Simplicity full me is something that performs its dysfunction in a vase and Bananas Really Effective Smart. A smart product need not be something that's high tech you know so for me. That's the definition of simplicity says Malaysia Malaysia has an industrial designer and she takes ordinary things like vegetable peelers bookshelves and she tries to make them better and simpler but some of her earliest ideas when Malaysia was still in school were maybe her most personal so it started actually from overhead of course in our study which was designed for special needs and that's usually what they tell you that you can take any specialty that you want to work on and we will guide you with Principals and guidance on how to do it. Somalia immediately thought of her uncle who was struggling with Parkinson's yeah <hes> I think traumas were quite prominent thing for him. He had to use a walker to walk so <hes> sometimes even on flatland he needed help sometimes so his wife was always next to him combined with that he also had osteoporosis so if he fell it would take way longer for his bones to heal slowly slowly. Even his speech changed so sometimes it couldn't understand what exactly he was saying so for me. Those were really <hes> shocking things and I saw a deteriorate of course it was over yours but still it was quite took drastic <hes> suddenly yeah so so you're thinking I am not a med student. I am not going to be able to cure Parkinson's but maybe there's something else I can do yeah since there is no cure right now alpha bucket since I was really like okay. How can I make his everyday life simple and that was my goal to find his everyday problems things he does and try to solve them? I I guess I have always preferred simple solutions so that was maybe something at the back of my head always and that's why I did not choose to design one big complicated solution but doug at his small needs and dogged different different products or solutions towards today on the show ideas about how complex problems are often solved by simple solutions sometimes even the one staring right at you the elegant answer that don't require lots of money or technology so we're going to explore some of those solutions like how to make schools better for kids or how to prevent disease with very little effort or in the case of malaria synergy and how to improve the day-to-day life of her uncle especially as the symptoms of Parkinson's got worse and worse picks up the story from the Ted Stage the first thing I targeted tremors right my uncle told me that he had stopped drinking coffee or tea in public to start an embarrassment so but I design the no Spirit Cup it works looks just barely on its form the co on top deflects the liquid back inside every time they have tremors and this keeps the liquid inside compared to a normal cup but the key here is that it is not tagged as Parkinson's spacious product it looks like that could be used by you me any clumsy person and that makes it much more comforting for them to use to blended so the shape of the Actual Cup is is is like what it's actually like an on earth it's brought on top and curved and towards the bottom its way narrower and so it's almost like an apple. She compare like an upside down pear. Yes ascribe yes. Yes I agree yeah so it's like an upside down pear and then there's like a disco wide handle on it so you can put four of your fingers in it. Yes yes four and the time goes on the other side so actually the cup also has grooves on it. <hes> that indicate that hey your fingers go here so it's an a subtle way telling you where your fingers sit so that was also a key detail that I thought to add so that they don't hold the handle because it's very natural Philip wasn't to go straight for the handle but the idea was known this handled goes around your palm and you hold the cups and and is it is it made out of ceramic on not because ceramic is something that could break Joe Psychologically. Maybe avoid those cups. The idea was to make it really just plastic Suki C. Designers Cup which is very simple. I guess the idea is that because it look it's shaped like an upside down pear. It's harder for the liquid to spill out yeah. The liquid keeps going up and down up and down but the car keeps deflecting it back inside but the key hill was also that it did not look like a cop that was you know designed for special person is really designed for all for any any clumsy person and that was really also key because frankly my uncle or anybody can suspicion could use a simple right like baby super here you're like why do we need a new product but hey this is an adult a confident adult. Why why would they need a super? They need something that everyone can use and so what happened. When you brought this up to your uncle he was really happy? It was amazed and it really worked I also you tested with some other patients and and that had more intense tremors and it actually worked quite well even with intense tremors so they've avai happy to drink out of it and did he go back out and drink coffee outside. Yes he did really extremely proud and confident about it in fact some of my friends as well like hey I'm clumsy. I need that Cup those also for me really nice moment where not only Parkinson's patients but even other people asking so one problem solved many more to go all this while I was interviewing him questioning him and then I realized that I was getting very superficial information or just answers. Answers to my questions but I really needed to dig deeper to get a new perspective so I thought well that's observed him in his daily dust while he's eating when he's watching TV and then when I was actually observing him I'm walking to his dining table. It struck me this man who finds it so difficult to walk on flat land. How does he climb a staircase so he told me well? Let me show you how I do it and then all of this while I'm thinking Oh my God is he really going to do it is really really GonNa do it without his walker and then this person who could not walk on flat land besides me a pro at climbing stairs on researching the seralized that it's because it's the continuous motion. There's this other man who also suffers from the same symptoms and uses a walker but the moment he is put on a cycle all her symptoms vanish because it is a continuous motion so the key for me was to translate this this feeling of walking on a staircase back to flatland so imagine you look at a flat print <hes> so it's flat but it looks like it's a staircase. It's painted. Stay case that's extremely flat but as two dimensional version exactly it's an illusion so the way you sketch it. It looks pretty but it's actually just flat so it's like an MC asher her drawing like of a circus but you just you just dry it and what you put it on the ground. <hes> what I did is I went home and since of course printing a big staircase like that it it's complicated you need a fancy printer. I just took a four sheets beats and quickly print stuck them with Celo tape and that's actually the prototype by quickly took to his house and put it in his house and I said okay now walk on this way we did. He think you're not actually actually he was like what I actually. If Israeli I saw him walk on the staircase in the evening <hes> so that was in the morning and in the evening I was back at his house and I was like okay. Try Walking on this now so he did think I was nuts yes so he gets to the he. He has his walker assuming he needs a walker just to walk and he gets to this optical illusion which is just looks like a staircase but it's it's flat ground and what does he do. He just takes a while to get the edge of this sort of optical illusion the staircase illusion and then he suddenly he walked on it and you could see he even lifted his walker and just walked straight on it while it lasted did he walked completely fine and then he again got back and he froze when it ended some when he used as walk again so he walked across these pieces of paper that looked like a staircase without the use of his Walker simply because it looked like a staircase yes amazing. He was amazed as I mean you could see his wife was like what you walked fast on that so yeah wow if I had a gun I would bang the Gong and I would say that's a simple solution. It was tested it in different parts of his house just to see if it still works and it worked quite brilliantly damage to do is to make every bucket since patient. I feel like my uncle felt that. He told me that I made him feel like his old self again. SMART in today's world has become synonymous to high tech and the world is only getting smarter and Smarter Day by day but why can't be something that's simple and yet effective. All we need is a little bit of empathy and some curiosity to go out there observe but let's not stop at that. Let's find these complex complex problems. Don't be scared of them. Break them boil them down into much smaller problems and then find some solutions for them. Testy solutions fail if needed but with new ironsides to make it better imagine imagine what we all could do if we all came up with simple solutions. What would the world be like? We combined all the solutions. Let's make smarter but with simplicity. Why do you think we associate smart solutions with complexity? I don't know the word has transformed from its original meaning as the digital world has evolved you know the moment internet came in a. and everything like smart just became something that's yeah that's digital or high tech but smart was something I think a smart product is the moment it's connected. It's connected to the user it's connected to a system. The principal principal makes it complicated but the main thing is that it helps a user. It's intuitive. It's simple. It's effective so that for me still smart and I think the meaning has exchanged. Les Hacen A._G.. Works as a product designer in the Netherlands you can see her full talk including images of that staircase allusion and Coffee Cup at Ted Dot com today ideas about simple solutions coming up too simple ways to make kids do better at school garage and you're listening to the Ted Radio Hour from N._P._R.. Hey everyone just a quick thanks to two of our sponsors who help make this podcast possible I to simplisafe home. Security who believes fear has no place in a place like home. That's why they made eighty completely wireless home security system that can be self installed in under an hour simply safe's sensors are built to protect every point of access to your home including doors windows and garage more than three million people have already protected their home with simplisafe. Get Free Shipping and a sixty day money back guarantee at simplisafe dot com slash radio our thanks also to rocket mortgage by quicken loans. 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I'm Gyros and on the show today ideas about simple solutions to complex problems like getting kids to do better at school. It's one of those challenges that virtually every city and every country faces some kids do well and and lots of kids just struggle and there's no shortage of experts and analysts and policymakers and consultants who spent a lot of time trying to figure out how to solve this so-called achievement gap but it turns out there may be one solution. That's pretty simple food all these other interventions that we're talking about using new technologies or innovative approaches or whatever it might be. I think are all going to fall short or at least be completely under leveraged if kids are feeling hunger pains this is Sam Cass. He's a chef and <hes> of the former senior policy adviser for nutrition and the Executive Director. Let's move in the Obama Administration and Sam's simple simple idea is that if schools could provide every kid with enough nutritious food well those kids would obviously be healthier but their brains would also be more attuned to learn. Here's Sam on the Ted Ed stage. What do we think the connection is between a child's growing mind to their growing body? What can we expect our kids to learn if their diets are full of sugar and empty of nutrients? What can they possibly learn if their bodies are literally going hungry and with all the resources that we are pointed to schools? We should stop and ask ourselves. Are we really sending our kids up for success. Food is that place or collective efforts can have the greatest impact. Let me give you two stats that seem like they're on opposite ends of the issue but are actually two sides of the same coin on the one hand one in six Americans face hunger every year including sixteen million children almost twenty percent in this city alone New York City four hundred seventy four thousand kids under the age of eighteen face hunger every year. We're on the other hand. Diet and nutrition is the number one cause of preventable death and disease in this country by far and fully a third of the kids that we've been talking about tonight on track to have diabetes in their lifetime. Now what's hard to put together but it's true is that many times these are the same children so they fill up on unhealthy and cheap calories that surround them in their communities and their families can afford but then by the end of the month food stamps Manfred out or hours cut at work and they don't have the money to cover the basic cost of food. Just think about how hungry a young person is because they're growing right. They're expending so so much energy because they're growing and they're learning their brains are taking a lot of information and we're asking a lot of them. There's no way that a kid can learn if they haven't gotten basic nutrition because if you're sitting there and you haven't eaten Paul Weekend for example and you show up the school and literally you're experiencing hunger pains or you haven't eaten since launch the last day because a lot of kids go home. There's no food in the house. You're not going to be able to do a math problem so I think it's one of those starting points that we we had to take care of their basic well being before we can expect them to excel in the classroom so when you are in the Obama White House were you able to make changes to solve some of those problems yeah and so one of the changes that we made was called the community eligibility program which allowed schools that had significant populations of low income children to serve breakfast to everybody as part of my work in the White House. We instituted a a program that for all schools that had forty percent more low income kids we could serve breakfast and lunch to every kid in that school for free. This program has been incredibly successful because it helps us overcome a very difficult barrier area when it came to getting kids nutritious breakfast and that was the barrier of stigma see schools serve breakfast before class before school and it was only available for the poor kids so everybody knew who was poor and who needed government help now all kids no matter how much or how little their parents make they have a lot of pride so what happened well the schools that have implemented this program they saw an increase based in math and reading scores by seventeen point five percent and research shows that when kids have a consistent nutritious breakfast chances of graduating increased by twenty percent twenty percent when we we give our kids the nourishment they need we give them the chance to thrive. It's amazing that you you change just as one thing free breakfast and it has this enormous impact on on I'm like health and educational outcomes absolutely test scores. Tell you a very clear story and it's this is nothing that this is common sense. We can all just test ourselves. Go two days without eating much or just eat a few bags of chips and then go take some kind of test and see how you do <hes> I guarantee you. You're not GONNA do that. Well kids make many more mistakes. Their cognitive abilities slows was down and on the flip side when they get the nourishment they are much more proficient in solving problems in comprehending reading their behavior goes up their stress levels go down. I mean the other thing that happens. When you're hungry? During Zaidi naturally rises you become more aggressive and unsettled so it leads to a lot of other behaviors that absolutely undermined the educational experience. I mean all these things are connected right like if you've got a kid who is eating high fat and high sugar diet that's what's feeding their brain and that's what is going to feed their behavior and then you've got a disruptive classroom. Teacher can't teach all the kids in the classroom like it's all connected and acted Yup and then it actually reverberates out even further then those kids get sick more frequently which means they have to stay home which means that their parent has to stay home from work which has an impact on their performance at work and their productivity activity <hes> and if we really focus our resources the questions like if we have a few dollars to spend words the most impact we can have. There's not too many interventions are going to give you you know fifteen to twenty percent improvements on test scores the with breath just a relatively small amount of increase in resources and focus around nutrition. We only see upside. We only see benefit from it. I've not seen any statistic that showed any kind of negative outcome. Come here Sam Casts. He's a chef and the former senior policy advisor at the White House under President Obama you can see his entire talk at Ted Dot Com <music> so Wendy Sam Kass talking obviously about food and how could change schools. If I were to ask you to give me one idea about something that could have a huge impact on kids in schools. What what would it be more your sleep Mossley that could actually have like measurable impact on on like how well students do at school absolutely and we have evidence to bear this out? This is Wendy trucks. All I'm a clinical psychologist just sleep medicine specialist and a senior and behavioral social scientist at the Rand Corporation and when he's research focuses on teenagers so high school age kids and she says the results well. They're pretty clear in kids who get adequate amounts of sleep perform better in school. They're more likely to show up for school. On time. <hes> have better graduation rates their bill to think and perform better. Their attention is better kids who are sleeping sufficient sufficient amounts also have better mental health and physical health all of which we know goes into the factors that contribute to a whole healthy child who's able to performance exceeding school now. This may sound painfully obvious right right. Kids need more sleep but it's not bad easy as Wendy trucks will explains from the Ted Stage Sleep deprivation among American teenagers is an epidemic only about one in ten. It's the eight to ten hours of sleep per night recommended by sleep scientists and pediatricians now. If you're thinking to yourself few we're doing good. Mike kids getting eight hours. Remember eight hours is the minimum recommendation there many factors contributing to this epidemic but a major factor preventing teens from getting the sleep they need is actually a matter of public policy not hormones socialize. She lives or snapchat across the country. Many schools are starting around seven thirty A._M.. Or earlier despite the fact that major medical organizations recommend that middle and high school start no earlier than eight thirty a m these early start policies have a direct effect on how much or really how little sleep American teenagers are getting. I mean basically what you're saying is that because school starts so early for teens and they still wake up you know obviously much earlier than that to get ready for school and sometimes even get to school there. You know if they're walking or taking the bus so of course going to get enough sleep exactly. It's as simple math problem right if you have a school that starting at seven thirty five A._M.. Like my own child's that means that they're getting on a bus between six thirty and six forty five A._M.. Often so if you simply back up the clock your child it has to be going to bed by ten PM at the latest and that's simply not possible for most teenagers but the truth of the matter is all of this is truly an artifact of a decision that was made years and years ago frankly before sleep research was really <unk> as robust as it is today and before we knew the consequences of sleep loss at occurs in adolescence so we're setting them up for failure failure in their ability to sleep and failure in their ability to perform well at school. Adolescence is a period of dramatic brain development particularly in the parts of the brain that are responsible for those higher order thinking processes including reasoning problem solving and good judgment in other words the very every type of brain activity that's responsible for reigning in those impulsive and often risky behaviors that are so characteristic of adolescence in fact many of the shall we say unpleasant characteristics that we chuck up to being a teenager moutainous irritability laziness depression could be a product of chronic sleep deprivation around the time of puberty teenagers experience a delay in their biological clock which determines when we feel most awake and when we feel most sleepy this is driven in part by shift in the release of the Hormone Melatonin teenagers bodies wait to start releasing Melatonin until around eleven pm which is two hours later than what we see in adults or younger children. This means that waking teenager up at six A._M.. Is the biological equivalent of waking in an adult up at four A._M.. So teenagers biological clocks delayed by two hours. That's correct sort of like how you might feel if you travel west to east and your brain still is on the on the west coast time zone but local time says oh well. It's it's locally ten PM but your brain thinks it's only seven P._M.. You can't make yourself go to sleep at a time when your brain's not ready and that conflict between the internal biology of adolescence and sort of clock time that poses the real problem so this seems like all of the problems that we're talking about on the show the seems like the easiest one to solve the most doable you just you just change the start time of schools. He just go to school and you say hey schools you know. Move your start time from seven seven thirty to eight thirty and and you're done right. Yes and I really wish it could be that easy and yet if I was only asleep researcher if I hadn't been involved with boots on the ground in districts where we've actually tried to get this done. I would have the same attitude because it should be a no brainer however the truth of the matter is start times really can have ripple effects on the entire community so there are legitimate concerns when you shift the day later for any group of students you have an impact on other students and if you're dealing with tiered bus system somebody eventually has to go first and people are going to get out later so there are many implications when we shift start times there are impacts on after school sports and other extracurricular killer activities. There's issues of <hes> care for younger children both before and after school there's also issues of after school jobs and other factors such as traffic and transportation related issues so as much as it seems like a no brainer. It's not as simple as it sounds. We'll see now. I feel like you've just made a really compelling argument against your original argument like now I'm like yeah I think Wendy's wrong. I'm with the school districts here well then. Can I tell you about the consequences really starts because frankly yes you're right. It was all about <hes> what's most convenient for adults then keep the status quo right but what we know is that when school start later one school district found a twenty five percent reduction in in school absences and school attendance is critically important for big issues like reducing the achievement gap when we Delay Start Times children are actually more likely to get the bus and for many of our <hes> low income some students or racial and ethnic minority students if bussing is their only option for transportation if they miss that bus they are not likely to go to school so when we delay start times we see an increase in attendance rates. We also see an increase in graduation rates. This has a direct impact on their lifetime. Earnings teens from districts would later start times get more sleep to the naysayers who may think that a school start later teens will just stay up later the truth. Is there bedtime the time stay the same but they're wake up times get extended resulting in more sleep not surprisingly they do better academically standardized test scores in math and reading go up by two to three percentage points. Thanks that's as powerful as reducing class sizes by one third fewer students their mental and physical health improves and even their families are happier. I mean who wouldn't enjoy a little more pleasantness witness from our teens and a little less crankiness. Even their communities are safer because car crash rates go down a seventy percent reduction in one district. The findings are unequivocal and as is a free scientist. I rarely get to speak with that kind of certainty. I feel like like this. This period like the teenage period in our lives is is where our biology requires a specific schedule right it. It seems so obvious that we should figure this out you know to to change our institutions and our environment <hes> to accommodate that exactly and one of the things I often here <hes> I hear the comment. Oh let's stop coddling are teenagers. They need to toughen up. We need to get them ready for the real world but that's missing the point that this is a developmentally specific issue. They don't have these shifted sleep wake schedules for the rest of their lives. It is only during adolescence similarly like if you look at how you treat sleep in your younger child we recognize that younger children have specific sleep needs and we honor that for for instance by allowing them to nap. We don't say though well you know this two year old will we shouldn't let them nap because eventually it's going to be going to kindergarten and he won't be able to nap in kindergarten. We know it's development with specific. A two year old needs a nap sleep. Science has clearly shown that there is this change in sleep wake cycles such that adolescence naturally go to bed later and sleep in later so by depriving them of sleep in adolescence. We are not doing anything to toughen them up. We're just hurting them. In this critically important developmental phase and the truth of the matter is by trying to overcome this biology and and putting a start time this in direct conflict with their biology really hurting their chances for success in their health. She's a clinical psychologist to study sleep. You can see her entire. Talk at Ted Dot Com on the show today ideas about how simple solutions can be the answer to some of our most complex problems. I'm garage and you're listening to the Ted Radio Hour from N._p._R.. Hey everyone just a quick thanks to two of our sponsors who help make this podcast possible. I two Lincoln jobs. 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A whole bunch of news is happening around the world up. I is the N._p._R.. News podcast that get you caught up on the big news in a small amount of time spent about ten minutes with first on Weekday Mornings from N._p._R.. News it's the Ted Radio Hour from N._p._R.. Gyros and on the show today ideas about how we can solve some of our our most complex problems in simple ways so one huge problem that you probably hear a lot about is that every single year millions of children all around the world dive from. In common diseases I think some of the top main kit is diarrhea pneumonia so they're real disease kills more than half a million children globally every year more than -ived malaria measles combined. This is public health advocate Miriam MM SEDIBA the maximum number of these children are dying because of preventable disease that we can do something about and for the last Twenty Years Mariam's been working to fix this problem and her solution it doesn't require a new vaccine or a massive health initiative or huge grant from the Gates Foundation. Maryam described her simple solution from the Ted Stage what we can do to prevent disease is one of the world's Dell's oldest invention bar soap washing hands with soap a habit we all take for granted can reduce diarrhea by half can reduce respiratory infections by one third hen washing soup can have an impact on reducing flu tacoma SARS and most recently in the case of cholera and Ebola outbreak handwashing with soap keeps kids in school. It stops babies from dying handwashing with soap. He's one of the most cost effective way of saving children's life. He can save over six hundred thousand children every year. I think you'll agree with me that that's a pretty useful public. Health intervention statistics actually showing that four people are five. Don't wash their hands when they come out of the toilets and the same way. We don't do it when we've got fancy toilets. We let's running water and soap available. It's the same thing in the countries where child mortality is really high. I mean that's pretty surprising to me that so few people wash their hands after using the bathroom because it it seems I like that idea is programmed into our brains from a very young age. I think there's a a couple of reason I would say one. The environment is not always adequate so when you take a lot of the rural areas or areas where so you know what a supply is not always flowing out of your tap. It might be very difficult for you to make it a habit so routinely because having water and soap at the same place is not often there. Why is it that my young this? This young boy that I met in India isn't washing his hands. Well in my family. Soap is used for bathing soap is used for laundry. Soap is used for washing dishes. His parents think sometimes it's a precious commodity so they'll keep it in a cupboard. They'll keep it away from him so he doesn't waste it on average in my family they will use soap for washing hands once a day at the very best and sometimes even once once a week for washing hands with so what's the result of that children pick up disease in the places that supposed to love them and protect them the most in their homes so that's one reality to even so people have access to soap and even when they have access to water transforming it into a habit regularly is usually not found okay. So how do we get people to wash your hands more often. It needs to be transformed into social norms so that everybody everybody is basically monitoring everybody else and checking that everybody's washing their hands so it's about washing your hands before you eat washing your hands after the toilets are making sure that those are embedded into routines in the household nine years ago. Oh I decided with a successful public health career in the making that I could make the biggest impact coming selling and promoting the world's best invention in public health so we run today. The world's is largest handwashing programme by any public health standards over the last four years. Child mortality has reduced in all the places where soap uses increased last week my team and I spend time visiting mothers that have all experienced the same thing the death of a newborn. I'm a mom I can't imagine anything more powerful and more painful and we know that the majorities of children that <unk> actually die die in the first month of their life and we know that if we give Baracoa to every skill birth attendance and that soap is used before touching the babies we can reduce and make a change in terms of those numbers and that's what inspires me. He inspires me to continue in this mission and next time you think of a gift for a new mom and her family don't look for buyers soap. It's the most beautiful invention in public health <music>. I mean it's amazing because we think about complicated solutions to big health challenges right but it does make sense in a way when you say that soap is the world's best invention in public health because it's it's cheap doesn't require refrigeration. It's it doesn't require careful transport. It can be made locally. It's it's available everywhere and it's soap yes. That's that's right. I mean there's nothing fundamentally new about that. But what is absolutely needed is that to be thinking about what the simple solutions can have in terms of an impact into a big public health issues and it's not just so I mean it's similarly the same with toothpaste and and school absenteeism and what you do in terms of of that being obviously the number one reasons for children missing out on schools and I think ultimately that is you know the reasons why prevention becomes so important in some of the public health problems of today wash my hands. After this area area you should and you should make sure that all the people around you are washing their hands because otherwise you'll shake somebody else's hands was no wash their hands and his back to the same thing. I I know the whole Ted Radio Hour team is going to go wash their hands right now. Okay guys ah they should. That's Mariam St Bay. She's the social mission director for Unilever of Africa and we reached her at her home in Nairobi. You can see her full. Talk at Ted Dot Com <music> on the show today simple solutions to some pretty complex problems but the thing was simplicity is that sometimes it requires a lot of complexity to get there. I agree right yeah because to make something simple and cheap and reliable often takes very rigorous engineering. This is Amos winter. He's a mechanical engineer at M._I._T.. And his research group tries to build solutions to problems in developing countries and the common theme and all that we do is even though it may look simple in be constructive cheap simple elements the math and the physics and the engineering rear that went into it was not simple like one specific problem that was presented presented to him in Tanzania with wheelchairs. Yeah I spent that summer talking to wheelchair users <hes> wheelchair manufacturers in disability advocacy groups <hes> to get a sense of what the lay of the land was and how well current products Xr meeting people's needs and you might think what's the problem. Wheelchair is a wheelchair. It's already pretty straightforward simple solution. No a wheelchair is not a wheelchair depending on where you are much of our country. I'd say is A._D._A.. Accessible and has been designed to meet the needs of wheelchair users that is not the case in most other countries particularly if you're living in a rural area and so if you have to go a few kilometers from your house to your school or House to job just a small crack cracking the road can be a major barrier if you're using a conventional hospital style wheelchair which is what most people get typically you would be dependent on a family member to push you around your village <hes> but actually even more commonly. You're probably probably going to be stuck in your house. Most of the time in maybe even viewed as a burden on your family Amos winter spoke about the problem on the Ted Stage what stood out to me is that there wasn't a device available aw that was designed for rural areas could go fast and efficiently on many types of terrain so being a mechanical engineer being at M._I._T.. And having lots of resources available to me. I thought I'd try to do something about it now. When you're talking about trying to travel long distances on rough terrain I immediately thought of a mountain bike and a mountain bike's good at doing this because it has a gear train and you can shift to a low gear if you have to climb a hill or go through mud or sand and you get a lot of work but a low speed and if you wanna go faster CEOS pavement you can shift to a high gear you get less torque but higher speed so the logical evolution here is to just make a wheelchair with mountain bike components which many people have done but these are two products available in the U._S.? That would be difficult to transfer. For into developing countries because they're much much too expensive and the context I'm talking about is where you need to have a product that is less than two hundred dollars in this ideal product would also be able to go about five kilometers day so you could get to your job Bob get to school and do it on many many different types of terrain but when you get home or WanNa go indoors at your work it's got to be small enough and maneuverable enough to use inside and furthermore if you want it to last a long time out in rural areas it has to be repairable Arab using the local tools materials and knowledge in those contexts because he had this idea for a mountain bike kind of wheelchair and then what do you do from there so I worked with a team of students students at M._I._T.. Through many iterations trying to make this cheap simple fast and efficient off road wheelchair device <hes> to give you a low gear to climb hills in high gear to go fast and we failed a number of times we could not do that with the Conventional Conventional Mountain bike solution because you need a chain to switch from gear to gear to get those different gear issues and then about a year and a half later I was actually back in Africa at a conference now sitting there just doodling in a notebook and I realized boy you know we can get a a variable mechanical advantage. You know to get this mountain bike affect very simply by grabbing a lever at different points and that was the I'd say the real breakthrough for US realizing how we could make a cheap simple bike part based based solution that would be viable in this context of developing countries. We're talking about simple solutions to can you like simplify this and walk me through it. You like instead of levers yet. I'm imagining like like broom handles. Sir You know like sticks on a wheelchair <hes>. How does that simplify things so if you're in a wheelchair your power sources your upper body right and so you conventionally you'll grab the wheel or you could do some other motion? That's engaging the muscles in your chest and shoulders and so <hes> one reason I thought of levers is because it engages the largest muscle groups in your upper body your chest muscles and so what was nice about a lever is if you imagine a person sitting in a wheelchair L. Chair grabbing two levers in front of them that if they are pushing forward and back on those levers if they just shift their hands up or down a little bit it effectively changes the length of the lever so the distance between where their hand is is in where the pivot is of the lever so if they grab high on the lever they get along lever get a lot of leverage and get a lot of Torque if they grab low on the lever they're able to push through a bigger angle every push which makes the wheel spin faster Easter so if they're in the wheelchair on rough terrain or going uphill they can grab up the top of the lever and it's easier to get through that rocky area and if they're on a straight path on paved concrete they can just grab blower. Go Fast Yup exactly so I mean this is not new technology. I mean leverage and levers are like this is like ancient Egypt stuff. Yeah and even levers on wheelchairs is ancient technology. People have done many many different iterations rations of that idea the critical factor in the in the critical value our idea was that ability to shift your hands up and down the levers yeah and what's so cool about this is your kind of taking this this old technology to something that most people would think to innovate with like like mechanized changes like making electronic or more complex yeah and again. I have to come back to the constraints of the problem. We're trying to solve you know think about out in a village. What parts can you service this thing with? What what how would you ever recharge it if it's electric and that's what drove us to this simple cheap solution the leveraged freedom chair now also being engineering scientists? We're able to quantify the performance benefits of the Leveraged Freedom Chair so here's some shots of our trial in Guatemala where we tested the N._F._C. on village terrain and tested people's biomechanical outputs their oxygen consumption how fast they go how much power they're putting out both in their regular regular wheelchairs and using the L._l._c. and we found that the N._F._C. is about eighty percent faster going on these terrains than a normal wheelchair. It's also about forty percent more efficient than a regular wheelchair and because of the mechanical advantage you get from the levers you can produce fifty percent higher torque and really muscle your way through the really really rough terrain. I think this project worked well because we engaged all the stakeholders that that buy into this project and are important to consider in bringing the technology from inception the idea through innovation validation commercialization and dissemination and that cycle has to start and end with end users these are the people that define the requirements of the technology and these are the people that have to give the thumbs up at the end and say yeah it it actually works it meets our needs and this picture was taken in India in our last field trial where we had a ninety percent adoption rate where people switch to using our leverage freedom chair over their normal wheelchair and this picture specifically is of shock and show had a spinal injury when he fell out of a tree and had been working at a Taylor but once he was injured he wasn't able to transport himself from his house over kilometer to shop in his normal wheelchair. The road was too rough but the day after he got an l._l._c. he hopped in it rode that kilometer opened up his shop in soon after landed a contract to make school uniforms started making money started providing first family do you do you think that that most of the time the simplest solution is the the best one. I think I I think about the word simple. Maybe differently than you are. I think the best solution is the best solution and I and I I'm so sensitive about imposing unnecessary constraints on a design in problem. I try not to design in terms of simplicity. I tried to design in terms of what is the what is the solution that will give you the required performance for as little money in his little complexity as possible and so I think the idea of simplicity that you're touching on is is that that I'm thinking about that. I don't want to over complicate things. I want to make things robust. I want to have as few parts as possible but I don't want to compromise value and performance by making it cheap in simple and so I think people will sometimes confuse like developing technologies as low quality in cheap not as functional and I don't think that way at all people have a core level of functionality. They need to be met for that product to be successful and there's a price point in. There's maybe a serviceability associated with that. Those are the design requirements you have to satisfy in order to be successful in our wheelchair. pitcher absolutely does do that. That's Amos winter. Wheelchairs called the Leveraged Freedom Chair so far his team has built about two thousand of them. You can see his entire talk and the wheelchair at Ted Dot com breath to sample the sample the way hey thanks for listening to our show on simple pull solutions this week. If you WANNA find out more about who is on it go to Ted Dot N._p._r.. Dot Org and to see hundreds more ted talks checkout Ted dot com or the Ted APP. You can also listen to this show anytime by subscribing to our podcast you can do it now on apple podcasts or however you get your podcasts our production staff at N._P._R.. Includes Jeff Rodgers Santa's Michigan Poor John West Niba grant run abdel-fattah Casey Herman and Rachel Faulkner with help from Daniel Daniel Shchukin. Our intern is Benjamin clumpy our partners at Ted Chris Anderson Cullen Helms and a feeling and Janet Leigh. I'm Guy Rosny been listening to ideas worth spreading right here on the Ted Radio Hour from N._p._R.. Hi Hi it's Jamie Progressive's employee of the month two months in a row leave a message at the Hi Jamie. It's me Jamie. 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"Support for NPR and the following message come from Dell Technologies Listen to trailblazers with Walter Isaacson to hear the untold stories of major disruptions from forensics wren's Ix two professional baseball search trailblazers on your favorite podcast APP. Hey It's guy here so if you were wondering what would happen if you told your co-workers exactly what you were thinking. What about your boss I mean lots of jobs encourage feedback but what if your boss wanted you to tell him that be Kinda sucks will today's episode we explore honesty and openness in some unlikely places it's called transparency and it originally eared in December of two thousand seventeen? This is the Ted Radio hour each week around breaking. Ted Talks Technology Entertainment Design Design. Does that really ten. I've never known the delivered at Ted Conferences around the world gift of the human imagination we've had to believe an impossible thing is true nature of reality beckons from just beyond those talks those ideas adapted for radio from NPR Garros so imagine you've just gotten a new job and on your first day you head to a conference room for the new employee orientation orientational morning everyone there's bagels back table. Feel free to grab one and everything seems pretty normal except before we get you start to go around and introduce yourself your new role here and how much you get paid you hi everyone. My name is Amanda. I'll be working in accounting eighteen and my salary is fifty two thousand dollars a year. I'm Jesse Project Manager for. It and ninety plus get a bonus us. Hi Everyone I'm Anne. I'm excited to fill associate and I make fifty thousand dollars so I believe the inside of a company. Everybody should know what everybody gets paid which is crazy when you said it not me. This is David Burqas. He's a professor professor who writes about leadership and Business Management Yeah but if you ask my five year old son I write books I give talks and I take care of him in in David's known for his ideas about salary transparency in the workplace you right it sounds crazy and I thought that when I started researching coaching for my book I thought I was just going to explain why it works in some companies but it might not work in others but the truth is I think almost every company can inch closer to transparency. They probably can't go from secrecy to total transparency overnight but we all have some steps we can take on the show today transparency the ideas about how more honesty and openness could radically change our governments are businesses are institutions for the better or maybe for the worse so so I have a question for you David Yeah how much just to get paid so I have trouble with this question. I don't have a salary anymore. I can tell you the last salary I got with sixty thousand dollars a year but I kind of in this writer life. I don't know how to answer the question piece together from so many different places. Here's David Burqas take from the Ted Stage at work. How much do you think the person sitting in the cubicle desk next to you gets paid do you should you notice a little uncomfortable for me? The even ask you those questions but admitted you kind of want to know most of us are uncomfortable with the idea of broadcasting our salary. We're not supposed to our neighbors and we're definitely not supposed to tell her office neighbors. The assumed reason is that if everybody knew what everybody got paid then all hell would break loose. There'd be arguments. There'd it'd be fights. There might even be a few people who quit but what if secrecy is actually the reason for all that strife and what would happen if we removed that secrecy what if openness actually increased sense of fairness and collaboration inside a company what would happen if we had total pay transparency for the past several years I've been studying the corporate and entrepreneurial leaders who questioned the conventional wisdom about how to run a company and the question of pay keeps coming up and the answers keep surprising it turns out that pay transparency sharing salaries openly across a company makes for a better workplace for both the employee end and for the organization David You've written about companies that have actually tried this in the real world for instance. You looked at This internet startup called buffer so can you tell me about them. Like how did they handle salary transparency in buffalo case. It's a formula that they use that takes into account experience the job that you're doing the city that you live in so cost of living adjustment etc there startups whether or not you chose to take equity or not all of those things get plugged plugged into a formula and then that formula spits out with the salary is going to be and so you know okay. I need to do these things. If I want to make that number higher that's what are they do. They have like a white board in their in their like. I duNno their water. Cooling lunchroom is like here's what everybody gets paid and you can just see that it's it's not a whiteboard. I think it's an internet right and everybody can look up the formula they actually went what I would call sort of super transparent and posted it on a blog on their website. I one point so you can literally see. Here's what every single person the company gets paid. They have a commitment to transparency in that regard that they share it openly which I also don't advocate every company does well have had have had benefited buffer like head of that make make it make life be easier better for the employees or for the company so when I think transparency does is it says here's what we value. Here's the formula that we're using to calculate that so so you can see why here's how to make more money in the company we're going to be open and honest about the differences between people in the differences between salaries and so when when word of buffers commitment transparency started spreading around they got inundated with resumes and applications because I think in the back of a lot of people's minds they don't actually trust that their employer is looking out for them mm-hmm and they often can sort of think. Maybe they're trying to screw me out of some money and buffer can't do that. They've handcuffed themselves to doing what's right by their employees because they're transparent about keeping salaries secret leads to what economists call information asymmetries. This is a situation where he meant negotiation. One Party has loads more information than the other and in hiring promotion or annual raise discussions. I'm employer can use that secrecy to save a lot of money imagine how much better you could negotiate safer as if you knew everybody's salary economists warned that information asymmetries can cause markets to go awry in fact they even warn that information asymmetry a tree can lead to a total market failure and I think we're almost there and here's why I most employees have no idea how other pay compared to their peers in two thousand fifteen survey of seventy thousand employees two thirds of everyone who's paid at the market rate said that they felt felt they were underpaid and if everybody who felt that they were underpaid sixty percent said they intended to quit regardless of where they were underpaid overpaid overpaid or right at the market rate next information asymmetries pay secrecy makes it easier to ignore the discrimination. That's already president the market today in two thousand eleven report from the Institute for Women's Policy Research the gender wage gap between men and women was twenty three percent. This is where that seventy seven cents on the dollar comes from but in the federal government where salaries are pinned to certain levels and everybody knows what those levels are the gender wage gap shrinks to eleven percent and this is before controlling for any of the factors that economists argue over whether or not to control for if we really want to close the gender wage gap. Maybe we should should start by opening up the payroll. I WANNA I WANNA ask you first about this idea of information asymmetry because basically your argument is that without pay transparency the power dynamic is heavily weighted in favor of the employer right because they've got more information yeah exactly and they have it made it sort of like it used to be this way in buying cars and that's what we're all sort of so worried but now in an age of transparency of information you can know everything about whether it's it's a new or used car and know what price in that little back and forth negotiation you should offer that wasn't happening in job interviews and in fact what I think is interesting is in the past eighteen eighteen months or so several states have actually passed state laws that forbid companies from asking prospective hires what your salary in your previous job. was there trying to actually reduce the information asymmetry here because if they ask you that you tell them the truth in their minds they might be thinking oh that's awesome. It's like twenty percent less than we pay yet. When when I was teaching full time I used to tell my students? There's there's only three possible answers to that question. In two of them are bad news. You either made more and so they discount you because they don't. We'll have the money to afford you. You made the same that's good because there's a match or you made under what they were expecting and that's bad because now you're not going to get paid the full potential of what you should have so. I guess if you're asked the question by perspective employer like what do you make. It's probably in your interest to Kinda lie. I'm not sure that lying solves it because then the information asymmetry goes the other way right you you know that you're lying but in most of the HR chief HR officers and people that I talk to they want a system that's fair and they also want people to believe that it's fair so do you think like do you think that there was pay transparency. It would lead to a more just and equitable no country society community environment. I think inside of organizations it would lead to a more just organization and truthfully. I think most most research for motivation science and the experiments of companies are showing that employees tend to be happier and more motivated when they know that the system is fair because they can see it like I said earlier it's sort of a handcuff to the idea of fairness and transparency 'cause you're saying here's what it is and if you find a problem with it now we have to change it 'cause it's public but then the other thing is it's a very public signal that we care about this and actually buffers a really good example of this when they first went live with the formula in talking about what everybody's salary was they found out that they had a gender wage gap but they could take steps to fix the formula to fix that and it turned out to be really simple reason basically men were lying about how much experience they had in women were telling the truth but they could vix that in the way that they calculated the formula reduces now. I realized that letting people know what you make might feel uncomfortable but isn't it less uncomfortable than always. He's wondering if you're being discriminated against openness remains the best way to ensure fairness and pay transparency does that and in study after study when people know how they're being paid and how that compares with their peers they're more likely to work hard to improve their performance more likely to be engaged and they're less likely to quit patriots parents. He takes a lot of forms. It's not one size fits all some post their salaries for all to see some only keep it inside the company some post the formula for calculating pay and others host the pay levels and affects everybody to that level but we can all take greater steps towards pay transparency for those of you that have the authority already to move forward towards transparency. It's time to move forward and for those of you that don't have that authority. It's time to stand up for your right to our culture would have to radically change for for this to be possible right and don't you think that secrecy around pay is ingrained in our culture. I think it is I mean the thing that I find fascinating is that in twenty seventeen two thousand eighteen people are more comfortable talking about their sex lives which used to be even more taboo than salaries salaries right. They're happy to talk about everything until it comes time to. Here's what what I get paid and I think that's for two reasons one. We're an individualistic society so we tend to think that's my my private arrangement with the employer. the other thing is I think we have this huge problem where we think what our salary is is what we're worth to the world which is super wrong on on so many levels so it clearly. There's a cultural element to what is private etc the the other thing is that this is relatively new to US history too so when the I income taxes were levelled for example one of the ways that they enforce that is they kept a roster at the county courthouse of here's what people claimed and what they said they earned and then what they owed owed income taxes and you could go look that up if your neighbor with a different farm look like they were doing really well you could go home. I wonder you could go look it. Up and society wise is a whole well if everybody could look up everybody's salary on the IRS website. I don't think I advocate for that but beyond that inside of organizations more more transparency appears to be a better thing David Burqas he's a writer speaker and associate professor at the business school at Oral Roberts University in Oklahoma you can see his entire talk Ted Dot Com on the show today ideas about transparency and in a moment an even more radical idea about transparency at work with this Guy Roz and you're listening to the Ted radio hour from NPR. Hey everyone just a quick. Thanks to two of our sponsors. Help make this podcast possible. I two rocket mortgage by quicken loans. Imagine how it feels to have an award winning team of mortgage experts make the home buying process smoother for you with a history of industry leading online lending technology rocket mortgage is changing the game visit rocketmortgage dot com slash ideas Jessica equal housing lender licensed in in all fifty states in mls consumer access dot Org number thirty thirty rocket mortgage by quicken loans push-button get mortgage this next message which comes from NPR sponsor Tiaa committed to the idea that most things in life run out from clean shirts in the morning to a favorite dessert at night lifetime the income in retirement shouldn't learn more at Tiaa dot org slash never run out you know Jonathan Vanegas as a fabulous cast member of Netflix is queer but as a kid I was basically just like a geodesic confessed stamp collecting rock collecting obsessive gymnastics Jonathan Venice on his transformation and his new book next time on it's been a minute from from NPR it's the Ted Radio hour from NPR garage and on the show today today ideas about transparency such things about your bosses for a second. I need you to go ahead and come in tomorrow. Have you ever wanted to tell l. them exactly what you think. I'm also going to need you to go ahead and come in Sunday to let them know all the ways. They're doing it wrong. Yeah they're being jerks. Yes or just not very good at their jobs. It's great this is radio. I'm Reid Allio on the founder of bridgewater associates. now currently chairman and chief investment officer so raise company is the largest hedge fund in the world it manages is more than a hundred billion dollars in assets and rate credits a big part of that financial success with creating a certain kind of culture at work a culture he believes could help other companies succeed to and it's something recalls radical transparency that we want an idea America Chrissy in other words the place where the best ideas went out the ability to see things for oneself the ability of people to see that thing happening so that they can form their own opinions about it so abe believes that even the most junior level employees like people straight out of college can tell him to his face ace but basically he sucks and not only is that encouraged. It's kind of mandatory. I WanNa make the best decisions possible uh-huh and I know that I don't have all the answers in my you know my head and I also know that the relationships with the people I'm dealing with her are really important important. I think one of the greatest tragedies of man is that people have opinions in their heads that they act on that are wrong How do you know that wrong person isn't you and so if we put it out there and then we have thoughtful disagreement process? Aren't we going to be better off case rate Allio on the Ted Stage just to give you an example. This is an email from Jim Moscow who somebody who works for me and this was available to everybody in the company Ray. You deserve a D. minus S. for your performance today in the meeting. You did not prepare it all well because there is no way you could have been that disorganized. Isn't that great. Take that's great. It's great because first of all I needed feedback like that. I need feedback like that and it's great because if I don't let jam I and people like Jim to express their points of our relationship wouldn't be the same and if I didn't make that public for everybody to see we wouldn't have an idea meritocracy you okay so let's let's just go over a couple of things that happen. Bridgewater all meetings are videotaped right some case video video some case audio and it's virtually all nothing's one hundred percent but propriety but most things are recorded so that people could see things for themselves themselves okay so most things are recorded basically every employee subject to a three hundred sixty degree review like every day right yeah. Everybody is getting the way it works is in order to have an idea meritocracy. You're also trying to understand the merit of each person's thinking and different people have different strengths and weaknesses and you also want to collect. Everybody's thinking so if you imagine you're going into a meeting what it is is what people people are thinking about. How people are doing different things and what's going on is downloaded on an almost continuous fashion through meetings and interaction into an APP people are concentrated it constantly inputting data points into an APP about ideas that other people raise? That's right in order to give you a glimmer into what this looks like. I'd like to take you into a meeting and introduce you to a tool of ours called the dot collector actor that helps us do this a week after the US election our research team held a meeting to discuss what trump presidency would mean for the US economy. Naturally people have different opinions on the matter and how we were approaching the discussion. The DOT collector collects these views it has a list of a few dozen attributes so whenever somebody thinks something about another person's thinking it's easy for them to convey their assessment they simply note the attribute and provide a rating from one to ten for example as the meeting began. A researcher named Jen rated me three in other words badly for not showing a good balance of open-mindedness assertiveness others in the room have different for an opinions. That's normal this tool helps people both express their opinions and then separate themselves from their opinions to see things from a higher level when Gen and others shift their attentions from inputting their own opinions to looking down on the whole screen their their perspective changes they see their own opinions is just one of many and naturally start asking themselves. How do I know my opinion is right so okay so this is very complicated for as you know for ninety nine percent of people to understand because it is a radical idea yeah so so I want to just break it down a little bit essentially all fifteen hundred employees at bridgewater have access to see how any other employee has been evaluated at any given time by other employees Yup and why wouldn't you do that? It sounds horrible right. You know when we when we examined when we examined the difficulties people have they break into two groups somewhere between I would say say probably a third in the first eighteen months they say it's not for and they leave okay and we agree that it's not for we find it takes about eighteen months to get used stew and when people are doing it. They can't work anywhere else okay. I'm going to be radically transparent with you because I love that you have this big idea and you put out there. I'm not sold on it at all like I am seeking to be convinced and this interview is one of those seeking moments but I am still not convinced I wanted more transparent view view about no. I like even the fact that you feel like you have to be compelled to say that somehow almost implies like there's some problem that we we don't we haven't disagreeing. We have worked it out. There's no problem don't apologize. You don't have to scroungy okay so all right so you have this radical transparency but it seems seems like radical transparency can only work if people are given a lot of room to fail that that they work in an environment where they're not afraid of being fired because of the way they're having evaluated all the time well I believe failures and important step in the learning process. How much look you know I guess eighty percent of it? If you're asking county jail right well what you can do is you can scratch the car but you can't total the car in other words that experimentation of being able to do things and fail failing produces most of the learning cause lung if you're not failing than you're successful already learnings gotta come come from failing to do something wrong and then analyzing how you failed. I think it's to know how to struggle and fail well is important thing and to do that openly rather than to be stuck within your head and you're saying that these mistakes so I'm asking you so. Let's go back to the problem show. What is the problem with this way of operating intellectually? Tell me the intellectual problem. I hear that emotionally. It's challenging but tell me what the intellectual problem. I don't think they're mutually exclusive right. I think they're connected. Humans aren't these bodies of meat. I mean we we intertwined the intellectual emotional all the time. I'm asking you give me an example of what is wrong wrong with that problem. We all as human beings have to reconcile the emotional and the intellectual in order to make the decision and how we make that that decision is important so I think emotions of very important inspiration larval those things and they're together but the reconciliation so they line up so that we do the things in our interest is important and I'm saying we have better relationships as well as better outcomes by operating do you acknowledge is that your idea is pretty radical. The I acknowledged that I what's differentiated us. It's not for everybody. It's like if you want to be a navy seals. okay the navy seals it's tough and so the first thing you have to do is it's kind of an like an intellectual navy seals. There's they produce excellent results in in an excellent community right so I got it. Not Everybody wants to be this way but other people would say wow. It's invaluable so I'm saying everybody should consider it to side in what degree you want it. Don't make it a black and white thing I'm not saying everybody should do everything that we're doing just fine. The degreef yourself and ask yourself conceptually is going to be better off or not radio. He's the founder Hedge Fund Bridgewater Associates and author of the Book Principles Life and work. You can see his full talk at Ted Dot Com so if you were given a choice a binary choice between too much transparency or secrecy. Would you pick if we're talking about the government that is supposed to work by and for the people I would absolutely take too much transparency earns ing always in almost all cases this is Trevor Tim. I'm the executive director of freedom of the press foundation which advocates for openness and transparency in government you know when we're talking about government transparency what that means that the people should know what the government is doing whether that is the policies they're carrying out in the executive branch the laws that are being debated and discussed in Congress or the court the system but trevor says and probably won't come as a shock that the government often falls way too short what we have seen over over the past six or seven decades way too much secrecy where everything is considered classified by the government that pertains to foreign policy or national security security and allows the government to break laws waste billions of dollars abuse the system and facilitates corruption and transparency is a very important tool to prevent those types of things. The problem of course is that sometimes when people like whistle blowers or journalists. I tried to hold the government accountable. They're met with intense. Resistance Trevor gave one of those examples on the Ted Stage. This is James Reisen. You may know him as the Pulitzer Prize winning reporter for the New York Times long before anybody knew Edward Snowden name Reisen wrote a book in which famously exposed that the NSA was illegally wire tapping the phone calls of Americans but it's another chapter in that book that may have even more lasting impact in it. He describes a catastrophic. US intelligence operation in which the CIA quite literally handed over blueprints of a nuclear bomb to Iran if that sounds crazy go read it. It's an incredible story so this James Rise in story story so he has book and it comes out and it reveals that that the CIA basically handed over blueprints to build a a bomb the bomb to Iran. Is that what happened basically yeah it's basically he was writing about a spectacularly botched. CIA A operation this is in the early two thousands where the CIA was trying to trick Iran into building a fake nuclear weapon and so they God blueprints for a nuclear bomb made some small alterations to them that would essentially make it inoperable and attempted to hand hand them over to the Iranian government. Now the Iranian government allegedly immediately realized the fake parts of the diagram but also understood that they handed over a largely accurate blueprint of a nuclear bomb as well and so it was really a story about the essentially handing ending you know incredibly sensitive material the most sensitive you could possibly imagine to a country which they were trying to prevent from getting a bomb and they were actually helping having them along. This is classified information that he he he gets yep absolutely the information that Reisen publishes in the story. I think anybody in the government would agree. He was highly classified. You know this was a covert operation by the CIA it's also important to realize that there is a huge public interest to the story to to there's no way the government is happy. He published this classified information. No Fair not for nearly a a decade afterwards Reisen was the subject of the US government investigation in which prosecutors demanded that he testify against one of his alleged sources and along along the way he became the face for the US government's recent pattern of prosecuting whistleblowers spying on journalists you see under the first amendment the press has the right to publish secret information in the public interest but it's impossible to exercise that right if the media can also gather that news and protect the identities of the brave men and women who get it to them so when the government came knocking rising did what many were brave reporters have done before him you refused and said he'd rather go to jail jail so from two thousand seven to two thousand fifteen rising lived under the specter of going to federal prison and so what ended up happening to him they after the seven year legal battle they just dropped the subpoena entirely why well over the last decade while this subpoena and legal battle was going on the US government realized that to you find reporters sources they actually didn't need the reporters to testify against them anymore. you know with the explosion of cell phones an an email and the Internet the government realized that it had increased surveillance capabilities and it could go to a company like Google or verizon or at and T. or facebook and gather all sorts of data on who sources are talking to who reporters are talking talking to and they can take this information to court and get a conviction against the source without having the reporter testify at all and this is exactly what happened in James Rise in case they were able to get rises phone records his e mail records his travel level records and Reisen did not know this until many years later and they were able to use this information to build a circumstantial showcase against James raisins alleged source who is a former. CIA officer named Jeffrey Sterling and once the trial began Gan after this opinion was dropped. Mister Sterling was quickly convicted so so let's say we personally like James Reisen exposes information and I think it's important right. How do we know what should be secret and what shouldn't be secret and who decides that why well I think is a great question because I think that people have a misconception of about what happens when journalists are reporters quarters or newspapers publish newsworthy stories that the government thinks is classified number one it is not just one single google source who is deciding what should go in the New York Times and what shouldn't reporters are are when they publish these type type two stories often a half to have multiple sources to make sure that things are accurate they have experienced national security teams inside had these newspapers made up of editors reporters and lawyers who look at this information from the perspective of okay what is the public interest of of the story and what is the potential damage to national security and can we weigh those two ideas against each other and see if this information nation is is far more in the public interest then could potentially damage national security but when the government says to a newspaper virtually every time time you shouldn't publish this story because you're going to have blood on your hands it becomes a boy who cries wolf where the government is saying that everything they say is classified is is definitely a danger to society and they can never know it and then when a newspaper publishes it it becomes clear that there was no damage and that this was in the public look interest this happens over and over again and you quickly start to realize the classification system is broken and just just a moment more from Trevor Tim on whether there should be a limit to government transparency on garage and you're listening to the TED radio hour from NPR Hey everyone just just a quick thanks to our sponsor the Financial Times in a world of innovation and fragmentation the F. T. not only helps you to thrive in business. It looks at topics big such as whether Silicon Valley is falling short on climate change and whether the US you or China will be writing the new rules of tech the world is changing fast the Financial Times once you to keep up with the new agenda visit F. T. DOT COM to learn more support also comes from the Financial Times Times in a world of innovation and fragmentation the F. T. not only helps you to thrive in business it looks at topics such as whether Silicon Valley is falling short short on climate change and whether the US EU or China will be writing the new rules of tech the world is changing fast. The Financial Times wants you you to keep up with the new agenda Visit F. T. DOT COM to learn more all movies are about to heat up and pop culture happy hour from NPR. has you covered. We'll tell you whether some of the big domes on the way are is good as you're hoping they are and will help build a list of gems you can uncover for yourself start your Oscars prep early with pop culture happier from NPR listen and subscribe now. It's the Ted Radio hour from NPR. I'm Skyros and on the show today ideas about transparency and we're just hearing from free speech advocate Trevor Tim who told the story of New York Times reporter James James Reisen who exposed a botched operation now for nearly a decade reisen faced the threat of prison until the government dropped its legal battle against him but since then much bigger secrets have been exposed most famously by Edward Snowden you know many people assume that I think who didn't follow the story closely that Edward Snowden took a lot of documents from the NSA just posted them on the Internet right self but that's actually actually not what happened. You know he actually purposely went to experience national security reporters at the Washington Post and the Guardian so that it wasn't just him deciding and these newspapers comb through these documents and published many important stories in the public interest that actually won both newspapers the Pulitzer a prize yet there was also a lot of material that got held back and I think that you know the snowden disclosures were an important example all about how the First Amendment can act as the safety valve for democracy when our other institutions fail to uphold their duties trevor. You've just made a very compelling case in defending James Rise in Edward Snowden but but what about something like wikileaks you know publicizing the personal emails of Hillary Clinton's campaign manager John Podesta and because so many those emails had nothing to do with national security security. They weren't in the public interest I mean do you think that kind of transparency is okay or or is that an abuse of this idea well. I certainly think that we have seen a lot of cases over the past three or four years where people are having their emails hacked left and right right they're showing up on the Internet and certainly not all of those are in the public interest but I do think it is a more complicated question than just should should we have seen John Podesta's emails or should we not you know first of all the person or group that hacked John Podesta certainly committed a crime and and certainly you can make the argument that a lot of those emails shouldn't have been published because they they didn't contain newsworthy information but it is a tenant of journalism that you know when you have some of the most powerful people in the world where you have information that pertains the public interest I often the right answer is to publish that information but so much of what they published about John Podesta was was basically irrelevant personal stuff like I had nothing to do with with the campaigner with national security so why release it well you know I think there for it there is a difference between government transparency transparency of elected officials and the privacy of private citizens who our the number one not public figures and number two should have robust privacy rights. you know I just WanNa make clear. I'm not arguing that everybody's everybody's emails should be published on the Internet in fact the opposite. I'm a I'm a privacy activist but it is a tough decision that journalists have to make when they are presented with compelling information that would be considered newsworthy by millions and millions of people in the middle of an election campaign and for for them to decide not to publish could have ramifications as well and I think all in all while there certainly are trade offs that is a good good thing that they are now much more aggressive about reporting on public figures and I'm certainly not arguing that you know it's one hundred percent good to be transparent one hundred percent bad to have total secrecy what we're arguing for more transparency than there is now and often these trade offs in my mind can be worth it trevor Tim. He's the executive director of the Freedom Adam the press foundation you can see full talk at Dot Com. Have you ever been in a situation where you who are your apologizing on behalf of your hospital. Yes that's a that's a core part of my job. Wow now I told somebody the other day that I met professional apologize her kind of what I do. This is Lonnie Schweitzer and her job is is all about transparency. I'm the assistant vice president for communication and Resolution at Stanford Hospital and what does that what does that. I mean so that means that if you or your family member have something unexpected happened in the hospital chances are I'm. I'm going to be talking to you so explain our process of what we want to figure out how we WANNA come to understand what happened what we want to learn and if we determine it could have been prevented. We're going to apologize and we are going to do our best to make amends for what happened in having a job like that having a hospital even create a position like the one Leila has is actually pretty rare because hospitals are exactly the most transparent places. I think that's a fair statement. Yes because my role is unique. people we'll hear about it and I've had people from hospitals around the country who will call me and they'll say things like I don't know what happened to my husband during operation and no one will talk to me and it really speaks to the voice of people who are looking to find answers you may need that to heal they really do whenever something unexpected happens to any of us we we want we want to understand and what it was and they Lonnie started doing this kind of work at Stanford Hospital after something tragic happened to her there Lonnie Lonnie Schweitzer tells her story from the Ted Stage. The nurse grabbed the recliner and jerked me awake. I heard code blue. Oh and the room filled with people in that instant. I knew he was gone. The doctor's words attempted optimism but their faces betrayed them. My twenty month old son had just died in one of the country's leading hospitals that night when he had been admitted added to the hospital white circles with wires were stuck under Gabriel's bear little chest to monitor his breathing and heartbeat every time he made the slightest little wiggle the alarms would go off and they're loud every time we would almost be asleep the racket in worry would start all over again. We'd already spent sleepless days and nights in my local hospital where he had been misdiagnosed again and again but now we were in a university hospital for children finally here I felt safe and very tired and I'm sure the nurse could see how tired I was and she wanted to take care of me too so she did the logical thing she turned off the alarms on the machine next to his bed and I thanked her when she did it. I was so grateful for the prospect of silence and sleep later doctors and administrators from the hospital would explain that actually unknowingly. She had done a lot more. She hadn't just turned the racket off in the room. She turned off all of the alarms everywhere in his room at the nurses station and and on her pager later the manufacturers of the monitors would explain they didn't think anyone would go through the trouble of seven screens to turn off all of the alarms so they didn't include a fail safe to stop her. They were wrong so when Gabriel's heart stopped beating there was no sound just quiet nothing woke me until several minutes had passed and I was being jerked awake and the room filled with people and panic did you in in those moments and then the hours the days that passed was there. was there anyone who was answering your questions. who was you know explaining what was going on to you? Yes so now now I recognize is that the way Stanford treated me was really exceptional but in that time I just had no awareness of that amine after after Gabriel died my my sphere of what I could grasp was really quite small. When I made a call someone always is answered and told me what was happening the chief nursing officer and then also Gabriel's neurosurgeon Dr Edwards he you answered my calls? I never waited for more than a couple hours to have an email response. I didn't realize that I was something in most hospitals would be afraid of. I thought that they were taking care of me so so I know you said your experience with Stanford Hanford was was an exception but how do how do hospitals normally respond to these kinds of situation. Oh they circle the wagons they put their heads down and now I know will that many parents if they lost a child the way that I did they most likely would not get that dignity and respect of being told what happened to them and and it's it's profoundly damaging and that is something that I don't want people to have to go through. It's it's a difficult experience for patients and families to go through and it also really makes it more difficult to to make people safer to learn from what happened and to make sure that it doesn't happen happen again. Transparency in medicine can help heal our medical system by being open and honest honest when the unexpected happens we can learn from our mistakes. Unfortunately hospital administrators don't tend to respond to medical errors I with openness and transparency they react with illegal version a fight or flight deny and defend keep your head down shut it up and let the lawyers handle everything it would have been easy for the university hospital administrators to blame the nurse fire her and assume from the problem had been solved because the bad apple wiscon- it would have been typical deny and defend behavior for them to ignore my questions to go silent and hope couldn't gather my thoughts enough to file a lawsuit. It would have been a safe bet but they didn't do that. They didn't prey on on my vulnerability. Instead they investigated they explained took responsibility and apologized. It made all of the difference after the University Hospital investigated Gabriel's death and the weakness in the Monitor's was discovered all other their hospitals using the same equipment where alerted to the vulnerability. Maybe that helps someone else. I will never know but it's still comforts me now. Gabriel was treated at two different hospitals. He died because of mistakes made at both of event accidents that no one wanted to have happened but how they responded to those mistakes was very deliberate. Both have the the opportunity to learn from my son's death and be transparent but only one did the university hospital didn't hide hide behind legal maneuvers and dismiss me but the local hospital ignored me by going silent. They didn't just humiliate me They deny Gabriel his dignity and after more than eight years that wound is very far from hearing. Why do you think the local hospital active active that way? I mean why do hospitals to shutdown Alan. Go into this like denying defend mode you know instead of just talking to people like human beings. I think there's a few reasons I don't think any any of us like to admit when we've done something wrong. It can be far more difficult to admit that you've heard somebody on that. That's a really difficult component. There's there's shame there's guilt that's involved their sphere and maybe they have a culture sure that discourages people from speaking up. I think most hospitals probably do so. There's there's many layers to overcome to be more transparent. It's far easier to stay in that Rut of denying defend than it is to get out and pull back the curtains and let the sunshine in This is why people go to lawyers is because they feel that they don't have any other option. People don't hire lawyers because it's an easy or fun thing to do. They do it out of out of desperation. At a certain point I mean some of these hospitals you know they have to realize that being more transparent cannot only save them from lawsuits but like you said it can it can help heal people who were revolved right. Oh I think it does so I've been in many meetings where we explain to patients and families what has happened and those are difficult things to be part of but it's a front row seat to the human condition and I've seen an explanation move the guilt off of a mother's face. I mean that is the power I have seen parents walk into a meeting with a physician where no one can lift their heads to look at each other and by the end of that meeting they are embracing and it is remarkable. What understanding can do for people in and you you work at Stanford and you work at the hospital where Gabriel died? I do well. I don't work physically in the building though I am in there frequently but in this is the place where I do my work that I've been given the opportunities to do this work. It's Gabriel's legacy. It really is and so I I think about that a lot. I mean to consider that I work with the legal team. Who are my dear? Friends is and my close colleagues at the hospital where my son died because of a series of errors. You can't really make that stuff up. It's pretty the profound and you know frankly. I think every hospital could have a role like mine. Every hospital has a a patient or a family member WHO's experienced something really tragic and who who can help other patients Louis Schweitzer is the assistant vice president of communication and Resolution at Stanford Hospital. You can see her entire. Talk at Ted Dot. NPR ARE DOT Org uh-huh it thinks listening to our show on transparency this tweet give one to find out more about who was on it go to ted DOT NPR dot org and to see hundreds more ted talks checkout Ted dot com or the tap production staff at NPR and Jeff Rodgers son is Michigan Poor Jay West Niba grant runs Adele Fata Casey Herman and Rachel Faulkner with help
To save the climate, we have to reimagine capitalism | Rebecca Henderson
"Hi it's frida pinto guest hosting today. And here's you talk to you about countdown. There has never been a time more important for a topic. Like this. i'll wolves future and our future depends on it. I am personally and deeply invested in this issue as my hometown my home country mumbai india as well as my adopted home my second home los angeles california have suffered and continue to suffer the ill effects of climate change now huge talk from the countdown global launch event given by economists rebecca henderson. I loved the clarity. And i particularly loved her take on the nfl markets and all of genius ideas. She had for the big businesses to invest in. Learn more at countdown. Dot ted dot com and subscribe to the countdown podcast. Wherever you're listening to this. I am a tree hugger. I spent much of my childhood on the great lower limb of a massive copper beech alternately reading and looking up at the sky through its branches. I felt safe and cared for and connected to something infinitely larger than myself. I thought the trees were immortal that they would always be here. But i was wrong. The theresa dying climate change is killing the cedars of lebanon and the forests of the american west at. It's not just the trees since nine. Hundred and ninety. Eight extreme heat has killed more than one hundred. Sixty thousand people and unchecked. Climate change could kill millions more. How did we get here. There are many reasons of course but one of the most important is that we let capitalism morph into something monstrous. I'm a huge fan of capitalism at its best after all i'm an economist and a business school professor i think genuinely free and fair. Markets are one of the great inventions of the human race. But here's the catch markets. Only work their magic when prices reflect real costs and right now prices are badly out of whack. We're letting the firms who sell fossil fuels and indeed anyone who admits greenhouse gases cause enormous damage for which they do not have to pay and that is hardly fair. Imagine for a moment but my hands of filled with a cloud of electrons ten dollars worth of coal fired electricity. But caputo your cell phone for more than ten years. That probably sounds like a pretty good deal. But it's only so cheap because you're not paying for the harm that it causes burning coals sense poisons like mercury and lead into the air increasing healthcare costs by billions of dollars and causing the death of hundreds of thousands of people every year it also emits huge quantities of carbon dioxide. So another part of the real cost of coal is the climate damage it will cause and is already causing more than a million acres burned in california this summer. A massive floods put a third of bangladesh underwater. Hundreds of studies have tried to put a number on. These costs. my sense of this work and here. I'm relying on my colleagues in the school of public health and my friends and economics is generating ten dollars worth of coal fired. Electricity causes at least eight dollars worth of harm to human health and at least another eight dollars worth of climate damage and probably much more so the true cost of this handful of electrons. It's not ten dollars. It's something more like twenty six. The hidden costs of doing things like burning oil and gas and eating beef a similarly enormous and justice. unfair everyone. Who's trying to build a clean economy has to compete with firms that are heavily subsidized by the destruction of our health. And the degradation of our climate. This is not the capitalism. I signed up for. This is not a market. That is either free or fair. So what do we do. The easy on is that governments should insist that anyone who admits greenhouse gases pay for the damage that they cause however the moment. There's not much sign that governments up for this partly because the fossil fuel companies have spent the last twenty years using their heavily subsidized prophets to deny the reality of climate change and to show the politicians who should be regulating them with money. So here's my crazy idea. I think business should step up. I think business should fix capitalism. I know some of you are probably thinking fat chance. Did i just say that. Companies are the ones denying the silence distorting the market and lobbying. the politicians. I did but fixing. This is squarely. In the private sector's interest. The truth is business is screwed if we don't fix climate change it's going to be hard to make money when the great coastal cities are underwater and millions of angry people are migrating north as the harvest fail. It's going to be tough to keep free enterprise alive if most people believe the rich and the are using it to trash the planet for their own benefit. So let me tell you what this looks like on the ground. My friend eric. Asmundsson left a cushy job in private equity to become the ceo of a garbage company. That sounds like a slightly off idea. But eric wanted to make a difference and changing the way that trashes handled could reduce emissions by billions of tons right away. He ran into a massive problem. The industry was thoroughly corrupt firms. Were cutting costs by dumping waste illegally. The regulations were poorly enforced and the fines for violation. Were tiny eric announced. He was going to run clean and to raise prices to cover the cost of doing so. Many of his senior team forty was crazy. Half of them quit so to many of his customers. His competitors denounced him for bringing the industry into disrepute and he started to receive personal threats but corruption works best. When it's hidden. As soon as eric went public people started to step up a few customers willing to pay more. His investors agreed that taking the high road could pay off those of his employees who remained loved the idea of taking a stand and found all kinds of legal ways to cut costs. Eric persuaded several of his competitors to join him in refusing to dispose of garbage illegally. And it got much tougher for regulators to stay on the sidelines. Today eric's company norsk gen venting his one of the largest recycling companies in scandinavia. Let me generalize. These are the four pillars of change. Build a business that can set the right price and still be profitable persuade your competitors to do the same thing. Make sure that investors understand. There's money to be made and push governments to put the right price into law. So that bottom can't survive. I'm not telling you we've got this nailed. Things are pretty desperate but there are thousands of business. People like eric and there are. Millions of people like us and we are customers employees investors and citizens instead of giving up on capitalism. Let's fix it by making sure that markets a truly fair and truly free and no one can dump garbage on us and walk away without paying for it. We have the resources and the technology to solve climate change together. We can save the trees and each other thank you.
The key to a better malaria vaccine | Faith Osier
"This Ted talk features, infectious disease, doctor, faith, Ocier recorded live at Ted twenty eighteen. There are two hundred million clinical cases of falciparum malaria in Africa, every year resulting in half a million deaths. I would like to talk to you about malaria vaccines. The ones that we have made to date are simply not good enough why we've been working at it for one hundred plus years. When we started technology was limited. We could see just a tiny fraction of what the parasite really looked like. Today we are awash with technology, advanced imaging, and all mix platforms, genomics transcript to- mix proteome IX these tools have given us. A clear view of just how complex the parasite really is. However, in spite of this, our approach to vaccine design has remained pretty rudimentary to make a good vaccine. We must go back to basics to understand how our bodies handle this complexity. People who are frequently infected with malaria, learn to deal with it, they get the infection, but they don't get ill. The recipe is encoded in antibodies. My team went back to our complex parasite, probed it with samples from Africans who had overcome malaria to answer the question, what does a successful antibody response look like? We found over two hundred proteins. Many of which are not on the radar for malaria vaccines. My research community may be missing out important parts of the parasite until recently when one had identified a protein of interest, they tested whether it might be important for vaccine by conducting a cohort study. This difficulty involved about three hundred. Participants in village in Africa, who samples were analyzed to see whether antibodies to veep protein would predict who got malaria and who did not in the past thirty years. These studies have tested a small number of proteins in relatively few samples, and usually in single locations, the results have not been consistent. My team essentially collapsed thirty years of this type of research into one exciting experiment conducted over just three months in a way. Typically, we assembled ten thousand samples from fifteen locations in seven African countries spanning time age and the variable intensity of malaria experienced in Africa. We used mix intelligence to. Prioritize our parasite proteins, synthesized them in the lab, and in short recreated the malaria parasite on a chip. We did this in Africa, and we're very proud of that. But chip is a small glass slide, but it gives us incredible power. We simultaneously gathered data on over one hundred antibody responses. What are we looking for the recipe behind a successful antibody response so that we can predict what might make a good malaria vaccine. We're also trying to figure out exactly what antibodies due to the parasite, how do they kill it? Do they attack from multiple angles? Is there synergy? How much ultimately do you need us studies suggest that having a bit of one antibody won't be enough. It might take high concentrations of antibodies against multiple parasite proteins. We're also learning that antibodies kill the parasite in multiple ways and studying any one of visit isolation. May not adequately reflect reality just like we can now see the parasites in greater definition, my team and I are focused on understanding how our bodies overcome this complexity. We believe that this could provide the break theories that we need to make malaria history through vaccination. Thank you. Okay. How close are we actually to a malaria vaccine. We're just at the beginning of a process to try and understand what we need to put into Maxine before we actually start making. So we're not really close to the vaccine, but we're getting there and we're hopeful and we're very n were hoped for. Tell me about smart. Tell me what does it stand for and why is it important to you? So smart stands for south-south malaria antigen research partnership. The south south is referring to us in Africa, looking sideways to each other in collaboration in contrast to always looking to America and look into Europe when there is quite some strength within Africa. So in smart apart from the goal that we have to develop a malaria vaccine where also training African scientists, because the burden of disease in Africa is high, and you need people who will continue to push the boundaries in science in Africa. Okay, one last question. Tell me how I know you mentioned this a little bit, but how would things actually change if there were a malaria vaccine. We would save half a million lives every year. Two hundred million cases. It's estimated that malaria costs Africa, twelve billion US dollars a year. So this is a conomic Africa would simply thrive. Okay, thank you faith. Thank you so much. For more TED talks to Ted dot com. Or.
How your brain's executive function works -- and how to improve it | Sabine Doebel
"This. Ted talk features developmental psychologist Sabine doble recorded live at Ted ex mile high twenty eighteen. There's another podcast you might enjoy called endless thread, their newest episodes, focus on a big topic. The strange history of vaccination and the rise of the anti vaccine movement the special investigative series looks at the weird winding story of scientific innovation medical disasters and online by rally that radicalized new parents in creed this dangerous movement from on the ground. Reporting two interviews with experts on disinformation too conversations with parents who aren't vaccinating the podcast sorts fact from fiction at this pivotal moment in our nation's health subscribed, endless thread wherever you get your podcasts. So I have a confession to make. I only recently learned how to drive and it was really hard. Now. This wasn't an older brain thing. Do you? Remember, what it was like when you first learned how to drive when every decision you made was so conscious and deliver it I come home from my lessons completely wiped out mentally now as a cognitive scientists. I know that this is because I was using a lot of something called executive function executive function is are amazing ability to consciously control our thoughts emotions and actions in order to achieve goals like learning how to drive it's what we use. When we need to break away from habit inhibitor impulses and plan ahead. But we can see it. Most clearly when things go wrong like have you ever accidentally port, orange juice on your cereal. Or ever start scrolling Facebook and suddenly realize you've missed a meeting. Or maybe this one's more familiar ever planned to stop at the store on the way home from work, and then drive all the way home instead on autopilot. These things happen to everyone. And we usually call it absent mindedness, but what's really happening is we're experiencing a lapse in executive function. So we use executive function every day in all aspects of our lives and over the past thirty years. Researchers have found that it predicts all kinds of good things in childhood and beyond like social skills academic achievement mental and physical health making money saving money and even staying out of jail. Sounds great doesn't it? So it's no surprise that. Researchers like me are so interested in understanding it and figuring out ways to improve it. But lately executive function has become a huge self-improvement buzzword people think you can improve it through brain training, iphone, apps and computer games, whereby practicing it in a specific way like playing chess, and researchers are trying to train it in the lab in the hopes of improving it and other things related to it like intelligence. Well, I'm here to tell you that this way of thinking about executive function is all wrong brain training won't improve executive function in a broad sense. Because it involves exercising in a narrow way outside of the real world context in which we actually use it. So you can master that executive function app on your phone with us not going to help you. Stop pouring OJ on your Cheerios twice a week. If you really want to improve your executive function in a way that matters for your life. You have to understand how it's influenced by context. Let me show you what I mean. There's a great task that we use in the lab to measure executive function in young children called the dimensional change card sort in this task kids have to sort cards in one way like by shape over and over until they build up a habit, and then they're asked to switch and sort the same cards in another way like by color now really young kids struggle with this three and four year olds will usually keep sorting the cards in the old way. No matter how many times you've remind them of what they should be doing. Here. Here's a blue one. Okay. It's an hour place different games. We're not gonna play the colored beam anymore. Now, we're going to play the sheep game. And in the shape game. All the stars go here and trucks, go here. K stars go here go here where did the stars? Go. Where do the checks go? Okay starts going. Here Chuck's go here. Here's in Trump. Start near Charleston here. Here's a star. So it's really compelling, and it's really obvious when she fails to use her executive function. But here's the thing we could train her on this task and others like it. And eventually she improves. But does that mean that she would have improved her executive function outside of the lab? No because in the real world, she'll need to use executive function to do a lot more than switching between shape and color. She'll need to switch from adding multiplying or from playing tidying up or from thinking about her own feelings to thinking about her friend and success in real world situations depends on things like how motivated you are. And what your peers are doing? And it also depends on the strategies that you execute when you're using executive function in a particular situation. So what I'm saying? Is that context really matters? Now, let me give you an example for my research. I recently brought in a bunch. Of kids to do the classic marshmallow test, which is a measure of delay of gratification that also likely requires a lot of executive function. So you may have heard about this test. But basically kids are given a choice they can have one marshmallow right away. Or if they can wait for me to go to the other room and get more marshmallows? They can have to instead. Now most kids really want that second marshmallow. But the key question is how long can they wait? Now, I added a twist to look at the effects of context I told each kid that they were in a group like the green group, and I even gave them a green tea shirt to wear and I said your group waited for two marshmallows in this other group, the orange group did not or said the opposite your group didn't wait for two marshmallows. And this other group did and then I left the kid alone in the room. And I watched on a webcam to see how long they waited. So what I found was that kids who believed that their group waited for two marshmallows were themselves more likely to wait. So they were influenced by peer groups that they'd never even met. Pretty cool, isn't it? Well, so with this result. I still didn't know if they were just copying their group of for or if it was something deeper than that. So I brought in some more kids and after the marshmallow test. I brought I showed them pictures of pairs of kits and I told them one of these kids likes to have things right away like cookies and stickers and the other kid likes to wait. So that they can have more of these things. And then I asked them which one of these two kids do you like more? And who would you wanna play with? And what I found was that kids who believed that their group waited tended to prefer other kids who like to wait for things so learning what their group did made them value waiting more and not only that these kids likely used executive function to generate strategies to help themselves. Wait like sitting on their hands or turning away from the marshmallow or singing a song to distract themselves. So what this all shows is that this just how much context matters. It's not that these kids had good executive function or bad. It's that the context helped them use it better. So what does this mean for you? And for your kids. Well, let's say that you wanna learn Spanish, you could try changing your context and surrounding yourself with other people who also want to learn and even better if these are people that you really like that way you'll be more motivated to use executive function. Or let's say that you want to help your child you'd better on her math homework. You could teach your strategies to use executive function in that particular context like putting her phone away before she starts studying or planning to reward herself after studying for an hour. Now, I don't wanna make it sound like context is everything executive function is really complex, and it's shaped by numerous factors. But what I want you to remember is if you want to improve your executive function in some aspects of your life, don't look for quick fixes think about the context and how you can make your goals matter more to you. And how you. Can use strategies to help yourself in that particular situation. I think the ancient Greeks said it best when they said, no, they self and a key part of this is knowing how context shapes your behavior and how you can use that knowledge to change for the better. Thank you. For more TED talks to Ted dot com.
How you can help transform the internet into a place of trust | Claire Wardle
"Hello there it's Chris Anderson host Ted Interview podcast in our next episode I get to speak with these celebrated novelist Elif Shafak Leaf this Ted talk features misinformation expert Claire Wardell recorded live at Ted two thousand nineteen grab a number of things that are actually very different lies rumors hoaxes conspiracy's propaganda and I really wish we could stop using a phrase that's been no matter who you are away you live I'm guessing that you have walked by politicians right around the world from the left and the right used as a weapon to attack a free and independent press the message is sent to you then it wouldn't be email at all slack choose a better way to work get started at slack dot com the because we need our professional news media now more than ever and besides most of this content doesn't even masqueraders news let your mind travel at Mariot hotels dot com what if your email you see a projects entire history and not just across the world we see scores of new memes on instagram encouraging parents not to vaccinate their children we see new videos on Youtube explaining that climate change is folks and across all platforms we see endless post designed to demonize others on the basis of their race religion or sexuality change of scenery can do for the creative process so to push the boundaries of inspiration married hotels are designed to reveal the true potential of the human mind the central currency upon which we all depend information is no longer deemed entirely trustworthy and at times can appear downright dangerous this is thanks in part Ted talks daily is sponsored by mariot hotels some enough time as I have looking misinformation you know that this is just one example of many taps into people's deepest fears and vulnerabilities every day runaway growth of social sharing platforms allow us to scroll through where lies in fact sit side by side but with none of the traditional signals of trustworthiness the greatest entrepreneurs in the world have relied on travel as a tool to expand their thinking and develop new ideas. It's amazing what disrupting your routine with a simple at least one relative that likes to forward those emails you know the ones I'm talking about the ones with Jesus claims or conspiracy videos and if you welcome to one of the central challenges of our time how can we maintain an incident with freedom of expression at the core while also ensuring that the content that's Dan is actually the weaponization of context because the most effective disinformation has always been that which has carnal of truth to it thank goodness our language around this is horribly muddled people are still obsessed with the phrase fake news despite the fact is extraordinarily unhelpful and use the and patriotism is way too important to leave it to the nationalists just like the tech world is way too important to leave to take one or police and politics is way too puts into leave the politicians in all these fields we can become more engaged citizens subscribe to the Ted Interview on Apple podcasts spotify or wherever you listen when we mindlessly forward divisible misleading content without trying we're adding to the pollution I know we're all looking for an easy disseminated doesn't cause irreparable harms to our democracies our communities and our physical and mental well-being because we live in the information age wchs but there just isn't one any solution will have to be rolled out at a massive scale Internet scale and yes the platforms they used to operating right around the world rolling out hasty policy decisions that might actually trigger much more serious consequences when it comes to our speech and even if we could decide Russian second most of the speech I'm talking about here is legal it'd be a different matter if I was talking about child sexual abuse imagery or this is far more effective and besides many of these companies that business model is attached to attention which means these algorithms will always be skewed towards it's memes videos social posts and most of it is not fake it's misleading we tend to fix on what's true or false but the biggest so what about governments many people believe that global regulation is our last hope in terms of cleaning up information ecosystem but what I see living on thousands of different cultural contexts we've simply never had effective mechanisms to moderate speech at the scale where the powered by humans or by technology have a rational relationship to information we have an emotional one is just not true more facts will make everything okay because the algorithms that determine what content but with no clear definition of what they mean by that including Mark Zuckerberg who recently called for global regulation to moderate speech a my concern is that we're seeing governments I'd like to explain three interlocking issues that makes this make this so complex and then think about some ways we can consider these challenges I we just don't instead these companies Google twitter facebook what's up there part of a wider information ecosystem we like to lay all the blame at there yes or content that breaks their community guidelines so yes these companies have to pay a really important role in this process but they can't control it level but can and should we allow them to fix these problems there sadly trying but most of us would agree that actually we don't want global corporations wchs and they haven't been listening to this has got to change so could we build a wikipedia for trust could we find a way that uses can actually provide insights they could offer insights around difficult content moderation decisions they could provide feedback when platforms decide that they want to roll out new changes EH designed to reward our emotional responses and when we're fearful over-simplified narratives conspiratorial explanations and language that demonize is other trey for anonymous data with privacy and ethical concerns belt in because imagine what we would learn if we built out a global network of concerned citizens fine that makes it impossible for us to actually examine what information people are seeing so could we imagine developing some kind of centralized open reporters forms in any way which governments would we trust to do this we need a global response not a national one so the missing link is leaps because guess what they are experts when it comes to hate and disinformation because they have been the targets of these campaigns for so long and over the years they've been raising flags us it's those people who use these technologies every day can we design a new infrastructure to support quality information while the incites violence it can be perfectly legal to post an outright lie but people keep talking about taking down problematical harmful content us what's possible yes it's not perfect but they demonstrated that with the right structures with a global outlook and lots and lots of transparency you can build something that will earn the trust of most people his second people's experiences with information is personalized my facebook newsfeed is very different to yours you'll youtube recommendations are very different to help them bills out investigative collaborative programs and Danny Hillis a software architects is designing a new system called the underlay which will be a record oh because we have to find a way to tap into the collective wisdom and experience of all users this is particularly the case for women people of Color underrepresented I really think we can together let's rebuild our information Commons thank you they wanted to donate their social data to science because we actually know very little about the long term consequences of hate and disinformation on people's attitudes and be in different techniques for finding ways to make people critical of the content they consume all of these efforts are wonderful but they're working in silos and many of them woefully out working but because they write their own transparency reports this no way for us to independently verify what's actually happening working on these challenges from newsroom civil society academia activist groups and you can see some of them here some building out indicators of content credibility viewers and what we do know most of that has been carried out in the US despite the fact that this is a global problem we need to work on that too and third the different perspectives. So can we do this. Can we build outs coordinates an ambitious response one that matches the scale and the complexity of the problem by tuning engine components like musical instruments Lexus designed for unique tones that reached specific frequencies when you accelerate stimulating your brain and let's also be clear that most of the changes we see only happened after journalists undertaken investigation and find evidence of Tom Slash curiosity what if your email that you see a projects entire history and not just the messages sent to you that's a good question the kind lexus answers by looking at people sound spark feelings and those feelings are caused by certain frequencies sent from our ears to the brain make your heart race yes exhilaration does have a sound and it was inspired by you discover what amazing ideas you'll inspire next at Lexus doc for more ted talks go to Ted Dot com what does exhilaration sound like makers who was struggling to keep up to date with rapid changes in technology and worse they're working in the dark because they don't have access to data to understand what's happening on these everyone else in your team could see it as well then it wouldn't be email at all move communication from inboxes two channels in slack all public statements of fact connected to their sources so that people and Algorithms Combative Judge What is credible and educators around the world attesting better way to work get started and slack dot com instead of seeing a partial set of messages about a project everyone in slack sees exactly the same thing in moves work forward faster slack choose I just assault become more engaged citizens overall what I believe in sincerely is I think faith is way too important to leave to the religious beat but the truth is the mass media and elected officials can also play an equal role in amplifying rumors and conspiracy when they want to as can we underfunded they were also hundreds of very smart people working side these companies but again these efforts can fail disjointed because they're actually developing different solution us to the same problems how can we find a way to bring people together in one physical location for days or weeks at a time so they can actually tackle these problems together to be the guardians of truth and fairness online and I also think the platforms would agree with that at the moment they're mocking their own homework they like to tell us that the interventions if we can and I've got a few ideas about what we might be able to actually do so firstly if we're serious about bringing the public into this can we take some inspiration from wikipedia they've shown are this fact checking so that false claims videos and images can be downright by the platforms a nonprofit I helped to found fast draft is working with normally competitive newsrooms around the world. Can we find a way to connect the dots no one sector let alone nonprofit startup who government is going to solve this but there are very smart people around the world which speaks to take up we'll take down we've never had so much speech every second millions of pieces of content by people around the world in different languages.
Why you should shop at your local farmers market | Mohammad Modarres
"This Ted Talk Features Social Entrepreneur Muhammed Maderas recorded live at Ted Residency Twenty nineteen. They like Ted talks you should check out the Ted Radio Hour with NPR. Stay tuned after this talk to hear sneak peek of this week's episode. It's been about a decade since the last financial crisis and get this industry has never been bigger legislation that was meant to better regulate its largest players as hurt smaller ones resulting in most of the industry's assets to be controlled by the top one percent. They've become too big to fail. I'm not referring to big banks but the world of big agriculture as the public health practitioner who has worked with small scale farmers in Rwanda and now as a small food business owner who sits at the intersection between our consumers and producers I I've been exposed to one of the most ecologically and economically intensive industries in the world and throughout my work. I've witnessed a chilling irony. Our farmers who feed our community's cannot afford the very food steak grow today a handful of corporations continued consolidate the entire food supply chain from the intellectual property of seeds to produce livestock all the way to the financial institutions who lend to these farmers ars and the recent results have been rising bankruptcies for family farms and little control for those who are just trying to survive in the industry left unchecked we will head into another economic claps. One very similar to the farm crisis of one thousand nine hundred eighty s when commodity market prices has crashed interest rates doubled. Many farmers loss everything. Fortunately there's a very simple three part solution. You can be part of right now to help us. Transform our food industry from the bottom up step one shop at your local farmers markets buying from your local market and subscribing to a community supported agricultural produce boxer better known when is the say maybe the single greatest purchasing decision. You can make a consumer today last year. American farmers made the least they have an an almost three decades because they now own fear parts of the supply chain. It's an ever before under exclusive contracts with big AG and big box. DOC stores farmers are not offered a fair price for their goods in fact the average farmer in America makes less than fifteen cents of every dollar on a product that you purchase that a store on the other hand farmers sell the goods at a farmers market. Take home closer closer to ninety cents of every dollar but beyond taking home a larger share farmers. US markets is an opportunity. It's called the next generation of agriculturalists. Lewis who shepherd are farmlands pastures in our fight against climate change. We need them now. More than ever to promote and preserve diverse land-use news when multigenerational farms are lost two big act consolidation our communities suffering countless ways rural. America has now jumped above the national average in violent crime three hundred four farmer workers surveyed have been directly impacted by OPIOID epidemic. Now oftentimes skies. Sky's accidents pharmacy side is now on the rise step to shop at your local farmers ars markets produce from a large retail store is harvested before it's ripe to travel more than thousand miles those before ultimately sits on your shelf roughly two weeks later alternatively because most farmers markets have proximity production requirements farmers travel less this than fifty miles to offer you local produce with minimal packaging raced with the advent of online grocers and trending adding meal kits consumers are increasingly disconnected with their farmers and the economics of food production since the rise of the smartphone revolution direct to consumer-goods have stagnated while local and sustainable foods have been trending for almost a decade terms like healthy and natural have no legal framework in the United States your best bet for fresh nutrient rich foods without the marketing jargon. Go to your farmer's market. Buying local is not a new idea but turning it into a habit and today's ruled still is if we want to avoid the high cost of cheap food protect our environments rebuild our communities and save our farmers literally literally. We're going to need to vote with our food purchases. The success of our food systems is directly attached to us. If we want to break a big axe hold on our food supply chain then we're going to need to connect with our farmers. We're going to need to rebuild relationships relationships with the hands that feed US three times. A day was two more for snacks. Come up with a government online database of more than eighty six hundred farmers markets across the country. You can easily find the nearest one to you. Just just think of yourself as an investor in food or you're purchasing power helps create a more equitable society for everyone almost forgot step three which may surprise you shop at your local farmers markets. Thank you for more TED talks go to. Ted Dot Com until the nineteen fifties psychologists focused on what was wrong with people and then came Abraham maslow's. I don't think there's anything pollyanna ought saying yes. Persons can be improved. Maslo was really one of the first to think about what's right with the person scaling Maslow's hierarchy of human needs its next time on the Ted Radio hour from NPR subscribe or listen to the Ted Radio Hour wherever you get your your podcasts.
You are not alone in your loneliness | Jonny Sun
"This Ted talk features screenwriter author and artist. Johnny son recorded live at Ted twenty nineteen. Hi, I'm Sarah k host of sincerely acts from tad luminary media, and each episode of sincerely acts you hear guest with a powerful story that they can only share anonymously they were dead to us who did not communicate with them. They were weak and worse than people who had never belonged to the organization. Surprising stories provocative, ideas, all, non Mus, you can hear sincerely acts on the luminary podcast app. Find out more at luminary dot link slash Ted. Hello. I'd like to introduce you to someone this is Johnny. That's Johnny, but spelled accidentally with an M in case you were wondering, because we're not all perfect Jami is an alien who has been sent to earth with a mission to study. Humans Janis feeling lost and alone and far from home. And I think we've all felt this way or at least I have I wrote this story about this alien at a moment in my life. When I was feeling particularly alien, I just moved to Cambridge, and started my doctoral program at MIT, and I was feeling intimidated and isolated and very much like I didn't belong, but I had a lifeline of sorts. I was writing jokes for years and years, and sharing them on social media, and I found that I was turning to doing this more and more now for many people, the internet can feel like a lonely place it can feel like a big endless expansive void where you can constantly. Call out to it, but no one's ever listening. But I actually found a comfort in speaking out to the void, I found in sharing my feelings with the voids eventually, the void started to speak back, and it turns out that the void isn't this endless lonely, expanse at all. But instead, it's full of all sorts of other people also staring out into it, and also wanting to be heard now, there have been many bad things that have come from social media. I'm not trying to dispute that at all to be online at any given point is to feel so much sadness and anger and violence, it can feel like the end of the world yet at the same time I'm conflicted, because I can't deny the fact that so many of my closest friends are people that I had met originally online, and I think that's partly because there's this confessional nature to social media. It can feel like you're writing in this personal intimate. Diary, that's completely privates. Yet, at the same time you want everyone in the world to read it. And I think part of that I think the joy of that is that we get to experience things from. Effectives from people who are completely different from ourselves. And sometimes, that's a nice thing, for example, when I first joined Twitter, I found that so many of the people that I was following. We're talking about mental health and going to therapy in ways that had none of the stigma that they often do when we talk about these issues in person through them, the conversation around mental health was normalized, and they helped me realize that going to therapy was something that would help me as well now for many people, it sounds like a scary idea to be talking about all these topics so publicly so openly on the internet. I feel like a lot of people think that it is a big scary thing to be online. If you're not already perfectly and fully formed, but I think the internet can be actually a great place to not know. And I think we can treat that with excitement because to me, there's something important about sharing your imperfections and your insecurities and your vulnerabilities with. Other people now when someone shares that they feel sad, or afraid or alone. For example, it actually makes me feel less alone, not by getting rid of any of my loneliness. But by showing me that I am not alone in feeling low move, and as a writer, and as an artist I care very much about making this comfort of being vulnerable a communal thing, something that we can share with each other. I'm excited about Externalizing the internal about taking those invisible, personal feelings that I don't have words for holding them to the lights putting words to them and then sharing them with other people and the hopes that it might help them. Find words to find their feelings as well. Now, I know that sounds like a big thing, but ultimately, I'm interested in putting all these things into small approachable packages because when we can hide them into these smaller pieces. I think they're easier to approach. I think they're more fun. I think they can more easily help us. See our shared humanness sometimes that takes the form of a short story, sometimes that takes the form. A cute book of illustrations, for example. And sometimes that takes the form of a silly joke that all throw on the internet, for example, a few months ago, I posted this app idea for a dog walking service where a dog shows up at your door, and you have to get out of the house, and go for a walk. If there are app, developers, and the audience, please signed me after the talk or I'd like to share every time I feel anxious about sending an Email when I signed my emails best it's short for. I am trying my best, which short four, please. Don't hate me. I promise. I'm trying my best. Or my answer to the classic icebreaker if I could have dinner with anyone dead or alive. I would I am very lonely. And I find that when I post things like these online, the reaction was very similar people. Come together to share a laugh to share in that feeling. And then to disperse just as quickly. Yes. Leaving me once again. But I think sometimes these little gatherings can be quite meaningful, for example, when I graduated from architecture school, and I moved to Cambridge. I posted this question how many people in your life have you already had your last conversation with? And I was thinking about my own friends, who had moved away to different cities in different countries even and how hard it would be for me to keep in touch with them, but other people started replying and sharing their own experiences. Somebody talked about a family member. They had a falling out with someone talked about a loved one who had passed away quickly and unexpectedly someone else talked about their friends from school who had moved away as well. But then something really nice started happening instead of just replying to me, people started replying to each other, and they started to talk to each other, and share their own experiences and comfort each other, and encourage each other to reach out to that friend, that they haven't spoken to in a while or that family member that they had a falling out with. And eventually, we got this little tiny, micro community. It felt like this support group formed of all sorts of people coming together. And I think every time we post online, every time we do this. There's a chance that these little micro communities can form. And sometimes through them up on the internet, you get to find a kindred spirit. Sometimes that's in the reading the replies and the comments sections, and finding a reply that is particularly kind or insightful or funny, sometimes that's in going to follow someone and seeing that they already follow you back. And sometimes, that's in looking at someone that, you know, in real life and seeing the things that you write, and the things that they write and realizing that you share so many of the same interests as they do. And that brings them closer together to you. Sometimes if you're lucky you get to meet another alien, but I am worried too because as we all know the internet for the most part doesn't feel like this. We all know that for the most part, the internet feels like a place where we misunderstand each other where we come into conflict with each other, where there's all sorts of confusion and screaming and yelling and shouting, and it feels like there's too much of everything it feels like chaos. And I don't know how to square away. The bad parts with a good because as we know and as we've seen the bad parts can really, really hurt us. It feels to me that the platforms that we use to inhabit these online spaces have been designed either ignorantly or willfully to allow for harassment and abuse to propagate misinformation to enable hatred and hate speech and the violence, that comes from it, and it feels like none of our current platforms are doing enough to address and to fix that. But still, and maybe probably, unfortunately, I'm still drawn to these online spaces as many others are because sometimes it just feels like that's where all the people are, and I feel silly and stupid. Sometimes for valuing these small moments of human connection in times, like these, but I've always operated under this idea that these little moments of humanness are not superfluous. They're not retreats from the world at all. But instead, they're the reasons why we come to these spaces. Are important and vital and they affirm, and they give us life. And they are these tiny temporary sanctuaries that show us that we are not as alone as we think we are. And so one night when I was feeling particularly sad and hopeless about the world I shouted out to the void to the lonely darkness. I said at this point logging onto social media feels like holding someone's hand at the end of the world. And this time instead of the void responding, it was people who showed up who started replying to me, and then he started talking to each other, and slowly this little tiny community forms. Everybody came together to hold hands. And in these dangerous and onshore times in the midst of it all, I think the thing that we have to hold onto is other people, and I know that is a small thing made up of small moments. But I think it is one tiny tiny sliver of lights in all the dark. Thank you. For more TED talks to Ted dot com. Or.
Quantum computing explained in 10 minutes | Shohini Ghose
"This. Ted talk features quantum physicist and equity advocate show. Heaney goes recorded live at Ted women twenty eighteen. Like, TED talks. You should check out the Ted radio hour with NPR. Stay tuned after this talk to hear sneak peek of this week's episode. Let's play a game. Imagine that you are in Las Vegas in a casino. And you decide to play a game on one of the casinos computers. Just like you might play solitaire or tests. The computer can make moves in the game. Just like a human player. This is a coin game. It starts with the coin showing heads and the computer will play. I it can choose to flip the coin or not. But you don't get to see the outcome next. It's your turn. You can also choose to flip the coin or not and your move will not be revealed to your opponent. The computer finally, the computer place again and can flip the coin or not. And after these three rounds the coin is revealed, and if it is heads the computer wins if it's tails you win. So it's a pretty simple game. And if everybody plays, honestly, and the coin is fair, then you have a fifty percent chance of winning this game. And to confirm that I asked my students to play this game on our computers and after many many tries their winning rate ended up being fifty percent or close to fifty percent is expected sounds like a boring game. Right. But what if you could play this game on a quantum, computer? Now, Las Vegas casinos. Do not have quantum computers. As far as I know. But IBM has built a working quantum computer. Here it is. But what is a quantum computer? Well, quantum physics describes the behavior of atoms and fundamental particles like electrons and photons so content computer operates by controlling the behavior of these particles. But in a way that is completely different from our regular computers. So a quantum. Computer is not just a more powerful version of our current computers. Just like a lightbulb is not a more powerful candle. You cannot build a lightbulb by building better and better candles. A light bulb is a different technology based on deeper scientific understanding similarly, a quantum computer is a new kind of device based on the science of quantum physics and just like a lightbulb transform society. Quantum computers have the potential to impact so many aspects of our lives, including our security needs are healthcare and even the internet. So companies all around the world are working to build these devices and to see what the excitement is all about. Let's play our game on a quantum computer. So I can log into IBM's quantum computer from right here, which means I can play the game remotely. And so can you to make this happen? You may remember getting an Email ahead of time from Ted asking you whether you would choose to flip the coin or not if you played the game. Well, actually, we asked you to choose between a circle or square, you didn't know it. But your choice of circle meant flip the coin and your choice so square was don't flip. We received three hundred seventy two responses. Thank you. That means we can play three hundred seventy two games against the quantum computer using your choices and it's a pretty fast game to play. So I can show you the results right here. Unfortunately, you didn't do very well. The quantum computer one almost every game. It lost a few only because of operational errors in the computer. So how did it achieve this amazing winning streak? It seems like magic or cheating. But actually, it's just quantum physics and action. Here's how it works a regular computer simulates heads or tails of a coin as a bit zero or a one or a current flipping on and off inside your computer. A quantum computer is completely different. A quantum bit has a more fluid non binary identity. It can exist in a superposition or a combination of zero and one with some probability of being zero and one some probability of being one. In other words, it's identity is on a spectrum, for example, it could have a seventy percent chance of being zero and a thirty percent chance of being one or eighty four eighty twenty or sixty forty the possibilities are endless. The key idea. Here is that we have to give up on precise values of zero and one and allow for some uncertainty. So during the game, the quantum computer creates this fluid combination of heads entails Iran one. So that no matter what the player does flip. Or no flip the superposition remains intact. It's kind of like stirring, a mixture of two fluids. Whether or not you stir the fluids remain in a mixture, but in its final move, the quantum computer can on makes the Iran one perfectly recovering heads. So that you lose every time. If you think this is all a bit weird. You are absolutely right. Regular coins. Do not exist in combinations of heads. And tails, we do not experience this fluid quantum reality in our everyday lives. So if you are confused by quantum don't worry, you're getting it. But even though we don't experience quantum strangeness. We can see it's very real effects in action. You've seen the data for yourself the quantum computer one because it harnessed superposition and uncertainty, and these quantum properties are powerful not just to win coin games, but also to build future quantum technologies. So let me give you three examples of potential applications that could change our lives. First of all quantum uncertainty could be used to create private keys for encrypting messages sent from one location to another. So that hackers could not secretly copy the key perfectly because of quantum uncertainty. They would have to break the laws of quantum physics to hack the key. So this kind of unbreakable encryption is already being. Tested by banks and other institutions worldwide. Today, we use more than seventeen billion connected devices globally. Just imagine the impact quantum encryption could have in the future. Secondly, quantum technologies could also transform healthcare and medicine, for example, the design and analysis off molecules for drug development is a challenging problem today. And that's because exactly describing and calculating all of the quantum properties of all the atoms in the molecule is a computational difficult task even for our supercomputers, but a quantum computer could do better because it operates using the same quantum properties. As the molecule is trying to simulate so future large scale quantum simulations for drug development could perhaps lead to treatments for diseases like Alzheimer's, which affects thousands of lives and Thirdly, my favorite quantum application is telephone station of information from one location to another without physically transmitting. The information sounds like SCI fi. But it is possible because these fluid identities of the quantum particles can get entangled across space and time in such a way that when you change something about one particle, it can impact the other and that creates a channel for teleportation. It's already been demonstrated and research labs and could be part of a future quantum internet. We don't have such an network as yet. But my team is working on these fossils by simulating a quantum network on a quantum computer. So we have designed and implemented some interesting new protocols such as teleportation among different users in the network and efficient, data transmission and even secure voting. So it's a lot of fun for me being a quantum physicist. I highly recommend it. We got to explorers in a quantum wonderland. Who knows what applications we will? Discover next we must tread carefully and responsibly as we build our quantum future. And for me personally. I don't see quantum physics as a tool just to build quantum computers. I see quantum computers as a way for us to probe the mysteries of nature and reveal more about this hidden world outside of our experiences. How amazing that we humans with our relatively limited access to the universe can still see far beyond our horizons just using our imagination, and our ingenuity and the universe rewards us by showing us how incredibly interesting and surprising. It is the future is fundamentally uncertain. And to me that is certainly exciting. Thank you. For more, TED talks, Ted dot com. So what's the secret to happiness? If you wanna have a happier life. I would say look at what's unforgiven look at where you know, you did wrong, and you would like to go to that person and say, I'm sorry. Can we start over guy rise ideas about forgiveness? Why it's important and why it's so hard next time on the Ted radio hour from NPR. Subscribe or listen to the Ted radio hour wherever you get your podcasts.