19 Episode results for "Stewart Gary"
67: India Fails to Land on The Moon
"This is space time series twenty two episodes sixty seven for broadcast on the eleventh of September two thousand nine hundred nineteen coming up on space time India fails els its bid to land on the surface of the moon one hundred and seventy two asteroids now considered a risk to earth and another claim of microbial fossils discovered in the Martian meteoroid. Oh that and more coming up on space time welcome to Space Time We'd Stewart Gary India has failed in its attempt to land a spacecraft on the surface of the moon mission managers suddenly lost contact with Vikram Luna Landa just to kill him. It is above the moon's surface. The land was attempting at touchdown near the lunar south off pole position has just been initiated the fighting the for liquid Indian sweater which I was mentioning for the activities started and right now we are at second since the fire and just giving up there to the the line there when it was in around thirty kilometers when the officiant static velocity of nearly thousand six hundred forty meter per second six-minute savvy labs since we started the power dissipation and we stayed in the face with the next four minutes ago and if I look at the velocity that has dropped from the time the descent operation was initiated nearly fifty percent of the orbital velocity has been used to be started with thousand six hundred eighty meter the per second presently the victim lander is descending towards the lunar surface and it hasn't lost city of seven hundred and sixty so we expect in the next three minutes. The lawsuit should come down to something hundred forty-six. We are almost maybe in the range of twenty ten to twenty meters but also yeah I think maybe that'll with respect to the flight predictions which clearly indicates the photo at stating Jin's which has been basically designed for this Vikram lined up for the first time as been performing extremely well. We have almost six centimeter per second so maybe another find of velocities what we expect to get it reduced as we are. Maybe seventy five kilometers from the actual site the one thing I would like to just mention here the during the phase of operation as I mentioned the breaking phase is real brute force of velocity reduction and since we are trying to bring an object from an orbiting around the lunar surface to have touched on there is a need the forest reduce the the city is something like breaking in fact. I expect I think when we reach an auditor of almost the target for this particular breaking faces to attain all good a seven point four kilometers and velocity should attach almost one hundred and forty six cents so we have we are finished breaking face now because the target for that was seven point for nearly one so the lander has successfully completed the rout raping face and and now we have entered the next phase of operation it is obsolete navigation nor attitude control face and this particular event is going to last for nearly thirty thirty eight seconds at the four throttle inside continues on and we see the velocities something like eighty six meters per second and roughly four award point four kilometers away from the landing site so all wing black just probably being deed on main for completely. Yes there are taking face has been successfully completed. I'm we have entered the next place of breaking operation which is defined breaking start which is wearing basically commenced wrong fight lama groggy you do and this is the last one nearly ninety six seconds where in the become lander will be reaching artur just four hundred meters above the landing site afford initiating the descent operations so via almost level administrator two seconds after this operation has started just awaiting the announcement for at the end of fine breaking phase. Maybe another few seconds we should hear the announcement that the fine breaking of operation has been completed and we expect at Dan of this development to reach altuve almost afforded meters and they've become lander has autism the velocity of nearly forty eight meters velocity of sixty meter per second he said was asked not performance was absorbed upto to an altitude up to find me secretly communications. The station was lost. I had it succeeded. India would have become only the fourth nation after the former Soviet Union the United States and China to have of landed a spacecraft on the surface of the moon telemetry showed normal performance parameters continued down to an altitude of about two point one kilometers above the lunar surface link communications communication suddenly cut out the data showed that at the time the land was at least a kilometer off track from the docket landing site and the descent trajectory display showing showing an apparent lowest altitude of zero point three three kilometers the chanter into mission was launched back on the twenty second of July from the Schettino on space center on the Bay of Bengal coast the mission flew aboard the Indian Space Research Organizations most powerful rocket the synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle or GSLV Mach Doc three it consisted of three components. There was the Chan- drain into orbiter the Vikram Lander and the prog young Lunar Rover the flight used an orbital raising acing trajectory which involves progressively increasing the mission's highly elongated Obama above the earth till it was large enough to also encompass the moon. It's a flight light path which saves on Fuel Elsa takes a lot longer nearly seven weeks compared to just three days for a direct flight Chantraine to achieve lunar orbit on August. What was the twentieth it then began tightening its orbit around the moon into a circular one hundred kilometer high orbit the orbit then released its Vikram Linda on September the second and sending the one and a half ton land on a long slow descent maneuver data the surface the Land Rover Would Zion to spend fourteen days on the lunar surface exploring flooring the local environment and conducting scientific observations with Nathan Landow rover designed to withstand the freezing temperatures of the lunar night? The ground mission was expected acted a come to an end as luminescent fell. Despite the land is failure the Chandra into orbit. We'll continue studying the moon from orbit for about a year. It's equipped with eight scientific typic- instruments including an x Ray Spectrometer to measure the chemical composition of the lunar surface a solar x Ray monitored study high energy radiation from the sun a jewel frequency NC synthetic aperture surface mapping raider instruments to study the Moon's excess fear an excess is a really thin atmosphere and a radio science experiment designed to study Eddie electrons in the lunar ionosphere. The chantraine to mission follows India's earliest chantraine one lunar orbiter which launched in two thousand and eight and circled the moon for about about ten months discovering water ice on the lunar surface a third mission chantraine three is slated for launch in twenty twenty four. You're listening to space-time I'm Stewart Gary the European in space agencies near Earth Objects Coordination Center says there are now some eight hundred seventy two no near Earth objects or nears which pose a risk to planet earth. That's around four percent of the twenty thousand six hundred sixty four nine asteroids in one hundred and eight known comets whose orbits come close to that of the earth and of course then McCain's is increasing since the start of this year alone some one thousand three hundred seventy seven new near Earth objects have been discovered and the concern is very real all over the past ten months five in the have come closer to surface than the orbits of communication satellites. The most recent was on the twenty second of June three meter wide asteroid later designated as twenty nineteen ammo slammed into the Caribbean off the southern coast of Puerto Rico exploding with a force of five kilotons thermonuclear the device and twenty nineteen. Mo came as a complete surprise. It wasn't detected until it hit the upper atmosphere setting off interest on the tickets originally designed to monitor illegal nuclear weapons tests and it's not alone back on March the first six meter wide asteroid designated as two thousand nineteen H. One came within two thousand three hundred kilometers of the planet surface it had only been detected that day and it was the asteroid not come closer than the moon since the start of the year passing a planet at a blistering fifteen point six kilometers per second just a month earlier at the two made a wide asteroid two thousand nineteen S. five swooped down with an eight thousand six hundred kilometers of the planet surface on the of January. It was only discovered nine hours before it's close encounter then this two thousand eighteen. WVU One a six meter wide asteroid that came within twenty seven thousand kilometers of the planet surface on the second December last year just three days after it was first detected. It's thought to be a piece of the moon ejected into space by the impact of a large asteroid onto the lunar surface millions to billions of years ago and we haven't seen the last of twenty. WBZ We'll be back for another close approach December this year and more importantly this asteroid is on the century riskless with the probability of a one nine eleven thousand chance of an impact with birth sometime between twenty five and twenty one eighteen and it doesn't end there another six meter wide space rock. This one catalogued as two thousand eighteen. WG You Jay came within twenty nine thousand kilometers of the Earth surface on November sixteenth last year and scientists didn't detect it until the day after it had passed and and that's the real problem isn't it other than the United States in the European Union. No one seems to be bothering to spend money on the planetary defense system. I'm Stewart Gary the Space Time and you study suggests that saddens interior flows like honey jide what's magnetic field the findings reported in the journal Physical Review Fluids may help solve the mystery of why the ring world's powerful winds seemed to stop eight thousand five hundred kilometers kilometers below the gas giants apparent surface of course unlike earth satin has no solid surface. It's guest giant consisting mostly of hydrogen and helium moving moving around for the weekly strong winds night as jet streams form the appearance of stripes on Saturdays Exterior Simla but far less stock than those on Jupiter one one of the study's authors Dr David Stanton from the Australian National University says new data from the demise of matches Cassini mission offered scientists to glimpse into what goes on below sends sounds cloud tops at the end its mission Nassar instructed the Cassini spacecraft undertake a suicidal death plunge satin sell us to prevent any possible contamination of any of the ring world's moons which could have live with microbes during its final descent Cassini recorded as much data as it could transmitting it live back to Earth Earth until it was finally crushed ripped apart by saddens thick atmosphere and immense gravity Constantinople says the gravitational measurements reveal that these jet streams continued. Can you down to about eight thousand five hundred kilometers inside sadden. That's roughly fifteen percent of the distance towards the planet's core. The findings may help solve the mystery of why why sentenced jetstream stop at a certain depth C. S. pressures and densities increase with depth that you go into satin ms for gases become more and more liquid like they're able to conduct electricity and more strongly influenced by the planet's Magnetic Field Come Stanton who says an electrically conducting flowing liquid will bend or the stored magnetic field old and the research shows that this distortion the magnetic field makes the fluid more viscous like honey the authors theoretical models indicate this viscous effects on the magnetic field could could be the reason why the jetstream terminated depths beyond eight thousand five hundred kilometers stanton who says the mysteries of what goes on inside Satin and the other guest Johnson solar the system and now slowly sliding to be unveiled the findings provide a promising way for interpreting the data of planetary missions and offer a better understanding of the planets now solar system system and beyond recently base crept Kazini dived into Saturday us a part of the the end of its mission and a Ah may detailed measurements of the gravity and magnetic fields inside Saturn's so from that scientists were able to understand that the winds that we see the top of the atmosphere of Saturn go down as deep as eight thousand kilometers post five hundred kilometers more or less was a new discovery and it turns out that the depth at which they stop is the depth that the magnetic fields inside Dr to be strong enough to have an effect on the on the flow slow so the fluid in the outer part of the atmosphere is not really affected by magnetic field but as you go deeper inside the planet because the pressure becomes higher and higher at some point the pressure is so high that the electrons can pop out of the molecules and move around freely and electronics and move around freely create currents and currents are affected by magnetic field. That's why as you go deep you expect that defector start becoming stronger stronger and it it turns out that in turn the death had with the wind stop it's more or less a depth at which we expect the magnetic fields start to who have a strong effect on the flow and what's more intriguing is that a year ago base craft Juneau when and made some similar type of measurements on Jupiter and and found that the the Winston job there they go as deep as three thousand kilometers in gop enjoy Peter and for Jovita. That's exactly more or less adept that people expect that magnetic fields was to have a strong influence on the flow so these these was suggesting that there's somehow must be common explanation the nation to both to explaining the depths of the wins in both the gas giants despite that the numbers are at different what about that juvenile three two thousand case sat in eight thousand five hundred GBS a lot larger than sat and far more massive any has much much stronger magnetic field um so because it has much stronger magnetic field you don't have to go deep inside for the the same effect who Kim Kim so that that that is part of the expunge so to Juno has any discoveries people these coincidence that the depth of the wind is more or less about the same depth at which we expect like negatives fields to start to have a strong effect but they had no explanation or no physical mechanism to explain and why the magnetic fields will stop the wins at this depth and this is where our came in and you know we propose a theoretical explanation for how magnetic field in fact the flow and how and the physical mechanism behind which they hang flew in such a manner so that the wind stop and when we've plugging the numbers it turns out that we can predict we make back on the envelope calculation and we we get pretty close to both of the depths that Juneau measured worked for Jupiter and Kazini Measure for the remarkable thing is this is this quainton between Jupiter and Saturn although the numbers are different explanation at least from what we believe seems to be the same and that's very often the case in physics you find one common law that you know underlies underlies various phenomena and when you do that if it turns out that our classroom is correct which it is I mean we still need to make more details in relation or we we should have more data to confirm that but if that's the case then this promotes understanding because as as soon as you have one explanation is that you can explain these phenomena they it means that you understand the phenomenon deeper deeply. You'll pay must be very happy with with all this work. That's been done by Cassini even in steph throws it was still able to provide new research which tells us more about the solar system yeah yeah and it was it. Was You know very nice idea of Nazi. What's the thing okay we're done with the spacecraft but you know I at least we can have last dive and get a glimpse of what's underneath the southwest cloud? which is I really had to do otherwise because as soon as you do that you lose your spacecraft or something so that was that was very interesting? I remember we were sitting is so we were working back on the Jupiter paper then in September twenty seventeen when we heard that you know today's the day that Kazini will dive in and we were intrigued to wait and hear about whether it's a it's a fascinating times name. Did I mean yeah we start to learn more on the solar system. I mean we've always always been learning but now that we learn more and places that we didn't expect that we would have data before losing space time. I'm Stewart Gary in this being another study suggesting possible fossilized evidence of past microbial. Your life is being discovered inside Martian meteorite the new study but it goes show ally and colleagues from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences suggests a what seventy five million in Europe Martian meteorite founded nineteen seventy seven by Japanese scientific team in articles. Allan Hills is filled contained signatures similar to those produced by Oxidizing Z. Microbes on Earth a report in the journal opened astronomy claims the authors discovered mineralized filament like organic material embedded in meteorite cataloged as AOL L. H. Seven seven zero zero five. I guess traces in the meteorite confirmed originated on Mars the authors used optical and infrared spectroscopy doc microscopy to closely examine the slice of the coast grain meteorite looking for buyers signatures initial geological examination determined that the four hundred eighty two point five grand meteorite eighty right was composed of about fifty five percent olive-green around thirty five percent pyroxene eight percent maskell night and two percents of Peixe however they're also able able to detect the presence of circle film extractors of organic material that is by getting minerals such as fair hydride Goethe and hematite which the authors speculate. We're built by I'm oxidizing microbes. The authors suggest other signatures for by genesee supporting the scenario included strong negative doto thirty and see Richmond of mine manganese denise phosphorus and zinc in the shot note. You may recall back in nineteen ninety six another team of scientists this time led by David Macae reported in the journal Science did they identified possible evidence of fossilized microbial bacterial signatures in another Martian meteorite L. H. Eight four zero one which had also been found in an Arctic is is Allan hills the structures found in L. H. Eighty four zero zero one were between twenty and one hundred nanometers in diameter similar in size to Nanna bacteria but smaller any cellular life form known at the time of discovery in fact then. US President Bill Clinton held a special press conference at the White House to announce the potential discovery the scientific civic community still today continues to debate the merits of the nineteen ninety-six Mash micro claims with many researchers suggesting alternative explanations for the microscopic structures is the debate goes on. You're listening to space time. I'm Stewart Gary Iran has is now confirmed that a missile did explode on its launch pad at the Top Sacred Amount Khameini Space Center Jibril Malfunction During testing last month commercial observation hopes of Asian satellite images of the blast site were beamed around the world within hours of the event and US President Donald Trump then released high-resolution reconnaissance satellite images of the damage showing severe scorching on the northern side of the launchpad a damaged Gantry Service town destroyed fuel and support vehicles strewn around the launchpad and importantly a badly we damage missile mobile launcher Tehran's belated confirmation of the launch pad failure comes as Washington Urs additional sanctions against the Islamic republic for continuing with its missile program in violation of its agreements under the United Nations Security Council resolution two to three one that endorsed the twenty-fifty nuclear deal in in which Iran agreed to stop developing medium and long range ballistic missiles capable of delivering thermonuclear warhead the explosion involved what's known as a symbol or wash affair to three-stage medium range ballistic missile. These missiles are based on the old Soviet Union. SS ONE SCUD missile technology the launch vehicle. I use a North Korean tape it onto ballistic missile I it which combines four Scud Missile Rocket Motors and North Korean node on one ballistic missile down as Shabaab three in Iran Eh for the upper stages which source from Egyptian SCUD-B and Chinese Scott see missile technology shop three can deliver a one thousand two hundred kilogram warhead ahead five move independently targetable multiple reentry vehicle warheads over a range of two thousand five hundred kilometers as well as using green missile technology Tehran also copies its North Korean ally claiming it's illegal ballistic missile tests are all out of a scientific space program Washington's imposed sanctions on five people and five of entities involved into covert networks applying Iran's missile program sanctions target the Iranian Space Agency Space Research Center and the Astronautics Research Institute in May Twenty eighteen the United States put out of the Iran nuclear deal citing multiple violations by Tehran including continued missile tests continued sponsorship sponsorship of terrorist organizations such as Hamas Hezbollah and Islamic. She had an continuing to secretly develop a parallel nuclear weapons program with help from North Korea Pyongyang has now tested miniaturized thermonuclear warheads on missiles and the International Atomic Energy Agency says the Islamic Republic is explored various fusing taming and firing systems to make rain missiles more capable of reliably delivering thermonuclear warhead however the oil-rich nation insists its nuclear program ramp is for peaceful power generation only still the United Nations nuclear watchdog says Iran has breached its nuclear deal by continuing to increase its stockpile of enriched uranium radium and increase its enriched uranium purity bringing it close it weapons grade material. The International Atomic Energy Agency says Tehran is exceeded birth. It's two hundred and two two point eight kilogram limit on enriched uranium stockpiles now accumulating more than two hundred and forty one point six kilograms and it's increased its fissile purity from the three point six seven percent agree to to up to what is now four point five percent me well both the Hamas and Hezbollah terrorist groups which are funded by Tehran have increased attacks against Israel while Iranian raining revolution regards have been placing limpet mines on all tankers in the Persian Gulf and seizing ships transiting the Strait of famous. That's now prompted the United States Great Britain and Australia Australia to increase the military presence in the region in order to score tankers through the Gulf which supplies around a quarter of the world's oil. I'm Stewart Gary. You're listening space time anti-matter take a brief look at some of the other stories making news in science this week with a science report the Centers for disease control the CDC and now getting reports of people died from severe respiratory illnesses after vaping the average daily l. e. a cigarette smoker it held a cocktail vaporized nicotine propylene glycol and chemical flavouring agents emeritus Professor Simon Chapman from the University of Sydney says the full disaster smoking's health effects didn't become apparent until forty years after smoking became widespread Chapman says with vaping any becoming widespread in the past decade. It's still thought oil to know the full risks of e cigarettes but this may be a canary in the coalmine for what Lies Ahead Chapman warns that people vaping being now being treated like human lab rats by the e cigarette and tobacco industries which have all now but with into a six and vaping and you study has concluded there. There is no single gay gene the findings reported in the journal Science based on analysis of the genetic data from over four hundred seventy thousand people analyzed survey responses stances about their same sex sexual behavior. The researchers could not find any way to meaningfully predict or identify persons sexual behavior on the basis of their genes and scientists did however find five genetic variants associated with same sex behavior and lots of others which they say may also be involved but at best they say these variations variations could only account for between eight and twenty five percent of variation in same sex sexual behavior and could not be used to predict it. The finding suggests that same sex six sexual behavior is influenced by a complex mix of genetic and environmental influences similar to most other human traits a study of close to half a million paypal has found an association between drinking sugary or artificially sweetened drinks and early death. A report in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that drinking MO- artificially officially sweetened beverages was associated with a higher risk of death from heart and circulatory diseases. Well drinking more sugar sweetened drinks was associated with a higher risk of death from the Justice Justice Diseases a report in the journal Nature suggests the radiation from a mystery explosion at a secret Russian naval research station last month was linked to a nuclear reactor breach. The massive blast killed five scientists and injured many others it also unleashed a cloud of Gamma Radiation Some sixteen times above normal background levels of the surrounding countryside Russia's nuclear agency confirmed the blast happened at an offshore platform during tests of liquid propulsion system involving radioisotopes now data from the Russian weather bureau as mortar the picture. It's confirmed that detection of strontium ninety one Barry One thirty nine Barium one forty and lengthy one on forty isotopes in both rain and atmospheric readings from the surrounding area may well Norwegian nuclear authorities say they detected an unexplained spike in radioactive iodine on one thirty one while the Moscow Times newspapers reporting radioactive Caesium one thirty seven as being found in muscle tissue from several doctors from the area of the Naval Research at center. These isotopes will be created in the core of a nuclear reactor and then released during a reactor explosion or major breach that all supports the idea that this incident didn't was caused by an exploding nuclear reactor core possibly from Russia's new sky full nuclear cruise missile Russian President Vladimir Putin unveiled sky for last year. Yeah it's a nuclear arm this out powered by an onboard nuclear reactor giving the weapon almost unlimited range the missile would use a conventional chemical engine for launch and then switched to nuclear power once in flight by using energy developed by compact nuclear reactor to hate air entering an intake causing it to rapidly expand and blast out Iran nozzles is thrust of course another possibility is that this reactor was actually meant to pow the long room at beside nuclear powered mega torpedo which is also being developed by Moscow although the size of a medium size submarine beside and is believed to be armed with a two megaton thermonuclear warhead it could be launched from a larger submarine and the ice is kept and then cruised under its own power to any shoreline target on earth and you steady of nearly nine thousand eight hundred firefighters in New York City is found an association between greater exposure to the September eleventh terrorist attacks and the long term risk of cardiovascular disease a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association Asian looked at the arrival time of subjects at the World Trade Center site imagine a time they spent they and their heart health of sixteen years they found that those read the side out of the attacks on the day as well as those who continue to return over the next six months had higher risk of cardiovascular disease compared to those who arrived later or who spent less time at the side scientists say the results reinforced the importance of monitoring long term health of survivors of disasters such as the nine eleven attacks the nine eleven seven on September eleven terrorist attacks a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group Al Qaeda against the people of the United States on the morning of Tuesday September the eleventh two thousand one the attacks killed two thousand nine hundred ninety six people and injured more than six thousand others additional victims died of nine eleven related cancer respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks the attacks involve the hijacking of four passenger airliners by Al Okay terrorists to the planes American Airlines flight eleven and United Airlines flight one seventy five with crashed into the north and south towers of the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan Hatton a third plane American Airlines flight seventy seven was crashed into the Pentagon Washington. DC and fourth aircraft United Airlines Flight Ninety three was was initially flown towards Washington DC but crashed into a field near Shanksville Pennsylvania after its passengers overpowered the hijackers twenty their attempts that flight was believed lead to be targeting the Capitol building. You're listening to space time. I'm Stewart Gary and that's the show for now you can subscribe and Download Space Time is a free twice weekly podcast through apple podcast on Itunes STITCHER BITES DOT COM podcasts soundcloud youtube audio boom from space time with Stewart Gary Okay Dot Com all from your favorite podcast download provider Space Times also broadcast coast to coast across the United States on science three sixty radio by the National Science Minds Foundation in Washington. DC and available around the world on tune in radio. 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68: Monster Black Hole Firing an Energy Beam Towards Earth
"This is Space Time series twenty two episode sixty eight for broadcast on the thirteenth September two thousand nineteen coming up on space time the months the black hole. Oh firing an energy beam towards earth discovery of eight more repeating fast radio bursts astronomers uncovered a treasure trove of ancient galaxies in the distant universe all that and more coming up on space time welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary Yeah observations of the Super Massive black hole at the center of our galaxy suggests that it shooting a powerful awful energy beam almost directly towards the earth the findings reported in the astrophysical journal based on new technique which is added Alma the Atacama Atacama large millimeter submillimeter rate telescope in northern Chile to an existing array of radio telescopes spread around the world which is studying out galaxy central supermassive black black hole adding Alma to the network as allowed astronomers to determine that a powerful emission beam is being generated from a smaller region of the black hole and previously thought suggesting it's pointed directly towards us most if not all galaxies a thought to contain a supermassive black hole of their centers millions to billions of times the mass of our sun the one at the height of Al Galaxy. The Milky Way is located some twenty six thousand light years away. It's called secretaries a star and contains about four point three million solar masses but until now foggy cloud of hot gas and dust shrouded the black hole preventing astronomers for making shop images of Secretary Say Star leaving doubt about its true nature adding Alma to the global network of radio telescopes studying the central monster has allowed outsiders to see through the fog they use the technique could very long baseline interferometry which electronically connects numerous radio telescopes around the world allowing astronomers astronomers to create a virtual telescope as big as the earth by observing at a frequency of eighty six GIGAHERTZ. The author succeeded in mapping out the exact properties of the light scattering gathering which is blocking the view of cemetery say star. The removal of most of the scattering effect has produced the first image of the surroundings of our supermassive black hole in fact the high quality of the unscheduled image has allowed astronomers to constrain theoretical models for the guests surrounding sanitary say star the bulk of the radio emission appears appears to be coming from a me three hundred million of a degree and the source of peace they have symmetrical morphology now this indicate that the radio emissions actually being produced by a disc risk of influencing gas rather than by radio jet however that would make secretaries as an exception compared to other radio meeting black holes the alternative save is that the radio jet is point almost directly at us and that's supported by observations using the very large telescope configured as earned interferometry barometer of optical telescopes sip a massive black holes may generate the most energetic phenomena in the known universe. It's believed that around. These black holes matter falls into a rotating disk and accretion disk with stars planets massive clouds a torn apart ripped pieces and crushed must this matter then passes beyond a point of no return known as the horizon beyond which it falls forever into the singularity of the black hole but not all the material is distant be doomed to such a fate some of its channel along magnetic field lines before it reaches the event horizon. It's then focused into beams perpendicular to the accretion disk and shut out across ask the universe forming cuevas powerful beams of energy visible across the Cosmos of course the strength of these beams depends on how much the blackhawks feeding the Milky Way ship a massive black hole secretary say star is relatively quiet so it's only nibbling on bits of gas and dust that get too close whether the radio emissions nations with seeing from secretary's a star is being generated by the in falling material the out flowing jet is still a matter of intense debate secretaries. A star is located headed in the seventh sky and so the participation of Almaz important not only because of its sensitivity but also because of its location in the Southern Hemisphere as well as Alma twelve of other radio telescopes located across North America and Europe also participated in the network. The resolution achieved through this process was twice as good as any previous observations nations achieved at this frequency and it's produced the first image of secretaries a star. That's completely free of interstellar scattering an effect caused by the density of irregularities in the ionized material along the line of sight between senators a star and the earth. I'm Stewart Gary. You're listening to space time in this episode of space. Time is brought to you by the great courses plus. You'll listing the space time because you have a passion for knowledge you wonder why the stand the universe around U. P. deeper into the underlying science and that's where the great causes plus comes uh-huh in providing you with a priceless of knowledge in just about any field while still letting you meet your day to day obligations in the real world the great courses plus is a fabulous knowledge college streaming service offering you thousands of lectures you can watch or listen to it whenever you want to on your daily commute to work during long haul flights or when you just need a bit bit of alone time to unwind the brain you can explore anything from 'em theory better known to most a string theory right through the real reason so the UFO craze of the nineteen fifties. He's it could even learn about survival tips in the wilderness how to cook or how to play a musical instrument. All the courses are presented by university professors or award winning experts in field. The unique perspectives allows you to really understand the subject giving clear concise answers that are being dumbed down now. 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Url at the great courses roses plus dot com slash space that way they'll know you've come from us and you'll be hoping to support our show so start your free trial now just go to the great courses plus dot dot com slash space. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space and start your free trial and of course we will include the details in the show notes and on space-time website and now it's back to the show with thanks to the great courses plus. You'll listening to Space Times Times facetime with Stewart Gary Astronomers. Maybe a step closer to finally solving the mystery of Fast Radio burst just falling the discovery of eight ray repeating bursts fast radio bursts a sudden high-energy flashes at specific wavelengths lasting just nanoseconds and originating at cosmic distances but in that short time they can release more energy than half a billion suns. The first fast radio bursts. Fiba's were discovered back in two thousand and seven in data from the packs Radio Telescope in Country New South Wales. Since then dozens more of being detected most singular events occurring just wanted a specific location and then never heard from again that suggesting that they caused by some sort of cataclysmic events such as a supernova explosion but astronomers are now detecting fast radio bursts that have repeated from the same location that suggests very different 'cause fading black holes Gucci Neutron Stars and Highly Johny magnetized neutron stars called magnetized are all suspected or it could simply be that all fast radio bursts the repeaters with some simply a lot more active than others until the start of this year only one of these mysterious signals. F I B twelve eleven oh to was known to flesh repeatedly but then in January a second repeating fast radio bursts F. I. B. Eighty eight fourteen was discovered now a new study on the pre press physics website dot org and submitted to the astrophysical journal no as reported the discovery of eight new repeating fast radio bursts astronomers with chime the Canadian hydrogen intensity Mapping Experiment Radio Telescope of the tin repeating birth certificate so far only the first two of being traced back to their sources that first one if I B twelve to exhibits very close that bursts sometimes sometimes remaining silent for hours and hours and then suddenly exhibiting model bursts in a short amount of time and one of the nearly detected bursts has done the same thing another has repeated three times but the remaining six have only repeated once one close to what's generating these events is that individual bursts from repeaters appear to last the little longer and showed a down with drifted frequency with H. Burst getting successively. Loa compared to flashes from one fast radio bursts. The authors are also able to measure Asia the polarization of one of the new signals. If I be eighty nine sixteen finding it to be really low the polarization of the signals that is how twisted the signals till's astronomy drama about the sort of magnetic environment signal originated from the more twisted the signaled the more extreme the magnetic environment some bursts such as F I B twelve you living on to suggest a highly magnetized environment such as a black hole neutron star or magnetized but if I be eighteen zero nine sixteen extremely low polarization sation suggests not all fast radio bursts originate in extreme environments find out more Andrew Dunkley speaking with astronomer Dr Frit Watson eight it new fast radio bursts have been detected these things popping up from time to time and as most things do in astronomy they create more your questions than answers. What do we know about those ones. Not much really quick potted history of Fast Radio Bursts first discovered. I think it was two thousand six. It was reported in two thousand seven by Dunkin Lorimer of West Virginia University. I remember rightly and his team. They found this single Blitstein archive of data from the talks Radio Telescope. They're actually looking for for pulsars the pulsating rotating neutron stars but they found just a blip tip of radio radiation which was quite strong and by idolizing the details of it something called the dispersion of the radio waves allowed them to realize that this was an object deep in space probably a billion light years away or something like that and then there was a succession of these things discovered by the hour. CBO radio dish in in Puerto Rico so the objects are characterized by the fact that over a period of just a handful of milliseconds the bright radio flash which given the distance of these things which are kind of known to be what we call cosmological which means a long way away. They are very very energetic. You know then push out ten thousand times while the elements in a year that huge amounts of energy and very brief we still don't know what they are but it was actually a data from our Sabo which I think in Twenty fifteen gene led to the discovery of the first repeating one of these are a radio bus fast radio bursts that actually repeat not in a periodic way quite sporadic repetition but the fact that it repeats means that you could look at the spot in the sky where it comes from and C. E. could basically determine whether the objectives in the Sky I fairly accurately because it does more than once and then look at it with different socio telescope's optical telescopes visible light ones infrared telescopes and things like that and look at what's that and it turns out that the repeater is in the sort of outskirts of a very ordinary dwarf galaxy the distance of about three billion light years. There's nothing really to tell you what is special about the environment in which this object to exist so excuse me temps of repeaters is that was the situation at the beginning of this year there was only one repatriate rejoiced in the name of that far but he twelve eleven zero to to give it its proper title that January a second repeater was found and that got people very excited. Meanwhile many of the single shot ones have been observed and I think the total oh now he's well over hundred of the single shots fast radio bursts but as a set in January this year the sum total of repairs was too but then within the last couple weeks. We've had a report from telescope with a wonderful name of Chine China is the Canadian hydrogen intensity mapping experiment at aradio dish in British Colombia or actually a succession of not so much dishes troughs that telescopes that have fixed space low-frequency telescopes and they have have to end up eight repeaters so that's put a new a whole new dimension of this study. A fast radio bursts. It looks as though something like ten percent of all node fast. Radio Bursts are actually objects the repaid that creates a mystery in itself. Can Imagine the okay if if you've got these things that just popoff popoff so single shop versions of the fast radio bursts then you could account for that Bhai some sort of cataclysmic event like the end of a star or something like that but when they do it again and again and again then that explanation doesn't hold up an so theoretical work that's going on in the background trying to understand today's things that I'm not really very familiar with but my colleagues in the fast radio burst trade if I put it that way talk about magnitude flares magnetized magnetized very highly magnetized neutron stars and apparently they get flagged on the surface. They can be very energetic. I'm not in a position to build a judge. Whether that's a reasonable explanation explanation people are suggested colliding neutron stars as well which we would paps be able to detect by gravitational waves because we've seen evidence from mutational ways colliding neutron stars so unfortunately they don't sort of tally with foster idea bus but the mystery. I think he's still wide-open that we've got some of these things that repeats and some don't repeat is in the minority but they are not unique. That was the big news this year not certainly what differentiates our present knowledge from what we would would it be talking about this time last year when there was only one repeater site probably trapping yourself sin thinking well you know this this must be caused by why similarities in events but maybe not maybe there's all sorts of different is fast. Radio bursts can be created that when we need to think a bit more outside the box exactly. There's one person who's doing that now. He's Al Vailab of the Harvard Sense Center for Astro Physics United Spoken about Avi before because he was very quick a couple of years ago to suggest that one possibility for such flashes in space might be people using radio lasers or something like that to propel like sales to the universe enough the wool suggestion what people other than US people other than us. That's interesting yes people of species the planet different Primero Whizzing Lights I think that's suggested that most astronomers you know that slightly skeptical off but nevertheless nevertheless it's a valid point because he says that the physical parameters are consistent with what you get but that remains to be seen after say that you know he obviously is very very keen on the idea of Solo sailing light sale technology because he's part of the breakthrough shops than show which is looking at the possibility of sending a light sail to should Proxima Centauri and he was also. I think very quick to point out that when you move out of flew through the yeah that it was that's the very saying that that might be alien spacecraft with a Silla sale rather than just an asteroid to get Fania well. He's very provocative. Take us the best way to put it. That's Professor Fred what's an astronomer with the Department of Science speaking with Andrew Douglas on assist the program space nuts and this is space time time I'm Stewart Gary. Astronomers have discovered a treasure trove of a previously unknown ancient massive galaxies the discovery defies models of the universe and could shed new light on the mystery of dark matter the thirty nine galaxies detected date back to the first two billion years in the universe's thirteen point eight billion year existence and they raise questions about adequate have grown so massive so early in the history of the Cosmos one of the study's authors Tayo Wang from the University of Tokyo says it's the first model discovery of its kind and it opens new windows into the formation mation of supermassive black holes and the distribution of dark matter more importantly. He says the finding contravenes car models for this period of cosmic evolution. Wang says these ancient galaxies were previously invisible to astronomy but then again how can something as big as the galaxy beam visible to begin with well. That's easy to answer because live from I'm these galaxies is so faint and so far away it stretched out to very long wavelength beyond the visible and near infrared by the physical expansion of the universe of time. The further away and object is the more space time is stretched by the expansion of the universe astronomers referred to this stretching as redshift. It allows scientists to calculate calculate how far away something is which also tells you how long ago the light you're seeing was initially omitted from the thing which you studying as the universe expands light passing threw it becomes stretched so visible becomes longer eventually becoming infrared that makes it undetectable by hobble so instead the authors tend to alma yet a camouflage lodge millimeter submillimeter. Array Radio Telescope in Chile Wang says the team's initial suspicions about these ancient galaxies existence came from the Spitzer space telescopes infrared data but it was almost even sharper is which paid through all the gas and dust the universe and was finally able to expose these ancient behemoths of coast host. The question now remains the same. How could galaxies get so big so quickly and for that we have yet to find an answer. I'm Stewart Gary the Space Time Europe's second. EDS this laser communications satellite has been successfully launched into orbit ion space should va to forty nine flew aboard an Ariane five rocket from European Space Agency's. He's curious spaceport in French. Jonah knows you said cease. Sank got aw dope on time. Arianne find began her mission lifting off from the ground Erin French Guyana with a lot of fire and with two new satellites rising into the bright blue sky trailing exhaust flames of gold the two boosters writing ninety nine percent of thrust right now propelling the launcher along her trajectory tree at an ever higher velocity. Seven hundred seventy five tonnes to get off the ground. You need a lot a lot of push push. We have she's burning five tons of fuel every second two and a half tons are burning every second each of the boosters plus in the middle stage burning another three hundred kilos of fuel every second. Ariane five is now following the program program and the onboard computer which gives all the orders in Iran on her way east across the Atlantic right now the first flight phase a single for stage stage engine and the two boosters are burning the boosters burn just nonetheless project to upgrade to the normal the DDS it is perfect on board and he's announced the separation of the booster's booster fall five hundred kilometers from shore into a protected area more altitude one hundred and four kilometers speed two point twenty seven kilometers per second the speed. We need to inject the satellites roughly eight or nine nine per second as we've separated the faring there actually to have we can separate the faring now because we're out of the dense layers of the atmosphere over over a hundred kilometers up there neither friction north heating which could disturb the passengers. We're coming up on cut off of the lower state and there's the separation of the staging career are these three commands given by the onboard computer about thirteen seconds lower stage will fall into the Atlantic off the Gulf of Guinea fuel in the subcontinent emission courses not over yet. We still have two separate are fine a passenger. EDS coming up on Silva separation Silva will be pushed away from the mothership just like the satellites were. There's the schedule separation of Silva stemmed the model and the do. Oh has confirmed it this time for the second passenger tonight theory the FDR is so European data relay system will be a constellation of geostationary satellites using laser technology to relay information and data between spacecraft aircraft ground stations. It'll enable the observation served in almost real time allowing accelerator responses to emergency situations eventually also related from the International Space Station once the required equipment installed aboard the I assist on the outside of Europe's Columbus laboratory module the Ariane five launch vehicle used for this mission featured new elongated up a stage Cryogenic Jenny tanks allowing several hundred kilograms more propellant giving thirty seconds additional burnt and a one hundred kilogram payload increase digest orbit anti-matter take another brief look at some of the other stories making news in science this week with the Science report cancer is now the leading cause of death in high income countries or it accounts for twice as many deaths as cardiovascular disease a report in The Lancet Medical Journal looked the data from twenty one high middle and low income countries by following over one hundred sixty thousand people for almost a decade researchers found substantially higher rates of cardiovascular. Yeah vascular disease in low income countries compared to its incidents in high income countries about they found that as cardiovascular disease rights Phil Katz it could take over as the leading cause of death worldwide in just a few decades. A new study has concluded. There is no consistent evidence suggests that exposure to radio frequencies like those is omitted from cell phones and base stations causes any health issues and you findings reported in the New Zealand Medical Journal of the latest in a growing list of studies from around the world which have fail to establish a creditable link between mobile phone radiation cancer effect the authors found that studies which claimed his show increase genetic damage or other biological effect fix a much more likely to have a lower quality of evidence compared to studies that showed no significant effect at all well there are some studies which show that there is some health effects from exposure version in a controlled environment such as laboratory they not translate into what the general population is experiencing day-today probably another good reason why we shouldn't be using animals testing testing the European Space Agency's Copernicus Sentinel to satellite as a giant wanted fifty square kilometer raft of pumice drifting across the South Pacific Ocean bound for Australia's Great Barrier Reef the promises believed to have come from an underwater volcanoes tongue which erupted on August the seventh pumice rock is full of holes and guests from the volcanic explosion which created and that makes the rocks light enough to float on the surface of the sea the massive gathering floating rocks as turned the ocean surface from it's usual twinkling as your blue to a dull gray that almost looks like land scientists say the wrath make or some minor problems innovation but it could be bringing benefits for the Great Barrier Reef as its millions of pieces of rock act like small vehicles transporting small marine organisms such as algae snails canonical some corals if the raft eventually does rich estranged shows its hook that these hitchhiking organisms could replenish the great barrier reef which thing damage jeeter rising seawater temperatures caused by climate change and almost complete skull of the oldest human ancestor Australopithecus anamensis which has has been uncovered in Ethiopia contains features which are raising new questions about the evolution of some Homo sapiens earliest ancestors the skull which is thought to be from an adult. Don't mail has revealed for the first time what the face of this ancient relative really looked like previously scientists mostly had teeth jaws to go on these new details reported in the Journal. Nature have led scientists to now cast doubt on the widely accepted idea that this ancient ancestor evolved directly into another Ainley Australopithecus afarensis known as the famous Lucy Fossil instead they now believe these two inch in hominids distinct from each other in fact they may even have overlapped by about one hundred million years not so much a human tree as a human Bush after a patient now given the codename ideas suffered a stroke experienced a rare and unusual side effect in that when he saw something red blue or green he could not actually name the objects Kala although he could tell when they were part of the same color group previous research suggested that Cala categories only exists because the language used to describe them so researchers decided to test this hypothesis with patient at yes the findings published in the Journal cell reports Ford determined that ideas could consistently name a chromatic colors such as black white and gray but he simply could not recall the names of chromatic colors such as red blue or green gene suggesting the languages diminish human brains processes gray scale differently sales people claiming they can improve your child's reading abilities simply by getting them to wear expensive glasses with lenses have started promoting their product in Australian schools. They represent the American based Institute is painted colored filters are being sold as a treatment for what they liked to call Ellen Syndrome Scott Topic Sensitivity Syndrome or Mazo Syndrome as well as improving reading they claimed colored lenses also improve writing concentration levels and low motivation. They also reduced sensitivity to light than against sunglasses and wattle sounds great. The problem is the Royal Australian New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists says there is no sound theoretical basis all scientific evidence that Irwin Syndrome actually exists all the treatment with Ellen calendar lenses really works and that's a view strongly supported by leading American medical bodies in a joint statement the American Academy of Ophthalmology the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology of all firmly repudiated the use of the collinses steadying. There was no scientific evidence supporting putting their US tim from Strand skeptic says that hasn't stopped the company trying to sell their colored lenses in Schools Syndrome was something that was discovered avid in about the nineteen nineties which is a theory that problem especially with kids in rating can be cured by wearing tainted glasses. this addition they've wise length sort of stopping people from effective rating from learning even some medical conditions even for throwing things autism as well. This has been going now for a while. The particular person who was intangible was Helen launched an institute which tightened that color filters food supposedly treating the same and so many glasses and things yeah these are not cheap because seven hundred bucks for the Limbaugh I'm so and then you've got the frames and everything else to go with it. There's no evidence to show that these things these things run on anecdotal customer sort of testimony and that sort of thing but there's no improper studies done to see if if these things he's have any effect at all and is likely to be a placebo effect could be that once people have these glasses. I feel more confident that ratings rating it doesn't prove when it does have the time much. Steve Pool measurement people doing it themselves. Families are saying Oh my kid is reading bit in trying to do that on a trial basis to see these things work but so far it hasn't and someone's making a lot of money on it and it's being promoted in Australian schools yeah. They're very sort of people going right and you have to get these glasses or have to be assessed but own specialists. Komo ophthalmologist can do only in most of them are just actually rejected that does some of these people from early groups during right into schools lecturing to teachers especially yeah you'll kids who do not reading very well nine eight glasses and take a cane to help out the keeps etcetera whether they're lecturing to groups of parents. Oh lecturing to teachers infiltration in schools in various license. It's recently been in a number of places in Western Australia but it's elsewhere as well and really there is no soccer to give it to suggest it'll be works at all. That's Tim Mendham from a strain skeptics. You're listening to space time. I'm Stewart Gary and that's the show for now now you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free twice weekly podcast through apple podcast itunes STITCHER BITES DOT COM podcasts soundcloud youtube audio boom from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite podcast download provider space time also broadcast coast to coast across the United States John Sides three sixty radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. DC and available around the world on Tunein radio. If you want more space time checking our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images news stories videos and things on the web I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Tumbler Dot Com. That's all one word in lower case and that's tumbler without the you can also follow us on twitter at through at Stewart Gary at Space Time with Stewart Gary on on instagram and on facebook just go to. 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70: The Monster at the Centre of the Milky Way Is Getting Active
"This is Space Time series twenty two episode seventy for broadcast on the twentieth of September two thousand nineteen coming up on space time the monster at the center the Milky Way getting active how Noggin explosions may have created lakes on Titan and water has been detected for the first time on a potentially habitable habitable planet. Oh that mole coming up on space time welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. There's growing evidence at the supermassive black hole of the center of the Milky Way Galaxy is getting more more active. The findings reported in the Ester Physical Journal letters suggested the monster known as secretaries. A star is consuming an unusually large meal of interstellar Zelik ash and dust but that's what's happening. Scientists admit they really don't understand why it's happening. One of the study's authors Professor Andrea gets from the University of California. Los Angeles says she's never seen anything quite like this. In the twenty four years. Tim have been observing. The supermassive black hole located some twenty six thousand light. I use away secretaries. A star has about four point three million times. The mass of Our sun gets describes secretary say Star as yearly being fairly quiet wimpy sort aww black hole bit not lately the researchers analyze more than thirteen thousand observations of the Blackhawks from one hundred thirty three nights since two thousand and three images images were gathered using the giant ten minute kick telescope in Hawaii and the European Southern Observatory's very large telescope in Chile. The authors found that on May the thirteenth this the area just outside the black holes event horizon suddenly became twice as bright as any previous observations it ever seen and it wasn't an isolated incident they also observed similar changes quite as big on at least two other knots during the past year the brightness surrounding the Black House always varied somewhat but the authors have gene stunned by the extreme variations in brightness being exhibited of late gets describing all is being completely unprecedented the brightness the scientists have observed moved is being caused by radiation from gas and dust as it falls onto the black holes accretion disk where it's torn and ripped apart the subatomic level and then crushed creating huge agents of friction in the process releasing hates of energy sort of like a last dying scream before passing beyond the event horizon a sort of point of no return beyond which nothing not even light can escape the black holes immense gravitational field the ill-fated material than fulls forever into the black hole singularity a place where scientists very understanding physics. That's the breakdown then you observations have gets and colleagues asking whether this was an extraordinary singular event all or whether it's just a precursor to significantly increased activity the study's lead author also from the University of California Los Angeles says the extremely Christian Brightness Rightness caused the office to initially mistake the source for the star s zero two but it quickly became clear that it was in fact the black hole itself so the big question is whether the black hole is entering a new phase for example. There's a vast amount of gas and dust that's now falling into the black holes drain and we'll do so for an extended period of time a whether we've just seen a few he fireworks associated with a few isolated blobs of gas falling in naturally the authors continuing to carefully monitor the region try and settle that question based on what they can save from new images. One hypothesis about increased activity is that when this star as zero to meet its closest approach the black hole during mid two thousand eighteen. It may have had a large quantity gas ripped off it at gas is now finally rich in the black holes veteran another possibility however involves rather bizarre object known as g two now this was originally thought to be a giant cloud of gas and dust g two made its closest approach of the black hole in two thousand fourteen storms were expecting a spectacular light latch the time secretaries a style written material from the object consuming it and releasing huge amounts of energy in the process. The trouble is a strangely nothing happened bit a bit of a letdown for astronomers really we spoke about it numerous times on Space Times predecessor staff staff following that will not event. It's tremendous decided gee to might the biggest clout after all instead it could be a pair of binary stars orbiting said close to each other that they sharing their atmospheres and therefore appearing to be a large gas cloud rather than two separate stars. If that's the case gets things it's possible the black hole could've stripped off the outer layer of g two and it's Outta Oughta gaseous envelope which could be explained the increase brightness which is now occurring just beyond the blackhawks event horizon of course they're Hicks of other possibilities as well such as lodge dance asteroids or even planets being drawn into the blackhall a mystery fish. Oh one scientists hope to resolve. I'm Stewart Gary. You're listening to space as time again. Let's take a break from show now for would from this episode sponsor the Great Courses Plus having the right answers to questions which pop up in your mind can be so satisfying. It's such an important part of the beauty of discovering knowledge wjr and learning more about the universe around us and that's where the great courses plus comes in. It's priceless source of knowledge in just about any field this streaming service office thousands of lectures on thousands of different topics and you can listen anywhere anytime ball relaxing at home during the commute to work or on that long haul flight explorer everything from string theory to survival tips in the wilderness had a play musical instrument even how to cook and lectures feature reliable indepth information provided added by university level professors and experts in their fields now as I mentioned last week I'm currently enjoying a course presented by Professor Joshua Win from Princeton University. It's called search for exoplanets. What sternum is no and believe me win nosy staff after all he was part of this planet hunting. Kepler Space Telescope Mission through through He's twenty four lectures. You'll learn about the search earth like planets in the habitable zones around sunlight stars. You'll also learn about the search for life beyond Earth about planets in in binary star systems and you'll get a look at some of our nearest exit planetary neighbors know the facts start learning with the great courses plus today and of course a space space time listener. We have a special offer a free trial with access to all the courses. Just go to the great courses plus dot com slash space. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space this that your free trial today and of course as well as feeding your brain. You'll be hoping to support our show so sign up today through our exclusive view. Rl The great courses plus dot com slash space. That's the great courses plast dot com slash space and of course you can find those you are all details breath within the show notes and on our website and now it's back to our show you're listening to Spain's time with Stewart Gary. He research suggests that legs of methane found on Saturn's largest moon Titan maeve being formed by pressurized nitrogen exploiting from just below the moon surface the findings were reported in the journal Nature Geoscience based on data gathered by Cassini spacecraft during its twenty mission to the attorney in System Titan is an amazing place. It's the only known world other than Earth to have streams and rivers flowing down into lakes and oceans however unlike breath water-based hydrological cycle titans liquids a methane Ethane C Titan so-called. What are there is frozen solid forming much of the moons bedrock. One of the study's authors Professor Jonathan Nine from Cornell University says Titan has very distinctive topography. It's late show different kinds of shapes and in some cases. There's very sharp ridges. The nine and colleagues decided to study these lakes in Credit Tito examining this deep credit sharp edges raised rims and ramparts in fact some of these state bridges Tau far above the Moon's natural liquid sea level. The nine says the features looked like something's exploded out from below and the best explanation for that is I guess that other ignites explosively or a guest that built up enough pressure so that it just pops out like a cork from a bottle of champagne. I'm on Titan. There's nothing that would create a fiery explosion because the moon has no free oxygen so a pressurized explosion muddle fits the kind of event that would create the credit elect stretches. I just saved on time later. The same creditors will be filled with liquid methane ethane as it rains down and flows in from high ground but what about the source for the explosion in the first place tons atmosphere is filtered vaporized nitrogen in tons Geophysical History Moon seen epochs where methane becomes depleted leaving the nitrogen rich atmosphere the nitrogen cools producing nitrogen liquid rain the frigid climate which then falls onto the ground succeeding collects in pockets and at times it's Christ while tight and there's a long way from the sun nevertheless slide mad at geological hating probably occurs that causes this pressurized gas to explode popping out on the surface and in the moon's natural cycling process liquid methane then returns and fills in the craters forming lakes to find out more enter. Dungy is speaking with astronomer Dr Defer Watson. Dave might be a discovery about the likes on Titan. This is fascinating. I think it is too were done by an international team of scientists assists and in fact there led by an Italian planetary scientist Giuseppe Mitri. He and his team have looked a fresh at some of the Information Shen that has come back from Cassini actually during its final fly by of Titan. This was really right at the end of the of the Cassini mission which ended almost exactly two years ago so what has happened is that these scientists have used the radar imaging data but has come back from Cassini. Remember Titans got this thick atmosphere pretty opaque atmosphere which is laced with hydrocarbon smog and that prevents visibility he directly dumped the surface except on rather special conditions you can do with infrared at certain times of the Saturday and year but radar is the way to do it so the radar images images that have been analyzed show a feature of the smaller likes which like all season legs have tightened a predominantly round the north polar the region of the moon this smaller lake saint to have these rims around the stand much higher than the lake level itself and higher higher than the surrounding landscape so it's almost like a wall around these legs up to tens of meters high aren't going to be hundreds of feet high. They're not things they're really significant structures which easily explained if it was a goal. Joe Something but it's like yes that's right. It's a lake and and the key thing is that the larger cities don't show these the largest cities which bigger than the Great Lakes of America that the bigger than the biggest freshwater lakes on earth. They don't have these features. They do have very well. Defined Edges Very well-defined shorelines put it that way but they don't have these rims around the only the smaller ones do and so that's caused a lot of head scratching as to why this should be the case and that's just been published is actually within the last few days that essentially the failing is that the biggest sees formed by me. Thank pooling in the icy she surface of Titan remember the surface is not rocket solid ice yeah and so if you get undulations in that the methane pools in it and the certain circumstances the methane can actually eighteen to the is so what you get is a situation where you get an ever growing. CEO Lake and around the edge of it that is just a standard kind of bowed outrageous to a noble shoreline but the speculation about these ones with the rims smaller ones is that they're caused by explosions not chemical chemical detonations but physically explosions of nitrogen which has been liquid suddenly turning into guess underneath the surface of the Alexai okay blowing off the surface auto so you get a I was thinking the opposite. I was thinking some kind of impact but it's it's come from underneath. It's blown out DASA. What's the feeling yes so basically story to tell that the atmosphere of Titan is a really good greenhouse gas atmosphere and keeps titan warmer former than the otherwise would be surface temperature is still. I think it's about nine hundred eighty nine hundred ninety Celsius. It's very cold but if you've got a climate change is slow climate change on Titan. There's been periods where it's been slightly warmer periods where it's been slightly cooler and the thinking is when Titans Cooler. You've got a nitrogen nitrogen cycle in the atmosphere so you get nitrogen rain election evaporation and the thinking is that the nitrogen has collected in pools suitable beneath the surface on the surface of Titan almost like a kind of water table but with much engine rather than water and then the suggestion is that if you've got these massive liquid nitrogen in the crust of Titan if you get some warming than that liquid nitrogen vaporizes is expand pretty quickly and blows out to crater which has and that's a very interesting and you analysis of what we see is that she a lovely coming from the Cassini project scientists itself Linda Spilka of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory what Linda says this is a completely different explanation for the State Rams around those small little lakes which has been a tremendous puzzle a scientists continue to mind the treasure trove of Cassini data. We'll keep putting more and more pieces of the puzzle together. Gather over the next decades we will come to understand the Saturn system better a better. That's Professor Fred Watson and Astronomy Department of Science speaking with entered ugly assist the program space nuts and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary so what is the ticket for the first time in the atmosphere of a habitable zone exit planet the planet designated as K to eighteen in B. is a so called Super Earth will eight times Earth's mass. It's opening a spectral type. M Red Dwarf Star is K to eighteen which is located about one one hundred ten light years away in the Constellation. Leo The discovery reported in the Journal. Nature Astronomy represents the first successful atmospheric detection of water for an extra planet on it opening in a stylized goldilocks zone. That's the region around the style where it's not too hot not too cold just right for water central for life as we know it to on the planet surface the study's lead author. Dr Angela Cyrus From University College London Says Finding Water and potentially habitable world other than Earth is incredibly exciting writing now. Don't get US wrong. Kato Eighteen B is not Earth two point. Oh it significantly more massive with quite a different atmosphere composition however it does bring scientist scientist closer to answering the fundamental question is the unique the oath is based the discovery on archival data captured by the Hubble Space Telescope and then develop open Sosa Algorithms to analyze the stylized being shorted through K. Eighteen bays atmosphere and the results reveal the Molecular Signature for water vapor also indicated did with the presence of hydrogen and helium in the planet's atmosphere. The authors believe other molecules including nitrogen and methane are probably also prison. There's will bat with Karen Observation Methods. They remain undetectable at least for now for the studies will be needed to estimate cloud coverage and the actual passage of atmospheric water present now before you get too excited remember. This is an m class to style and like all red dwarfs it has a high level of still of flare activity and that would likely mean a very hostile environment haven't for anything exposed on the surface of a planet orbiting the Star Lots of radiation in lots of stellar wind activity as well so far more than four thousand exit. The planets have been discovered Katie was I addicted in two thousand fifteen and he's one of hundreds of Super Earth planets with masses between that of the Earth Neptune found on binoculars potted hunting capable space telescope interestingly although there are no supermarkets in our solar system that were found yeah planet nine. If it's out there may be the exception from what we can tell super is are the most common type of planet ticket so far in our galaxy just like 'em class red dwarfs of the most common type of star in the galaxy acce- and that means the cato eighteen system should be fairly representative of what else is out there recently launch test mission is expected to detect hundreds more super births in coming years. I'm Stewart Gary this space time more anti-matter anti-matter take another brief look at some of the other stories making news in science this week with a science report short people may be at higher risk of developing type two diabetes a report in the Journal Diabetes Logic found that for every ten centimeters taller. Someone is the risk of developing type two diabetes drops by forty one percent of men men and thirty three percent for women. The link is largely related to link in man which researchers say may indicate that growth before puberty could have a far more favorable the impact on the risk for diabetes growth during puberty the authors say that some of the link between Hyde and diabetes risk may be explained by high levels of liver fat or other other diabetes and heart disease risk factors and shorter people the authors suggest that Short people should be monitored for both diabetes and heart disease risk more frequently than toler individuals and you study found that dolphins living in the English Channel have some of the highest levels of Mickey concentrations ever fat in this species. The findings published in the journal scientific reports shows that while bottlenose dolphins have one of the largest coastal populations in Europe they paying the price with pollutants such coaches mercury and other industrial fluids accumulating in their skin and Blah Blah all that many pollutants were banned in the nineteen seventies eighties. Mini can still be detected. Even in the deepest Marine Green Live and researchers say dolphins living the English Channel Need Special Protection Penny intelligence identified a newly discovered species of terra saw. Oh which may be one of the largest ever flying animals a report in the journal Vertebrae Penny Technology says Craig Boris which lived during the Cretaceous period around seventy seven seven million years ago had a wingspan of up to ten meters. That's as big as a lot aircraft fossils from the flying reptile were discovered thirty years ago in Alberta. The Penny tallest wrongly identified them as belonging to an already known species of terror so it discovered in Texas this discovery provides scientists with a picture the diversity evolution Russian of predatory during the age of the dinosaurs well. It seems that decades after the Dead Sea scrolls were first discovered in the desert caves of Comb Ron the ancient manuscript astill offering you surprises a report of the journal Science Advances Claims Chemical Analysis of the temple scroll. The longest of all the scrolls shows knows that it has a salty coating on the tech side something not fan any of the other Dead Sea Scrolls. The unusual finish suggested the temple scrolls remarkably bright parchment was manufactured differently from the other documents in the collection the Dead Sea Scrolls her ancient Jewish religious manuscripts found in the Quran caves in the Judean desert on the northern shore of the Dead Sea. The various schools in the collection have been scientifically dated from two thousand three hundred years for the oldest to the first century of the common era for the news use to the manuscript. This is the time of Christ and the time of the second Jewish temple in Jerusalem which was destroyed by the Romans within banish the children of Israel from their homeland. I am land the ticks have great historical religious and linguistic significance because they include the second oldest known surviving Hebrew manuscripts works later included in the the Old Testament the Jewish Bible researchers studying playful behavior in animals have successfully taught rats had play hide and seek and it turns out the roads are pretty pretty good at it a report in the Journal. Science says researchers spent weeks teaching the rats to play the game both the hiding and seeking pads and then rewarding them with tickles and pets when they got it right though it all sounds like frivolous fund research is sage typically hard to study this kind of playful behavior in animals but they study has found that rats stupid come more strategic in the game of time staying very quiet when hiding changing their hiding locations and even checking out past hiding spots when seeking how many times have you been out with paypal and some Filipinos nothing but thinks he's got all the answers because he read it on facebook tells you climate change isn't real the moon landings were faked baked or vaccines cause autism they then start rolling out a long list of inaccurate or Cherry picked examples to support their argument which came from people who are experts in the field or which simply isn't scientifically correct and all the time you'll have sitting there expected to provide peer reviewed scientific studies off the top of your head shoot down every half remembered claim they make tim minimum from strain skeptic says technique rebuttals are particularly effective and economic tool when dealing with scientific denies point out the Cherry picking their lack of peer reviewed scientific evidence or the use of scientists aren't really experts in the field now found that especially useful when scientists denying climate change turn out to be funded by mining companies had debate assigns night. It is the sixty four dollar question obviously for everybody who made the type of someone who other comes along and says vaccines work. Oh the moon landing was a fake or Blah Blah Blah Blah Blah Blah Blah. The paranormal exists etcetera and the science doesn't what it's talking about. This city for likes to approach one is to approach what they signed the climbs the facts and you can have a tendency to come across as just a nice. It's very hard for any individual to be an expert on every topic on for fact. It's like a whole range of different things one person with a specialty in particular see their science comes comes to you can throw his three thousand different facts in Christ's at you. It's really hard to respond to all of them. The other thing is they look at the way that the argument is being put forward and this. It's just something which is more general among saw instant is it's not as specific as a topic that they might know well. It's the same techniques that he used the same cherry picking techniques logical logical fallacies a whole range of different things. Basically it's the underpinnings it's the Meta if you like of the argument which you can review and single what you're doing. There is is using a second rocket mentor here all sorts of different logical fallacies which you can look up yeah. Skeptics have been covering these things ever since skeptics existed as to why people propose these these things and why they believe and some of it is just if you can sit there and point out that era in the process of using and that applies to people across the board in many many different areas of scientific or not that might be more effective than just a straight at night. You're wrong and this is what I say is. The fact 'cause people will yes I well. That's what you say but if you can say that what you're doing here is you're picking at little things that you're not looking at how features CETERA and that might be more effective. It is a tough area you you know I think as a lot of people don't like the binding with signs too nice because if I may another argument we can always committed win it and you can lose easily because if they destroyed three thousand things actually one guy that's cool the scalp or you know. We just got blown. Blah Blah and he's trying to keep up all if you you try. You're currently having you've never heard of and you can come across as looking. You'd do not know and takes one do not know for science in mind as you're an unreliable source louis whereas if you had to be everything on a particular topic that assigns the Nice thing is you're. You're on a haughty to nothing really so a lot of people. I know will not debate anti vaccination for instance because it's just not worthwhile and it said it also gives them the imprimature by with I think this is not so much professional anti times person but the ordinary members the public of frames family that the the story of the Dima type where you might be dealing with someone who has a totally different view then you'd have to know how to deal with it without having a five they have someone trying to mend them from Australian skeptics and that's the show for now you can subscribe and Download Space Time is a free twice weekly podcast through Apple podcasts stitcher bites dot Com Puckett cast soundcloud youtube audio boom trump space time with Stewart Gary Harry Dot Com or from your favorite podcast download provider space time is also broadcast coast to coast across the United States sides three sixty radio by the National Science Foundation on Dacian in Washington. DC and around the world IHEART radio and tune in radio. If you want more space time check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images new stories videos and things on the web that I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Tumbler Dot Com. That's all one word but in lower case and that's tumbler without the also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram on facebook just go to. WWW W. dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary and you can also find us on the space time with Stewart Gary Youtube Channel space-time is brought to in collaboration with Australian Sky Guide Telescope Magazine Your Window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from BITES DOT com.
Venus Dominated by Atmospheric Tidal Waves
"This is space time series. Twenty-three episode forty six for broadcast on the fifteenth of May Two Thousand Hundred Twenty coming up on space time the planet Venus dominated by atmospheric tidal waves the x thirty seven B space shuttle prepares for a new mission and a test flight for China's new manned space capsule all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary Study shows. Venus's atmosphere rotates much faster than the planet itself because of thermal tied generated by Sola heating on the planet stay side and corresponding Cooley on. It's nightside the findings reported in the Journal. Science are the first to explain how the planet super rotating atmosphere is maintained as well as being a nearest planetary neighbor vanishes also considered to be assist. The planet. See they're both almost the same size with similar mess in the mirror and they were both formed in the same part of the solar system. They were under similar conditions and out of the same materials but if finishes sister planet then it's a twisted sister with a runaway greenhouse effect. That's turned it into the closest thing to hell in our solar system. Venus's surface is scorchingly hot with an average temperature of around four hundred and sixty two degrees Celsius. That's hot enough to melt lead. And it's crushingly. Thick atmospheres kept in place by dense planet. White cloud cover resulting in service pressures some ninety two times greater than at sea level on earth. Now that thick cloud cover does cause rain but the rain on Venus isn't water rather droplets of metal eating sulfuric acid also it snows on Venus's mountain peaks but the snow isn't frozen water it's metallic Venus revolves. Very slowly on its axis taking some two hundred and forty three days to complete a single rotation now that means a Dan. Venus lasts longer than a volusia year. Which is about two hundred twenty five Earth Days. Just the strange. This is the only planet now. Solar System Spin backwards on its access that means the sun rises in the West and sets in the east. The new research using data from the Japanese aerospace exploration agencies Kosugi space craft shows that Venus's atmosphere rotates Westwood some sixty times faster than the planet's rotation this fast moving atmospheric tidal wave transport's hate from the planet's Equatorial Day side to it's nightside reducing temperature differences between the two hemispheres. The findings also show that the super rotation increases without a jude taking on four days to circulate around the entire planet towards the top of the cloud cover plus the polls however atmospheric turbulence and other kinds of waves over more pronounced effect. The study's Lead Author Takashi. Horror now she from Cairo. University says that since Venus is super rotation was discovered in the nineteen sixties to mechanism behind it has remained a long standing mystery. Her gnashing colleagues made the discovery after developing a new method to track clouds and derive wind velocities from images provided by ultraviolet and infrared cameras aboard the ACA Shuki spacecraft which finally began orbiting Venus in December. Twenty fifteen some five years after it was launched an accident. He placed in the wrong orbit. The new observations allowed the author to estimate the contribution of atmospheric waves and turbulence. They found out through temperature. Differences between low and high latitudes was small and couldn't be explained without including circulation across latitudes. The problem is that kind of circulation would change in distribution therefore weaken the super rotational pay. So that means it has to be another force another mechanism in order to reinforce and maintain the observed win distribution further analysis revealed that the maintenance is sustained by the thermal tied an atmospheric wave generated by temperature differences between the hot day side of the planet and the cooling nightside. And it's this time which provides the acceleration at low latitudes. Earliest studies have proposed that at this rate turbulence in waves other than thermal tied may have provided the acceleration however the current study shows that they actually work in the opposite to weekly decelerate the super at low latitudes even though they play important role that mid to high latitudes so that new findings of uncovered the fact is that maintain. Venus's super rotation at the same time suggesting Joseph Elation system that effectively transports across the globe including the meridional circulation transports hate towards the from the equator and the Subaru attention that more rapidly transports towards the planet's nightside. These findings could also astronomers better understand this rick systems entirely locked planets. Which when you think about it isn't really all that different to what's happening on Venus where it Sola Day is longer than its year space-time still to come and you study has shown how high speed gas collisions can suppress star formation along the central bar of bad spiral galaxies and the x thirty seven B space shuttle prepares for a new mission. All that and much more still to come on space time. Let's take a break from our show for word from our sponsor the great causes plus learning about verse. Perspectives. Can help make sense of the word as it changes every day and the great courses plus streaming service is an excellent resource to help expand your knowledge variety of subjects? You can gain valuable and reliable insights from some of the world's best teachers helping us to better understand what's going on and you will really love the way the courses or presented playing clear language that any level of learner can understand and the present has never talk down to you. It's all a fantastic way to keep your mind active staying close to home. You can stream the great courses plus TV and watch it as a family or you can use the great courses plus APP to listen and learn while out in the garden taking a walk around the neighborhood lockdown restrictions permitting of course or simply while relaxing and taking it easy now during these lockdown times. I've been taking the time to explore the full range of courses available. I thought I knew this site pretty well. But I've got to say the variety and depth of knowledge available through the great courses plus really quite staggering. Naturally I started in the science fiction and this plenty they most inquiry minds buzzing for weeks if not months now one course I checked at that really need to recommend to you one of the social sciences section. It's called understanding the misconceptions of science courses. A great conversation starter and argument settler for example. It takes an in depth look at Benjamin Franklin and he's famous kite I mean. Did It really happen that way? I won't give away the answer you'll need to check that out through the course but it's not all science on the great courses plus. It doesn't matter what your family members are into. I'm pretty sure you'll find the cost. The suit them and to get you started. We have a special offer by signing up to the great courses plus we're offering space time listeners. A free trial with unlimited access to the entire courses plus library. Say you can go and explore just like I've been doing all you need do is sign up today to our special. Yariel to start your free trial so go now to the great courses plus dot com slash space. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space to start your free trial. And of course you'll find those. You are details in the show notes and on our website. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space. And now it's back to our show. You're listening to spend time with Stewart Gary and you. Study Claims high-speed speed gas collisions suppressing star formation along the central. Bas of bad spiral galaxies. The findings reported in the monthly notices of the Royal Society could help explain why the spectacular barred spiral Galaxy N C. Thirteen hundred isn't sparkling with new stars along Central Bass structure. Nbc Thirteen hundred is located about sixty eight million light years away in the constellation ever Dennis the spectacular art of spiral galaxies shine blue because they loaded with hot bright young stars but the Galactic Bulges at the centers of spiral galaxies. Often look a lot raider. That's because they've got lots of order stars in them and they're not perdition quite as many hot young stars despite containing lots of raw material this characteristics especially noticeable in bad spiral galaxies like N. G. C. Thirteen hundred and it's worth pointing out that our galaxy the Milky Way is also a bad spiral although it's central Bosnia only about two thirds length of thirty thirteen hundred to determine why NBC thirteen hundred central barriers and producing stars at higher rates. Astronomers USE COMPUTER. Modelling to simulate the movement of molecular gas and dust clouds around the galaxy central region low speed collisions among these molecular gas and dust. Clouds are known to cause the class to collapse and trigger. Stop Birth However. What the simulations showed was that the clouds around the hot of NBC thirteen hundred colliding at speeds tens of kilometers per second faster than elsewhere so quickly in fact that the turbulence generated is preventing the class from collapsing data. Form you stars to find out more. Andrew Dunkley speaking with astronomer Professor Fred Watson. Let's talk about this We'd Galaxy having trouble breathing. This is N. J. C. Thirteen hundred guessing. Just off the top of my head. What's going on with it? It is having trouble breathing here and there but it not wet but let me let me preface this little segment with the fact that galaxy come in all kinds of different models in different types. And they're all galaxies where there really is no stuff mention taking place that old galaxies and the reason why there's no stop Formation is because they've used up all the hydrogen guests That is the role material for making songs our own galaxy. We see from a view from the inside of course the disc of our Milky Way Galaxy. But we can see stuff omission taking place many places even think of the pillars of creation not famous image three towering dos clouds. That's one of the galactic regions stuff emotions taking place but it's not the case with all galaxies. Now one talking about thirteen hundred. I'm very glad you mentioned on because it's the perfect example of what's going on with this. It is a spiral galaxy which means similar in structure to our own. It's got a central nucleus and beautiful spiral arms suddenly will never see the spiral of our own galaxy from the outside to fake. But we can say on the galaxies end the spiral of spiral galaxies. We know a place Stoffel nation is taking place. Because what we see as you know if you look at a galaxy You're not looking at individuals stuff in it. You just looking at the whole the whole galaxy. What you see is the spot allows predominantly blue in color and that comes from hot young vigorous virile starts which sort of live fast and die young very much stars. They burn the hydrogen. A phenomenal. Right temperature is very high. And that's what makes in blue so that is very typical of what you get in an active style foaming region you get smaller ones as well. Kula styles The super giant stars Really show up at the spiral arms of the galaxy. And anybody who's feels like cut shape bring up an image of NBC. Thirteen hundred is a beautiful. Hubble telescope packages absolutely stunning. You can see that. The spiral arms have lots blue. Blobs in their pink. Blobs PINKUS excited hydrogen just like humans. Close Pink when he gets excited but for different reasons you can see the pink loves he can see the Blue Stars. That's all symptomatic of active star formation. However this is the bit where this particular galaxy and it's by no means alone in this Andrew. There are many galaxies of this class. The place where it breaks down because NBC thirteen hundred is what is called. Abbad SPIRAL GALAXY B A E D. It has a bar not want. You can lean against but essentially a linear feature in centers. So if you imagine a sort of a bulge in the middle of the galaxy and then sort of straight arms coming out either side of the bulge which is this bar feature of the that's where the Sparta alarms join on. And so you might say yes. I'm I'm looking at that hub side. Now Dan Fon photograph Extraordinary Photograph Will so that's all good. But what has always been a puzzle with DODD SPIRAL GALAXIES? Is that the bar. Itself is very rich in the raw material of stars namely hydrogen cloud defied and all over the place in the BAA. But you can see just by looking at that bar is sort of almost. Orangish color is yellow eight route the blue. And that tells you that what you're seeing is predominantly old styles. You're not seeing these vigorously shining blue stuns so even though you've got the raw material to make you styles you're not saying that you just saying population of old stars which are Kinda ties galactic. It's a galactic nursing home in dated is but it's a galactic nursing home surrounded by you know everything that you would need to to make it a galactic nursery. Well in that case what. We're looking at covered nine ten galaxy because everyone's all people is stuck inside and the young people are outside looking through the windows able to do anything that's right okay. So this is what this research is about us the back story and then uses that researchers based prudently I think in the United States yes. The county gainst itution in Washington. They have figured out. Why the is this conundrum of no new styles filming in an environment that is rich in the material for new styles and it turns out that in the bar of a galaxy about spiral galaxy the motions of objects within that are really quite high much higher than you would expect in a more sedate region. Light this fire alarms and so these astronomers have essentially look through the motions of gas clouds within the bar of the of the galaxy unrealized charging around too quickly for a given gas cloud to sort of settled down and collapsed under its own mass under his white and form styles. That's how stuff works. You cloudy gas pulls itself together under gravity Collapses it's compressed. Gas is compressed. Temperature goes up eventually Italian of nuclear processes to stop. And you've gotTa Stop. The gas clouds in the center of the ball of Injury C. Three hundred plus many other spirals that too busy whizzing past eight A gravitationally disturbing each other. So you don't get that Nice. Calm quiet reflective settling down of the gas cloud to collapse under its own gravity INFORMA- style which is a very you know. I think that's a really nice piece of work and essentially it's just too active. It's just too much going to settle down into the staff formation formula. The exactly too much of a swirl of material you know you've gotTa Gas Cloud that thinks Oh. I'll stop collapsing under gravity. He had another one. Wissies was his by basically gravitationally disturbs it so that the gravitational collapse doesn't there are lessons in this. Andrew for our own galaxy because we do know even though we can't see it from the outside we do know the hog galaxy actually has a bar as well in the hunter and it comes about because once again it's the velocities of stars that we measure towards the Galactic Center. This is what the I've been involved with with some of the stuff that I've been mixed up with so the by a real featuring our own galaxy. I don't think it will be anything like as prominent as the one that you're looking at energy. C One three hundred but it is still probably about a third as long as the as that Bah so a less Bar Put it that way but the less about spiral galaxy. That's Dr Fred Watson and astronomer with the Department of Science speaking with Andrew Dunkley on our sister program space nuts and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary still to come the X. Thirty seven space shuttle prepares for another mission and China conducts its first test flight of its new manned space capsule with things not necessarily going to plan all that and more still to come on. Space Time. The United States Space Forces about the Lord's one of its x thirty seven B space shuttles back at ward the classified. Oh TV six mission. He slid at the Flyer may the sixteenth aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas Five Rocket From Space Launch Complex. Forty one at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The upcoming low when she's being seen as an important mission hosting more science payloads than any previous six thirty seven B flight included in the manifest is an experiment designed by the US naval research laboratory to convert solar energy into radio frequency microwave energy and then transmit that energy down to Earth. Tesla would have been impressed. The mission will also deploy the US Air Force Academy Falcon said a research satellite which is carrying some five scientific payloads. Mission will also be the first time the X. Thirty seven be his character service model. In order to expand its capacity to Nassar. Experiments are also aboard the mission. One looking at the effects of space radiation on seeds while the other will assist the performance of various materials in the space environment and those two experiments alone suggests that this will be another long duration flight for the X. Seven B. But then again that's not unexpected after all it's last mission which ended in October last year lasted some seven hundred and eighty days collectively the forces to thirty seven B spacecraft had flown five missions totaling a combined two thousand eight hundred sixty five days in orbit of course pretty well. Everything they're doing there was classified so we don't really know what they're up to back in two thousand fourteen security experts claimed the X. Thirty Seven Bay was being used to test new-generation reconnaissance and sensors to see how they survive long duration spaceflight. Then in two thousand sixteen. There was speculation that the X. Thirty seven bait with testing a new version of joint British Boeing. Am drive an electromagnetic microwave thrust all the US Air Force has confirmed that in the past the X. Thirty seven based tests that are hall effect thruster system for Aerojet Rocketdyne the X. Thirty seven is a small reusable. Space plane originally built by Boeing in nineteen ninety nine as the X. Thirty seven to be launched the Payload Bay of NASA Space Shuttle However. The project was transferred to the US Department of Defense in two thousand four. The dynamic design the X. Thirty seven is based on that of the space shuttle. It's specifications included allowing it to undertake significant orbital maneuvering including deploying satellites into orbit other than the one that was actually set up into and run the other spacecraft in orbit. The performer pays or modifications or even to retrieve satellites were tend to Earth in two thousand six air force announced plans that have opened updated. Version called the X thirty seven B to build a first undertaking. Its maiden flight. In April two thousand ten the mission will be the six launch of an x thirty seven. B This space time still to come China tests flies. It's new man. Space Capsule and later in the science report nasal swabs found to have high concentrations of curve nineteen viruses and throat swabs and claims coins might be better than notes for pain. Cash without spreading disease all that and more still to come space-time alone China claims it successfully launched a new prototype capsule. Which would eventually be used the flight crew to Beijing's plan space station and eventually onto the moon China's state run gene. One you said he says the new space craft was launched. The Border Long March Five Bay rocket from the wing. Chang Satellite Launch Center on the southern Chinese island of Hanane. She says the new capsule will eventually replace the current three person. Russian so use patient zoomat spacecraft the as yet unnamed spacecraft will be capable of transporting up to six tackle notes or three taikonauts and five hundred kilograms of cargo to China's new space station and according to Xinhua it'll eventually also be used to fly crews to the moon end of the decade the unmanned test flight place the capsule into a lowest of around four hundred kilometers then related service muscleman engine to increase the to around eight thousand kilometers in the process. Demonstrating some one point nine kilometers per second of the sort of power and needed to get to the moon. The twenty time capsule also trial. The new detachable hey chewed evidence that the new capture is being designed to be reused. Also on the trial was a flexible inflatable Kaga return module. Basically a low density supersonic facilitator with its own inflatable hate shield however it turns out that a celebrator experienced an anomaly during its re entry and case. You're wondering that he's a euphemism. For Crash and burn the mission was also the fourth launch in the third successful flight for the fifty four meter Tall Long March five rocket and it follows a string of recent failures involving Long March three B and Long March seven rockets over the past few months. The mission was an important step in China's plans to launch the first modules of its ton ongoing or heavily Palo Space Station in twenty twenty two eventually the space station. We'll have three modules not as biggest international space station but it will provide Beijing with its own independent perching over the flight also comes as the communist government tries to deflect attention away from global criticism over its actions and trying to cover up its failures over the covert nineteen crown of virus pandemic and Ula Gatien's that Beijing's violated its anti nuclear test band. Treaty agreements conducting a series of secret. Low-yield nuclear bomb tests a report by the State Department found. China may be flouting international law by conducting the tests nearly explosive containment chambers at. Its Lop Known. Nucleus site in the country's remote northwest this space time still to come the science report and a new study showing that nasal swabs have far concentrations of curved and throat swabs and claim starting school and our later may help high school kids. Get a better night's sleep all that and more still to come on space time anti-matter ticket another brief look at some of the other stories making each inside this week with the science report and you study. Claims NASAL SWABS FAD have far higher concentrations of the curve in Nineteen Virus Throat Swabs report in the Journal. Nature says the sites appear to be novel Corona Virus Hotspots Researches found genes associated with how the virus it is. A host were found in a number of mucus producing nasal cells. The researchers say it suggests that nasal cells at the site of the original viral infection and possibly also the source for spreading the virus. Well Italian scientists that brought together all the available evidence they have uncovered nineteen in children and adolescents. The findings reported in the Journal. The American Medical Association based on eighteen studies with a total of one thousand sixty five participants. The research found the most common symptoms young people with favor a dry cough and fatigue but many kids remain completely asymptomatic. Scientists did identify one infant with pneumonia. It was successfully treated in intensive care not origin younger than nine died of curve covered nineteen and most children with the virus only suffered very mild symptoms if any the authors say it seems kids typically have a good prognosis usually recover with fortnight and you study claims that coins may be a better option than notes when it comes to pay cash without spreading bacteria a report by the European Congress on Clinical Microbiology and infectious diseases. Found that twenty four hours after being exposed to bacteria coins containing copper showed antimicrobial activity levels of bacteria dropping by as much as ninety nine percent that in contrast the number of bacterial cells found on banknotes not reduced compared to the control. Study points out that although coins did cut bacterial levels not all. Bacteria were eliminated so they can still spread disease. Of course it's worth remembering that covered. Nineteen is a virus not bacteria. Well this is something I dreamed up when I was at school now and you study found that starting school an hour later may will hope high school kids. Get a better night's rest. A report in the Journal of the American Medical Association claims a delay of between fifty and sixty five minutes to the start of school allow teams to sleep in average of forty three minutes longer on school nights compared to those who had to go to school early now the authors note that teens who had a late start didn't necessarily go to bed any later than the early starters but they tend to not in as much up sleep over the weekend and that's the show now space-time is broadcast on science own radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through birth. I heart radio and aren't union radio or you can subscribe and download space. Time is a free podcast through apple. Stitcher BITES DOT COM PODCAST soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom Pud Dame android cashbox from space-time time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite download. Podcast provider you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time patron which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burns already content and other awards. Just go to a patriarch to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the data files if you want more space time check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images news stories videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart. Gary Dot Tumbler Dot Com. That's all one word and in lower case and that's Tamba without a it can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through Space Time Youtube Channel on facebook. Just go to www dot facebook dot slash space time with Stewart Gary space-time is brought to you in collaboration with and sky and telescope magazine. Your window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart. Gary this has been another quality. Podcast PRODUCTION FROM BITES DOT com.
Discovered - Nearby Big Black Hole
"This is space time series. Twenty-three episode forty four for broadcast on the eleventh of May Twenty twenty coming up on space time discovery of the nearest black hole to earth. How galaxies grew so big so early and the asteroid that no way all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. This journalists have discovered the nearest black hole to Earth located just eleven hundred twenty light years away a report in the journalists tournament astrophysics claims. The blackall was the tech that went astronomers studying. Hr Sixty eight nineteen also known as QA talks. Skopje a binary star system in the Southern Constellation of telescope noticed signs of a third invisible star about four times the mass of the sun which was affecting the orbit the other two stars in the system so instead of a binary star system it would appear. Hr Sixty eight nine must be triple star system and because it's tournaments could find absolutely nothing with four. Solar mass objects should be. It's gotTa be a black hole not is the nearest black hole worth. It's also the only one who star system can be seen from Earth on a darkly night without the native binoculars or telescope but simply with the unaided eye. The office made the discovery using the European Southern Observatory to to meet it telescope in Chile. The study's lead author Thomas. Vs from the European Southern Observatory says the system could just be the tip of the iceberg as many many more similar by holes likely to be out there were videos and colleagues were studying binary star systems and as they analyzed the data from the two stars in sixty eight nineteen they realized that one of the visible stars was opening a third invisible earth as the authors already knew that the star orbiting with a black hole was a massive spectroscopy blue variable star. Some six point three times the mass of the Sun almost four times the sun's radius and some four hundred fifty times as luminous this hot young Blue Stars surface temperature of more than twenty thousand Kelvin. And he's estimated to be around fifty thousand years old just the baby by Stella standards the other visible star in the system is another special type. B Bluestar and it's in a wide yet to be determined orbit around the pair. Astronomers have discovered a few dozen so black holes in our galaxy so far although millions more are expected to be out there. Virtually all those that have been found it take to this powerful x ray sources because they were feeding on in falling material. You see as metaphors into a black hole. It first forms accretion disk or it up through friction releasing xrays before falling beyond a point of no return called the event horizon beyond which it falls forever towards the blackhawks a place where scientists understanding the laws of physics break down the discovery of a solid invisible black hole in HR sixty eight nineteen provides astronomers with clues about where many other hidden black holes could be found what to look for should be putting astronomers in a better position to find them in fact already sternum is believed. This discovery could shine some light on a second system known as Bill. One could also be triple star system with a black hole bill once a bit further away from Earth but still close investor nautical terms. And so it's likely to be a key target for future study. By finding and studying these systems astronomers can learn more about the formation evolution of stellar mass black holes which begin their lives. This co collapse Explosions of some of the universe's most massive stars off through the merger of even more exotic objects could neutron stars. This is space time still come. How galaxies grew so big so early astronomers get a shock when an asteroid the size of a van suddenly swoops out of the darkness of space. Streaking just twelve hundred kilometers above satellites. All that and more still to come on space time one of the big questions in cosmology. How galaxies managed to grow so big so early well. A new study suggests that early galaxies began growing big through their own internal gas reserves before they began shipping mass from other smaller nearby galaxies through galactic cannibalism. The findings reported in the Physical Journal provides another step in the path to understanding how some galaxies could grow to enormous sizes at such an early phase in the evolution of the universe. The study's lead author and she gupta from the University of New South. Wales says the question of exactly how massive galaxies attain. Their size is being poorly understood. Not least because they swell of billions of years galaxies like the Milky Way thought to started forming will over twelve billion years ago from the accumulation of ancient stars gas dust. In fact there are stars in the Milky Way which have already been dated to well over twelve billion years cook during colleagues rich their findings by combining data from Mozell the Multi Object Spectroscopy Commission Line survey together with the cosmological muddling program running on some of the world's largest supercomputers the is looked at how gases were moving inside galaxies by analyzing how gases move. It was possible to discover the proportion of stars made internally within galaxies and the proportion effectively cannibalize from elsewhere. They found that galaxies located around ten billion light years away tended to have a significant proportion of their stars movie a range of different directions and that suggested the stats with their scalps through gravitational tidal perturbations from other galaxies through the process of cannibalism way. Big Alexy's consume smaller satellite galaxies. But at the same time they found that galaxies eleven billion light years away. We're showing far less disorder suggesting that they were made up of stars that were formed from within the galaxy itself. See because light takes time the travel through the universe galaxies further away from the Milky Way are actually being seen at an earlier point in their existence. Good this is the big questions always been. How did these galaxies get so big so quickly and she says the muddling clearly shows that younger galaxies have simply had list timed merge? With other ones is about understanding. How galaxies like our own before many balls and in this particular project. What I'm looking at our galaxies which I'm TV size or a little bit bigger. But they ought about eleven billion years of us. Basically this galaxy galaxy existed when universe was two billion years old Which my phone quite large but for our universe that's about our universe will just age at that time so what we want to do. Is We want to look at this galaxies which are what so young and we want to know how these galaxies begins so big and when the universe was so young and we wanted to know where to start in these galaxies base phone from inside the galaxies. Are this from other. Galaxies took other lots of satellite galaxies orbiting the Milky Way there for around us now which are special interests. These cemeteries dwarf Galaxy Kansas Major Wolf Galaxy and the large and small clouds right now. The Milky Way is consuming taking stars from all of the Aghast at least that in some cases stars as well from all of those galaxies. That's understandable now in present day but eleven billion years ago when the Milky Way was only a billion years old. Were closer together but they was the h-have differently. Yes absolutely and it was much more likely are Leon because as you said on your they were much more closer together. So a galaxy like multi. When when it was just for me it would be good by lots of gas clouds. You can see. Dr Clouds will will end up not just milky but all the neighboring galaxy and if there's a gigantic cease of that guy's gloves will be sort of feeding of all those channels that are created by the gas and sometimes the gas clouds so the process much happens at a faster rate when The army on because the density is so high and the things are not so pot about from From each other zoo you've found is. Is that the main result from this study. Yes absolutely the thing is when the gas on the talk coming into the into galaxy kind of increase the Florida in the in the gas in the gas that exists in the galaxy and you can use like amount of to track down the galaxy. Quiet most of us by the vendor on inside excess or the stocks came from outside because they have come from outside will have more disorder and lots of motions. And that's what we found that These eleven year old GANASSI's they had less amount of disorder compared to the galaxies which are sort of slightly younger basically. There's a transition that happened between Exceeds Calms Clyde most of their stars from insight in in darnold processes that is going to phone inside the galaxy but made on the galaxies. They are going to require a Most of their time by feeding the other galaxies lie feeding of the gas and the fact that rounding it's so it's so and they become giant. What's the significance of these results in terms of understanding of cosmology? Quite a lot because This of this transition from we call it. Nc DUE PROCESS. Where if you're going to start filming incites exceed built process we grow tapping some external officers like mergers extra. This transition was its third by the normal number CD. Quality that is university is just from about matter and energy but this study are studied in points. The exact folkman this transition happened. Showed that this. The this transition happens between ten to eleven billion years ago. Research carried out what we used the march five spectral graph on then meet Odell. Scoping Hawaii's gone telescope and it's one of the largest and it's called Cut into that Rehab of people telescope and on top of that. What we did was we use electricity and relations which are jain cost much both immolation running on some of the largest supercomputers in the world right now and what happens is because in astronomy We don't really conduct any experiment because that exceeds the talk. They're so far away so much. So this stimulation. We can kind of create a word chillier anywhere Relation and best. I'll change some barometer conduct. Small experiments took about how galaxies are actually evolving and test. What we think we know about. How GALAXIES FOR ME? Actually she or not does it. Change understanding of the hobbled shooting folk at all the way. Galaxies channing focus kind of leading because it shows that galaxies earlier they go from this nice finally structured. Olympic on and that kind of thing right. But that's not the case because when you look at the hydrogen got exceeded like Really Young Galaxy. They have more disorder they have more random structures and slowly those nice spiral such kind of a role in that process. Some of the galaxies. They are going to work into electrical taxis. The galaxies and really going to interact with lots of its neighbor. It's no it's going to undergo lots of action and that interaction will destroy. The Nice spider shows that got trying to build up and instead of having a nice finally disk it will have an elliptical. And how about you folks nice individually but that's not really how galaxies from the go from loves and random just to this metric spiders up chess and when you look back through field and deep food south early. Galaxies look like train wrecks. What I'll note. So They I. That was the thing that we knew galaxies as he go far enough. They look like train wrecks right. They are they have. They have lots of emotions literally own galaxy. They are blobby. They don't have any structure but what I am finding it when you go far enough. They are not active as we thought they would be. They ha they have slightly less disordered than we thought that they would be that. That's the fact that was surprising about though what we are finding because now it's really hard to go really. Did he's ready Look at which I really for. Because the signal that you're going to get from those galaxies is not enough but now with this faster it goes like the one we use to go. You can still get an addition of what's happening in the beginning. And we found that they have a quiet those stucture then ten be near or nine billion year old counterparts for. They are more quieter and that was surprising. Part and that's why we think that it takes a bit of time for this merger kind of thing too. Speaking basically it takes some time for the galaxy growth to happen by mergers are eating other galaxy and that when they will have a bit more organized or miss disordered gas motions basically bought. We need larger telescope. Ideally space-based and it's really figured out this Terry because right now in my research I could get a single number for the average motion of and you can imagine that. Make Galaxy you. Just how one number of average gas doubling energy. That's not enough. And so what I'm really excited about is the using the James Webb Telescope. Which is supposed to be US next base mation next year? Hopefully hopefully. They've just another test on the mirror. The Mirror is opening as it should as it will in space The the coworker on our situation and again in my delayed the departure little and they still need to do some tests which yesterday breath for those tests to be done because they haven't put together and district for the vibrations scope is going to experience what will be right about the Ariane five. Yeah Yeah it's going to be and unfold. Hunting forty process is going to be quite know wrecking as but hopefully rent when shopping in the space. It's going to be fantastic because Eleven billion years old or even younger galaxy than that. We really need a space mission to kind of resolve the structures that these galaxy from going as we can get a single number right now we can get an average amount of guys these guys how we can get an average amount of Dublin Energy. That these we have worked with game shows begins all individual component and figure out whether the my tax off the guys is what we think that from the much. Does the simulation show you why? Some spirals developed lock. The Milky Way is a central bank. That is really good question People are actually selectively working on On extent and that is unclear. Because it's really depends on the initial conditions on the conditions on the galaxy and to have really high resolution simulations to figure it out do disentangle different structures for example. A bodies are very tiny stuck in the whole scheme of galaxy and to distinguish the bar that we need to distinguish it from another layer that our milky way has which is the budge. That there's a lot of stars like a high dispersion last star so you need high-resolution similarly the kind of simulation but I use the don't have but they don't currently have the sufficient resolution to make that distinction yet but people are actively working on developing high-resolution cosmological simulation. Because you need those in relation to pick out what kind of initial condition you need to trigger the commission when it comes to you from the University of New South Wales and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary still to come a surprise visit from an asteroid no one expected and later in the science report China Russia and Iran accused of cyberattacks tagging research uncovered nine hundred vaccines all that and much more still to come on space time. Astronomers in for a Shock. Win An asteroid. The size of Van suddenly swooped out of the darkness of space striking. Just twelve hundred kilometers above satellites the eight meter Wide Space Rock. Now named twenty twenty eight seven was detected by Nashes hawaii-based Panda's Pan Chromatic Survey Telescope and rapid response system pants does the scope of the asteroid just hours before it's fly. By determining the object was already extremely close to worth with roughly ten percent probability of collision observatories around the world joined the efforts to find out more about the sun and asteroid the Touton Burg Observatory in Germany which frequently assist the European Space Agency's near Earth Objects Nation Center monitored. The Space Rock and quickly established wasn't going to collide with Earth but it was heading to an extremely close fly by and subsequent observations from a network of telescopes around the world determine the fly by ranks among the fifty closest ever recorded a very neat thing. This is space. Time stood account in the science report and China Russia and Iran accused of engaging in cyber attacks targeting research uncovered nineteen vaccines and the first case of curve nineteen being detected in a family. Dog still come on space time and town that take a brief look at some of the other stories making us inside this week. Science report China Russia and Iran of named as being engaged in militias state sponsored cyber attacks targeting British universities and research centres working on vaccines to fight the covert nine corona virus. The rogue nations were identified earlier reports from Britain's National Cyber Security Center that state sponsored attacks have taken place while these cyber attacks have not yet been successful. The agency has urged universities and research centres to upgrade our mind security immediately. You may recall that last year. China was identified as being behind a series of identical tax focusing on Australian universities and research centres. Use of the new attacks follows warnings by the FBI that criminals have been hacking into health and medical research centers and releasing new versions of ransomware the US Food and Drug Administration is the use of the experimental covert nineteen drug rim severe for emergency in patients the emergency authorization. Doesn't they in the drug as a approval that Kennedy camera after detailed human trials but the FDA can issue building see authorisation for unapproved medical products? That may help treat. Life threatening diseases. Were no approved. Alternatives are available. It follows an announcement by the US National Institute of Health of preliminary trial results showing that advanced curve in one thousand. Nine patients who received rim does aveer recovered faster than similar patients who received the placebo but the results from this randomized controlled. Trial involving one thousand and sixty. Three patients were in contrast to a separate small Chinese trial which claimed to show no clinical benefit for him disappear in Curve. Nineteen treatment well last month was a cat now. The first case of covered nineteen is being detected in the family dog teams at two year old pug named Winston lives in North Carolina has tested positive for the virus scientists from Duke University. The discovery while testing Winstons family. All of them have had the virus. Researchers say Winston symptoms lasted for just a few days. And we're realatively mild with some sneezing heavy breathing and being a bit sluggish. But most telling of all was that Winston didn't finish his breakfast one morning side to say there's no evidence that pets can transmit the virus. The people the families other to pitted twelve year old Otis and Mr Nibs Twelve Year. Old tabby cat have birth tested negative and as for Winston all. The good news is he's made a full recovery. And you fossils suggests that the monster dinosaurs spinosaurus was far more water than on land. Forget what you saw. In the movies spinosaurus elongated body short legs always meant that it had a design which is fun like crocodile. Then a t rex now paleontologists at dig site in the Sahara have uncovered the remains of a spine assault with a powerful fin like tail. Making it potentially quite unique among dinosaurs. The findings reported in the Journal. Nature follows decades of debate. On how much of spinosaurus life would have been spent in the water? And how reliant? They may have been on aquatic prey. The United Kingdom's Professional Standards Authority has placed a ban on. They hand up industry so called complete elimination of autistic spectrum expression or cease therapy because the scientific testing has confirmed that chunky indefinite work ceases. Just one of a long list of SITA scientific treatments being pushed by a paths which medical experts found have no scientifically proven benefits from Australian skeptic. Says while it's an appropriate move by the professional stand its authority. Any prohibition is meaningless unless it's he'd to and disciplinary action taken against those who ignore it action in the UK called the good thinking society which was set up by a doctor. Simon Singh it will also and a campaigner against Chiropractic in some cases also This was set up to actually look at medical issues and to say to the areas which have validity and one of the areas that the good thinking Sasaki has been looking at is highly opposite of the problem. Was that the Professional Standards Authority. Which is the one that looks at medical practitioners and medical practices and signs off on the mode not approve or recognize the industry? This was sort of last year they come for regular renewal of if you're like authorization under the PSA. And I mean he came up. And I got to go continued to go ahead the good thing. He was pretty upset about this. And put a challenge to that decision and since then the. Psi has put a caveat on its decision to support the one of the areas that it has placed a ban on a treatment cold or therapy complete elimination of autistic spectrum expression cease one of those organizations that had the acronym and then try to words to fit the because the often lodge the anti vaccination anti vaccination a conspiracy that autism is caused by vaccination so homeopathy creating a market for itself. Had me out. That doesn't work to say the least. And after the good thinking society put in this sort of complaints et Cetera at the PSI. Brooklyn this judgment that they can't teach this anymore. That means that with thinking has sort of withdrawing a case of legal action but it's now obviously has to keep close watch on the hammer paths to make the Knoxville offering this therapy which is a chunky therapy that's to Mendham from Australian skeptics and that's the show now space-time is broadcast on science owned radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through both IHEART radio and on radio or you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple. Stitcher BITES DOT COM Puckett cast soundcloud spotify Youtube Auto Boom Pud beam android cashbox from time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite download. Podcasts provider. You can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time Patriot which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burners audio content and other awards. Just go to patriarch page through Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details. If you want more space time check out our blog. You'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well loads of images news stories videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot TAMLA DOT COM. That's all one word and in lower case. And that's Tumbler. Without the it can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through Uh Space Time. A YOUTUBE CHANNEL ON FACEBOOK. Just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space. Time with Stewart. Gary space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine. Your window on the universe. You've been listening to time with Stewart. Gary this has been another quality. Podcast PRODUCTION FROM BITES DOT com.
27: Quasar Tsunamis Rip Across Galaxies
"This is space. Time is twenty three twenty seven for broadcast the first the vapours twenty twenty coming up on space time. Quals anomaly seen ripping across galaxies. The Mars Curiosity rover this climb up the Red Planet's Matt Shop and a new strain rocket engines successfully testified for the first time. All that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered massive Sonali like energy APP flows from distant quasars tearing across interstellar space and wreaking havoc on the galaxies in which originated a report of the extra physical journal claims they spectacular events could hope answers some longstanding cosmological puzzles such as why they seem to be so few galaxies in the universe and why there's a relationship between the mass of a galaxy and the mess of its central supermassive black hole quasars a powerful jets of energy streaming out from supermassive black holes being fueled by influencing material. They can shine a thousand times brighter than the hundreds of billions of stars in their scalise. It's the black hole vows matter hot plasma in circles it and emit intense radiation creating the Quasar wins being driven by blistering radiation pressure from the vicinity of the black hole. Then push the material away from the Galaxy Center. These outflows accelerate to soup aluminum velocities. The study's lead author Arab from Virginia. Tech says over the lifetime of ten million years these athletes produced a million times more energy than a gamma ray burst. In fact no other phenomena carries as much mechanical energy the winds are pushing hundreds of solar masses of material each year the amount of mechanical energy these outflows carry is up to several hundred times higher than the luminosity of the entire Milky Way Galaxy and the Quasar wins plow across their host galaxies disc material. That otherwise would have formed. Houston's is violently swept away from the galaxy causing stabber to cease the radiations pushing the gas and dust the far greater distances than scientists had previously thought the prejudice creating galaxy wide rance as these sinarmas slam into interstellar material. The temperature shock fronts spikes billions of degrees causing material to glue logic an x rays but also widely across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Arabs is anyone. Witnessing such an event would say brilliant. So let's your show I in a flood of gamma and x rays then invisible and eventually infrared radiation. It would be as if Christmas trees were lighting up all of the galaxy. Astronomers have long suspected at some sort of physical processes shutting off stuff formation in massive galaxies but the nature that process is being mystery now putting the observed outflow seen by hobble into computer. Simulations solves these outstanding problems in Galactic Evolution. The authors studied thirteen quiz outflows. They use spectroscopy doppler measurements to determine the speed at which the out flowing gas was being accelerated by the quasars aside from measuring the most energetic ways has ever observed your discovered one APP float which was accelerating faster than the others infected increase from nearly seventy million kilometers per hour to roughly seventy four million over three period and scientists believe it's acceleration will continue to increase over time the study also showed that these powerful quasar outflows should be privileged throughout the entirely universe. You're listening to space time. Still to come. The Mars curiosity rovers climb up the Red Planet's Mount Shop and later in the science report and you study shows ninety five percent of covert. Nine hundred. Deaths could have been all that and much mall still to come on space time. Let's take a break from our show for word from our sponsor express. Vpn rated number one by tech writer. 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Vpn DOT com slash space for three months free with a one year package visit express VPN DOT com slash space to learn more. And of course you'll find the link details in the show notes on our website. That's try express. Vpn DOT com slash space. And now. It's back to our show. You're listening to spend time with Stewart. Gary Meshes Mars curiosity rovers preparing for the next stage of its ascent of craters match shop. Curiosities climbing crater central peak since two thousand fourteen mission managers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena California say. There is several regions on the mountain. Which are intriguing. Scientists chief among them is what the size tehema calling the clay bearing unit curiosities being analyzing rock samples others include the rocky cliffs of the circle. Sulfate bearing unit where sulfate minerals might indicate. The area was drying up or becoming more acidic in ancient times. This includes the goodies valleys. Where a river thought of calf the path through the sulfate unit each of these regions represents different period in the history of mount shop which rises some five kilometers from the floor of gale crater curiosity scientists one of his at these places to learn more about the history of water on the mountain which slowly dried up as the red planet's climate changed and the standing how these changes occurred shop may provide new insights into y water disappeared from US billions of years ago. The car sized Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover has been exploring the Red Planet scale crater searching for science that Mars was once habitable with the sorts of conditions and environments that could have supported life launched aboard an atlas five rocket back on November. The Twenty six twenty seven from the Cape Can Ever Live for station in Florida. Curiosity successfully touch down on the Martian surface on August. The six twenty twelve following a five hundred sixty million kilometer long journey the landing site just south of the Martian equator was the AOL as places avast plane between the northern wall of gale crater and the northern foothills of match up the one hundred fifty four kilometre wide gale crater was named after. Walter Frederick Gale and amateur astronomer from Sydney who studied mas in the late nineteenth century. The three point eight billion. Your credit was selected as the potential landing site because it shows evidence of being dry lake pitted with signs of an APP flowing channel cuff by running water and also because mount shop appear to have a layer geological structure by allowing scientists to read. It's mental history like a book. The eight hundred ninety nine kilograms. Six rover spent its first. Two years is exploring the region around the landing side quickly. Achieving its primary mission by identifying that dried up remains of local lakes and rivers thereby confirming that mass once had birth standing in flowing water. Essential for life as we know it. The RUB is meandering path stopping off at an interesting rock formations sore rich. The foothills of mount shop in September. Two thousand. Fourteen curiosity's powered by radioisotope thermoelectric generator which produces power through the decay of radioactive isotopes of plutonium. Two thirty eight it. Two identical radiation hardened onboard computer systems and force up processes. The RUB is equipped with a significant telecommunications redundancy including expand transmitter and receive it communicate directly with earth and to raise the contact opening spacecraft which can then act as relay satellites. It scientific instrument package uses seventeen high resolution. Cameras could he. A S cams four cams to mass cams and three specialists instrument cameras curiosity equipped with a two point. One made a robotic gone with three joints allowing it to move and manipulate instruments and samples. It carries five devices including X. Ray Spectrometer Amass handlings immature percussion drill mechanisms scooping sieving and proportioning samples of powdered rock and soil and dust removal tool to clean samples before close up imaging the robotic arms Alpha apocalypse. Ray Spectrometer irradiate samples with Alpha particles and they match the spectra of x rays that readmitted to provide detailed elemental composition analysis of samples the robotic Arms Mars Hand Lens. Imager camera provides alter high resolution microscopic images of rock and soul samples with both wide and ultraviolet led illumination image and darkness or for fluorescent imaging. Other scientific instruments include cam a laser induced breakdown spectograph which provides elemental compositions of rocks and soil and remote microwave major to provide high resolution images of the sampling areas of the rocks and soil targeting samples up to seven meters away. Vaporizing a small amount of the sample in that second pulses from an infrared laser and then undertaking a specter of the light emitted by the vaporize material. Curiosity also uses two days of navigation. Cameras mattered on the mass to support. Ground that vacation providing a wide angle view and stereoscopic three d imagery rose environmental monitoring station has a suite of instruments designed to measure the Martian environment including humidity air pressure temperature wind speeds and ultraviolet radiation the meteorological package senses are located around three elements to Kim's attached to the rover's mast ultraviolet Sensor Assembly located on the road the stick and the instrument control unit inside the Rose Body. The rover also has four pairs of hazard avoidance navigation cameras to the front until at the rear. Now this has cam. So they provide wide angle. Stereoscopic vs autonomous has avoidance during rover drives and for positioning the robotic On target samples. Then there's the chemistry and mineralogy instruments suite which analyzes organics and gases from the very solid samples. It includes a gas chromatograph and shoot a laser spectrometer to undertake precision measurements of carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in atmospheric carbon dioxide a mythic in order to determine if they're g chemical or biological origin surfer evolving. Geochemical is also a radiation assessment detector. It was used to characterize the broad spectrum of radiation which found its way inside the spacecraft during its crews face from demise at. It's not being used to monitor radiation around the rover on the Martian surface. These measurements are important. Because they'll help. Scientists develop spacecraft shielding for future man into planetary missions. There's also a dynamic of neutrons instrument which is a fourteen point. One million electron volt pulsing neutron generator and detector to measure hydrogen or ice and water at or near the Martian surface. Finally there was the most said imager mighty which was mad at on the road of his body and use the film that has sent to the Martian surface map the surrounding terrain and also provide an exact location for the landing. Curiosities design is being so successful. It's been replicated on his next Mazar of mission initially called Myers Twenty Twenty and out recently. Renamed severence full goes will. It'll be launched in July. This report on curiosities journey up mount shop from NASA TV for almost seven years. Nasr's Curiosity Rover has been exploring Mars. The rover is climbing amounted mount sharp. That is dry and sandy today but three and a half billion years ago rivers lakes and groundwater could be found here. Curiosity recently entered a valley between a Ridge and cliffs higher up the mountain. We've been calling this the claydon because Mars orbiters have seen a strong signal here. That's exciting because clay minerals often. Foreman water is around from the ground. We can look for clues of ancient water in these cliffs above the Klay Unit. The same orbiters see sulfate minerals. That could mean that water was drying up or becoming more acidic comparing the clay and sulfate layers could give us a better idea of how the Martian climate change over time. Cutting through the sulfate layer is evidence of an ancient gushing river. Get US Vallas channel in orbiter images. We've seen boulders and other debris that were probably washed out by the river. This channel formed after the clay and sulfate layers. It's a whole other chapter in the story of water on Mount Sharp these features. Teach us about more than just the mounted. They may help. Explain what changes were happening across Mars at the same time and how that affected its ability to support life if it ever existed here well after spending almost a year trying to get the drill. Nashes mayes inside landed to work mission. Manages finally fixed the problem the old fashioned way by giving it a good bash with a shovel. The drill is part of the heat flow and physical properties package better known as the mall. Thirty eight centimeter probe is designed to dig down some five maters into the Martian soil providing scientists with internal machinate and hate measurements from deep below the Red Planet surface. But almost the soon as it started to dig it suddenly stopped and repeated attempts over the past year to try and get it going again heavily. Failed mission managers at Nasty Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena. California and the hate flows science packaging genie's from the German Space Agency deal which both the technology couldn't work out if the problem was the Martian sobbing to sandy for the mall to get a good grip and starts rolling down whether it's simply hit a big rock just below the surface. Bet Try what they like. Nothing worked so finally someone suggested forcing it with a scoop of Melendez robotic arm and Lo and behold. It seems to have worked things crossed. Sometimes you've just got to rely on the old tried and proven methods. Although I probably would have wound up using AMA- the three hundred fifty eight kilogram insight lander was launched aboard an atlas five rocket from the Vandeweghe for space in California on May the fifth twenty eighteen landing on the Red Planet's windswept allegiant panacea on November. The twenty sixth inside is studying the earliest evolutionary processes that shape mas it's looking at the size thickness density and overall structure of the Martian core mantle and crust and the rate at which hate escapes from the planet's Interior. This data will provide scientists with a glimpse in the evolutionary processes of all the rocky terrestrial planets in the solar system. Well enough asides package brought to the Red Planet aboard inside. Sp measuring mash earthquakes. What should that be? Moss quakes the French Space Agency seismic experiment for interior structure. Size Mamata is located on the ground some distance from the Landa and under its own cover to protect it from the Mash and wind and sudden that is for a temperature changes the experiment midgets first mass quake on April the sixth last year. And of course it's not the first time quakes have been recorded on other worlds. Nasa sent seismometers to the lunar surface about the Apollo missions in the late sixties and early seventies and to Mars the Viking landers in the mid seventies quakes look and feel very different. Depending on the material they're seismic waves passing through the new data from inside shows that mass quakes fill in about halfway between those earth. Those on the moon which is sort of good considering mas fits in sidewise about halfway between the Earth and the moon insight seismometers is monitored by scientists led by the Swiss Research University. Adhd Djuric after collecting the data scientists simulated Martian. Quake in this shake room said. They could experience it for themselves. Then compare it to simulate a trip on the earth and the moon but they needed to amplify their mouths. Quake signals by a factor of ten million in order to make the quiet and distant tremors perceptible in comparison to simile amplified mooncakes an unidentified earthquakes. Besides Walter. We have on Mars is fantastic. It's operating as well as we could have dreamed it's exceeding expectations. Goal of insight is to understand the structure of the planet of Mars. And the primary way that we're going to do that with insight is by measuring Mars Quakes U. T. H. Sewer is leading the international team. That is Checking all of the data as it arrives every day and trying to detect and pass on the information that mark quakes have actually occurred to the science team. We're down here in the simulates room of the Swiss Seismological Service and we're here today to show the first example of replaying the first events that we recorded from ourselves moment. Moore's so let's start with what we know. Which is enough economic. Quick from Switzerland takes seconds and has very clear on sets so this quake Qiwei fat feel there and then in a few seconds. We'll hear the s wave arrival likely bigger. So that's the classic type of wave arrivals than we were hoping to see 'em on insight next thing is one thing once that more exotic which is the moon so remote until the system and see how this other SPF recording slowly. Getting figure the thing that is very different. We have smaller attenuation of seismic waves. But at the same time we have very strong scattering which means that's A. M. Checking with on for tens of minutes or maybe up to our next single loan to musk weeks which were discovered by the mustard just recently we want to know how feel escape between Europe on one side and the moon on the other side. We have seen two families of quakes. And so there's a higher frequency one and this one that we experienced mouse model low-frequency version. We think this is probably pretty far away the motions what we have here amplified by a huge factor so that we can even see them because a Mars the extremely low. Moore's isn't as simple as we might have hoped the ground motion is not like we see on earth. It's sort of a halfway house between Earth and the Moon. We're really trying to put the various events in place. Pixel puzzle at this stage. We've a long way to go before we understand it. But it's extremely exciting at this stage and in that report we heard from John Clinton head of the Maas Quick Service at Idiot Zurich and Simon. Shelhah Marian bows and Martin. Van Drew All seismologists from adhd. Eric this is space time. Valiant spaces successfully testified. It's new locally. Developed liquid fueled rocket engine the commissioning develop motor called the momentum engine is being developed to deliver commercial and scientific payloads to and from the lunar surface. The hot fire test was undertaken at the beyond the Blue Aerospace launch and test facility located just north of the Western. Queensland town of gone too windy it follows a year of system development and in a propellant testing. The company will know what's integrating the new engine into a launch vehicle capable of simulating lunar descent landing and traversing maneuvers. China has successfully launched another bedell. Three navigation satellite into geostationary orbit the mission aboard a Long March three B rocket from the Shawshank Satellite Launch Center in southwestern China's Sichuan Province was the fifty fourth Dow Global Positioning System Satellite to be placed into ward but now is designed to provide Beijing with an independent satellite navigation system for its ever expanding military and national security forces. Wasn't the anyone sending vacation satellites into space with Russia. Launching new going on 'em navigation satellite spacecraft was launched aboard a Soyuz two one B rocket from the Plesetsk cosmodrome eight hundred kilometers not the Moscow. The new Glonass M will replace an earlier generation navigation satellite which has reached the end of its useful life. The Russian Glonass Global Satellite Navigation System currently comprises twenty seven operational spacecraft including one of the new next generation Glonass case series which. He's still undergoing space flight tests saw and time now to take another brief look at some of the other stories making using science this week with science science report and he studies found that. Beijing's decision to cover up the true extent of the dangers posed by the curved nineteen around the virus may have directly led to the death of up to twenty five thousand people. The findings reported by the University of Southampton show that ninety five percent of deaths could have been avoided if China's communist government hadn't tried to hide what was really going on scientists found that curve nineteen cases. Could it be reduced by sixty. Six percent measures have been taken a week earlier and by eighty six percent of the action. It began two weeks earlier. Well fifth will hand. Doctor was arrested by the Chinese government. They're trying to warn the world about the dangers. Posed by the curve in nineteen virus has now died and like Beijing claims. He died from the disease. Medical experts have discovered that a sudden loss of smell could be the first sign that you've been infected with Kevin Nineteen. The discovery was reported simaltaneously by eight years and throat specialists in several countries they found the loss of smell occurs as the virus causes swelling and the olfactory because this appears to be more likely to happen to those with. Kobe nineteen than other viruses. And maybe a key clinical indicate otherwise symptom free carriers of the virus and you study has found that East Antarctic has denman glacier retreated five kilometers in the past twenty two years. The findings report in the Journal. Physical Research Lettuce has raised concerns among scientists. That the shape of the ground service beneath the shade could make it even more susceptible to climate change driven collapse. The findings are based on the most complete and detailed examination of the glacier and its surrounding area ever undertaken the authors found. The glacier is lost two hundred and sixty eight billion tons of ice between nine hundred seventy nine and two thousand seventeen fully thought. The ICE in Damon Causey levels worldwide to rise by about one point five meters or five feet and you study claims boys hitting puberty at an early age. More likely to develop type two diabetes adults. The findings reported the journal Diabetic. Larger show that irrespective. They wait Boyce getting their squeaky voices between the ages of nine point three and thirteen point four years or around twice as likely to develop early type two diabetes later on compared to those reach puberty between the ages of fourteen point. Eight and seventeen point nine years. Although it's a little different for everyone boys normally rich puberty around the age of twelve or thirteen with transformation usually taking up to around for years. And that's the show for now. Space-time is broadcast on science on radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through both IHEART radio and Aunt Union Radio or you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple. Stitcher BITES DOT COM PODCAST soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom Pud beam android cashbox from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite download. Podcasts provider you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time Patriot. Which GIVES YOU ACCESS TO COMMERCIAL. Free Double episode versions of the show as well as burners already content and other rewards. Just go to patriarch page to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details if you want more Space Time. Check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images use stories videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot TAMLA DOT COM. 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86: Earth's Inner Core is Solid - SpaceTime with Stuart Gary Series 21 Episode 86
"Entertainment design, just for you, then checkout, customizable, streaming TV from finishing. It makes your life simple easy. Awesome. He gives you, customizable, streaming TV options. Enjoy the most free shows anywhere on any device and even access your streaming apps right on your TV with x one. Go to Insperity dot com. Call one eight hundred Finnity or visit a store today. To learn more restrictions apply. This is space time series Twenty-one episode eighty six for broadcast from the thirty first of all Tober Twenty-eight teen coming up on space time researches confirm the in accords solid. Evidence of a galactic collision and Russian. Physicists have created matter. At least in a computer all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. And you study is confirmed that the earth in a chorus solid, but probably a lot softer them. Previously thought the findings reported in the journal science provide researchers with a new glimpse into planet formation and evolution the discoveries based on the detection of j waves O'Shea waves following earthquake activity. These waves can only travel through solid objects. The study's lead author associate professor avoid coach together with that on fam- earth from yesterday National University used a correlation way filled method to examine similarities between the signals to receivers after a major quake rather than focusing on direct way for rivals as well. As confirming that the inequality solid, the authors also found that softer than previously thought with the Nikolai and having elastic properties. Similar to golden platinum in AKU share waves a so tiny and fable. They can't. Be observed directly in fact, detecting them, it's big and sit at somewhat of a holy grail of global size Malla g ever since side as I predicted the core solid back in the nineteen thirties forties. So the authors came up with a rather creative approach they firstly ignoble the big seismology ratings coming through during and immediately after quake. Instead, they searched for faintest signatures coming through about three to ten house after lodge earthquake code north is used to global network of seismic stations looking at every single receive a pair and every single lodge earthquake not to measure across carlights similarities between the seismic grams. It was from those similarities that they construct a global Corolla Graham a fingerprint of the earth. I think that this research using the correlation Mayfield, which is a new part of dime in smaller djing global says malls in particular demonstrated the potential of this method, and I think. That it opens up way for new discoveries about the internal structure of our plants the results within us to demonstrate the existence of J waves and infer the she spayed in the core. Kelci? It says understanding the core has direct consequences for the generation and maintenance of the planet's geomagnetic field, and of course, without that geomagnetic field that would be no lie on it surface. The core was proposed that can night in forty five mineral physicist Francis. Birch. And he proposed that what England discovered night thirty six. So for years before that paper, that's what he what she discovered is actually at transformation of liquid to Seoul, it phase of iron at that time when England discovered in court, she didn't have sufficient information from the seismic waves that she was looking at and those compression waves to conclude that the core was indeed solid was just wanna change in the waves. And that was that was it. Yeah. Yeah. Was the seismic waves that can tell us if there is a change in elastic properties of rocks through which they travel. So she observed that there was a significant change our substantial change in those properties. And that's how the accord. Was proposed. However, Birch as as mentioned really hypothesize that it was a change from liquid to Seoul phase of iron. And then I actually became a quest to find a mechanism or to find the proof by looking at other types of earth waves dead. The court is indeed solid. So the waves that I'm referring to are also known as Shia raves, and as you know, after larger quakes, the essentially two types of ground particle motion and one of them is known as compression or peeves and another is sheer or s waves. So this sheer raves day cannot propagate through guests plasma or liquids. So if we could detect cheer raves through the cord that would be a direct proof that in a core is indeed solid. And so the quest for this year raves started. I would say Beck in nineteen forties, and it has been going on for the last eight years or so. The hunt. He's onto find shea waves and what J waves so Jay essentially, she arrives that propagate through the inner core same thing. So we call them J raves just to differentiate them from the so called I and is the phase of compression ways in the core. So Jay would be cruel and to shear raves in the core. Sure. So so the J Ashir raves. And then core how did you go about looking for that? And what did you then find well, the key? The key moment was the moment when we realized that if we wanted to observe cheer waves, and then core we would have to bend in the conventional way searching for them because of this -ly these waves are very difficult to observe in the direct size McVay because of their tiny amputates. And so they are below the observational tests, hold in direct seismic. Fairfield. So the key moment was. When we made a decision to throw away the first several hours of seismic comes off the larger quakes and to look at the later part of size that we refer to as a coda went for the noise to dissipate. And then you look at what was left afterwards Louis infect, we wait for the signal. The main signals the biggest arrivals of the most prominent seismic wave to disappear essentially, and then we concentrate on the later part of the way fueled and the Keating is then we don't look for detector rivals of these waves. But we look for similarities between two recordings say, you have a recorder in camera and another one in Sydney that's about three hundred dollars away, and you have an earthquake in Japan or the Mediterranean Sea or whatever then you instead of looking for director. I was you actually measures. Larry between these two seismic homes, and you do that for all the receiver payers everywhere on the surface of the planet after large earthquakes. So that's many combinations of receivers and larger quakes, and you start them all together to produce the so called global Carello GAM. And that's what we have done that global Carello Graham is like to call it is in a way the fingerprint of the earth because all the features in that Carello Graham correspond to physical features in their interior. And this is how are we detected J as in the core so through the similarity of these forms, and there was some surprises, the coal is solid. But it's not as hot as some people had hop out the attack, it sure, so yes, I normally I get questions from people about the first of all about the solidity of the core because the textbook. Books and the school textbooks will tell you that in accordance solid. So did there were previous attempts where people use three of salaciously of their to establish that the corps should be sold to actually fit those of the ration. And this was probably the most significant evidence that we have that. The core was solid those temperatures and pressures now we were never actually able to directly measure the speed of she arrives. And this is the first time that we provide constraints and that Shiro speed in a convincing way. So that from that sheer speed we can actually measure the so called modular of rigidity or the measure of the rigidity of the core. And when did that we realized that our newest mates over Judy lower than what was previously the same all the way through what it change in degree as you get more towards very center, the because of the increased pressure and temperatures at the say the service. Of the Nicole compared to the very center of the NFL and the other question, I guess is. Is there an actual surface to the Inigo or is it more like to phases from a liquid state towards a solid state? That's an excellent question. And in this work, we did experiments when we there the shear wave speed in the inner court as the function of the distance from the center of the earth or as function of radius if you wish and we establish that this reduction in the sheer I've speed and in the rigidity has to be applied to the entire bulk of the core. So we excluded. The possibility that the inner core is less tive or softer just in the upper layer of the core. So we establish that based on are numerical simulations that the entire volume of the code have been more to explain our observations now, I should add before I answered your. Second question is that there's an ongoing debate. Why the inner core prohibits these? She arrives. Why they're not more prominent and wide in accord is more attainment you've and softer than we would expect these high pressure and temperature conditions and the first school of thought is that this is simply due to intrinsic property of iron at those conditions. Whereas the alternative hypothesis is that there are pockets of melt enriched with light elements apart from iron nickel that contributes to that. Smaller jetty of the core. Okay. And then to answer your question about the surface of the core. It is doubling from seismological observations that most places where we can observe their flexes of the inner core that that boundary is fairly well pronounced. However, there's some other observation suggesting that the in a. Court. The could be mush is on at the top of the core. And so I would say that the present time this is still a subject of research as well as how the core actually solidifies is it growing from the inside out or it's maybe some sort of snowing process happening where the crystals would essentially snow down from the outer liquid out a core creation. Dan, correct. How does all this change or reinforce understanding of the center of the s well, look, there's some direct implications of this research? First of all now, we have I would say a convincing proof that the accord is indeed solid from the survey Sion's of body waves. And Secondly, we know little bit more about the structure, why is that important first of all the rigidity or the reduced rigidity of the core is actually. Early very convenient. If I can say in that way, in terms of dynamics of the core and its relationship with the mental namely, reduced rigidity means that in accord is little bit easier to deform than we thought. So in a way, one of the parameters that we described is called Parsons ratio. And that person's ratio can vary for all of the earth elements in between zero and zero point five in terms of the inner core is actually almost zero point five it's very high, essentially, what this means is that when you please that material in one direction is going to expand in the direction perpendicular to it's almost to the same extent that that you applied the force to squeeze it. So some such elements are gold, and platinum or for instance, base of rubber or clay situated by water. So that means the dinner cores more prone to. Deformation and this can explain and actually compatible with some of the observer missions that we have about the change of linked of the and also the differential tation of the core with respect to the mental news. It's actually a little bit faster than the mantle in. This cross. Does not well about five years ago. We published in other paper nature science on demonstrating that financial tation Dana core with respect to the mantle is fluctuating. So at times it goes faster than the rest of the mental by the times it slows down and go slower. So this new discovery that the occurs infect softer than we are less stiff than we thought. Previously goes hand in hand with those previous versions of the differential tation because you can see how the softer material could be easier to deform, let's assess professor voi- culture. From the astray National University. And this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary. Visit to get that floor of your dreams for limited time, we're offering special financing for eighteen months on purchases of ninety nine or more. Choose from the largest in stock selection at guaranteed, everyday, low prices floors rock bottom prices and offer to help you complete that project offer ten twenty one eighteen visit Florida court today or Florida core dot com. Professional financing available more to credit card accounts by community capital Bank, which he terminates spa vacations for credit informational eligibilities minimum monthly payments required. Astronomers have discovered evidence confirming a collision took place between the large and small Madge Eleni, clouds two of the nearest galaxies to the Milky Way, the findings reported in the Estra physical journal letters shows that the entire south eastern regional wing of the small match Lennick cloud. He's moving in a different direction to the main body of the galaxy on am bigamous evidence that the small and lodge. Madge Eleni clouds recently collided. Studies laid off at prof. S's Sally, oy. Used recently released data from the European Space Agency sky satellite to examine the motions of stars. In the small matchel. Any cloud guy is designed to image stars of of regain repaired of many as they by providing a plot of improvement in real time. This allows scientists to measure how stars moving across the sky Wayne colleagues was such for runaway stars that he starts then ojected from classes within the small mentioned cloud during their ups evasions that was a price to find that all the stars within the south eastern wing of the small match. Lennick cloud a movie in a similar direction and spayed the authors say this demonstrates the to mental clouds likely collided, hundreds of millions of fees ago. You see only computer modeling had already predicted that direct collision would cause the small metal any clouds wing region to move towards the matchel cloud, whereas the two galaxy simply pass near each other the wing stars who'd be moving in the perp. Direction. But instead the wings moving away from the small much Lenny cloud and towards the lodge, mental any cloud confirmation that a direct collision occurred the lodging smo- match Lenny clouds named after fed at Magellan became the first European officially recall them during expedition to second navigate the between fifteen nineteen and fifteen twenty two the big and narrow of the is the lodge Mitchell, any cloud located about one hundred sixty thousand light years away. It's about fourteen thousand lightyears a cross twice that of the small metal cloud, which is located about two hundred thousand lie is from the Milky Way, by way of comparison. The Milky Way is about one hundred thousand lights across currently the two twelve galaxies separated by seventy five thousand lie is that what considered the closest galaxies to the Milky Way until the nineteen Ninety-four discovery of the secretaries twelve elliptical galaxy and then the two thousand and three confirmation that the. Candice Mejia, twelve galaxy is actually on their skull acting neighbout potential mass of the match on clouds is still uncertain any fractionally gas appeased of the stars. And they both probably have extremely lodge dot meta halos, one recent estimate places, the total mass massive, the lodge magical and cloud at about a tenth that of the Milky Way. The mental any clouds of both Bank rightly distorted by gravitational tidal interactions as they gradually being torn apart. Both Rosenhaus aims collisions with each other as well as possible food now absorbed, Melanie cloud and through gravitational directions with Milky Way as huge tidal. Forces have ten Beth matchel any clouds into irregular disrupted Bhatt spiral galaxies the lodge. Clouds, still retains a very close spiral structure in radio telescope images of neutral, hydrogen. But of course, gravity isn't a one way street with a combined gravitational force of Beth clouds also affecting. The Milky Way distorting the auto parts of the glaxy disk and streams of neutral, hydrogen gas, clouds and isolated stars connect birth twelve galaxies with each other. And also bridge the gap to the milky white self all providing clear examples of galactic cannibalism work. I'm Stewart Gary this space time. Russia has resumed launches of Soyuz rockets. So is to one bay launch vehicle is blasted into orbit carrying a Russian military spy satellite from the Plesetsk cosmodrome eight hundred kilometers north of Moscow. The return to flight status comes just weeks after also flats grounded that followed the failure during Santo orbit of Soyuz mission. Carrington you crew members for the international space station, the center board happened, just two minutes. After the launch of the soy's AMA stand from the bike in cosmodrome in the central Asian Republic of Kazakhstan, the emergency happened as the four strap on liquid fueled boosters were being jettisoned a minute and fifty eight seconds after launch as the boosters were flipping backwards in clear, the co stage in spectacular maneuver known as a coral of cross one of the is apparently failed to separate cleanly, resulting in the ultimate destruction of the Scillies f g. Launch vehicle. The soyuz. Capsule was quickly jettisoned landing in a high g ballistic descent hitting the grand least five times before coming to rest on that side. Some full hundred kilometers down range of the launchpad, a formal commission of inquiry by roscosmos -ly, Russian federal space agency traced the issue to a problem during the launch vehicles assembly phase at the biking cosmodrome the silliest to I'm Valence Fago which blasted off from possess uses the same coast stage and liquid fueled boosters, but a different other stage in guidance computer compared to the human rated, so he's Jalen vehicle used to the Soyuz. Amos ten flight the Soyuz to when Bela twin smoothly carrying the fourth. Lot us S one military electronic surveillance satellite into a nine hundred kilometer high orbit the six thousand kilogram rushing Lotte spy-satellites, I designed to Aves drop on ready at transmissions gathering intelligence for Moscow's military forces. Y'all listening space. Time. I'm Stewart Gary. Physicists have devote mathematical models describing the motion of dang mata- particles inside the smallest galaxy halos through the computer models. They observed that other time the dot matter may foams droplets of quantum condensate, the new model described in the journal physical review letters contradicts previous policies, which consider this impossible because they ignored fluctuations of the gravity field produced by particles. Scientists no matter exists because I can say it's gravitationally direction with normal matter. However, they have no idea what it is. Because it doesn't emit electromagnetic radiation. It's this property, which is die Mattis searches making it hot wave improve its existence. But there are some clues about that Matt is likely properties. For example. I think the spate of data particles is low which is why they're a ten by galaxies. Not only dot matter indirect. Very weakly with ordinary matter. But as far as we can tell it interacts, very weakly with at self. It's thought every galaxy is surrounded by dot Mattis shell or halo, which is far larger in size and mass than the galaxy. It surrounds most cosmologists believe dot Madame paddock would have a lodge mess and stay Spade should be high yet back in the nineteen eighties. It was realized that unspiritual conditions. These data paddock was may be produced in the universe with almost zero spayed regardless of their mass and rather than having a lodge mass. They could also be very light as a consequence the distances at which the quantum nature. They spotted goes becomes apparent could be huge instead of the nanometers scowls, which usually required to observe quantum phenomena in laboratories, the quantum scou- for such doc, Matt Apotex's may we'll be comparable to the size of the central part of that galaxy the research is observed that the data particles if they are on with sufficiently small mass could f-. Form buzz Arnstein condensate in a small galaxy halo or even smaller substructures, they gravitational interactions. They substructures could include highlights of twelve galaxies systems of several billion stars bound together by gravitational forces in many classes, very small systems formed only by that matter the bose-einstein condensate is a state of quantum particles in which they all occupy the lowest energy level. It's close to absolute zero and collections of atoms in this bose-einstein condensate show. Many of the properties of behaving is just a single gigantic. Atom does is condensates can be produced in the bar is at very low temperatures from ordinary atoms. This state of matter exhibits unique properties such as superfluity that he's the ability to pass through tiny cracks in capillaries with that friction. And according to the authors model light matter in galaxy with have lows spayed, and he concentration and under these canoes. It should eventually also foam up as Einstein condensate. But in order for this to happen dot Mana paddock was must interact with each other. And that's the point say far as we know they can only interact with each other gravitationally one of the study's authors Dmitri left cough from the Russian Academy of sciences sissies research, involved, computer, simulations, which involves simulating the motion of a quantum gas of light gravitationally, interacting dot matter. Particles lift coven colleagues started from visualize state with maximum mixing, which when you think about it's kind of opposite to the buzzer Stein condensate after very long period a hundred thousand times longer than the time they for paddock with across the simulation volume. The particles spontaneously formed a condensate which immediately shaped itself into spherical droplet, a Bose star under the effect of gravity. The all his concluded that bose-einstein condensate may form at the centers of halo two of galaxies in time shorter than the lifetime of the. Universe. So this means both us could populate them. Now. These computer simulations where the first share the formation of the Burs is dying condensate from hypothesized light dark matter. Previous simulations had the condensate already present in the initial state with the buzzed stars, then foaming from it. I called into one hypothesis the buzz condensate could have formed in the early universe long before the full mation of galaxy so many classes, of course, reliable evidence. This is currently lacking still it's worth considering because the authors hypothesizing that Burs stars could produce fast radio bursts that currently have a quantity of explanation. So what about the hypothetical light dot met a potty goals? Well, the hypothetical axiom could theoretically interact with electromagnetic fields, very weakly eventually decaying into radio photons, admittedly. This affect would be vanishingly small, but inside a Bose star may be reasonably ample. Fide? And so could lead to the generation of what we call a fast radio burst Montjeu. It is hypothetical. That's fun thinking about I'm Stewart, Gary this is space time. The time to visit Florida to get that floor of your dreams. For a limited time, we're offering special financing for eighteen months on purchases of ninety nine or more. Choose from the largest in stock selection at guaranteed, everyday, low prices, qualley floors, rock bottom, prices and credit offer to help you complete that project. Offer ends ten twenty one eighteen visit Florida court today or Florida core dot com. Professional financing available with Florida or credit card accounts, bike amenity capital Bank, which terminates qualifications for credit informational eligibility. Minimum monthly payments required and ton Natta, take a brief look at some of the other stories making these insights this week with a science report. And you study once that some weather conditions have been linked to an increased risk of heart attack. The findings reported in the journal of the American Medical Association based on data for more than two hundred and seventy four thousand patients have had heart attacks in Sweden researches found days with low a temperature low atmospheric pressure, high winds and showed a periods of sunshine. We're all says yet with an increase. Risk of heart attack with the greatest risk occurring. When the mic drop below zero degrees celsius. However, the researchers point out that absolute differences were modest and they done now have staying indoors and out of the code makes any sort of difference for an individual's risk. Marine apologists have discovered what still today the woods oldest intact. Shipwreck at the bottom of the black say the two thousand four hundred year old engine. Great trading vessel was found in more than two kilometers of water with original shape, still intact, complete with mass than Radha researches say ships designed at any previously being seen in modern times portrayed on Greek pottery vessels age was confirmed easing dating. It was found as part of the three survey of two thousand square kilometers of Sabit, which has far led to the discovery of more than sixty shipwrecks, including Roman trading ships and the seventeenth century cuscak rating flate, the preservation of many ancient shipwrecks on the floor of the black say is it result of the unusually low oxygen levels and the blacks as date waters allowing organic material such as would be preserved for many thousands of years. The Palestinian HAMAS terrorist organization, which controls the Gaza Strip has destroyed the for and a half thousand year old ancient candidate archaeological site leveling to the ground Kiala just began excavating Gaza's earliest site, nearly twenty years ago on what a piece to be Ray four thousand five hundred year old bronze age fortified settlement though centuries before for onic ruling agent. And at least a thousand years before the pyramids, then is tell us I can on the hill of ash. It was the largest candidates city between Palestine and agent. It was named after the lodge amount of ash found during the excavations which suggests the settlement had been bird either naturally or in a war, However, Gaza, some rulers of systematically plundered, and then destroyed the side flattening the hill on the southern tip of Gaza City to make way for new military bases for the terrorist organization. And you study claims the majority of straightens concerned about the federal government. Proposed new encryption legislation. The new bills designed to ensure a government and law enforcement as a back door to access encrypted data on cell phones. Computers and other storage devices. The legislation will be the first of its kind globally giving government. Unprecedented powers to order communications providers. Highway manufacturers telcos and technology companies to install develop a deception mechanisms without your knowledge and without authorization from judge that communications alliance lobby group claims surveys by rich toe show that eighty four point eight percent of people believe that anything the government does the combat crime should not create weaknesses in online security systems. And of seventy four percent of survey. What can send that the legislation could make data including people's health records, banking, data house and other personal information? Lists KUA with the data which by Alex Royd from IT wire, whether it's the vague ship incident in the US in the eighties when they will try to get ten crypts. Ship. Maybe the nineties governments of all political persuasions always seem to over reach their powers that want to be able to more easily catch criminals by denying the rights of everybody else. Whether it's dot legislation, whether it's installing some sort of censorship. Call woke both of those things tried in a strategy type. We we do have metadata being captured in a strategy of every fun call of every website that you visit. And we even have in New Zealand where if you don't hand under new laws, you'll pass what to you, find your computer? You can be fined five thousand dollars in his no need for them to be that you have to have a legitimate suspicion that just wanna grab your fine and demand that give the password, then if you can find you five thousand dollars now that's similar sorts of laws exists in the states. The Boorda's seemed to be a borderless Zayn where no your rights apply industry. The lightest is the government to wish to put a back. Go into encryption. And of course, doing that. If there's Bechtol for the good guys. It means the bad guys can find it, and then beg can be listened to what's going on. So we've got apple putting in seven page submission and the talking about this is no time to. Encryption is profound risk of criminals jobs, easy. Not Hotta increasingly strong. Not waking Christian is the best way to protect against these threats. As I say, I talk about how encryption simply meth any prices that weakens the mathematical models that protect us it out of anyone will buy extension weekend protections for everyone apple says, it will be wrong to waking security for millions of lower biding customers in order to investigate the very few who pose a threat things from Facebook's missoula's in Google's another when his show that are against this. But Apple's put down several of its concerns talk about how this Bill could allow the government to order. Mike is just to instill persistent eavesdropping capabilities into a person's high require a provided to monitor the health dot of its customers Vinnie tensions druggies required. The development of the tool that can look particularly uses device. Mcdonald's away the such tools could be used to unlock uses devices as well and didn't away have a book co nineteen ninety four. I didn't really have. He's inside a winning about the type, Ian futures that go completely wrong against people. You know, the loss of the amenities all about being trying to stop kings, and queens and leaders and dictators and despots tire. From loading the rest of us and. Scalded technological age and the tools of freedom now being used us. And it's a terrible thing, and we should be fighting against it to secure rights for privacy as I've mentioned on this program before model Reagan said liberty is not passed out through the bloodstream signed guys with privacy. He said liberty before full by every generation, and we cannot be the generation the last privacy slip through our fingers and tell our children what was once like to even world where you had privacy in that report by Alekseev ROY from IT wire. You're listening to space time. I'm Stewart, Gary, and that's the Shifu now you can subscribe and download space time as a free twice weekly podcast through apple podcast. I tunes stitch-up dot com. Puckett costs soundcloud YouTube audio boom from space time with Stewart Gary dot com, all from your favorite podcast. Download provider space times also broadcast coast to coast across the United States on science three sixty radio by the national side. Science Foundation in Washington D C and available around the world on shooting radio. If you want more space time channel blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well. As loads of images me stories, videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart, Gary dot tumbler dot com. That's all one would and in lower case. And that's tumbler without the you can also follow us on Twitter through at Stewart. Gary at space time with Stewart Gary on Instagram and on Facebook, just go to WWW dot Facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary space-time time brought to collaboration with Australian sky and telescope magazine, you'll window on the universe. You've been listening to space time to Gary this is being another quality podcast production from bites dot com. Choosing an energy company raises many questions plus elation can answer all of them with energy solutions, which needs energy efficient. 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Bennu's Rugged Surface
"This he space time series. Twenty two episode twenty nine for broadcast on the tenth of April. Twenty nineteen coming up on space time, the potentially deadly asteroid Banou proves to be far more difficult to study them. Previously thought the new study really are tiny black holes as a possible source of dark matter and Israel's Genesis spacecraft achieves lunar orbit insertion all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space tired. We'd Stewart Gary. Close up observations of the nearest asteroid Banou show it surface to be fi- rocky and rougher than expected. The findings reported in eight scientific papers in the journal nature show, the four hundred ninety two meter wide space rock which is a one in twenty seven hundred chance of hitting the earth is a far more challenging target and want mission managers had originally designed for the new data represents the first detailed close up observations gathered by Nassar's Assias Rick spacecraft since arriving at Banou in October last year, it confirms many of the measurements obtained by ground based observations. It shows a far more rugged boulder strewn surface than anyone had expected. Banou is also far more vary in brightness than expected prompting mission. Engineers and scientists to reevaluate some of the approaches designed around the mission's primary goal that of collecting samples of surface material or regular and returning it back to earth a Sarah Rix, principal investigator. Dante Lauretta from the university of Arizona says. New is clearly one of the darkest objects in the solar system with fire rougher than expected to rain mission managers originally developed their sampling strategy around what was not about Banou when the mission was designed they expected at least some relatively smooth patches of surface with gravel of the small pebbles covering open terrain stretching out over areas of at least fifty minutes cross plenty of room to ladder spacecraft. Instead, they're only really small number of open spaces devoid of large boulders and these tiny just five to twenty meters wide meeting. They'll pose a rule has it to the spacecraft when it touches down, for example collection. The high resolution images reveal a surface packed with more than two hundred Bodas lodge than ten minutes across and many more over meter wide, the largest of they've identified measured some fifty eight maters the observations also confirmed that the news one of the darkest objects in the solar system reflecting only four percent of all the sunlight that reaches it and it surface features. Also, very greatly from one area to another with respect to brightness. This high variability in reflected light not as beta represented challenge for the laser on the spacecraft's light off system designed to guide the sample acquisition approach. The survey also showed the asteroid is shaped like a spinning top. It's estimated to be between a hundred million and a billion years old of role. That means the asteroid's surface is much older than expected. But there's also evidence of some more recent activity there are high standing ridges running from the news north to south pole, and they appear to direct the flow surface. Material features such as the infiltrate lodge, craters fractured boulders and a deficiency in small impact. Craters all hint at a dynamic surface with ongoing changes Banou is what's considered to be an asteroid rubble pile with lots of void spaces inside up to sixty percent total porosity that it shapes to catch. It does have interior stiffness with enough into frictional. Occasion to allow the surface to crack the spectrum data confirm. It's been his classification as primitive carbonaceous, con dried. It also confirms the presence of lots of hydrated minerals. Ubiquitous across the surface of the asteroid. There's evidence for molecules that contain oxygen and hydrogen atoms bonded together. Not as high drizzles. These hydroxyl groups exists globally across the asteroid in Waterbury, and clay minerals. Meaning that at some point this rocky material interacted with water now while Banou itself is too small to over has liquid water. The findings do suggest that liquid water was present at some time on bananas parent body, which would have been the much larger asteroid from which Banou was broken off. Nasr? We mentioned the other way, but news rotational rate is accelerating steadily increasing it read about one second every hundred years, we think this is is something called the your perfect a phenomenon in which differences in reflectively in temperature across an asteroid surface results in faster spinning rate of a time which in some. Cases can ultimately lead to the asteroid breaking apart in a surprise. Find navigation Limoges taken by the space craft upon arrival of Banou show particles floating in the vicinity of the steroid possibly itsy-bitsy little moons, which will be investigated in more detail during the upcoming sample return site selection campaign. The Sarah's Rex is spending three years orbiting the asteroid altitudes down as low as five kilometres mapping bidders surface and geology studying civil Lucien, composition, chemistry and mineralogy. Knowing is physical properties will be crucial for scientists trying to determine the likelihood of this mountain sized asteroid slamming into the earth in July twenty twenty the Cyrus Rx will fly down on hovered, just above Banou surface extending a robotic arm and collecting up to two kilograms of pristine asteroid regular for sample return worth the spacecraft's slated to leave all but in March twenty twenty one with a sample return capsule being jettisoned for a parachute landing in the Utah. Desert. In September, twenty twenty three professor trivia island from the strain National University will analyze some of the samples once they returned to worth piece is the big question for him is whether the roughness in high number of boulders correspond with the agents surface plea with samples back in the lab island and colleagues will be able to determine the age of these surfaces by their solar wind and cosmic Ray exposure rates Ruge, we already saw a large boulders were very similar sort of morphology of of the punditry body. We saw about sign then some ways about is been on that really surprising. But it certainly brought high some of the aspects of sampling which hadn't been well had been considered. And I think it's just brought it home that. Yeah. These these bodies I won all sorts of things that every one of them sort of unique in a lot of its characteristics. So there's the surprises. There is the centrally some coarse grain material, but with seeing that before on both eat ago and ruger's. They'll get on. And do it. I'm sure we not a real problems on the end of it when I first so that's close up relatively close up views five kilometers away of the new surface. I was shocked just how rugged and how bold the packed. It really is. Yeah. So it looks like we're seeing more and more of these rebel pilots Royds, but the fun completely different from ADA cowards. The spinning top things I one of the really intriguing things it's going to be when we get the samples back is there going to be at least I was going to be a lot older than they wear on either collar, or are they going to be something completely different than we? We haven't seen before. And. Yeah, this is all of these things that happen in very short older in terms of ten million years or something like that. But I think that's going to be intriguing thing. My suspicion will be that review and Bennett will be quite a bit older than our and that's reflecting the time to create into these sort of spinning up shite. Now, you're gonna be getting some of these samples to have a close. Look at to me what your job will be. How do you go about investigating the the San? Was you you'll be getting so we're trying to match these asteroids up of meteorite from. So we know what the meteoroid roughly look like of these different types. And so we'll be looking to try and match what we think the asteroid is with the the meteorite. But then we're certainly I've been to surprised, and I'm sure we'll get someone when we get the samples back, and what process do you go through a you allowed to destroy the samples. Oh, I only ladder sort of look at them and drill. What you can from them know somebody samples we'll be destroyed. But there's a there's quite a an established protocol for how you go through maximize the benefit out of any grains, that we we get back and given the the blossom we had on it looks like we've got a good sample on Ruger and bat, December will be nine how we got on with spin on and see what comes back, and and what we can do with them. But we certainly don't need very much material. And you know, if you've half millimeter grinds will basically establish a lot of the history of these asteroids. That's what you could do with it Akao, wasn't it. That's right. So. Have those fifteen hundred grinds of the service material, and that certainly was very intriguing tens of having that surface characterized the interesting thing in comparison now that we're gonna take I sample which is from lodge substance. If we get grams of material they were lots of more of the inside of the of the asteroid that will be looking at. And then it'll be a question can we actually get surface material that we can use to tonight the the processes that are carrying on the surface of the asteroid when we look at the new it's got some looks like it's varied in age. It could that could well, and this is going to be the fun thing because we're not necessarily going to get multiple samples of the asteroid. So they'll be some decisions might as to the way we got when what we get certainly in the the bottom of the craters people have argued well, the should be youngest stuff because exposed fresh material down there. But a lot of the the goals of Nassir out of font. Follow the water inside, maybe the waters and concentrate. Getting a slightly different regime, but the overriding consideration intensive landing will be from the engineers to avoid anything, which can sort of destroy the mission and upset the spice craft. So they'll be taking Philly flat sort of rage, the asteroid, and we'll just take what we get over the three asteroids riot Itokawa. And now Banou do they all originate from different parts of spaces? I within the term indifferent distances that from the sun. Well, we're not sure just yet because we don't know exactly what you know, these are Rugen Begnaud about c type asteroids. And so we're not. Yeah. The same arguments now that these Maya formed on the other side of Jupiter. I'm not so sure about that. But certainly if I come from the outer asteroid belt and probably kind from that position into earth. And this must mean something which is disrupted them at some stage. So if they're rubble Paul's there's been a collision somewhere what we'd like to know is that disruption could and reassembly code in the asteroid belt or did it occur after the impact on some sort of crossing. All the or has the asteroid actually evolved into that will. But inside if we can get the dates of processes from the center for the asteroid, then we got a reasonable way of trying to constrain what's actually going on on that says, so this could help reinforce the grand tech theory. Good definitely do the grand tech. I think that's that will be one of the intriguing things is it's it's yeah. Some of these things have really difficult to die. So we we can Deitz probably the formation of the materials that have gone into Ben we can dight the last sort of exposure to solo and the question will be whether we can see some of those intermediate things which may have been related to the likes of grand tech disturbing reassembling the asteroid belt at that stage and sending stuff into with crossing asteroids. So one of the big questions will be as was disrupted. Very old age is being wasn't disrupted the younger age, and then reassembled, so hopefully, we can take some of those hypotheses out of these materials three point nine billion years being the guess. Yeah. That's right. So do we see three point nine Dugway? Visit trivia. Highland from the Austrian National University. And this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary. A new study is ruled out primordial black holes as a possible explanation for that mysterious substance known as matter primordial black holes at tiny hypothetical singularities less than a millimeter wide, which was thought to formed in the super-dense conditions of the very early universe over thirty and a half billion years ago together with a whole menagerie of potential hypothetical subatomic particles such as axioms and sterile neutrinos. Primordial black holes are among the most popular current ID's to try and explain doc matter scientists note that matters real because they can see it's a fix on normal matter it stops galaxies flying apart and makes up at least eighty five percent of all the matter in the universe. But at a invisible, and it only seems to act with normal Matic reputation Louis so finding out what dot matter is remains one of the biggest mysteries in science today. Scientists have used undergrad observatories. Detox. Studies of objects opening the halos of galaxies and experiments at the world's largest particle accelerators to try and uncover the secrets of Dak matter. Sadly, as yet, none of them have been successful, the try and resolve the issue, or at least take off a few more boxes at international team of researchers led by scientists from the cavalier institute have decided to consider more closely. Stephen Hawking's, nineteen seventy four theory on the existence of primordial black holes born shortly after the big bang, and he speculation that they could make up a large fraction of dark matter. The researchers used gravitational Lenzing to look for primordial black holes between earth and the Andromeda galaxy first proposed by Albert Einstein gravitational Lenzing occurs. When light from a background object such as a galaxy. Or a star is bent in Linz by the mess of a foreground object passing front of in extreme cases such light bending causes the background object to pay much brighter than it actually is however gravitational Lenzing. Effect are rare as they require the background in full objects to line up exactly with the observer to maximize the chances of capturing such an event researches use the hyper supreme Cam digital camera on the Subaru telescope why which can kept you all the Andromeda galaxy in a single shot taking into account half fast primordial black holes. If they exist are expected to move into stellar space, the authors talk marble images in order to be able to catch the flicker of stars it brightens period of just a few minutes to hours Judy gravitational Lenzing from one hundred ninety consecutive images to the Andromeda galaxy taking over seven hours during one clean the team scout that data for potential gravitational Lansing events. Now. If matter does consist of primordial black holes of given mess in this case, it messes lighter than the moon research is expected to find a better thousand events reporting in the journal nature astronomy, the authors claim that after careful analysis they can only identify one potential case modify. And now if this is correct, it means primordial black could contribute. No more than about zero point. One percent of all the data mess in the universe. The authors speculate this hypothesis is unlikely to be correct. I'm Stewart Gary you'll listen to space time. Newly processed close up images of five of sentence moons show the being curtained with ice particles dust and debris from the planet's ring system and from its Eisman and syllabus. Yup. Survey Sion's reported in the journal science based on data gathered back in twenty seventeen during some of the closest fly bys carried out by Nassar's Cassini spacecraft. The study's lead scientists bunny Barati from this as Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. She's the daring close fly by of these odd. Little moons has allowed scientists to peer into how they direct with sentence rings showing how extremely active dynamic the Cetinje and ring and moon system. Really is scientists also found that the moon's surface is a highly porous further confirming that they were formed in multiple stages as ring material settled on the denser 'cause that may be the remnants of a larger object that had broken a pound. The porosity also helps explain the shape rather than being very cool. They're all sort of blob, your Revie only like. With material stuck around their quotas. These tiny moons skipping pilots of ice and dust from the rings north at the foam little skirts, rather acquaintances at Denson body would have more mass and hence be self gravitating. Oh woods mall. Bowl-shaped of the satellite. Studied the surfaces of those closest the satin deafness in pan with the most altered by ring. Material the surfaces of the moons. Atlas permit Yasin Pandora further add from certain of ring material as well. But the Rosa coded with Brian icy particles in water, vapor from the plumes spraying out of and syllabus, a broader outer ring of satin known as the ring is in fact foam by the icy material that fans out from the instability and plumes the capex will pay a data from cassini's, visible and infrared mapping spectrometer. It was the first time that Cassini was close enough to create a spectrum of the surface of the innermost moon pan by analyzing the spectrum, astronomers rebel to learn more about the composition of the materials on all five of the moons. The ring moons closest the set and p of the reddest similar in color to the main rings, scientists believe the readiness is caused by a mixture of organic compounds and I on on the other hand the moon's just outside the main rings, a p more bluish in color similar to the light from Enceladus as I see plumes after a journey lasting some thirteen years. The Cassini mission finally came to an end in September twenty seventeen with the spacecraft low on fuel mission managers deliberately plunge Cassini. Inter sans atmosphere rather than risk crashing with spacecraft into one of the planets moons and contaminating that moon with microbes this space time. I'm Stewart Gary. Israel's sheet will Genesis spacecraft successfully entered lunar orbit and he's now expected to touch down on the surface of the moon on April the eleventh of traveling more than five point five million kilometres in opening the earth, some twelve times Genesis successfully carried out its complex lunar orbit entry maneuver and the taking seventy two second engine burn to slow down and allow the moon's gravity to capture the spacecraft and place it into lunar orbit. The maneuver put Genesis into an elliptical orbit around the moon ranging from five hundred to ten thousand kilometers above the lunar surface mission managers then began shares of engine burns designed to circularize the flight path into a two hundred kilometer high secular orbit in preparation for the set and landing now safely circling the moon Israel, aerospace industries space division, general manager of adorn says if all goes to plan Israel will become only the fourth nation on earth. After the survey union, the United States and China to land on the lunar surface. Glenn name. Eagle from this deep space communications complex Tidbinbilla knee camera says, the deep space network has been assisting mission managers until Aviv through every aspect of the mission. Genesis in the beginning, this is a mission that the database network is supporting we've two I communications up linking any commands that they spice I team require. And of course, getting valuable data back, including all being well, the successful landing the spacecraft. Do we know yet exactly whether or not the lunar reconnaissance over the will be positioned to monitor the landings that was one of the big hubs that we may be to get the L arrow to actually watches the Israeli spacecraft touches down. It all comes down to timing. Of course, essential bet on a show that they can continue to do its regular up so big. But if all goes, well, depending on the timing of the landing then it's possible that an image could be captured. This is just a big mission for these railways is also this sort of mission financer as will some laser retro reflectors will be placed on the lunar surface for a future moon. Navigate. System. Yes. So there's two very interesting experiments on board the space craft the magnets over to look at a bit more about that magnetic fields of the moon. Some things we still don't understand there. And instead of laser reflectors, which has decided we'll be used by future mission as a navigational target there in the CU serenity so valuable to guide future missions. And that's especially important now with the eighty from Washington that we want Merican boots back on the moon within five years. There's a lot of excitement about a return to than than anybody NASA. But of course, many nations, and of course, now private companies getting involved in this. And that's it has my nose ticket over the last few years trying to build a coalition of countries and companies to Davos to get Hyun feedback on the surface of the moon as soon as possible, and that includes the gateway project, the next big space station being built by Nassar and the European Space Agency and possibly also Russia's will. Yeah. So the little gateway is an orbiting station around the moon appoint where we go talk to use that as a staging. Point to send missions down of the surface and return back to Luna, Royal. But and even the trial has a good opportunity to roll there, particularly in the area of robotics. The Canadians are going to supply robot arm, but there's other types robotics outside and inside the space craft this right has a good nation that we can actually fulfil any Thomas was talking about that. Even when the international space station was still being put together. And he said, it was a shame that Australia didn't at least have a a scientific desktop there or something that was part of the research the big advantage that we have now as a country is that we now have an active spice agency, which is continuing to help open markets up to an ever growing industry, which will develop even more double triple in size over the next decade. And I think we'll see a bit more of a stone work there in orbit around the earth and then journey further to the moon, and perhaps even tomorrow at school in Nagel from this space communications conflicts in camera the fun hundred eighty five kilogram. Genesis spacecraft was blasted into orbit Beck on February twenty-second aboard space. Falcon nine rocket from space launch complex forty at the Cape Canaveral air force station in Florida once in orbit. Genesis flightpath was designed to progressively increase. It's overlapping Geel furthest distance from the earth until it's over. It was so large it also encompassed the moon. This maneuver known as orbital raising is become the preferred method of reaching them in for robotic missions that because it uses foulest field on the motoric that transformative, but there is a downside taking some seven weeks to complete rather than just three days. The spacecraft will land on the mine racer and tatters save serenity a six hundred seventy four kilometer wide dot basaltic lava plain just east of the Mari embryo once on the lunar surface. Genesis will send back images and use its magnetometer to study the Luna magnetic field in order to help scientists bedroom understand how the moon formed and cooled as well as it scientific payload Genesis is also carrying digital time capsule known as the arch Luna library, which contains over thirty. Million pages of data there. Millions of documents from around the world, including dictionaries and encyclopedias a full copy of the English language. Wikipedia a copy of the day Christian bible, examples of fine, literature and art as well as children's drawings. The memories of a holocaust survivor Israel's national anthem, they take fat. And he's rarely flag and a copy of these rally declaration of independence. I'm Stewart, Gary they should space time. Easy lose electron rocket is carried at its first flight for the year. The United States defense department research satellite into war, but the mission blasted off often spectacular fashion from rocket labs. Mahia peninsula launch complex unusual North Island east coast in nine eight save him sex. Or three. Stage. One propulsion nominal. Petrova? We have had successful lift-off mission on electron coming up soon. Electron would go through a series of mission milestones in quick succession, including main engine cutoff or Meco for the nine Rutherford engines on electrons first stage will shut down shortly after this. We'll see stage. One separation followed by mission of the vacuum. Optimized and Rutherford engine on electrons second-stage following second-stage ignition electrons fearing will separate revealing the payload in preparation for deployment approximately fifty minutes from now next cue stitch one propulsion still nominal. Hey, it was Chatham station. Khow. Yatra successful engines, throttled them twenty seconds remaining he draped in at the tick mode stage. One make a stitch suppression succeeded. On stage. Two propulsion his nominal run down the sideline fearing jettison. And now you have it confirmation. In electrons, main engines have shut down as planned we've had stage one separation and the stage to engine has successfully ignited electron is now carrying onto orbit speed is three kilometers positions. We'll two hundred and fifty kilometers de promotion still nominal eating down and says no one of the unique features about electron is it's Rutherford engine. These brushless DC motor engines are powered by lithium polymer batteries in a few moments will be performing a battery hot swap where we switch from two depleted batteries to third fully charged battery shortly. We'll see the depleted batteries Jetsons to Lao for a more efficient flight to orbit successfully. Safe gate, h feed entry hall. Swap jinked itchy promotion. Still nominal entering stage. Too. Good not to take mode successful transfer and stretch suppression. All right. You heard the call the kick stage has now separated from electrons second-stage approximately forty minutes from now the Curie engine on the kick. Stage will ignite and circularize to a four hundred twenty five kilometer orbit for payload deployment the launch had been delayed by a month ju initially to the late arrival of the satellite payload. But then there were problems with an unbought video transmitter that will wither issues and problems with getting flight launch windows. The defense advanced research projects agency DARPA frequency risk reduction. Deployment demonstration satellite was placed into a four hundred and twenty five kilometer high orbit. The one hundred fifty kilogram payload was the top end of the two stage. Electron rocket's launch mass capability and required. A third kick modus stage to place the satellite into its exact orbit. The satellite was designed to test new technologies for deployable antennas using tissue thin, captain membrane foldable antenna designed to unfurl and expand at two point two five meters in Amador, this would eventually allow the use of smaller satellites, but ones which would still be out of support. High bandwidth communications the flight marks the start of what's going to be a busy launch manifest for rock. Labs and their electron launch vehicle with some twelve mission slated for this year company plans alone to roughly every two weeks both from New Zealand and eventually from the new launch complex now to construction at necessary Wallops island, flat facility on the Virginia. Mid atlantic. Coast company says it's now building its electron rockets at a rate of one per week. And it's devote the stockpile of one hundred and seventeen launch vehicles in various stages of completion. Neces- says India's anti-satellite missile-tests last week is now created a cloud of over four hundred pieces of debris, which he slowly spreading around the planet, some three hundred kilometers above the ground. The American space agency's administrator, Jim Brian Steen says that brief who was a terrible thing, which is placing the international space station. It's crew at risk. The test involves the ground-launched missile slamming into an opening satellite believed to be the seven hundred forty kilogram Indian Space Research organizations Micra set on which was launched back in January the United States if for space command began tracking more than two hundred and seventeen you objects larger than ten centimeters in size shortly after the impact in the area with the collision occurred, and as the clouds spread out that's grown to more than four hundred paces India's ministry for foreign affairs. Claim the test was conducted at the low of three hundred kilometer high altitude not to ensure that atmospheric drag would cause rapid orbital decay with most of the Bree reentering the atmosphere and burning up. Within a few weeks to months, but it seems the Bree in shrapnel from the blast with flung will above the impact zone with at least twenty four pieces launch enough to be tracked, Richie and orbital altitude apogee above the four hundred kilometer high orbit of the international space station. Broadened Steve described the test is not being compatible with the future human spaceflight. He says the test is increase the risk of debris hitting the space station by forty four percent. We know that we have identified four hundred pieces of orbital debris from that one event. We know that twenty four of them are going above the apogee of the international space station. That is a terrible terrible thing to create an event that sends debris in an apogee. That goes above the international space station while the risk went up. Forty four percent. Our astronauts are still safe. The international space station is still safe. If we need to maneuver it. We will the probability of that. I think is low United States to teach space. Command is currently tracking more than eighteen thousand out official objects in over the of the earth of these. Only around sixteen hundred or operational satellites the rest of the dish used spacecraft and spent rocket stages, but these are only objects lounge enough to be trek from the ground cowardice, the mid suggests the remote the nine hundred fifty thousand bits of space Jenkins centimeter larger in size at a staggering one hundred and seventy million bits of debris centimeter smaller. Currently opening the earth one of the big fees. Cascade events by bits of space junk, slamming, the set, let's creating more debris which van slammed into other spacecraft, creating even more the brands so on about a third of all the debris. Caroline all of. It was coolest by Beijing. Back in two thousand and seven when China conducted an anti satellite missile test, using a de of Twenty-one ballistic missile to deliberately blow up in destroy an old Chinese weather satellite. The event remains the largest recorded creation of space debris in history. With will have a two thousand paces of trackable size the Bree recorded in the aftermath of the blast. The impact also created hundreds. Of thousands of bits of debris shrapnel to smell the be tract which obeyed slowly spreading out forming a deadly cloud, traveling around the at twenty eight thousand kilometers an hour one of this debris clouds first victims was a Russian laser ranging satellite which struck and badly damaged back in twenty fifteen. And Tom that it'd take a brief look at some of the other stories making these insides this week with a science report. A new study has found that one in five deaths globally. That's eleven million people is associated with poor died. The findings reported in the Lancet medical journal determined that cardiovascular disease was the biggest contributor followed by Kansas and type two diabetes, the largest shortfalls in global consumption. We're same foods such as nuts and seeds milk and whole grains, while sugary drinks process. Maiden sooty would being of Rayton the largest number of diet related death associated with eating too much, sodium, not enough whole grains and not enough fruits out of all one hundred ninety five countries. The proportion of diet related death was lowest in Israel and highest in the spec. Eckstein United Kingdom ready. Twenty third the United States forty third China one hundred and fortieth and India one hundred and eighteenth. New research has confirmed. Dramatic crashes in Cairo population numbers falling mass bleaching events in the Great Barrier. Raping twenty six and twenty seventeen the findings reported in the journal nature show a ninety percent drop in the number of new Carl settling on the Rafe compared to historical levels. The study also found that the mix of baby Carl's had shifted which will also impact recovery. The researchers say it's still uncertain as to what extent the reef will be able to recover from this type of collapse, especially given the projected increase in the frequency of extreme climatic events as a result of global warming. And you report warns that Iran is increasing its rate of cyberattacks on K targets of Britain's national infrastructure. Cybersecurity experts say Tehran's attacks have compromised targets ranging from Britain's parliamentary network to private sick to companies such as banks. The report says the attacks which included compromise data on numerous Ps and members of parliament with carried out by cover agency within these limit republics revolutionary, God still in the Middle East and Kiala gist of uncovered a two thousand six hundred year old ceiling pression and stamp dating back to the time of the first temple in Jerusalem. The artifacts. Featured the Hebrew words belonging to knife and Mila seven with the king. The name Nathan Milic a piece in the second book of kings, twenty three eleven where he was described as an official in the court of the Judean king just say he said we've been involved in the religious reforms, which the king was implementing Tiverton the children of Israel to traditional Jewish teachings the title seven to the. At pays biblical texts that on staff and seal impressions to inscribe. A high ranking official close to the king. Well, it seems GPS systems have justified their own version of the white Tocchet bug. The problem involved the time stamping signals GPS systems used to determine location these count wakes and seconds in the week oldest systems use a ten digit field topping out at one thousand and twenty four weeks making April the six twenty nineteen that GPS version of Y two K once this ten digit field fills up the vices would reset to zero potentially causing problems with older GPS units. The same problem also happened on August, the twenty first nineteen ninety nine when GPS count is reset. But back then there was little disruption as satellite navigation wasn't anywhere. Nearly as widely used as what it is today. The good news is that most of us is manufactured after twenty ten a design with a thirteen digit counter. So at any age the role of a once every one hundred and fifty seven years the Y two K millennium bug related to the full meeting and storage of candidate. If a dates beginning in the two thousand the problem centered around. All the programs that used the numerical chronology system in which is only represented by the last two digits making the two thousand indistinguishable from the nineteen hundred that were fees. The issue could cause various eras stemming from the incorrect display of dates and consequential inaccurate ordering of automated data records or real time events programs were involved in a global effort to prepare for an ultimately successfully resolve the issue. Kennan is always known today. Pits recognize Kate woods, such as the name will the cool to dinner when it's bath time, but up until now there's always been that question of whether that's real or whether it's just some anthropomorphic trait that owners give the ferry babies, but now scientists have confirmed that kitty cats duchess respond to the sound of a can of food being opened. They also really do recognize their own individual names research is in Japan, tested, seventy eight cats from households and from a cat cafe by saying for different words, followed by the cat's name, the responses ranging from moving there res heads towels vocalizing indicated the felines distinguish their own names from general nouns, even when these woods had similar sounds to their names when an unfamiliar person was speaking them, you can read the findings in Dato in the general scientific reports. You're listening to space time. I'm Stewart, Gary, and that's the show finale how you can subscribe and download space time is a free twice weekly. Podcast through apple podcast, I tunes Stitcher butts dot com Pucca costs soundcloud, YouTube audio boom from space time with Stewart Gary dot com. Oh from your favorite podcast. Download provider space times also broadcast coast to coast across the United States on side three sixty radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and available around the world on tune in radio. If you want more space time checking our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images me stories, videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary dot tumbler dot com, that's all one word and in lower case. And that's tumbler without the you can also follow us on Twitter at through at Stewart. Gary at space time with Stewart Gary on Instagram and on Facebook, just go to WWW dot Facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary space-time is brought to in collaboration with Australian sky and telescope magazine, you'll window on the universe. You've been listening to space time. With Stewart, Gary this has been another quality podcast production from bites dot com.
26: Could Mysterious Fast Radio Bursts be Magnetars?
"This is space time series twenty to twenty six for broadcast on the twenty ninth of March. Twenty nineteen coming up on space time could mysterious fast radio bursts, be magnetized earth's biggest Beatty or blast since the twenty thirteen children linski event and Genesis grabs the moon all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. The strongest of discovered a hobby. Magnetic neutrons stock owed magneto, which appears to have a lot of the characteristics of those mysterious Haina, gee, pulses known as fast radio bursts Mitterrand stars created when very massive stars far larger than the sun reached the end of their lives and exploded powerful events known as core collapse. Supernovae what's left behind is a highly compacted super-dense Diller corpse so tightly squashed that. All the positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons. A literally crushed together deform neutrons and the staff name, although only a dozen or so kilometers wide. Neutron stars are the densest objects in the universe. Other than black holes. Fast radio bursts, and mysterious southern high-energy flashes at very specific wavelength lasting just nanoseconds and originating cosmic distances most a singular events occurring just once. A specific location in space, and then never again that suggests that probably caused by some sort of cataclysmic events such as supernova the problem is there have been several fast radio bursts, which of repeated and these appear to originate from the of the centers of galaxies and the speculation suggests they caused by the supermassive black holes that reside. They now scientists with Caltech unnecess- propulsion laboratory in Pasadena, California, have analyzed fast radio bursts, like pulses coming from what a piece to be a magnetized located near the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. Galaxy one of the study's authors Aaron polman from Caltech says these observations are showing that radio magnetized candidate pulses with the same characteristics. As those seen in some fast radio. Bursts, the authors was studying a magnitude nine psi J seventeen forty five minus twenty nine hundred. It's located and he said, you Terry's ace town supermassive black hole the centerback galaxy some. Thousand six thousand light years away with a mess of some four point three million times that if the sun Pierce, I j seventeen forty five minus twenty nine hundred was initially spotted by NASA swift x Ray space telescope. It was later determined to be magnetized by his new style or nucleus. Spectroscopy telescope array spacecraft that was in twenty thirteen magnetized arrays sub type of group as Paul size is intern rapidly spinning neutron stars magnetized thought to be very young pulsars, which is spending more slowly than ordinary pulsars and have much stronger magnetic fields which suggests that baps old Paul south go through a magneto like face during their lifetime Pierce. I j seventeen forty five minus twenty nine hundred is the closest known pulsar to the Sipa messy Blackhall the center of the galaxy separated by distance of just zero point three ly is. And it's the only pulse are known to be gravitationally bound to the black all and the environment around it all of this is allowed. Scientists to use this magneto help probe the conditions and environment need milky ship. A massive black hole. In addition to discovering similarities between the galactic centre magnetized and some fast radio. Bursts the authors. Also, glean you details about the magnetized radio pulses using one of Nasser's deep space networks largest radio antennas located at Tidbinbilla ni camera in Australia. Scientists analyze the individual pulses admitted by the star everytime. Rotated a fate. That's actually pretty rare in radio. Studies of pulse is they found that some pulses stretched or broadened by a ladder mouth. And what was predicted when compared to previous measurements of the magnetized average pass behavior. Furthermore, the behavior varied from pulse. The pulse. Speaking of the two hundred and thirty third meeting of the American astronaut Michael society in Washington. Pullman says he was seeing these changes in the individual components of each pulse on very fast timescales, and the behavior is really unusual for magnetized. The radio components separated by only thirty milliseconds on average now one theory to try and explain the single variability involves clumps of plasma movie. At high speeds near the magneto, permanent colleagues suggested the movement of these comps could be the actual cause of the observed signal variability another theory proposes that instead of something happening to the magnitude the very ability is intrinsic to the magnetized at self. Pullman says understanding the signal variability will help future studies of both magnetising pulsars at the center of the galaxy Tolman and his colleagues are also hoping to use the deep space network dish to solve another outstanding pulsar mystery. Namely, why there are so few pulsars near the galactic center. Their goal is the find the non magnetized Palsa neither galactic setup black hole. Pullman says finding a stable pulsar and at close gravitationally bound. Oh, but with secretary say star could prove to be the holy grail fisting theories on gravity if they find one they'll be able to do all sorts of unprecedented tests of. Johnston's general theory of relativity, I'm Stewart, Gary you're listening to space time. Okay. Let's take a break from our show to talk about. I knew sponsor Kiwi. Co Kiwi creates really super coup hands on projects for kids that make learning about steam fun. That's right. Steam, not stem science technology, engineering and maths with a key weeK' subscription each month. Your kids will receive a fun engaging you project, which will help them the Philip creativity and confidence, and of course, they great fun for kids at heart too. You know, there's really no better quality time. You can have and working with your kids putting together a Kiwi project. They memories your kids going to Kate forever. And these projects that designed to spark creativity tinkering and learning and kids of all ages from not sixteen plus all projects are rigorously tested by kids before distribution, and every credit includes all the supplies needed for that month's project. 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That's Waco dot com slash space time. And now it's back to our show. Space time with Stewart, Gary. The speed hit by its biggest Meteo blast since the twenty thirteen showing you blink event in Russia. The Meteo Eberstadt of the Bering say late last year in a sparsely populated region of the east coast of Russia's Kamchatka peninsula. The December eighteen events being described as a large fiber, all that's the term. Astronomers use for exceptionally bright meteors visible over wide area the meteoroid exploded as it slammed into the figure atmosphere about twenty six kilometers above the planet surface. The explosion unleashed an estimated one hundred and seventy three kilotonnes of energy. That's more than ten times as powerful as the bomb dropped on Russia to help end. We'll would to military satellites designed to look for nuclear explosions picked up the blast as did more than sixteen interest down detectors around the globe to Nassar instruments aboard the terra satellite as well. As senses about Japan's him Warri with a satellite, which is partially funded by strays bureau of meteorology also captured images of the blast Nassar's image. Quences show views from five of the nine cameras on the multi angle imaging spectral radiometer the instrument took the shots. Twenty three fifty five Greenwich Mean Time just moments after the event Botha terra an him away. Images showed the media is trail through its atmosphere casting a shadow on the cloud tops elongated by the low angle of the sun. They also show an orange tinted cloud of smoke left behind by the Meteo as it is the air as it was passing through fiber events are actually fairly common and they recorded the NASA center for near earth objects studies database to find out more entry Dongli speaking with astronomy. Dr frit Watson that explosion in December. What what happen? They went bang short. Did thing. That's how we know about actually quite writes. This is an event that took place on the eighteenth of December. But as really only only hit the headlines within the last few days. So where are we exactly three months down the track? And the main reason why that is the case is because nobody saw it. Oscillated part of the world is try. So this was over the Bering seas have placed coal, the Kamchatka peninsula, which is possible. Russia an very uninhibited parts of the world. Let's face it. If I saw it. They wouldn't old anyone anyone who knows they might. They might have wanted to keep it to themselves. Shrines eights an event that we now know was comparable, although less intense than the chilly bins. They -til that was an object that entered this atmosphere above the city of Chelyabinsk in the euro mountains also in Russia back in two thousand and thirteen and it calls the next blow Shen, which if I remember, right? It was a quivalent of full hundred fifty thousand tonnes off TNT. It was many times he Rocha nuclear explosion. And it was caused by an object about thirty made. His in diamonds hitting the atmosphere something like twenty kilometers per second. It blew up in the morning sky above Chelyabinsk and. And created a flash those times brighter than the sun, which everybody rushed to their windows to see what had happened in eighty eight seconds later, the blast way the ground smashed all the windows, and many many people wound up in hospital something like twelve hundred. I think is events. I have you know, I take back. What I said about the Russians because I've never seen Moore footage of one of any mile. Exactly on the bull shrines all dash Cam footage. Yes. It's the last big what you might call a Super Bowl. I that's the technical term for this as Super Bowl. I'd where something hits the atmosphere and explodes like that very big one. And clearly very significant unease is actually very fortunate that nobody lost their life in that because you know, walls went blown down and things of that sort. So this event as I said, it's comparable. It was probably about half the impact of the Chelyabinsk lung. The explosion is being categorized at about one hundred seventy three thousand tons of TNT still. Ten times the Russia nuclear weapon, but that means it is really less than half the wall the entered over Chelyabinsk still big explosion. Yeah. How do we know it happened? If nobody saw it and the answer is because the world is festooned with what it called infra sound detectives, these detectors, the pickup sound waves, which are the much much lower frequency than we can here, but actually permeates through the atmosphere, and in the case of the Chelyabinsk, given the infra sound went twice around the world, and the sort of reverberated for most of the rest of the day, and it was picked up by twenty infra sand. Malaita 's it was the biggest in percents signal that ever been detected. Now, this one is not as big as that one the Bering strait explosion. But it was the infra sound that actually revealed its existence on that was then followed up by sort of a few space enthusiasts one of whom picked. Up an image of it entering the atmosphere. There is a basically the explosion can be seen on an image from a Japanese weather satellites, which sit sat in June stationary orbit over the part of the world, the Japanese weather satellite recording the surface of the earth and the cloud cover and all of the rest of it. It was actually a matriarchial gist who trolled through the data from the Hema Awari eight satellite is the one that it came from and this run by the Japan. Meteorological agency, Simon proud, he's a major Logist and actually a works at the university of Oxford. So he did have the resources necessary to do that. But he did find an image from the satellite that shows a nearly vertical sort of orange streak and that's ties him with the infra sound measurements. Which suggests that this thing came in almost vertically an angle probably about seventy degrees to the bones Ecolab. That's that's pretty. Sleep. So yet. Hey, this broad saw basically. Yeah, that's right. And something like ten meters across a massive about fourteen hundred tons and they explosion as I've said was picked up by these various interest detectors. So really, quite an extraordinary thing. If you look at the Abbas of these small, asteroids, I guess he's what you call them. A few Mehta's across over the last hundred years have been three of them. One was the Tunguska event in one thousand nine hundred eight than there was a Chelyabinsk won the Tunguska was far more powerful in any of the other two that professor Fred Watson and astronomy with department of science speaking with Andrew Dunkley on our sister program space nuts, and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary. Israel's first mission to land on the moon's continuing normally despite an early glitch with the spacecraft's navigation system, these she caused an involuntary reboot and delay the plan for minute engine burned by two days. I should manage with space. I l sales systems are operating normally and the mission is continuing as planned down from came space. I l here I'm sending in Israel, and I'm really excited to tell you all about the important maneuver does. We just had an wise was it so difficult so we launched the spacecraft into orbit, and we say we shared a ride with an under satellites so that means we're not introductory to moon yet we have to do orbit correction maneuvers in order to get to the moon. And this is something expected longtime ago, the problem with making over correction maneuvers is because we had some sort of an issue with the Star Trek her, and that was not feel that we can actually do this. And that was a huge success. And I want to take you back until. About why was difficult in? What's so hard about it? So first Star Trek or is a type of a camera just like the one you have in your phone in. It takes pictures of the stars. And this is how we know where we aiming where the engine goes. And where should we fire? The problem is like cameras if you should them towards the sun, they get blinded. So we have some sort of a visor that's supposed to help it from happening. But some something went wrong. We're still not sure why. And we get blinded in angles if we didn't expect so the sophisticated engineers in the team worked actually all night trying to figure out an angle or configuration that will make it all work, and we can actually make them nervous. Because if the Star Trek or is blind. We don't know where the engine is aiming and there's a real risk of losing space go so they worked on light. And the uploaded a command I was talking to the near the OR, and she was about to upload the command. And you know, I asked her like what does he feel and she told me, you know, it's not big deal. We practice it a lot. But still there was a lot of tension in the control room. Mm-hmm. And we all waited for this critical moment, and that was a huge success, and the indie maneuver was corrected a very nicely, and we're now in orbit they're going to be another correction maneuver that's going to be ten times longer. So it's actually a lot more risk. So we're still holding our fingers for successful maneuver correction. Thank you so much. If successful Israel will become only the fourth nation on earth after the Soviet Union, the United States and China to undertake three hundred eighty four thousand kilometer journey to land on the lunar surface. The mission also comes fifty years after America's historic Apollo eleven lunar Lander when Neil Armstrong, and Buzz Aldrin, became the first men to welcome the moon is rose. Genesis luna. Landa blasted into orbit on. February the twenty second about a SpaceX falcon nine rocket from space lowest complex, forty the Cape Canaveral air force station in Florida, the five hundred eighty five kilogram. Genesis will bash sheet and Haber was successfully deployed into orbit thirty five minutes after launch igniting its own. On bowed, rocket engines for the first of several times to progressively increase its OPEL apogee furthest distance from the earth until the already so lodge. It also encompasses the moon using this process, and that is over the raising instead of a more direct Luna transfer maneuver has become the preferred method of rigging the moon for a Budig missions, which aren't time-sensitive. That's because it uses lists feel. But of course, as I said, it's not time sensitive takes about seven weeks rather than just three days. Once it gets there. The spacecraft will undertake a lunar open insertion maneuver eventually going to orbit around the moon for up to a month before landing on the marae Sereni Tatas or sea of serenity a six hundred seventy four kilometer wide dot basaltic. Luna basin just east of the Mara emblem once on the lunar surface. Genesis will send back video and images and use its magnetometer to study the Luna magnetic field to help scientists better understand how the men formed involved Elorza deploy a laser retro. Reflector array on the lunar surface Vanessa as part of a new Luna base navigation system, it's hoped necessary lunar reconnaissance Ota will be positioned to document the spacecraft's the Centene landing on the moon surface. And this is the space communications network is providing telemetry and communications for mission manages in Tel-Aviv as well as its primary scientific payload Genesis is also carrying digital time capsule. None as the odds library, which contains over thirty million pages of data millions of documents from around the world, including dictionaries and encyclopedias a full copy of the English language. Wikipedia a copy of the day a Christian bible examples of fine, literature and art as well. As children's drawings memories of holocaust survivor, Israel's national anthem they had take an Israeli flag and a copy of these rally declaration of independence. You're listening to space time. I'm Stewart Gary. And time that it take another brief look at some of the other stories making using science this week with a science report. And you study has found that can cheating even moderate amounts of high fructose corn syrup, a common ingredient in sugary drinks, and Hance intestinal cancer tumor growth, a report of the journal science claims previous researches suggested that high fructose corn syrup could contribute to cancer because it causes a basically, and it increases cancer risk that the new work suggests that high fructose corn syrup increased Jim McGrath independently of base ity, that's because the tomb is converted directly into substances that help them grow. And you study claims alcohol isn't just bad for drinkers. But also for the people around them a report of the journal BMC medicine claims most research into alcohol associated homes focused on the harm to the trinket, not others. So the authors of the new study estimated the homes coups to others by alcohol jury pregnancy in road, traffic accidents, and as result of interpersonal violence, they found alcohol was responsible for forty five point one percent of third party road, traffic deaths. Fourteen point nine percent of interpersonal violence related death, and almost sixteen thousand cases of fatal alcohol syndrome and fatal alcohol spectrum disorders. The researchers say the findings highlight the need to consider the biggest story ran alcohol, not just individual health. Well, I guess it's fair to say we all enjoy a little bit of catch time after a hard day at work. But no, the should say that all that. Excess time lounging around is linked to around fifty thousand per year in the United Kingdom as well. As putting a huge drain on the UK's national health service. A report in the journal epidemiology and community health found that a third of adults in the UK spend at least six hours sitting down during the week and that number increases of the weekend. Sitting Terry behavior is previously been linked to increased risk of heart disease type two diabetes cancer and death from causes. There are new warnings out today that if the current rate of you legal deforestation in Brazil continues it could increase the land surface temperature up to one point four five degrees celsius in some areas by twenty fifty the report in the journal, plus one is based on data modeled on how land surface temperature changes when far secluded it looks at the amount of sunlight reflected off the earth and the amount of water vapor released from plant into the atmosphere. Researchers say that in tropical forest such as in Brazil, clearing causes a local warming while planning has a cooling effect. Technology developed by the university of South Wales could provide it environmentally friendly cost effective method of sterilizing water than you. Take -nology bubbles on pressurized cabin dioxide through wastewater in a bubble column. Thickly inactivating both bacteria and viruses or such as say, then you take -nology is capable of sterilising water with hot CO two which considerably reduces energy requirements when compared to bowling border as hating guesses much more efficient than hating water. And you study suggests that rogue waves are occurring less often. But becoming more extreme the findings published in the journal scientific reports based on long-term dead from a wide expanse of ocean to investigate how these rare and expected in hazardous ocean phenomena behave waves the classified as rogues when they're over twice the height of the average C stat around them from trough to peak past observations of put some rogues at other thirty medicine. Hide the faces the capable of damaging or even. Sinking ships and on occasions of swift people off the shoreline out to see the data came from fifteen billion which provided surface information long, the US western seaboard, stretching from Seattle in the north data San Diego in the south the data showed that it is of rogue waves across the two decade when the Phil slightly, but also showed that rogue wave size increased scientists also found that rogue waves the more prevalent and of greater severity during winter months. Any trading -ly a happening with increasing frequency during Cama background sees. A new study is confirmed the famous dunning Kruger affecting action. It's found that the most extreme opponents of genetically modified foods actually know that least about science, but at the same time, they generally believe they know the most the findings based on surveys conducted in the United States, France and Germany, Tim Mendham from a strain skeptic cysts, the findings suggest that rather than being a barrier into the position of strongly-held views, ignorance of the facts might better be described as the fuel fake says Peter not aware of how little they know people often overestimate what they know. Because I yeah imprint on the PayPal with the GM foods. It is a survey done about genetic modification of foods, and they ask people who hold different, paperless. So they information on science hemisphere know, about science, some basic questions lots of plants give oxygen and that sort of stuff. They're pretty it's pretty ordering stuff. And I found that a lot of people who are really opposed to it then that much about science, and that they have a great deal confidence at the same time in what I think they do. Who's the problem there is you label something as Frankenstein food or something like that? And lay was like that stick and people are going to on the side of caution and even necessarily they have been connecting modified food demand for wall alum top, but it's an easy recognized might a big festival bat that people get worried about because the issue is is that those who most strongly opposed this is probably a pretty generalization. But a lot of people who strongly opposed to GM foods are also fairly agent other sides behind actually my response to a lot of people that's him from a strain skeptics, you're listening to space time. I'm Stewart, Gary, and that's the Shifu now, you can subscribe and download space. Time is a free twice weekly podcast through apple podcast. I tunes stitch-up dot com. Puckett costs soundcloud YouTube audio boom from space time with Stewart Gary dot com, all from your favorite podcast. Download provide a space times also broadcast coast to coast across the United States on science three sixty radio by the National Science Foundation in watching. DC and available around the world on tune in radio. If you want more space time check it out blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images me stories, videos and things on the web. I find interesting were amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary dot tumbler dot com, that's all one word and in lower case. And that's tumbler without the you can also follow us on Twitter through at Stewart. Gary at space time with Stewart Gary on Instagram and on Facebook, just go to WWW dot Facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary space-time is brought to in collaboration with Australian sky and telescope magazine, you'll window on the universe. You've been listening to space telling me to Gary this is being another quality podcast production from bites dot com.
10: The First Supermassive Black Holes
"This is space time series twenty to ten for broadcast on the first February twenty nineteen coming up on space time new clues about the creation of the first supermassive black holes a last ditch effort to try and save the opportunity mouths Rover and physicists looking for a successor to the world's largest atom smasher, the large Hadron collider all that. And more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. A new study suggests that the very early universe. And we're talking just after the big bang third implant a two billion years ago may have seen conditions in which normal staff. Mission was overtaken by the birth of monstrous supermassive black holes her findings reported in the journal nature. Also suggested these gigantic black holes may be far more common across the universe than previously thought. Black holes are the most intense, gravity wills in the universe. They regions of infinite density in zero volume regions with the gravitational police, oh, strong that nothing not even light can escape stars planets. Gas clouds and other matter attracted to the black hole by intense, gravity starts, swirling around the black hole. Integration disc like water draining out of a sink material in the equation is crush stretched and ripped apart at the subatomic level in the presence, releasing vast amounts of. Of energy before passing a point of no return and called the event horizon and falling forever into the black hole. Singularity some of the superheated matter and the Christian disc is deflected along powerful. Magnetic field lines away from the event horizon out towards the black hole spin axis where it's exhilarated to relativistic speeds forming intense jit's could quasars which are the brightest known objects in the universe shining out like beacons visible in the night sky, more than thirty billion light years away, small stellar mass black holes a form by the death of some of the most massive stars in the universe in powerful explosions called supernova supermassive black holes, which millions to billions of times larger a found at the centers of most if not all galaxies. However, we don't know how these monster black holes formed now new supercomputer simulation suggests that when galaxies assemble extremely rapidly. And sometimes very violently instead of forming stars. The process can lead to the formation of extremely massive black holes in these rig alexy's normal star formation is disrupted and black hole. Formation takes over if true. It means massive black holes in dense, Dallas regions that are growing rapidly. Turning upside down, the long accepted belief that massive black hole. Formation was limited to regions bombarded by powerful radiation from the abide galaxies the key criteria to determine anyway, massive black holes formed during the universe is infancy relates to the rapid growth of pre collected guess clouds that are the forerunners of all present day galaxies. One of the study's authors associate professor John wires from Georgia Tech says there what this means is that most supermassive black holes have a common origin forming this newly-discovered scenario dunk matter collapses into halos that are the gravitational blue for galaxies and early rapid growth of these halos prevented the formation of stars that would have competed with black holes for gaseous matter flowing into this area. Why says the simulations of uncovered a totally new mechanism that spock's the formation of massive black holes in particular dark matter halos instead of just considering radiation. Astronomers need to look at how quickly the halos grow. How the dog matters distributed and how gravity affects that forming? A massive black hole requires being in a Ray region. With an intense convergence of matter when the research team, I discovered these black off formation certain in this immunizations were stumped, the previously accepted paradigm was that massive black holes could only form expose the high levels of nearby radiation. Make it impossible for matter to form you stars. However is the author's dove deeper. They saw that these sites were undergoing a period of extremely rapid growth. The violent and turbulent nature of the rapid assembly. The brutal crushing together of the galaxies foundations during galaxy birth all work to prevent all star formation from occurring. And instead led to the perfect conditions needed for. The creation of a supermassive black hole earlier theories relied on intense ultraviolet radiation from the by galaxies to inhibit the formation of new stars in the black off forming halo, and while ultra-violet radiation is still a factor. The new computer simulation show. It's not the dominant factor. Then you computer models were based on the renaissance simulation. Sweet a seventy terabyte data set created between two thousand eleven and twenty fourteen to help scientists understand how universal Volve jury. It's early years to learn more about specific regions where massive blackouts will likely to develop the researchers examined the simulation data finding ten specific data halos that should've form stars given the masses, but only contained dense gas cloud. They then re simulated to these halos each of their two thousand four hundred light years across at much higher resolution in order to understand the details of what's happening in them some two hundred and seventy million years after the big bang. Why? Says it was in these overly dense regions of the universe that black hole. Suddenly began forming the dark matter creates most of the gravity, and then the guests falls into that gravitational potential work in either form stars or a massive Blackhall. The simulations allowed the oldest zoom in and observe. The very earliest stages of the gravitational assembly of this pristine gas composed mostly of hydrogen and helium and code matter leading to the formation of the first stats and galaxies. In fact, the resolution the simulation was so good. It allowed the scientists to see turbulence in the inflow of gas and clumps of matter forming as the Blackhawks precursors began to condense and spin, and they growth rate was dramatic. Astronomers observed supermassive black holes that had grown to around a billion solar masses in just eight hundred million years a process requiring any tense convergence of mass in that region. Another discovery with these types of halos, still quite rare may still be more common. Than previously thought enough to produce most of the supermassive black holes in the universe today. The authors now hoping to expand their computer simulations in order to see how these monstrous black holes will evolve into the future anytime, I'll tell I'm Stewart Gerry this is space time. Nassar sending you sets the commands to try and force its mouth opportunity Rover to respond the six we'll go kart. Sized Rover went silent on June the tenth as a global dust. Storm invoked the red planet for months on end blocking out the sunlight needed. The charge opportunities batteries Oppy as its fictionally called by its mission manages as remained silent ever since despite the dust dome. Having long cleared away opportunity most likely experienced the low powerful emission clock. Fold and an up lost time of fault all trace back to the loss of power and the draining of the batteries mission manages expected the Rover to return to full operational status. Wants its batteries were recharged by the solar panels. But the road is being solid ever since ignoring more than six hundred calls from earth mission managers think the most likely reason is that dust from the storm is covered the solar panels, preventing them from receiving sunlight and charging the batteries not. Really strong mash and winds which usually begin to blow around November would have glowed away that dust but still there's been no contact necessary. Even tried we've been bit commands designed to nudge the Rover to send a response. Once the road is powered up, again, even if it's intermission clocks felt because of the storm, but still Oppy has not phoned engineers with Nasr's digs space communications network have now devised a new set of more powerful commands, which they hope will force opportunity to make contact with earth. The new commands designed to deal with the possibility that opportunities to expand radios have both felt for some reason there that's unlikely mission managers running out of options trying pretty well. Anything than you commands, we'll hopefully force opportunity to both respond and change communication systems. However, there are now reports of fresh dust storm activity Tom to kill mid is west of opportunities current location, and while that's primarily tracking south it's nevertheless lodge enough to be. Effected to increase the tau that is the OSI at opportunities location over the next few days this last ditch effort to bring the little Rover back to life comes just a day after NASA celebrated the fifteenth anniversary of opportunities landing on Mars spacecraft. Touchdown the Mary d any plan. Many of the mash equator on January the twenty fourth two thousand and four for what should have been a ninety day mission opportunity had been launched from the Cape Canaveral air force station in Florida three weeks after its twin Rovers spirit on July the seventh two thousand and three spirited touchdown through before opportunity on the other side of the planet in Gusev crater spirit continued operating for two thousand two hundred and sixty nine days until finally getting bogged in a sand dune with solar panels pointy away from the sun, it said its final message back to work on the twenty second of March twenty ten more than six years after landing, of course, Oppy continued operating much longer covering well of the five thousand. And three hundred days on the Martian surface. Examining rocks and minerals and traveling more than forty five kilometers to its current location perseverance valley, a galley leading off the rim of indicator. You're listening the space time, I'm Stewart, Gary. Okay. Let's take a break from our to talk about new sponsor MOVA Globes. These Globes are really cool. And they great conversation starters or anything like me, you want the whole collection of the science ones because they've got all the planets, asteroids and moons there as well. It's all really cool. So just what I'm over glowed. Well, they rotating Globes powered by using little photovoltaic sills and magnets north to provide movement. So there's no need for batteries or messy power chords. And they're available in forty different designs, including world maps, the outer space themes are mentioned before as well as famous artworks in sporting rotates. The outer a space collection fitches graphics provided by Nassar JPL, including planets, moons, asteroids, and even constellations they're so cool even Ilan Moscow won the MAs one I believe which is sort of rather appropriate considering always carries right now. So they clearly make a really great gift with sort of person who has everything. Almost everything he can check out the whole ranch for yourself and see well fusses about just go to Moldova Globes dot com forward slash space time that way they'll know you came from us and you'll be supporting our show. That's motor sport 'em Lovie. A and of course, we do have a special offer for you. That's a space time listener, we'll give you ten percent of any purchase. You make just by using that euro, WWW dot Merv Globes dot com forward slash space time and don't forget to enter the coupon code space time at the checkout. That's WWW dot MOVA. Globes dot com forward slash space time and use the check our code space time. And now it's back to our show. This is space time with student. Gary soon the European organization for nuclear researches on plans for a successor to its large Hadron collider, the world's most powerful paddock accelerator. The proposed. New atom smasher would be some four times larger and six times more powerful than the current large. Hadron collider and cost between ten and twenty two billion dollars to construct the future circle. Collide is collaboration. Team says the new facility would take particle physics Fabio on the horizon of the current large Hadron collider in the process significantly expanding. Science's knowledge of matter in the universe. The ultimate goal is to build a one hundred kilometers superconducting proton accelerator ring with an energy of one hundred Tera electron volts and beyond meaning an order of magnitude more powerful than the large Hadron collider. The new facility would provide electron positron pro. It on proton, and I on iron collisions at unprecedented energies and intensities offering the possibility of electron proton and electron ion collisions as well. The discovery of the Higgs bows on the large Hadron collider in two thousand twelve opened a new path of research pets because the Higgs could be a door to new fundamental physics. The Higgs is an elementary particle acting through a Higgs field to give all the other particles their mass. That's why some members of the press, of course, the God particle. The new facility would move scientists to the Nick step in understanding the Higgs properties. Any would hope scientists understand how the Higgs interacts with other Higgs particles the different options being explored by the future. Sick. Clyde is collaboration team will offer unique opportunities to study the nature of The Hague's the new particle accelerator? Could also explore the role of electro weak symmetry breaking in the history of the universe. That's when the electromagnetic and the weak nuclear forces split apart. It would allow scientists to access unprecedented. Entity Scouse looking for new massive particles. It would collide have the ions sustaining a rich heavy ion physics program to study the state of matter in the early universe, and it would start to tackle new physics beyond the standard model things like diet matter and dark energy, and the a symmetry of matter of antimatter, none of which can be explained by the standard model of particle physics, which is the foundation stone of modern physics building such a massive particle accelerator will be done in various stages. Firstly there'd be a highly minosity ninety two three hundred and sixty five Giga electron electron positron machine such a Kalat that would be a very powerful factory making it possible to take new reprocesses and measure, the known paddock was with precisions. Never achieved before these more precise. Measurements would in turn allow five greatest sensitivity to possible tiny deviations from the standard muddles expectations, which could be a sign of new physics beyond the standard model the cost of the initial light circular electron as. Detroit Kaleida would be somewhere around nine billion euros. That includes five billion years for the civil engineering work needed for a one hundred kilometer long tunnel. But such a collider could serve the worldwide physics community for up to twenty years. The new physics program could start by twenty forty at the end of the high luminosity large Hadron collider the cost estimate for a superconducting proton machine which would use the same. Tell would be around fifteen billion euros and that machine could start operations by the late twenty fifty s the large Hadron collider is a twenty seven kilometre long ring buried one hundred meters beneath the Franken with sport in each Navea part of a large complex of particle accelerators synchrotron and other high g laboratories the large Hadron collider includes four massive detectors Alice. Atlas CMS and the L A C B H located in a massive underground cavern packets of protons and other subatomic particles are accelerated within ninety nine point nine nine nine percent. Speed of. Of light in opposite directions in two panicle beam lines around the ring guided by cryogenically, cooled superconducting magnets, the beam lines can intersect at any of the four detectors colliding the panicle packets at thirteen Tera electron volts and creating the sorts of conditions pressures and temperatures that occurred just after the big bang thirteen point eight to his ago. I'm Stewart, Gary you're listening to space time. Japan is launched a satellite designed that apply in artificial Meteo shower of Russia, the Japan aerospace, expiration agencies Epsilon four rocket blasted off from the space this out of Tokyo carrying seven miniature satellite payloads into a five hundred and fourteen kilometer high orbit while six of the satellites will undertake very scientific experiments. The seventh carries four hundred tiny bowls designed to burn brightly once released rain down back through the atmosphere. The Turkey obey startup company behind the so called Shooting Stars on the man service says the spacecraft's program that employ up to twenty of these tiny chemical balls at a time designed to glow brightly for several seconds before completely burning up. The flight was the fourth mission for the Epsilon solid fueled rocket and the first to carry multiple payloads. China's Caridad sick twenty nine thousand nine carrying four new satellites into orbit the solid fueled long match eleven launch vehicle blast the draw from the zoo Kwan satellite loan center carrying the jolly in one spectrum zero one zero to hyper spectral imaging satellites. These will join a growing constellation of miniature observation satellites developed by Beijing using multi-spectral and infrared imaging systems also aboard the flight with the link, Hugh, one verification satellite which will test communications between orbiting satellites and the Josh Jiang one zero three satellite, which will test radio communications and remote. Sensing technology launch was the two hundred ninety ninth mission for the long might series rocket. This is Andrew Dunkley host of the podcast space nuts, along with my good friend. Dr Fred Watson, astronomer lodge. We provide a podcast every week looking at some of the things happening in the astronaut Michael world and to a certain degree. That's what's inspired my next venture. When I'm not working on radio doing the podcast or working for the Salvation Army, which is actually my full time job. I liked to ride racing wrote an audio book which turned into a paperback and enabled called all. I see is mud a World War One story about my grandfather. I also write a sports psychology book to help golfers who get angry on the golf course called five lines. Don't float bit a tongue in cheek book that had a lot of fun with it. But my newest book is science fiction. This is a story called parallel. X it's available as a paperback, and you can download the book through Amazon and other able distributors. And it's a story about a man who gets thrust back to his birth. But the interesting twist he is that he retains all his life's knowledge. So he knows what's going to happen for the next fifty years. But the twist in the tale is that he's not the only one, and this strange corporation appears in his new life called parallel x and they want what he knows. So downloaded as an e book or you can buy it online at all the major online bookstores or in a real bookstore. It's available as a paperback. I do hope you enjoy parallel x and you'll find links to all my books said Andrew Dunkley dot com and timeout to take a brief look at some of the other stories making news science this week with a science report Greenland is melting faster than scientists that previously thought and will likely lead to fast sea level rise. Thanks to the continued accelerating. Warming of the earth atmosphere site is concerned about sea-level rise of Longford. Based on Greenland south east in northwestern regions. We're massive glaciers stream iceberg sized chunks into the Atlantic Ocean. Those chunks float away eventually melting. But a new study reported in the proceedings the National Academy of sciences is found that the largest sustained is loss from two thousand and three to twenty thirteen came from Greenland southwest region, which is mostly devoted large. Glaciers whatever this was it could be explained by glaciers because the runt many there. So it had to be the surface mess. The ice on the ground was melting inland from the coastline that melting which is largely caused by global warming means that in southwestern part of Greenland growing rivers of water streaming into the ocean during summer, and this is likely to be a major contributor to sea level rise. A new study claims Wrigley use of anti inflammatory drugs such as aspirin ibuprofen. Could hope patients with head and neck cancers site is found that regular use of these drugs lower the levels of inflammatory molecules found in patients with head and neck cancers hoping to improve survival and recovery you can read more about the findings in the journal of experimental medicine. And you study throws into question the notion that today's crocodiles alligators in Cayman have a simple evolutionary past previous researches pointed to crocodiles came in. And alligators starting with land-based answers to some two hundred million years ago, and then gradually moving to fresh water to become the semi aquatic ambush predators there today. But a new analysis published in the journal scientific reports officer different story claiming that modern crocodiles came in. And alligators came from a variety of surroundings, beginning the Jurassic and various species occupied a host of different ecosystems over time including land as she ruined fresh water marine transitions between land fresh water and sea or more frequent than thought and the transitions themselves not always from land fresh water, or from freshwater to marine scientists piece together crocodile came in and alligators and sister, but analyzing allied family tree showing the history of living and extinct crock. Cadel's came in. And alligators. And you study is found that postmenopausal women who regularly ate fried food have an increased risk of high related death and death from any cause the findings reported in the British medical journal based on questionnaires assessing the diets of one hundred and six thousand nine hundred and sixty six women aged between fifty and seventy nine researchers found that foods such as fried chicken or fried fish or shellfish associated with a high-risk of heart related death. Especially among women aged fifty to sixty five years fried chicken was the deadliest fast food eating it every day increase the risk of death by thirty percent and the risk of heart related death by twelve percent up to a third of North American adults. Eat fast food every day. Previous studies had already suggested that a greater intake of fried foods was associated with a higher risk of type two diabetes and heart disease. Anti vaccination being blamed for thirty percent jump in Mason's cases that huge increase in Maizels has been sending both Europe and the United States. However, the trend has not been repeated in Australia, we government programs designed to encourage immunization of paid off with immunization coverage rating children hitting record highs. Tim Mendham from a strange skeptics says the figures from merica in Europe shows how dangerous the Atty vexes can be really scary stuff. I mean, it's a major increase in measles cases around the world seems to be a real boom in the anti vaccination the impact of the anthrax next way back when when Andrew Wakefield did he's report on supposedly autism linked to the vaccine and up, right? Why didn't you came measles? Vaccination dropped and cases amazing sword. And then that seem to dry out a bit. When those prehistory wakes was shocking. But since then the maze was has come back dangerous that people did not seem as who's anymore. When I was a kid Maizels. Seriously, damaged by Maazel. Okay. We used to dive things because through vaccination to die that and suddenly people have become complacent and it's come back and come back with a vengeance. In Europe, especially in the US, and increasingly Australia. The numbers of cases of missiles says increase we had to Maizels of hot was killing about two and a half million people year a lot of countries that dropped in about two thousand sixteen. I think it was too bad eighty thousand a year dying with people who have been damaged by Houston has been set the license. Also things that killed by Maizels was drafted ninety now back up to about one hundred twenty thousand a year people dying of this every almost had walked out except the anti vaccination movement. Kid making comments that oh measles killed. Anybody can have Maizels Totti's where you can bring you need the long Emmanuel catch measles. And it'll be great for them title stupidity. Totally responsibility. People paying with their lives, and it's little kids by Losch who pain is price because their parents are not doing the right thing. That's t. Mendham from strain skeptics, you're listening to space time. I'm Stewart Gary, and that's the show for now. You can subscribe and download space time as a free twice weekly podcast through apple podcast on itunes, Stitcher. Bites dot com. Pocket costs soundcloud. Youtube audio boom from space time with Stewart Gary dot com, all from your favorite podcast. Download provider space times also broadcast coast to coast across the United States on sides three sixty radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and available around the world on June in radio, if you want more space time checking our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images media stories, videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary dot tumbler dot com, that's all one word and in lower case. And that's tumbler without the you can also follow us on Twitter through at Stewart. Gary at space time with Stewart Gary on Instagram and on Facebook, just go to WWE. W dot Facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary space-time is brought to in collaboration with Australian sky. Tell us go magazine you'll window on the universe. You've been listening to space time. With Stewart Gerry this has been another quality podcast production from bites dot com.
04: The First Clue To The Makeup of Dark Matter
"Mississippi USA, the space Tom's made possible with the help of the great courses. Plus learn anything anytime from the leading professors and experts in their field. Sign up for your free trial now by getting to a special URL. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space. The great courses plus dot com slash space that way they'll know you came from us and you'll be hoping to support a program. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space. This is space time series. Twenty two episode four for broadcast on the eleventh of January twenty nineteen coming up on space time, the first clue to solve the mystery of dark matter Cyrus rigs and his orbit around the asteroid Banou and the mystery deepens as to what's parrying, the corona seen around months, the black holes all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. There's evidence that star formation can hate up and moved out matter around the findings reported in the journal, the monthly notices the Royal astronomical society provides the first real up station evidence of an effect note. Is that matter hating and may provide new clues as to what that matter really is dark matter is a mysterious invisible substance, which makes a bet eighty percent of all the matter in the universe. It often comes as a shock to paper when they realize that everything we've seen the universe from people and houses cars dogs and cats through the planets stars and galaxies combined make up only about twenty percent of the total mess of the universe. The wrist. Eighty percent is that matter the problem is scientists have no idea. What doc Matt is composed of they know it's real because they can see its gravitational interact with normal matter. But that's it for years. Researchers have been trying to study the effects of dark matter at this. Centers of me by what galaxies dwarf galaxies, a small faint galaxies that typically found orbiting logic alexy's like our own Milky Way. And the thing is dwarf galaxies appear to have proportionally more matter than logic galaxies. Like, the Milky Way they could clues that may help science better understand the nature of dark matter and the K to studying doc matter may line house Taza form these little galaxies Winstar form, strong winds can push gas and dust away from the heart of the galaxy. As a result, the galaxy said it has less mass, and that may affect how much gravity is filled by the remaining dark matter witless, gravitational attraction, the dunk mata- gains, energy and migrates away from the center and affect cold dark matter heating to get a handle on the issue astrophysicist Michigan. The amount of dot matter at the centers of sixteen off galaxies with very different style formation histories. They found the galaxies that stop forming stars long ago had higher dark matter. Densities of this. Citizen. Those still forming staff today and this supports the theory that only galaxies headless stock meditating the study's lead author. Professor Justin read from Sarah university says a truly remarkable relationship was discovered between the amount of dark energy at the centers of these tiny dwarfs and the amount of staff formation of experience of their lives. It seems that matter at the centers of the staff warming to off galaxies a piece of being heated up and pushed out the findings help provide new constraints on Madame models. It means that matter must be able to form to off galaxy that exhibit a range of central densities, and those densities must relate to the metal staff formation taking place, the findings could represent a smoking gun taking scientists the step closer to understanding what that matter is the authors now plan on expanding their search by measuring the central dock matter density in a larger sample of dwarfs pushing the wave and faint galaxies and testing a wider range of dark matter models. I'm Stewart Gerry. You're listening to space time. Okay. Let's take a short break from the show for a word from our sponsor, the great courses. Plas just like you. My love of learning has never stopped this still so much. I want to know an explore and with the great courses. Plus, I have unlimited access to learn about virtually anything. And that makes me a big fan of the great courses. Plus, which is why I want you to check it out too. With this great streaming service. You can expand your knowledge on a huge variety of different topics. There. Let you watch or listen whenever you want to wherever you are. And of course, with the great courses. Plus there are literally thousands of lectures to enjoy and it's not just a strana me and physics with the great courses, plus this history cooking learning a new language, even how to play music. Most importantly, it's all presented by real experts in their field people who know what they're talking about right now, I've been enjoying a visual guide to the universe. Presented by professor David Meyer. It's full of great animations videos, images and simulations. So it's really worth checking this out and. If you look carefully at the background sees got some great little toys stashed around the office to believe me. I want my office to look like that now to check out of jewel guide to the universe. Or any of the other foulland's of lectures, available dedicate us special offer as one of our listeners, you get to sample the great courses plus to enrich your life for free with unlimited access to learn about anything. So what if you got to lose to start your free trial right now? Go to the great courses plus dot com slash space. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space that way they'll know you came from us, and you'll be helping to support our show. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space. And of course, we'll put that Lincoln the show notes and on our website. And now it's back to our show. You're listening to spend time with Stewart Gary. Necessaries? Rick spacecraft is shaved orbiting certian around the near earth. Asteroid Banou the four hundred ninety two meter wide space rock as one of the highest known chances of hitting the earth with a one in twenty seven hundred chance of impacting the earth sometime between twenty one seventy five and twenty one ninety nine if it were to hit the earth, the resulting impact would be the equivalent of twelve hundred megatons of TNT ten nineteen fifty-five Banou is what's known as a combination. Apollo group asteroid that means it's a near near earth object with an orbit that intersects with and crosses earth's orbit around. The sun Banou is what astronomers call a beat-up carbonaceous asteroid, the generally similar to regular C-type Kaban asteroids, but with surface spectra suggesting and hydra silicates hydrated, claiming enrolls organic polymers magnetized and sulfides launched back on September, the eighth twenty sixteen from the care Canaveral air force station in. Florida aboard an atlas five rocket the two thousand one hundred and ten kilogram. Cyrus wreck spacecraft arrived at Banou in October twenty eighteen the spacecraft spending three is orbiting the asteroid and mapping it surface geology studying civil Lucien, composition chemistry and mineral allergy the orbital insertion maneuver carried out some wanted and ten million kilometers from earth. Sit a new space exploration Rickard for the smallest object ever to be orbited by spacecraft inching around the asteroid at Snell's pace, Asaraha's Rex's first orbit max, a huge leap for humankind. Never before as spacecraft circuit so close to such a small celestial object when with barely enough gravity to Cape vehicle in stable orbit almost lost in the news of new horizons in Kano was the arrival of the spacecraft that asteroid venue. It's been a two billion kilometer two year journey to catch up with this asteroid approaching the last few months getting close but on the knee. By actually into all. But an incredible very tiny over quite close to the surface and actually opening the spate of just centimeters per second. So it's probably the tiniest and slowest orbiting object and suddenly the smallest object as have been over to round. That's Glenn Nagel from this space communications complex, knee camera. Asaraha's Rexy circling Banou at just one point seven five kilometers from the asteroid center that's closer than any other spacecraft is ever orbited a Sylla's Jewell body the previous closest orbit for planetary buddy was set back in may twenty sixteen. When the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft orbited about seven kilometers from the center of the comet sixty seven p share them of Jerusalem. Anco the one point seven five kilometer distance is considered comfortable enough to Cape us IRAs. Rex luck to Banou which has a gravitational force. Just five million that averse spacecraft will remain in orbit around Banou through the mid February. Circling the body at allegedly sixty two hours per orbit Asaraha's Rex principal investigator, Dante Lauretta from the university of Arizona in Tucson says the probes eight second burn of its thrusters which placed it into orbit meant the navigation campaign was now coming to an end and the scientific mapping and sampled site selection. Phase of the mission is now beginning now that the Sarah's were expense craft is closer to Banou physical. Details about the asteroid will leap into shot. A Fergus and the spacecraft's tour of this rubble. Pile of primordial, debris will become increasingly detailed. Cyrus Rix flight dynamic systems manager, Mike Meru from this. As God spaceflight, centering greenbelt, Maryland says, the orbital design is highly dependent on bananas physical properties such as the asteroids mess and gravity field, which simply won't known before the spacecraft's arrival up until now scientists federal count for a wide variety of possible scenarios in that computer simulations just to make sure they could safely navigate spacecraft so close to Banou. As the team. Learn more about the asteroid they're able to incorporate more information to hone in on the final orbital design having completed a preliminary survey of banner with fly bys of the south pole on December. The sixteenth the spacecraft moves to a safe holding patent fifty kilometers from the asteroid giving the navigation team a chance to regroup and prepare for orbit insertion next Lockheed. Martin engineer build the spacecraft programmed at to begin moving back to a position about fifteen kilometres over banners North Pole that position the probe for three burns of thrust over the course of ten days designed to place the spacecraft war. But even though a Cyrus Rex is now in the most stable but possible penins gravitational pull so tenuous that keeping the spacecraft's safe will require close monitoring and regular adjustments. You see the Grefe of bananas small forces, like solar radiation, even thermal pressure from the new surface become much more relevant. They can push the spacecraft around in orbit much more than if it were ordering say the earth or Mars with. Gravity's by far the dominant force. So the Sarah's Rex navigation team will use trimming tubers dislike thrust the spacecraft in one direction or another to correct its orbit to county small forces me, well, mission managers have developed free dimensional model Banou surface based on a preliminary global imaging and mapping survey of the asteroid terrain. This means that instead of celestial navigation, they'll now be a rely on landmarks identified them beneath the surface to track. Cyrus wrecks and ultimately guide the spacecraft was Sabah collection site, clear of boulders and lodge rocks. Another crucial objective involves getting a better handle London's mass and gravity features. That will influence the plenty of the risks of the mission. Most notably the touchdown on the surface for sample collection in twenty twenty in the case of Banou, scientists Kennedy major these features by getting Cyrus wrecks, the fly very close to the surface to see how it's trajectory bins from bananas gravitational pull in late February the spacecraft will perform a series of close fly bys have been several months, at least that. Scientic high resolution images of every square centimeter of the asteroid in order to help select a sampling side, then by the middle of twenty twenty spacecraft will briefly touch down on the asteroid surface to retrieve its first samples Cyrus Rexy slated to leave orbit in March twenty twenty one with a sample return captial being jettison for a parachute landing in Utah in September twenty twenty three we'll keep you informed. This is space time. I'm Stewart Gary. A new study is found that the magnetic fields around supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies on strong enough. The pow the krono clouds of survey plasmas sane around them. The surprising findings reported in the Estra physical journal main sciences understanding of the physics of Blackhall still has an awful long way to go. The study MAC the first time that researches relative may to the strength of these magnetic foods found around months the black holes. Astronomers have often seen bright Karenni of superheated plasma similar to the kroner around the sun. But shining brilliantly around Sipa massive black holes. They supermassive black hole. Krona can be hated to phenomenal temperatures will ever billion degrees celsius it was long as human that. Like that of the sun these black hole corona would being hated by magnetic field. Energies problem is magnetic fields had never been measured around black holes leaving fit agree on certainty regarding the exact mechanism back in twenty fourteen. Researchers had predicted that. Electrons in the plasma surrounding black holes would emit a special kind of light and synchrotron radiation as they exist together with the magnetic field forces in the corona specifically this radiation would be in the radio band, meaning electro-magnetic ways with very long wavelength and low frequencies, and so the authors of our study set out to measure these fields the team used observations from the European southern observatory's Atacama large millimeter submillimeter array telescope alma in Chile. They studied the supermassive black holes at the centers of two relatively nearby active galaxies. I see forty-three twenty nine a which is about two hundred million light years away and N G C nine eighty five which is about five hundred and eighty million light is distant then compare these measurements with observations from two other radio telescopes the very large array, New, Mexico and the Australia telescope compact rainy now O'Brien you south wiles. Both these observatories measure slightly different frequency bands, the authors did detect the. Expected excess in radio emissions originating from the synchrotron radiation as well as emissions from jets five by the black holes as they fed on in falling matter, they're able to determine that the krona had a size of around forty schwartzchild radii that is the radius of a black hole from which not even light can escape though. Also at the determined that the magnetic field had a strength of ten gals. That's figure a bit stronger than the magnetic field at the surface of the earth, but quite a bit list and that given out by even the typical refrigerator magnet, very passively. Indeed, the findings made the magnetic food is far too. Weak to be able to drive the intense aiding the kroner around these black holes. So it's a case of back to the drawing bodes as the team. Now, look for alternative methods to try and explain Colonel hating. I'm Stewart, Gary you're listening to space time. During twenty eighteen the moon moved to further three point eight centimeters away from the earth. The sun lost over one hundred and seventy four trillion tons of its mass resulting in the earth orbit around the sun. Increasing diameter by one point five centimeters over one hundred fifty billion you styles performed in the visible universe and the universe expanded by over sixty trillion kilometres, Jim mostly deduct energy. Meanwhile, and you issue of a straight guy, tell us go magazine is hit the newsstands previewing. Some of the economical highlights for this year. Joining us now with details is the magazine's editor Jonathan alley on the January issue of Australians telescope. We have a new mission essentially a double mission that's been sent off to the innermost planet of masala system victory, which is actually how to get to. It's easier to get to Pluto in most ways than it is to get to mercury. Why is that that's because as you as you get closer to the? Sun, the some tries to pull you in faster and faster. It's like going downhill, basically, you going downhill gravitationally. So as you get closer to the sun, you're going to pick up speed, and you're gonna pick up more and more and more speed. And the problem then becomes if you're aiming to go to mercury which is, you know, two thirds of the way closer to the sun than we are. Then how do you stop yourself when you get there? You know, you you're gonna go sanding stripe pass. And this you've got an almighty big rocket to slow yourself down. But the problem is by carrying an almighty big rocket to slow yourself down. You won't have any room or or mass availablity to have anything useful like cameras, and that sort of thing. So when they send spacecraft off to the inner planets Venus and mercury they they do what they the qualities plenty of three fly bys, and they're going to do multiple fly bys of mercury, and I think Venus earth for these are another type of gravity assist. They have the assist. Yeah. And the idea in this case will be too slow yourself down as you. Going into the unit part of the solar system and do some big looping orbits around the sun going around a couple of these planets if you times to sort of bring yourself into a slow soft and bring yourself nice over finally to reach your target which in this case of victory when you when you do a gravitational assist in the other way, and the outer part of the solar system you want to pick up speed as you do these gravitational slingshots passe Jupiter or satin. So yeah, it is actually pretty getting to in the most. And that's why in fact, it's only ever been visited by two missions one in the nineteen seventies and one just in the two thousand about seven eight years ago. It's Mississippi, exactly. So some basic facts about mercury it's covered in crisis. And it looks a lot like the moon it orbits the sun as I said about two-thirds closer in than than we are. It's masses on the about six percent of that of years and being so close to the sun. Of course, you imagine. It's hot will certainly is in the areas that are in direct sunlight, it's four hundred. Twenty seven degrees celsius which is pretty warm, but there are shadowed areas in craters that can get down to minus two hundred and twenty three degrees. Mention that. So you so close to the sun, but you can be more than two hundred degrees below zero celsius timely locked. It's sort of it's gonna complex resonance. They call it between its its rotation period. And and period around the sun. It's it's not a one to one Todd locked thing. Like the moon is the the moon as it goes around the youth only shows the one face towards us because its rotation period is the same and it's all the period around the youth. Yeah. Mercury's not like that. They thought it longtime ago that it used to be, but it isn't. No. But there is a resonance between its rotation period. And it's all little period around the sun. And that's a confused. A lot of strontium is a years gone by infected took Eddington an Einstein to work that out didn't it. Yeah. And in fact, this particular mission that's the that I've sent off. Now, it's it's two spacecraft mission which joint thing between Europe and Japan Europe, contributing thing called the mercury planet overto- mercury. Planetary orbiter and Japan is contributing the military MAG. Majors Ferrick orbiter and the overall mission is called Betty Colombo. Colombo a strange sounding name, you might think it's named after Giuseppi baby Colombo's Italian scientists who worked out this thing about MC resolve it. And it's right to action period. So that named after him. He's also the due to I implemented into planetary gravity assist. Nova. He used in nineteen seventy four with mariner ten mission now technique, of course, use commonly, but pretty well. All inter-planetary probes. And in that case, I think he's probably the first interplanetary fly by scientists to be called a dude, I'm sure he'd very much appreciate being known as do. But I think that's the only time I've ever used it. We're at my whole life. There's no where we come from different worlds different world, mourn or right? So what are we going on with EDS mercury's, an interesting place for all sorts of reasons is orbital resonance, we spoke about about the rotation period in the orbital period, and the fact that it's so close to the sun. And yet there are there are thought of actual positive ice at the bottom of deep craters that never see some of these these places where I said temperatures really really low. So the bitty Columbia mission is going to tell us more about the planet's history and its geology, and where that is might have come from pilots is twenty nineteen in the January issue. We give you a full rundown of what to see the nights for the coming year. So that'll be lots of things to look forward to actually in two thousand nineteen major stargazing events. There's going to be a partially through to the moon for a start in July, visible across Australia. It's in the morning of July seventeenth, well that won't be the best eclipse at the same. But it's the only one we're going to get this year. And that'll be followed in December by partial solar eclipse, but that'll any visible from across the. Northern part of a stranded. So really we just talking that. Dial one day that's going to be in December cousins in New Zealand are going to be treated to a fairly rare event later in the year, though, of course, and that's called a transit of mercury. This is where the union most planet. Mercury gets between us and the sun, and from our point of view, it looks like a little black dot. So the creeping across the face of the sun transmission, far more common in the transits of Venus the last one which was a few years ago. And we went to see another one in our lifetime now because it's going to be more than one hundred years for yourself. You're gonna you're gonna cry in if he frees yourself and come back. I would just the head hit it. Just to get the rest of it. Just the hit. Yes. I if you're in New Zealand later in the year, you'll be able to see this transit injury. They're going to be several lunar rotations of Saturn during the year visible from strata a lunar rotation is where the moon as trundling along in its orbit around the earth, temporarily blocks from view anything that's in the background. It's sort of like an eclipse, especially you'd call it. And in this case, it's going to be sentenced several times, the the moon's going to be going along and you'll see it come up to seven seven being in the background. And all of a sudden seven we'll wink out as the moon goes in front, and then little wall seven Papa interview again on the other side of the moon. So it'll be really interesting to see a good demonstration that the moon is actually moving in its orbit around the youth because as it covers up satin and then later on as it uncovers seven that means the moon has moved that far through space and seven pops back into viewing him. And of course, the way the usual, Meteo showers almost one of them a month and. Of good views of the planets and groupings of planets stood and the one hundred divers who the international snorkel union. Yeah. Yes. So the the one hundred anniversary of the international astronomical Union's going to be pretty good. They're organizing or coordinating lots of activities all around the world, including here in strata know, many people in public land know about the I was it's cold elicit fans of Pluto. Of course. Yeah. Yeah. What it costs to the the decision was made at the I demote Pluto. But it's the worldwide body of astronomers h h signs has its own national bodies. And then their international body suffer astronomy, the IRA. You is it and. Yeah. So there should be lots and lots of things happening around the countryside. St. Jude let's jump finale, the editor of a stray and sky, tell us go magazine. And this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary. Beijing is carried out to more rocket launches to round out twenty with no less than thirty nine missions more than any other nation on earth. China's final launches of the year included along much three C rocket which blasted off from the Chiang satellite loan center in southwestern China Sichuan province. It was carrying. What was described by Beijing as the number three telecommunications technology tests satellite in reality. The spacecraft was the third in new constellation of TJ early warning Chinese military satellites the People's Liberation Army that is that tech and track ballistic missile launches by the infrared signatures before it was followed a few days later by the launch of along much today rocket as you one satellite Lewin center, the remote Gobi desert region of northwestern. China's in among goalie the mission was carrying the hung wine experimental telecommunication satellite and six high to satellites the two stage long much to d- was a quick with the new liquid fueled third stage designed to provide model firings. And they'd to place the seven satellites into this specific orbits three of the six you high set alight were released into a five hundred twenty kilometer high orbit with the three remaining you'll high to series spacecraft boosted into a one thousand ninety five kilometer high orbit the young high to said lights, global navigation satellite system radio cultivation to collect atmosphere. Data for weather predictions, and for honest for climate and gravity research, the seventh spacecraft in the payload was the Hong Yang one experimental satellite. This one isn't experimental telecommunication spacecraft testing, Ellen K-band radio technologies in orbit as part of what will be a plan new sofa Tele-Communications constellation of more than three hundred and twenty spacecraft in low of orbit. This flight Michael thirty ninth over launched by China in twenty teen and the two hundred ninety seven launch of a long might series rocket those thirty nine launches for twenty eight teen compared to just thirty one orbital launches for the United States twenty for Russia. Eight the European space age. Seven for India, six Japan and three or the launches for New Zealand. And time to take another look at some of the other stories making insci- this week with the science report. And you study shows the rate of men dying from malignant melanoma has risen around the world while it some countries the rates steadily falling for women the findings reported at the twenty eight teen NCRI cancer conference looked at data from thirty three countries, including stralia of rule the highest three ravage death rates twenty thirteen to twenty fifteen were found in Australia with five point seven two Melva Talib's for every one hundred thousand men and two point five three for everyone. Two thousand women. And you report ones that half of all strain adults are consuming more sugar than the would health organizations recommendations to Cape less. Listen ten percent of total calorie intake researches found. Forty seven percent strain surveyed were high for Chauvet consumers free show biz include added sugars and shook his naturally prison. Honey, syrups and Fritz uses beverages contributed the most free sugar in diets, especially for young adults with a made up almost half of the turtle ratio energy intake. Paleontologists say a newly discovered species of the famous I bird that he's akyab Drake's supported state as the transitional fossil between dinosaurs. And birds a report in the journalist archaeology claims that contra some previous studies, Ocoee, optics cannot be conclusively shown to be a primitive bird antecedent and Evelyn ary intermediate between dinosaurs and birds which possessed both teeth and clawed fingers. The new study also used that of the three dimensional synchrotron micro tomography to help virtually dissect the fossil and identify Skillet actions. That would have helped this particular species archaeopteryx Albers doer free to fly the Fussell discovered in a quarry in southern Germany nineteen ninety is around four hundred thousand years younger than any other archaeopteryx found so far the analysis shows that it had more features in common with modern birds, then with a dinosaur ancestors, including finish burns increased area for the attachment of flight muscles on the wishbone and reinforce can. Figuration of bones in the wrist and hand, the one hundred and fifty million euro fossils of archaeopteryx have been known since eighteen sixty one with some twelve specimens having been recovered so far. It's been confirmed that my great Neolithic farmers from the near east Broadway dogs with them as they sprint into your as your around nine thousand years ago. It already been known that these people brought shape cows waitin' Bali, my other domesticated species. But a new report in the journal biology letters found their dogs also came along for the ride and then intermingled with native European dogs upon arrival. You're listening to space time. I'm Stewart, Gary, and that's the Shifu now you can subscribe and download space time as a free twice weekly podcast through apple podcast. I tunes Stitcher bites dot com. Pucca casts soundcloud YouTube audio boom from space time with Stewart Gary dot com, all from your favorite podcast. Download provider space times also broadcast coast to coast across the United States on science three sixty radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and available around the world unto in radio. If you want more space time checking our blog where you'll find all the stuff we could. Fit in the show as well. As loads of images me stories, videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary dot tumbler dot com, that's all one word and in lower case. And that's tumbler without the you can also follow us on Twitter through at Stewart. Gary at space time with Stewart Gary on Instagram and on Facebook, just go to WWW dot Facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary space-time is brought to in collaboration with Australian sky and telescope magazine your window on the universe. You've been listening to space telling me steward. Gary this is being another quality podcast production from bites dot com. Mischievous space Tom's made possible with the help of the great courses. Plus learn anything anytime from the leading professors experts in their field. Sign up for your free trial now by going to a special, you arrow, that's the great courses plus dot com slash space. The great courses plus dot com slash face that way, they'll know you came from us and you'll be hoping to support our program. 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69: Towering Radio Bubbles Discovered at the Galactic Centre
"Space Time series twenty two episode sixty nine for broadcast on the eighteenth September two thousand nineteen coming up on space time towering bubbles of energy discovered the Galactic Centre and Yuli discovered into still a visitor and scientists measure the exact size of the Proton all that and more coming coming up on space time welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary astronomers have discovered a pair of enormous radio emitting bubbles towering hundreds of light is above and below the centre of our the Milky Way Galaxy. The massive phages reported in the Journal. Nature are among the logic structures ever observed near the Galactic Center the HOURGLASS shape feature which dwarf all other radio structures in the region is most likely the result of a gigantic energy burst that would have erupted millions of years ago and he said you terrorists a star the supermassive the massive black hole at the center of the Galaxy the study's author Ian Haywood from University of Oxford System the center of the Milky Way's relatively calm when compared to other galaxies with very active central black holes even so from time to time secretaries a star can become uncharacteristically active flaring up as a periodically vows clouds of gas and dust. It's possible one such feeding frenzy triggered Pavel Outbursts that inflated this previously Unseen Feature Hayward and colleagues mapped mapped out broad regions at the center of the Galaxy using the South African Radio Astronomy Observatories Music at telescope one of the precursors to the square kilometer array project they they conducted their observations at wavelength twenty three centimeters looking for radio emissions generated by a synchrotron radiation. That's produced by electrons moving close to the speed of of life interacting with powerful magnetic fields this produces a characteristic radio signal that can then be used to trace energetic regions in space this radio light easily leap penetrates the dense clouds of gas and dust that block visible light from the Galactic Center by examining the nearly identical size and shape of these twin bubbles authors think they've found convincing vincent evidence that these features were formed from Varta eruption that over short period of time punch through the interstellar medium in opposite directions study co-author William cotton from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Virginia says the shape and symmetry emissions strongly suggests that a staggeringly powerful of it happened a few million years ago very une- secretary say star the eruption was probably triggered either by vast amounts of interstellar gas falling onto the black hole alternatively by a massive burst of Stoffel Nation Mation which sent shockwaves careening through the Galactic Centre the environment surrounding the black hole at the center of the Mochi way is vastly different from the environment elsewhere in the galaxy and and in many ways it remains a region of mysteries. We've already seen evidence of massive gamma-ray bubbles extending thousands of light is above and below the Galactic plane and they appear to also originate from secretaries ace town possibly generated during more violent time in the galaxy past millions if not billions of years ago and they're also long narrow filaments found nowhere else the origins of which have remained unsolved puzzles since the discovery thirty five years ago the filaments appears radio structures tentative attentive light years long and approximately ally wide radio bubbles discovered by me a cat now shed light on the Arjun filaments with almost all of the more than one hundred filaments elements can find to within the radio bubbles. The author suggests that the Close Association of the filaments the bubbles implies that the energetic event that created the radio bubbles is also responsible danceable for accelerating the electrons required to produce the radio emissions from the magnetized filaments. The amazing thing is enormous bubbles have until now simply being hidden by the glare of the extremely bright radio missions coming from the center of the Galaxy teasing out the bubbles from the background noise has allowed scientists. The witness manifestation of scholastic skull outbursts of matter energy ultimately governed by the supermassive black hole at the heart of the galaxy. I'm Stewart Gary this space time to help support space time I and the great work we do promoting science and WANNA. Come and join our Patriot family could just a few dollars a month. You'll get access to a slick commercial free double episode version of space as time every week as well as extended interviews not included in the show and that invitation to join our special Patriot only facebook group. We can come and chat discussed the show. Ask Questions Christians whatever you want with like minded listeners at how team you can get all the details at Patriot dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary. We can see the various reward levels. We have have what works for you and of course most importantly. You'll be hoping to support our show in the work we do to deliver the wonders of the universe to everyone. Now that you are really gain is patriots on spill. Pat R. N. PATRIARCH DOT COM Slash Space Time with Stewart Gary and of course you can find the details in the show notes or just click the Orange Batman our website and thanks to all patrons because it's your generosity and support the helps keep our show going well John as moved to take another stella comet newly discovered object designated as c twenty nine thousand nine q full Borisov Chris of was discovered by Guinea Borisov at the Mago Observatory in the Crimea on August thirtieth. If confirmed it'll be any of the second such object detected the first a spin the flat mama which was confirmed in October twenty seventeen. I'm like a Maomao which was only detected after it made its close the pressure of the earth and was already already heading out of the solar system. This new comet is still inward bound hitting towards the Sun however from our point of view will remain further away than the orbit of Mars and we'll come the closer to the earth in about three hundred million kilometers at twice the distance to the Sun observations indicate that Comet's nucleus is somewhere between two and sixteen kilometers diameter data sheet two thousand nineteen fours currently formed in twenty million kilometers from the sun it will reach its closest point to the Sun perihelion on December the eighth at a distance of about three hundred million kilometers before that type of the twenty six. It'll pass through the ecliptic plane. That's the plane which the earth and other planets in the solar system orbit around the Sun. It'll come down from above at roughly forty degree angle. Ill then switch around the sun before heading off back into interstellar space after traditional detection scientist just at Nasa Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena California flag the object is possibly being interstellar in origin debit for nausea from necessary for near Earth Object Studies at J. P. L. worked with astronomers and the European Space Agency's near Earth Objects Coordination Center took ten additional observations he then worked with Nasr's minor the Planet Center in Cambridge Massachusetts in order to estimate the comets precise jittery and determine whether it originated from within our solar system or whether it's come from elsewhere in the galaxy the comments cart philosophies high around fifty thousand kilometers per hour which is well above the typical philosophies of objects orbiting the Senate that distance the speed indicates not only that the object subject likely originated from outside our solar system but also that after swooping around the sun it will leave and head back into a space see twenty nineteen q. Four was established as being commentary in its Nature Fuzzy appearance indicates. The object is essential icy body and it's producing a surrounding cloud cover of dust and gas particles as it approaches the the satellites up now as seen from earth its location in the sky places it near the Sun. That's an area of the sky not usually scanned by large ground based asteroid surveys of that matter by an asteroid hunting Nieto. I spacecraft problem is with most astronomical equipment looking directly at the Sun will damage the technology astronomers. I'm GONNA say the object should peak in brightness in December and they continue to be observable with moderate sized telescopes until about April next year after that allow observable with large professional professional telescopes through to around October twenty twenty meanwhile astronomers will continue to collect observations to further characterize the comments physical properties and to try and better interrupted its trajectory. We'll keep you informed. You'll see the space time I'm Stewart Gary Astronomers Riveta classified galaxies according physical properties rather than just in human interpretation of galaxies appearance. Thanks to a technique called integral field spectroscopy for more than two hundred years telescopes have been capable of observing galaxies beyond our own galaxy the Milky Way a few visible to begin with but it's telescopes became more powerful more galaxies were discovered making it crucial for astronomers to come up with some sort of way to consistently group different types of galaxies together in one thousand nine hundred ninety six astronomer. Edwin Hubble refined the system that classified galaxies two categories of spiral Elliptical Lynn or irregular shape the system known as the Hubble sequence with hobbled tuning fork is still the most common way of classifying galaxies today despite despite its success the criteria on which the Hubble schemes based largely subjective and only indirectly relate to the actual physical properties of the galaxies themselves. It's it's a case of what we see rather than what's actually there now. All this is significantly hampered attempts to identify the evolutionary pathways followed by different types of galaxies. He's as they slowly change and evolve of billions of years and that's what Dr Looker Cortez and his colleagues from the University of Western Australia note of the International Center for Radio Astronomy Research come in they used integral food spectroscopy to quantify how guessing stars move within galaxies and reinterpret hobbled tuning fork as is a physically based two-dimensional classification system. Katiba says the world's premier astronomical facilities and now producing surveys consisting of hundreds of thousands of galaxies rather than the hundreds that Edwin Hubble in its contemporaries. We're working with C. Astronomers need to classify galaxies consistently using instruments that measure physical properties buddies rather than a time consuming and subjective technique involving human interpretation Cortez and colleagues used integral spectroscopy to develop detailed maps of the distribution bution and velocities of different components within galaxies then using this information they were able to determine the overall angular momentum of a galaxy which is the key physical quantity affecting how galaxy will evolve over billions of years this study involved some four hundred eighty eight galaxies observed by the three point nine made an Anglo Australian telescope abusing an Instrument Code Sammy Sydney Mardi object integral field spectrograph the semi project led by the University of Sydney and Castro and aims to create one of the first large-scale resolved surveys of galaxies measuring the velocity and distribution of gas and stars of Different Ages in thousands of systems Cortez says says the hope is to identify the physical triggers that cause one type of galaxy to evolve into another pitcher scheming something around for almost wonder under BS and didn't sound saying that was made the second what was possible won the Super Bowl so simple for the team I just where you look at the shape of the Galaxy Galaxy and you've got to come in good shape so you have around galaxies believe because shave and then they could leak because then you have got that shaved these respond a lot of and this is where the being spot on this come from and then that that Oughta inconvenience classes where you have at least forty hours despite a lot of faded and you just walked with Johnny Colon and this being the main. Let's say 'cause the kitchen. Schema that us from using for almost fan three as I say and it's been very powerful the limitations that Fiji was one hundred years ago de thinks mainly a visual fixation and it's very easy to the physical properties of galaxies now understand their evolution a lot better and you've been looking at all as factors combined with an overall better understanding of the way galaxies were twelve billion years ago compared to what they are like now to reinterpret that yeah pretty much a lot of progress it both from instrumentation on points of view and also consequently from our understanding of what we have allies in the last day it cuts except of course the basis of the purfication. Give us information about to kind of what can we go. Formation of galaxies galaxies evolved on one inside the evacuation in Michelle P. V. P. We down. We know now that the stuff suck for me to spend a lot and so when we use that for Michelle. Td disbalances the faith and his wife for example in many cases. It's files can kind of look like more than declaw galaxy side that wherever we also know that. I'm on different from spider and all this information on DVD but those swing dance off the automobile stuff you spy stuff every orbits so the along the same bill because stocks are more on the war and these of course it's completely different from commercial galaxies and so now we can finally discriminate opinionated between the changing stuff from show. He can't change instructor product. He's been the key for the. Let's say the new. It's been done where we're being able to show that the let's let's say great part of the variation in morphology galaxy actually comes from anybody shrinks factual and so by looking at how guests and Stas we're actually moving within a galaxy that tells you a lot about the true tactics of that galaxy doesn't correct yes. Saddam now that we new technology we are finally able to pick much much of the stock how stars and Gus move on we deemed the fish on potential the galaxy where it will not totally where the stars are rotate or they followed on all our beats but also high out foster the rotating and so forth to figure out what what other the property so got through the data late one way how inflect to be and that's where the multi object integral field spectograph. Sammy comes in correct yeah. There's been the key because I'm Sigo. ROSCO P has been around enough strongly for more than three and usually we were able to do just to put a single fiber on the galaxy and just the how the galaxies moving we suspect to us or whether he pulls approaching two or it was going away from us. We didn't have eh any information about the. Let's say became optics of this stuff in gusts that we've been through the galaxy. We'd signed me. We're able to put indices around sixty one five in different parts of the galaxy so we get an independent estimate all the stuff had nothing each part and we've had to start from from what we call a velocity field to figure out how with the Stop Federal taking on offense they are rotating rotating and when you do this this this taste something about what the building blocks of galaxies hours will I mean for a long time. We were assuming that it was just globular. Cost this coming together to form. I'm the seeds of galaxies then we realized galaxies to live with each other and they grow by merging and other interactions like that for example the lodge cloud It's it looks like it's it's been pretty badly beaten up so there's a lot of gravitationally directions going on yeah. Definitely I mean these itself. It doesn't provide us. Let's say information about dogs like see evolve but then the spread the in let's say relational all cities fifth either the balance between galaxy that we should have stuff on attaining. We should have stopped the motions. You've what strong strain rain to be frontiers galaxy formation because then we can go to supercomputing that's different scenarios and see what out where the different scenarios are able to to produce jobs officials today or whether we can communicate. I say something to be so these data provide stronger strain and are the two different articles of painful to as a better picture of our what other been forgotten. How much can we rely on matters contribution towards galaxy evolution. I understand that dot matter makes up something like eighty percent of the matter within a gal up surrounding a galaxy. How does that affect the way galaxies evolved do we. We know much about that other than its gravitate once again visually what we can trays each just indirectly. Did you Bruce Doc month canal. It affects Let's say the good L. Galaxies. Because of course it's not detect but then he really got to because again we the medical assimilationist what we can do is we can see what would that bent to. Let's say twelve gauge of the unionist of galaxies that if we move my feet were how they with divorce and if we are back mouth and not from south to be really critical simply because it increases the I mean the potential well where D- gossip stuff doc four store and so make it possible throughout gauge of the universe to allow galaxies to form rapidly and we couldn't explain this way the three throughout different type of doctor that we see because we doubt that my galaxy the beefy countries low where elephant that's the liquor Cortez from the university versus Western Australia and the International Center for Radio Astronomy Research. I'm Stewart Gary. You're listening to space-time from time to time we get inquiries from our listeners asking how they can support our show and that's why we've set up a Patriot account account for just a few dollars a month. You'll get access to a slick commercial free version of the show each week as well as Burns audio content not included in the regular show plus us other awards like an invitation to join our special patrimony facebook group you can get all the details at Patriots. Pat Reo and patriot dot com mm slash space time with Stewart Gary. We can see the various reward levels available and what works for you and of course you'll have the satisfaction of knowing that you're hoping US divall Basho into the a future that you are really game patriot dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary and you can find all the details in the show notes we'll just quickly orange button on our website and and thanks to all our patriots because it's your generosity and support that helps keep basho going physicists have carried at the most precise measurement of the size of a proton ever taken finding it to be smaller than expected then you measurement places the size of the Proton at zero point eight three three symptom maters which is just under a trillion of a millimeter measurements around five percents smaller than the best previously accepted radius value you the product consists of two up and one down quark held together by glue guns and usually located in the nucleus of an atom protons have a positive charge and surrounded by a sea of electrons negatively charged and usually they're also accommodated the nucleus of an atom by neutrons. It's the number of protons in the atom which tell you what chemical element that particular. Adam is the new findings report in the Journal. Science represents a crucial step toward solving a mystery. That's preoccupied scientists around around the world for the past decade prior to twenty ten scientists thought they had a pretty good idea of the size of a Proton but then twenty ten that change when attainment physicist measured did the proton radius value to be Fu percents smaller than what was expected. I confuse the heck out of the scientific community. Since then the woods physicists have been scrambling to resolve the Proton radius puzzle as they call it inconsistency between these two proton radius values. This puzzle has been important unresolved problem in fundamental physics today. Hey the study's lead author Professor Eric Hessels From York University says the level of precision required to determine the proton size may this the most difficult measurement laboratories ever attempted hassles and colleagues spent eight years using new electron based measurement system to determine how far the positive charge extends the quest to resolve the proton radius puzzle as far reaching consequences for understanding the laws of physics such as the theory of Quantum electrodynamics which describes how light and matter interact act three previous studies pivotal attempting to resolve the discrepancy between electron based in Milan based determinations of Proton size. The twenty ten study was was the first to use hydrogen determine the size compared to previous experiments using regular hydrogen at that time scientists studied an exotic atom in which the electron electron was replaced by a meal on electric heavy cousin then twenty seventeen that it using hydrogen agreed with the two thousand ten beyond base determination of the Proton charge radius well a two thousand eighteen experiment also using hydrogen supported an earlier pre twenty ten value hessels colleagues wanted to both resolve the proton radius puzzle and also understand why the Proton Ray is going to different value and measured with me on rather than Electrons York University team steady Tomic hydrogen to understand the in value obtained from your nick hydrogen they conducted a high precision measurement using frequency offset separated on solitary technique which they developed for the experiment they measurement used to fast hydrogen atoms credit bypassing protons through Melilla degen guess target the method allow them to make an electron based measurement of the Proton radius radius that was directly analogous to the base measurement from the two thousand eighteen study. I'm Stewart Gary. You're listening space time. Uh Well. It's most advanced military telecommunications satellite has successfully launched and placed into geostationary orbit the advanced extremely high frequency or a h five satellite was launched United Launch Alliance Atlas Five Rocket From Space Launch Complex Forty one at the Cape Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The atlas five was at its most powerful five five one configuration for the mission equipped with five strap on solid rocket boosters. His team is ten nine eight seven six five four three two commission and we have liftoff of the United Launch Alliance Atlas Five rocket with age five for the United States Air Force Space Space and Missile Systems Center be doing down percents engine response looks good clue control as expected to responsibly good the parameters good one out of five now supersonic continuing to look good passenger. Max Q and Engine throttling backup cut to ninety four percents for US thirty one inch out. Bring parameters look good seeing good shaver pressure on all five. SRP's Mitch Burns passing one minute now into flight. Are you weady continuing. Can you look good also seeing good chamber pressure across all five servies engine now throttling down to seventy five percent thrust as expected engine response looks good standing by for us rb burning burn ashort lane and we're seeing burn out on all five s Arby's engine back up to full thrust standing by for us every Johnson good indication of Jefferson of all five solid rocket boosters. There's one minute fifty seconds into flight. Vehicles gone to closed loop guidance that was five is now thirty eight miles in altitude forty eight miles down range distance travelling at four thousand seven hundred miles per hour vehicle body rates looking good engine now throttling to maintain two point five g acceleration limit engine response and vehicle body response looks good or she she s. Barbara Valve has been fired reaction control system is pressurising the flight levels now coming up on three minutes into flight or eighty pumps needs an injector pressures continue to look good as it's it's maintaining that throttle limiting vehicle body rates continue to look good standing by for payload fairing jettison and we have good indication of fairing Jefferson and see if a large Edison send complete as well vehicle now throttling back up to ninety five percent thrust engine response looks good now throttling to maintain four point six g acceleration limit engine engine response looks good now passing four minutes into the flight center's begun the boost phase chill down sequence already one eighty engine continues look good is it maintains that four point six G throttle auto acceleration limit four minutes fifteen seconds cents standing by for Vico shortly and we have Biko booster engine cutoff standing by for stage step and we have good indication of atlas that was center separation. We have pre start on the ten gaining by for ignition. We have ignition and full thrust on the hour. Ten Chamber. Pressure looks good body rates. Look good. I burn burn of today's mission will last approximately seven minutes now five minutes into flight. The CENTAUR is one hundred ten miles in altitude five hundred miles down range distance distance travelling at thirteen thousand nine hundred miles per hour r l ten chamber pressure continues to look good deal. Kabbadi rates also maintaining good value this is the fifth of six satellites being built for the constellation providing highly secure jam connectivity for the US Air Force as well as allied nations that contributed visit to the project including Australia the United Kingdom Canada and the Netherlands each of the six six thousand one hundred sixty eight kilograms satellites are based on the Lockheed Madden a twenty one hundred m platform providing greater capacity than the entire Milstar constellation replace and carrying enough fuel dramatic operational for at least fourteen years well just weeks after the United Launch Alliance Atlas Five mission another United Launch Alliance rocket this time daughter four blasted into orbit carrying the second of a new generation of global positioning system satellites the United States Air Force. GPS Three John Satellite flew of Space Launch Complex thirty seven in at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida mcing the twenty ninth and final flight of the Dodo four rocket in its medium configuration roffe ignition t minus nine eight seven six five four three two we have ignition and liftoff talk of the United Launch Alliance Delta four rocket carrying the GPS three Magellan Mission for the United States Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center body response look good. You're hearing the voice the Patrick more providing line Indian chamber pressure looks good team could chamber pressure across both that's around twenty five seconds into flight good operating parameters on sixty eight main engine chamber pressure now. Sean booth that surrounds continues to look good good body rates on the pickle equals out passing Mach One sport now supersonic managing continued to perform well contingency good burn profile on both around in vehicles now passing through Max q maximum dynamic pressure main engine continue to perform well continue see good S. Chamber pressure profiles One Minute fifteen seconds into flight approximately fifteen seconds remaining tillis are burnt burnt out on both SRM's staying back for separation and we have separation of of both solid rocket motors vehicles now going to closed loop guidance body rate response looks good seeing minor correction and the role attitude as expected in a Delta rocket. Now we just one half half of its liftoff weight second-stage. AC system pressurization valve has been opened our CS pressure response looks good at two minutes five seconds into flight and vehicles passing through Mach Five Delta Forum is now thirty six miles an altitude fifty five miles down range distance travelling at four thousand seven hundred sixty miles per hour chamber pressure on the sixty day main in engine continues to look good body rate response also continue to look good and upper stage lock system has begun the boost phase chill down sequence to begin thermal conditioning of the upper stage engine now less than one minute remaining in the first stage phase of flight and upper stage fuel system has begun boost phase chill down now three minutes fifteen seconds into flight. Delta pours now sixty five miles an altitude one hundred and forty eight miles down instance travelling at eight thousand five hundred miles per hour not passing three minutes thirty seconds into flight main engine continues to perform well chamber pressure looks good body responses on the poor poor also look good about ten seconds remaining until booster throttle down and boosters now throttling down to the minimum power little in preparation for Biko standing by for Biko and we have Biko booster engine in cutoff standing by for stage separation. We have good indication of state separation. The upper stage engine nozzle extension is deploying. We have pre-start on the ten standing by for ignition we have ignition and full thrust on the ten engine chamber pressure looks good body rates look good staying by for payload fairing and we have payload fairing jettison mission control at t plus four and a half minutes we've just heard Patrick more report the successful execution of the early events of today's flight and all systems continue to operate nominally the Delta Force second-stage and GPS three satellite are traveling in a northeasterly direction up the US eastern seaboard. This mission is now in the first of two planned Elton Engine Burns. It's this burn will last approximately nine minutes with the final flight of the Dodo for medium and the Titan family of rockets long were tied only the Doda for heavy and atlas five remain in the United Launch Alliance manifest as the company continues its transition towards the new Volkan Center alone system expected to begin flying in twenty twenty one this launch also marked the seventy third flight of a GPS satellite. The lucky mart developed GPS three system is designed to provide improved navigation accuracy for the US militants militants allies with better anti jammers and also a new signal for civilian uses. The four thousand four hundred kilogram satellite provides precise positioning navigation in timing or pantene formation damages fifty centimeters the GPS signal is also compatible with Europe scarce satellite navigation system at present isn't Global Positioning System Network fitches thirty one operational satellites orbiting the planet at an altitude of around twenty thousand two hundred kilometers the United Launch Alliance next commission will be the unmanned orbital test flight of Bose UCS T. One hundred stylized captial which will be aboard an atlas five rocket using space analyst complex forty one at Cape Canaveral role if you'd like to help support space time and get access to the weekly double episode commercial free versions of the show and come and join Patriot family at any cost a few dollars a month it helps keep the show going and we offer heaps of rewards this bonus audio content and an invitation nations join our Special Patriots Ernie facebook group in common chat discuss the show. Ask questions whatever you want with like minded listeners and members of the space time team get all the details else at patriotair dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary now that's Patriot on spoke P. A. T. R. A. N. Patriot dot com slash space space time with Stewart Gary deals are also in the show notes or just click on the orange button on our website and thank you to all our listeners big as your generosity really does the support our show and take a brief look at some of the other stories making us inside this wake with the science report and you study ones that meant flavored e cigarettes could be a cancer trigger a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association claims mentioned Tin Menthol flavored cigarette liquids contain a Kastner Genyk substance called pugh on which is being banned as a food additive. The problem is it seems the legislation hasn't caught caught up with the science yet and while it is bad as a cosmic ginny additive food. It's not banned as an inhalant. Gone is a constituent of all extracts prepared from mid plants Lance including peppermint spearmint and Penny Royal. Your research presented at the annual meeting of the European says for the study of diabetes suggests that a a sixteen week Vegan Diet could boost gut microbes related to improving body weight body composition and blood sugar control the study included one hundred forty seven even overweight people with no history of diabetes who were either put on a low fat. Vegan Diet or asked not to change they died at all researchers found those in the Vegan group experience is changes in the gut bacteria microbiome and this resulted in an average weight loss of five point eight kilograms especially fat around the gut and just as importantly only it also improved the bodies insulin sensitivity and you study warns that clods of weathered crude oil originating from the twenty ten. BP deepwater arising catastrophe could remain buried in Sandy Gulf coast beaches for decades the findings by scientists at Florida State University of these large clumps of violence and known as sediment oil agglomerate will take at least thirty years to decompose the research published in the Journal scientific reports reviews these golf ball sized sized oily. Claude's contain substances that are highly harmful to both the environment and humans oil and other pollutants from BP's deepwater Horizon Spill contaminated emulated an estimated nine hundred and sixty five kilometers of sandy beaches along the Gulf of Mexico coastline scientists have discovered a new species of electric Akil which produces the highest voltage discharge of any nine animal a report in the Journal. Nature says the yield part of the naked back knife fishes group they'd have to South America in Mexico produces an electric shock up to eight hundred sixty volts electric yields which can reach two point five meters in length more closely related to catfish in cop and to the uh-huh families and speaking of scientists found a significant amount of ill DNA in Loch Ness. That's the K. finding of research by scientists from the University of Chicago looking at the Turtle Environmental DNA or ad and as its code present in Scotland famous Loch ness the large freshwater lake is best learn for the thousands of reported sightings since the sixth century of the mysterious long nick please. Esol like monster researchers collected over two hundred and fifty samples of water from various spots across loch ness a DNA from eight sample was captured extracted and sequenced then compared against databases to reveal a comprehensive picture sure of life prison in the lake examining bacteria the fish pretty well everything in between they found no DNA evidence supporting any monster hypothesis they they also found DNA evidence supporting some other ideas used to explain the loch ness monster those no DNA from giant catfish no DNA from sturgeons and no DNA from Greenland demand shocks but one popular theory that Nazis actually giant. Ill couldn't be speeded as a very significant amount of ill DNA was found apple has finally released its latest iphones as the battle for the hearts and minds of cell phone users around the world reaches new technological highs as we predicted a couple of weeks together. We'll be three new devices available. They'll be an iphone. Eleven an iphone eleven pro an iphone eleven promex. That'll set you back around two and a half grand the I I live in pro and pro Max other successes to last year's Iphone. X. Says they feature a stainless steel body three rear facing cameras and early display display and speaking of display. The bed uses the notches store. They're the cheaper alternative will be the new iphone eleven it features an aluminum body with jewelry facing cameras amorous and a lower resolution. LCD display with all the details with Alex rush from whistle out DOT COM do. I guess you'd probably call eleven the new default I it's. I guess it's a direct access to the iphone. Ten awesome lost your pre similar on. It's GonNa foster process up when it's super six foot one inch. LCD screen it's got two cameras of the back now and it's still made from Aluminium Walton stainless steel so that's twelve hundred dollars sixty gigabyte muddle yes. Just I guess the you buy if you don't want to spend large amount of money because I've been eleven pro starts at seven hundred forty nine and is isn't more expensive again at eighteen hundred and ninety nine so that quite pricey. I'm a little bit more expensive of Osteo and if you want the PROMEX with the big memory that's going to be two and a half grand yeah yeah that's full of five hundred twelve goodbye mud which kinda crazy. It's a lot of money to spend on us and I think most people don't need five hundred twelve equal by mortal because I've been hearing uh-huh so the most interesting things about pro is free rear facing cameras which kids something about. I Guess Agile doing for awhile but it's kind pitic territory so you've got a standard wide. I ran you've got your Zoom Lens but you've always putting a wide angle that this time around which I guess it causes backed off point five so you kind of zooming out when you have a primary lens and in addition was added in a night mode what we see my thoughts like for why but he probably on Pixel environments that nightmare can use take more images over long time to stitch together into a brighter side or the other big change with the iphone eleven prose. He's got much batteries so I would say that the eleven pros get about four hours of the tennis and the eleven per Max excuse about five hours then the s Max that's pretty decent improvements and it should put them at the top of the battery pack in terms of iphones which is crazy crate because I haven't always had the reputation for bash alive and it seems like apple was kind of stopped sacrificing battery the second within phone because then to buy a just just a little bit just a little bit heavier this time around but I think it's try to fat important because Bashar life is so bored that's Alex Horsh from Whistler Dot Com Dada. Ah You and that's the show for now you can subscribe at download space. Time is a free twice weekly podcast through Apple podcasts STITCHER BITES DOT COM. Tom Puckett cast soundcloud YouTube audio boom from space-time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite podcast download provider space time is also broadcast pass coast to coast across the United States sides three sixty radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. DC and around the world IHEART radio and tune in radio. If you want more space time check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images new stories videos and things on the web that I find interesting your amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Tumbler Dot Com. That's all one word in lower case and that's tumbler without the the in also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram on facebook just go to. WWW DOT facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary and you can also find us on the space. It's time with Stewart Gary Youtube Channel space-time is brought to in collaboration with Australian signed Telescope Magazine Your Window on the universe. You've been listening to space this time with Stewart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from BITES DOT com. If you want more space time checking our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images news stories videos and things on the web I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary. Dot Dot Com. That's all one word in lower case and that's tumbler without the you can also follow us on twitter at through at Stewart Gary at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram and on facebook just go to. WWW DOT facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary.
91: When Galaxies Collide - SpaceTime with Stuart Gary Series 21 Episode 91
"Is maybe the night them. Which is my left me. No, honest, full shoe, honest, full. Tell me what you do to me. Confrontation, a nothing new TIMMY, you could bring a bullet. Bring swore bring a more. But you can't bring the to me. Alexa, play Kendrick. Lamar and says, okay. With Amazon music avoid all you need get tens of millions of songs. Download the Amazon music app today. This episode of space time is brought to you by the great courses. Plus lifelong learning from the best in their fields to start your free trial. Sign up today, thrust special euro access. Any course you like for free. Just go to the great courses plus dot com slash space. That's the great causes past dot com slash space. And that way, you'll be helping to support our show. This is space time series. Twenty one episode ninety one for broadcast on the sixteenth November twenty eight teen coming up on space time supermassive black holes about to merge as galaxies. Collide, the closest ever approach to the sun and use elands electron rocket blasts off into Opeta gain all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. Astronomers have spectacular window seat as two supermassive black holes are about to merge as they galaxies. Collide, the findings reported in the journal nature show, the two galaxies slowly being drawn together by the force of gravity merging into a tangled mass of dense gas and dust structure is giving what it Kennedy us and hiding behind this MRI cloud of material to monstrous supermassive black holes each nestled at the center of their own galaxy and then now excitingly close to coalescing into a single mega black hole. Scientists made the discovery of the completing the largest systematic survey of nearby galaxies using high resolution images taken by the giant ten medicate observatories adaptive optics system and the infrared camera they think can pay their observations with the twenty years of archival Hubble space telescope images. The survey data allows the strongest to pinpoint the type of galaxies most likely to Habat close pays of supermassive black holes. The study's lead author Michael costs from Eureka scientific in Kirkland. Washington says it's the first lot systematic survey of five hundred galaxies to discover an isolated population of hidden light stage black hole merges that heavily obscured. And highly luminous the authors found a surprising number of Siptah massive black holes growing larger and faster in the final stages of galaxy merges now theory states that sip messy black hole the center of every lodge galaxy and win galaxies merge. So to do they supermassive black holes while the overall process takes billions of years the final black hole merger happens in the blink of an eye ship. A massive black hole merger has never been directly observed the electromagnetic spectrum, nor is it easy to find galaxy nuclei so close together the late stage of the merger process is so Lucille because the interacting galaxies kicking up lots of gas and dust especially in the final most violent stages of the merger. That's because is thicker. Material which forms and shows the galaxies nuclei from view invisible light and astronomers didn't have the capability to observe this type of event until now the problem is heavily obscured. Galaxy nuclei don't have a bright point source of light at the center like a lot of luminous on obscured supermassive black holes too, but causing colleagues were able to take them. Anyway, thanks to x Ray data from the burst alert telescope, the authors, then used the superior laser capabilities of the kick observatories adaptive optics system to form high resolution near infrared imaging to pay through that Val of gas and dust to distinctly say, the double nucleus and uncover the hidden merges, the findings support the theory that galaxy mergers can explain how some sort of massive black holes become so monstrously lodge. There are lots of competing hypotheses about how this could happen. One idea is that you've got a bunch of gas in the galaxy. And that slowly continuously fitting, the massive black hole, bigger and bigger and bigger. And now that is that black. Holes grow by merging galaxies. And the new data argues for that second case that these galaxy merges are really critical for fueling the growth of massive black holes and just as excitingly this survey may also start them actually observe a black hole merger taking place, you see whence, it messy blackouts collide Mata, and he did that create a mega black hole, but they also unleash powerful energy boosts in the form of gravitational waves. These ripples in space time I predicted by Albert Einstein. We're recently detected by groundbreaking gravitational wave into Rama tree experiments like a siren just before Sonani gravitational waves reach earth slightly earlier than light. But in order to image such an event, astronomers need to know where to look and what object to look for gravitational wave detectors. Tell us on as what area to look in and causes research tells them whether the objects likely to host a supermassive black hole merger causing colleagues focused on galaxies with an average distance of around three hundred and thirty million lie. From earth many of the galaxies. This us similar in size to the Moltke way. These new divisions are also providing us with a bit of a preview as to what's likely to happen in our own cosmic backyard at about three point seven billion years from now, you see that's when our Milky Way galaxy merges collides really with the neighboring m thirty one galaxy Andromeda and as a result of that merger and drummer supermassive black hole and the milky way's supermassive black hole such tears ace. Ta will also Colli as costs and colleagues, then move Lou involve using the cake observatories infrared imaging spectrometer Cyrus assignments will allow them to measure, but the rotation right and the mass of the black holes, and that's important because we'll make it possible to estimate. How long it takes before the supermassive black holes collide emerge, and how strong the result gravitational wave signal might be. I'm Stewart, Gary, you're listening space time. Okay. Let's take a quick break from our show. For would from our sponsor, the great coast is plus not only get to choose from thousands of courses. But by learning through the great courses, plus you get to choose where. And when you learn as well, you can learn at home a wall commuting to work whenever you want. How much you want? It's totally up to you. Thanks to the great courses plus app. There are thousands of fascinating lectures to choose from and e causes the being added all the time get unlimited access to informative ending gauging lectures on some many topics. Science history math had a bit of photos had a play chis- even learn how to cook. And they're all presented by a would winning experts in their field. Now as I mentioned last time, I'm currently enjoying the search for exoplanets. What astronomers now the twenty four lectures in this coast presented by professor. Joshua win is on multiple nessa projects. The series covers the fundamentals about why scientists study planet right through to the such. Life on extra terrestrial planets and long-term future planet hunting project to enjoy this core. So any of the thousands of others sign up for us special Yaro, and we'll even give you a free trial. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space. The great courses pasta com slash space that way they'll know you came from us and you'll be hoping to support our show. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space. And now it's back to the show. This is based with Stewart Gary necessary Pokka Sola probe is set in you record flying close into the sun that any other spacecraft ever the six hundred eighty five kilogram probe skim by the sun flying just twenty four million kilometers above oust is visible surface. Just seventy eight days after its Lohan, and that's fine closer than any other spacecraft has ever gone. The previous record was set by the Helius bay probe back in nineteen seventy six the pocket solo probes maneuver exposed the spacecraft to the intense hate and celebration of the complex solar wind environment. The pack is solo probe is the combination of six decades of scientific progress. It's allowed scientists on the deck humidity's I ever close visit to alkyl star. And that's gonna have implications. Not just here on earth. But for a deeper understanding of the universe is a hole that its closest approach as para helium the pocket Sala probe reach the top spate of more than three hundred forty three thousand. Thousand kilometers an hour in the process sitting in you record for spacecraft spayed along with new records for closest approach to the sun. The pocket solar probe will also break its own spayed record as it's all, but draws closer and closer to the star and the spacecraft moves faster and faster Pera Halian with a final close approach of six point one six million kilometers from the sun surface expected in twenty twenty four jury juries first close encounter, the intense. Sunlight hated the sun facing side of the probes hate shield known as the thermal protection system to about four hundred forty degrees celsius. And if you think that's a bit warm toasty temperatures are expected to climb to over fourteen hundred degrees celsius as the spacecraft makes closer and closer approaches to the sun, but all the while the spacecraft's instruments and systems will be protected by the hate showed. Which amazingly should keep them below thirty degrees celsius the pocket. Solar probe was launched about at delta. Four heavy rocket from space launch complex thirty seven at the Cape. Can ever air force station in Florida on August? The twelfth twenty eight teen only all the space craft will use seven gravity throughout Venus to incrementally shrink. It's Ovid around the sun during it seventy mission, the Pakhus all probes the first base craft the fly into the lowest solar, corona the missions designed to trace the flow of energy that hates the corona and accelerate the solar wind the sun's visible surface. The furthest fear has a temperature of around six thousand the gray sociopaths relatively cool compared to the many millions of degrees at the sun's core. That's because not only things get cool at the further away. You are from the hate souls. And that's where a big problem arises which the pocket solo probe will have to answer. You say the sun's atmosphere, the corona as temperatures of more than a million degrees. So instead of getting cooler the further away from the sun's hates us. Things are getting hotter and scientists what do I understand why we think the reason for this is a process code magnetic reconnection a sudden release of energy? Caused by magnetic field lines, connecting the sternum is also went to study the structure and dynamic to the magnetic fields at the source of the solar wind, and they wanted to Termine what making this excel rate and transport energetic particles away from the sun to do this the spacecraft is a quick with five primary science instrument packages. Visit electromagnetic fields investigation to make direct measurements of the electric magnetic field radio waves pointing flocks absolute, plasma density and electron temperature. Visit integrated science investigation to measure, energetic, electrons protons and heavy ions. There's a wide food image at comprising optical telescopes to get images of the corona and in a hideous fear, a Soma wind electrons ALPHA's and protons instrument will count electrons protons and helium ions and measure properties, such as velocity density and temperature. Finally, there's the Hillier very origins with Sola pro plus study a theory and modeling investigation to maximize the scientific returned from the mission. To find out more Andrew Dunkley speaking with the sternum, Dr Fred Watson. Now, Fred we head towards the sun, the Pokka Sola private it's now approaching its destination. That's the fast part of the project literally fossil talk about that too. But now it's good years and years of work to do. Indeed. That's right. So it's destination is a series of obits that will take it at a closer to parents star to the sun. The puck Assila probe is designed to unsurpassable really date questions about the way that the son works list a minute, but the bottom blind in terms of the news at the moment is that after successful launch on the on the twelfth of August not that long ago. Eight has now actually broken Recco. Because it has become the closest human made object to the Senate will continue breaking record throughout its mission which goes for almost seven years. So at the moment is within forty million kilometres of the cell. Remember that compared with the hundred and fifty million kilometres that we are away from the sun here on us. So there it is on its way in woods. It's also Harring along a fairly fast rights Sunday, relative to the sun in the region of seventy kilometers per second, which is significant significantly faster than you. And I could move most of the time you allow for the thirty kilometers per second motion of the us, which is taking around the some so, yeah, it's really knocking on it's a relatively small spanks craft mess as launched is something like seven hundred kilograms a little bit less impact. But the payload self he's only fifty kilograms worth. That's the you know, the stuff that does all the measurements so relatively lightweight. But it was launched on one of the most powerful rocket launching the machines available to to US intas, the delta full heavy the reason for that was to get into this solar obits as rapidly as possible because you need to go fast. In order to get into the system when we talk about years of travel to get some way, it it's it's it's not very often. We get the opportunity to talk about a launch. And then a couple of months later incite. Well, they that's really. Yeah. That's really. But in in a sense being there is just being in a particular obey rather than rendezvous going with a specific planet. You know? I mean, we're told to Waco ago about the the big Colombo space craft lodge that sold its way to Mickey. But it's gonna take seventy years to get that with nine planetary fly bys on the way because its rendezvous with the fustest planet in the solar system where it all gets really weed in the minds of many people we can send a prior to the sun in a couple of months, but we gotta take seven years to get the mercury which is opening the closest to the sun. People want. I mean, how is that possible? But it's all about this, isn't it? And it's what you trying to achieve as well. You know, the talk Sola probe will will wind up in an orbit that is not trying to rendezvous. It's not trying to slow down to going to around Bokhary. For example, a whiz by mercury really very quickly. Its mission is all about understanding big questions about the son of one of them as well. I suppose the biggest of the mole is why the corona of the sandwiches outer atmosphere. Why is that so much hotter than the surface of the summit? We say, of course, that surface is not solid. It's a layer of glowing gas, but we call it. The Fotis fear that surfaces at the temperature of somewhere in the region of five and a half to six thousand degrees celsius whereas the out occur owner of the cell his temperature measured in millions of degrees about ten million degrees. It's not this. How? That get so hot. It's actually once again, very tenuous. It's very rarefied gas is the gas in the solar corona, but still there must be some causes transferred to warm it up, and that's not really understood. So the puck appro will go some way old investigating. We also want to know how the solar wind gets accelerated to the kind of million kilobytes are now Speights that it blows out. This is the wind of subatomic particles the Sunday mid sole the time by the solar system when they get particularly energetic. We start saying Rory here on earth. But we don't really know why that wind of possible should be so fast almost certainly all about magnetism. And so the structure and dynamics of the magnetic fields and the the Laurie Jains of the sun's atmosphere are also targets for the solar probe to investigate. So we could start saying answers fairly rapidly. We've done maybe not answers. We won't say images because this space craft kinda hides behind it takes shales, which lead to do because he's closest approach to the sun takes it within six million kilometers. Which is you know, all the skimming the surface of the cell that stick a hand at the window by so it's gonna fairly happy to hate shield to protect the spice craft itself under his instruments does know why to poke a camera through. So that won't be close up photographs with all the spice craft already novas around the same that can do that very well, but what the solar probe will be sensing is Betty fields and particle densities and things of that. So so we'll start I hope we'll start seeing those relatively quickly. Okay. How much danger is it in paying in that proximity to the sun and getting up close and personal is it in a precarious zone in a sense. It is and that's why the Hague shield itself is heavy duty industrial strength carbon composites and Hollywood once it's on. Man suit backside. Yeah. Yeah. That's right. Like most spice missions, Andrew. The early phases will be relatively conservative in what they will expect the spacecraft to do. So the mission consists of twenty four Albans around the Selm over the next seven years getting gradually closer and closer to the sun. So it's I you know, passage across the surface of the sun will be relatively benign in the sense that he's not going close as it will at the end as I said, the six million kilometer range the end of the mission is going to test the hate shale to the ultimate. But you don't do that kind of thing right at the start of the mission. You want to get older till you can promise in those. And do they all day should stuff to Zand, which is what missions all about ending crush it into the sun? It will actually wind up big permanently it over to around the cell live, actually, it won't melt. But it will certainly, you know, say still operate because electron will get fried by subatomic particles and things of that. So. Just become a chunk of metal. They'll be space debris spice junk. Oh. That's interesting. We've never done that before. It's not like is it to do that to leave stuff done. My mental calculation and it's traveling at six hundred ninety thousand kilometers per hour. That's when it passes closest to the celsius rights, and but in American it'll be slow four hundred thirty thousand miles an hour. We metrics world much faster than you in America. Just put it into context that Sandra nineteen kilometers per second culture. Mama's that is fast as very hundred twenty miles per second. That's Dr Fred Watson and astronomy with department of science speaking with Andrew Dunkley on a sister program space nuts, and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary. Museum says it's now game on off the successfully launching its first commercial and second it'll space mission the flight using rocket lab. Slake all black electron launch vehicle blasted into orbit from the company's Mahia peninsula launchpad on the fiery Ston age of New Zealand's. No file and in non I save on sex or nationally. Right. Fifty percent of key. Plus one minute flight is nominal coming on maximum pressure. Propulsion still mexic- pressure, healthy true. Twenty kilometers says no mino- dynamic pressures fifty maximum Hella packs here to one at Chatham station. Minimize AOI entering mode up to take time to go. I'd say. Too. Stitch? Propulsion nominal vehicles. Secreting faring depression down transfer to nominal the moons was managed from rocket lab's mission control center in Oakland with the company also builds its electron launch vehicles. The mission had been sighted to originally launch back in April but suffered a series of delays due to ongoing technical glitches with the motor controller unit. The unit was eventually redesigned the mission dubbed its business time carried six at lots and technology demonstrator successfully placing them all into five hundred kilometer, hi, Lois. It the electron is seventeen Mehta toll to stage Cobb and compass at rocket designed to carry small pilots up to two hundred twenty five kilograms into low with all of it. The first stage electron is powered by nine electric pump fit three D printed. Rutherford rocket engines fueled by p one kerosene and liquid oxygen. Propellant? The second stage uses a single Rutherford engine up the buys for vacuum operations this mission. The electron was also fitted with a third stage curry kick Moda. Scientists secularize the payload orbit the mission's payload included to Lima two satellites spy global, which will join the company's existing constellation of more than sixteen satellites tracking global shipping movements and monitoring with conditions through GPS radio. Cultivation also aboard the flight, which proxima remote internet communication satellites for stray in company fleet space technologies, and you GO upticks Tivat Neta satellite and the ovine zero one educational keep set payload boop by Californian high school students in one is designed to carry a camera and a solar panel propulsion system. It'll click data from orbit such as temperature in the set alight speed direction location altitude the mission also carried a drag cell technology. Demonstrator the filled by high performance space structure systems, it's designed to passively deorbit inactive satellites at the end of their operational life. The drag sells might have an ultra thin membrane. That can be called up really tightly within the space cra-. And then the -ployed once the satellite reaches the end of its operational lifespan the lodge. Reflective Pennells on Phil to increase the spacecraft surface area causing it to experience, great ravage freak drag. And because the south reflective also makes use of solar radiation pressure to maneuver, a technique known a solar sailing. Listen, I was the satellite to be load towards an orbit with Arizona. Drag takes ova and literally pulls the satellite back down into atmosphere. And I believe much faster. They orbiting the mission was rocket labs. Third for its electron, which vehicle the company's first launch. It may last g successfully reach space but foul to achieve orbit a second flooding, January Vichy successfully place, the dove piney said life of planet. Labs to leave it to shed lights, spike. Global and a reflective fear could the humanity Stein to all bit sort of like a giant discount memorable the companies planning another launch next month. And they're at least sixteen flight surfer plan for twenty nine teen in. Rocket labs launch manifest this. So busy last month. The company announced plans to establish a second loan sought specifically the handle American payloads that'll be at Nashes wallop solid flood facility on the Virginian mid Atlantic coast. I'm Stewart Gary vis space time. United launch alliance Alice. Five rocket is blasted into all of it carrying a new US military communications satellite. The fourth advanced extremely high frequency satellite lifted off from space launch complex forty one. At the Cape Canaveral air force stationing Florida shortly after midnight range status range grade three s reduced for launch status. Check. Oh app goes Centaur. Go ahe four t minus ten nine eight seven six five four three. We have admission. One. And liftoff of the eight four mission carried by United launch alliance. Atlas five rocket for the United States Air Force. You were carrying the voice of Patrick more, providing launch pads, thirty seconds. Mach one. I was five enough two percent passing twenty. Passing twenty seconds parenting. A wanted to drop out in the Denver data station, light hardy, aided should be throwing backup hundred mega q. Now one minute into flight. Right. Molly back. Envious data now at one minute twenty five seconds into flight. I was five rocket now. Wage just one half of what it did it launch bring pound at a rate of sixty nine hundred pounds per second. And we have burnt out on all five bees. Are you eighty throttling? Back up to pull trust one minute. Forty five seconds into flight one minute fifty seconds end, and we have jettison of all five solid rocket boosters, the atlas five launch vehicle fluid. It's five five one configuration, which is currently the most powerful in the outlets five fleet quick with a five made a payload fairing five strap on solid rocket boosters assisting the ID one eighty nine liquid fueled engine and sinto up a stage with a single arrow ten ingen the six thousand one hundred and sixty eight kilogram payload for this mission is the fourth of six new advanced extremely high frequency communication satellites being built by Lockheed Martin for the United States space. Command they'd being used to replace the Milstar telecommunication satellites providing most secure communications for the armed forces of the United States Britain. Canada the Netherlands villain cooperate frequency hopping radio technology as well as phased array antennas that can adapt their radiation patents in order to block out potential jamming the two remaining said lots in the new constellation a slight Falange next year as well as being the fiftieth. United launch alliance flight for the US air force. The mission was also the company's eighth launch this year and the one hundred and thirty first successful launch since the company was formed back in December two thousand six. The United launch alliance is next flied will be the classified L seventy one mission for the National Reconnaissance office. That'll be voted dosa for heavy rocket slated for November the twenty ninth from space launch complex six at the Vandenberg Air Force base in California. Maybe them. Let's let me know own stars. Bolshoi owners jarred full. Tell me what you going to me confrontation. Ain't nothing. No TIMMY, you could bring a bullet. Bring swore bring a more. But you can't bring the chill. Timmy, Alexa, play Kendrick. Lamar and says, okay. With Amazon music avoid all you need get tens of millions of songs. Download the Amazon music app today and time now to take another look at some of the other stories making you should science this week with a science report. A new study is found that we'll of a half of the world's population vertebrates from fish to fibia and reptiles birds and mammals have been what doubt in just the past four decades, the findings by the World Wildlife Fund living planet report shows that between nineteen seventy and twenty fourteen. There was sixty percent decline on average among sixteen thousand seven hundred wildlife populations around the world and that equates to a loss of nearly two-thirds of all wild species, the hottest regions central and South America and the Caribbean way. What life populations have declined by some eighty nine percent and global freshwater ecosystems will also hot hit with population declining by eighty three percent worldwide. And study is discovered a link between autism SP. From this orders and sink deficiency in early development. A report in the journal frontiers in molecular neuroscience, shows housing shapes the connections, sinuses between brain cells forming early in development through complex molecular machinery in coded by autism risk genes for such as found that when a signal is transferred by way of sign at the end is the target neuron or a combined two proteins shank. Tune Shang three these proteins into INCO's changes in the composition and function of Jason signal receptors empires on the neuron surface, sign apps now all this suggests that a lack of during early development, Mike contribute to autism through impatience an ethic metro station Niro circuit formation, while the findings don't directly support zinc supplementation for the prevention of autism. They do extend sciences understanding underlying vote mental ad in the melodies towards an eventual treatment. Well, I that was considered a serious concern, then it was deemed safe now new questions being raised about the effects of nine ising radiation from cellphones. The national toxicology program of the United States National Institute of environmental health sciences has released new research suggesting a conclusive link between high levels of radio frequency, radiation and cancer in rats and mice for ten years studied vote, exposing both male and female rats and mice to radio frequency radiation. Just like that used in two g and three g sofa technologies. The study found Chuma growth in the hot sprains and adrenal glands of the mile rats two g and three g networks us because they were standard. When the studies design and is still is calls and texting the study did not investigate. Why fi four j five j networks the lowest exposure levels used in the studies was equal to the maximum local tissue exposure currently allowed for cellphone uses at it's. Putting out this Powell level really cause with typical sofa us and the highest exposure levels in the studies with some four times higher than the maximum Powell permitted. Now, interestingly the study also found long a life spans among the exposed mallrats. This may be explained by observed decreasing chronic kidney problems, which are often the cause of death in all the rats exposure to the radiation began in the womb ranch and at five to six weeks owed for mice and it continued for up to two years, which is most of the natural life spans the exposure was intimate ten that. It's on ten minutes off totally about nine hours h day liberals range from one point five six, what's but kilogram rats and two point five to ten watts per kilogram in mice. Griffith university. Researchers have demonstrated a new procedure for making precise measurements of speed acceleration material properties and even gravitational waves possible. The findings reported in the journal nature communications shows how scientific research is now approaching the ultimate sensitivity allowed by the laws of quantum physics the research so the Griffith team led by visit pride working with photons single particles of light and using them to measure the extra distance travelled by a light beam compared to its partner reference Spain as it went through thing. Crystal sample, which was being measured. And you study claims plant based vegan diet may be best for keeping type two diabetes in chick because of its potential to low of blood glucose, and it's a fixed on mood, the findings reported in the British medical journal based on a review of all available evidence. The oath is say that cutting out made it animal products is associated with improved psychological will being in quality of life, white loss, outward, actioning, blood glucose and cholesterol, and it may also improve diabetic nerve pain. However, the authors note that they reviews based on just eight studies most of which it small sample sizes and all of which were survey shingle, so they can't prove coz an affect your listening space time. I'm Stewart, Gary, and that's the shy Fano. You can subscribe and download space time as a free twice weekly podcast through apple podcast. I tunes stitch-up botch dot com. Pucca costs soundcloud YouTube audio boom from space time with Stewart Gary dot com, all from your favorite podcast. Download provider. Space times also broadcast coast to coast across the United States on science three sixty radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and available around the world on tune in radio. If you want more space time it out blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images me stories, videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary dot tumbler dot com, that's all one word and in lower case. And that's tumbler without the you can also follow us on Twitter through x Jewett. Gary at space time with Stewart Gary on Instagram and on Facebook, just go to WWW dot Facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary space-time is brought to in collaboration with Australian sky. Tell us magazine you'll window on the universe. You being listening to space time. With Stewart, Gary this is being another quantity podcast production from bites dot com.
54: Spooky Quantum Entanglement
"This is Space Time series twenty two episode fifty four for broadcast on the nineteenth of July twenty nineteen coming up on space time the first image of Spooky quantum entanglement in action discovery of an asteroid with this shortest year Nia and the Pentagon announces plans for their own military space station all that and more coming up on space time welcome to Space Time We'd Stewart Gary Breath in what's being held is an incredible incredible achievement scientists have captured the world's first actual photograph of quantum entanglement that strange phenomenon Albert Einstein famously described as spooky action at a distance quantum entanglement occurs when two particles become linked so they property such a spin position momentum and polarization become correlated regardless of how far apart they are even stranger whatever happens to one of the particles that are entangled and a half hour away it is also happens to the other case Sir. How does it all work? Well imagine a pair of gloves. Bob and Alice are each given one of the gloves wrapped in apostle but then moves away to another country later Bob Analysis opened their passers and look at their gloves and whoever has the left handed glove knows the other must have the right handed glove okay fairly simple so far but he's where it gets tricky until Bob and Alice actually opened the parcel and look at their gloves thick gloves in the quantum entanglement world birth lift and right handed at the same time time which I guess means they mittens that's because it's only when you measure a quantum entangled particle that it has a set of properties in other words when Bob tries putting his mitten on his right hand it becomes a right handed glove which means Alice must have the left handed glove but then if alice tried to put the governor right hand it would stay mitten but had bob put the glove on his left hand it would have been left handed glove and Alliston would have had a right handed glove which would also have stayed admitting had she tried to put it on her left hand. So the the fate of one glove reveals the Fed the other even though Bob and Alice have no idea which glove they have until they take it out of the puzzle and try to put it on so once again the very active observing the entangled particle determines. It's quantum state this phenomenon that was the subject of a one thousand nine hundred eighty five paper Albert Einstein Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen followed shortly afterwards in several passes by Erwin Schrodinger describing what came to be known as the Einstein podolsky Rosen or Apia Paradox Einstein and colleagues considered such behavior to be impossible as it violated the local realism view of causality and argue that the accepted formulation of quantum mechanics mistake will be incomplete. The amazing new image published in the journal Science advances was captured by physicists is assisted the University of Glasgow it shows the entangled interaction between two photons particles of light. The authors I generated streams of entangled Photon pairs entangled photons within split up with one stream image at renfrew through Barium Boron liquid-crystal filters which triggered for different face transitions at the same time the authors image the other strip gained through the same phase transitions even though it hadn't passed through the liquid crystal image shows the photons in both streams wish to the same way despite being split thereby confirming the entangled. You're listening to space time. I'm Stewart Gary Astronomers. Tournament of spotted unusual asteroid the shortest gene and for any asteroid the space rock cataloged as twenty nine teen l. f. six is about a kilometer wide and open to the sun roughly every one hundred fifty one earth days six is one of twenty nine at Tira Asteroids objects which circle the Sun entirely inside of Earth orbit around the Sun Iliffe sixes orbit takes it from an apogee almost distant opposition from the sun just beyond Venus and into a parody or nearest orbital position to the sun inside that of mercury which circles the sun every eighty eight earth days he'll have six was discovered by the Vicki transient facility a state of the art camera at Palomar Observatory at scans the skies every night for transient objects such as just exploding and flashing stars and moving asteroids because Vicki scans the sky so rapidly. It's well suited for finding tire asteroids which have short observing windows usually only around twenty to thirty minutes just before sunrise just after sunset the finally attire asteroids strongest Caridad a dedicated observing campaign named twilight after the time of day best suited for discovering the objects so far the programs that had one other attire asteroid which has been catalogued as twenty nine thousand nine hundred eighty three before I left six came along achey three was the shortest known year of any asteroid orbiting the sun roughly every one hundred and sixty five days interestingly both these attire asteroids orbit well outside the plan of the solar system suggesting they've probably been flying out of their original. It's coming too close to either Venus or mercury as well as the two attire asteroids Vicki's also found about one hundred near Earth Asteroids at about two thousand asteroids orbiting in the main dope between Mars and Jupiter that discoveries raise raising astronomers hopes that NASA may select the near Earth Object Camera Mission Neo Cam as featured project NIA CAM would be designed to look specifically for asteroids closer to the Sun than previous surveys picking up the infrared or hate signatures because at Tira asteroids are closer to the sun they'd be warmer than other asteroids and they will brighter in the infrared and easiest spot. I'm Stewart Gary. This is space time okay. Let's take a break from show for a word from our sponsor. The great courses plus this a deep human craving to improve our knowledge to kate learning and that's what the great courses plus is all about. It's a streaming service that lets you to expand your knowledge. In fact the great courses plus was founded on the idea that education really should be accessible to everyone and they make it possible to learn from the brightest minds out there people most of us would never have access to otherwise the best professors fezzes from the best universities in the world as well as experts from National Geographic and the Smithsonian this is college level education but without the need a student loans or the pressure of homework and grades and the great courses plus APP makes it possible to learn whichever way you want at home on the commute to work or on long distance travel. It's your choice at one of the best things about the great courses plus. It's Cape adding new lectures new subjects all the time. This is a great one. I've come across code understanding understanding the misconceptions of science it's presented by Professor Dan Lincoln and it takes a serious look at the thing semi people get wrong about science. I guess that makes it a former myth busting through twenty five lectures in all covering things like the myths about genetics the Truth About Radiation has statistics can lie to you how relativity misunderstood analysts goes on. Maybe it's just the skeptic in me but I really enjoying this course and so I can thoroughly recommend it to you. What's again understanding the misconceptions of science professor? I Don Lincoln so as you can see you get to empower yourself with knowledge all sorts of topics sign up for the great courses plus today and as a listener of space time they're offering you unlimited access to the entire library for free that means you can try. Riot whatever courses you want it for free but to start your free trial you need to sign up through special your real that way you'll be supporting your own brain. You'll be hoping to sports space time as well so sign up today. At the great courses plus dot com slash. I space. 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The great courses plus dot com slash space and of course we'll have the link details in the show notes and on the space time website and and now it's back to our show this space time with Stewart Gary the Pentagon announced plans to vote and autonomous military space station the proposed open alpers would initially be unmanned unmanned that feature human habitation modules are likely to be added space station will be designed in such a way that additional modules and equipment can be added as needed such as robotic arms external attachment points the U._S. military says the new facility would be placed in low with all oh but and be capable of maneuvering they say it would be used to undertake research missions including space assembly project microgravity experimentation orbital manufacturing and training the facility would need to test and evaluate new systems equipment capable Eh adapting to Husnu payloads and be able to store logistics and other equipment is needed the Pentagon's also called for the new space station to be ready for flight within two years of contract being awarded the Air Force proposed a similar manned orbiting outpost is back in the early nineteen sixties but eventually opted for satellites instead of the former Soviet Union has a long history of sacred military salyut Almaz space stations which were eventually ulcer replaced by satellites in the European Space Agency and Arianespace launched a full independent commission of inquiry after a Vega rocket carrying a spy satellite failed two minutes after launch Arianespace Flight V they they fifty lifted off his plan from the European Space Agency's spaceport in French Guiana the launch of being postponed twice a high winds over the space center Tuesday deal at Toss Sean politics on Vanilla. This nurse breath beat set cease sank got clock DOPP begets. Maybe you get the vitamin it still is your cell. Palestine shown on five is a heavier vehicle runs much more slowly way six times as much but Vega lifting off perfectly from French Guiana beginning the fifteenth mission in her young career weighing one hundred thirty eight tonnes at liftoff they call her the launcher compared to so he's about one hundred over one hundred tons isn't exactly featherweight the first stage it's produced in Cali federal near Rome by the people then delivered delivered here to French beyond the first stage ways ninety-six tons eighty eight tons of that our fuel most of any launchers weight is propellant. The first stage burns it single engine for about two minutes before being jettisoned and you'll hear collect the launch of signal is of course being followed at all times right now. Our first down range tracking station on the ground is taking the signal. There's a station at the base just behind us in Jupiter called Galileo. The second is a little down range at a place called Santa Melanie hip imagine if you'll UNPLUG VEGAS I age appear to be operating nominally however about two minutes after launch following MECO managing cut off and state separation ground-based long range cameras fell to pick up the ignition one of the Vegas Sephora twenty-three second-stage suggesting possibly fail to ignite however commentators continue to call that mission milestones including second-stage ignition and fairing separation video has called out separation for stage coming right on time. I'm and ignition of the second stage coming one second later so we're into the second stage. Burn second-stage's called these e twenty-three for his effortle will burn it solid rocket motor for eighty six seconds and again. If you're following the mass and the fuel all numbers she weighs twenty six tons and twenty three tons of that our fuel coming up to separation shortly of the stage addict fuel of employees Sipa Shown News Advanta big operating eating at an average launch rate of London tune missions per year currently Alexi is she's the only launch earner class now in regular production and did you call that separation of the faring we can separate the faring now because we've made it about one hundred twenty kilometers above the earth were out of the atmosphere putting we have been informed. We have been informed that we've lost telemetry slight telemetry loss flight director informing us that we lost telemetry link with the lawn or waiting for word from Arianespace so please wait with us again flight director informing us that the telemetry link with the launcher has been lost to are waiting for word for Aaron's base on these situations and so allows you to please wait with us. The rocket was carrying the one thousand two hundred kilogram Falcon. I won the first of two United Arab Emirates high resolution spy satellites built by Airbus defence and space with optical imaging payload from fellow so linear space. This is the first failure involving Vega launch vehicle. It was the sixth Vega launch this year and the fifty eighth mission since the rocket began flying in two thousand twelve ladies and gentlemen as you have seen about two minutes after liftoff WBT Rondos at twenty three ignition a major anolmaly oh cured resulting in the loss of the mission on behalf of islands face I wish to express my deepest apologies to our customers for the loss of their payload food and telling them how sorry I am from the first flight data and we would get in the coming hours more precise information and we will communicate to to everybody at the soonest again. Let me present my innkeeper's approaches to our customers. Thank you the independent commission of inquiry. We'll look into the cause of the failure and identify the measures needed to ensure the resumption of Vega flights within safety parameters. The inquiry commission will be co-chaired by the inspector the General of Asia and the senior vice president of technical and quality operations at Arianespace and Tom that'd take a brief look at some of the other stories making using science this week or the science report put a new study has found that people suffering from mental illness face drastic physical health challenges as well with life expectancy reduced by around twenty years. The findings show a broad range of mental illnesses are associated with a lifelong burden of obesity diabetes and cardiovascular disease. You can read all about the findings together with the author's recommendations in The Lancet Medical Journal well. It seems seagulls on Australian beaches. Maybe threatening more than just your fishing ships. New Research Search reported in the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy has found that Australian service seagulls are infected with antimicrobial resistant bacteria that can cause serious infections in humans such as you only tract infections and sepsis these drug resistant bacteria a similar to ones causing diseases in humans in hospitals and Community Nursing Homes Murdoch University Antimicrobial Researcher Dr Sam Abraham who led the investigation since the problem is now widespread around the country archaeologists. I have discovered the ancient biblical city of Zigzag scientists with Israeli Antiquities Authority. The Hebrew University in Jerusalem and Sydney's Macquarie University uncovered the remains on a hilltop in central Israel sick lag is mentioned several times in the Judeo today a Christian Bible as the Philistine City in which young David received sanctuary from king so the city is also believed to be the place with David Lift on his journey to Hebron way he was a naughty King of Israel and ruled for seven years before ascending to Jerusalem three thousand years ago thing well new D._N._A.. Interests confirmed that the Philistines worrying fact Greek that discovery by scientists from the Max Planck Institute is based on DNA sequencing of ten Philistine skeletons excavated from various various burial sites in Ashkelon dating back some three thousand six hundred years the findings reported in the journal Science advances suggest southern European origin for Philistines specifically from the region around Chrisny Jian but also with genetic traces wishes from Sardinia crate and the Iberian Peninsula as part of global celebrations marking fifty years since man first set foot on the moon former astronaut international space station commander Colonel Terry verts and colleagues have set a new world world circumnavigation speed record forty six hours thirty nine minutes and thirty eight seconds the crew flying a Gulfstream g six fifty extended range business jet lifted off from the runway at the Kennedy Space Center on July the ninth heading up the coast of the North Pole flying in an average of eight hundred sixty one kilometers per hour the plane then continued south crossing the poll refueling in Kazakhstan and on the Indian island of Mauritius before crossing over the South Pole and landing in Chile for a third ED refueling stop it then completed the final leg back to the Kennedy Space Center of course winning verts would have done the journey in much quicker time taking just ninety minutes to complete a job it and travelling at over twenty eight thousand kilometers an hour well. It seems we really do live in a world of strange things with the new British survey claiming fifth of Brits really do believe in the Loch Ness Monster and one in twenty pommie cousins really think the world is flat other bizarre results from the survey showed twenty three percent of Brits believe in reincarnation well then half believing the existence of Heaven and hell two thirds for leaving fatal destiny and think our lives map that in advance an amazing three in every four people believe in lucky numbers too who in five crossed their fingers thinking it really does bring good fortune and amazing forty one percent of British people believe in telepathy but issue. I was going to say that to mend them from a stray and skeptics as looked at the survey and wonders if the survey questions asked were possibly designed on to get the results they have is on you in the U._k.. which amongst various other things says that wanting twenty split the world is flat von that so hard to comprehend that people absolutely and that means? I saw that you liked the the best three million people in the U._k.. Believe the sweat I mean yeah the flatter theory putting prominence lightly almost like a fun thing. I think a lot of cases city. They're bound to be some people who believe it that number to believe the world is just talks. I think the heavy they pulling someone's like it multiple so they've done with the questions. Do you think this is a possibility or rather than do you believe you know and there's also tricky wording that you can use impulse the same survey of Brits Believing in island with its actually there's a difference. If you believe in islands my escaping we believe in aliens at Someway as astronomical cycles plus life somewhere in some form is probably a pretty decent but as as life forms visiting earth that's a different kettle of fish then search to suggest that typically Aliens Williams. He's I think again initially with the wording of the question why name full Scott's believe that reluctance monsters room whereas wanting six generally. I think even that's because it'd be high actually that wanting six people believe that the Loch ness monsters real three and five people claimed to have. I've seen that ghost at some point in their lives which you could say that three and five people claimed to saying something I can't explain it could be these assumption to make extra actually saying ghost. I think that's a different thing. Running three claimed his tongue in a haunted house yeah so have I this assembly people leaving guys. Can you have a haunted house with being guests and it's probably not just the house. One in ten people believe that crop circles are real and other work of extraterrestrial forces again. Nephews strikes me as very high. I called her papal belief in the horoscopes. I read them regularly I but the thing is astrology. Stuff has been as long as it's become part of the background noise of the leafs. I mean yeah this highly in. They say we're going to twice as likely to believe in horoscopes as has man because they tend to be in women's magazines you don't get many astrology columns in men's magazines but as tall as you quite a lot titled with that any foundation whatsoever and I nei people who are generalists and now above the people who have been the ones responsible comfortable for writing the hottest guy the house got columns in newspapers and they just make them up or they have a whole lot of potential things just shuffle them if very cynical they had to do that but the predictions prognostications astrologers savers isn't it is yeah I think it might say once they had a regular house types in these he's call him to turn up so they just ran the one for the previous ten percent. If it was still believe in Yeah Neo sasquatch or whatever you WANNA call it depends on this again. I think of the people in the U._k.. Say It's a bad to hear them in the northwest of the U._S.. You might get a number of people who believe in Bigfoot we did a study wants to that all the places where bigfoot and Yeti's existence all around the world. It's amazing how many tiny little country Singapore it's nice to have some yet. He's trying to think where would you put it. He's not a little place where you can actually hardaway and I put to the Harry Harry Man <hes> has its own version of it. We have behalf again. I mean you you made it all over the place. I mean yeah. America has quite a few all over the place. Blame each is up there. The Northwest Ran Oregon and Washington states knows every actually coat and back and shine dead or alive is pretty good indication that perhaps and the one that I really like here is six percent of people in Britain believe in unicorns muddled tiny followers yeah. This is where you think that people really having a guy with the quite was that they believe these mythical horses actually exist again you can say the wording is run also see Unical a year ago that needs to go on a dis. Yeah you would think things like Harry. Potter aww actually have an influence. I think people are saying yeah sure why not what he believe in and more than half a sable believe in premonitions fifty eight percent coming premonitions people. Have you say no with a fine rings who these incidence say all the I'm Betty on the phone and turns out to be betty questioned the L. so united when career that's happened to me too where someone's rung at all. I knew that would be that person but then you anything how about you that's confirmation bias and how much of it is Israel. That's tribeca exactly right. I mean you might have been expecting a call. Eighty boss yeah yeah and that's Tim Mendham from Australian skeptics. You're listening to space time. I'm Stewart Gary and that's the show for now you can subscribe and download space. Time is a free a twice weekly podcast through apple podcast. I tunes stitch-up Bites Dot COM PODCASTS soundcloud youtube audio boom from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite podcast download provider Space Times also broadcast podcast coast to coast across the United States on sides three sixty radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington D._C. and available around the world on tune in radio. If you want more space time checking our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images news stories videos and things on the web I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Tumbler Dot Com. That's all one word and in lower case and that's tumbler without the you can also follow us on twitter through at Stewart Gary.
71: The Day The Dinosaurs Died
"This is Space Time series twenty two episode seventy one for broadcast on the twenty fifth of September Twenty nineteen coming up on space time what the geologic record tells us about the day the dinosaurs died the asteroid triggered ice age that changed life on earth forever and scientists invent the blackest black yet all that and more coming up on space time to space time we'd Stewart Gary a new study is provided scientists with the most detailed look yet at the events which ended the edge of dinosaurs creating one of earth's worst ever mass extinction events the Ktar Cretaceous tertiary boundary event which these days is often referred to as the K. P. G. O. Cretaceous pelley extinction event occurred some sixty six million years ago when an asteroid ten fifteen kilometers wide slammed into a shallow hello see off the coast of what is now the Gulf of Mexico Yucatan Peninsula. This massive impact released as much energy as one hundred terror tons of tea and not that's more than ten billion thermonuclear. BOHM's the collision was so devastating wiped out seventy five percent of all life on the planet including the Non Avian dinosaurs. The initial impact created the one eighty kilometer watching salute crater throwing Maltin ejector debris high into the atmosphere and triggering a massive ce`namas hundreds of meters tall together with the most devastating earthquakes known as Lance anomalies and volcanic eruptions which shook the entire planet the shockwaves from the collision were powerful enough to circle the entire earth and burning debris from the impact ejecta began raining back down on the surface causing intense inst- pulse of infrared radiation which began literally cooking any exposed life and combining with molten lava flowing from the volcanic eruptions despite global wildfires old fires which burned up vast swathes of vegetation killing almost all life on the planet that somehow managed to survive the initial blast wave the asteroid impact of the planet. Eh location rich in sulfur containing gypsum which was instantly vaporized and dispersed as an aerosol into the atmosphere early to fall back down highly caustic acid acid rain burning anything attached smoke and ash from the wildfires in volcanic eruptions together with dust from the ejected debris blocked out somewhat for months. If not years on end halting synthesis implants and creating an impact winter that caused temperatures to plummet producing long-term effects on the climate food chain evidence for the global nature of this event can be seen around the planet in the form of a dark clay boundary line in the geological record net is the kt not event boundary it contains high levels of the middle really him which is rare Earth's crust but abandoned in asteroids the new study reported in the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences onces looks at detailed Rocco samples through hundreds of meters the debris that filled the actual impact crater at Ground Zero during the first twenty four hours after the asteroid destroyed hit an international team of more than two dozen scientists contributed to the study which was carried out as part of the two thousand sixteen international ocean discovery program scientific drilling mission led by professors showing Gillick from the University of Texas. The authors found the core samples they were studying included bits of. Chuck Althea Jumbles of rock brought in the enemies backflow but there was a conspicuous absence of sulfur then you work boots on earliest studies describing how the crater formed and how life recovered at the impact side ride the authors found that most of the material that through the credit within the hours after the impact was either produced at the impact side or swift in by sea water pouring back into the crater from from the surrounding Gulf of Mexico. It turns out just a single day so that a positive one hundred thirty meters of material. That's a red among the highest ever encounter in the geologic record. This extremely fast rate of accumulation means the rocks were recording what was happening in the environment within and around the crater within minutes and hours after the impact and provides vides clues about some of the longer lasting effects of the event the blast triggered a massive Sonam that reached as far inland Illinois inside the crater researchers found on charcoal and a chemical biomarker associated with soil fungi within oh just above lays of sand that show signs of being deposited by researching waters now suggests that the Chad surrounding landscape was being pulled into the crater with a receding waters from the SONANI finding evidence of wildfires up scientists know that their understanding any of the asteroid impact is on the right track. However one of the most important takeaways from this research is what was missing from the core samples. The area surrounding the impact crater is full of sulfur rich rocks but it was absolutely no sulfur in the core that finding support the hypothesis of the asteroid vaporize the Safa bearing minerals president the impact decide early in the atmosphere where it wreaked havoc with climate reflecting sunlight away from the planet and causing global cooling researchers estimate at least three hundred and twenty five billion metric tons would have been released by the impact now to put that in perspective it's about four orders of magnitude greater than the software that was spewed disputing the atmosphere during the eighteen eighty three eruption of Krakatoa which cooled earth's climate by several degrees for over five years. One of the study's authors physically Greis from John Curtin University says the findings hope answer that tantalizing question of exactly what happened in the immediate aftermath of what after all was one of the most significant convince in a history we were involved in looking at that molecule in the rocks actually extracting the molecules out of the call which was retraced in two thousand and sixteen and compensatory extract called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons one particular one is cooperating which is a mark of a pigment might buy from D. which degrade Ford in sixers and therefore when we found this McCurry in in the rocks it was very high a ah the height of the to Nami lack which was identified by the geologist and the fact that it is very high relative to some of the combustion Marcus indicated take that it'd be transported rapidly into the crater after the impact and the timing of this was a probably within a day so we had away from her back from two hundred eight at high which flushed material back into the crater after impact 10-kilometer-wide asteroid slamming into the ocean at that point and as has it did so all the water was flung out coz massive CE`NAMAS and GonNa wind up on land then back washed back into the crater backfield filled grabbed all the land with it that was navy and that's how you found these these markets yeah I would say that the one thing is that they may try actually hit shallow carbonate platforms what what the Polish and it was a big grave platforms and the Matron Craig Craig trip about one hundred ninety kilometers it has walked the impact from the asteroid was probably quite enough several million nuclear weapons deck nineteen simultaneously start with quiet catastrophic traffic event and the lack of light for many organisms through the atmosphere being affected and the lack of sunlight due to oldies as ever sold on federalization of material and that for those things like to plant and productivity oceans as well when I did research into this the thing that amazed me was that head the Katie boundary that asteroid hit just about anywhere else on the planet the Non Avian dinosaurs may well have survived because it landed where it did hit a sulfur rich area and that sulfide was in front it would for the atmosphere saying talks the take in atmosphere and the lack of sunlight that we have our global cooling event due to extreme cold winter yes yeah so it was quite quite dramatic very quick in terms of when things start to happen almost immediately that big asked to ride. I have a I guess for interesting more chunk like spitting his took them who's the first author to find actually not the absence of so talk in the Freitag and that was probably due to a rapid all the colonization of rich mineral when the impact occurred kicks. It wasn't a good day to be around. That's physically digress from John. Curtin University and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary to help support space based time and the great work we do promoting science and WANNA. Come and join our Patriot family could just a few dollars a month. You'll get access to a slick commercial free double episode version in of Space Time every week as well as extended interviews not included in the show and an invitation to join our special Patriot only facebook group we can come and chat discussed the show. Ask questions whenever you want like mindlessness at how team you can get all the details at patriotair dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary we can see the various reward levels as we have and what works for you and of course most importantly you'll be hoping to support our show in the work we do to deliver the one of the universe to everyone. Now that you are allegation is is patriots spill. Pat R. E. O. N. PATRIARCH DOT COM Slash Space Time with Stewart Gary and of course you can find the details in the show notes or just click the orange button on our website and thanks to allow patrons because it's your generosity and support the helps. Keep our show going now. Let's stick with the asteroid disaster. Theme and scientists found that a cataclysmic collision in the main asteroid built four one hundred sixty six million years ago triggered a major ice edge on earth which changed the evolution of life on the planet forever. The findings were reported in the journal Science advances. It claims the collision and subsequent break-up of the asteroid debris between Mars and Jupiter filled the entire solar system with so much dust it caused a unique climate change event triggering high levels of biodiversity over the past few decades research sip begun to understand the evolution of life on earth depends to a huge amount on astronomical nautical events in space. One example is the Katie boundary event sixty six million years ago which wiped out all the Non Avian dinosaurs and now scientists can present another other example of how extraterrestrial events have changed the evolution of life on earth researchers found that the destruction of a one hundred fifty kilometer wide asteroid partly he stopped sunlight from reaching the earth the precious triggering an ice age now the authors claim that the climate change from being one more or less and modernise right across the planet to becoming coming one divided by different climatic zones with Arctic conditions into the polls and tropical conditions at the equator and a high level of diversity among invertebrates came came as a direct adaption to the new climate triggered by the exploded asteroid the studies little the Professor Burgess Schmitz from London versity says it's an allergist standing in the middle of a room I and smashing a vacuum cleaner bag a much larger scale the authors rich they conclusions but measuring extraterrestrial helium petrified seafloor sediments found in southern Sweden see on its way to Earth. The asteroid debris dust would be enriched with helium from the solar wind. Normally helium atoms of two protons is to neutrons electrons that helium shut out from the sun and the solar wind can be missing a neutron. The presence of the special helium isotopes along with rare metals is often found in asteroids proved petrified seafloor sediments originated from space. Normally the oath gains. Maybe forty thousand tons of extraterrestrial material every year but the pitcher fired seafloor sediments showed this increased dramatically over a period of at least two million years around four hundred and sixty six million years ago and that dates important wouldn't these other studies that are already established that the youth was undergoing an ice age it around the same time the amount of watering earth oceans influences the way rocks on the seabed foam. Tom and the rocks from this time period show signs of shallower oceans a hint that some of this water must have been trapped in clashes and say is the timing of the Ice Age sinked picked up nicely with the extra dust in the atmosphere. Schmidt says the findings were completely unexpected but they show for the first time that at times he's interplanetary clouds of dust blocked out sunlight and dramatically cool the earth the good news is that since the dust floated down to earth over at least two million years the cooling was graduate AH for life to adapt and even benefit from the changes an explosion of new species evolved as life adapted to survive in regions with different temperatures. I'm just you at Gerry this space time from time to time we get inquiries from our listeners asking how they can support our show and that's why we've set up a Patriot account for just a few dollars a month. You'll get access to a slick commercial free double episode version of the show each week as well as bonus audio content not included in the regular show plus other awards as an invitation to join our special patrono on facebook group. You can get all the details at I patriarch sport. Pat Reo and Patriot dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary. We can see the various reward levels available and what works for you and of course you'll have the satisfaction of knowing that you're hoping US develop our show into the future you are L. again. Patriot dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary and you can find all the details in the show notes just quickly orange button on our website and thanks to all our patrons because it's your generosity and support that helps keep basho going astronomers have discovered the most massive neutron star detected the findings reported in the journal Nature Nature Astronomy suggests. This newly discovered object is almost too massive to exist. Neutron stars are created with very big stuff far larger than our sun reached the end of their he lives and exploded path events known as core collapse supernovae. What's left behind? One of these blasts is highly compacted super-dense. Stellar corpse in which the positively charged protons in the negatively charged electrons are literally crushed together to form neutrons hence the stars name effect other than black holes. Neutron Stars are the dentist objects in the universe. Just shoe keeps is piece of neutron style. Material would weigh one hundred million tons. Each Sean staff thought to be composed of the solid rigid addict presto shell composed of ions and electrons directly below. This is a fluid in across up to two kilometers thick made up of electrons neutrons and atomic nuclei and this surrounds nine kilometre thick out a core of Neutron Proton fermi fluids and electron Femi- gas and you John Stars in a court which would be three kilometers in radius is probably composed of Kwok Luanne plasma the first matter form in the universe after the big bang thirteen point. APN years ago you stars rotate very rapidly generating powerful beams which are thought to emanate from the surface and if the rotational axes the neutron star doesn't line up with its magnetic poles in the star emits sweeping beam of energy flashing across the cosmos like a Lighthouse Bacon. We call these pulse is US astronomers and physicists have mild and studied these objects for decades many mysteries about Neutron Star store remain do crush neutrons become superfluid the fluid and flow freely do they break down to a soup of subatomic quacks or other exotic particles and exactly what's the tipping point when gravity wins out of a matter and forms a black Kohl a neutron star well now astronomers using the giant one hundred made Green Bank Radio Telescope in West Virginia of chemistry closer to finding some of these answers is they've discovered a rapidly rotating millisecond pulsar called J zero seven four zero plus sixty six twenty look at some four thousand five hundred light years away way in a binary system with a white dwarf. He's still a corpse of a formerly sun like star. The authors found that the pulsa was the most massive neutron star ever measured pecking being some two point one seven times the mass of our sun into a sphere just thirty kilometers across the measurement approaches the limit of just how massive and compact the single logic can bake AAC without crushing itself down into a black hole seat recent work involving gravitational waves observed from colliding neutron stars by Lago. The lays into FROMETA gravitational wave observatory surgery suggests that two point one seven solar masses might be very near that two point three solemn mass limit if calculated finding the maximum mass that physics and nature allow allow teaches John them is a great deal about this otherwise inaccessible realm of astrophysics so had they do it well pulsa spin at phenomenal speed and regularity allowing allowing astronomers to use them as sort of cosmic equivalent to atomic clocks such precise timekeeping helps astronomers steady the very nature of space time measure the masses of stellar objects improve their understanding of Jim Relativity in the case of this binary system which you say nearly edge John in relation the earth this cosmic precision provided a pathway for astronomers the MR calculate the mass of the Tuesday is as the ticking passer passes behind its white wolf companion. There's a very subtle delay in the arrival time of the signals. It's only on the order of ten millions of a second but it's miserable at this phenomenon is known as Shapiro delay in essence gravity. The White Dwarf is slightly walking the space time around around it that's in accordance with Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and this warping means the pulses from the rotating neutron star f the travel just itsy-bitsy third third as they wind their way around that story in space time caused by the white dwarf and once the mass of one of the CO orbiting bodies nine. It's a relatively straightforward to buddy you too. Accurately determine the mass of the other in the process ever so slightly cracking open a new window into an extreme form physics. I'm Stewart Gary this space facetime. A medial has flashed across the evening skies of Victoria Royal Tasmania and Southern New South Wales the bright fireball lit up the skies with an orange glow and blue white tail at around eight thirty on Friday evening. It was followed a few moments later by allow thunderous rumble full fading from view an altitude of around twenty to thirty kilometers. Although the event look spectacular it was with most likely caused by a meteo no larger than a soccer ball. Do you remember that a black the blacks black. FM made so dark that it would absorb ninety nine point nine six percent of all visible light that hit the name was a compound the acronym Vanda for vertically aligned Carbon nanotubes berets and and black will because it was so dark Vata blacks sacred was afforest vertical tubes grown on a substrate using modified chemical vapor deposition process when lights truck phantom black instead of bouncing off the firms became trapped and what continue deflected among the tubes eventually becoming absorbed anticipating hate well now. Mit side is gonNA step further. They've come up with new material actually a refined version of the same which can absorb ninety nine point nine nine five percent incoming light bets ten times black VATA black the new material which is yet to be named is also made at vertically aligned Carbon nanotubes grown on a service list of chlorine h aluminum foil as well as reporting their research in the Journal. ACS Applied Materials and interfaces the authors are also showcasing it as part of the redemption the verity addicts ambition at the New York Stock Exchange the display fitches sparkling sixteen point seven eight carat natural yellow diamond estimated to be worth over a two million dollars but coated with the new ultra black carbon nanotubes material. The result in effect is absolutely stunning with a normal brilliantly faceted acid jim appearing as a flat black void aside from making artistic statement. This new material could also be of immense practical use for things like optical blinders to reduce unwanted glare on space telescopes searching for exoplanets. China has launched a new with observation satellite the Z. Y. One Zero two D was launched aboard a Long March Full Bay rocket from the tie you and Satellite Launch Center in northern China the probe will aid Chinese mining companies by providing plotting data on minerals and natural resources for the next five years as well as the primary payload to smaller satellites also piggybacked onto the mission so if you'd like to help support space time and get access to the weekly double episode commercial free versions of of the show thing come and join our Patriot family at any cost a few dollars a month it helps keep the show going and we offer heaps of rewards is bonus audio content and an invitation to join in our special Patriot and he facebook group income and chat discuss the show. Ask questions whenever you want with like minded listeners and members of the space time team get all the details at patriots dot com Slash Space Time with Stewart Gary now that's Patriots. Pat R. E. O. N. PATRIOT DOT com slash space time with Stewart Gary details are also in the show notes or just click on the orange button on our website and thank you to all our listeners big as your generosity really does hope the support uh-huh and Tom had a brief look at some of the other stories making news in science this week with science ons report and you study found that air pollution can enter the Placenta a report in the Journal. Nature Communications has found black carbon particles on the fatal side of the Center Center and women exposed to air pollution during pregnancy these particles are released largely from the combustion of fossil fuels and thought to impact pregnancies preterm births unload birthweight using high resolution images researchers studied twenty eight Women Finding Black Carbon in all twenty placentas with women exposed to the highest levels of April during pregnancy having the highest levels and you study warns that victorious Conservation Reserves are failing to protect threatened species such which is the lead Beta possum and the greater glider with the best areas for survival being deliberately allocated to logging the research reported in the journal Austral Ecology found found victorious current reserve system simply inadequate for the protection of threatened species scientists from the Australian National University identified areas that are important mm to seventy threatened forest dependent species they found that areas with the highest value for wildlife will often found in lugging zones rather than conservation reserves scientists warned. This is a growing tendency to put conservation reserves on land. which is the least valuable to industry researchers? Say Conservation Reserve various native you determine based on areas most critical to the survival of species and not simply those areas that at least valuable to industries such as forestry well some. Microsoft customers kept waiting for several hours last week when software issues prevented. Scott from working correctly through Microsoft operating systems the glitch prevented headed Scott from recognizing user passwords resulting notifications wrongly claiming incorrect passwords and too many password log in attempts around the taken despite the correct password. That's what's being supplied on the first attempt to make matters worse customers trying to resolve the problem we kept waiting for. Microsoft customer support for over three hours before the line finally dropped out the failure was eventually traced to security rules affecting the compatibility between Microsoft passwords and skype. ID's despite requests there's there's been no word from Microsoft on the reasons for the sudden compatibility issues scientists have developed shake them electric device. That hottest cold of space is to generate electricity a report in the Journal. Jill claims were such as now used a device to parent. Led the research is the vote that devised by taking advantage of radiative cooling or a sky facing surface radiates into the atmosphere losing some space enriching a cool temperature than the surrounding air while the energy produces is relatively small researchers say could be used to generate power in remote locations especially at night and eventually improved over time for more widespread use. Does your dog look to you for help well. Italian scientists have shown that different dog breeds look towards they amassed for help to different degrees and that may reflect how close does breeds today. Wolf ancestors research is trained three breeds of dog defined food hidden under up to middle strata they then made the task impossible and unbearable dog by screwing the stranded down over the food. A report in the Journal of the Royal Society found that Labrador retrievers looked to him as for help more than Czechoslovakian Wolf Ounce did and the researchers found that German shepherds fell in the middle between the two scientists say the differences are likely down to the more Wolf Light Genetics Braids rathers oh one of the world's leading consumer electronics and home appliances trade shows the IFA as being held into alien big screen TV's among the highlights this year with L. G. Offering the New Signature Aka nine which will set you back occult sixty one thousand dollars. Johnson the land of Oz well Jabber revealed the new elite seventy five t wireless APIS which offer fifty percent greater battery life that for many the star of the show with Samsung's remake of the infamous galaxy fold early time will tell if the Redo last any better than the original which tend to suffer from significant screen damage with all the the details. He's Alex Cora from whistle DOT COM dot. AU Auto smartphones outback Samsung was almost ready to launch the Galaxy Fall uh-huh. It's I thought up but then it kind of started falling apart and review is hands will degrade functions and other technical issues which which is incorrect so Lewis show and sampling spit a couple of months fixing up his problems and addressing issues and now it's ready to start throwing the galaxy. ABC's fold again and it really has gone on sale in South Korea coming to the market of this month and Australia shouldn't be too far away but the galaxy followed is essentially a smartphone Martha B but also tablet. I went squad looks kind of like a cannonball start in the fall. Maybe like the metoo thousands with smaller sprain you can bend up and up and you have a device with seven point four inch display inside so it does kind of go between Camacho tablet and I think they only say mostly it wouldn't running on the Front for example even text messaging APP or net flicks youtube opening up the phone and moved in the same visit inside screen so it's complicating who devices being one they promises the phone wouldn't break with it folds and clearly has in the past It's got to be something people concerned about. I'm sure it is and I I don't know who should buy three thousand dollars. Emphasis generation product these early adopters will allow suffocate investing into four -nology. We'll keep getting better keeps getting more refined and maybe in like three or four years fatally compulsion not that they become almost mainstream. I think it was smartphones and Samsung. I'm saying isn't the only one working on vulnerable while also May X. which is a bit of a different approach to voting firewall? Sampson's kind of opened up like a book with two different displays. He's about may extra has one display that opened up. I think for X. Is this league the phones but it works at all when it's not forward because you still have a six inch screen but you can use a regular phone wreckage become a big assign but it's also more expensive. We're expecting a low price tag of around four thousand dollars which is pretty rudy. I watering forgetting. It's almost one of these status symbol phones again. I'm going to skip passes. via New Technology had been like writing about thrones for five years salone times that Palestinian. I'm just really excited to just say something fresh happening in the industry but actually has promised. It feels like this is more than a gimmick. That's likes horror from whistle out DOT COM Dada you. You're listening to space time. I'm Stewart Gary and that's the show for now you can subscribe and Download Space Time is a free twice weekly podcast through apple podcast on Itunes STITCHER BITES DOT COM podcasts soundcloud youtube audio boom from space time with Stewart Gary Okay Dot Com all from your favorite podcast download provider. Space Times also broadcast coast to coast across the United States on science three sixty radio by the National Science Minds Foundation in Washington. DC available around the world on tune in radio. If you want more space time checking our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads words of images media stories videos and things on the web I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary Tumbler Dot Com. That's all one word and in low. Oh a case and that's tumbler without the you can also follow us on twitter at through at Stewart Gary at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram and on facebook just go to. WWW www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine Your Window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from BITES DOT com.
Stunning New Images from the Surface of Asteroid Ryugu
"This is space time series. Twenty three episode forty nine for broadcast on the twenty second of May twenty twenty coming up on space time stunning new images from the surface of the asteroid riot goo satisfied what they think could be the first non extraterrestrial pretty inside a meteorite and a Russian rocket mysteriously breaks up over and no one's really sure why all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. Astronomers have released amazing you close up images. Video from the surface of the asteroid. Ragu a stunning new images have revealed a chaotic boulder and rox strewn landscape of incredibly rugged beauty though a taken by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agencies. High the two spacecraft as it briefly touched down on the asteroid surface tickling samples. Right you Gu is a potentially hazardous near Earth. Object when neo belonging to the Apollo Group of Earth crossing asteroids. The nine hundred and fifty made a wide diamond shaped space. Rock IS A respite UTAH. Cges droid which includes properties of both common carbonaceous or high carbon content C type asteroids and relatively raid g type asteroids which contains strong Absorption Features suggesting follow silicate minerals such as clays and Mica Riot. Sick was the son. In retrograde every four hundred in seventy four earth days between the orbits of Earth and Mars the detailed observations of rugged surface hope astronomers understand the age in geologic history. The asteroid previous observations have shown that Ryan is surface a piece to be competitive to different types of materials one slot. You read it and the other slightly bluer but junior high was the landing. It's thrust this kicked up a coating of doc fine grain matter which appears to correspond with the services read materials and by relating these observations with us to Chico fee of the asteroid's craters astronomers speculate that the surface ridden in could have been caused by rapid sola hating during an early overlay excursion which took the asteroid close to the sun at clear and disturbing sign that this asteroid can't change. Its the high was. The two mission launched border an age to a from Taniguchi space. Etta south of Tokyo back in December twenty fourteen arriving at Rye you doing June twenty eighteen following a three hundred million kilometer journey. The six hundred nine kilograms spacecraft was equipped with model science payloads designed to study the asteroid geology chemical composition it structure early history and if Aleutian Rageh also deployed four. Tiny land rubbers during attained. My visit these would assigned to study the asteroid surface mineralogical composition. It's behavior and it's magnetic properties high boosted to Pattaya give back in December twenty nine teen and will swoop down past the US at the end of this year. Ejecting sample return capsule which will land in the woolmer rucker range in outback Australia. By the way that name right well it means Dragon Palace and Japanese and it refers to a magical underwater palace in Japanese folklore. Where a fisherman travel on the back of a tortoise returning home later with a mysterious box. Much like Highbush. A to returning to worth with. It's asteroid samples vicious space time still to come. Scientists believe they found what they think could be the first note extraterrestrial protein discovered inside a meteorite and a new study kinds. Gas giants are form differently to the White Brown dwarfs formed. All that and much more still to come on space time move. Ooh Own. I can't. Let's take a break from show for. Whigham our sponsor the great courses plus learning you things hopes to see the world from different perspectives. Which in turn helps us make sense out of this ever changing world and the great courses plus streaming service is an excellent resource to expand your knowledge. Allow you to gain valuable reliable insights on a huge range of subjects from some of the world's best teachers. These people are real experts in their field and they include some of the world's leading scientists than researches people who not only know the topics but actually wrote the text books. We're not just talking about science. Either at the great courses plus has causes on history art music architecture even cooking. In fact you'll find subjects in the great courses plus that you didn't even know you liked stuffy would never have considered before. But that's what the great courses plus does it opens your mind to new concepts and new ideas and the best part of it. The whole thing is it's a great way to learn while at home you can stream it on TV and watch it as a family. All listen to the great courses plus APP you in the garden. What taking a walk around the neighborhood? Now there's a new course except planets. I want to tell you about this week. It consists of twenty four lectures. And it takes you on a journey through these exotic distant parts of the universe and by signing up to the great courses plus special you are l. You can check it out for free. So what is you got to lose? It's a free office. Space timelessness giving you unlimited access to the entire great courses plus library thousands of courses to browse through and listen to and you can start by signing up today through a special URL at the great courses plus dot com slash space. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space. And of course you can find as you're all details in the show notes Anna website. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space. And now it's back to our show them? You're listening to Space Time Space. Time with Stewart. Gary scientists found what they think could be the first extraterrestrial protein a report. On the pre press physics Grips Archive. Thought Okay Claims. The protein was discovered inside a meteorite. It's been provisionally named Himalayan and was identified in two carbonaceous contract meteorites activism eighty six which crashed down to the ground. Jiri nine hundred ninety and in one of the Eleni meteorites which fill the worth north of Mexico and southwestern United States during a medial shower in nineteen sixty nine proteins. A large by molecules will macro molecules consisting of one more long chains of amino acid residues. They perform a vast array of functions within organisms including catalyzing metabolic reactions DNA replication responding to stimuli providing structure to the cylinder organisms and transporting molecules from one location to another scientist identified potential extraterrestrial protein using a new high precision mass spectroscopy technique. Hema lytham consists of chains of the amino acids glycemic in an hydroxyethyl saying as well as I an oxygen and lithium atoms. The clue that this could be a pretty extraterrestrial origins rather than something simply contaminated. The meteorite after arrived on earth was it's deteriorate to hydrogen ratio which was in twenty six times greater than that found on earth and consistent with the composition of comets. Hydrogen atoms are composed of a nucleus made up of a single proton orbited by electron budgeteers. Which is a heavier. Isotope of hydrogen also includes a neutron in the nucleus who studies lead author. Malcolm McGee up from plex core says this type of deterioration. Richmond simply doesn't appear in amino acids on earth and so indicates a protest still a disco molecular cloud origin. Evidence of complex extraterrestrial. Chemistry has been found before amino acids which are the building. Blocks of proteins as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Showbiz robos cyanide and third lanes have all been detected in comets meteorites or just simply floating around in space in two thousand seventeen scientists fan entirely new organic compounds in the famed. Murchison meteoroid which crashed down in Victoria. But this is the first report of a protein of extraterrestrial origin. However it's worth pointing out that he may listen may not be appropriate at all but rather a palmer abroad class of molecules that include proteins. Another problem is that the Drug Zeke. Lycene has never been detected any meteorite before although admittedly that doesn't mean it couldn't be there of course. Hema listen isn't evidence of alien life. It's discovery if confirmed through peer review with simply show that very complex chemistry of the salt needed for life. As we know it can occur in places other than Earth. Scientists have long hypothesized at the ingredients for life. May well have arrived on earth in meteorites and asteroids and finding a tiny protein buried deep inside a meteorite would provide added support to that hypothesis to find out more. Andrew Dunkley is speaking with astronomer professor. Fred Watson this is the discovery of the first ever protein found in a meteorite. Extraterrestrial protein should that that is the key word in this extraterrestrial now. I know what some people might think. I'm sure some of the press all daily ins but I suspect it's something else. Well it's appointed to aliens. I guess it doesn't mean that this is. It's not evidence valley in life of any kind but it is one further step in the notion that the complex molecules that make up living organisms up their origins count may have their origins in space. It took interesting story the fact that something was observed a long time ago and more recently followed up with other equipment to get a different. Unsa comes about because of analyses of meteorites. The actually in museums basically the two meteorites involved in this story that not really I think one was found in the Middle East some years ago. These meteorites were analyzed and what was found were the complex molecules they found things like repos which is a type of sugar and founding our a undermine assets. These are basically the building blocks of proteins. So people knew that already. These molecules Being found in these meteorites. But what has now happened? Is it a new super conduct? X Ray source has been used eight. A Mass Spectrometer that measures the massive molecules this new technology Andrew. And that's kind of what pushed this research for the phone. The actually in fact. It's really interesting because some of the authors of this work are actually connected with the company that builds the equipment rather than academic university. Although I've got the paper in front of me and it has actually one two three authors and I think two of them from the commercial companies have not wrong. I should check it more closely. So don't right if I'm wrong but the bottom line macy's will you? The bottom line is with this new equipment. The complex molecules of revealed more details about the nature. There is a an independent comment from a an astronomer. Basically here in Australia is a chemist astronomer. Sorry might be she yes. It is a share on this. Esl Era here in Australia and the quotation is in general the taking a Meteo that has been preserved by Ziam has been idolized previously. And then modifying the techniques using in order to to detect to me no said inside this metoo but with a higher signal to noise ratio. This is the yardstick by which we judge Ola measurements whether they're astronaut Michael or bits pieces of meteorites. It's all about the signal to noise ratio. And so what? They found that what the team found. Where an amino acid cold glycemic and that came in with a stonking signal that wasn't presented the earlier analysis but they also found that is speed had other chemical elements attached to it. I on lithium and basically they realized that this glossing wasn't just an isolated amino acid. It was actually part of protein which they've given a name he melissa is though is what they're calling it so the that he he. Melissa and he's actually suit similar to proteins. We find here on Earth. But and this is the clincher tool this is the ratio of deterioration to hydrogen. That's heavy hydrogen hydrogen that as a ratio but only found in long period comments. You don't find it in the terrestrial version of half the proteins. This protein has got the atoms within it. Ha- definitely from outer space. And so that's the clincher. So bottom line bottom line. It's IT'S A it's a a protein that's associated with what we refer to as a building block of life and it's come from somewhere else. That's that's the bottom line exactly. So as they not proof of extra terrestrial creatures proof that the building blocks out they Yeah and these have complex building blocks that proteins as far as life is concerned that life basically always devolve proteins so it's really interesting discovery the Piper that has been written on this the paper entitled He Melissa in Mitcham Meteoric protein containing island lithium. I read the abstract. The haven't read the paper. It's fairly complex stuff. A my life science skills on pretty pricey to say though limited to stroking the cat as you know That's as much as I know about lifestyle choices but you get the drift of it from the obstructing the paper. And that's the bottom line. This is all about the isotopes that have been found that signature. That tells you that this extraterrestrial. That's Dr Fred Watson and astronomer with Department of Science speaking with injured on assist the program space nuts and this is space time. I'M STEWART GARY. Still the calm and you study claims. Gas giant planets are formed differently the Brown dwarves and a Russian rocket is mysteriously broken up in orbit. And no one's really sure why all that and much more still come on space time and you study claims that gas giants are formed differently to the way Brown dwarfs formed Brown dwarfs failed stars objects. Which done have enough mass to sustain the core hydrogen fusion process which makes regular stars like our sun shine however some brown tools can't fused you chairman lithium under the right conditions while many brown tools. A Bonus Brown wolves others stop. They lives a spectral type of stars which have lost enough mass. During the revolution safes the cord nuclear fusion process turning them from Red Wolves Brown dwarfs Brown dwarves fit in this unusual category between the very largest non planets which have about thirty times the mass of Jupiter and the smallest known stars. Spectra type aim red dwarfs which are about seventy five to eighty times the mass of Jupiter. Or if you prefer zero point. Zero eight solar masses astronomers believe Brown dwarfs form in the same way stars do for the gravitational collapse of molecular gas dust clouds on the other hand planets formed in protoplanetary disks around stars initially through literature static attraction of tiny. Dustin grind particles and then as they get bigger through the creation of nearby gas and other material left over from the stifling process. The study's lead author Brennan Ballot from the University of Texas. At Austin says well previous research has shown that Brown dwarfs opening stars likely formed like at styles. It's been difficult to determine. Exactly how low in mass and object form through this process can be to try and answer that question. Ballard and colleagues combined archive data with their own observations using the Subaru telescopes to study the orbits of Brown dwarfs and gas giants in twenty seven planetary systems that then combined these observations with computer modeling based on Kepler's laws of planetary motion in order to fill in the gaps in the data caused by the many years decades and centuries. It takes some brown to oversee guest giants to complete a single orbit around their star. Bala believes the key was in determining this shape the orbit he postulates that objects with more secular or probably formed like planets while those with more elongated orbits probably formed like stars. He says that's because if a clump of gas and dust is collapsing the former stab and then suddenly split into two separate clumps one forming a star and the other forming a brown dwarf orbiting that star then the less massive brown dwarf would have a more elongated orbit and Bala found that he was accurately able to determine if an object greater than around fifty Jupiter masses was a giant planet or a brown dwarf simply by observing the shape of their orbit. The findings are reported in the astro-physical Journal. This space time still the come a Russian rocket mysteriously explodes in of it and later in the science report. We asked the questions. No one else will ask like way. Do Southern Right. Whales spend their summers much more to come on space time own. The Russian Federal Space Agency Roscosmos says one of its rockets is mysteriously broken up. In orbit high above the Indian Ocean the frigate espy up a stage had been used launch to our radio telescope into orbit back in two thousand eleven the US Air Force Eighteenth. Space Control Squadron says instead of a single object. It's now tracking sixty five separate fragments. There's no indication as to what course the mysterious disintegration. The break-up is adding to the ever growing problem of space. John get over it around the earth. The United States is currently tracking more than eighteen thousand official objects in orbit of those only around two thousand or operational satellites the wrist a disused spacecraft and spent rocket stages. But you gotta remember. These are only objects lodge enough to be easily tracked from the ground cowardice commits suggests there are some around nine hundred and fifty thousand bits of space junk centimeter more insights also opening the earth as well as a staggering one hundred and seventy million bits of debris a sentimental smaller in size. And the thing you've got to remember. Is that these objects are all traveling ogle speeds. That's twenty eight thousand kilometers an hour or faster this space time still to come the science report and evidence that the Covid nineteen virus is present insane from patients with the illness and new research showing that temperature and latitude deputy to be associated with the spirit of covid nineteen all that and much more still to come on space time and Tom that take another break. Forget some of the other stories making news inside this week with the science report scientists discover that the COVID nineteen virus can be present in the same amount of patients with illness at. It can also be present in the semen of recovering patients. The findings were reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association Opens. Up the possibility that covid nineteen could be sexually transmitted the deadly disease which originated in the rift. Wet markets of China through hand. Province is now killing more than three hundred thousand people and infected of a four and a half million. Now there's a new study shows. Temperature and latitude dotted pay to be associated with the spirit of Covid nineteen but school closures and other public health measures have been having a positive effect. The findings were reported in the Canadian. Medical Association Journal at based on measurements of the number of cases recorded in one hundred and forty four regions across the world during two days in March researchers tested the relationship between case numbers and latitude temperature humidity school closures restrictions on mass gatherings and social distancing countries such as China Italy and South Korea were excluded because the intensity there outbreaks during the time of the study. The results found little or no association between latitude or temperature with the spirit of covid nineteen and only a very wake association between humidity and transmission on the other hand. Sco closes social distancing and restrictions of large gatherings were highly effective hackers working for Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guards have had a series of attacks tagging. Us drugmaker Gilead Sciences glitz. The company which developed the experimental drug rim disappear which is being used to fight the COVID nineteen rhinovirus. America's Food and Drug Administration approved the drug last week for mid and see us with covid nineteen patients southern right. Whales Migrate Around Australian and New Zealand cuss according to the seasons. But exactly where these whales spend their summers has any ever been inferred by historic whaling data in order to improve scientists understanding of this migration researches track six wells using satellites in order to monitor the Jenny's from their wintering grounds. They found the wells with traveling distances. Which ranged from six hundred and forty five kilometers up to a staggering six thousand three hundred eighty one kilometres over an average of seventy eight and a half days a report in the Journal. Plus one identified likely far grounds to the south west of Wisdom Australia as well. As Anti Arctic waters and the subtropical front the subtropical front can be traced from around forty degrees south latitude in the Indian Ocean across the greatest. Ray Invite passing just south of Tasmania and you still and South Island before continuing back at forty degrees south latitude across the Pacific Ocean. Scientists say the subtropical front appears to be the preferred some feeding ground for both Australian and You Zealand seven right. Whales and that's the show now. Space-time is broadcast on science own radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through both IHEART radio and on shooting radio or you can subscribe and Download Space. Time is a free podcast through apple. Stitcher BITES DOT COM Puckett cast soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom Pud android cast box from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite podcast provider. You can help support the show. End The work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time Patriot. Which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burns already content and other awards. Just go to a patriarch page to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details if you want more space time check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images news stories videos and things on the web. I find interesting amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart. Gary Dot Tumbler Dot Com. That's all one word and in lower case. And that's Tumbler. Without the it can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through Space Time Youtube Channel on. Facebook just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space. Time with Stewart. Gary Space Time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine Your Window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart. Gary this has been another quality. 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14: A New Fundamental Constant of the Sun
"This is based on series twenty two so fourteen for broadcast on the fifteenth of February twenty nine thousand nine hundred coming up on space time, and you fundamental constant of the sun you images show. Ultimately is more like a walnut pancake than the snowman. And how black hole merges could be revealing you particles all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. Astronomers have discovered that magnetic waves in the sun's corona its Adamus layer of atmosphere react to sound waves escaping from deep inside the sun. The findings reported in the journal nature at strana me means the sun's magnetic waves behave differently than previously thought scientists had thought that the waves originate at the sun surface. We're boiling hydrogen at temperatures of six thousand degrees chins, the sun's magnetic field. However, the new research has evidence that the magnetic waves also react or excited higher in the atmosphere by sound waves that he's pressure waves leaking out from deep inside the sun. The sound ways were found to leave a distinctive Markelle on the magnetic waves, the prisons of this marker means the sons in Ticor owner is shaking and collective manner. In response to the sound waves and all this is causing it to vibrate over range of frequencies. This newly discovered market was found throughout the corona and it was consistently present during an entire ten years of. Correct survey shins who studies lead author Dr Richard Morton from north Umbria university says these magnetic waves then as Alvin waves play a crucial role in transporting energy around the sun and the solar system. He says these new findings are exciting because it suggests they represent a new fundamental constant of the sun and potentially a fundamental constant of other staff as well. The findings could therefore have significant implications for sciences coward ideas about how magnetic and cheese transferred and used in stellar atmospheres. This newly discovered in very unique signature could lead to a new way to examine classify the behavior of Allstars. The sun's corona is over one hundred times how been at surface and the energy streaming from the authentic waves is believed responsible for hating the corona to temperatures of around a million degrees. The finnick waves are also responsible for heating and accelerating powerful solar wind from the sun, which then travels throughout solar system. These wins travelling at around one point. Six million kilometers an hour. And they also affect the atmospheres of planets impacting on their own magnetic fields and causing phenomena such as Rohrer Morton says the new evidence shows, the sun's internal acoustic our solutions are playing a significant role in exciting the magnetic alpha waves, he says this gives the waves different properties. And suggests that they more susceptible to instability, which could later, hotter and fast, the Solar Winds. You're listening to space time. I'm Stewart Gary. Okay. Let's take a break from our show and talk about our sponsor, the great courses. Plus, the great courses plus is an online streaming service offering you indepth information on an extensive Roddy of topics. We'll anything you're interested in you can learn about human behavior. Ancient history philosophy about politics, language, cooking, even photography, whatever you're into you bound to find a course that will suit you and because I'm a fan of the great courses. Plus, I know their information is reliable fact-based and presented in the truly engaging way by real experts in their fields lecturers professors and scientists who actually carry out the research, and there are thousands of lectures to explore with the great courses. Plus, the other thing I love about it is you can watch or listen to whenever you want to wherever you want to at home during the daily commute on long distance flights as audio or video. It's all there in the app as we mentioned last week. Then you've been checking out. Is introduction to Astro physics? Presented by Dr Joshua win from Princeton University. This series of lectures, explains how shine it goes through the life cycle of stars and the spectacular ways in which they can die. You'll learn all about the way telescopes work what a spectrum graph is. And what it tells you about stars composition and what it's doing. I believe this is a great series to expand your knowledge set. Check it out for yourself. That's a space time. Let's get a free trial with unlimited access to the entire great courses parts catalog a great chance to learn about anything you want to start your free trial. Now, go to the great courses plus dot com slash space. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space for your free trial. And of course, I'll include that Lincoln the show notes and you'll find them on our website. And now it's back to our show. This is space time with student. Gary you images of the distant copper Bill would ultimately show that it's found a stranger than previously thought the Avakian of new image sequence from this as new arise in spacecraft officer departing view, the distant frozen wold which was the target of its knees day fly by these aren't the Las Altima Italy images, which horizons will send back to earth fact, many more to come, but they are the final views new horizons captured of ultimately officially named twenty four hundred m you sixty nine as it raced away from the frozen world out of a fifty thousand kilometers per hour. Back on January the first now you may recall this first close up images of ultimate to lay with its two extinct and apparently circle segments. Head scientists referring to it as a snowman, however, more analysis of the approach images. And then you departure images have changed scientist's view in. Reveal outlined the portion of this distant world that was not eliminated by the sun. But could still be traced out as it blocked. The view background stars stringing fourteen of these images into short departure movie, you horizon, scientists found the to Sigmund so lobes of ultimate Suli aunts. Very cool. It seems the lodge lobe nicknamed ultima more closely resembles the giant pancake while the smaller lobe nicknamed to lay is shaped much more like a well sort of dented warmer really mission. Principal investigator Allen stern from the southwest research institute in boulder. Colorado says nothing quite like this ever been captured in imagery before scientists had an impression of alternate. So late simply based on a limited number of images returned in the days around the fly by but seeing more data has significantly changed. Scientist's view stern says it will be closer to reality to describe ultimately shape is flat like a pancake. But more importantly, the new images creating scientific puzzles there. Just how such an object. Could even be formed stern says astronomers have never seen anything quite like this opening. The sun the images were taken nearly ten minutes. After new arises crossed its closest approach point. The departure images would take him from a different angle compared to the approach images. And so reveal complementary information about ultimately shape, the central frame in the sequence mistaken. When you horizons was already eight thousand eight hundred sixty to kill him. It is beyond autumn it to lay and more than six point six billion kilometers from earth. The objects eliminated crescent is blood in the individual frames. That's because a relatively long exposure time was used during the rapid scan to boost the cameras signal level about the science team, then combined the process images to remove the blurring and shop in the thing. Crescent many backgrounds starts also seen in the individual images watching which does blink dab is the object passed in front of them. Then allowed scientists to outline the shape of both lobes which could then be. Compared to a model. Assembled from analyzing preflight images and ground based telescope observations. You horizons was launched back on January nineteenth two thousand and six from the Cape Canaveral air force station in Florida aboard an atlas five rocket the probe made history on July the fourth two thousand fifteen when it became the first spacecraft to visit Pluto flying just toll thousand five hundred kilometers above the two thousand three hundred seventy seven kilometre white dwarf planet surface new horizons also visited Pluto's binary partner, Sharon, and they full moons sticks nix cobras and hydra Pluto's one of the largest known bodies in the copper build a ring of frozen worlds comets in icy debris, circling the sun out beyond the orbit of Neptune your horizons next encounter was generally the first twenty nine teen win it undertook. It's close fly by of the thirty kilometer wide capability object. What fourteen MU sixty nine ultimate to lay by the way that name Altima Tuli will it's an ancient. Traditional name used to describe the most distant place known a land beyond the borders of the known world in ancient Greek and Roman times, ultimately was the place furthest north now thought to refer to Iceland, Greenland, although both the ought and chat line islands have also been referred to as Altima Tuli in medieval times, the find out more enter dagley. Speaking with astronomer, Dr Fred Watson. Okay. Fred, it's it's like visiting an all friend. We keep going back to the new horizons probe and the daughter at sending back not only the stuff from Pluto. But on New Year's day, one of the great achievements in I suppose, astronomical investigation or exploration was the passing of the object known as Altima Tooley and the lightest images coming back bearing in mind. This daughter is going to keep coming back over the next twenty months old side. So they'll be more new images to say, I imagine. That's right. In fact, this partly another one on sway. I'm so. Yeah. The reason why we're talking about this yet again. And we certainly given it question lots of prominence in the last few weeks ultimately is revealing secrets where seeing steadily higher resolution images and the new one that has just been received. And of course, it takes a much of time because of the very low bandwidths of the signals coming back from the new horizon spacecraft six billion killing six billion kilometers because the using the strategy and NBN service. No doubt. That is the case. Yes, it's now seen at a resolution, which is quite fine actually, considering what we're looking at one hundred thirty five meters per pixel, but that comes from a wide angle camera board new horizons, and we know that the same image that we're looking at you, and I are looking up. Maybe I'll listen to the same image is also in the memory banks of new horizons taken a much higher resolution by something called the long range, reconnaissance image. Otherwise known as Laurie but not has not yet been down fed to the stations. So we can see it. However, we've certainly we are getting some very very enticing information from this wide angle view that we've got of Altima tool as about thirty three kilometers from one end to the other meats to blob stuck together. One now called L tumor the other to lay fire remember rightly the big ones eligible, and you can already see evidence of cratering Baldi some very peculiar looking features. The smaller part of the objects seems to have a huge crater any side with. It's been hit hard by something be exactly. That's right. No doubt. There are others all over because that's how these things now they come together by things crushing into them. But you can see a number of smaller craters or pits. It's not clear what they are. They could be the result of outgassing activity within the object itself where gases are coming. Out for some reason or another all that could be small impact craters, my guess is looking at them with my experts. I guess is that it's the latter that are probably smaller impact craters. But it is just fantastic thing to say, this is basically a monochrome image that we're looking at all of the color available on that camera. We know it's already that he says sort of pinkish red color, lots of bright streaks on it. Which also suggests that there is actively of some kind or has been on the surface because Brian stuff while an object. Like, this is usually the more recent stuff powder those been deposited on the surface ruin. But you can certainly say that at the join way they've come together. They that's right. Yeah. It is going to be lightish in color, and as you said, the the neck region is much brighter. And the suggestion there is that that is powdery stuff those full and into the the crack between these two objects that when they came together. So that they don't join a such. They're just in contact somewhat. What keeps them together for it? And right. Could that be torn apart? Brennan. Great. That's a great question was leads into something that was just about to say because one of my colleagues in camera. Did it quick calculation when we saw the first images of what the pressure might be between them given the fact that we've got these two objects which both have not very much gravity but enough to hold them together. And the pressure is is high in the region of tons per square inch just depends on how much contact area. There is between them he he was assuming just took a wild guess as to what the contact terrier is between them because it's all it's all at one point. Then it's a very high number if they've kind of flattened out to bit. So these two things have have squashed together slightly, then the pressure holding them together as much less. So what's surface, tension, or suppose? That's right. And you know, the maybe affective that kind that that helped to it's basically gravity this doing the job, but could be interesting surface effects going on the neck region. The great thing is we're going to see over the next few weeks you and I will be hard pressed not to talk about it on space us. So I apologize in advance to you. Advanced enough about it already. You're gonna get more. Well, you just never know what the next image is going to reveal and it might be something. Incredible. They will never seen before. So that's the reason to do these missions into to find as much as we can download as much daughters. We can and with the technology. That's available. We can do some amazing things. Now as we mentioned last time, we talked about this. They've got their eye on another object. So they're going to do a second fly by so it'd be interesting to compare notes. Really? That's right. That's we wait for the news on the mission. Scientists silence turn the principal. Scientists will be I'm sure musing over what kind of trajectory adjustment. They can make to bring another COPA bell object. These distant objects are called into the range of new horizons. Let's Dr Fred Watson speaking with Andrew Dunkley on our sister program space nuts, and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary. And you study suggests gravitational wave signals could contain signatures of extremely low mess particles that might be a competitive dang matter. The hypothesis is published on the pre press physics website, archived dot org dot matter is a mysterious invisible substance, which makes it a bet. Seventy five percent of all the matter in the universe. Just a quarter of what we see. He's mad up of normal. Barry, onic matter the stuff that makes stars and planets and houses and dogs cats and people even though we can't see we know that matters real big as we can see its gravitational influence on normal matter, Brian now, the best fit for what matter is is some kind of new exotic subatomic particle done Mattis searches mostly hunt for repeatedly massive particles. However, some theories predict the existence of extremely lightweight. Particles could explained matter particles, not occur in the standard model. Particle physics one candidate? Eight is the hypothetical faster than light pilot will call the axiom if they exist these very light mess. Paddock wouldn't show up in paddock. Oh, collider experiments or in dark matter searches you calculation suggests that axioms, maybe ultralight Bozon's, and they could be detectable in gravitational wave signals from Jim black holes. In fact, clouds of these ultralight paddock was could be created by fast spinning black holes. And when two black holes colliding merge, the cloud would undergo a rapid collapse, and that would affect the harmonic of the gravitational wave signal from the black hole merger faithful gravitational waves could thus provide a novel new way of detecting particles inaccessible through ordinary experiments something new for the physicists like to start looking for. I'm Stewart, Gary, you're listening to space-time. This is Andrew Dunkley host of the podcast space nuts, along with my good friend. Dr Fred Watson, astronomer lodge. We provide a podcast every week looking at some of the things happening in the astronaut Michael world and to a certain degree. That's what's inspired my next vinca when I'm not working on radio doing the podcast of working for the Salvation Army, which is actually my fulltime job. I liked to rot racing wrote an audio book which turned into a paperback and enabled called all. I see is mud a World War One story about my grandfather. I also write a sports college book to help golfers who get angry on the golf course called five lines. Don't float, but if a tongue in cheek book that had a lot of fun with it, but my newest book is science fiction. This is a story called parallel. It's available as a pipe of back, and you can download the book through Amazon and other able distributors. And it's a story about a man who gets thrust back to his birth. But the interesting twist he is that he retains all his life's knowledge. So he knows what's going to happen for the next fifty years. But the twist in the tale is that he's not the only one and this strange corporation peas in his new life called parallel, and they want what he knows. So download it as an e book or you can buy it online at all the major online bookstores or in a real bookstore. It's available as a paperback. I do hope you enjoy parallel and you'll find links to all my books. Andrew Dunkley dot com and Tom to take another look good. Some of the other stories making news in science the squeak with the science report. Nassar is discovered a giant cavity two-thirds area of Manhattan. Enormous three hundred minutes tall growing at the bottom of the disintegrating weights. Glacier in Tactica measure says the findings were reported in the journal science advances highlights the need for. Observations Edyta glaciers and calculating how fast global sea levels rise in response to climate change. Scientists expected to find some gaps between is and bedrock. Eth- whites is bottom. What ocean water can flow in Moton, the glacier from underneath. However there were shocked by the size and explosive growth rate of the newly found hole, which is big enough to have contained fourteen billion tons of is most of which mills it over just the past three years. The cavity was revealed by ice penetrating radar in Nassar's able operation ice bridge campaign, which has been studying the connections between polar regions and global climate since twenty ten the research team also use data from talion in German space-borne synthetic aperture radars. So did you skip breakfast this morning? What do you consider it? The most important meal of the day. A new report from the British medical journal claims that when it comes to weight loss breakfast skippers might be onto something. They examined a host of studies that looked at the effect regular breakfast consumption had on weight change in energy intake of role while the quality of evidence wasn't that high based on the evidence they saw those skip breakfast. Consumed less calories, and we're on average zero point four four kilograms lighter. Researchers say the idea that breakfast is the most important meal of the day comes from observational studies that could be skewed. Experts with the United States naval war college and the university of Tel Aviv have discovered that internet traffic heading to Australia from Europe and North America was mysteriously diverted to mainland China over six day period in two thousand seventeen that aversion which could have been able to major data theft is being described by China's state owned telecom is nothing more than a rounding error. However, the experts at Tel Aviv university say they checked it unusual insistent Matic hijacking patents. A metric just that contrary to what Beijing claiming it wasn't an accident. The targeting of data bound for stralia full is recent revelations that China's pick security agencies responsible for the surgeon cyber attacks on Australian companies over the past year, and that's a clear breach. Abolish agreements not to steal each other's Commissioner secrets. A new study ones that teenagers who don't get enough sleep a more likely to take part in dangerous behaviors like smoking consuming alcohol taking drugs having unprotected sex driving dangerously and committing acts of violence the findings reported in the journal sleep medicine reviews looked at data and over five hundred and seventy thousand teenagers who took part in two thousand four previously related studies around the world the study reviewed the association between slick curation and risk-taking finding a direct link between risk-taking behaviors and falling short of recommended sleeping hours. Adolescence need between eight and ten hours sleep tonight. They say there's money in trash and that this is circa born every minute. And that's certainly true for the business of fortune telling and psychics, the immortal words of the character of Dr Sheldon Cooper from the hit comedy series. The big bang theory. Probably says it best I don't mean to be rude or discourteous fit before we begin. I'd just like to say there's absolutely no scientific evidence to support clairvoyance of any kind which means again, no insult intended that you're a fraud. Your profession is a swindle. Your livelihood is dependent on the Gulf -bility of stupid people the brilliance of the Sheldonian view on the universe. Still fortune. Telling is now a two billion dollar industry in the United States and apart from the occasional conviction for grand larceny. It's growing by around two percent per year. Joining us now to talk about this is Tim Mendham from Australian skeptics meeting growing quite steadily for number years. But the right of increases actually going up, and bam story often is that in times people might turn to psychics against some sort of comfort aim reality. It looks like an excellent ties people have Justice likely to turn to psychics, whether they do it as entertainment or whether they seriously believe not being formation. They're getting is suppose you had to look at eighteen pace, but the growth evident in America, people taking up sake information services has been growing every year. There's a survey done by will to Nikolay SSD industry of genuine industries. Nice it that in the last that the innocence. The same rent new two billion dollars in two thousand eighteen timeframe the number of businesses growing by close to two percent of the number of employees has grown by Saudi lists. The most psychic businesses have wound employees his who's the business does at the site. You can let but I mean, the growth actually the grass in previous years was a lot higher two thousand fourteen he was a bad sort of five percent growth. Six percent growth each Trump. Because of unforeseen circumstances. I. I went to the of that. But I mean, I don't know 'cause actually show through the office will because you had to fight thousand dollars to see what the future predictions. But I mean suggesting that is going to continue to grow. It's simply hasn't shown a negative for number of years. That's Tim Mendham from Australian skeptics, you're listening to space time. I'm Stewart Gary, and that's the show for now. You can subscribe and download space time as a free twice weekly podcast through apple podcast. I tunes Stitcher dot com. Pocket costs. Soundcloud? Youtube audio boom from space time with Stewart Gary dot com, all from your favorite podcast. Download provider space times also broadcast coast to coast across the United States on science three sixty radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and available around the world on tune in radio. If you want more space time checking our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images me stories, videos and things on the web. I find interesting were amusing just go to. Space time with Stewart Gary dot tumbler dot com, that's all one word and in lower case. And that's tumbler without the you can also follow us on Twitter through at Stewart. Gary at space time with Stewart Gary on Instagram and on Facebook, just go to WWW dot Facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary space-time is brought to in collaboration with Australian sky and tell us go magazine you'll window on the universe. You've been listening to space time. With Stewart, Gary this has been another quality podcast production from bites dot com.
Comet Swan Swoops Past Earth
"The Space Time series twenty three percent fifty two for broadcast on the twenty ninth of May Twenty Thousand Twenty hundred coming up on space time the Comet Swan swoops past the earth the Jovian ice menu. Europa reveals more of its secrets and India's new liquid mercury telescope all that all coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. Well it seems to be a case of another month means another new comedy as the comet. C Two Thousand Twenty Twenty eight one is currently making its closest approach to earth passing some eighty five million kilometers away. Astronomers Swan could become a more prominent naked eye object of the next few weeks as it gets closer to the sun. What makes one especially interesting is the high rate of water vapor currently guessing from the comet more than thirteen hundred kilograms every second. That's already three times more than comet sixty seven pay Sheriff Sheriff America at. Its very bist. When it was visited by the European Space Agency's Rosetta Mission. Between Two Thousand Fourteen and twenty sixteen. You see the more material comedy. Chicks the more satellite can reflect the brighter it would therefore appear and the more visible it becomes swan is currently moving from southern into northern skies at. It's already faintly visible with the unaided eye but based on the amount of water at suggesting it could become brighter over the next few weeks. That's if it survived that long after all we've heard all this before just last month. In fact when the much anticipated Comet Atlas suddenly began breaking PAT to at least thirty fragments as it approached the sun. Say That's the thing about comets. Fragile and therefore highly predictable and Comet Swan is now entering the danger zone when it said Para helium its closest opened position to the sun. Time when Sola Hating will be at its maximum s things get hotter more more isis will begin to vaporize and de gas and they'll move into any voids a weak spots inside the comet potentially breaking it apart but if. Swann does survive sky what you should look neither. Bradstock a pillar in the Constellation or region. Charity here Swan was discovered back in April. But ED LAID CITIZEN SCIENTISTS. Michael Marietto he was sifting through images taken by the Sola Win and is the tropics or swan instrument aboard the Soho Solar and Helius Observatory spacecraft operated by Nasser Acer Swan captures images ultraviolet light including a specific ultraviolet wavelength known as linemen which is emitted by hydrogen atoms. That's because swansea designed to map changes in the solar wind a stream of charged particles continuously spewing from the sun and those products include lots of hydrogen and the thing is commoner also prodigious source of hydrogen and says Swan is becoming an effective combat as well the hydrogen released from comets comes from the water vapor. It's being evaporated as icy dirt bulls a heated by the sun. Member water is two paths. Hydrogen one oxygen. Also there's even more hydrogen released from comets as solar radiation splits the would molecules into a single hydrogen atom and a hydrogen oxygen or hydroxyl radical. This generates cloud of hydrogen that surrounds the comet giving off the Bright Lyman Alpha signature tactic by swan almost every day. Swan records a complete map at sky. These sky map so then process removing background. Sties and leaving variable moving objects such as comets visible so far twelve comments have been detected through swan data since nine hundred ninety six or by citizen scientists but the swan instrument is in the anyway so it takes comments some three thousand nine hundred and twenty comments of being detected by another instrument on Code Lasco a large angle and spectrum metric chromatograph experiment and when you add swan to the turtle calf so it means this. Little satellite has not affected three thousand nine hundred and thirty two comet since its launch not bad for a spacecraft designed to study the sun this space time. Still come the Jovian ice moon. Europa revealing new secrets and the people of Tasmania reporting lights in the sky following the launch of a top secret. Russian spy satellite. All that and more still to come on Space Time Tony You. High resolution images of the Ice Moon Europa providing scientists with fresh clues about how it's frozen surface phoned with an average age of just forty million to ninety million years. The surface of three thousand one hundred and twenty two kilometer wide mood is among the youngest in the solar system. The frozen would will be the primary tagging of NASA's upcoming. You wrote a clinician Iraq. A clipper will investigate whether the global liquid water ocean tape below the moon stick frozen crust could have conditions. Would you be suitable for life and also how that Ocean which is three times? The amount of water that Earth Oceans do interact with surface like masses Karen Jupiter Mission Juno Europe. A clipper will over the Jovian Moon in a series of long elongated loops assigned to spend as little time as possible and cheap it is damaging radiation belts spacecraft will perform somewhere around forty five orbits. Roger Roper flying at attitudes ranging from twenty seven thousand kilometers data just twenty five kilometers above the frozen men surface and that surface is a widely very landscape with crisscrossing ridges small round domes and disrupted areas of chaos terrain in order to get a better understanding these strange features scientists these new techniques to reprocess images of Europa originally taken by Galileo spacecraft more than two decades ago. This allow them to create new views of the moon surface in preparation for the arrival of the euro clip spacecraft. He originally messages were captured back. On September the Twenty. Six thousand nine hundred ninety eight during the eighth of Galileo's eleven fly by your roper the high resolution images review features smallest four hundred and sixty metres across and the results of the reprocessing a stunning further enhancing the images dato dominating. The landscape are haege ridges. They thought to be caused by gravitational tidal forces on a rope is icy surface crust causing it to flicks stretch and pull apart. The is thought the form cracks in the surface open and close repeatedly in the process. Building up a fidget. That's typically a few hundred meters tall several kilometers wide and often hundreds of kilometers long now. In contrast to the ridges the band's locations with cracks appeared continued pulling apart donnelly possibly then being filled with liquid water sitting up from the ocean below freezing solid in the process producing a wide relatively flat plane. The new images also show areas of so-called chaos terrain which look like John Lewis puzzle pieces mad up of giant blocks of ice that moved sideways then rotated or tilted before being refers into positions cala variations across the surface of course by different chemical compositions with some areas matter. Predictively pure water is appearing light blue or even wide. Well more fish and read air is thought to be coated with minerals such salts to find out more and you're dangling is speaking with astronomer professor. Frit Watson this dates back twenty years when Goliath was hanging around during the fat taking a few peaks and they did take photographs of Europa. The Ice Moon but here we are twenty light or thereabouts. And I've reanalyze some of the data because you know the photographic technology we have to is much more advanced and I'm guessing while La they've come up with a little bit more detail about this amazing little world. Indeed that's right and so this is not accidental. It's not just people saying will go of another look those divisive from Galileo. This is all about preparing for the next mission to Jupiter Jupiter moons. There is one called the a clip out. Within the next few years is another mission coaches the duke atrocity moons probe which I think is also a on the still love the name of that one your check so these missions that will give us much more detail about the icy moons and of course. Europa is one of the moons of the solar system that has the structure with a rocky Cole. A liquid water ocean over the top of it and then over the top of that a solid ice crossed. Europa is special in that the ice crust is probably one of the youngest surfaces in the entire solar system states estimated to be between forty and ninety million years old now. Let's sounds like a long time but that red planetary A World Lot. Europa is very very young the cratered surface of the moon for example the southern hemisphere at the move. She's heavily cratered is more like three point. Eight four point two billion years old it dates from Italian objects were hurling through the solar system pushing into everything what is called the light heavy bombardment so the surface of Europa is not like that at all. In fact they're not noticeable crisis on it but what are is the markings and the classic Galileo spacecraft from Nineteen Ninety eight show a surface that is crisscrossed by Brownish Markings. Many of them very linear and those markings in the original images. It's not really possible to distinguish what you're saying. They just look like Brown markings. Now that Brown Kayla a still to be what happens when you've got a briny liquid almost like seawater filtering up through the ocean beneath and then being irradiated by the Sun's radiation experiments. So done a few years ago. That showed if you've got water that's rich insults minerals and you irradiated with ultraviolet light and the kind of particle bombardment get from the. Celani tons Brown just like the streets. The those original images didn't really show much detail and that's why this is such a great story because what we're talking about today is a reanalysis of those images by a team. Actually at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory led by Planetary Geologist Cynthia Phillips and that is a fantastic project to bring modern computer algorithms to ban on images that we looked out and said yet great fantastic stuff and then put away for twenty two years and what they've done is they've shown that the terrain on Europa is not just an ice covering with a few black Brown streaks Scum all or variations in it so the resolutions quite fine revealing things as small as a four hundred sixty meters across thereabouts and the detail is now. I think quite staggering there is on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory website. There are some of the reprocessed images and there are three different kinds of terrain that have been identified which was really recognized before and I guess the first is what's called the chaos terrain and that sort of tells it like it is a slight just lumps of solid material often colored browned which looks just like. You've taken a liquid take a glass bowl. Fill it with ice crystals which kind of an input in the fridge. So they'll partly freeze over and then So the story top so these these sorry ice cubes rather than ice crystals that they all tumble around. We've seen something similar. Andrew on the Dwarf Planet Pluto the Sputnik Platinum does this exactly the same terrain and mission scientists for the new euro per projects. Think that this The chaos terrain on Europa comes about because of exactly that that the surface is being fractured remembering the title forces from the planet itself. The pushing and pulling the service and you get the stuff breaking up into relatively small chunks which are then tipped around just like these ice cubes on giving this essentially was cold. Chaos tearing two more different features have been recognized both really interesting on similar in the both long linear fate chose maybe a few kilometers wide few tens of meters high the ridges anyway a few tens of thousands of kilometers long so the two different things ridges which is where what. I've just explained you've got a long ridge of material just a few tens of meters. I think they were talking about five hundred meters of so high which probably brought about when to plight device compressed together and so pushing up of the materialists they collide remembering that the surface is kind of emotional time the best with what they co- bands not rock bands or anything like that but far different color. These are the opposite. These look the other way to plates have ice stretched apart. A nice has grown in between them. Because what you've got is. A broad region probably tens of kilometers wide which he's very very smooth with kind of originally the salad of it. That's Dr Fred. What's astronomer with the Department of Science speaking with Andrew Dunkley on assist the program space? What's and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary still the come India building a new liquid Macri telescope and reports from the good citizenry of Tasmania of lights in the night. Sky Following the launch of a top secret. Russian spy satellite. All that in most the on space time a you're a India is building a new telescope but one with the difference instead of the traditional Polish Glass Primary Mirror. This observatory will use spinning liquid mercury as its reflecting surface. The project will allow the to boot four. Mehta Class Observatory for just a fraction of the cost of traditional optical telescope liquid mirror technology uses a rotating container food with highly reflecting mercury which takes on a parabolic shape out of the constant pull of gravity and Centrifugal acceleration which were a stronger with distance from the rotational axis Liquid Mirror telescopes zenith pointing. Which means they can only ever observe the food of you directly above them but as turns they can undertake very out surveys monitoring any changes in this trip of sky ahead of the consecutive nights. India's liquid mercury telescope is one of the stories in this month's Australian sky and telescope magazine. Joining us now with the details is the magazine's editor. Jonathan Not Mirror might have met gary out that mean the planet mercury. I mean the metal mercury and it's actually not as crazy as it sounds that they have a telescope with a mirror up made of liquid mercury instead of glass. It has actually been tried before there have been a number of them since the nineteen eighties most experimental but it actually works. The idea is that telescope's main mirror which normally used gloss has a very gentle curve ground into it so dips towards the center and this is in the shadow of a parabola and it's when light bounces off his parabola better than comes to a focus. So these mirrors of course these days and be optical telescopes a huge one pace miramonte be eight meters wide And then you get telescopes that have made up of multiple eight made a mirrors now that building. So it's really quite huge. You can't get a liquid Mercury Mirror telescope quite that big but the thing about them. Is that the shape. They really retrieved to build a lot cheaper than a traditional telescope and I'm talking millions of dollars instead of hundreds of millions of dollars. They do have some drawbacks. Though how do you aim I mean when it pour out the bottom but this is exactly right? So they have some drawback. Wouldn't call the drawback it's a limitation? Put it that way. The middle MIRA has to stay horizontal. You can children. They can't be moved right so it just stays horizontal all the time and what they do is make it spin and forms a little dip in the center of sorry spin of the right philosophy and it will just like any sort of liquid if you spin it you get a little dip towards the center. So that's the stay horizontal which means you can only look more or less straight up all the time. But they were making huge. So I guess that compensates for that the one building now is called the International Liquid Mirror telescope and is being built in northern India. It'll have four married a wide mirror. Which is the same size as the biggest optical telescope into strata sending two million dollars two million? Us dollars so it's really cheap compared to join almost telescopes that are you can look anywhere in the sky. That have big glass mirror but even even even though can look straight up there are many science projects which is just fine. But if the if you want to do sort of fast the typical observations like Cami Galaxy Generous are in a certain volume of space. Well the overall assumption is that spices pretty much the same in every direction you look looking looking straight up you're GONNA get representative of what space looks like. So or you know how many How many Supernova guy off in a certain volume of space. Well they can happen anywhere so you can just pick sort of any direction lucrative for long enough and you build up. Some statistics adaptive optics are another problem with the mirror. Like this the now I'm not sure if they need to use them. They wouldn't if they were just doing a field survey. Which is what you're describing. You would need that for really high Resolution angular resolution with an that. This is intended for that kind of thing. So been in the Senate two million dollar telescope. Yeah it's pretty good when you're gonNA four Mehta class. Let's now is the editor of Australian sky. Tell magazine and if you're having trouble getting your copy of stray and sky and telescope magazine from your usual retailer. Because of the counter lockdown and travel restrictions. You can always get a print or digital subscription and have the magazine delivered directly to your litterbox or in and subscribing is easy. Just go to sky and telescope DOT COM dot. Au that sky and telescope dot COM dot AU and you'll never be left in the dark. Can Fish space-time still the the Kremlin launches a new top secret hundred military spy satellite and later in the science report. Any talion study shows. A Kawasaki. Like disease is showing up in kids with covid nineteen all that and more still to come on space time. Russian military forces have launched one of the most highly classified spy satellites. The Tundra early warning surveillance satellite was launched aboard a Soyuz two on Bay rocket from Plesetsk. Cosmodrome eight hundred kilometers north Moscow about nine minutes into the flight. The spent so use third stage was jettisoned from the forget. Upper stage and satellite payload reentering the Earth's atmosphere over the South Pacific Ocean just southeast. Tasmania and didn't it? 'cause a spectacle with paypal across parts of Tasmania and Victoria reporting seeing the debris from the spent rocket stage streaking across the Evening Sky. This launch place. The Fourth of The CRIMMINS AKA as Tundra civilian satellites into orbit. The Tatra said lights are all highly classified. Here's what we know. The two thousand and two hundred kilograms spacecraft use a modular design and are equipped with high resolution senses operating in ultraviolet optical and three infrared ranges at resolutions of one meter the satellites designed to Beth for and track eight signatures of rocket exhaust plumes from incoming intercontinental ballistic missiles fake in detect and lock onto targets climbing assize a thousand kilometers above the surface. Which is fine. I the most is to be with fly. Report suggests that can also detect hypersonic vehicles strategic bombers and even maneuvering. Low Earth spacecraft. They use high volume jam resistant. Communications systems have extensive onboard data processing that way. It doesn't have to be done downstream at the Satellite Control Center and they employ four pairs of ion thrusters attitude control. The satellites placed into highly elongated. Molly orbits designed to allow greater dwell time at high northern Paula Latitudes. After all that's the direction musket believes most incoming ICBM's becoming from each week as Tundra civilian satellite carries enough fuel for life span of twelve to fifteen years. The first of the four satellite was launched in two thousand fifteen the second in two thousand seventeen and the third September last year. This space time still to come. The Science Report and Italian study showing a Kawasaki like disease is increasing in kids who have covid nineteen and your research shows some eight hundred eighty thousand people who don't smoke die prematurely every year from exposure to other people secondhand smoke all that and more still to come on space time and. Tom That'd take another brief look at some of the other stories making us inside this week with a science report and Italian analysis from the epicenter of the country's covid. Nineteen outbreak describes an increase in cases of a rare. Kawasaki like disease in young children adding to reports of similar cases from the United Kingdom and the United States. A report in The Lancet met who journal says only nineteen? Children were diagnosed with the condition in Italy in the five years preceding the covid nineteen pandemic. But they've been ten cases between February Eighteenth and April the twentieth this year potentially representing a thirty fold increase in the number of cases have whether the syndrome is relatively rare and DR stress that most kids will remain minimally affected by Covid nineteen infection and you study claims that some eight hundred eighty thousand people who don't smoke die each year prematurely as a result of exposure to secondhand smoke from the world's one billion smokers but the findings reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association do apparently have a silver lining. It seems things are getting better as the amount of people smoking and consequently the amount of harm that can be caused others by each individual smoker has decreased over the years in nineteen ninety. Just thirty one point. Three smokers led to the death of each nonsmoker. Through secondhand smoke exposure or is by twenty sixty. It took fifty two point three smokers. That caused the death of a nonsmoker. Queensland Museum Paleontologist have released findings and the extinction of strain megaphone. That lived until forty thousand years ago in tropical northern Australia. Their report in the journal Nature. Communications has concluded that it was extreme environmental change which was the most likely to of course their extinction say combination of successive loss of water flow. Intensified drying increased burning vegetation change created the conditions to drive the extinction of at least thirteen species of supersized mega-fauna including four retaliate makeup predators Hamas line and the world's largest wombats and Kangaroos and you study suggests that huge predators like tyrannosaurus. Rex were optimized for energy efficient walking rather than speed the authors gather data on limb proportions body Masson Gates for more than seventy dinosaur species estimating birth potential top speed and energy expenditure at lower speeds for H. Dinosaur in small to medium size species longer. Legs appear to have been an adaption for faster running but for species heavy tun long legs were correlated. Not with faster running but with more efficient lower than walking a report in the journal plus one suggests speed was a major advantage dinosaur needed to hunt prey and escape predators but the bigger dinosaurs relied boring efficiency while foraging if the findings cricked it adds to a growing debate. The T. REX rather than being purely Predator may have been far more an opportunistic scavenger. In this time of computers the Internet social media anyone can publish articles online containing true or false information now determining. What's Real News? And what's fake? Be Difficult enough. It requires a considered effort to find the truth. And of course that truth may not always be what you want to hear but deciphering real science from fake pseudoscience puts one in an entirely new ballgame. Fake Science of politically motivated is undermining society's trust in science and it's making it difficult for people to make evidence based informed decisions on important often life or death issues. Ironically in the same way as the world's biggest meteorologists pushing blatantly biased news stories depriving the public of the truth or even a balanced account. Some of the biggest drivers of faked science are embedded in the current science publishing system. Intended to disseminate evidence based knowledge so now scientists at the University of Arizona Training Neural Nets to distinguish between fake and real science in articles about climate. Change in biological evolution. And the good news. Is it's now achieved and ninety percent accuracy rate after bit more refinement intesting researchers hope to have neural nets that can across domains of science. Tim Mendham from a strand. Skeptic says scan of the site allows than Euronet to determine if the contents scientifically sound Oh simply climate denial junk it using artificial intelligence neural nets nearly networks et Cetera to basically assess academic height of to see. How much like signs there is in them. It's a matter of training these networks into saying what is fake. What's not so said. A lot of information. Academic papers whatever examples of Psych facts? Fake information within these papers and which doesn't seem to be fake and the needle networks the I has to assess as and basically they figuring the Mima they're working on climate change areas and once. I got that fan pathway. As far as down patterns you can be that these I can automatically recognize doggie Goodie at the office say that it can be applied to other areas as well. This is something that's going on in America that I'm Actually University of Arizona is working on this but it's also happening in Australia sometimes on a very manual analog way to actually go through a lot of all scientific hype and see which ones have any replica ability so they can actually assess them from that point of view. That's a lot of work involved with hyping that I can get some sort of technology to do the same sort of thing in particular areas. Actually that some universities. I think it's melded universities working on a project right now which is passed on my analog if you like very manual hands on the go through current and past peer reviewed papers to see how much replication can be done based on them to see if any reputation as being done based on them. Because of course that's one of the ways that the peer review process works. You replicate the work. That's being described the paper. That's right I mean at the semi papers probably said. It can't be happy to do that. But yeah they try. That's the whole thing to actually test to see sexy valid. If the proposal the theory put forward original also has validity. That's the way science works so school. A Knox someone's trying to bring you down by repeating what you did and to saying if you can't repeat what you did if there's enough information there to understand tests and saying I if it works on if it does work again well done. Let's move on from here. Use this as some sort of basis to work on. I couldn't replicate them. I think you're a shock. Yeah that's the way I saw. It should work. That's a good thing. It's a school Knoxville. If he can get of some sort of system and technology as in the University of Arizona whatever to actually go through a lot of these papers can say deal of the word say. What are the best candidates to actually look for reps ability problems? Nowadays to of course is the pay to Publish Syndrome which some scientists Fulham for their approach by publishers who are willing to publish their research if they'll pay for it and that should always raise alarm bells am fourteen. There's a lot of it around the basically generals which don't have any review process in place except that if someone signs a chick And then it becomes. It's it's it's an apple to prices. It becomes pointless dummy it very well might be well titus and someone doesn't want to wait two years to get through the review crisis that. I'd like to see it imprint. Even if the digital version of a magazine that might not be ever seen by anybody. That's them from Australian skeptics. And that's the show now. Space-time is broadcast on sites radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through both IHEART radio and on radio or you can subscribe and download space. Time is a free podcast through apple. Stitcher BITES DOT COM pucca cast soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom Pud beam android cashbox from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite download podcasts provider. You can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming space time Patriot which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burners audio content and other awards. Just go to a patriarch page through Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the data house. If you want more space time check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images new stories videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot TAMLA DOT COM. 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"Space Time Series. Twenty three episode forty two for broadcast on the sixth of May. Twenty twenty coming up on Space Time and you study shows plate. Tectonics on earth is at least three point. Two billion old. The Hubble Space Telescope celebrates thirty years of science and the sun's magnetic pulse are reversing polarity with to solve cycles and now active at once. All that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary and he studies found that planet Earth was already experiencing plate tectonic movements three point two billion years ago and that the plates back. Then we're moving at similar rates to what they are now. The findings reported in the Journal. Science advances adds new dimensions to the ongoing debate about exactly when play tectonics I started on a influencing the early evolution of the planet. Earth is the only non planetary body that has robustly established plate tectonics of any kind today. Earth's outer Shell lithosphere consists of roughly fifteen rigid blocks of crust known as tectonic plates upon which shit the planet's continents and oceans. The plates have moved by the conviction of hot material. Rising up from deep in the mantle to the top of the lithosphere usually mid ocean ridges when molten basalt ridges reach the top of the crust. They cooled down and solidified into the plate which it is slowly pushed across Eliza sphere by new upwelling material behind them until they reach the lighter grit material which forms the continents fair the heavy best salts of ducks back down into the mantle hating up the surrounding crust in the process conforming. Volcanic full clinic. Chains can also be formed for metal plume hotspots which remain stationary tectonic plates. Slide above them in the process providing a trace of the direction. The plates moving this continuous movement of tectonic plates determines the sizes shapes and locations of the continents and creates new mountain ranges and together. This combination of events influences atmospheric chemistry global climate and even with patents. It also exposes Iraq so the atmosphere which leads the chemical reactions that stabilize the surface of billions of years and the planet stable climate and surface as being crucial for the evolution of life and enjoying questioning. Geology is exactly when a tectonic plates. I formed began shaping the continents we see today some researchers think it happened more than four billion years ago while others think it's far more region son just billion years ago. The new fighting's a based on an analysis of magnetism in rocks from an ancient block of crust in the fine north of Western Australia. Then is the probe creighton honey. Eight Basalt S- a crate on is a primordial thick and very stable piece of Christ. They usually found in the middle of tectonic plates and the ancient hats of the Earth's continents and said this makes create a natural place to go. Study the earth the POPA crate on stretches across about five hundred kilometers and. He's one of the oldest blocks of stable crust on the surface of the planet. The rocks there have been dated to his earliest three point. Five billion years and these ancient rocks retain a record of Earth's magnetic field at the time they formed time they crystallization to determine whether the lithosphere plates experienced any significant motion before the early Neil Arcane period some two point eight billion years ago the authors extracted thirty five drako samples from the rocks to determine the orientation of the planet's magnetic field at the time the solidified studies had already established the ages of the rock that crystallized at different times within the block when combined with the direction of the planet's magnetic food at the time it allows scientists to track the movement of the block of millions of years. They found evidence for a large change in the latitude of the block. Relative to the magnetic poles between three point three five and three point one eight billion years ago drifting at an average speed of around two point five centimeters per year which is similar to plate movement rates observed. Today the study's Lead Author Alec Brennan from Harvard. University says the findings push back the date for the onset of Baden Plate tectonics into the late Paleozoic K. And he says it looks like plate. Tectonics is a much more likely assist to have occurred in the early earth and that argues for an earth. That looks a lot more similar to today than what a lot of people thought this space time still to come. The Hubble Space Telescope celebrates thirty years of science and the sun's magnetic pulse reversing polarity with two solar cycles. Now active at once all that and much more still to come on space time. Okay let's take a break from our show for word from our sponsor express. Vpn rated number one by Tick Raider may be wondering why you need a virtual private network. Well it's in the name. It's all about privacy. Do you really want big brother tick companies hackers governments? And who knows who else knew in on your mind activities now you might not have anything to hide but it's still really creepy and it could be dangerous for you and those you care about. Also how often do you run across a website and you want to get information from it but you find out that the GEO blocked? It's all very frustrating and it's becoming an increasing problem and that's where expressed VPN can help you express VPN's a simple and efficient way to protect your online privacy. It's Internet without Borders from the world's leading VPN provider so particular online privacy today. And find out how you can get three months free at trikes press. Vpn DOT com slash space? That's try express. Vpn DOT com slash space for three months free with a package visit try express VPN DOT com slash space to learn more. And of course you'll find the link details in the show notes and on our website. That's try express. Vpn DOT com slash space? And now it's back to our show. You're listening to spend time with Stewart Gary with all the news about the ongoing covered. Nineteen Corona virus dominating the world's headlines and important milestone in scientific history is being forgotten. The Hubble Space Telescope is just celebrated its thirtieth anniversary in orbit. It's hard to believe. But for more than a generation now earth orbiting observatories being redefining view of the universe providing new understanding of the Cosmos and humanity's place in it Hubbell was launched aboard the space shuttle Discovery Honesty as thirty one back on April the Twenty Fourth Nineteen Ninety and deployed into a five hundred. Sixty nine kilometre. Hi Lois orbit named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble the eleven thousand one hundred ten kilograms school bus sized optical telescope was part of Nassar's Great Observatories Project designed to play specialist steady telescopes in orbit will clear the distorting effects of Earth's atmosphere from way they could provide astronomers with uninterrupted views of the heavens as well as Hubble which was observing in the optical near infrared and ultraviolet range the other telescopes of NASA's Great Observatories Project With a company Gamma Ray Observatory the chanter x Ray Telescope and the Spitzer infrared space telescope. Hobble used the two point four meters. It was revolutionary. Not just in the science at the limit but also because of Nasser's decision to design the telescope said that it could be upgraded and service space and that was fate which would prove to be needed fast. Sooner than expected by mission managers received their first light from hobble any the find the images blurry apparently Hubbell's main mirror had been ground incorrectly resulting in a spherical aberration that compromise telescopes capabilities a servicing mission in one thousand nine hundred eighty three fit corrective lenses to the telescope to fix the issue over the years of further four servicing missions repaired worn out systems and fitted new upgraded instruments and equipment. The last in May twenty nine from it Sky. High Vantage Point Hubbell began opening a spectacular never-before-seen window on the universe so far the telescope shielded over one point four million observations and provided data which astronomers around the world of us to write more than seventeen thousand peer reviewed scientific publications making hobble one of the most prolific scientific exhibitry history. Hubble has hoped astronomers determine the age of the universe. We now know that to be around thirteen point. Eight two billion years and it's hoped that determine the rate at which the universe is expanding fagin known as the Hubble constant. It's also shown as how that expansion is a force Kodak Energy. What we still don't know exactly what that is. Hubble has allowed humanity to look back in time sing the birth of some of the first galaxies after the big bang and observing galactic evolution. Right up to the prison day. Hubble is allowed astronomers to determine that essentially every galaxy in the universe has a supermassive black hole at its center and the big of the galaxy that big at the central black hole at association that has still grappling with the opening observatory studied the birth and death of stars the creation of new planets and it seemed some of the most distant objects in the universe hobble has allowed scientists to witness the gravitational lenzing of distant galaxies by nearer foreground galaxies. Thanks to the binning of Light Judy. John Relatively among many spectacular images of the stunning pillars of creation. The Eagle Nebula. Some six point five seven thousand light years away originally taken a nine hundred ninety five. The image shows tearing columns stretching the full is in length composed of clouds of molecular gas and dust which the birthplace of new generations of stars. The pillars have been eroded into this stunning shapes by ultraviolet radiation from recently for nearby hot young stars high resolution optical infrared images taken by hobbling twenty four team or even more spectacular showing the pillars as ghostly sentinels mocking the passage of time. But it seems time is not on this side although we can still see them the of creation actually no longer exists having been blown away by the shockwaves of a nearby Supernova. Rabat six thousand years ago because of their distance from Earth it'll be another five hundred two thousand years before the light of their destruction finally reaches earth another spectacular hobble image is. It's altered deep field released. In twenty twelve the deepest view ever taken of the Cosmos hobble simply stared at a dock seemingly empty patch of sky in the direction of the Constellation foreign axe instead of the darkness hobble. Sort of a ten thousand galaxies stretching back over thirty billion years to a time when the universe was less than a billion years old you love surveys of the same region and different wavelengths have revealed even more ancient galaxies including one that a piece to a form just four hundred and fifty million years after the Big Bang itself further even deeper observations combined with new processing technologies have revealed that some of these very early galaxies are almost twice as big as expected. And that's raising new questions back. Give Lucien during the period of reorganisation a time when the very first star began to shine. Hubble is still going strong and that's a says it could last another ten even twenty years. Its successor is the James Webb Space Telescope at this stage it slated for launch aboard a European Space Agency five rocket from the curious spaceport in French Guiana in much twenty. Twenty one forcing hobbled share it. Spotlight for the first time mind you. Hubble isn't the only one of its kind in orbit in fact at least twenty two space telescopes similar hobble. The same basic design adopted for hobble have been built between nineteen seventy six and January last year but unlike hobble which points towards the heavens the other twenty one will earth observation. Spy Satellites built for the National Reconnaissance Office. America's Intelligence Agency for space based surveillance and were designed to not up but down to the surface. They've gone by a variety of official names codenames such as H. E. Eleven Kenan Crystal Evolved Enhanced Crystal Ten ten gambit and hexagon but they're all generally referred to win the business S. K. Hall have been at least six basic technology known blocks for the whole series of space telescopes and at least two of them named misty were even designed to be stealthy virtually invisible to radar revelation. That Howell had at least twenty. One siblings came to light in two thousand twelve when the National Reconnaissance Office donated a pair of free chaos by satellites and spare parts Nassar potentially uses Hubble Space Telescope. Replacements this pay were manufactured in the late nineteen nineties and early two thousands and were originally meant to join the constellation of similar Kale surveillance satellites orbiting the earth. But they were never used because the design had already been superseded and you block for block five versions like that were built by Lockheed Martin and equipped with a two point four meter main mirrors and designed to orbit at a similar altitude. But because they look down at the surface and not up they were fitted with different optical and Ciller equipment and they also had a shorter focal length giving them a wider field of view about one hundred times larger than helpless Whitefield Camera Three. The two telescopes represent a multibillion dollar gift from the National Reconnaissance Office to NASA. But even so they weren't complete lacking among other things detectors star. Trek is prison wheels filters the good news is that they did come complete with bodies Mirrors Paler radiators and one point five minute long struts along the bottom for spacecraft instruments one of them's now being rebuilt into a new earth orbiting space telescope caught. W I which studied the mysterious force of dark energy which is sort of fitting considering the telescopes origins in the mysterious cloak and dagger world of espionage. W I is expected to launch in two thousand and thousand four filling the gap in space exploration between tests the successor to the pattern hunting kepler space telescope. Which is already up there. In space and Hubble successor the James Webb which we mentioned earlier will be launched next year. But fennell how will remain Sciences Premier Base Orbiting Observatory as this report from Easter TV explains over thirty years? The Hubble Space Telescope has transformed astronomy. It shown as images from the dawn of time thirteen billion years ago and revealed an evolving universe is not only expanding but that expansion is accelerating. Hubble has witnessed the birth and death of stars and supermassive black holes at the heart of galaxies but more than that hobble has influenced our culture arts and music from posters and screensavers to t shirts and rock albums. It's colorful landscapes giving us a new perspective on the cosmos. The dream of a telescope above the distorting effects of the atmosphere goes back to the one of the space age a joint mission between NASA and Isa the Space Telescope was developed in the Nineteen Eighties. It was named after Edwin Hubble who discovered the universe was expanding the size of an articulated lorry. Hubbell was fitted with a two and a half meter wide mirror the European contribution included the paint object camera and the solar arrays. The telescope's power supply designed to firm in space. Couple left the earth on April. The twenty four to nineteen ninety one and liftoff of the space shuttle. Discovery with the Hubble Space Telescope Window on the Universe. The next day the crew used the shuttle's robotic arm to deploy the telescope and release it into orbit. Go on disconnect gopher release. We're GONNA be late discovery but within weeks it was apparent that something was badly wrong. The Mirror had been polished slightly to flat but a SAMBA. Press Conference Hobbles Program Manager revealed the news as it. There's a significance spherical aberration fierce. Be Present in the optics and the optical telescope system optics fortunately Hubbell had always been designed to be serviced. This ability to service the telescope through human care will extend its lifespan up to twenty years on December the Fourth Nineteen ninety-three East astronaut Claude Nicola US space shuttle Endeavor's robotic arm to capture the telescope in orbit never has a handshake with telescope. He was one of the most ambitious emissions. Over eleven days. The shuttle crew carried out five back to back. Spacewalks it included fitting instrument correct the telescopes optics and replacing the solar arrays. The mission would set the tone for future servicing expeditions. The last in two thousand nine. Thanks to these upgrades today. Hubble is in better shape than ever mission controllers. Hope it will last at least another ten years continuing its mission of discovery of the NAS counts. Scientists published more than seventeen thousand papers based on Hubble data but perhaps more significantly thanks to. It's amazing images helpless given a new sense of our place in the vast cosmos. This be more evidence that in use solar cycles taking on the son with magnetic map images from NASA Assault Dynamic Observatory spacecraft showing two separate solar cycle some spots on the Sola disc at the same time. One of the sunspots cataloged is twenty seven. Sixty belongs to the solar cycle. Twenty four well just below into the ride is sunspot at twenty seven sixty one which belongs to the new solar cycle twenty five scientists can tell from different solar cycles because of the opposite parities. Twenty-seven sixty is positive over negative while at twenty seven. Sixty one is negative or positive. Now there's nothing strange about that. Solar cycles usually overlap during solemn minimum with further similar events expected over the next few months as the sun slowly continues to push through. What's become one of the longest and deepest solar minimize century? I started say five out of the seven. Sunspots identified so far this year that seventy one percent have been from the new solar cycle twenty five Beckham pays the seventeen percent last year and none at all in two thousand eighteen. The Sun goes through roughly eleven year solar cycle during which the polarity of its north and South Poles flip and it's during solar minimum that this reversal takes place. It's time little. If any sunspot activity however is the new solar cycle takes other sunspot activity will start to increase again as local stock climbs towards solemn maximum. Solarmax is at time. Violent geomagnetic storms on the Sun. Triggering intense solar flays and powerful. Colonel Matt suggestions which can cause space weather events on earth. As Energy Plasma Slam into the planet sparking colorful celestial light displays and under the Aurora astrologers and Aurora Borealis Feasts Southern Lights however radiation from the space weather events can also damage spacecraft affect navigation and communication systems k the orbits of satellites caused blackouts in terrestrial power grids and increase radiation doses for astronauts n even ailing crews and passengers on polar flights. This space time still to come the science report growing concerns of young and middle aged People Bailey sick with covers nineteen dying of strokes oil and gas operations releasing the greenhouse gas methane at twice the average rate and we look at the healthiest way to brew coffee all that and more still to come. I'm space-time and Tom take another brief look at some of the other stories making using science this week with a science report. China has threatened to boycott Australian exports if the Australian government continues its coal for an independent inquiry into the origins and spread of the covered. Nineteen virus the push for an independent investigation follows China's actions during the World Health Organization's inspection of the hand province where the outbreak during which Beijing insisted that half of all inspectors be Chinese appointed by the Communist government and that they be allowed to undertake the final edit and approval of the report that report which praised China for its transparency and openness and it swift efficient actions during the outbreak has been ridiculed by doctors and journalists at the scene as a work of fiction unsupported by facts however those same critics have since been arrested and disappeared with some dying allegedly according to the Chinese government from the disease. It's now widely known that the Chinese government hit the true extent of the outbreak and its ability to spread from human to human compounding. The problem Beijing banned travel for more hand to other parts of China but continued to allow international travel for more hand to the rest of the world spreading the deadly infection globally. Meanwhile they're a growing reports of young and middle-aged people barely speak with cover. Nineteen dying of strokes. Doctors sound the alarm about patients in the thirties and forties dying or lift billeted. Some of them didn't even know there were infected in. The vast majority of young adults covered nineteen appeased to result in only mild illness with the risk of more severe consequences rising with every decade of age according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is zero point eight percent chance of debts and people aged twenty five to thirty four. A two percent chance among those eight thirty five to forty four and a five point. Four percent chance among those aged forty five to fifty four. Meanwhile a report on the medical website mid archive has found intense testing the small Italian town of. Oh as turned up a large proportion of paper with covered. Nineteen who have apparently no symptoms at all researches swapped almost every resident in the town for viral and found that some forty three percent of people infected had no fever and no other symptoms and you study warns that global insect populations have dropped twenty five percent since nineteen ninety. The findings were reported in the Journal. Science based on is study of one hundred and sixty six long term surveys of insect populations across one thousand six hundred. Seventy six sites researches found that land insect populations have declined by nine percent per decade. Since at least the nineteen ninety s at the same time freshwater insect populations have increased perhaps partially owned to clean water efforts and you study warns that oil and gas operators in America's sperling Permian Basin a releasing methane into the atmosphere twice the average rates fanning previous studies of eleven other major US oil and gas regions and you findings reported in the Journal. Science advances are the highest emissions ever measured for any major oil and gas basin. In fact scientists found so much methane escaping from the Permian oil and gas operations that it nearly tripled the twenty climate impact of the burning of all the guests. They're producing based on eleven months of satellite data encompassing some two hundred thousand individual readings taken across the one hundred sixty thousand square kilometer basin. The Permian Oil and gas operations are losing methane at a rate equal to three point. Seven percent of the turtle gas production that wasted methane which is the main component of natural. Gas is enough to supply two million households. Methane is one of the most potent greenhouse gases emissions of which a causing over a quarter of today's warming a report in the European journal Preventative Cardiology looking at half. A million people from Sweden. Inouye is found that the healthiest way to brew. Coffee is to use a filter. That's because the filters can remove substances in coffee beans. The increased blood cholesterol. The researchers found drinking coffee was associated with a reduced risk of death compared to people who drank coffee at all but unfolded coffee was associated with an increased of death from heart problems in men over the age of sixty and that's the show for now space-time is broadcast on science owned radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through both IHEART radio and Aunt Union Radio or you can subscribe and download space. 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