35 Burst results for "Superbug"
When Bad Policy = Bad Business Models = Bad Public Health
"Let's start with the business or the market side. What was the underlying problem on the market side? That got us here much. Like a virus attacks the weaknesses in the human body this pandemic spreads by effectively attacking her exploiting the weaknesses across the healthcare system. Writ Large in the United States healthcare is a fairly unique case in that. This is one industry one area. Where policy sets business models? And where you have bad policy. You have bad business models which can lead to market failures which can lead to public health failures. We've seen it happen in the vaccines industry. We've seen it happen in diagnostics. We've seen it happen in anti-infective antibiotics more broadly and so these are an isolated examples where the system fails at the system. Historically we've made very little investment into prevention in general really where the money has been made is in the treatment of patients who get sick. And so there's been really just an orientation around the incentives being aligned with waiting until those patients do get sick to then provide treatments and therapies and procedures that generate more revenue unfortunately and also higher margins for physicians and hospitals. And you're seeing a version of that here where again. There's been very little investment in preparedness for these kinds of pandemic disasters. So let's pull apart those threads in those three different areas so because vaccines are so top of mind. Let's dive into vaccines. Why does that not a successful market? Why think vaccines in general has been a difficult industry for a couple of reasons number one? If you're developing a vaccine for something that already affects humankind. Broadly those are considered pretty commodity products. Today right. You're mumps vaccines your the number of vaccines children. Getting their regular stables are relatively commodity product or not differentiated. You can't charge a lot for them because he's almost basic staples of public health and therefore you know relatively speaking out there. Yeah we need him there. Well covered and they're widely available. The trick comes when you have something that emerges quickly and has the potential to spread rapidly cova nineteenth out the first example of this that we've seen we've seen this happen numerous times whether it's with SARS or h one and one or West Nile or Zeka. Obviously Bala was was one that was wakeup call and made a lot of people nervous. And I think if you look at a lot of those historical examples. Generally speaking. What we saw happen was the companies that did have active vaccine programs. I'm we're asked essentially to stop doing everything they were doing. To develop programs against whatever specific emerging threat was and they responded to that call for Action. And what happens with vaccines is when the threat goes away you know. The urgency tends to go his way as well and once the urgency is gone. The market goes with that along with that these that were developing vaccines for these specific newly emerging threats in many cases they were left holding the bag. Where you know. In some cases order at governments had put in for them kind of went away when the threat went away and so the business model of saying well ramp production for an emerging threat. Where if you are successful the market for what? You're developing goes away so the public health efforts are successful in containing the disease. You don't need the vaccine and therefore there's no market for it and therefore you essentially wasted the effort. The other thing that's true that has been true in previous pandemics is. There's generally a call on the industry by governments to make sure that the vaccines become available at cost or at low cost and it's very hard to build a business around that where you're building four. You know an event like you called it a black swan event but at the moment of that Black Swan event. You're not able to recoup profits for valid reasons that you obviously have to make this widely available. It's a very difficult business model unless you're in a situation where it's the entire Globe and then it's all of a sudden. Well Yeah but then you need the ability to actually ramp up and be able to produce vaccines at that scale and at that speed to me. It's a silver lining in all of this is how rapidly some of these novel platforms have been at looking to develop vaccines candidates. But for that to work. As a business model you need to either be able to produce a vaccine for every oncoming pandemic. And you need to be able to have a business model that will enable you to essentially recoup and make a profit from the investments you've made in developing that platform and that goes back to policy and one interesting thing that comes to mind as you're talking about this is there's a lot of characteristics of vaccines that are somewhat similar to some of the more novel of gene. Therapy and cell therapy is that we've talked about where you essentially need the vaccine once or maybe a handful of times when it comes to things like booster shots for your entire life and therefore the opportunity to monetize that particular intervention is very rare in the context of anyone patients. You just have to wonder whether some of the dialogue that's happening around value based payments for different types of treatments. How would he applied here? Because you know to take the traditional fee-for-service way of thinking about getting paid a commodity price for a one time intervention just doesn't seem to match well with the paradigm of how vaccines actually administered to. I think the analogy is valid. By the way I think a lot of the proof is in the pudding because that kind of incentive structure that you just described hasn't existed historically there have been several calls for our policy put in place some of the key areas that have pioneered. This have been sort of the one and done therapies for very rare diseases and I think the reason why there was room to have that discussion was number one because the prevalence of those diseases is fairly well understood even though they are very rare. And so you can essentially run the actuarial calculation to say. Okay well if we charge two million dollars to treats matic muscular atrophy we're still benefiting this system a significant amount by extending life and reducing the need for supportive care and all those things and so you can actually model those out and it's a rare event that with high value. You can put a high price on here. It's a little bit trickier because it's hard to model out the actuarial on this because a pandemic is generally speaking unknown event. So unless you have a policy for pandemics broadly where you essentially provide some sort of incentive whether they're block grants or success fees etc. That would have to be really large for any institution that comes up with a effective vaccine against a newly emerging threat. You're sort of trying to solve for an unknown number. But I think we could learn a lot from what we're seeing with these new. Modalities like seeing gene therapies and cell therapies that have in many ways trailblazer novel business models to make them viable. I understand how for vaccines that model apart. When sort of a massive event like this happens really quickly. But how about antibiotics? That feels like something that everybody needs that we know. There's an increasing demand for the right kind of antibiotic. Where does the market policy healthcare public? Health failure come together there. We'll so they're similar situation with different circumstances right so in the case of antibiotics public health agencies and the medical practice. Broadly have been very focused. On how you prescribe antibiotics and in what order in order to prevent the emergence of resistance and so we have broad spectrum antibiotics and then we have narrow spectrum antibiotics and we have ones that are more potent than others and you know once bacteria become resistant to all things and we have the threat of superbugs where basically have no last line of treatment against a bacteria that has become resistant and so the conventional thinking around antibiotics has been just think of it as first line and second line and third line and so if you develop a novel antibiotic you might be addressing a very important unmet need. But by definition physicians are going to use these new antibiotics. As sort of last line of therapy I develop a new antibiotic. And it's good. It's only going to be used sparingly and if I'm charging per treatment or per use that's obviously not going to be a very effective model for me either right. You don't want to be having to use these unless everything else has failed. That's right and by the way we've seen the real world examples of this as well. Large pharmaceutical companies have also exited like with vaccines. They've also exited the antibiotics space. Nevada's exited Santa Fe has exited. It's very hard for them to find a way to make profitable business for other reasons. We've been talking about there. Was a startup called the kitchen. That was actually successful in developing a novel. Antibiotic against a nasty bug so they had public health success but what they found was that they didn't have a business model and so they went bankrupt. This is a really strange industry where you have to me. It's so successful that you cannot build a business on it. Scott Gottlieb the former head of the FDA who's of course been so vocal and helpful throughout this cove in nineteen pandemic. He'd floated the idea a year ago of similarly creating some sort of incentive structure. So people could develop new business models around novel. Antibiotics and these include things like motive with vaccine's success fees for developing novel therapy. He even floated the idea on something like subscriptions where you know. Institutions would subscribe to get access to antibiotics and they wouldn't pay per use. They would pay for access so it's almost like an all you can treat model versus a pay per pill model and you need to come from policy. Why wouldn't that just make good market sentence for the market to respond in that way? Well I think you're gonNA see a combination of those things so some of it needs to come from policy in the sense that you can require institutions to have a broad tool. Kit of antibiotics require them to carry all of them. And then if you require that the companies are developing novel antibiotics come up with new business models to make it viable for them and to make. Bible Hospital
"superbug" Discussed on Squawk Pod
"Today's uncertainty may cause you to question your investment strategy but with the right perspective and investment solutions. We think it's possible to stay on track toward long-term goals with Janice Henderson. Abandon your dance. Not your financial goals. You're listening to squad from CNBC. Good morning everybody. Welcome back to Squawk box here on. Cnbc I'm becky quick. Along with Joe and and Mike Santoli our guest host this morning is Liz Young. She's director of Market Strategy Mellon Investment Management New overnight China confirming two hundred new cases of the virus and the outbreak is taking a toll on the economy. Their new survey data showed China's manufacturing activity slumped in February. The purchasing managers index came in at forty point three. That's the lowest readings since the survey was launched. Back in two thousand and four Japan meantime reporting five new cases overnight and controversial school. Closures began their today for most of the country. Creating child-care problems for millions of workers auto sales in Japan tumbled ten percent in February as the virus outbreak led to production disruptions and South Korea reported nearly five hundred new cases overnight bringing the total there to more than forty three hundred. That's pretty amazing. These just all this the ramp in China you see. There are Japan the article that in Japan people. The flu season is being minimized because people are washing hand so much and staying home from work that they're normal people are doing better because in that entire county how many. Let's do that all the time I started. I started started. Welcome and then you hear China. That's such a bizarre story where you said okay. Two hundred two hundred cases but the size of China in two hundred cases and yet you've got a piece of forty that's a disconnect and shows you. Here's what's doing. Not What China? Actually did they intentionally shutdown and tried to quarantine. The fear of fear of the corona value. Went out to work. Maybe I understand anybody. Test it to the number of new cases is not proportionate economic damage is being done and it's the same thing that can happen. Economic Shutdown is the type of thing that China did that by the way most of have been applauding them for taking these extreme measures because it meant that it didn't spread more rapidly for the amount of cases that you have a country like China to see the economic damage versus the actual number of cases. I mean they did order to come out of the workforce right. I mean they quarantine enough people. They don't all necessarily need to be infected. They're just not at work. They're not producing anything. And that's been the issue and then you pass through it kind of builds on itself you pass through a certain area and then those people can't go to work for a certain amount of time so it brings. I mean at some point. A third. Almost a third of the workforce out of we have this type of damping of economic activity with eighty thousand or ninety thousand total cases globally. Yeah what happens when we have if we have a million cases I then it won't be as proportional because we've already discounted it seems like we've already discounted by in case Canada. Lot of economic activity. Shut yes exactly and you just wonder if we could get a quick therapeutic that could deal with the symptoms with people that that get worse to be great then we may go back. Eunice tweeted earlier today. About how stem cell therapy supposedly worked at a patient who was very sick from this southern things go back after yard and the only thing that fear we might go back in in Hindsight. Say That at some point that we. I'm hoping I'm hoping and then the other then there's pockets scenario. Would you be worse okay? We are joined by a couple of gentlemen. That know what they're talking about. Thank you meg. Let's talk to your doctor. Scott Gottlieb former. Fda Commissioner and CVC contributor. He serves on both Pfizer's and Aluminum Boards and Dr Matt McCarthy An Infectious Disease Physician who is the author of superbugs the race. The stop an epidemic Thank you both for joining us. Just start off on a little bit. Different Tangent Gentlemen. In the I mean. When did we discover penicillin? It was like in the thirty s or so it wasn't I mean what we've done in the past ninety years in the whole history of human existence. It's amazing where we are right. Discovered in nineteen twenty seven points available in nineteen forty four. We've had a long and successful history of Diagnostics and therapeutics and we're better and better. We can see when we sequence to sing instantaneously. Almost we can do. It ought in an automated way. Why shouldn't we be hopeful that we can come up with a therapeutic quickly? Let me tell you the problem right now before I came here this morning. I was in the emergency room seeing patients. I still do not have a rapid diagnostic test available to well. That's easy to do. Is it not? Is it hard to manufacture? It is easy to for some countries. What happened in the United States is that the CDC created test Senate test out to fifty states and then said hold up? Don't use it. Let us fix it. How we hear that. It's coming very soon but I'm here to tell you right now. At one of the busiest hospitals in the country. I don't have it at my fingertips. I still have to call the Department of Health. I still have to make my case. Plead to test people. This is not good. We know that there are cases in the United States. There are going to be hundreds by middle of week. There's going to be thousands by next week and is a testing. What do you do people in the emergency room? If you can't test them well we call and we try to test. We isolate them. We have an outstanding team of infection. Control practitioners who know how to handle this. But they're hamstrung by the fact that we don't have a diagnostic test available. People getting sent home because I read reports that over the weekend. We're not sending people home. We're making sure they get what supportive care we can give but keep in mind we now have this in New York state right. The person who tested positive was only the thirty second test. We've done in this state. That is national scandal. They're testing ten thousand a day in some countries and we can't get this off the ground. I'm a practitioner on the firing line. And I don't have the tools to properly care for patients today. The challenges that providers can't take proper precautions if they can't talk about this for weeks. This is what we need to do. We need to have a vaccine strategy. I think a vaccine is a year or two away. I think we need to think about what we're going to have in the fall back. Stopped this when this. Hopefully this will start to dissipate in July and August. But it's going to probably come back in the fall and then what next and the only thing that could be available in the near term therapeutic antibodies prophylaxis or drugs. Vaccines Much lie isn't something existing in the HIV regimen. That might work on on a well. We have an HIV drug Kalija. That we're studying right now. It's in a clinical trial. That information is not going to be available for a while. The message today is we're hearing from this administration. That risk is low and that things are probably going to be okay. You don't need to change your lifestyle that's simply not true. There are going to be thousands of cases here. We have already moved from containment to mitigation. We are trying to lessen the severity. Here you're going to see widespread disruption to daily life. Do not believe the false. Reassurance does that mean in terms of what people should do on a daily basis. Look I think that I think we're GONNA have outbreaks here in the US. There's no question about that. I think in in parts of the country would past the point where we can contain this. We're going to have to look towards mitigation Washington State California. It doesn't need to become epidemic. We have a much more advanced healthcare system. We have better infection control procedures in hospitals. I think we have the capacity to do that. I agree we need to start taking more aggressive steps right now to make sure that this doesn't become China. Hit testing that how to China possibly be on the downside of the epidemic cow. Well and there's also something called the boomerang effect which we may be seeing in who right now. Which is that places. We think are clear are starting to have rates creep up. We may see things bounce back. But the key here is do not believe the false reassurance. I'm telling you the cases are about to surge and only then. Can we make informed decision that lower denominator on on the mortality? Absolutely so we're talking about mortality rate. I see numbers like one to two percent thrown around. I don't believe that the modeling we're using. We're using data out of Korea. We think that's the best thing that point. Two point. Four percent of that's twice as bad as a seasonal a very bad flu season. Keep in mind. Flu Kills Twenty five nine thousand Americans so worried that has been caused already in the economic effects are much more than twice the mortality rate of the flu. Where ten times more what do you. What do you make of the diamond for instance? Because I know that's not a typical population. But the case fatality rate. There's GONNA be above one percent probably when you know if you're an eight because it's an older population right. So if you're an eighty year old on a cruise ship. You're in trouble. I mean the case fatality rates over ten percent We're seeing ages one to nine exceedingly low right. There's a lot about this absolutely so widespread surveillance is going to start giving us information so that we can make these informed decisions about whether March madness needs to be cancelled. Are there different levels of panic around the country and the reason I'm asking is because I was in Detroit last week and this is a small example but I asked a room full of clients and investors are you worried about corona virus and they unanimously said. No and I said. Are you not worried? Because you think you're going to catch it in your still be okay or are you not worried. Because you don't think you're gonNA catch it and they said we're going to be. I think this is going for a while. This is going to be regionally. GonNa have regional outbreaks where you're going to have more focus on it in certain parts of the country Washington state. We're probably a couple of weeks away from some significant measures in Washington state to try to mitigate spread in northern California's. Well look a couple of weeks away. It's got an incubation period of potentially a couple of weeks so are we kind of just always going to be behind the eight ball on this where reacting to the news. Two weeks later. We have a lot of undiagnosed cases to his point right. Now there's probably you know low thousands of cases in this country that we now need to turn over the car. And so we're GONNA WE'RE GONNA have a surge cases before we start to catch up to the actual level of spread. You know it's a big country. Three hundred thirty million people so even if you have several thousand cases your risk of contracting it's still low but that could change very quickly. Japan is taking some pretty extreme measures like co closing schools that they're not diagnosing their cases there as aggressively as South Korea. That's where we're going to school closures here. Definitely you know. We're we're hearing that life's GonNa go about Just like normal. That's not true and to speak to the earlier question. I'll tell you I live in Westchester and when I'm walking around Westchester not really worried about corona virus. But when I get on the six train when I'm walking around Time Square when I'm in the emergency room every single day caring for patients. I am very worried joining today. Santo you've got is because I ride the subway because you're supposed to Scott it say how many. How many cases do you suspect you've seen if you had enough cases testing? How many cases would you have tested? We've seen one case in New York. I bet hundreds I bet there are thousands in the United States. And the longer we wait to get testing up and running the worst. This is going to be but I'm telling you as a practicing clinician. We're not there. I thought they were shipping tests to California in Bulk CAPAC- by the end of this week. So we have about one hundred public health. Labs will have a capacity to do one hundred tests day so it's a ten thousand tests a day by the end of this week. That still requires physicians like you to call the Public Health Department of State to order the test. That's cumbersome by the end of the week after that we should have maybe as much as another ten thousand tests capacity -Oday so we'll be at twenty.
Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey could be ousted by activist investors
"Media reports say Elliott Management is taken roughly one billion dollars stake in twitter and nominated for directors to the board Elliott which is known for its activist. Campaigns has been in talks twitter's management about its desire for the company to find a full-time CEO twitter's Jack Dorsey also CEO of Square of course and he said last year he plans to move to Africa for three to six months this year. There's a Lotta talk over the weekend about whether this was a political move because just connections with the president but this seems like a pretty easy woman. Ceo has two jobs and he says he's moving to Africa these because it was a pretty easy target by saying you're going to go to Africa for three to six months. Easy time for one of these guys to step in and say Let's pay square. A square is a big company. I started it was kind of this thing I have on the side maybe promising. And so it's it seems like it's at least one job.
Why Do Our Tax Dollars Support Unhealthy Food?
"Juan. Focus on something. Really Kinda scary. Which is our government policies and part of you know how I got into this as a doctor. My patients are sick from eating the wrong food. Why food the food system? Why do we have the system? Well it's our food policies. Why don't we have the food policies? What's our food industry? That's driving the policies and funding so much literally billions of dollars. So I just sort of take you through a few simple policies that I think could be changed and then I'm working to change to the future campaign which I love you all to be a part of The first thing we're in talk about is food stamps or snap now. They were great thing and they helped me hunger and food insecurity their forty six million people in America who part of the snap program including one in four children. That's the good news and it does help address the hunger issues but it definitely doesn't address the health issues and study after study showing that people who are on snap are not as healthy and that actually. Wellington disease and other risk issues. Why because there are no nutrition guidelines and snap now you have to realize this is probably the biggest government program ever. It's seven hundred thirty five to fifty billion dollars depending on the year. Ten Year Program at seventy five billion a year Which is mostly junk food when you look at the stats on. What the things that people buy arts? It's seventy five percent junk. Food and ten percent is soda our thirty plus billion servings a year for the poor that we pay for his tax payers their government pays for it. And why isn't there nutrition guideline? There seems like there's something it should be like that their school lunch guidelines as women and Children Program Guidelines. But for some reason there's no guidelines and it's not by accident there's a huge amount of lobbying effort that prevents the government from changing it. There's hunger groups for example funded by the Soda Industry that fight any reduction or removal of processed food or sugar sodas from the Food Stamp Program and and there's a huge amount of benefits that goes to these companies. I Read I think that twenty percent of Cokes American revenue comes from food stamps and Walmart out of the seven hundred thirty five billion about one hundred thirty billion go to Walmart for for food and not all. His food has some great food but I doubt they're buying the veggies so it's really a huge issue that we're helping the poor not be hungry but we're not making them healthy and so there's a lot of effort to think about. How do we put nutrition or in back in the Food Stamps Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program? Because right now it's a lot of calories but not a lot of nutrients and we need to improve that. I think it's really important. Initiative and there's groups like the bipartisan Policy Initiative in Washington. That's a group of senators and Congressmen and and and Agriculture Secretary from both parties. That have really come together to look at this and they think we should ban soda from the Food Stamp Program where she put an interesting guidelines. Great study showing if you incentivize people think and use incentives and also disincentives. It works in other words. If you increase the amount of money you get to buy vegetables. Let's say they do it with for example thirty percent increase of dollars. You get one point three dollars or an extra thirty cents to buy vegetables if you do that. Great with Simpson. But if you want to buy soda maybe you get seven seven cents on the dollar seventy cents on the dollar instead of one hundred thirty cents so there's a lot of ways incentivize people and it works. They show that it really works. It's double bucks for example for Farmers Markets. Where you can go? If you go to a farmer's market you get You know instead of one dollars two to buy my whatever you want. If he's long fresh food. There's all sorts of ways to do that so the food stamp program really is a big issue and it can be really improved and it can really help. Because we're paying for the Medicare Medicaid and these patients need after they get sick The next big category is Dietary guidelines which have improved over the years for sure. But it's a little scary because they are now a political tool The dietary guidelines are recommended by an advisory group. That's a science group although many of them have conflicts of interest and And then they give it to the government and then the government decides was out so for example last time they recommended we should have environmental considerations in our dietary guidelines and the government said no way that was a problem and then we have for example the corruption of the science and last guidelines approach the trump administration recently said we cannot look at anything about ultra processed foods by the way which kills eleven million people. So count any science about that and we can't look at Anything for example on the dietary guidelines that have to do with looking at mead or low carb diets or any other restrictions. They looked at all. You only look at studies. They were done after two thousand that cuts out a lot of really good studies that should inform our guidelines that were well done. They could government studies. You can locate and in science studies. How does that make any sense? So it's really pretty corrupt. National Academy of Sciences. Put a report showing just how bad it was. A number of years ago made recommendations which sadly are not being followed so the dietary guidelines should represent science and should look at all the data and should have fair. Public comments can look at it and make comments on it and it should be Driven by science and not a bunch of bureaucrats who don't actually necessarily have the public health interests at heart. So that's that's they're improving but it's still not great and then of course we have the FDA dragon ration- which is supposed to protect us but it's kind of failing why because one They allow thirty million pounds of antibiotics. In our animal feed that is affecting US creating superbugs and cost two trillion a year. Kill seven hundred. Thousand people around the world from anybody resistant. Not all not all from the farms. Obviously but it's a huge factor. And WE KNOW THEY CAUSE OBESITY. They cause weight gain. That's actually what they'd given for. Not JUST PREVENTION. But for a game. And they're not regulated. I give them voluntary guidelines. Oh don't do that. Please don't do that but it's kind of garbage because they do it anyway. the also allow things that are banned in other countries for example. Izzo Dye carmine. Which is a so a yoga mat material and it also is used in bread and subway sandwiches and stuff and And using Singapore you get a foreign fifty thousand dollar fine and you get fifteen years in jail whereas here you can just put it in your sandwich. Stop at any of the fast food places although many of them have taken out there's BPA which again is banned in other countries that causes obesity is. It's an endocrine disruptor b. h. t. v. and these these are preservatives that are against seem to be carcinogenic. So there's all sorts of things that the FDA is not helping us with in terms of regulating that So that's a big problem and I think And also what's grass grasset if they allow all sorts of gratification which is Joan wrecks and say things that aren't really safe like say for example is not necessarily safe and yet is permitted in our food supply? So there's all sorts of issues. Fda's you've got the USDA this food stamp program that dietary guidelines if ta and there are other departments that are considering for example food marketing. Now the First Amendment's important But I don't know free speech counts when you're talking about targeting kids and manipulating them. So that's a big issue and I think we know that marketing drives huge amounts of behavior changing kids and You know kids will go by whatever they see on. Tv They can a little two year old can can actually go in and and name the brand names by it before the bill that he can walk and ask for it in the store they've seen it on TV and in some countries like in Chile. They ban food marketing to kids. Most many other countries have been very successful at. It seemed great reductions and obesity and purchasing the bad foods For example and Chile you can't have any TV or any other advertising between six am and ten PM for any junk food. It taken off the cartoon characters from the Boxes like no more twenty tiger they killed him and they limited any junk food in schools and they seem dramatic improvement. So there's so many great policies that are being demonstrated around the world that we can be can model here and I think you know the the take home here is that there's a lot of aspects of our government positively need to be fixed and of course we've talked before about region and not just subsidizing commodity crops corn wheat and soy that. Make US sick and fat. I mean sixty percent of our diet comes from these foods which are ultra processed into all sorts of ingredients that make us really sick and kill eleven million people a year. Sixty percent of calories is this ultra processed food and for every ten percent of your food. That's ultra process. Your risk of death goes up by fourteen percent and yeah we subsidize it on the front with crop supports and then we pay for it with food stamps. And then we pay for the Medicare Medicaid on the other end so the tax payers are really footing. The bill for this when. It's really an preventable problem. So we need lots of reform across government policies. And that's what I'm working on with this book. Food fix getting every member of Congress get into the White House? It's a tough slog. I know but I've got an amazing team around me for our food fix campaign stay tuned for more about that part of it. We're all GONNA need to move this forward on a grassroots level and this isn't just for me it's a mission and it's just the beginning of an effort to really change the food system at so many levels so we can solve so many of our global
Whats driving the explosion in Lyme Disease in Canada?
"Today disease a complicated disease that we are having trouble testing for a disease. We never expected to see with any regularity in Canada only to realize perhaps too late. Maybe that was Donald. No this is not a new virus from across the world world. It's not some weird superbug. It's not particularly contagious illness. You probably don't think much about until it makes headlines because somebody famous something was wrong with Justin Bieber last year and we saw him with visas. Arm We we now know what was going on here. Justin Bieber has lime disease but it is a mistake to think of lyme disease as a rare illness because all of the data we have and we still don't have enough shows that it is exploding in Canada with numbers of confirmed cases spiking every year. Get One guess as to why but even that is not the key problem here what we need to figure out and fast is a comprehensive way to test for your dial and treat lyme disease because that's where we lag behind almost everybody else. I'm Jordan Heath Rawlings. This is the big story. Janet sperling is a PhD candidate at the University of Alberta. She is also a board member number on the Canadian lyme Disease Foundation. Hello Janna why. Don't you just start I think all of us the term but maybe just explain what what lime disease is sure. Lime disease is one of the more complicated things you would hope that I should be able to say. Oh lime disease is You know a bacterial curiel owners and it's transmitted by tick but unfortunately when you peek under the covers it gets a little more complicated so if you go to the government of Canada website. And you'll see that lyme disease is Berea Bergdorf Ri- and you say Oh. Okay that's nice and easy I can follow what they're trying to say but now if we just step over the border a little bit to Minnesota and we look up the male clinic they say lyme disease is four main species of bacteria and then they list four types of Berea so now you know your head is spinning you say okay. Well what do they say in Europe so if we go due to Europe and we go for example to Germany we see lyme disease is caused by spy. Rookie Berea Bergdorf. Wry sense allow to which means it's a whole bunch of different Burrito So this is part of the reason that we're ending up with a really complicated answer to what ought not be a very simple question. Why do various countries disagree so much on precisely what it is? That's not the case with most of viruses or diseases. I assume right and I think this is one of the things when I first started like you know back in the nineteen eighties and I took my medical entomology. They said lime disease is a disease it happens in North America. It's transmitted by so I wrote that down on my exam tonight. Got One hundred percent and everybody said great and I said to myself boy. I'm caught. I live in Canada. 'cause I don't need to worry about lyme disease but the more we started to find out notable lime disease and the more we realized it is actually in Europe. It's been in Europe for a very very long time for example You know it sees the iceman man who was found You know he's Bronze Age. I think you know we back in a gleese your those fraud. He had evidence of lime disease. So we know you you know. We've had lyme disease around for a long time. People just didn't recognize it as lime disease so the more you look into it. The more you see that this is something that's called us a Nautica Kasese so it's found circulating in the wildlife and then he kinda jumps over to the people although the disease itself Rigas and aiming for are people so this isn't something like measles measles something that goes from one person to the other person. This is something that's circulating in. It's got Birds is involved in this cycle. It's got animals. You know deer mice all sorts of things so this is why it just becomes more and more complicated. The more you look at it and and of course as a person who's suffering from lung disease you really don't care about all that background just saying I'm sick. Just get better and that advantage of being a bacteria tirrenia is that means we can use antibiotics so I think previously people were being treated for lyme disease without even actually recognizing was lime disease. assise they had antibiotics for some other reasons. They got better. Everybody said okay. I don't know what it was but they're better now. We're very concerned that we want want to make sure that we don't over use the antibiotics so that ends up making it even more complicated so we have the people we know they're sick. We know that got got bit by a tick. We know that something is wrong so some of the doctors are saying okay. We'll give them the antibiotic conceive to get better so those people all say. I think it's lyme disease and other people say I don't think it was on disease at all. It was something else it was transmitted by tick. But it wasn't lime disease so now we've taken a really complicated problem and we've really muddied the waters. We have people who say I have lime disease and other people who say whatever it was. It wasn't lime disease but I'm glad they got better so if the waters are so muddy and to your point the description you gave about learning about lyme disease in the eighties was precisely as much much as I knew about. LYME disease period Why are we discussing it so much more frequently right now? Are we seeing spike. Absolutely and I think it's certainly only with the global climate change we're getting the tick has expanded its range so you know back in the nineteen eighties. Certainly ticks. Albertus stopped about sort of middle. The problems you didn't have to go very far. Well now. They're all the way out into the Yukon. So this is something that's changed. It's it's new. I think we've always had you know a a couple of topics here and there and the other place but now it's much bigger. We know that most Canadians live right along the US border so we know most of our population is sort of super at risk as the ticks start moving north. Do we have a sense of how quickly the problem is getting worse like. Do you guys have have numbers on no matter how quickly the number of cases arising well we don't we don't have numbers because the numbers are set to be very very specific to Berea Maria br door fry and then it's particular string thirty one that somebody described in Boston Massachusetts lyme Connecticut down in that end so for Canada. It's kind of difficult to say can say you know if you're looking very strictly for one type of Lyme disease we know that the numbers have increased hugely sleep but we also know it would be kind of unlikely that we're just Columbia would have exactly the same type of lime disease as Boston Massachusetts. You know there's a latta kilometers in between the two and then also There's huge mountain range and then to make at one stage more complicated the even have different species of tick so this is where people get annoyed because they say I'm sick. I think I have lime disease because you treated me as though I have lime disease but still it's been denied as being lined disease or even anything like lyme disease. Why don't we have a simple test that can categorize it as one of what may be many kinds of lyme disease for instance right? Well we do if your dog so if your dog your jet can in Cohen tests the dog and say okay you have a sick dog. The dog is Being picked up to have this general sense of this says lyme disease lyme Berea of some sort so your vet will probably just treat your dog and say I'm calling lime disease good enough for me taking antibiotics and get better. Okay but humans but humans don't have exactly the same immune response so a dog has a much stronger immune response so it makes it easier when you're a VAT and and also with the humans. People are so readable antibiotics that you have to absolutely meal the diagnosis before they're willing to give you the antibiotics in the first place and that makes sense because we have talked on this podcast in the past about the need to not use antibiotics. Unless it's serious I guess what's flung meal. A little bit is that this can be a disease. That's it's on the rise that's diagnosed in many places around the world and they're still not the same kind of credible test that can determine like okay. You need antibiotics. Let's go right and I think partly it's because it circulates among birds. It circulates among various little mice and small rooms all the way up to deer and that each one of these animals. This part of this really complicated cycle the deer can actually clear the infection so for example if I had a tick and I knew that that had most recently fed on a bird I would be quite worried or if I knew had most recently said on a most but if I knew knew that the last thing that tick fed on was a dear I wouldn't be very worried at all I would say. Oh okay. Fortunately that's very low risk from that particular tech so this is where I think people especially if your doctor and you've got somebody and they have very nonspecific symptoms because that's one of the problems. There's nothing that's really obviously. This is exactly lime disease. You know you can't stand the front of the room and say okay. People have lime disease and these people don't have lime disease so oh you look people. They've got these nonspecific symptoms. And you're saying I know they're sick but I just don't know what it is. We're going to start looking at a lot of different things. So there's this a big list of differential diagnoses. You need to go through. And then when it gets the bottom of the list you always have lime disease. And that's something that was missed for for many many decades and for example I live in Alberta. And we're still told. Oh you can't have lime disease because you live in Berta but the silly thing is to people travel awful and when people are traveling. It doesn't matter where I live. Where my house addresses if I live in Alberta maybe got it in California maybe I got it in Toronto? Well in speaking of California you probably knew at some point in this interview. I was going to mention Justin Bieber. Indeed and it gets back to kind of the problem that you're describing reading because when celebrities like that come out and announced that they've been battling lyme disease it often seems like he has the best medical care in the world right. He compay millions of dollars for the very best doctors and yet still People were worrying about him for months before he came forward. Exactly and that's I think it's actually shiver common story and if you were to take your average Canadian. Generally they're healthy people. They're living their lives eating wells sleeping well plenty of exercise and and then suddenly something happens. They get sick and they don't even necessarily associated with tick bite and especially in a place where you're not expecting to run into ticks like downtown Toronto. You might not think about it and as you get. sicker and sicker and sicker. Lime disease isn't even on the radar so it takes long time to figure out what it is and the problem with lyme disease is if you catch it early. It's very easy to treat. Take your antibiotics into the story. But if you don't catch catch it and it goes on for a long time like weeks or months or sometimes even years. It's really hard to treat people were saying and this is why I wanted to ask you about like how it presents. How the disease presents because people were saying that it looked like Justin had lapsed and that he was an addict and that he was really struggling with substance abuse? Right you and and I think that that's actually remarkably common and a lot of people find that obviously really hurtful and you can certainly understand and why if you've been
This Medicine Is for the Birds
"All know by now that the overuse of antibiotics has led to the evolution of superbugs. That can't be treated with typical medicine through a series of global double in local programs working under the name one health many governments are looking to fight this trend in many ways. Including reducing or totally eliminating antibiotic use in animals. Unfortunately animals still get sick joining me today. Is Natasha Ortega Director of laboratory operations at Charles Rivers. Avian Site in Connecticut. She is adept at finding new ways to protect her birds from common infections and diseases. Without using antibiotics antibiotics she was the second ever guest on sounds of science and I'm glad to have her back. Welcome Natasha Hi thank you thank you for inviting me. Thanks for coming. So I'd I'd like to start by getting your impression of the one health initiative especially how it relates to your area of expertise chickens so I think the one health initiative is a great initiative. Should've it's a global one where it looks at not only people's health but also the animal health and the health of the environment and how they're all interconnected like for example take antibiotic resistant bacteria. This topic is heavily looked at under the one health and that being on it's really looking at the usage of antibiotics and specifically typically looking at the use of it in livestock and how it turned out during investigation that there is a significant amount. That's being used. And it's being used not only to treat. The animals will also in some places debuts as a growth promoter which has been banned has been banned over in the EU but other countries may be using it for that purpose and so they do administer antibiotics as well to kind of prevent diseases and so how relates to chickens is Chickens are bred to be fast growing at least here here in the US. Due to consumer demand for more natural chicken they have been switching away from using antibiotics and going towards more antibiotic free or or no antibiotics ever and their labels and so they raise these birds without any antibiotics and the whole purpose is to control on antibiotics. Used so if Animal is sick. You do apply the antibiotics and they don't fall under antibiotic free anymore. They would fall under a different category. But it's really looking at the animal health and so with the increased amount of disease that's occurring. There's an alternative that needs to be a natural tournament that needs to be Created in order for the to help out the poultry industry for that right and just to be clear. The Charles River chickens aren't used for meat. They're used for research for the vaccine growing in the eggs. Things like that. Yes so you mentioned before that there were different in pre labels. Can you explain the difference between those labels Yes so there's multiple different ways of saying it Some labels else was saved raised without antibiotics and some will say no antibiotics ever which I'm sure many of you have seen in the grocery store and you pick up a package of chicken and so it's it's it's different ways of marketing it but really it's the animal's not raised with antibiotics at all. So they're pretty much the same And versus a labeled I'll say no medically important antibiotics so that would mean antibiotics are used to treat. People would not be used and treating these animals. So that's the difference between house so last time you were on the podcast you were talking about a new product that ah you guys were developing can you give us an update on that product. Yes so just a brief background to summarize the previous podcast as we were coming out with an all natural product that can be applied in place of antibiotics. Antibodies that the birds will produce. So you expose these birds to Ah Pathogen for example and they will produce the antibodies in their serum. And as they do they transfer the antibodies to the egg yolks. And the whole purpose of that is to protect the chicks when they hatch Up to the first two weeks of its life to protect against any environmental on pathogens that cause disease for them Kinda taken that the same concept and harvesting the antibodies. Then you create this product that would be administered in the broiler industry for example Drinking water so the birds ingest the antibodies and it will bind to the bacteria of interest and prevent disease or colonization of bacteria. And when you originally on the podcast this was just an idea or something that you were testing. But now it's actually started to go into production right yes so we are actually went through few few. RND Studies and we have some great promising results. We are focusing on one disease. In particular and aquatic interruptus and so with the results that we've seen and we are pursuing suing. USDA licensor for this product. So it would be a first one for us to go through that market very cool so onto some of your own personal accomplishments. I understand that you've recently earned European pathology. Congratulations thank you. Can you tell us about the research that you did for your dissertation Yes my PhD. The work was in chicken. Parvo virus so chicken Parvo virus is not to unknown it was discovered in the nineteen eighties on kind of went little. Doormat it for a while until it starts creeping up because it causes viral into rightous. It's a similar virus to the. I know that dogs often get Parvo. And I think there's a vaccine for that right similar virus yes similar yes similar to that There's there's a difference though as well and I apologize Viral Enteric Disease Embroiled said it causes but the difference. Is this virus does not cause high mortality like for example. The Canine Parvo virus does but what it does is that has has been implicated along with other pathogens to cause fronting stunting syndrome which abbreviate as RSS and so with the name indicates is the broilers were become stunted compared to attachments. So will you look at an image of severe case of RSS. You'll see one bird will look like a chick for example while the other chicken will look like a really media like market market weight type bird. So what happens is over time as you Place more birds in the house. You'll start seeing increase in stunted growth for these birds and EH PARVO virus. It's not as easy as some other vaccines where you can grow it in cell culture to produce the vaccine or you could grow it in eggs actually requires the live bird on it. Grows it replicates in the intestines of alive bird. So that's when I thought of what is there a way that we can produce a vaccine or create create one. I should say I'm using a different method. So I used a p. ship stores expression system to express the structural proteins. There was previous publications that showed chicken Parvo virus using expression system like back low virus for example looking at the structural protein of VP. To my research focus focus on DVD. P. One gene itself which codes for all structural proteins. And so I took this and put it into a P.. Sheep historic system which is a yeast expression system was able to produce a structural protein successfully and in my PhD work. I did a immunogenetics study as well as a challenge. Study and what I was able to show was that when using the VP. One gene to express all the structural proteins. We were able to show protection and the birds so it gives us one step closer to coming out with the vaccine. That's
Can A 100-Year-Old Treatment Help Save Us From Superbugs?
"For months Stephanie's avenues husband. Tom Would remain hospitalized fighting for his life and losing. Yeah I was just really scared out of my mind but I knew that if I just sat back and waited then he was going to die and and I I. I needed to know that I'd done. Last thing that I could do that. I would leave no stone unturned so I hit the Internet and I did what anybody else doing my shoes. I googled it well. Luckily you know there's Google for scientists and that's called pubmed and it's this is wonderful search engine where you can put in any words and a scientific paper will pop up. And you know I punched in words like multi-drug resistance and the name of his superbug which is assassinated Bomani and popped within an hour. I found a paper that mentioned something called page therapy. So tell me a little bit about fish therapy well. phages are short for bacteria age and that is derived from the Greek word meaning bacteria eater and they are viruses that have naturally evolved to attack bacteria. Correa there's ten million trillion trillion pages on the planet. It's all a matter of finding the ones that will kill the bacteria that you want to get rid of. Okay real quick phase one. Oh one I like. Stephanie said bacteria phases the viruses that infect bacteria are everywhere pretty much anywhere you find bacteria you'll you'll find a phase we're talking and Artika Deep Sea Ocean Vance your but I swear that'll make sense later. Second facials don't actually eat bacteria in this case the injects its own DNA into the bacterial cell. Then the virus forces the bacteria to make more and more copies of itself feeling feeling up the cell with viruses eventually the bacteria bus open releasing all those new viruses to go off and kill other cells. Its roof wants
Every 15 minutes, someone in the US dies of a drug-resistant superbug
"Every fifteen minutes someone in the U. S. dies the super bug fifteen minutes every fifteen minutes of this is a much more deaths than that was previously thought to be attributed to drug resistant infection while far more frequent than I thought fifteen minutes right of abode kill somebody Americans out to about thirty eight thirty five thousand
CDC Report: Deadly Superbug Infections Climbing Sharply
"There's some surprising news from the CDC about super bug infections as the Associated Press is Shelly either reports some worrisome new germs are emerging the centers for disease control says about thirty six thousand Americans died from drug resistant infections in twenty seventeen but that's down eighteen percent since twenty thirteen officials credit an intense effort in hospitals to control the spread of extremely dangerous infections but while dancer going down the report says infections over all our up and was super bugs mainly have been considered a hospital problem they are very much more often elsewhere shortly after
Every 15 minutes, someone in the US dies of a drug-resistant superbug
"There's some surprising news from the CDC about super bug infections as the Associated Press is Shelly either reports some worrisome new germs are emerging the centers for disease control says about thirty six thousand Americans died from drug resistant infections in twenty seventeen but that's down eighteen percent since twenty thirteen officials credit an intense effort in hospitals to control the spread of extremely dangerous infections but while dancer going down the report says infections over all are up and we'll super bugs mainly have been considered a hospital problem they are very much more often elsewhere Shelly out there
CDC report warns of 2 new potentially deadly superbugs
"A new report from the centers for disease control and prevention warned of the dangers of drug resistant superbugs this report analyzes electronic health records and other data diseases resistant to antibiotics affect some two point eight million people causing thirty five thousand deaths every year this report shows an infection every eleven seconds at a death every fifteen minutes the number of deaths doubling since
Superbugs Toll Worse Than Thought, CDC Says
"A new report. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention finds that the outbreak of superbugs which are drug resistant. Bacteria and fungi is worse than previously. Thought this is an update to a report back in two thousand thirteen in which the CDC sounded the alarm about the dangers of these Bugs Wall Street Journal. Final senior writer. Betsy McKay joins us with the story. So betsy what are the latest numbers on infections and deaths caused by superbox. So this report court found that There nearly three point one million infections and that includes forty eight thousand seven hundred deaths every year in the US from drug resistant bacteria. Fungi and it also includes a pathogen known as C. difficile which is not drug resistant itself but it has fueled or kind of unleashed by Use of antibiotics and the heavy use of antibiotics contributes to this higher toll. Yes definitely heavier us. Overuse of antibiotics. It puts pressure on bacteria and they develop their own defense mechanisms which which basically build resistance to these drugs and these super bugs are spreading beyond hospitals. Aren't they yeah you know for many years. They were confined largely to hospitals spitaels and they are generally known as bugs that appear in hospitals. But they're spreading more now in other healthcare facilities nursing homes for example sample and also just in communities. How many superbugs are we talking about? Well the CDC identified eighteen that it is particularly concerned about it and it ranked them in summer. Urgent Threats Some are you know less concerning but still have great concern and they also identified a watchlist of breath bugs which are not causing major threat today in the US but could easily. But isn't there some good news. According to this report the number of annual deaths from from drug resistant bacteria and fungi has declined significantly since the last report. What's happened since two thousand thirteen is that the number of death jeff has fallen in the CDC's said that's largely due to some really good efforts? Strong efforts made by hospitals to reduce the the spread of these infections in their hospitals bidder cleaning better use of antibiotics And so that's where the reductions have largely have largely calm but the number number of deaths still Really crazy high and there are new superbug popping up Arthur. Yeah more. Bugs are definitely emerging from overseas the last this time the CDC did a report like this There was a fungus known as candidate oriented. which wasn't even really on anyone's radar it was I found in Asia In two thousand nine now it has spread all over the world and it's really on everyone's radar so these things crop up and start to spread really really fast. Isn't the big worry here betsy besides the fact that these books can be fatal. That antibiotic resistant. Drugs are complicating medical care for patients. Isn't that sort of the bottom line here yet. There are a couple of things one is that if you develop one of these infections there may not be a drug that can you know. Doctors may not have anything sort of an arms race right. New Bugs emerge doctors find ways to treat them. They develop resistance those drugs and then can't help the patients. The other problem is that it has complicated care for for chronic conditions. People who need surgery people with diabetes people with cancer there are more prone to infection and so the risk tsk of being infected with a drug resistant bug is making it harder to take care of these Folks
'Superbug' infections are on the rise, a new CDC report says
"Unexpected news from CDC officials when it comes to super bargain factions the centers for disease control says about thirty six thousand Americans died from drug resistant infections in twenty seventeen but that's down eighteen percent since twenty thirteen officials credit an intense effort in hospitals to control the spread of extremely dangerous infections but while dancer going down the report says infections over all our up and well super bugs mainly have been considered a hospital problem they are very much more often elsewhere shortly after Washington
Superbug infections are rising but deaths falling, CDC says
"The centers for disease control says about thirty six thousand Americans died from drug resistant infections in twenty seventeen but that's down eighteen percent since twenty thirteen officials credit an intense effort in hospitals to control the spread of extremely dangerous infections but while deaths are going down the report says infections over all are up and we'll super bugs mainly have been considered a hospital problem they are very much more often elsewhere Shelly out there Washington
"superbug" Discussed on America Dissected with Abdul El-Sayed
"I knew right then I knew that morning I knew that this was elite really bad tests revealed that Ati had an antibiotic resistant staff infection better known as Mersa while Mercer itself it's hard to treat addy's was particularly challenging and his doctors struggled to get a handle on how to treat it she was put on and then off a number of antibiotics never a good thing when you're trying to I don antibiotic resistant infection in the first place in all that stopping and starting at indeed gotten a lot sicker she was hooked up to all these machines her body full of tubes wires these tubes and wires can save your life but they can also carry bacteria and because hospitals are places with a lot of sick people on a lot of antibody six they're a major breeding ground for superbugs and Audis battle with them was just beginning so she started to kind of turn the corner the fevers went away we're all hopeful and then the fever's come back again and I remember them telling me we don't where the fever's coming from we don't know what the infection is so it turns out the first infection that came after was an equal infection of of ladder and once they figured that out they put her on appropriate antibiotics that it wasn't helping one as we got cultures back we found out that that was a resistant e coli infection another antibiotic resistant infection this time E. coli requires more heavy duty antibiotics more trial and error to kill it I honestly don't remember whether it was four or five different infections but it was constant after that every time she started despite a fever they would search for the source of the infection find it treat it then get the final in the final results back and find out that she was on the wrong antibiotic infection after infection antibiotic after antibiotic every infection made adding more susceptible to the next knocking back her immune system while the side effects of each antibiotic were taking their toll eventually how do you had to be placed on a ventilator would help breath she developed ammonia her lungs full of the most deadly superbug factor emojis doctors determined that in order to save out he's life they had to do a double lung transplant in an eleven year old her lungs were ruined never going to heal but they didn't want to do the transplant before clearing up all the super bugs running amok in her body we ended up with Khalistan and yeah yeah Coletta's scary stuff scary is an understatement listen is the nuclear option of antibiotics what we call an antibiotic of last resort it's extremely deadly for bacteria but unfortunately it's extremely dangerous for people to got all kinds of side effects like seizures and severe kidney damage to name a few for Ati there was no other option so they went for it they dropped the collision Tom unfortunately it worked it Nuqta bucks the fact that she was able to even survive that lung transplant was huge her surgeon later told someone that he would have given her maybe a one percent chance of surviving that long transplant but for her the choice was 'cause transplant or death lung transplant patients are y'all with any transplant you're trading one set of problems for another and that's what happened after five months in the hospital she lost thirty pounds immune system was compromised because of the medication had to take to keep her body from attacking her lungs she'd suffered a stroke causing her to lose vision on the left side in both is it also changed her personality and because of all the tubes and wires she'd been hooked up to in the ICU she suffered permanent nerve damage to her left hand and leg and yet she was still communicating with us yes and she survived that transplant and she's been living her life for almost eight years but her life is not but it's not what I'd hoped I wanted her to I used to tell her addy you can have it all back she never got it all back and she never will what started what is a pretty mundane infection led to sepsis which led to hospitalization which led to several different superbug infections which led to a double lung transplant and a stroke an eleven year old softball player became an eleven year old with severe limitations she'll never fully recovered from Tanya Addy's mom suffers from PTSD the whole experience though a nurse she stays home with Eddie she can't possibly go back to work in a hospital addy now twenty despite her harrowing experience maintains hope I've lost a couple friends due to getting sick it was just hard for them to lose somebody for five months and then how many come back in the middle of their lives with my family it's changed but I feel like some of it's gotten better I have a relationship my mother my Stepdad and my sister my brother I have some really good friends who stuck with me throughout it and our relationship is great but it is definitely different than what it was before it got sick today how getting by but the lungs she got when she was eleven or bodies rejecting them and that's forced this young woman who be thinking about where to go to college or that you date she's got coming up to think about far more serious choices I know that you've got some some some big decisions coming right now about whether or not you wanted to go through another transplants thinking about that right now I'm on a page on facebook with other people who are waiting for transplants and I see all these stories of them hoping and waiting and then getting dry runs weren't good or they weren't there on time and I don't WanNa live like thought I had eight good years and I think that so it would just it's I've got what had and I'm good I do you shouldn't have to contemplate her future this way no twenty year old should of inspiring though and the fact that she's telling her story putting herself out there makes her an activist in her own right can you tell me a little bit about what you would say to folks abused the antibiotics and don't overuse antibiotics everybody just needs better education we need to understand that these things are not bottomless that's our part we have to understand that every time we are doctors for antibiotics we don't need every time they give them to us we're creating the environment wherein innocent overuse and misuse of antibiotics we all help to create that environment where resistant bacteria thrive on us all of us to be more conscientious but as a society there's far more that needs to be done to we'll begin after the break so every night sarin I we find an epic battle with our daughter Emily programs designed to help you get to sleep or to help your kid get to sleep sounds gapes from over one hundred sleep stories narrated by soothing voices like Jerome Flynn from game of thrones in.
"superbug" Discussed on America Dissected with Abdul El-Sayed
Introducing Prognosis Season 3: Superbugs
"And it can be one of the worst days of someone's life to get a cancer diagnosis for longtime patients. At least new chemotherapy was one path to being treated in some countries. That path has become a lot riskier. That's because the emergence of bacteria with the most extreme form of antibiotic resistance v._r. Facing a difficult scenario do to q. Chemotherapy cure the cancer and get addressed infection and the patient dying of infants. You don't know what to do. The world doesn't know what to do in this scenario. That's the if you're talking about the post under bar to gear up you. I see that in cancer patients on jason gale a senior editor with bloomberg news on this new season of prognosis. We look at the spread of infections around the world that even our most potent potent antimicrobial medicines con stop. It's being described as a silence to nami of catastrophic proportions and it's happening faster than scientists previously thought the situation is getting worse definitely getting worse because the drug raid the superbug rate is increasing mm-hmm daily basis. It's increasing saw the number of patients. Dying are really high. That's dr abdul ghafoor one of india's india's fiercest anti superbug crusaders. This isn't we'll look at how research is in the united states and elsewhere looking awful ways to fight back against superbugs whether it's by tunings unlikely sources or trying radical experiments we just i just hope that nothing would happen because we were worried that he could die of septic shock because essentially we were injecting a billion viruses into his body. We investigate some the unusual steps hospitals taking to safeguard against hanta treat infections. His rectal swab is pretty straightforward. You can either take it yourself or otherwise. One of the nursing staff can take it and we look at how scientists in denmark tracking the global spread of superbugs from waste collected from airplane bathrooms. Couldn't this be a way of actually doing global monitoring so you could be sitting here in copenhagen and then just let all the samples come to you. Progressives new since september five subscribed today on apple podcasts aware of you listen.
Australian seagulls carry antibiotic-resistant superbugs
"And was staying in Australia where scientists have discovered that Siegel's a carrying superbugs resistance to antibiotics with more detail his fill NASA research isn't Murdoch university in past the fans more than a fifth of silver and gold in Australia we'll carrying bacteria such as the color that are resistant to drugs it's thought the sea gulls contracted the bugs from sewage in soiled nappies while scavenging on household waste the pathogens could then be passed back to people who touch the birds feces although hand washing would reduce the
"superbug" Discussed on Curiosity Daily
Developing Drugs to Fight Superbugs
"superbug" Discussed on Curiosity Daily
"Every day. More and more bacteria are becoming resistance to antibiotics and you might be surprised to hear exactly how quickly this is happening.
Superbugs and Antibiotic Resistance
"Every day. More and more bacteria are becoming resistance to antibiotics and you might be surprised to hear exactly how quickly this is happening.
"superbug" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts
"And now I see increasingly that these intravenous, antibiotics are no longer working, and we're struggling to find new treatments. And what I wanted to do with this book was to bring people into the hospital into the rooms of patients to see what is going on with people. These are lives hanging in the balance. And a lot of people have written about the various bureaucratic issues and the financial issues and the red tape all of these things that seem sort of at thirty thousand feet, and I wanted to bring people. Into the lives to see what's happening to people as these issues play out and policies, get tossed around and people are vulnerable and they're dying, and we need to do something about it. So tell us the person you opened the book with named Jackson or you call him Jackson what happened to him. That's right. So he came in with a drug resistant pathogen, he had no idea what that meant or what that would mean for his family or for his leg. But the challenge and the reason I chose to start with him, his that his bacterium was resistant to every antibiotic at our disposal, except for one and that one happened to be Khalistan in for your listeners that's an antibiotic that we used a generation ago, but essentially fell out of favor because it was so outrageously toxic. It can chew up the kidney and other organs, and it's a really harsh drug to us. But we've come back to it. And one of the reasons is that we are faced with these bacteria that have me. Mutated so that they can chew up, whatever new antibiotics were throwing it them. And one of the latte drugs of last resort has now becoming one that we have to reach to occasionally to save people. And I start with him because I wanted to show that these pathogens are everywhere use a mechanic in queens at no idea what happened to him. And ultimately the way that he was cured was not with an antibiotic it was with a surgeon and what I wanted to write about in my book, is that does a lot of focus on developing new antibiotics, we need to think more broadly about non antibiotic options as well whether those while crisper whether those involved coming up with these bacteria phases, there's all kinds of interesting, non antibiotic options, we have to address this expanding threat of superbugs, and I will just make a note that I know some people are recoil at that name and the reason for that. That is that they feel like can be almost fearmongering to put the word super before bug. And, and I don't want people to be misled by that terminology, and I'll tell you this morning. I saw a patient, who by every definition had a superbug. He had a urinary tract infection in the bacterium was resistant to nine different antibiotics, but it was exquisitely susceptible to a very well tolerated, antibiotic and easily treated him. And he was going to go home, and he's poses. No threat to his family, or to the wider community. And it's not always an issue where a superbug is a death sentence by any minute measure, and using that terminology, I think creates heightened awareness, which is a good thing. But I don't want people to be fearful of these things because when I walk into the hospital every day, I'm confident that we're going to cure, the patients who have these superbug infections. The doctor McCarthy, if I may just go back to Jackson for a second here. I mean he had come in, because he had be he was shot, right? But you were there because of this infection. Did he have the infection before? We don't we don't usually find out where the infection came fries. It may have been that the compromise by being shot, you compromise very important protective barrier, which is your skin, and any of the bacteria that are living harmlessly on your skin can seep into the blood and conceive into your bones, and your muscle, and they can recap Vic and I chose to, to write about in my book about people with these skin infections, where a seemingly harmless pathogen can essentially go haywire, and it has to do sometimes with the host in the immune.
"superbug" Discussed on WSJ The Future of Everything
"The invader at MIT researchers are taking a different approach to fighting superbugs. So my name is Timothy Liu. I'm gonna social professor at MIT and my field is in the area of synthetic biology where we are reengineering the genetic code that underpins life to address. A wide range of biomedical applications in his lab. He successfully killed drug resistant bacteria with special viruses confusingly called bacteria, fade or fade for short Phages are basically the natural predators for bacteria. So these viruses naturally infect area where expose them all the time. They're in our bodies there in the water. These viruses are not known to infect human cells. They basically I'm very specific for bacteria in our hands. What we've decided to do is actually to try to engineer Phages that don't freely replicate on their own. So we sort of disable the Phages. So they act as a one time delivery vector. But once you put them into the environment or put them into people, they basically just infect the bacteria and then they do their thing, but they don't sort of continuously propagate themselves. Lewis also using crisper the Phages deliver it to the super bug and the crisper attacks crisper is a very sort of at a high level, the way it works. It's basically a molecular scissor, but in bacterial systems the way we use it as we try to wreck that molecular scissor. Against genetic sequences that are critical bad ones that encode antibiotic resistance, for example. And then when the scissor cuts that DNA that specific sequence it basically that mix the bacteria really unhappy and it causes the bacteria to die. And so, well, we're using the crisper scissor to do is to cut the bad bacteria in the location of the bad genes while sparing other bacteria that don't carry those specific genes. There are some potential pitfalls bacteria under attack, could release a deadly amount of toxins as they die. They can also learn to evade the attackers just like they adapt to withstand antibiotics that you're really good at developing resistance. And I think at the end of the day, give it enough time, they're going to win, but that being said, we have enough technological power to stay ahead of them these days and Lou calls himself an optimist the Wall Street Journal's Melanie Evans. If you look around there are some reasons for optimism there are in the market today. Some rapid diagnostic tests. For example, there is a rap. Test for methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus which is generally referred to as Mersa and Bursa kills about eleven thousand people in the United States every year. Pretty much everybody. I talked to agrees that if we're going to succeed, we're going to have to use the antibiotics. We've got more judiciously, but we're also going to have to seriously innovate and we're going to have to do it quickly because we are running out of time. The future of everything is a production of the Wall Street Journal. This episode was reported by the Wall Street Journal's Melanie Evans. The show is produced by Laura sim and Martha. See Daniel. John Warnock is the executive producer of WSJ podcasts. STAN perish is the editor in chief of the future of everything we had helped with this episode from the Wall Street Journal's. Gene Waylon, Stephanie Ogun, Fritz Robert Lee hosts, Amy or Marcus, Larry route Parmander Barbara dip day Kapadia Christopher Moran, Jennifer Hicks, and Mike Miller. Thanks for listening. I'm Jennifer strong from the newsroom in New York.
"superbug" Discussed on WSJ The Future of Everything
"Imagine Cillian fallen ten thousand times. Then you'll start seeing these living things which are small, but the new, these incredible things. Most of the bacteria aren't harming us, but a tiny number of bugs do cause problems. We called them badgen sometimes what germs, even though the minority of most microbes that we know when they come into the body of us, they're going to do bad things and is a Duns out these guys, microbiome general big part of what they do is keep those bad guys out. Then just basically occupied the space that the bad guys may want to use them so that just will not share that space. And so then the bad guys conto cold, but the ultimate actively. So they produce some particular molecules for instance that actively go and attack some of the bad bugs. Good guys, bad guys. It sounds an awful lot like an action movie, but like any really, really good action movie. Most characters are not one dimensional the not gonna black and white. Read the not into the bad guys might have a back story to tell you why. Are they might be bad and maybe they were good once upon a time and you know, and the good guys, they're not always good, right. They might have some abilities when when iron man and captain America battle it out. You know, those do good guys fighting and you know, the microbiome actually can follow some of those analogies and you can have good bums on bad because they over time develop a way to start harming us. Even though initially they were doing good things in this process of evolution. That's landed us here in the first place, but consider how bacteria can start off harmless and then join the dark side. It can happen when antibiotics kill off their competition as sometimes that care that perfectly harmless when they're down at very low levels when the seventy bloom up because of something else that happens, maybe the competitors die down. Once they get above their sort of normal levels, then they'd can become bad guys. But what if those good bacteria did more than muscle out the bad bugs? What if they went on the attack against super bugs that work is underway and upstate. New York, where researchers at Cornell are working to reprogram bacteria to fight on our behalf. Number even now most coming to us about it. We don't really know how it kills us out. So it's still a mystery even deny. I mean, almost essentially after refers discovered the first antibiotics he works on a tiny scale using miniscule tubes, one millionth of a meter in size where he traps individual cells. So if you want to look at the bacteria, it has no color is hard to visually see it. For the case of my approach to use green, I intruding from jellyfish to be able to visualize them. It helps them look for cells that survive drug treatment. You can easily the cells that survived and then sequence them and see what was special about them. So for example, one strategy that the cells can use to survive anybody to enter a state called persistence. Some this state cells stop dividing the not growing, but they're not dying either the kind of entered this doorman state. So that's why when you go to the doctor and the ask you to take all of your antibiotics, it's because you can have these persistent cells cresent. He's trying to identify how cells do this using gene editing technology called crisper. He also uses crisper to study the way cells fight amongst themselves for scarce resources. He hopes to recreate it and then manipulated. So for example, you can crew some of the cells that you already have in your gut system. For example, in have them out in defy pathogens or invaders, and then treat the invaders in your gut without requiring external input. But there's a catch. You don't want the bacteria to turn events you own sounds. So this kind of warfare happens all the time either in soil or in your system or in most environments to chief that we need to be able to grab it to be able to better than.
"superbug" Discussed on WSJ The Future of Everything
"Right now, governments deem about a dozen superbugs a serious threat. One of them is intro caucus, Michael Gilmore. I'm a professor at Harvard Medical School in a scientists at the mess. -chusetts I near infirmary Gilmore tracks. It's history. We can look at the DNA of bacteria now in ways that we never could before. And that's giving us a new understanding of what makes bacteria behave the way they do, how do they get resistant Enterococcus quickly becomes resistant to anything. We throw at it. So he asked him, are there drugs that still stand a chance? Yes. So we keep introducing new ones and shortly thereafter, inner circle develops resistance to those. And so it's which day of the week is this and so is the answer. There are examples of interro caucus being resistant to everything that we have to throw at it. And so it's always a challenge to stay one step ahead of these microbes. So how did interro caucus get to be so tough anyway for that, we have to go back five hundred million years around the time life transition from water to land the first animals plants and the Enterococcus to this bacteria, survived the mass extinction that wiped out dinosaurs and scientists think it's due to genes at picked up in the paleozoic era that maybe helping it thrive despite drugs and disinfectants. Gilmore says, if we continue to throw antibiotics at it, resistance will continue at a faster rate than we can keep up with right now. The average life span for an antibiotic before resistance becomes. The problem is about five or eight years, so you can develop a new one and it'll be good for five to eight years before resistant starts emerging it such a frequency that people would want to have at different antibiotic if we use that in a biopic one tenth as often as we did then rather than resistance occurring in five to eight years, it would occur in fifty to eighty years in if we could get even twenty years out of antibiotic instead of five years, then our ability to discover new antibiotics would much more easily keep pace. It's a science problem. It's an economic problem. It's also a mathematical probability if we expose one microbe to an antibiotic, the chance of that microbe developing resistance is about one in a billion. If we expose a billion microbes to that antibiotic, the chance of resistance of one of those is one. So for example, in our guts, we have about one hundred trillion bacteria. That's a lot. If we expose. All of those to a drug, the chance that some are going to be resistant is pretty high. But if we put that drug as an eyedropper where there are only ten thousand bacteria, the chance of resistance developing, it's much much smaller. So that's another virtue of using narrow spectrum drugs and targeted delivery. There's a good reason why we still use too many broad spectrum drugs. We don't have tests that quickly. Let doctors know what's making someone sick. We use auger plates to diagnose bacterial infections. Most of the time that's Nancy Henshaw. Duke university's clinical microbiology lab where we saw many, many Agar plates. It's the Petri dish setup. You may recall from science class, basically, you swab samples on them than wait. And usually in twenty four hours if there's bacteria and the bacteria will broke, but doctors typically have just minutes to meet with each patient. So twenty four hours. Is a long time, and this system is partly automated. Accused her system is automated line where the instrument can actually inoculate a number of the specimens for us, and then the plates that are inoculated passive line and go into a smart incubators over here, the instrument will actually open the lid of these kosher plates, take a picture of it, and so that the technologists, instead of looking at plates, look at the screens and identify the bacteria among doctors. There's a small obsession that someday we'll have a really fast test like the Tri quarter used in Star Trek. We're not there yet. So the federal government started a competition with a two hundred million dollar prize for the best solution to the drug resistance problem. And the doctor we met earlier in the ER doctor solid is among the semifinalists..
"superbug" Discussed on Science Friday
"When we take a break, we're gonna come back. And now you've heard the word superbug but you're thinking of bacteria. But what happens when a yeast that's a fungus goes rogue will give you some answers after the break stay with us. This is science Friday I am. I replied, oh, if you're working to hospital the last thing you want to deal with our superbugs usually drug resistant bacteria, think mercy that take advantage of sick and weak patients, but have you ever heard of a superbug yeast? Perhaps you've had a mile east infection. Many of us have, but yeast can be fatal in humans. Candied Alba cans is a major culprit of blood blood infections that can lead to septic shock and other fungi around the world can cause lung infections and gastro intestinal problems. But now there's a new infectious yeast in town at seems capable of spreading fast as bacteria persisting outside the human body for long periods of time and with high mortality in the patients that acquire it. Oh, and by the way, we don't have a lot of drugs for combating this virus here to tell a tale as mayor and the Kenna she's seen. Fellow and the Schuster institute for investigative journalism at Brandeis university and science writer, and columnist for wired recently wrote about the rise of candidate or us and troubles. It could pose for public health. Welcome to science writing. Thanks for having doctor, Tom chiller chief of my cottage diseases at the centers for disease control. He joins us by Skype, welcome Tom, great to be with you American. What? What the heck is this tell us about it? So this east only came on the radar of scientists in two thousand nine initially, just it via a ear infection from in an elderly woman in Japan, and that was not that unusual. And then as people started to look at it, they realized that it really was very unusual because this yeast behaves like bacterium. In fact, everything that we think about that's bad about super bugs, which are bacteria is worse in this east, there were fewer drugs. It has higher mortality. It's spr-. Kids in a mysterious manner. It seems to have risen all over the world. At the same time. It's like super bugs on steroids in a species or superbug shouldn't occur at all. Does it does it? Is it infectious differently, visited spread differently than other yeast were? So the interesting thing about this is that when you talked in your intro about people being familiar with yeast infections and most of the time when you have a yeast infection, it's because you've actually inoculated yourself, are infected yourself with a yeast that you already carrying what's different and troubling about this new super buggies Candida or is, is that it passes from person to person so it. It may have originated in one person, but it causes outbreaks through person to person transmission and through transmission by surviving on cold inorganic surfaces. That's totally new. Do we have any sense about how many people may have died from this news? So there have been three hundred and forty cases. I believe in the United. States, but I'm sure the doctor chiller is more up on the numbers than I am. All right to duck chiller. Can you fill us in on that? Sure. I'd be happy to and just back to marriage point about these organisms generally being with us. So we think of the organisms that are in our intestines as part of our what we call normal flora. We have trillions of bacteria there. We also have trillions of Candida, so Canada's been with us evolving for millions of years and and and it's interesting to note that this particular candidates Mirren described isn't in that space. They're not. They're not fought to the part of our normal flora as we like to call it. But instead they're on our skin and they seem to be very happy on skin and other surfaces, and therefore transmit much more readily between people or from people to surfaces. And then from those services to people, as far as the number of of. The, you know, the numbers of infections and people with this infection that we're seeing..
"superbug" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Working to hospital the last thing you want to deal with our superbugs, usually drug resistant bacteria think Mercer Take advantage of sick. And weak patients but have you ever heard of a superbug yeast perhaps you've had a mild yeast infection many of us have but yeast can be fatal in humans candied. Alba cans is a major culprit of blood blood. Infections that can lead to septic. Shock and, other, fungi around the world can cause lung infections and gastro intestinal problems but now there's a new infectious yeast, in town That seems capable of spreading as fast as bacteria persisting. Outside the human body for long. Periods of time and. With high mortality in, patients that acquire it oh and by the way we don't have a. Lot of drugs for combating, this virus, here to tell a tale. As Mary McKenna she's senior fellow and, the Schuster institute for investigative journalism at Brandeis university? And science writer and columnist for wired? And she recently wrote, about the rise of candidate or and. Troubles it could pose for public health welcome to science writing thanks for having doctor Tom chiller chief of my cottage diseases at the centers for disease control he joins us. By Skype welcome Tom great to be with you What what the. Heck is. This tell us about it So this used only came, on the radar of scientists in two thousand nine initially just it via, a ear infection from in an. Elderly woman in Japan and that was not that, unusual and then as people started to look at it they realized that it. Really was, very unusual because this yeast behaves like bacterium in fact everything that we think. About that's bad, about superbugs which are. Bacteria is worse in. This piece there were fewer drugs. It has higher mortality it spreads into a mysterious manner it seems to. Have arisen all over the world at the same time it's like super bugs on. Steroids in a species? Where superbug shouldn't occur? At all does it does it is it? Infectious differently does it spread differently than other yeast were so the interesting thing about this is that when you talked, in your intro about people being familiar with yeast infections and most of the time when you have, a yeast infection is because you've actually inoculated your Self infected yourself with. A yeast that you already carrying what's different and troubling about this new superbug east, candidate or is is that it passes from person to person so it, it may have originated in one. Person but it causes outbreaks through person to person, transmission and through transmission by surviving on cold inorganic surfaces that's totally new do. We have, any sense about how many people may have died from this new years so. There have been, three hundred and forty. Cases I believe in. The United States but I'm sure. The doctor chiller is more up on the numbers than I am all. Right doctor Dr chiller can you fill us in on that sure I'd be happy. To back to marriage? Point about these organisms? Generally being with us so we think of? The organisms that are in our intestines as part of our what we call normal flora we have trillions of bacteria, there we also have trillions of Candida so Canada's been with us evolving for millions of years And and, and and it's interesting to note that this particular candidates. Mirren described is it in that space, they're not they're not fought to be part of our normal flora is we like to call it..
"superbug" Discussed on KQED Radio
"Taking time, to be with us today she's an environmental, reporter with, WMF, in Orlando, and you can read her stories. About. The Florida algal blooms on our website science Friday. Dot com, slash Florida when we take a break we're gonna come back and now you've heard the word superbug I bet you. Thinking of bacteria. But what happens when a yeast that's a fungus. Goes rogue we'll give you some answers after the break stay. With us I. Am I replied oh this is science Friday. From WNYC studios Support for kqed today comes from Rogers behavioral health offering TMS innovative technology. To treat. Major depression, that's, not responding to therapy and medication alone Information at Rogers be h dot or and by world reader a local nonprofit that provides e books to children, worldwide learn how, to support Syrian parents and their children with digital reading at world reader dot org Later today at one it's fresh air scientific research about sleep research that might. Keep you up at night the guest is Matthew Walker author of. Why, we sleep you. Tells us why we need eight hours the alarming consequences of the lack of it and what's going on in the brain when we sleep at some stages of the brain is more active one we are, awake you'll also give some tips on how to, get, a good night's rest all today on fresh air at one PM and again at, seven on This, is science Friday. I am I replied oh if you're working a hospital the last thing you want to deal with our superbugs usually drug resistant bacteria think mercy Take advantage of sick. And weak patients but have you ever heard of a superbug yeast perhaps you've had a mild yeast infection many of us have but yeast can be fatal in humans candied. Alba cans is a major culprit of blood blood infections that can lead to septic shock and other fungi around the world can cause lung infections and gastro intestinal problems but now there's a new infectious yeast in, town, at seems capable of, spreading as fast as bacteria persisting outside the human body for long periods of time and with high mortality in the patient's data choir it oh and by the way we don't have a, lot of drugs for. Combating this virus here to tell a tale as Mary McKenna she's. Senior fellow and the Schuster institute. For investigative, journalism, at Brandeis university science writer, and columnist for wired and she recently wrote about the rise of candidate s, and Trump Could pose for public health welcome to science writing thanks for having the time? Chiller chief of my conduct diseases at the centers for? Disease control he joins us by Skype welcome Tom? Great to be with you man American. What what the heck, is this tell us about it so. This yeast only came on the radar of scientists in two thousand nine initially just it via a ear infection from in an elderly woman in Japan and that was not. That unusual and then as people started to look at it they realized that it really was very unusual because this yeast behaves like bacterium in fact everything that we think about that's bad about superbugs which are, bacteria, is worse in this, case there were fewer drugs it has higher mortality it spreads and a mysterious manner it seems to have risen all over the world at the same time it's like super bugs on steroids, in a species where. Superbug shouldn't occur at all does it does it is it in Factious differently does it spread differently than other yeast were so the interesting thing about. This is that when you, talked in, your intro about people being familiar. With. Yeast? Infections and most of the? Time when you have? A yeast infection is because you've actually inoculated yourself are infected yourself with a yeast, that you already carrying what's different and troubling about this new superbug east, candidate or is that it passes. From person to person so it it may have, originated in one person but it causes outbreaks through person to person transmission and. Through transmission, by surviving on cold inorganic surfaces totally new do we have any sense about. How many people, may have died from..
"superbug" Discussed on WSJ The Future of Everything
"All of your antibiotics because you can have these persist through cells present he's trying to identify how cells do this using gene editing technology called crisper he also uses chris byrd a study the way cells fight amongst themselves for scarce resources he hopes to recreate it and then manipulated so for example you can look room some of this so that you already have in your gut system for example and have them identify pathogens or invaders and have them treat the invaders in yoga without requiring external input but there's a catch you don't want the bacteria to turn against your own cells so this kind of warfare happens all the time either in soil or in your system or in most environments to achieve that we need to be able to ram into the of better than the invader at mit researchers are taking a different approach to fighting superbugs someone in is timothy lou arman associate professor at mit and my field is in the area synthetic biology where we are reengineering the genetic code that underpins life to address a wide range of biomedical applications in his lab he successfully killed drugresistant bacteria with special viruses confusingly called bacterial fades or fades for short let me features are basically the natural predators for bacteria so these viruses naturally infect fact bacteria were exposed them all the time they're in our bodies there in the water viruses are not known to infect human cells they say very specific for bacteria in our hands we've decided to do is actually to try to engineer fages that don't freely replicate on their own sweet sort of disable the fiji's so they act as a one time delivery vector but once you put them into the environment or put them into people they basically just in fact the bacteria and then they do their thing but they don't continues to propagate himself lewis also using crisper the fages deliver it to the superbug and the crisper attacks as a sort of at a high level the way it works it's basically a molecular scissor.
"superbug" Discussed on WSJ The Future of Everything
"Where we can show that the proteins expressed in the nose actually suggest the presence of a viral infection as opposed to bacterial infection or something else and we can get to the point of having a tissue sample that turns colors blue if you have a virus yellow if you have a seasonal allergy eccentric in other words a diagnostic handkerchief it really would be revolutionary in we see moving in that direction better diagnostic tests are important but so are new ways to defend against bacteria and our next best defence may not be a drug as we know it researchers are looking at how bacteria naturally crowded in our bodies may be useful in fighting superbugs throw the microbiome is a term used to describe all of these living things that yukon see what you'll naked eye that scouten dont'a sam microbiologist at washington university in st louis virtually anywhere that we investigate under a microscope as zooming in for instance ab we would zoom it on your phone but now imagine serving an annual four make ten thousand times then you'll start seeing these living things which are small but they do these incredible things most of the bacteria aren't harming us but a tiny number of thugs stupas problems recalled them battle jain's sometimes you that would germs even though did the minority of most microbes that we know when the come into the body obviously they're going to back things and as it turns out these good guys the microbiome and general a big part of what they do is keep those bad guys out there just basically occupied the space that the bad guys may want to use and so the just will not share that space until than the bad guys country called the ultimate actively so that produce some particular molecules for instance that actively goal and attack some of the bad bugs good guys bad guys it sounds an awful lot like an action movie but like any really really good action movie you know most characters and not one dimensional the narcan a black and white craig the not into the bad guys might have a back story to tell you why they might be bad and maybe they were.
"superbug" Discussed on WSJ The Future of Everything
"Right now governments deem about a dozen superbugs a serious threat one of them is interro caucus i'm michael gilmore i'm a professor at harvard medical school in a scientist at the massachusetts iin near infirmary gilmore tracks its evolutionary history we can look at the dna of bacteria now in ways that we never could before and that's giving us a new understanding of what makes bacteria behave the way they do how did they get resistant enterococcus quickly becomes resistant anything we throw at it so he asked him are there drugs that still stand a chance yes uh issue it so we keep introducing new ones and shortly thereafter in or developed resistance to the hosts and so it's a which day of the week is this in soho is is the answer there are examples of inro cock is being resistant to everything that we have to throw at it and so it's always a challenge to stay one step ahead of these microbes so how did enterococcus get to be so tough anyway for that we have to go back five hundred million years around the timelife transition from water to land the first animals plants and the antara caucus to this bacteria survived the mass extinction that wiped out dinosaurs and scientists think it's due to genes it picked up in the paleozoic era that may be helping at thrive despite drugs and disinfectants gilmore says if we continue to throw antibiotics added resistance will continue at a faster rate than we can keep up with melby average life span the ill boy alec before resistance becomes a is above pharval years so you can develop a new one and will be good for five years before resistance starts emerging it such a frequency that people would want to have a different antibiotic if we use that in a biotic onetenth as often as we did then rather them resistance occurring and five to eight years who would occur and fifty.
"superbug" Discussed on WSJ The Future of Everything
"Polling their antibiotic also was a preventive treatment farmers quickly adopted the drugs as a way to save money though there is always been antibiotic free farms they might have been organic they might have been pasture based there usually fairly small the really interesting evolution right now is that very large meat producers are also going antibiotic free and this has happened first in the world of poultry they're doing this by returning to older practices things like sunshine exercise and better nutrition and she says consumer pressure is what made the change happen both in business and in government there's been a consumer movement since about two thousand ten pushing for change in how meat producers use antibiotics and because of that consumer pressure both the federal rules changed and the meat companies agreed to change and so forth meat companies it's a way to signal that they're going along with what consumers want but the labels at the grocery store only tell part of the story when the federal rules were changed that change band only growthpromotion two 'cause animals to put on weight more quickly and farms can use antibiotic free claims even if they still use them for other reasons nobody wants to ban treating animals if they are in fact sick but they're still the big mushy middle category that is still fully legal doesn't really show up on most of those label claims on meet packages and the still pretty contentious among researchers she's referring to using antibiotics as a way to prevent sickness in healthy farmanimals one reason that matters is because these are the same drugs we use in medicine if bacteria become resistant in the system of an animal that's been given antibiotics that are used in humans and those bacteria migrate via meat or by some other pathway to a human and caused the drug resistant infection we then can't cure that infection because the drugs that we would have used has already been undermined by its use in livestock.
"superbug" Discussed on WSJ The Future of Everything
"Lead straightforward we can figure it out pretty easily and then target or treatment to what it is it's going on but there are other times where you just kinda shrug your shoulders and say you know what i really don't know because doctors don't have a quick way to determine a patients type of infection they're left with no choice but to gas so it's it's really challenging and right now which is sort of make the best use of the tools we have and we get it wrong the majority of the time you if you look at the distribution in terms of how many people end up on antibiotics every year it averages out to be about one in every two adults and just about every child gets an antibiotic and respiratory illness is the most common reason for that viruses are responsible for about seventy five percent of those and if we were managing those appropriately you would find and none of those patients end up on antibiotics and yet about twothirds of them do that ends up resulting in millions upon millions of unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions every year the overprescribing of antibiotics is turning hospitals into superbug factories it means were turning to the mall most powerful drugs we have at a faster rate and that puts our last line of defence against bacteria in jeopardy but it's not just hospitals i visited a nearby grocery store with reporter melanie evans where we saw foods labelled antibiotic free right and left but see is raised without antibiotics that's one level no antibiotics ever that's another one different labels all making the same points no antibiotics but wire antibiotics in meat in the first place right at the beginning of the antibiotic era maryn mckenna is an investigative journalist she's is also the author of big chicken a new book about antibiotics in agriculture when the nascent manufacturers of antibiotics were looking for markets for their new drugs one of those manufacturers realized could also make a case for it to be used in animals to put on muscle mass faster and later on they also we're able to make a case for.