24 Burst results for "Superconductors"
Metals That Work Like Magic
"A few weeks ago. The wall street journal featured an article about a man who was mining bitcoin from a computer in his house. The computer was working so hard. It was heating up the entire room. It coin put your computer through a lot of calculations and many of us are spending most of our time at home these days so the man found a way to use all that energy coming off of his computer he siphon date to heat a greenhouse and grow basil and cherry tomato. That's how much energy has computer was wasting and it's not just the bitcoin guy. All of the devices were using. Give off excess energy. How many times have you noticed your laptop. Scorching your thighs collectively. We lose billions of dollars every year because of this so-called waste heat. It got me thinking about futuristic alternatives. That could work to reduce that waste. So i reached out to an expert. I'm marvin cohen. I'm university professor of physics at the university of california at berkeley. Dr cohen explained that this waste heat from all of our devices happens because of friction too much friction from electrons the electrons. Go down the wire and they bump into things sort of in the wire is heated so they knocked around and that gives you resistance and the wire gets hot. Cohen says that friction is called electrical resistance. And it's just what happens when you conduct electricity. it's normal. It means that some of the energy gets lost but there is a way to get around it to manipulate the electrons. So the wires don't get hot and energy doesn't get lost so if you could bring them together and keep them together you'll have a superconductor
"superconductors" Discussed on KOA 850 AM
"Going to talk about the few job. We gotta have a sounder of some sort created because I can't keep doing that when we have futurist Thomas Fry from the DaVinci Institute on the show, he studies trends and research and all kinds of cool, nerdy stuff to project. Things happening in the future, and he helps businesses of all types kind of get a handle on maybe where their industry is heading and where they need to be directing their energies, and we just have a mind to talk about what's coming down the pike that we can look forward to. And all kinds of cool stuff like that. Welcome back to the show, Thomas. Hey, Thanks for having me on. It's a great time to switch gears and talk about emerging technologies. Yes. Is it because yes. Let's do that, instead of what we've been doing for the last little bit here, I do want to point out that I'm going to get email after we talked to you saying, Why don't you ask him about politics? You're not crazy. You just look at the future, right? I mean, you deal with data points and information. That's the sort of scientifically based and I don't think we could ever apply that to the political process. Is that fair to say? Yeah, I have lots of concerns about the process itself. And I think we definitely need to be addressed sometime in the future that Well, maybe we'll talk about the future of voting in the future. You We don't know. We'll have to wait and see. Well, what are you looking at? Right now? Where do you have your your focus? What are you looking at? And saying that what's happening here is very exciting. Well, there was a big announcement. They got lost in the middle of all the politics about room temperature superconductors. That's a big deal. Um, for people like me who don't know why That's a big deal. Would you explain why that is a big deal? Because I'm not sure how that would be a big deal, but please enlighten me. Yeah, Let's let's just take, for example, the idea that We can take and transmit tremendous amount of power through a very little line. That we could essentially replace all of the big power line grids that we have throughout the United States with a single line that we very underground. And that just dramatically changes the landscape of every country out there. Um, sometime in the future, we're gonna be disassembling all of the power grids. I think that's a big deal, Don't but no, Let me let me first of all we have to get back to the superconductor. That doesn't need a room temperature superconductor. Why are superconductors super hot now? I literally know nothing about. I've never even thought about a superconductor. Until this conversation, So do they have to be in like cooling situations and Yeah. Up until this point. Yeah. Now, the idea of a room temperature superconductor is one that could be used out in the open. It doesn't have to have liquid nitrogen or something surrounding it. And so that changes the game dramatically. Could that ever be applied to nuclear power production? Because that I know requires giant pools of water to cool everything down. Well in in a power world. You have the generation and you have the transmission. The superconductors have to do with the transmission. Gotcha. So essentially, we could bury all of our power lines, and we could encase them in something like a Faraday box. With that eliminate the possibility of an E M p in the future. As a defensive posture measure. Um, it could help. I don't think it totally eliminates anything. I mean, we could have a solar flare from the sun, and we could get any MP blast that basically bombs this back to the stone age and for people they don't know They should be terrified of an electronic magnetic pulse. That's an E M. P. And if you want to stay up for the next, like, six weeks, worrying at night, read about it, But if you don't don't read about it, just don't we hear do anything about it? Currently, it's a massive Kind of looming issue, and it could be used offensively by a bad actor who set off a nuclear weapon at low altitude. It could fry the entire It's too depressing. I can't even talk about it yesterday. Bring something else in here. Besides the MP Your mikes out on Dave. Yeah, I have a rather mundane question. Uh, There's the book as we know it, have a future or or we relegated to kindle or things like Kendall. From now on, Will the book die? Yeah, that's that's a great question. Um, that Kind of the working theory that we have at the moment is his books are going to continue to Morphin shift will still have traditional books. Um, for the foreseeable future. But we will also have lots of other versions of books that will come to life and whether it's a book that you open and you have holograms that pop out of it. Whether it's audio and video that is combined with the text of a book. There's There's lots of combination things that are going to be in addition to traditional books, so it's not an either or situation. It's a both, and I I hate that idea. Can I And I know this is gonna make me sound very old fashioned. But as a reader I like to read. I know not everybody likes to read. I like reading because it's fully engages your imagination. Television doesn't you know? Spoken Word doesn't in reading your reading the words on the page and you're creating an image in your mind. At least that's how it happens for me. And if we provide those images than.
"superconductors" Discussed on PodcastDetroit.com
"Eventually you get to a point where there's no you're gone. So deep end there's nothing left so the actual particle. Where's the thing. The thing is not a thing. They're just waves of energy vibrating back and forth kate. The classical physics is the so called. Quantum realm many properties of systems can only be fully understand and explained with the use of quantum physics for example superconductivity. That's bat super cold. If you take a magnet let's say a ceramic magnet and you put it in liquid nitrogen and you make it super cold you then put that on top of another magnet levitation. Space this is what a maglev train is is. It literally does go. Does it beats the law of gravity. There's a law of gravity but if you do superconductivity now there's no law you just broke the law like how's that possible because there are other laws at place there are laws within laws right which means there are anti laws with inside the laws you just have to get deep. Superconductors nuclear and chemical reaction mechanisms cannot be explained using classical physics and quantum physics. The wave particle duality of energy and matter and the uncertainty principle this is another scientific term of matter provide a unified view of the behavior of photons electrons and other subatomic particles. Hey the mouthful but that basically says the invisible world that seems to break the law has and that's what you are operating on you wanna get to. Let's get to the bottom of the story. This is how you get to. That's why i do was called. Quantum reflects analysis which i get too deep deep part of it. Quantum field theory states that the universe is essentially made up entirely of electro-magnetic in electrostatic what's electrostatic electrostatic is. There's another way like forget magnets. Is you could do this with a kit. This is like a clown trick which is how do i make a balloon float in state. We have filled up with helium or hot air. What about cold air when you blow into a balloon with your with your your breath and then you hold that balloon. It's going to sink down to the ground because it has matter it has mess and unless you put a gas in there..
"superconductors" Discussed on Techmeme Ride Home
"Not Exactly, , the revolution that would result if we achieved cold fusion, , but it is notable that room temperature superconductivity has been achieved for the first time quoting MIT technology review room temperature superconductors, , materials that conduct electricity zero resistance without needing special cooling are the sort of technological miracle that could up end daily life. . They could revolutionize the electric grid and enable levitating trains among many other potential applications but until now, , superconductors have had to be cool to extremely. . Low temperatures which has restricted them to use as a niche technology. . I'll be an important one for decades. . It seemed that room temperature superconductivity might be out of reach forever. . But in the last five years, , a few research groups around the world have been engaged in a race to attain it in the lab and one of them just one in a paper published today in nature researchers report achieving real temperature supercar activity in a compound containing hydrogen sulfur. . And Carbon at temperatures as high as fifty eight degrees Fahrenheit thirteen point three Celsius or two, , hundred, , Eighty, , seven, , point seven Kelvin the previous highest temperature had been two hundred and Sixty Kelvin or degrees Fahrenheit that she'd by a rival group at George Washington University and the Carnegie Institution in Washington DC and twenty eighteen another group at the Planck Institute for Chemistry, , in Germany, , achieved two hundred and fifty degrees Kelvin or negative nine point seven degrees Fahrenheit at. . Around the same time like the previous records, , the new record was attained under extremely high pressures roughly two and a half million times greater than that of the air we breathe. . It's a landmark says Jose Flora's leave us a computational physicist at the sappy Enza University of Rome who creates models that explain high temperature superconductivity and was not directly involved in the work. . The ways in which electric is generated transmitted and distributed could be fundamentally transformed by cheap and. . Effective temperature superconductors bigger than a few millions of a meter about five percent of the electricity generated in the United States is lost in transmission and distribution according to the Energy Information Administration, , eliminating this loss would for starters, , save billions of dollars and have a significant climate impact. . But room temperature superconductors wouldn't just change the system we have. . They enable a whole new system transformers which are crucial to the electric grid could be made smaller cheaper and more. . Efficient. . So to could electric motors and generators superconducting energy storage is currently used to smooth out short term fluctuations in the electric grid but it's still remains relatively niche because it takes a lot of energy to keep superconductors cold room temperature superconductors. . Especially, , if they could be engineered to stand strong magnetic fields might serve as very efficient ways to store large amounts of energy for longer periods of time making renewable but intermittent energy sources like wind turbines or. . Solar cells more effective, , and because flowing electricity crates, , magnetic fields superconductors can also be used to create powerful magnets for applications as diverse as MRI machines and levitating trains. . Superconductors are of great potential importance to the nascent field of quantum computing as well. . Superconducting cubits are already the basis of some of the world's most powerful quantum computers being able to make such. . Cubans without having to cool them down would not only make computers simpler smaller and cheaper but. . Could lead to more rapid progress in creating systems of many cubits depending on the exact properties of the superconductors that are created it remains to be seen whether scientists can devise stable compounds that are superconducting not only at ambient temperature, , but also at ambient pressure. . But the researchers are optimistic. . They conclude their paper with this tantalizing claim quote, , a robust resume temperature superconducting material that will transform the energy economy quantum information processing, , and sensing may be achievable and quote. .
Finally, a Room-Temperature Superconductor
"Not Exactly, the revolution that would result if we achieved cold fusion, but it is notable that room temperature superconductivity has been achieved for the first time quoting MIT technology review room temperature superconductors, materials that conduct electricity zero resistance without needing special cooling are the sort of technological miracle that could up end daily life. They could revolutionize the electric grid and enable levitating trains among many other potential applications but until now, superconductors have had to be cool to extremely. Low temperatures which has restricted them to use as a niche technology. I'll be an important one for decades. It seemed that room temperature superconductivity might be out of reach forever. But in the last five years, a few research groups around the world have been engaged in a race to attain it in the lab and one of them just one in a paper published today in nature researchers report achieving real temperature supercar activity in a compound containing hydrogen sulfur. And Carbon at temperatures as high as fifty eight degrees Fahrenheit thirteen point three Celsius or two, hundred, Eighty, seven, point seven Kelvin the previous highest temperature had been two hundred and Sixty Kelvin or degrees Fahrenheit that she'd by a rival group at George Washington University and the Carnegie Institution in Washington DC and twenty eighteen another group at the Planck Institute for Chemistry, in Germany, achieved two hundred and fifty degrees Kelvin or negative nine point seven degrees Fahrenheit at. Around the same time like the previous records, the new record was attained under extremely high pressures roughly two and a half million times greater than that of the air we breathe. It's a landmark says Jose Flora's leave us a computational physicist at the sappy Enza University of Rome who creates models that explain high temperature superconductivity and was not directly involved in the work. The ways in which electric is generated transmitted and distributed could be fundamentally transformed by cheap and. Effective temperature superconductors bigger than a few millions of a meter about five percent of the electricity generated in the United States is lost in transmission and distribution according to the Energy Information Administration, eliminating this loss would for starters, save billions of dollars and have a significant climate impact. But room temperature superconductors wouldn't just change the system we have. They enable a whole new system transformers which are crucial to the electric grid could be made smaller cheaper and more. Efficient. So to could electric motors and generators superconducting energy storage is currently used to smooth out short term fluctuations in the electric grid but it's still remains relatively niche because it takes a lot of energy to keep superconductors cold room temperature superconductors. Especially, if they could be engineered to stand strong magnetic fields might serve as very efficient ways to store large amounts of energy for longer periods of time making renewable but intermittent energy sources like wind turbines or. Solar cells more effective, and because flowing electricity crates, magnetic fields superconductors can also be used to create powerful magnets for applications as diverse as MRI machines and levitating trains. Superconductors are of great potential importance to the nascent field of quantum computing as well. Superconducting cubits are already the basis of some of the world's most powerful quantum computers being able to make such. Cubans without having to cool them down would not only make computers simpler smaller and cheaper but. Could lead to more rapid progress in creating systems of many cubits depending on the exact properties of the superconductors that are created it remains to be seen whether scientists can devise stable compounds that are superconducting not only at ambient temperature, but also at ambient pressure. But the researchers are optimistic. They conclude their paper with this tantalizing claim quote, a robust resume temperature superconducting material that will transform the energy economy quantum information processing, and sensing may be achievable and quote.
"superconductors" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"I just want to. So this top logical materials they super conduct. that's absolutely s Haakon. Yes. So so They they superconducting it's doing that in room temperature. So that said, the top launch materials aren't what we call superconductors intrinsically necessarily not not all of them. They're. They're just conductors. Okay. Just get some sort of superconducting ring ride. It right said they didn't conducting ring around. Okay. Now, you can some of them are, do you happen to be superconductors superconductors need? The. Superconductors and a superconducting top logical system is useful for a difference of continent computing schemes. For examples. The whole nother area we're also looking at. A lot of coupling superconductors the top logical systems in my lab. But know that they're the conducting surfaces are just conducted their metallic conducting. Nothing in the differences that a metallic system. There's a there's A. Like I said the superconductor is A. Quantum Mechanical Ground State Your Energy gap to becoming a superconductor and you don't have these top logical system. That it's not a superconducting energy gap between the top lodge Leonard Gap for conducting line right right I. Don't know if there's any connection I just want to ask you. So you know this quality computing arena one of the things that that seems to be interesting is this member stor. Rates. So I I wondered if any applications that you have looked at for members in this arena. I've a particular looked at memories some. People are looking at these as as for neural networks and things I thought is not. Right. Yes. So they you know the the issue in artificial intelligence that almost all of it is driven by software today. And you know you're going to hit some kind of constraint on the software side. So so one one idea is to actually have hardware. So he does something that can memorize and compute at the same same location just like. just like a neuron in the brain. And so so I don't know there might be some applications he has. My my understanding of a member stir is this is that or or of these neural networks they're they're basically trying to be produced the behavior of neurons. Are things that that fire in short pulses right and that have had memories of each other right if one fires another fire for example, and they knew that the length duration of each other's firing and it was a very specific. Behavior of neurons, like I said the quick pulses that have relationships to each other. You can mimic with certain type types of devices, right. So if you create something that has a blip like that, that's that can be turned on and off in very specific way with the voltage in that can connect to another one of these devices than you can mimic neuron and members are basically can be used like this mimic neurons..
"superconductors" Discussed on TechStuff
"Train that can allow it to levitated above the track, thus allowing it to move without that friction that would normally cause the train to be less efficient, and and allow it to move it at a high speed without with a relative minimum energy input right right. Right and of course you could also make a train the other way around where the superconductors are on the train and the maggots are in the the track. In fact, I think Japan might have examples of both I wrote an article years and years ago for Discovery News about it, but frankly I i. honestly can't remember at this point, but. other things we could use it for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. That's A. Very very useful in a pharmacy pharmaceutical research. Biotechnologies etc, etc. They're looking forward to to maybe trying to use this. In in more efficient forms of energy, storage or energy capture like wind turbines, right also just other electric generators in general so that you don't lose as much of that that you've generated through heat so again. That's one of those things you know. If we can make power systems more efficient, where more of the power we are more, the electricity were generating gets to wherever it needs to be to do work. Then that's a win for everybody. It means that you have to consume fewer resources because you don't have to worry about losing. You know X. amount of the energy. You're trying to produce as heat a rate On the on the quantum level is could be very useful for things like quantum computers, because it's. It's working on that tiny. Quantum scale yeah, a quantum computers. There's always a super cooling element with quantum computers as well in order to make them work We've talked about quantum computers in previous episodes, but I have a feeling. We're going to need to do a full episode on quantum computers to really explain what the concept is, and how they work. Because again it gets pretty I. Guess I'd say we call it spooky. I guess I. Guess he would..
"superconductors" Discussed on TechStuff
"Particles so that's you know we. We're GONNA talk a little bit more about some of the applications, but the actual is phenomenal Yeah, and and thank you to Nicholas Gerbils or Gerber. Depending on how you pronounce that for for writing that excellent little bit for that article on superconductivity for us. Yes yes, it's a great read I. Do recommend it and. There are lots of different substances that can exhibit superconductivity Some of them were the pure substances we talked about. The metallic elements can do this if you cool them to the correct temperature. Some of them, some of them that are not metals can. Exhibit superconductivity like uranium, yeah, or selenium or silicon, if you, if you lower the temperature enough, you have to also Chris Brasher. This, they don't. If it's at just a normal one atmosphere pressure, you can't get it cold enough to do that, but if you increase the pressures, then that the combination of the pressure and the temperature will have them exhibit this superconductive property. That have hot superconductors. This is that recent more recent research that was begun in the eighties and a so so tell us tell us what hot superconductors do okay so You know we've talked about the idea of cold fusion, the idea of having a fusion reactor that could operate at temperatures that are much lower than what we would expect a fusion reactor to perform at right. Hot Superconductor is kind of the opposite idea, and while we don't know if cold fusion will ever really work, we do know that hot superconductors are a thing right right well. The when we say hot, we're talking relative turfs. It's still very very very cold. It's still cold enough to kill you if you were to be exposed to it, but it's not so cold as to require liquid helium to cool it. So This was something that lots of different people were working on throughout the years, and you know just sort of experimenting with different combinations of materials again getting back to that scientists in the lab, saying I wonder what would happen if we did this to this the first one was in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, six, I believe it was discovered by IBM researchers They presented a superconductor of Barium them anthem and copper oxide..
"superconductors" Discussed on TechStuff
"Is Broken you can back by cooling it back down again. Right by the actual properties it exhibits as a superconductor. Go Away if the temperature goes over whatever its critical temperature is for being a superconductor, another thing that will cause the breakdown of the superconductive state is a few subject to. It's called critical magnetic field right, so remember we. We talked about dia magnetism. This means that magnetic fields cannot penetrate this superconductor metal while it's in the superconductor state, so you can't make it allows a superconductor to kind of. Float above a magnet. Type one superconductors. That always tends to be wobbly if you've ever seen. A demonstration of this the whatever the material. Is GonNa be kind of kind of spinning and shaking doesn't hold. It doesn't hold a position very well it it does tend to wobble quite a bit, but. If you were to introduce a magnetic field that is stronger than what that superconductor can. With Flan yeah well, yeah, the expel really excelling belling macaroni. But? Yeah, if it's too strong a magnetic field again, we'll break down that superconducting state, and it will just become a regular conductor as opposed to a superconductor, so you have to maintain its critical temperature and make sure it is not subjected to a magnetic field above that critical limit all right, so that's type one superconductors, which then raises the question. What is a type two superconductor now? These are made up of alloys. And they have a much more complex dia magnetic feature to them right, they're not. They're not as simple as type one. They actually have to thresholds for critical magnetic fields all right, so if it's if the magnetic field is below the primary threshold. The type two. Superconductor acts more or less like type one so in other words. If you super cool this down to below that that threshold, it'll behave just like it would be. Just as if it were a type one superconductor. Now. If if that magnetic field goes above that threshold..
"superconductors" Discussed on TechStuff
"Free Kate, but there's plenty for everyone so just come in the same order that you walked into the room, and everyone obeys the rules, and they just smoothly exit. That's kind of the idea of superconductors. You've created this experience where everything's happening in a very a very. Right. Yeah, it's it's sort of like. If all those people were members of a dance troupe, and they just kind of fell into line and danced quietly out in fact that. Analogy I've seen several times when looking at superconductors now the the BCS that we had mentioned. Explains that the electrons travel in ever changing cooper pairs named after Leon in Cooper one of the three of that. Right and that. So. We have that leading electron pairs have a leading electronics following electron, and they're both going down this pathway keeping your mind, electrons do repel one another. Yes, so we avoid the ever. Changing comes in they. They kind of swap around a whole bunch right so you've got this pair going down swapping places occasionally. And the positively charged ions start to be attracted to that leading electron, which means that you have a growing positive charge, which starts pulling that second electron, even harder that creates this increased pressure. If you will of poll really right, it's pulling those electrons even harder than it normally would. Because the positive charge is growing, and all this, all of these different opposing forces essentially ended up. Each other out so that you don't end up with resistance right and this is opposite to the way that resistance normally works. So cool. Cool so interesting. Now keep in mind. This was the first working model of superconductivity, and then future study would end up kind of tweaking this and changing our understanding a little bit in fact in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, two, we then had a Brian Josephson who predicted that electrical current would flow between two superconducting materials, even if they were separated by non superconductors or even insulators now that prediction that he made was later on confirmed, and he earned the Nobel Prize in physics in one, thousand, nine, hundred three, so one year after the BCS team won the Nobel Prize in physics so clearly superconductors big important thing in physics..
"superconductors" Discussed on TechStuff
"And. What's what was really going on there was that The the Mercury at that temperature underwent a phase transition. But. We'll get more into that in a second right so then we skip ahead a little bit that was nine hundred eleven in nineteen thirty-three. Some German researchers Vaulter Meisner, not the famed theater. Mentor because I have a lot of meisner technique, Guy Sharon, Guy, nice, ner and Robert. Ocean feld discovered that a superconducting material will repel magnetic field now. This is super cool. As well Khodeir keep using that I didn't mean to, and I should've caught myself. It's really interesting. It's really interesting if you've ever seen. There's lots of videos on YouTube. Right of people using magnets and supercooled superconductor material, and they can lock the material in a levitating state above the magnet right. Or sometimes they have a superconducting base that is super cooled, and then they put a magnet on top of it, and it seems to just hang in the air now, technically, if you if you actually listen to the physicists who talked about this. There's a great Ted talk where a guy demonstrates this for. Twenty eleven, it's willing. Get on social, I mean. Everyone's seen it I'm sure we'll get anyway because it's still fun to watch he he explains that technically it's not levitation. It's what they call quantum lock. And so it's a little different from that, but we'll. We'll get more into that in a little bit, and then you skip ahead to one thousand, nine, hundred, eighty seven. When and a trio of scientists Leon, N Cooper, John Bar Dean and John Robert Schruefer propose the first successful model that explained superconductivity. This might be a good time to mention that while we talk about models that explain superconductivity. Honestly scientists are still learning about the properties of superconductors and how they do what they do, and and why they operate at certain temperatures better than other temperatures, so while we're describing this stuff, and while we have superconductors in actual use around the world and thousands of different applications. We still don't understand everything about. Right when I say we I'm not talking about just me and Lauren I'm talking about super. Smart people that that's their job. We're still learning. This is one of those things I always fight exciting is just you know when you know that you don't know everything? That always gives you that kind of tingle to dry. You want to learn more, so their theory became known as the BCS theory, and it earned them the Nobel Prize in physics in one, thousand, nine, hundred, seventy two. Now. We kind of need to sort of talk about what this theory says okay. The atoms in a conductive material that have given up electrons are are then positively charged ions right right okay. And when electrons are flowing through them, they're attracted to those negative. Negatively charged electrons cool. Cool. That's a really bad word to use podcast okay. Three or four times under under usual circumstances, those ions of crunching together towards the electrons that are flowing through them would cause resistance, but not in superconductors and what?.
"superconductors" Discussed on TechStuff
"In Washington DC or wherever the rotates you on the iheartradio APP. Back the superconductor, so we've covered conductors insulators. We've covered semi conductors. We heard about resistance. What exactly is a superconductor? Technically. This is some sort of material that will conduct the electricity without resistance below a certain temperature, and you don't want that resistance. Obviously, because again you have that loss of energy. You want it to be as efficient as possible so if you could find a material that does not. Convert any of that. Energy into heat, and it's all output then you've just dramatically increase the efficiency of your system. It's about as close to perpetual motion as we can ever expect to get, which is really exciting you know for cost purposes, and all kinds of all kinds of fun research bits which we'll get into in a minute shorter and in fact. According to superconductors dot Org, which has a lot of really fund information about superconductors by the way. Scientists, call it a quote..
"superconductors" Discussed on TechStuff
"Now Boron has what we would call vacancies or holes that were electrons could flow into so if you put Boron if you introduce boron into silicon, it would have a availability to accept electrons, a positively charged or P type exactly, and if you were to take both of these types of doping and apply them to one silicon wafer so that let's just say on the left side. You have n type Silicon, and on the right idea of P. type silicon. That would allow electrons to flow across in the direction from negative to positive correct correct, and it would prevent the flow of electrons to go from positive to negative because again, those negative electrons in the. silicon will will repel any incoming electrons. This is the basis of a very specific type of electronic component called the diode. Diodes are important. They're kind of A one way street in electronics, and in one of these this is important is when you have something like alternating current alternating current. It's exactly what sounds like it alternates direction, remember I was saying before current is the flow of positive charge. In a circuit alternating current running through it, then that current is running one way, and then the other way, and it alternates at thousands of times per second. We call, it hurts the those cycles per second, so it's usually twenty thousand Hertz so twenty thousand times a second. It's going. Back and forth now like defect boom. Yeah, that's the sound of electrons just zigzagging doing their thing, but all of our electronics don't run on alternating current. They need to run on direct current so diodes are a good way of of addressing that because they will only allow charge to pass through in one direction, so even if you have an alternating current, then it's going to prevent current from passing through one way and allow it to pass through the other way. That's one of the ways we use to to transform alternate current into direct current so right and this problem is you get those little little boxes on your electric plugs to transform the alternating current coming in through your through your system to the lower through through the plugin thing. Let's let's. It's been a long day. It has it. Has I'm giggling more than usual? Leave me dealing. We've been in a a meeting. For a long long time if you need to know how long! Just a quick aside checkout Josh and Chuck Series trapped in the meeting It's very good. It's very funny and it's very real. It's so real. It's my video debut, so check that out. That's right. You can see Lauren blocking me for almost every episode, I just see like either the front of my face or the back of my head, almost every shot. But That's just me complaining. That's fine, so let's move onto we. We mentioned resistance resistance is this property that resists the flow of a charge, and it depends on the material, the conductor and the flaws that that conductor might have that create resistance the gauge of the conductor, so example the the gauge of wire, so how much of it there is right, the thinner, the wire, the greater the resistance general, so if you're talking about copper wire and you're talking about Gauges, which are actually larger wires I don't know why that is. I'm sure someone out. There understand why the gauge and size are inversely. Aperture related thing. There's something out there..
"superconductors" Discussed on Advent of Computing
"Similar agencies from time to time on the side. For young engineer in this era, mit must have been like a playground. The college has a long standing reputation for being on the cutting edge of computing and especially so in the nineteen fifties. One of the big projects at the beginning of the fifties was world wind a new computer commissioned by the US. Navy. This was an interesting real time system meaning that it needed to be able to provide quick turnaround and responses to inputs most other computers. Grand task batches a program would be loaded and ran then eventually maybe days later, you'll get your results. For the era whirlwind was unique, take a number crunching. Both would soon find himself working on the input output side of things the project whirlwind. Wasn't working on the core computer, but instead the ancillary surgery treatment feed data in and read data out of the computer. While on the project buck king face to face with how much of a problem this cutting edge computer actually us all in all whirlwind wasn't using that many vacuum tubes only about five thousand bulbs. But the machine was meant for very heavy load and it drove those tubes pretty hard. burnt-out tubes common and just a handful of failures could bring the whole machine crashing down until the offending tube could be replaced. The team took pains to try to work around this problem they went as far as turning off heaters to tubes that we're currently not in use all measures like this did help in general it also added complexity to world and back tubes just weren't mid for using computers and increasingly powerful computers like whirlwind were pushing the second -nology to and eventually beyond its breaking point only a few years after joining mit in nine hundred, fifty, three buck hit on his big idea. He'd been trying to find a way around the shortcoming of the vacuum tubes by investigating materials with more exotic properties and hall buck had come up with some promising leads none head really panned out very far. But circumstances would align to change that. Around this time Mattie physics department had built new liquid helium condenser besides just being a pretty neat gadget in general liquid helium is a fantastic coolant. Access to this machine. One of the first large-scale condensers anywhere allowed scientists at Mit to conduct experiments and ultra cold conditions verging on absolute zero. Thinking Hey, there may be something to all this cold stuff after all bucks shifted his attention ports this newly opened avenue of study and this adjustment would lead to his creation of the Tron. Now acquire Tron is essentially a switch made using superconducting materials. See if we kind of Tivoli is a really strange property that some metals exhibit under normal circumstances, all conductors, no matter how good have a certain level of resistance? No metal is perfect conduit for current. At, least wind temperature. ONCE COOLED DOWN TO NEAR ABSOLUTE ZERO CERTAIN MEDALS lose all resistance and become perfect conductors. These are called superconductors. Different metals have different temperatures needed but once below that point material becomes superconductive. And there's some really weird and interesting properties of superconductors to say the least the phenomenon was first discovered in one, thousand, nine eleven. But for decades, it only existed as somewhat of a novelty. That is until buck got his hands on it. One of the many weird and fantastic properties of superconductors is how they interact with magnetic fields. There are actually a few interesting possibilities but one specific matter for buck when exposed to an outside magnetic field, a superconductor will switch back to being a conductor. So even if the metal is cold enough to be superconductive, it can be switched back to a normal resistant metal. Bucks Krytrons was based on this principle actual devices deceptively simple. It's a single thin metal wire wrapped in a coil of a secondary type of metal both metals are superconductors of some sort and normal circumstances. This wouldn't do much. But once brought down to critical temperature. It acts as a switch and it can be a pretty fast which at bat with a little bit of coercion cry tron becomes the coldest possible and gate. This was the first practical use of superconductivity full stop, which in itself is really impressive. What's more interesting is intended the Cryer Tron as a direct replacement for vacuum tubes. Instead of an older technology adapted for use with computers this was a new device, those being designed specifically for computing. Its applications weren't an after thought the drive behind the Cryer tron was to improve computing. This is brought into stark focus with butts nineteen, fifty, five paper the Cry Tron, a super conductive computer component. Tunnel started gives it all away this paper doesn't just describe the criterion itself, but it outlines how it can be used as a computing element and how it solves all the pressing problems with existing technology. First of all, each krytrons is really small. It may sound like a given, but it's really impressive to see a single criterion. Tron is smaller than one of the contacts on a vacuum tube and with a little work. Already showing device could be made even smaller. So how about power? That's another point in Buck's favor? He.
"superconductors" Discussed on WHAS 840 AM
"Photovoltaics superconductors in metamaterials it is very time he advises several blockchain startups focused on healthcare applications use the young star of innovations he's an avid UFO advocate is actively engaged with engineers from Tesla Lockheed Martin volts wagon in NASA he got interested in UFOs after hearing actually about be expended on officials claiming they were real the idea of extra for people's advanced enough to get here was the most intriguing concept for someone who wants to build the most site by possible world one can so bring deep on the program the facade walking ground zero thank you so much I'm really excited to be here but I'm sorry to have you here because you know you are probably my only link to the quantum world and the Russian doll universe we live in at least it was discouraged at first now we got panpsychism super position we got all these things to talk about tonight we got also the idea that you know with all of the I guess with all the world set the supercomputers have have said exist one of the things is difficult about these worlds is trying to send anything to them send anything that could land on them maybe a a satellite takes you know hundreds of years to get to but I think we can basically jump over all of that Brigham row and we can use the quantum computers to open up portals to communicate with these different areas they may be dimensional and and maybe even a doppelganger to out there I would be looking at that more than one earth yeah so there's like a two key components to what you just mentioned there first of all it is the question of the nature of the multi verse and we can get into that in a second right because the whole idea of a doppelganger it could be a very simple answer but there's no such thing as a simple answer when we're talking about cloning complex quantum states like the human body so before I get to that on the other idea that you mention it like using contributors to create a portal theoretically we could use corn computers yeah I'd like a tool to create a portal now that's probably possible and something we will do maybe you know maybe not in our lifetime Thursday but eventually we will be doing that for one example give you by the way about how you could do that is that I believe it was three months ago now so there's these you can see what the skunk works of the tech world and they're called Google act that's Google's version of skunk works and you have to be like a really good you know like really top scientist to work there right because there I think they have like over a trillion dollar market cap now which is it's a large enough for them to pick the best of the best and so one of the people that work there are kind like lectures there as well at the same time regarding Leonard Susskind who was the protege of Richard Feynman so this guy is a very often because he proposed a new field of quantum physics and it's an intersection of quantum physics and computer science you can say and the field is called quantum gravity in the lot so the idea is that we know that we can now create the quantum computers and they can assimilate they're actually imploring quantum phenomena such as simulating per se they're actually using it and so can we then use this to probe the nature of how information travels one warm fall to another one like to the end of the other part of the same global for example so for the first time ever we're actually able to conceptualize simulating these wormholes elaborate on these points computers which is something that was like like total science fiction even thirty forty years ago so when you when you open these old it's a safer way of of getting the the information rather than you know doing so you're saying I guess you say quantum but not quantum we get way column yeah quantum cannons or or using the the the the ultimate core cannons you see at CERN you can do this is to be laid on a computer using quantum physics rather than having to you know collide the particles in the underground correct yeah visually we can create powerful of course computers then yeah theoretically we could do really good job just simulating the collision so there is a paper that came out two years ago that showed that because the data that stern is using is quantum in nature then the ideal machine to process that data is gonna have to be a quantum machine so I could call him Peter and so what they did was they used a quantum algorithm and they demonstrated that this algorithm was able to process and selected to tackle like these signals for the bosonic dig boson faster and with more efficiency and with less data than our normal heart rhythms can using okay over uses simulations where are we safer using the quantum computers because there's always that worry the Higgs Bosan if if it exists they say it does would become and become unstable it came on stable would be seeing the universe bringing up and we'd be throwing ourselves in a different dimension without even knowing it are we are we looking at the trying to use these to stabilize I mean I always worry that what we could do with this technology is push god through a wormhole is this something that could actually happen accidentally so I I don't think we could yeah ever accidentally maybe quite some through wormhole but unless I we may do that easy ride and that's only possible thousands of years from now but definitely not now but like the ideas that we can simulate so here's so okay we'll have to take a step back and I think you'll get exactly what I mean so there's this idea of your equal U. P. R. and so and E. R. is B. I've signed Rosen bridge that's what that sounds like yours I thank rose then and then EPR is I thank the dole queue rose then and that comes from the paper in the early nineteen thirties where they kind of like talked about crime integument without calling it that but for the first time they described that phenomenon what it is and why it's problematic so they also in that same time span be created that that paper on E. R. bridges the Einstein Rosen bridges where the idea was that you can have in theory traversable or just connected wearables where you come in on one end and the other end of that warm bowl is entangled so it's literally just a large scale you can almost feel as a large scale in tangled system and they and so the idea of your vehicles EPR is appear you're sick conjecture that essentially the idea of a worm hole where you can travel and you end up in another area of the universe I'm instantly is the same exact nominal level of requirement tangle meant to exist that's what your equals the PR says and that was also proposed by a Leonard Susskind the guy was talking about earlier right like up right proposed that new field so and and frankly like there's been some pretty compelling results and evidence that say that this is the case that basically if I were to take one item at a time and I just entangled by let's say two particles at the time and I sent one off to each part of the universe like one on each end and I just kept doing that I kept generating these entangled pairs of particles and then sending them off to each side of the universe the ideas that V. article DPR what they're saying is that the eventually they'll collapse it'll create we'll turn to one ball from all their math and because they were inching up from the get go they are officially warm holes because they are in tangle so if you I mean so if you can replicate that nana of quantum entanglement like we had in the lab now are to small extent tried to with these very subtle contributors now we can start probing the what happens like so when when you enter this one goal because we can very diff defined very well the status of a human or an object before it enters the death of the wurmple like right what is the surface very straightforward Madison very straightforward served his contrition but when we're going through that I instead Rosen bridge connecting us together in one bowl right more whatever abstract you'd like to think of that is very under like unknown areas so that's like the hot spot of theoretical physics research right it's like that's part of it's like trying to understand what's going on there right so if you have computers that are already stimulating the same exact physics then you can start putting what's happening in the middle a lot lot easier to you you have like these little toy models of what's going on in the universe in theory right like I if you are equal the PR so I want to point out something to you and what will point out the next break after the break I don't you know this or not but maybe you can elaborate on it but I have a feeling that it's stable Rosen bridge may already have happened or is happening here on earth and it's because a little something that I always like to play for the audience is something that is Mooney said it was former head of the department of energy and he admitted on the Chelsea handler program that the department of energy has been doing experiments on certain dimensions with the roads and bridges for sometime now I'll play that for you tonight as the for side is on the program to talk about this science of opening.
Cryogenic bricks in space to combat power of the sun
"Purpose of cryogenic selective surfaces. At least we propose this is to try to get a object out in deep space as cold as possible and with the current technology that we have. This is is not possible. We can't get things cold enough. The primary reason is the son. And you have to be able to accomplish some way to not absorb most of that power in order to get cold enough that you can store choir. Ginger operate superconductors the concept. The team is using isn't new. They have simply rediscovered an idea from the nineteen sixties sixties and are. We applying it to space technology. The team proposes making bricks. Out of a powder that scatters the sun's radiation rather other than absorbing it and the success of early tests has the team shivering with delight
"superconductors" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"You got them all to work together like all right next question electric fences are excellent conductors of course but they're not just for farm someone once seriously suggested using an electrified fence for which of these uses a surrounding in mixed martial arts fighters of the first UFC about be keeping the political press from harassing senators were seen managing the line which gets quite extraordinary at Franklin's barbecue in Austin Texas okay I'm gonna go the barbecue because the electric and the barbecue it sounds kind of no it wasn't a barbecue in was a mixed martial arts but I just I'm glad that you mentioned about because the only reason I put it in here was that they would hear it and send us some barbecue the help all right this last one right you win your last question is about superconductors these are the remarkable materials that conduct electricity with almost no resistance very useful and industry and science in twenty ten a group of Japanese scientists made an incredible discovery about superconductors how did it happen was it a one of them was picking out ham at the grocery store freezer section noticed it was colder than the frozen chicken that led to the discovery that hammock makes an excellent superconductor we are the company lab assistant made contact with two electrical leads in the current passed through his body with excellent efficiency without harming him so he now works as a professional superconductor or see the site is got drunk dunked a superconductor in booze and discovered that red wine increases conductivity sixty two percent all right we're going with C. I'm trust in them in.
NASA's Deep Space Cold
"Is innovative advanced concepts or nyack program funds ideas that Phil Technology gaps. Here's Robert Young Quist from Kennedy Space Center to tell us about one of those projects the purpose of cryogenic selective surfaces. At least we propose this is to try to get a object out in deep space as cold as possible and with the current technology that we have. This is not possible. We can't get things cold enough. The primary reason is the son. And you have to be able to accomplish some way to not absorb most of that power in order to get cold enough that you can store choir. Ginger operate superconductors the concept. The team is using isn't new. They have simply rediscovered an idea from the nineteen sixties sixties and are. We applying it to space technology. The team proposes making bricks. Out of a powder that scatters the sun's radiation rather other than absorbing it and the success of early tests has the team shivering with delight
A new age of helium
"Helium is still used rockets today but helium uses. Don't stop there. Mattie in fact we're in a new age of helium. It's because of another remarkable property. It can be cooled down to very low temperatures. It becomes liquid at four point two Kelvin which is real real cold old. Yeah to put it in perspective. I spoke to a chemist named Sophia Hayes sometimes My astrophysics colleagues. Tell me the temperature of outer space is three Kelvin. So it's just one degree different from the temperature of outer space. Oh my goodness. That's particularly useful for Sofia because her lab at Washington University in Saint Louis Uses fairy special type of material called a superconductor and basically these materials. Where when they get cold enough? Electricity Christie can flow through them with no resistance at all and that creates very very very large magnetic fields and so that superconducting state is only reached at low low temperatures like that provided by liquid helium so she uses liquid helium in magnets and she uses these magnets for something called nuclear magnetic resonance she uses it to study materials. But it's basically the same technology is something you may have heard of magnetic resonance imaging like we're talking emory's that we use on people exactly and Mres are actually a part of the reason that helium missing such short supply now because MRI machines all over the world L. D. use helium and they use liquid helium. which is much denser than the stuff in these balloons so you know they need a lot of it but there are only really three places aces in the world that produce most of the world's helium Algeria Qatar and the U S? So say there's a crisis in the Gulf. Every researcher in in these associations will sometimes be watching those news stories and think oh there's going to be a cutback in our supply. I mean I know I know a lot of scientists that are worried that worked with lasers and that kind of stuff are worried about helium and general. That's right and it's really an issue of volatility because the prices can go up and down so much that Sophia actually had to shut down some of her magnets. Those are very high capital costs pieces of equipment and for want of a chemical to sustain it. The liquid helium. We're taking those off line. Making smaller. The number of experiments at one can do or maybe even shrinking the size of the research groups at the problem is GonNa grow for the scientific community. Maybe you've heard about this new. Google go quantum computer that supposedly his beaten out classical computers at certain calculations. Well it uses helium to cool the chip. Okay so Komo is quantum computers scientific research. Is this kind of coming to ahead like. Are we running out of helium. Jeff you know when I spoke to Sophia Hayes as is worried about that It turns out there other natural gas fields and other parts of the world that do produce helium and they're not being hardest right now some of them are a planning to step up production so that should help in the short term but eventually we are probably going to run out because once it gets out you know into the atmospheric spirit's flown off into space. It's not coming
STEMinists: Mildred Dresselhaus
"Stem inist has been deemed the queen of Carbon Science for her pioneering during work in the fundamental properties of carbon she was the first woman appointed professor and Professor America physics and electrical engineering at MIT and she helped to kickstart the field of nanotechnology. We're talking about the one and only mildred Drexel House v was born on November Eleventh Nineteen thirty in Brooklyn New York. She was the daughter of Polish Jewish. Immigrants Mildred mildred grew up in the Bronx and was a gifted violinist. She went to high school at Hunter College High School and got her Undergrad degree at Hunter College in Nineteen fifty one she majored in math and physics and almost completed a third major and chemistry she then received a highly procedures Fulbright Fellowship for Postgraduate but studies at Cambridge at the time women who excelled in the sciences often became a lower level science teachers mildred was counseled not to do so by future Nobel Prize winner Rosal in yellow and decided instead to continue her education in addition to completing her fulbright mildred also got a masters asters degree from Harvard University and a PhD from University of Chicago in Chicago mildred who often went by Millie met Jean Russell House in the two married and had four children with her doctorate in hand mildred decided to continue her career at higher education she taught at Cornell University before for moving to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It's really exceptional as a woman in science in the Mid Twentieth Century military taught at such prestigious sieges universities she was hired as a visiting professor of electrical engineering in nineteen sixty seven and receive tenure at Mit just a year later she she was the first woman to do so at the institution and was the first woman to be appointed to the role of MIT institute professor in Nineteen Eighty Five. That's an honor that's been and held by some of the greatest minds of our time. All in all mildred had an illustrious fifty seven year career at Mit. She spent most of that time studying the properties of carbon and other electro conductive materials so carbon turned out to be extremely interesting system. It also turned out to be a system. Nobody else cared about for many years so I had to myself. Her research is difficult to understand because of its complexity laxity but at its most basic milton studied carpet in all its forms including its electric energy structure among the many facets of of her work. She tested out the properties of carbon when interwoven with other materials for example. If you stitch carbon and an alkali metal together where it becomes a superconductor military it was also the first to come up with the idea of rolling a single layer of carbon atoms into a hollow tube or what we know today as a Nano Tube. It's a primary component of nanotechnology. Milford was also known for her work on graphite. Her production action of a very thin graphite has allowed portable electronics to be added everywhere from clothing to cell phones suffice it to say today we are surrounded led by manifestations of miltiades work mildred received innumerable honors including the National Medal of Science and the Presidential Medal of freedom and our influence is all around us in the cars we drive the energy generate the electronic devices that power lives a new generation walking the path that millie blazed around the year two thousand one motored was appointed director of the Office of Science at the US Department of Energy. Several physics theories bear her last name in addition to cultivating her own success mildred was dedicated to supporting other women in stem. She Co organized the women's for him at Mit in nineteen seventy one talk about women in science and engineering. She called science an endless frontier. Her Genius was also recognized. Nice in a General Electric ad campaign asking what a female scientists were celebrities what if movie drizzle House the first woman to win the national based on metal of science and engineering famous any celebrity at Wfan. We think they should be mill passed away. On February twentieth twenty seventeen at the age of eighty six. I should think science the Si- The or giving me. This nice life
"superconductors" Discussed on Science Friday
"Three hundred twenty Kelvin, which is about forty degrees above room temperature. So that's materials to look for even join away in there. Yes. The highest prediction that I know is for trim h ten that is about three hundred twenty five Calvin two hundred fifty a good pass gals. Got it. And actually kind of moving to the bigger picture. We had a question which was just, you know, we're asking some of the most basic science questions here. And you know, when we come and talk about the radical physics with IRA, we talk about dark matter. So what are some of those biggest mysteries right now in this field? Theoretical chemistry. I mean, what are some of the the biggest outstanding questions that we're working towards? I guess for these types of superconductors the question for me is you have these different structures with the way that hydrogen is arranged. And we're seeing that these three-dimensional cage, like structures only appearance irt types of combinations with certain elements. Why and why is it that you need these geometry's to get this very high TC? You don't get it. When you have stuff with each two units in each don't get that high t c so what's special about that? And if we can understand that then we can use that knowledge to try to engineer other materials that might be stable at lower pressures, and or meta stable like Zulu said if you take off the pressure, it won't decompose guys are working on that. Because we'll have to to end it right there on a thank my buddy in the studio with me Ryan Mendham, science writer, forgives Moto. Thanks for always great to be here. Metairie? So my Zillow is a group leader of the x Ray science division at Argonne national lab in Lemont, Illinois and eve Zurich is a theoretical chemist and professor of chemistry university at buffalo. Thank you all for taking time to be with us today. Thank you. For the rest of the hour. We're going to take a trip to Africa, or at least a trip to the museum to look at the remains of some stuffed African lions because when you think alliance hunting, you probably imagine that feasting on a large animal like water buffalo or an antelope, but during times of drought or disease, those preferred kinds of prey maybe in short supply and lions have to turn to less desirable sources of food like porcupines s porcupines. So what happens when Lyon meets pine Jillian Curbis Peter is professor of natural science at Roosevelt university and adjunct curator at the field museum famous field museum of natural history. In Chicago, his article on this topic is published this week in the journal of East African natural history. Welcome back to curb us. Thank you. Thanks for having me. Why would have big line? You know, go after a pork you. Pine knowing about the quills and all that kind of stuff. Well, as you said in your intro. There are certain conditions specially drought and in prayed to Popper environments where lions are have very little alternative. And so they do see quote, unquote, less desirable. Pray sometimes with harmful or even occasionally fatal results. So so a little eight pound porcupine can can kill a lion. What? Yeah. For two. It's ly- the one in a million shot attacking parked by a quilt might go through a harder crowded, artery or federal artery. But more often than not what happens is they get impaled and have long-term suffering, which leads to their debilitation their weakness. Their inability to pursue fleet-footed pray or might have quilt in their Puffer example, and it's kind of a downward spiral from there. And then they may turn to.
"superconductors" Discussed on Science Friday
"Could you know? Very cold temperatures could carry charge without resistance, which basically that just means that the wire doesn't heat up when you pass electric charge to it it, it's it's resistance lists. And this is this would be big for transferring energy now that was really really really cold temperatures. I mean, we're talking negative four hundred and fifty two degrees Fahrenheit, just a few degrees above absolute zero which you know, you all might know is the temperature at which has no heat. So it's hard to do this. But since then theorists finally developed a theory to understand and explain what was going on. And this is now driven research into finding superconductors at higher temperatures where the ideal superconductor would be one room temperature. So you could operate it in a room. So, but but theoretically as possible at create a superconductor at riveted so cold now, and we have them powering MRI machines, and the large Hadron collider is theoretically it's possible to create one maybe hope is that they're radically. I think that. Haven't seen what the the most recent theories, but they get close. I mean, right now even experimentally actually they've been able to create tiny amounts of superconducting material at it seems almost the temperature in Chicago on a day. Okay. Well, we'll we'll talk about that a little bit more after we talk a little bit about the experiments with hydrogen. You wrote about hydrogen doesn't sound like the easiest thing to work with turn hydrogen into a medal, and then a superconductor. Well, you might remember from high school chemistry that matter is sensitive to both temperature and pressure. So if you compress things enough, they might become a liquid or solid so hydrogen. It's theorized under high enough pressure would become a metal and would potentially be a superconducting metal. And so just sort of both for curiosity's sake. And for hoping to find the superconductor scientists have begun these high pressure experiments Huntingford metallic hydrogen. Yeah. And you visited one of these labs, I did I was.
"superconductors" Discussed on This Week in Science
"We are back. We're back with more this week in science, and it's time for what has science done on floor me late. Good. I got someone else in here with me with the what has what has story I have a letter from a time listener. And I would love to read it to you. It is a fantastic note. He says hi folks finished fan of the show for years now. And like many of your listeners, I have much to thank medical science for perhaps I'll get back to you about later about that for today, though, I have to think science for entertainment silent science is mostly the the slow accumulation of facts and refinement of ideas, but I've always been fascinated by the breakthroughs that have added to the storehouse of knowledge or in some cases by scientific events that were just spectacular of seeing the arrival of black holes quasars, the cosmic background radiation smallpox eradication quirks. Lasers. Lasers. High temperature superconductors computing from. Accu tubes to cubits space exploration from Sputnik? Two major Tahmina tesla the hig Bozen plate tectonics graphene Lucy Denisa wtn's dark matter and dark energy crisper and the list goes on and the beat goes on. Yeah. The anthropoid and mass extinction. I could do without. But I find science and the power it has to lift the veil of ignorance to be immense fun and a great source of hope at the same time. Lately. Well, lately, I've been given new entertainment by subject some folks thought was old hat when I was a kid namely relativity, and it largely started with a twist up Assode. Let me explain lag. Oh and its companion detectors have opened up a whole new field of gravitational strana me for us. The detection of gravity waves has been covered extensively on twists. And as I'm drafting this text, I see four more events announced as a byproduct just over a year ago. Two papers came out almost on top of each other generated classical movement of unintended comedy. On twist episode six hundred forty three Justin Jackson with great enthusiasm explained. How the authors of the first paper using LEGO measurements from black hole Clinton's had been able to place upper and lower bounds on the speed of gravity at roughly the speed of light plus or minus forty five percent, so far so good. Then immediately went onto describe the findings of the second paper issued. Only two days later, which compared the newest matching gravity and gamma Ray detector results for a new tone start collision. These findings prove that the speeds of gravity and light are the same to within amidst skill fraction above or below expressed in scientific notation as numbers times ten to the minus fifteenth sixteenth power. Fortunately in reading out the numbers just in kept leaving out the minus sign and in the exponents, thereby effectively changing the accuracy to plus or minus about a billion light years. Rather than fractured Micron? Yes. He tried valiantly plane. Why what he was reading out was an improvement. The look on Dr Kiki's faces she sought to contain the result, resulting confusion was priceless. The whole occurrence inspired me to order a bunch of books from the library about Einstein and his work on relativity, which gave me many hours of educational entertainment and deepened my respect for a great man's genius. And appreciate an appreciation. I offer the following Limerick to the twists crew..
As Cold as Possible
"Whether it's four solar surfing for storing liquid oxygen. Nasa is looking for a way to achieve cryogenic temperatures in deep space. This is innovation now bringing you stories behind the ideas that shave our future is innovative advanced concepts or Nyack program funds ideas that Phil technology gaps. Here's Robert young Quist from Kennedy Space Center to tell us about one of those projects. The purpose of cryogenic selective surfaces at least has we propose? This is to try to get a object deep space as cold as possible. And with the current technology that we have this is not possible. We can't get things called enough the primary reasons the sun, and you have to be able to compass some way to not absorb most of that power in order to get cold enough that you can store cry ginger operate superconductors the concept. The team is using isn't new. They have simply rediscovered an idea from the nineteen. Sixties and our re-applying it to space technology. The team proposes making bricks out of a powder that scatters the sun's radiation rather than absorbing it. And the success of early tests has the team shivering with delight for innovation. Now. I'm Jennifer pulley innovation now is produced by the National Institute of aerospace through collaboration with NASA and is distributed by w HR V.