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The Evolving Dent in Earth's Magnetic Field
"Love. This podcast support this show through the ACOSS support a feature. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty, three episodes sixty three for broadcast on the ninth of September twenty twenty coming up on space time a small but evolving tent in Earth's magnetic field the strange heart world of Kelp nine be and calls for the development of a new satellite early warning system to do with hypersonic missiles all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to Space Time with Stewart Gary. Scientists is seeing a split in a growing weeks in magnetic field known as the South Atlantic Anomaly Earth's magnetic field acts like a sort of protective shield around the planet repealing and trapping charged particles from the sun and deep space however over the southern Atlantic Ocean and initially weak spot in the field known as the South Atlantic. Anomaly allows these particles usually high energy protons, Alpha particles, free flying electrons to dip close to it surface than anywhere else it means the particle radiation can crush through this week's but in the magnetic field hitting delicate circuit boards and other. Electronics aboard spacecraft damaging or destroying their systems and even reducing multi-million dollar satellites in space junk in order to avoid losing instruments or entire satellites. Operate is commonly shutdown not a central components as they pass through the anomaly. For example, NASA always turns off case systems whenever the Hubble Space Telescope, but through and astronauts flying through the region. Also suddenly find their laptops crashing any native, a reboot, the International Space, station, which is low with all that also passes through the South Atlantic. Normally, it's well protected astronauts. There is safe from harm while inside ev as that's NASA speak. For spacewalks are never conducted when the space station slated to fly through the anomaly instruments on the outside of the orbiting outpost are affected by the high radiation levels. One regular victim is the global ecosystem dynamics investigation mission Org Eddie it collects data directly from various positions on the outside of the space station and the South Atlantic Anomaly causes. Regular blips in Getty's detectors, forcing resets of the instruments Powell boards about once a month necessary I honest feerick connection explorer regularly travels through the anomaly in order to monitor its magnetic field strength and Mamadou Position Neurosis Rosser studies the. Particle radiation in the area and around the anomaly using another satellite, the solar anomalous magnetic particle explorer or sandbox scientists looking at two decades of Sam picks data have shown that the southern lining anomaly is slowly but steadily drifting in a northwesterly direction, the results are hoping to confer models created from geomagnetic measurements showing how he normally he's location changes as the geomagnetic field evolves. The good news is that currently, the land normally creates no visible impacts daily life on the Earth surface. However, I wouldn't want to be a commercial pilot flying daily run between south, America and Africa. Normally is of interest to scientists to monitor changes in the magnetic field strength their birth, how the changes affect the atmosphere and as an indicator of what's happening to US magnetic fields deep inside the planet NASA scientist Geomagnetic Jeff Physics Hillier Physics Monitor the South Atlantic Anomaly in Dito to try and predict future changes in how that will affect both space operations and life on earth. The nominally arises from two. Features in Earth's core, the tilt of the magnetic axis and the flow of molten metals within its outer core some two thousand, nine, hundred kilometers below the surface the a bit like a bar magnet with north and South Poles present opposing magnetic polarities and invisible magnetic field lines which encircle the planet between them. But unlike a bar magnet, the magnetic field isn't perfectly aligned for the globe nor is it perfectly stable? That's because the food originates from Earth, small to nine rich out a core, which is in constant vigorous motion spinning around the solid metallic ENECO. Like Jira Dynamo Generating Electric, current which intern produce the geomagnetic field ask the coal motion changes over Time Judah? Complex. Geodynamic conditions within the core and at the biology with a solid mantle above it the magnetic field tends to fluctuating birth space and time these dynamical processes in the court ripple outwards into the magnetic field surrounding the planet generating. The South Atlantic anomaly as well as other features in the earth environment including the constant tilton drift of the Earth's magnetic poles. These evolutions in the magnetic field which happened at similar timescales to the conviction of medals in the core provides scientists with new clues to help them unravel the core dynamics that drives the dynamo recent observations and computer modeling suggests the anomaly is both expanding and continuing to weaken in electromagnetic strength importantly, and that's what the story is all about. It's also splitting. The data shows the anomalies valley or region of minimal filled strength has split into two separate lobes creating additional challenges for Satellite Missions Theresa backup from this has got out space flight center. In Greenbelt Maryland says the magnetic field is actually superposition of fields from many different current sources regions outside the solid also contribute to the observed magnetic field. However, the bulk of the field does come from the core. So the forces in the call and the two of the magnetic together produce the anomaly the area of weak magnetism allowing charged particles trapped magnetic field to Dick Close to the surface the sun exposed a constant outflow of particles and magnetic fields known as the solar wind as well as vast clouds of plasma and radiation through processes. Notice coronal mass, Jeff Sessions, literally explosions of stellar material. When this material streams across space in strikes, the earth's magnetic sphere that's the space occupied by US magnetic field it becomes trapped and he's held in done at shape belts around the planet known as. The van Allen radiation belts these boats restrained the particles forcing the travel along the Earth's magnetic field lines continually bouncing back and forth from pole to pole. The most built usually begins about six hundred and forty kilometers above the surface of the planet, and so keeps its particle radiation a healthy distance from the earth and most satellites and low-earth orbit. However, wearing especially strong solar storm of particles reaches the earth what scientists refer to a space weather. The van Allen Belts can become highly energized and the magnetic field can be deformed allowing charts. Paddock was the penetrate deep into the atmosphere. Of course, the other big deal with the South Atlantic anomaly is that it's also being seen as a potential sign of polarity changes which would affect the entire planet. We know that the sun flips, it's polls, every eleven years the so called solar cycle the North Pole gets a south clarity and the South Pole and north polarity. The same thing on the slow at timescale happens with the earth geological records of solidified lava shows magnetic north and South Poles have flipped or reverse polarity on average about every two hundred and fifty thousand years. The problem is it's been over seven, hundred, twenty, thousand years since the last flip. So the planets will truly overdue for the next many scientists speculating that strange magnetic surrounding the South Atlantic. Anomaly could be a sign of an impending polarity reversal of course, others debating that it's not. The way life on earth seems to survive these plans reversals without timmy problems. Issue, this time however is the next polarity reversal whenever it happens, we'll also affect human technology and man's reliance on that technology means it's a whole new ballgame. We'll keep you informed. This is space time still to come the strange art world of Kelt, Nine Bay and calls for the development of a new satellite early warning system all that and more still to come on space time. Astronomers have discovered one of the strangest most dream worlds in the galaxy. The Planet Cope nine be is a so-called hot Jupiter, basically against giant in a very close in orbit around its star, and while all hot jupiters a fairly unusual. This one has meet standards for witness. You see the exoplanet is on a knee polar orbit around its host star mustache systems including our own see planets orbiting around the host stars. Cueyer along what we call the ecliptic. Killed Nine be is on a polar orbit and to complicate matters even further the her style rotates. So quickly, it's stolen shape. The study's lead author John Olas from this has got out spaceflight center in Greenbelt. Maryland. Says this unusual combination of factors makes it difficult for astronomers to understand the star and its effects on the planet. Kelt nine was discovered back in two thousand seventeen by the transit survey a project observations from two robotic telescopes located in Arizona the other in South Africa, the planet was picked. Up. Because it passes directly in front that he's transit's Star for at least pad of each orbit as the planet passes in front of the diocese from Earth a small. But detectable amount of the stars light is blocked out causing the stat or dim at regular intervals, and that's the total sign that it's a planet. They kilt nine be is guest giant. It's about one point eight times bigger than Chipita with a two point nine times Jupiter's mass. It's located some six hundred seventy light years away in the. Constellation Cygnus the Swan, the planet swings around its host star in just thirty six hours on an the carries it almost directly above both the stars polls because the orbit. So close gravitational tidal forces have looked at nine BS rotation so that the same side always faces the star says you can imagine things get pretty hard. In fact, killed nine be received some forty four thousand times more energy from its host star than what the Earth does from the sun and this gives the planet a day side. Temperature around forty, three, hundred degrees Celsius, which is actually much hotter than the surfaces of many stars and this intense Haiti's causing the planet's atmosphere destroying away into space like a comet's tail it's all pretty strange but then again, the host is also weird. It's about twice the size of our sun and about fifty six percent hotter. But it rotate on its axis thirty eight times faster than the sun completing a full rotation in sixteen hours that compares to our son's average rotational speed of twenty nine earth days. This rapid rotation distorts the star shape, flattening it at the polls and expanding its equator. Now, because the surface of the stars polls I, now closer to the core than the equator, the polls, and they're being much hotter and brighter than the cooler dimmer equatorial region. It's a phenomenon astronomers referred to as gravity darkening. And the result of all this strangeness is a Temperature Difference, across the star surface of almost eight hundred degrees Celsius. So with H. O. But the planet kilt nine be experiences the full range of stellar temperatures producing what amounts to a peculiar seasonal sequence. Let me put it this way. The planet experiences summer when it swings over h hot poll and then a sort of winter when it passes the stars cool amid section. So think. Of It like guilt nine, be experiencing two summers and two winters every year with its season lasting just nine hours measurements from this as transiting planet survey satellite tests have enabled astronomers to greatly improve their understanding of this bizarre environment between July eighteenth and September eleventh. Last year tests observe twenty-seven transits of nine be taking measurements every two minutes. These observations allowed astronomers to model the systems unusual star at its impact on the planet the. Were reported and the astronaut Michael Journal suggested varying levels of energy being received by the planet from its host star is likely to produce extremely dynamic environment also killed nine bs polar orbit around its flattened star produces distinctly lopsided transits. The Planet begins its transit near the stars. Bright polls then blocks less and less light as it travels over the stars dimmer equator they say symmetry provides clues about the temperature and brightness changes across the surface and committed the authors to reconstruct the stars out of round shape how it's oriented in space, its range of surface temperatures and other factors impacting the planet this report from Acitivity Kelp? Nine? It's about twice the size of Jupiter and is always super hot taking only thirty six hours to orbit its star. It receives forty four thousand times more energy than the sun delivers to Earth, making it. One of the hottest planets known with decide temperature hotter than the surfaces of some stars. This causes its atmosphere to boil away into space now. Thanks to. From Nasr's test satellite. We Know Kelp nine be is even weirder. Tests spots dips in starlight whenever a planet passes in front of its star from our perspective astronomers call these transit's. But Kelp nineties odd star complicates things. It spins so fast it's squished into an oval. This makes it polls hotter than its middle a property scientists call gravity darkening. The Planet's orbit also odd curious it over the stars polls combined these effects make the start of each transit different from its end making further study difficult. A team led by NASA Goddard scientists used tests observations disentangle these effects and provide further insight into the system. The polar orbit and gravity darkening give Kelt nine be an unusual type of season. Summer occurs when it passes over the stars hot polls winter such as it is happens when it passes the cooler equator and for every thirty, six hour or. which is killed nineties year. The planet experiences these seasons twice and each is less than nine hours long. Scientists expect the frequently changing temperatures, produce wild winds, and they're busy modelling Nine B's atmosphere. Thanks to tests. Astronomers are equipped to learn more about this curious system. And others like it. The. United States and Japan looking at the vote new satellite-based missile early warning defense system in order to focus on the growing threat toward peace being posed by China, and it's puppet state North Korea. Then you satellites would complement existing missile defense systems, which include Japan's PAC three missile interceptors. The growing urgency follows heightened concerns that Pyongyang's finally miniaturized its nuclear warheads by allowing them to be deployed with a ballistic missile forces. Turkey is also worried about increasingly militant and threatening China in fact, Beijing's increased its military expanded by six point six percent from last year alone the People's liberation. Army already has more than two thousand. Range ballistic missiles capable of reaching Japanese territory, and it's looking at doubling its nuclear capacity. It's also following Russia's lead in developing a new generation of hypersonic missiles which can defeat existing satellite early warning and intercept systems thereby seriously impacting the balance of power making matters even worse tensions between Japan and China have been escalating in recent times after Beijing's been placing Chinese vessels new Japan's Senkaku. Islands, in the East China Sea this space time still to come launch of new Argentine. Earth. Observation satellite and later in the science report, despite the claims of work nece. It seems seventy two percent of generation Z. wouldn't he humanely grown artificial meet all that and more still to come on space time. Talk. Show. SPACEX launched the new Earth Observation Satellite Frontino. The CEO COM one B was launched aboard a Falcon nine rocket from space launch complex forty at the Cape Canaveral Air Force. Base. Florida. The mission was originally planned to launch out of the Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, but was later switched to the cape making it the first sun synchronous polaroid loans from Cape Canaveral in more than fifty years, the flight path meant the rocket flew south over the Atlantic Ocean instead of east. The Falcon nine first stage booster was on its fourth flight returning the Florida and successfully touching down on landing zone one. Night. Or? Three. Two. Zero. As Liftoff Falcons I. Launched Ola Arteaga. D-. were. Now, forty seconds in the Flight Falcon, nine has taken off. It's cleared the tower. We're currently throttling down to prepare for maximum queue. That's the point of maximum aerodynamic pressure at one minute twelve seconds. Supersonic vehicle has reached maximum aerodynamic pressure. You've heard it. We've reached Max Q at this point, the loads and the vehicle become less and less as the atmosphere gets thinner we're now able to throttle. He's GonNa Change backup, and at its maximum power like right now, vehicle soon, more than seven hundred gallons of fuel per second. Also, looking good with our first stages trajectory the next couple events, they're five events one after another I, our main engine cuts off on our first stage the stages will separate a first stage will then flip around to begin its landing attempt the second stages. Merlin vacuum engine ignite. For. Second. Engine start. One. The first is boost back burn will start one of three burns to help us land. They occur one after another in about fifteen seconds and Meka. Stage separation. Confirmed in condition. All right. All of these events happen successfully one after another this back burn. It'll last about forty seconds, our second-stage carrying those three satellites to orbit and coming up next in about twenty seconds that burn will end and then we'll have our faring deployment. Boost, back all I burns has successfully ended our to. Jettison to expose the satellites space first stages already been turnaround nitrogen from our attitude control system helping guide at back Eric, separation confirmed to. Have Jettison it'll take some time to get those to come back down with next milestone for the first stage. I Stage Entry Burn Falcon nine needs to execute enter guarantees slow itself down before hitting the dense parts of the atmosphere without this second burn relying on the atmosphere loan. Slow Falcon nine down put unnecessary strain on the rocket Jenkins following the directory acquisition of Signals Texas. We've deployed four hypersonic bins. They help to guide the first stage back during descent by moving the center of pressure on the vehicle, they'd want entry burn startup and three Merlin engines have realit-. Currently slowing the first stage down before it hits those tense parts of the atmosphere second stayed continuing to perform as expected. Want, shutdown. And that is our second burn completed. We are going to be attempting to recover this booster back at land on landing zone. One first stage has one more. Saved that is the landing burn. It begins just before we touchdown and provides the butcher a soft descent before we land during this period that the landing legs will also be deployed right before we touchdown restored at the base, the vehicle and made up of state of the carbon fiber and aluminum honeycomb. Transplant the first stages passing through the cloud layers right now state leaning sort of here comes nine attempting landing page one landing like the boy, and you couldn't ask for a better landing than that Falcon. Nine has landed once again that number four for this first stage booster and the fifty eighth overall of an orbital class rocket. Start off tonight's mission, the second stage and our primary mission are still continuing and remain healthy. The next milestone for the second stage is second engine cut off one also known as Seco one and that is coming up at. Ten. Minutes and five seconds the CEO come one be will now join it sister satellite CEO. Come one a which launched back in October two, thousand, eighteen, the three, thousand and fifty kilograms. Spacecraft are each equipped with full parametric synthetic aperture radar to monitor weather conditions study soil moisture content, and analyze crop yields from a six, hundred, twenty kilometer high orbit. The mission also carry the GNOMES one constellation small satellites. Designed to provide radio uncle tation data for weather forecasting climate research in space where the monitoring also aboard was the Taivon's zero, one seven to nine satellite built by Thai Satellite Systems and his purpose has remained classified this space time. And turn that take another brief look at some of the other stories making news inside this week with a science report and you study of more than two hundred, thousand men in the United Kingdom has found a link between waist size and prostate cancer. A report to the European in Congress and obesity found a link between how much body fat men have around their belly and waste and the risk of death from prostate cancer. It seems those in the top twenty, five percent for waist. Circumference were also thirty five percent more likely to die of prostate cancer than men in the bottom twenty, five percent. Scientists have discovered a blood test which could help predict those at risk of psychosis. Then you test reported in the Journal of the American Medical, association looked at proteins in the blood plasma of twelve year olds allowing doctors to determined the likely risk of psychosis in those subjects by the age of eighteen prestigious compared the blood plasma proteins of people at high risk of psychosis within went onto develop the condition with a control group of randomly selected people finding differences. In the levels of thirty, five blood proteins, they then use some of these protein differences if they could predict from a group of tour of your than the general population who would go on to develop psychosis age of eighteen, they found that sixty seven percent of those who the test predicted were of psychosis. Did infact go on to develop the disease and seventy five percent of those tests predicted not to be at risk remain free of psychosis by age eighteen. German intelligence is evidence that Iran is actively been seeking technology for weapons of mass destruction and missile carrier systems. As recently as last year, the new report adds to a growing list of independent documentation confirming these republics, ongoing efforts to develop weapons of mass destruction in violation of its international agreements the new intelligence reports warned that Iran. Pakistan and to a lesser extent Syria made if it's to procure. Equipment and know-how for the further development of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems. The term delivery system is used to define the capability to launch missiles, the United States and Israel as well as many Gulf nations believe Iran's radical Islamic regime is seeking to develop nuclear weapons. That's a claim strongly denied by Tehran which insists the oil-rich nation's massive nuclear program is for peaceful power generation only. They claim to be the virtues signaling worker Roddy of identity politics yet, there's growing evidence that. See simply don't have the environmental credentials to be gritter Thambo Green a new study reported in the Journal of the frontiers of nutrition found that despite claiming to have great concern for the Environment Animal Welfare seventy, two, percent generation Z. weren't ready to accept humanely grown artificial made. Artificially lab grown meat is defined as meat produced through in vitro cell cultures of animal cells rather than coming from the bodies of killed animals. The study was carried out by researchers from Curtin University and the University of Sydney as a cohort of five million people born between nine, hundred, ninety, five, and Twenty fifteen encompassing some twenty percent of the Austrian population and two billion people globally generation Z. A. Consumers to be reckoned with, but apparently, they level of Apocrypha is something to be reckoned with as well. And that's the show for now space-time is broadcast on science owned radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and through both IHEART radio and on Tunin radio or you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple stitcher. Bites. Dot Com Puckett cast soundcloud spotify Youtube Auto Boom Pud Beim android cashbox from Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com. Or. From your favorite download podcast provider, you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the space time, online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time Patriot, which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show, as well as burning audio content and other awards just go to a patriarch page through space. Time with Stewart. Gary Dot Com for all the data hours. If you want more space time, check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff. We couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images, you stories, videos, and things on the web I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Tamla. Dot. com. That's all one. Word and in lower case and that's tumbler without the it can also follow through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart. Gary on instagram through Space Time Youtube Channel on Facebook, just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary Space Time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine Your Window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from BITES DOT com.
New Type of cosmic explosion New type of cosmic explosion
"This is space time series twenty three percent fifty, seven for broadcast on the Tenth of June twenty, twenty, coming up on space, Time Andy type of cosmic explosion claims, Galactic collisions may have triggered s Sola systems birth. Europe's space port back in business, all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gerry. The storm is of discovered two new events, which are very similar to a strange inexplicable explosion, which mysteriously blasted across the cosmos in two thousand, eighteen, these events, which astronomers a coaling, fast blue optical transients, or if bought shares, some characteristics with the Supernova explosions of massive stars, and with explosions that generate gamma-ray bursts, but they also have distinctive characteristics that make them appear to be entirely different. Different entities, our story begins back in June twenty eighteen, when astronomers detect cosmic explosion with surprising characteristics and really strange behavior, the object was catalogs, eighty, twenty, eighteen zero W, and with a Cadillac that it forever became simply now the cow he quickly drew worldwide attention from scientists have been studying the object extensively since over a period of just three days, cow produced a sudden explosion of. Of Light at least ten times brighter than a typical Supernova, and then faded gradually over the following few months, this unusual event occurred either inside or very near Star forming galaxy known as CG CG one, thirty, seven, zero, sixty, eight, located about two hundred million light years away in the constellation Hercules. While the cow shared some characteristics with Supernova explosions at different important aspects. especially, it's unusual. Unusual initial brightness, and how rapidly it brightened and faded in just a few days that led to speculation that this might have been titled as Russian Event Involving. A white dwarf star grabbed torn apart, and ultimately consumed by black hole in the meantime, two additional explosions, wanting twenty sixteen and another in twenty eight also showed the same sort of unusual characteristics. The two new explosions cataloged as. CW, sixteen ten, ten, J zero, four, five, eight, three, four minus zero, eighty, one, eighty, three, which occurred in a galaxy about five hundred million light years away and see T. Eighteen. K wwl a which quickly became known as the Koala in a galaxy about three point. Four billion light is distant. Both these objects were discovered by automated sky surveys, and both gastronomy has a lot of surprises, the lead author on the study and a her from Caltech, the California Institute of Technology immediately noted that the objects radio emissions were as bright as that from gamma-ray bursts, while Diane copy jains from Northwestern University led the study on CEO says. Ten ten notice that her object had ejected an unexpectedly large amount of material into interstellar space at more than half the speed of light. In fact, it was selling usual. It took a team more than two years just to figure out what they were looking at, but in both cases follow up, observations indicated that these objects shared similar characteristics and features with a cow, reporting the Physical Journal and the astrophysical journal Letters, the authors have concluded that these three fast blue optical transient events represent a new type of stiller explosion, something completely different from anything else. The authors thing if efforts probably begin the same way some Supernova Gamma-ray. Gamma-ray bursts that is when a staff more massive than our sun explodes at the end of its life in what's called core collapse type, two SUPERNOVA, but the differences show up in the aftermath of the initial explosion. See in a regular core collapse SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION SENDS A circle blast wave of material into interstellar space. However, the author suggests that F bought also briefly former rotating accretion disk of material around the neutron star or black hole at left after the explosion, and this generates narrow beams of material at nearly the speed of light outwards in opposite directions, pep, and to the creation disc sort of like a Quasar macher accuser. Accuser, these jets can produce narrow beams of gamma rays, causing a gamma ray burst astronomers referred to these rotating accretion disk the jets they produce as engine, and if bots also have such an engine, but in their case, and like a Gamma-ray I, it appears to be shrouded in thick material. That material was probably shed by the stop before it exploded, and they have been pulled from it by binary companion, when the thick material near the star struck by the blast wave, it causes the bright visible light bus, and after the explosion that initially made these objects apiece so unusual, and it's that bright burst, which is why astronomers. Astronomers call these blasts fast optical transients. It's one of the characteristics that distinguish these events from ordinary supernova as the blast way from the explosion collides with a slow moving material around the star, as it travels out with it produces radio emissions, and it's this bright admission that was the important clue that proved the explosion was powered by an engine, this shroud of dense material main progenitor stars different from those leading to Gamma-ray bursts in the case of the cow and sixteen, ten ten, the dense material included hydrogen something never before seen in Gamma-ray bursts using the observatory, the authors found the birth, C, Sixteen, ten, ten and the. Just like the cow, a pedo of originated from small to off galaxies, and that suggests that the properties of Dwarf Galaxies maybe their high dark matter content who knows might allow us to undertake some very really extraordinary paths that lead to these distinctive types of explosions, although a common element at the FBI is that all free appear to have a central engine caution that the engine itself could also be the result of being shredded by a black hole. Which I guess means the jury's still out this space time still to come the collision, which may have triggered our solar system's birth. And Europe's space port back in business all that and more still to come on space time. Okay let's take a break from our show for word from our sponsor express VPN rated number one by Tek. Raider may be wondering why you need a virtual private network. Well, it's in the name. It's all about Privacy D- really want big brother. 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Express VPN DOT com slash space, and now it's back to our show. You're listening to spend time with Stewart Gerry. The formation of the sun, the solar system, and subsequently the emergence of life on Earth May all be a consequence of a cosmic collision between our Milky Way Galaxy, and a smaller satellite galaxy, known as the secretary as warf ever since it was first identified at nine hundred ninety astronomers of realized that the Secretaries Walk Galaxies orbit indicates that must've have collided with and smashed through the disk of our Milky Way Galaxy on multiple occasions. In fact, computer simulations suggest that it's impacted the disk of the Milky Way punching right through it, and at least three separate occasions over the past six. Six billion years and the immense gravitational tidal interactions generated during these colossal events have had a profound effect on how stars within the Milky Way Galaxy and may even be responsible for the Milky Way spiral arms. Now a new study based on data gathered by the European Space Agency's Guy. Galaxy mapping satellite suggests the secretaries towards influence in the Milky Way. Maybe even more substantial a report in the journal. Nature Astronomy points out that the ripples caused by these gigantic collisions would have triggered Mejia staff who nation episodes and according to this study, one of those episodes roughly coincides with the. Sun and solar system were formed some four point six billion years ago. The study's lead author Thomas Ru is Lara from the Astrophysics Institute. Canary Islands says existing models show secretaries to fill through the Milky Way on at least three occasions I, about five or six billion years ago, then again about two billion years ago, and the final one around a billion years ago, and the guy data shows three periods of increased star formation, which peaked at five point seven billion years. Years ago one point nine billion years ago and a billion years ago, roughly corresponding with time when secretaries is believed to have passed through the disk of the Milky Way. The authors looked at luminosity distances and colors of stars within his fear of about six thousand five hundred light years of the sun, and then compared the data it with existing stellar evolution models. They say the collisions would have disrupted the milky ways equilibrium, causing previously still guessing dust the slosh around like. Like ripples on water, and these ripples would have increased concentrations of molecular gas and dust clouds, causing some collapsed and trigger starburst, the spontaneous formation of millions of stars, and the authors speculate that Al Son consequently solar system formed after the first of these collisions between secretaries and the disk of the Milky. Way, each of these collisions has strip cemeteries of some of its guests and dust, leaving the galaxy smaller after its passage. The other say that their data suggests that secretaries. Secretaries may they've been passed through the milky ways again quite recently in the last few hundred, billion, or so, and even now observations show that it's awfully close. In fact, the author found a recent burst of staffer Mation, which they suggest is a possible new and ongoing way. There's still a burst from just such a collision. The find out more enter Dagley speaking with astronomer professor. Fred Watson this store galaxy, the Cape smashing into the Milky Way and I now believe perhaps. that. It's why we exist why our solar system is here. which does make for a compelling story I imagine he dated does is a great story, and it's actually very close to home. Is this Andrew because the dwarf galaxy that we're talking about smash through the plane of the Milky Way whilst discovered at the United Kingdom Schmidt Telescope, so it was, it was a discovery night. The research, Piper discovering actually was published in nineteen nine. T four I think I'm writing, saying that upset by been nineteen ninety-five. Which is the year? I took over as strongly Josh but I worked at before before it was a strong recharge I worked for ten years is just one of the likes taking photographic plates and that was how Dwarf Galaxy was discovered so all right? What's the story on? The IT really allows us now to make the absolutely exquisite observations. This story requires the facilities the Guy Spice craft, thus the new parts of the story guy is a European mission was launched five six seven years ago. Maybe it's essentially doing absolutely high precision measurements of the positions of stars in our galaxy, the Milky Way Galaxy and it's total I, think so far is about a billion and a half that they've. They've measured itself huge number. Many many more than we ever did with the telescopes like Schmidt back in the nineteen eighties, but they're also measure that velocity, so what the guy data shown us is the way they start a moving and so the Solitary Wolf Galaxy managing guesses principally the constellation of Sagittarius. We've known for a long time. That is that this is one of the Dwarf Galaxies that is in orbit around our Milky Way and more than that it actually being dismantled by the Milky Way. The two best examples love clouds that much much bigger than the Sagittarius Dwarf but day out to being torn apart over timescales of millions of years, hundreds of millions of years probably. Probably and eventually will wind up his positive. The Halo of our galaxy, not halo of stars that surround galaxy. The terrorist will as in the same boat. It's being told about by tidal forces, but much Mola, and he's actually near to the plane of Galaxy. The genetic clouds and what's now happened is because of the observations of the Guy a program, the guy spacecraft, being able to measure these stop position very accurately. What it means is that you've only got to wait two or three years. How she's probably about five years, but you measure them again. They've moved, and so you can. You cannot share workout. What the how fast they styles are traveling, and so they've done that. That for the Secretary Dwarf that then allows you to track back as to wear, come from, and how it has behaved haying interaction with the Milky Way Galaxy, and so the models allow you to do this show that the secretaries dwarf galaxy is basically for through the plane of the Milky Way three times a while I. One was about five billion years ago, then again about two billion years ago, and on the third time, only one billion years ago, and what they saying and I should say. This is research that's done by astronomers at place. I used to have a lot to do with it, too. So instituto the astrophysics edeka Nadia which is the Canary Islands astrophysical institute. Spanish telescopes in La. Palma and I used to work that quite a lot. Because there's a British facility that was, it's now much more collaborative than that. So what they looked into was first of all the model and the model shows that the secretaries wack through the Milky White three times, but he can come at this from a different angle. You can look at the star formation history. History in our galaxy and you can do that by looking at star colors luminosity distances, you can basically do this giant analysis, because there's such a huge amount of data coming from guy and he turns out the Milky Way as three periods of increased stuff omission, which peaked five point seven billion years ago, point nine billion years ago. A one believe years ago and they're exactly the Times that the secretaries. is believed to have kind of punched its way through the disk of the Milky. Way So what's happening here? Is that Gravitational Interactions As. The Dwarf Galaxy with all stars process through the Milky Way they trigger the formation of new styles, but because the plane of the Milky Way is rich in hydrogen knots, the raw material a star, so this disturbance is what kind of compression of gas, and that actually kicks off the star formation, and so what they are suggesting is that that period of enhanced stuff mention five point seven billion years ago is probably what you might call the same batch. Batch of stuff election, the same period of stuff in which some for the sun formed about four point six billion years ago. This is a little bit more recent than that, but some could be part of the the end way of the staff election that was caused by first transit of the Dwarf Galaxy through the disk of the Milky Way so very nice story have to say it brings together. The the many facilities that we've got to do is astronomical research these days, but in particular, the guy at project, which is really an excellent project, a remarkable look and they Sam Galactic. Not. Unusual, really other we've talked before about now. Impending Collision Within dromedary in sixty kazillionaire time, but. They things are happening all the time. There's a couple of that happening as we speak out they not yet. There are most famous of the antenna galaxies, two galaxies that very close together under spiral kind of being spread out. It looks just like an with two giant antennae, sticking his head, while they call the antennae galaxies, and that's the disturbance sorta distracting off the spiral arms of the galaxies, but now that sort of. Of thing happens when you've got two galaxies of similar size colliding and he's what will happen, and he's about three and a half. I think billion years three hundred billion years down the track. This is going to happen to ours. That's probably what the end product will be. Take a few billion years to settle down, but we might wind up looking a lot like the antenna galaxies I've seen simulations. Walkers will be like. With Dwarf Galaxy Colliding into a big galaxy like the is different, because the big galaxy has enough masterpiece shape is not dramatically affected although these officers suggesting that those collisions with the secretary stool through the plane of our galaxy might well have given rise to the spiral structure that we see in our own galaxy now that maybe how the different spiral structure before that what we're seeing in? A spiral structure we can map it using infrared and radio telescopes that might be a result of these collisions, which is an interesting idea. Yeah and the bottom line bidding that mathematically the timing is exactly right for the birth of our son. Therefore asphalt was system Yup we might not been here without all this, which is a very sobering soul, so let's talk to Fred, Watson Astronomy Department of Science, speaking with Andrew Dunkley on assist the program space nuts, and this is space. Time I'm Stewart Gary. The idea that our sun and solar system were formed out of the collision of the Milky Way with another galaxy wouldn't be radical after all, we've seen just such collisions in other galaxies and the tremendous amount of staff formation they produce. Of course Faraz. Our Son is concerned. There are other studies lots of them which suggests that a nearby Supernova explosion about four point six billion years ago, most likely triggered the collapse of the molecular gas and dust cloud, which eventually gave birth to our solar system evidence. Supporting this has been found in the ratio of aluminum is operatives. Fanny Meteorites formed during the molecular cloud collapse. The isotope aluminum twenty, six usually has a half life about seven hundred thousand years eventually changing to magnesium twenty-six, however, the ratio of aluminum isotopes in ancient carbonaceous contract meteorites known as CV androids is unusually high and remember to the Conrad's which are thought to form directly out of the collapse of the molecular cloud that gave birth to our solar system the unusual. Unusual isotope measurements suggests that fresh aluminum twenty six was being fit into the molecular cloud has collapsed, either by stellar winds from a local star, or by a blast from a nearby supernova explosion caused by the death star, and the muddle showed that a Supernova event. Some fifteen light years away was the most likely trigger, the blast, shock, front and hot gases. Gases traveled through space, eventually, colliding with the molecular cloud of gas and dust, causing it to quickly collapse, forming our sun and solar system. The MODEL provides the right ratio of aluminum isotopes to explain the levels found in meteorites. The CV Conrad's probably formed as the temperature of the gas cloud dropped below eighteen hundred degrees. Celsius the model also shows how this. This would've occurred over a period of twenty thousand years again, matching the asset measurements, which acted like timestamps marking the formation of these meteorites, the within twenty thousand years of each other this space time still the come Europe's space port back in business, following covid nineteen and Beijing launches to more spy satellites all that and more still to come on space time. The European Space Agency's curry space put in French Jonah is beginning to get back to work following the covid nineteen coronavirus lockdown, the deadly pandemic, which is infected over six and a half, million people, and now claim more than four hundred thousand lives spread globally from its Wuhan Api Center after China's Communist, government denied the existence of the virus as the pandemic spread. The European Space Agency, placed the cure spaceport in lockdown march the move so all but safety critical operation suspended and the vast sites cured. Shutdown impacted lawn shades about Iran five and Vega, missions as well as construction work on the new Ariane, six launch complex, strict new safety and hygiene procedures have now been introduced and launch teams returned to the complex from mainland Europe will meet to spend two weeks in quarantine. Vega is to return to flight within the next few weeks. With its first rideshare mission dedicated to more satellites using Vegas New Small Spacecraft Dispenser This report from a Sativa. Was Shaping up to be a busy year for Europe's spaceport in French Guiana five Ariane. Five launches were planned. Preparations were well underway for Vega launch. And work was nearing completion of the Arian six launch site. But then covert nineteen struck with lockdown measures imposed in mid March operations halted. The vast site had to be secured, and the launches made safe. We were just in the long campaign of the next Vega flight. Sixteen and we head I to secure the launcher, and especially the upper stage, the last stage of Vega head to be flushed on the other side. We also take care of the payloads with forty two cubesats and Microsoft's own this launch campaign, and they have to be brought back in the payload facility buildings now with only a few personnel on site and a backlog of launches challenges to safely resume operations. The next step is for us to organize the comeback of the European burqas. Left. French Brianna just before the lockdown. When they arrive fell spend fourteen days. Quarantine and workers have to follow strict safety and social distancing roles in tunnels beneath the new Ariane six launch complex workers, resuming fitting out the control and fire, suppression, systems, pipes, or carry tens of thousands of liters of water, a second to combat the extreme heat of launch. The Assembly building launch pattern nearing completion. It's not yet clear what impact covid nineteen will have on the launch shed your in the meantime. The existing launchers have plenty of work right now. We are putting priority one on the return to flight Vega. And the loans companions running. We expect the launch mid June this would Sudan be followed by a second of flight or Vega? Let's say around the second half of August and served flight by the end of the year. With two more, Ariane, five flights also planned. Europe's spaceport is slowly getting back to business, and in that report me, TV. We heard from Asia's director for space transportation, Daniel. NEUENSCHWANDER and ACIS technical manager tiny dot Santa's this space time still to come Beijing launches more spy satellites, and later in the science report how to Stop Covid nineteen spreading among family members all that and more still to come on, space time. China is further increasing the vast number of military spy satellites and now operates launching a further to orbit. The new spacecraft were flown aboard a Long March eleven rocket, and taking its maiden flight from the giant Chang satellite loan center southwestern China's province. The Long Macci live is a four stage. Solid fueled rocket is a quick reaction launch vehicle, which can be ready for flight with little notice. This mission represented the ninth flight for the two thousand one made a toll launch vehicle which can carry a three hundred fifty kilogram payload into a seven hundred kilometer, high sun, Synchronous low-earth orbit. Beijing's describing the space craft the Jinju Jen Gee an age as new technology experimental satellites. That's euphemism for what usually refers to military spy satellites. They'll be used to undertake grant observations and test into satellite telecommunication systems China's People's Liberation Army already operates more than eighty spy satellites providing the communist government with unprecedented reconnaissance view. And turn that take another brief look at some of the other stories making news in science this week with science report, new research suggests that wearing face masks at home, maybe one way to stop covid nineteen th spreading between family members, but the catch is it only works if they warned before symptoms develop which I guess means. You've got to wear more time. Time a report in the British. Medical Journal Survey, some four hundred and sixty people from one hundred twenty four families, who had at least one member suffering from covid nineteen, and then ask them about the household hygiene behaviors during the pandemic, they found that the virus spread from the first infected person that other family members in forty one out of one hundred twenty. Frequent use of bleach disinfectant for household cleaning together with wearing face masks at home before symptoms emerge all help to reduce the risk of spread, however closed early context, aiding mills around the table, and watching TV together with all associated with an eight, hundred, four increased brisk. Iran has launched a series of. Attacks designed to prevent. From developing vaccine against the COVID nineteen corona virus, the attacks have been traced to a sill within the Islamic Revolutionary Guard in Tehran Israeli intelligence sources say that these latest attacks are no longer trying to steal information or intelligence about the research, but rather deliberate attempts to disrupt destroy work on a cure or preventive vaccine for the disease. These latest moves follows April Cyberattack by Tehran against Israel's water infrastructure. Revolutionary Guards try to increase levels of chlorine of the chemicals in the water, flowing to residential areas. A move which headed succeeded would have resulted in hundreds of thousands of people becoming ill security experts say the cyber tech was more sophisticated than what Israel is thought was possible and was very nearly successful. The Iranians had hacked into software which runs the pumps after routing through American and European service at the source. Israel then reportedly retaliated by launching its own cyberattack a ranch he'd Reggie container terminal at the band Abbas Port, shutting down port operations for several days and creating traffic jams, tens of kilometers long. And you study warns that climate change will make more intense droughts more common in Australia the findings are based on your analysis of climate model projections by scientists from the Australian. Research Council Center of Excellence for climate extremes. The study reported in the Journal Geophysical Research Letters Show South Western Australia and parts of southern Stralia say longer more intense droughts caused by a lack of rainfall Judah climate change that Australia isn't alone across the globe, several, important, agricultural and forested regions in the Amazon, the Mediterranean and Southern Africa can also expect more frequent. Any tints droughts to global warming. Scientists have developed a new sober material which can purify water from radioactive elements a report in the journal material. Science claims than you saw. It is based on a tungsten bronze compound powder. It's designed to purify birth, industrial and drinking water from hazardous radio. Nuclear tides cesium one thirty, seven and strontium ninety as well as processing liquid, radioactive waste from nuclear plants, waste product can then be converted into high density ceramics I safe disposal, and that's the show for now. space-time is broadcast. Broadcast on sites on radio by the national, Science Foundation in Washington DC and through both IHEART radio and on radio, or you can subscribe and Download Space Time is a free podcast through apple STITCHER BITES DOT COM pucca casts soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom Pud, beam, android, cashbox from Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot com, or from your favorite download podcasts provider, you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a. A few goodies or by becoming space time Patriot, which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as bonus, audio, content, and other awards just go to a patriarch page through. Space Time with Stewart Gary. Dot Com for all the house. If you want more space time, check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff. We couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images, new stories, videos and things on the web I find. Find interesting or amusing, just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Tamla, dot com, that's all one word in lower case, and that's Tamba without the you can also follow us through at Stewart. Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through Space Time Youtube Channel on facebook. Just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary. space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australia and sky and Telescope magazine a window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart. Gary this has been another quality podcast production from BITES DOT com.
26: Biggest Explosion Since the Big Bang
"The Space Time Series twenty-three Episode Twenty Six for broadcast from the thirtieth of March twenty twenty and know the world hasn't become even stranger than what it is now. Thanks Corona virus but with everything that's happening and following loads of requests from our audience with made the monumental decision to move space-time into a three shows per week format with new episodes being broadcast every Monday Wednesday and Friday. And if you're a space time premium listener you'll still get the entire week's episodes as a single commercial free edition anyway as they say in the classics. It's on with the show and coming up on space time. The biggest explosion since the big bang could fragments of the planet theater be buried under the lunar surface and the growing number of near Earth objects now being detected all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. Astronomers detected the biggest explosion ever recorded anywhere in the universe other than the Big Bang itself. The massive blast is punched a hole fifteen times the size of the Milky Way Galaxy into the surrounding cosmos a report in the Ester of Physical Journal and on the Pre Press Physics Website Awqaf Dot. Org claims the record-breaking eruption is thought of originated from supermassive black hole in the ophiuchus galaxy cluster. Some three hundred ninety million light years away galaxy clusters of the lodges structures in the known universe. They held together by gravity and contain thousands of individual galaxies together with Dr Matter and Hot Gas. A large galaxy with an active supermassive black cold in the middle of the futures cluster is thought to have been the source of this explosion. Over blackhawks are usually infamous for pulling material towards them. They often expel prodigious amounts of material and energy as well this happens when material fulling towards the black hole is redirected outwards by magnetic field lines forming powerful jets blasting at a space at super speeds and slamming into or through anything and their way. These teams known is. Quasars can be bright enough to be seen across the other side of the visible universe making them among the brightest objects in the cosmos. The study's lead author managers in to see from the United States Naval Research Laboratory in Washington. Dc says the idea is to think of the blast in a similar way to the eruption of Matt Saint Helen's in nineteen eighty which ripped the top of the mountain. Of course in this case it tore a hole right through an entire cluster of galaxies. H is massive. Is the Milky Way Jason colleagues made the discovery using x Ray data from this as Chandra x? Ray Observatory the European Space Agency's Xm Newton X ray telescope giant. Meet Away Radio Telescope in India and the Murchison Wide Array Radio Telescope in outback Western Australia The challenger Observations reported in two thousand sixteen. I reveal hints of giant explosion in the Galaxy Cluster Norbert Werner and colleagues. I reported the discovery of an unusually curved edge. Chanter images of the cluster. They looked to see whether it could have been part of a wall in the cavity of the hot gas created by jets from supermassive black hole but ended up discounting the ID because the incredible amounts of energy that would have been needed for a black hole to create such a massive cavity however geoscientists and colleagues showed that such an enormous explosion. Did in fact I. They showed that the curve edge was also detected by the x men Newton Space Telescope thus confirming the chanter observations. They then use new radio telescope. Observations from the murchison wide filled array and combine that with additional data from the Archives of the great NATO Wave Radio Telescope. This showed that the curved edge is indeed part of the wall of a cavity because it borders the region filled with radio emission the emissions have been generated by electrons accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the black hole. The radio KNICK's ray data matched providing the final proof for an eruption of unprecedented size the amount of energy required to create the cabin. Is that five times greater than the previous record holder in thousands of times greater than typical classes. The black hole eruption must have finished because the authors haven't seen any evidence of current jets in the Radio. Data Chanter data shows that the dentist in coolest gases now moved away from the black hole thereby deprive into the fuel that needs to generate the jets in the first place and so- shutting them down the authors. Think this guest displacement is likely caused by slashing at the gas around the middle of the cluster. Sort of like wine sloshing around in the glass now. The merger of two galaxy cost his can trigger this kind of sloshing. But in this case it might have been triggered by the eruption one puzzle. Is that only a single giant region of Radio Missions Insane? That's unusual because they systems usually contain to such mission bulbs on opposite sides of the black hole. Of course it's possible that the gas in the other side of the class the from the cavities list dense and so the radio emissions there have simply faded more quickly. The study's Co author. Melanie Hollis from the Curtin University not the International Center for Radio Astronomy Research since the findings underscore the importance of studying. The universe had a range of different wavelengths. Well what's been doing is what massive black hole tend to do and that it's taking material in but for some reason this particular case. It's the amount of energy material digesting which is really quite astonishing. So this is the most massive energetic outbursts that we've seen from an age in in the entire history of the universe and carved out a hole in the hot X ray emitting plasma that surrounds the host Galaxy which is fifteen times the size of our Milky Way Galaxy so pretty energetic very exciting. Is this what we were quite quite as type of active galaxy? So that's a particular classification. It doesn't actually apply this case we would just call this the supermassive black hole which is generating a radio. So you've got your normal lodge. Elliptical Galaxy sitting in the center of a galaxy cluster usually formed by cannibalism of Small Satellite Galaxies. Which are opening around the same center of mass and at the center of that. There's a supermassive black hole and we know that these supermassive black holes give out radio JIT. So what happens is once they've reached the threshold in fully material and CRACIUN DISC. They produce very highly relativistic electrons embedded magnetic fields coming out at right angles to the Christian disc. That's pretty normal. We see that there's literally hundreds of thousands of dollars in the universe. What's special about this? One is the amounts of mega fields and energetic particles. Traveling pretty close the speed of light that this thing is admitting originally and it's punching a huge hole within the Aleksey cost is in the midst of. Yeah absolutely so we know about fifty x ray cavities in galaxy clusters. But this is the largest that we've yet seen and certainly required the most amount of energy to punch that hall. And what's really cool is that you can say the whole with the Chandra x Ray Telescope. And then you can look at the same cluster with radio telescopes and actually see the Radio Mission. Which is derived from persons called? Synchrotron radiation. Where you have these energetic electrons spiraling in the magnetic field just filling that cavity so we know exactly what it is which is very cool seeing this thing in such data. What does this tell us about our understanding of the universe? Well especially it tells us that the universe is a strange place than we thought it was because in this particular case a previous team had looked at this object with the Chandra x Ray telescope and seeing this bubble this cavity and go on all that kind of been caused by a supermassive black hole. App is because the energy would be ridiculous so they actually put in that type of couldn't be that so first of all that's been changed. We've shown that actually is that. These things can be energetic at these enormous levels. And secondly I think for me as radio's tournament probably the most exciting thing is that we found this discovery because we have new low frequency radio telescopes which we haven't had recently what we've had in the stick idle and so this should be many more of these things. We should be able to find more of them with low frequency radio telescopes so I think those are the two most profound things that have come out of this discovery and of course this is where the Australian angle comes into it. All so this is a big result for the medicine. Whitefield Ri- which is a low frequency radio telescope in the Mid West of Western Australia. It on the thought of the future square kilometer array radio telescope and in fact one of the precursor telescopes to the SPA and this particular object was actually saying with the Mwa with Scott says that we did between seventy and two-thirty bigger hits claim and this was one of the weirdest objects that I found in a Kaslo who've diffuse sources in galaxy clusters. And then my colleague. Samaya WHO's the lead author on the pipe fuller up in more detail and she went back and looked at Kabul dice with the giant meter radio telescope in India which is also a low frequency telescope and worse. I confirm that the mission that we were saying with the end was also staying with the GM out today. And then that's the whole thing off from so it's very cool pretty spectacular as director of the. W I had someone who actually worked all this research. Just me it's like super exciting. So one I get to actually cite look. Isn't my telescope doing this amazing stuff But to you know I get to say. Hey this is cool research that I was doing in my field of Galaxy. Clusters so yeah. It's pretty cool way to the next. Where asking for more time on the X ray telescopes so we WANNA get more data to be able to look in more detail at the cluster in the extreme mission so that data and we've upgraded the way since the observations with done so we're going to look at it again then we should have to wash the resolution and sensitivity and hopefully we can see if we can understand it better. Some of the puzzles that are left with this particular object. So normally when you get these cavities you get pays and you get the jets of supermassive black holes and pays in this particular case. Ronnie saying one of these things. We don't know quite why that is. Perhaps it's the projection effect or perhaps the material on one side of the cluster is denser than the other so. There's a number of questions that we're trying to answer. More data is what we really need more data. That's what every scientist says in day. That's Melanie Johnston holiday from the Curtin University note of the International Center for Radio Astronomy Research. And this is space time. I'M STEWART GARY. Still the come could fragments of the planet theater. Be Buried under the lunar surface. Astronomers detecting more and more near Earth objects and later in the science report growing coals for an international investigation into Beijing's cover up the true extent of the covert nineteen current a virus. All that more still to come on space time an e study claims fragments of the planet that hit the Earth to create. Our Moon may still be present below the lunar surface according to the widely accepted giant impact theory amass size planet with scientists of named thea collided with the. Proto worth four point. Five billion years ago the massive collision Milton Birth bodies into a magma R- ocean which they end slowly solidified to form the earth while debris ejected flying into orbit from the impact coalesced to form the moon. The theory explains the formation of the Moon. Very well but there are a few niggling questions. One problem has been that oxygen isotopes in lunar rocks collected by astronauts during the Apollo missions are similar to those found on earth. That very different from those found other buys across the solar system now if the giant impact theory is correct there should be some significant variation in the isotopes which there isn't until now the best dancers being that theory and the earth probably formed in the same part of the solar system said the material from which they formed would be similar and the conditions under which they formed would also be nearly identical problem solved. But not everyone's convinced now reported the journal Nature Science Claims Researchers from the University of New Mexico. Believe they've found the remains of theater buried beneath a lunar surface. They examined oxygen isotopes from a range of different lunar rock types which were collected at different depths finding that the deeper the origin of the rock. The heavier the oxygen isotopes were compared to those found on earth now the authors suggest these observations mean the remains of parts of there could be there buried deep below the surface now. What we have to do is go back there and find out. This is space time still to come that addiction of more and more near Earth objects and later in the science report and steady claims. Australia's mega bushfires or responsible for more than four hundred deaths. All that and more still to come on space time the European Space Agency's near Earth Objects Coordination Center is added another turned into asteroids to its list of potentially hazardous objects which passed close to the earth. Now that brings the five hundred twenty nine. The number of near Earth Objects Halos discovered. Since the start of this year. It means there are now some twenty two thousand two hundred nine asteroids one hundred nine comets classified as near Earth objects as of February Twenty Twenty. That includes some one thousand and twenty two. Ni Os regarded as being of serious risk among. These is a two hundred meter wide asteroid catalog. This twenty thirteen x one thirty three which will pass within seventeen times. The Earth Moon Distance on March the twenty seventh six asteroids would have taken passing closer to the Earth and the Moon's orbit of the past month. These included twenty twenty fourteen. Twenty twenty one twenty twenty two twenty twenty. C W and twenty twenty four which all pass within two hundred thousand kilometers of the Earth surface while the captured asteroid twenty twenty CD. Three a recently discovered temporary check and moon orbiting. The Earth came within forty thousand kilometers of the Earth surface during its last clutch approach. Although only recently discovered twenty twenty CD threes believed to have been circling the earth for at least three years ever since it was grabbed by Earth's gravitational pull the two to three and a half megawatt asteroid is on a highly elongated orbit which wraps around the Earth then extends out far beyond the orbit of the Moon. It's unexpected to remain in. Its prison over for a couple of more wakes before being flung out of the Earth moon system and back into interplanetary space be wall to new asteroids have entered the NEO risk list. Twenty twenty two is a six hundred meter. Wide Space Rock. I detected on February twentieth calculations. Indicate it is one in one thousand chance of hitting the Earth in twenty eighty one and a slightly lower chance a little earlier in twenty seventy four the even bigger asteroid the eight hundred twenty twenty bw. Fourteen looked like a possible impact during two hundred forty six based on initial observations luckily follow up. Observations have now taken it off the risk list. This is space time. Russia has launched another thirty four one way broadband Internet satellites into orbit for Orion space. The twenty-eight mission the third for one web was launched aboard Soyuz to one B rocket from the back in or cosmodrome in the Central Asian republic of Kazakhstan. Off The satellites number. Forty one seventy four replaced into a four hundred and fifty kilometer high near polar orbit. The flight comes just a month after the left. So is one web launch one web herbs to have an initial constellation of six hundred fifty satellites providing global internet coverage by the end of next year. Eventually the company envisages having a fleet of one thousand nine hundred and seventy two of the two hundred kilogram k. ban satellites orbiting the Earth Anton. That'd take a brief look at some of the other stories making news in science this week with a science report there are growing calls for an international investigation into Beijing's cover up the true extent of the curve in Nineteen Karenna virus United States Senator Josh Holy from Washington's powerful Senate Judiciary Committee says the Chinese Communist Party's actions have cost thousands of lives. Kevin Nineteen is now infected around half a million people in one hundred ninety seven countries killing some twenty five thousand with the World Health Organization saying the metality rate is still around three point. Four percent with males twice as likely to DIS females. The most likely to die those over the age of eighty who have between a fourteen point. Eight and twenty one point nine percent chance of dying from the virus while those between seventy and seventy nine having eight percent chance but it's between sixty and sixty nine three point six percent chance and those between fifty and fifty nine have a one point three percent likelihood of succumbing to the disease your chances of dying from cove nineteen also increased by more than ten percent. If you also suffer from cardiovascular disease over seven percent if you have diabetes more than six percent without hypertension or chronic respiratory disease and over five. Said if you have cancer. Meanwhile the University of Western Australia's released data showing that social distancing measures such as working from home so fi selection and community contact reduction should be highly effective in reducing the number of cases of curve in nineteen. It found the two most effective. Social distancing measures were self-isolation acidity percent reduction in community wide contact which is defined as any sexual contact outside of school. Work or home. Research is used computer modelling to evaluate. How a range of social distancing measures could stop the virus from spreading using the New South Wales city of Newcastle to model the spread the first phase one clinical trials of potential covert nineteen vaccine have begun in Seattle Washington a report in the Journal. Nature claims the experimental vaccine relies on Messenger. Aaron which directs the body to make protein famine the viruses out a show hopefully enticing immune response that protects against infection over the next six weeks forty five participants were received varying doses of the vaccine pulled by a second as twenty eight days later. Belvin the assist of reporting math period. All to showing growing interest in to malaria drugs chloroquine and hydroxy chloroquine which have already delivered some interesting results in the battle against curve in nineteen however while anecdotal reports glowing. Proper scientific trials. A yet to be undertaken New York. Which has America's highest incidence of the curve in nineteen virus is undertaking trials off the drugs procuring some seven hundred fifty thousand doses of chloroquine and seventy thousand doses of Hydroxy Corcoran. Chloroquine is a river of queen which comes from a native South American tree and is used by locals to trade favors hydroxy. Chloroquine is a less toxic analogue with a similar chemical structure but different properties. It's used to treat rheumatoid arthritis lupus and the blood disorder Porphyria. Any studies found that smoke from strays recent mega bushfires was responsible for four hundred deaths. The findings reported in the Medical Journal of Australia looked at the overall impact of the unprecedented wildfires. Which black and wide areas of the nation researches found smoke from the FIS was directly responsible for four hundred and seventeen excess deaths. One Thousand One hundred twenty four hospitalizations for heart problems and two thousand twenty seven for respiratory problems as well as one thousand three hundred fifty emergency visits for people with asthma. The authors estimate the population exposure to tiny particles in the air and the eastern states. New South Wales Victoria and Queensland as well as the Australian Capital Territory from the end of Twenty nineteen within twenty twenty. They found the smoke related health impact to be substantial the authors. Warn that smoke. He's one of the many problems that will intensify with more frequent and intense bushfire seasons and more bushfire mitigation approaches are needed to reduce the health and safety risks and that's the show now space-time is broadcast on radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through both IHEART radio and on Tunein radio or you can subscribe download space time as a free podcast through apple. Stitcher BITES DOT COM Puckett cast soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom android cashbox from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite download podcasts provider. You can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming space-time patron which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burners already content and other awards. Just go to a patron through space time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details if you want more Space Time. Check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images news stories videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot TAMLA DOT COM. That's all one word and in lower case and that's tableau without the it can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through Space Time Youtube Channel on facebook just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australia and sky and telescope magazine. Your window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart. Gary this has been another quality. Podcast PRODUCTION FROM BITES DOT com.
Southern Launch to Carry out its First Test Flight this Month
"Love. This podcast support this show through the ACOSS support a feature. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty-three episode ninety for broadcast on the second of September twenty twenty coming up on space time southern launch to carry out its first test flight this month and you study shows Europa's surface. Ice Sheets aren't connected to its core and she obser- search for other earth like planets all that and more coming up. I'm space time. Welcome to space time we'd Stewart. Gary. Southern Lewis says it will carry out its first sub orbital test flight of the South Australian outback on September Fifteenth The D. E. W. S. P. One mission from the test range forty kilometers northwest of Sajida will utilize two stage rocket flying experimental electronic warfare test payload. The DADS are small two point four meter tall sounding rocket developed in the Netherlands by t minus engineering and designed to achieve an apogee of one hundred and twenty kilometres dots based around the thirty four kilogram booster stage, which will burn for just six seconds, but that'll be enough to. Accelerate the launch vehicle Mac five before releasing its need like upper payload stage. The mission payload for the flight will be Prototype D., W., WC miniaturized orbital electric warfare census system, or most, which is being developed under the project. Jericho program for the mission to be successful, the payload needs to reach an altitude of at least one hundred kilometers before deployment in order to pass through the main beam of the tiger radars it'll in return back to earth eventually parachuting to the ground some thirty five kilometres down range, the payload will conducted sensing mission as it descends. For future developments towards a sovereign Australian space-based electronic warfare capability euro test. What's expected to last about thirty minutes demonstrating that small inexpensive senses can be rapidly deployed at high speed WC provides specialist electronic warfare capabilities for the Australian Defence Force and its allies the test range which extends for some one hundred and forty five kilometers from the indigenous community of Cuba. Is the largest privately operated rocket test range on the planet. Unlike most launches which had done over water test ranges like KUNA back and the air force operated warmer rocket range, which is a further three, hundred thirty kilometers to the northeast allow rockets and their payloads the fall into uninhabited land where they can be recovered for examination. This space time still to come a new study shows you rope as service ICESHEET aren't connected to its core and CI opposite search for plants like Earth all that and more still to come on space time. A new look at high resolution observations of the frozen surface of the Jovian ice moon. Europa show that it's rotated by some seventy degrees over the past few million years. Movement of the icy shell means Europa's polls out where they used to be a report in the journal Geophysical Research Letters claims this could only happen if the I see Shelley's uncoupled, floating free separated from the rocky core of the moon by. A global subsurface liquid ocean, as well as supporting earlier evidence for the existence of a subsurface ocean. Then you findings also mean that the geological history of Europa's surface will need to be reexamined the study's lead author. Paul Schenck from the lunar and planetary. Institute says Lodge Global Scale. Circular. Patents on Europa's frozen surface most likely formed during a large reorientation of icy out a show with respect to its spin axis. A process known as true polar wander. The evidence shows the fractures associated with this true polar wander a younger than the rest of the landscape on the moon because they're carrying across all the terrains the authors reach their conclusions using a combination of global maps from NASA Galileo and Voyager spacecraft with improved computer generated resolution and detailed topographic data. It's all part of the preparations for the upcoming Europa clipping mission to. The Jovian ice world, the authors Carla had lodge fractures on the surface with previously identified concentric circular depressions necessary. Galileo spacecraft orbited Jupiter between nineteen, ninety, five and two thousand and three returning hundreds of images of Europa's surface reconstruction of the global map of Europa tortured made a resolution in cal in preparation for the returnee Roper revealed that these mysterious fracture systems were part of the circular true polar wander patents identified previously. Topographic mapping the highest resolution images of the fractious at forty made us per pixel share the fractious to be more than two hundred meters deep these fractures cut through all nine terrains and show that the defamation is related to the global reorientation or true polar wander event that was one of the last events to occur on Europa. The features also imply that the floating I shall with surround Europa may have thickened over time this space time still to come the European Space Agency's chips mission completed in-orbit test phase in preparation for its search for other earth like planets, and later in the science report worsening climate change causing Arctic Sea ice cover to reach new record low levels. All that and more still to come on. Space Time. European, Space Agency's Characterizing Planet Satellite Oh, CI OPS has completed its in orbit test phase. The operation was made all the more novel because mission managers were forced to work from home because of the ongoing covid nineteen coronavirus virus pandemic despite the lockdown scientists, engineers and technicians were able to put chips through its extensive testing and calibration phase finding the space craft is working nominally she ups was launched back on December the eighteenth last year about a Soyuz rocket from the European. Space Agency's Kurt spaceport in French Kiana since then it's been circling the earth in Paul Aerobics at an altitude of seven, hundred kilometers the two hundred and seventy three kilogram spacecraft has. Now commenced its initial three and a half year science mission chips is designed to characterize the transit's Victor Planets measuring changes in the brightness of a star as a planet passes in front of what transit's that star. This Michigan value allows the size of the planet to beat arrived and for its density to be determined on the basis of other data bats mass derived from its gravitational impact as it orbits its host star causing the start exhibit a tell tale spectroscopy, doppler shift or wobble. This combined data provides important information on exoplanets such as they composition that is whether they're predominantly rocky. Oh, composed of gases or if they have deep oceans and this. And important step in determining whether a plan would have the sort of conditions which would be habitable for life scientists have so far discovered more than four thousand EXO planets, Isa? Project scientists, Kate Isaac explains what scientists hope to find in this report by a TV honest Katie Isaac I'm a physicist and I work at estee, which is in the Netherlands and it's the technical center of the European Space Agency I work on a science mission called K. OPS stands to characterizing ex planet satellite and what we're going to do is to measure very precisely the sizes of X. Planets that have been found by other people the AH MOSS Mercurial or all planets ago around or orbit the Sun which is all star. These four of the eight planets in our solar system. Planet is a planet that is outside our solar system is typically orbiting a star although it doesn't have to be. As of July two, thousand and twenty we know of more than four thousand x planets have been discovered in searches taking place both from the ground and from space using space missions that are operating above year. These searches found many unexpected types of exoplanets produced many surprises, many planets that are very different from those that we are familiar with honest much smaller than the. Larger than Jupiter the most massive planet in our solar system also, the largest as well as planets that are much hotter and colder than anything we have in our solar system. Planets with temperatures high than molten lava inside a volcano and higher than the melting point of I. The first Exa Planet discovered orbiting a star in Muhtar. Own Son was discovered in one, thousand, nine, hundred, ninety, five from the ground. Fifty one be has a massive about half that Jupiter but that's where the similarity stops. It's orbiting a star with fifty one Pakistani, which is reasonably bright to start go but still not quite bright enough to be seen by our own is when we look up at the sky on. The planet has an orbital period of just over four days. This compares with an orbital period of the earth, which is three, hundred, sixty, five days or one earth here. So one year on fifty one B. is much much sorta than that on the. Planet is much closer to the star, which means that the planets is very hot is in fact more than four times hotter than the earth is. Low To date, we have found more than four thousand extra planets. We still haven't found one that is exactly like our own earth we're continuing to look of course but in the meantime, we're trying hard to understand more about what we've already found about the planets that we've discovered to date. We ask ourselves what are they made of a rocky a I see a big ball of gas. Also what we would like to know and what we're interested in finding out is how they were born in how they age as well as they have whether they have atmospheres like. Earth. All the time with thinking in the back of our minds whether there is an exoplanet out there where in the future we could possibly look for and find signs of life. Traveling to an EXA, planet is not possible. Today is even the nearest ones are much too far away. It will take light more than four years travel from the Earth to the nearest exit planet we know which is in the Proxima Centauri Star system. As of today, we can only travel at a very small fraction of the speed of light and it would take tens of thousands of years to reach the planet. This is much longer than a human lifetime much longer than the lifetimes of many human generations in fact. This is a cast recommends every week we pick one of our favorite shows and this is one. We think you'RE GONNA love. Plus everybody, I'm Cory Cambridge House of OPEC which stands for other people's pockets opie p. i. sit down interview America's top podcasters to learn more about them dope show they create in every episode they even share with me their top three favorite podcasts I got my latest episode with Aaron Updike an Errand. Welsh, hosted the amazing podcast surging opie P with Corey Cambridge on apple spotify and wherever else you listen to podcasts. CAST is home to the biggest podcasts from the US and around the world subscribed to this show and hundreds more now via gas or wherever you get your podcasts. An Tom that a take another brief look at some other stories making using science this week with a science report and study wounds more than one animal species including old world primates as well as dear wells dolphins, cats and dogs are potentially susceptible to covid nineteen, the covid nineteen corona virus, which is spread globally from Wuhan Channa as infected over twenty five, million people killing more than nine hundred thousand researchers looked at the DNA sequence coding for the protein. The virus uses to enter cells to. See its potential as receptive for the virus in a range of different animals a report in the Journal, the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that old world primates such as Boone's macaques and great apes. We'll have as to proteins with a very high likelihood of binding to the virus. The authors warned that forty percent of the species potentially susceptible covid nineteen are classified as threatened by the International Union for the conservation of nature, and these may be especially vulnerable to human to animal transmission. May Well, doctors are reporting and link to covid nineteen, which is leaving children with multiple organ dysfunction and Body Wide Inflammation a report in the Journal. Nature Medicine Claims Scientists have studied twenty five children with the disease multi-system inflammatory syndrome who are infected or will likely infected with krona virus. They found the children had a similar immune response to an adult with covid nineteen and the illness appears to be distinct from Kawasaki Disease. Another inflammatory syndrome which has been linked to the virus scientists say more research is needed to understand the cause of the disease and its relationship with size covy to infection. And you study shows that worsening climate change is caused Arctic Sea ice cover to reach a new record lows for the month of July the new satellite data from NASA chose the sea ice extent average some seven point two, eight, million square kilometers in the month of July. That's two point one, nine, million square kilometers below the nineteen, eighty, one to two. Thousand ten average for the same month and some three hundred and ten thousand square kilometers below the previous record low set last year and usually wool may temperatures in May and June. The Siberia set the stage for rapid melting in the East Siberian and Laptev seas while ocean currents. HOPE FLASH IS OUT OF THE RUSSIAN Arctic coast thereby opening the northern sea-passage. And you study has found that your smartphone can detect. You've had to drink simply by detecting changes in the way you walk. A report in the Journal of Studies, on Alcohol and drugs claims having real time information about alcohol intoxication could be important helping people reduce alcohol consumption or learning a sponsor for someone in treatment the study involved twenty two adults aged twenty, one to forty three. Each received a mixed drink with enough forget to produce a breath alcohol concentration of zero point two, they then had their breath alcohol concentration analyzed at regular intervals as they walked. A straight line turned around and walked back again, carrying a cell phone, the cell phone measure acceleration, as well as sight decide vertical and forward and backward motions as they walked and by looking at the patents, scientists were able to determine the participants level of an abbreviation for about ninety percent of the time simply based on changes in how they walked. Personally, I'd like to know how to become a subject in one of these trials. And, that's the show. Now, space-time is broadcast on science zone radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and through both IHEART radio and on Tunin radio, or you can subscribe in Download Space Time is a free podcast through apple STITCHER BITES DOT com. Puckett. CAST soundcloud spotify youtube audio boom. ANDROID cashbox from Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot com, or from your favorite download podcasts provider you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time Patriot, which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burners already content and other awards just go to a patron page through space time with Stewart Gary. Dot Com for all the details. If want more space time, check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit. In. The show as well as loads of images, news stories, videos, and things on the web. I, find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Tamla Dot com that's all one word and in lower case, and that's Tamba without the. It can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through our space time youtube channel on facebook just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary. space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australia and sky and Telescope magazine Your Window on the Universe You being listening to space. Time with Stewart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from BITES DOT com.
Are gamma ray bursts powered by a stars collapsing magnetic fields?
"This is space time series. Twenty-three episode thirty three for Brook from the fifteenth of April. Twenty twenty coming up on space time again. Ray Bursts being powered by a stars collapsing magnetic fields mysteries of the planet Uranus and going to conduct a second unmanned Stalin orbital test flight. All that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary New Research suggests that Gamma Ray bursts the most powerful explosions in the universe since the Big Bang maybe caused by the collapse of a dying stars. Magnetic Field Gamma Ray. Bursts were first detected in the nineteen sixties by American spy. Satellites Monitoring Servia Union compliance with nuclear-test-ban treaties. During the height of the Cold War atomic bombs give a powerful bursts of gamma radiation during their detonation which the satellites designed to detect and the US military detecting literally hundreds of these blasts every year. Not In the atmosphere but out in deep space beyond the moon. Not only did this mean that the Soviets were cheating on the treaty. That wasn't surprising as the communist already had a long history of breaking agreements but more critically at meant that the Soviet Union must have hundreds possibly thousands of Spain nuclear weapons valve attesting far more than the West. It awesome it. They had hundreds of rockets available to launch these bombs. Today's space and they could do so both far more reliably and more often than the Americans and importantly without the West being able to detect the launches. Now if all this was true it meant that Russian technology must be far far ahead of anything in the Free World. In fact that meant the free world might never be at a catch up if so the code will was already over and the Communists at one. The implications were unthinkable. The whole thing was declared top secret while the Pentagon decided. Its next course of action now. Luckily eventually the military decided to allow a strongest to have a look at the data and astronomers were quickly able to determine these events were taking place literally billions of light years away Fabio any human technology and certainly far beyond the capabilities of the Soviets. The crisis was over but the source of these extraordinary gamma-ray bursts would remain a mystery FIF- tickets to come. Astronomers now know that when really massive starts far bigger than the sun. Exhaust their nuclear fuel supplies needed for fusion process. Which makes that shine. They collapsed. Triggering. What's known as a Supernova explosion at usually what's left behind from one of these events is a small super-dense still rim accord a neutron star form when the protons and electrons in the stellar core a crush together forming? Turn him however. If Stars massive enough it could collapse beyond the neutron star stage instead forming one of the strangest and most mysterious objects in the universe a black hole a place of infinite density in zero volume with the laws of physics science and stands them disappear during the process which forms the black hole to enormous jets of energy meeting. Plasma burst out from the core and if one of these extremely bright Gypsies pointed towards the Earth The afterglow can be detected by both ground and space based telescopes even at cosmological distances. The material doesn't simply catapult out of the exploding star. It accelerates the ultra high soup. Aluminum speeds that he speeds almost as fast as the speed of light along the narrow beam of the Gamma Ray. Jed and that leaves scientists puzzled over the sort of power source which is driving these incredible events. There have been many to try and explain the mysteries of Gamma Ray bursts. Many astronomers believe in the Barry ONIC jet model in which this phenomenon it's caused by repeated violent collisions between material being blasted out during the explosion and material already surrounding the dying star resulting in the gamma ray flash and the subsequent fading afterglow however another. Id called the magnetic model suggests that a huge primordial magnetic field of the progenitor star collapses within seconds of the initial Supernova explosion in the princess releasing vast amounts of energy to power the digits blast now are reporting the astrophysical journal claims astronomers have found the first evidence supporting this magnetic model then. We're examining data from their swift space telescope of the collapse of a massive star and a Gamma Ray burst cataloged as GIB ninety. No one fourteen C in Galaxy. Some four point. Five billion is away. Kim Ray bursts detected by dedicated satellites orbiting the earth however no one can predict way or win gamma-ray bursts will appear so scientists rely on autonomous rapid response robotic telescopes in order to catch the fast fading light of the afterglow after swift identify the. Gamma Ray bursts robotic telescopes and the Canary Islands and South Africa received notification and quickly sloughed towards that position of the sky and began gathering the data the authors noticed aesthetically low level of polarization. In the gamma. Ray burst in the moment straight after the staff collapse that indicates that the stars magnetic field had been destroyed during the explosion. The study's lead author Urea Judean emissions from the University of Bath says previous studies meant the team expected to detect polarization as high as thirty percent during the first hundred seconds after the explosion but instead surprisingly they measured seven point seven percent in less than a minute after the burst followed by a further dramatic. Drop to just two percents soon. Afterwards this minute magnetic fields that collapse catastrophically straight after the explosion releasing their energy and parrying the bright light detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. This space time still. To come the mysteries of the planet Uris and Boeing to undertake a second unmanned star. Lana orbital test flight. All that and more still to come on space time okay. Let's take a break from our show for word from our sponsor express. Vpn rated number one by Tek Raider. You may be wondering why you need a virtual private network. Well it's in the name. It's all about privacy. Do you really want big brother? Tech companies hackers governments. And who knows who else knew ping in on your online activities. Now you might not have anything to hide but it's still really creepy and it could be dangerous for you and those you care about. Also how often do you run across a website and you WANNA get information from it but you find that the GEO blocked? It's all very frustrating and it's becoming an increasing problem and that's where expressed VPN can help you express VPN's a simple efficient way to protect your online privacy. It's Internet without Borders from the world's leading VPN provider so particular online privacy today. And find out how you can get three months free at trikes breast. Vpn DOT com slash space? That's try express. Vpn DOT com slash space for three months free with a one year package visit try express VPN DOT com slash space to more. And of course you'll find the link details in the show notes and on our website. That's try express. Vpn DOT com slash space? And now it's back to our show. You're listening to spend time with Stewart Gerry. Any study says the strange axis of rotation of the planet Uranus together with the unusual properties of its moons and ring system where most likely caused by an engine collision with another planet up to three times the size of the Earth billions of years ago the unusual attributes of the ice giant urine us have long puzzled scientists. You see all of the planets in our solar system orbit around the sun in the same direction and unruffled. The same plane called the ecliptic. Astronomy believe this characteristic is vestige of how our solar system formed in the first place from a spinning disk of molecular gas and dust. Some four point six billion years ago most of the planet's also revolve on the access in the same direction with a pulse or enter perpendicular towards the ecliptic plane. The exception he's Venus which slowly spins backwards with the Sun rising in the West and sitting in the East. Probably the result of mentioned tiny theory collision eons ago just is unique is the planet. Uranus Spin Axis is tilted to over ninety eight degrees now by comparison earth's axes total by just twenty three and a half degrees. So you and this is pretty well spinning on its side and just as the Earth Spin Axis. He's always pointed words. The same background stars in the sky the orbits around the sun thereby giving us over changing seasons. The spin of urinals is also pointed to the same position in the sky as it orbits around the Sun so as you're in a spins on its axis and orbits around the Sun. It appears to be rolling around in waddling from an Earth. Observe respective like all the planets urine as ring system and large collection of moons at least twenty seven at last count they will but the planet around its Equator. So they too are tipped over on this side now. It's generally believed that Earth God. It's been accessed tilted a giant collision four point five billion years ago when a mass is spinal cord theater slammed into the early. Proto worth that collision melted birth planets into a magma Russian which eventually solidified forming today's earth and bringing some ejected debris into orbit. Which eventually coalesce to form the moon. These massive collisions would have been fairly common in the solar system. In fact they're an important part of the story of how planets form and now a report of the journal Nature. Astronomy is explained how year and it's good. It's far more extreme. Spin Axis tilt in the same way through an even more spectacular collision with the giant planet up to three times the mass of the Earth which tipped your server side leaving. It's in credit moon and ring system behind as a smoking gun but the study suggests that the ice cold conditions under which urine is formed. Which is nine thousand nine times further away from the sun and the Earth means any collision that Ogle distance very differently to how the earth moon system was formed. The study's lead author. She grew either from Tokyo. Institute of Technology says the findings are based on computer simulations of moon formation around icy planets since the form closer to the sun with environments warmer. It's mostly made up of non volatile elements which done vaporize at no more surface pressures and temperatures in contrast planets that form beyond what's known as the snow line which runs through the asteroid built between Mars and Jupiter a largely composed of more volatile materials like water pneumonia now while these would usually be liquids or gases under the sorts of temperatures and pressures. You're likely to find on the surface of earth now beyond the snow. These frozen into solids often forming bedrock and because temperatures in the solar system are so low impact debris from a collision with urinals with mostly vaporized away during the collision now. This may also been true for the rocky material involved in the earth men for me impact that in contrast this rocky material has a very high condensation temperature meaning it solidified quickly and so the Earth's moon was able to click a significant amount of the debris created by the collision gravity however in the case of urine US ally. Josse impact those able to tilt the planet give it a rapid rotational period. Your innocence days. Approximately seventeen hours even faster than that of the earth and the leftover material from the collision would remain gaseous far longer the largest mass body from this impact. What would later become Uranus within? Click most of the lifter is MS ear. Ennis's prison moon's role be really small to be precise. The ratio of the mass of the planet here on US compared to the masses of all of these moons is fat greater than the ratio of Earth's mass to the mass of it smooth by a factor of more than one hundred and the authors say they model accurately reproduces the current configuration. We really do see in your. And it's a satellites. This is space time. Still the come Boeing to conduct a second unmanned style and orbital test flight and later in the science report more than fifty potential covert nineteen vaccines now being tested around the world. All that and much more still to come on space time Boeing will undertake a second unmanned over little test flight of its new one hundred star and a spacecraft. The decision follows December's Feld maiden journey with suffered a series of problems with computer programs and communication systems ultimately resulting in the mission's failure to reach the International Space Station that flight which launched aboard an atlas five rocket from Space Launch Complex. Forty one at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida was supposed to sit stage with the commitment of regular crew transformations to the orbiting outpost pad of nurses commercial crew program allowing acid focus on optimistic space missions to the moon and Mars using the Orion capsule SOS rocket however software is affecting the mission. Elapsed time it saw the spacecraft undertaken. Oberlin Certian burn too early placing it into the wrong orbit too low to reach the space station and the problem was made even worse by communications issues then. Another software error was uncovered. Which if it hadn't been detected impact before the Deorbit burn would of course the style on a service module to Jettison crash into the crew module instead of moving away from thereby destroying the spacecraft despite the string of issues style on a did successfully land two days later on the White Sands missile range and you Mexico. The style on his mission was meant cheap ticket. The successful space x crew dragon two unmanned orbital test flight to the Space Station Back in March Twenty nineteen which return to the earth splashing down in the North Atlantic Ocean. Six days. Later Nassar and Boeing yet to set a date for the second test flight. Meanwhile works continuing at SPACEX. For next month I man test flight aboard the crew into capsule to the International Space Station using Falcon Nine Rocket. The historic flight will be the first man mission to launch from American soil since the mothballing of the space shuttle fleet falling. Sds One thirty five way way back in two thousand eleven this space time and turn that attack another brief look at some of the other stories making news inside this week with the science report there are currently over fifty potential curve in nineteen vaccines in various stage of testing around the world. Now scientists at the University of Pittsburgh when? That's the vaccine delivered through a fingertip sized patch. That's been founded produce. Antibodies specific over nineteen enquiries thought to be sufficient to neutralize the virus. A report in The Lancet Medical Journal claims. The new vaccine candidate is based on previous research onto closely related virus types. Saz from two thousand and three and from two thousand fourteen sites look for specific printing court spike protein which is important for inducing immunity against the virus compared to the experimental marinade vaccine candidate. That's just clinical trials. This new candidate vaccine or picker. Evac uses lead made pieces of protein to build immunity. Which is the same way flu shots work? Scientists say. There's no evidence that covered nineteen can be transmitted through aiding food. The comments have come from the Food Safety Information Council which is released consumer information about shopping for and handling a food in order to reduce the risk of spreading the virus. In fact the council says people are more likely to get food poisoning from eating food. That's gone off or as being badly prepared and stored scientists in Germany published new findings of their analysis of nine young and middle aged adults with comparatively mild symptoms of covered nineteen a report in the Journal. Nature found and infectious form of the virus in the throat and lungs of patients up to eleven days which suggests that patients may be shedding excreting the virus at high levels during the first week of symptoms. The virus was not detected in blood or urine samples and the authors didn't find replicating form of the virus in fecal samples either which supports the theory. The virus isn't passed on through faces. Well I guess it's a bit like waiting for a taxi. Cab Your paleontologist waiting for ages for a decent Tara's or fossil and then all of a sudden four new species come along once hot on the heels of last week's discovery of fossils representing three new terrace or species fan in southeast. Morocco comes news of Fourth Moroccan terrorist. Saw but I'm at the three Scott Ritter which were all teeth. Fish eaters a report on the Jill Cretaceous research says this new species had not worth and belong to a group called Tetris which were found in Brazil Europe and China during the Cretaceous period but never before in Africa. Take your kids. With small. To medium sized terrorist cells wing spans of a bet for Mehta's and they had skulls with lots brought crests bodily excavations are valuable source of information for monitoring personal health but clinical procedures for testing samples can be cumbersome and most people only visit they doctor a few times a year now reported the journal Nature Biomedical Engineering Claims. Scientists developed a smart toilet with diagnostic devices designed to analyze the quantity and chemistry urine fake. Ooh samples although the Technologies County. Just the proof of concept researchers hope to develop the system into commercial product US earlier this year. The life is sixty four year old daredevil mad. Mike US ended when he's homemade steam powered rocket crashed in the desert knee. Basta California with Mike at the controls the eccentric died as he lived doing what he loves mad. Mike became well known for his flat. Earth a beliefs and in fact the fatal final flight was part of his campaign to try and prove the world really is flat but is minimum from Strand skeptics. Explains Things aren't always as they seem mad. Mike was basically a big. That will drive. I used to do the things like jumping over buses driving limousines etcetera. That was his background. But then he suddenly decided he wanted the guy rather horizontally he wanted to go out and he was developing steam powered rockets homemade homemade rockets and he wasn't having a lot of success with them that some of them just didn't take off it was one that supposedly took off one that supposedly took off and crashed and he was badly hurt. It was never quite sure that he was actually in that one but obviously just recently. He had one that took off. It went up in the air and it came back down and unfortunately mad. Mike and Mike was exciting that he was using these rucker flights to prove that the earth was flat now. The twist ending is that he lied. He's up he's pay out person who has been a long standing friend of his came. Just after his death and pointed out that we used flatter as stump flatter asked. Get so much publicity that we kept going. I know he didn't believe in flatter and there was I stick and I would say so in other words oldest stuff that Mike was talking about was purely to get himself attention because I would definitely obviously it did work Kosovac successful most successful than he was unfortunately Nice Black. I mean the world means ECCENTRICS I'm a believer in that that being one myself it's true I mean. Yeah the needle mathematics and whether he has not. I'm not particularly at Rachel that it's it's silly theory etcetera but yet looking at this thing around you realize the pull out some yes some some nice variety. Obviously he's limousine. Jumping has had positive mind is trying to find something else to stick any game that he could stick with and that was the flow. You'RE GONNA keep talking about Mad Mike. The Flat Hoods Believers Center. And he wasn't and that's the surprise twist neglects to Mendham from Australian skeptics and that's the show now space-time is broadcast on sci owned radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through both IHEART radio and on shuning radio or you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple. Stitcher BITES DOT COM pucca cast soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom Pud beam android cashbox from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite download podcasts provider. You can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time patron which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burns audio content and other awards. Just go to patriarch page through Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details. If you want more space time check out our blog. You'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images news stories videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot TAMLA DOT COM. That's all one word and in lower case and that's Tamba without the it can also follow us throw at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through Space Time Youtube Channel on facebook just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary Space Time is brought in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine. Your window on the universe. You've been listening to Space Time with Stewart Gary. All this has been another quality. Podcast PRODUCTION FROM BITES DOT com.
Rocket Lab Failure
"Love this podcast, support this show through the ACOSS SUPPORT OF HR! It's up to you. How much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty-three episode seventy, two for broadcast on the fifteenth of July, Twenty, twenty, coming up on space time, a full accident investigation underway into the cause of a multi-million dollar Elektron rocket failure, the strange galactic structure near the center of the Milky Way and astronomers create the most detailed map yet of the red supergiant Antares, all that and more coming up. I'm, space-time. Welcome to Space Time We'd Stewart Gary. A fool accident investigation is now underway that determined the cause of failure in an electron rocket. During the second stage of ascent to orbit, the flight named picture didn't happen, was the thirteenth mission for the New Zealand based Rocket Labs Company, which has had a seemingly stellar reliability record until now the seventeen meter tall liquid-fuel electron rocket blasted off normally from its Mahia Peninsula Lewis Complex Zealand's North Island East Coast. We've done this mission, Pixar. It didn't happen in reference to some of the patients on board this flight and this is a special one as it will be rocket labs lucky number thirteenth launch. A lodge operations team has been working through the to prepare for liftoff this morning at nine nine, thousand nine am local New Zealand time? Payload integration took place Cleaner Elsie wanted in the days leading up to this mission before electronic rolled out from the hangar down the one hundred seventy meter runway to the bad. Feeling with you want in liquid oxygen has been completed and coming up shortly launch director will conduct the go nogo poll. This poll would confirm that vehicle satellites weather in range or all green for launch. Stay Jaeger status. Go if you on. Sky If tius FTSE IS GONNA. GNC CHANCE GUY be miss. ECON- economy's go RAF golf tee one. G C Carson's go MITT MITT is go. DC upscale and executive executive colonial stations out on missions as launched its head to a circular five hundred kilometer low-earth orbit at a ninety seven degree inclination is carrying seven satellites onboard electron stage, one and stage, two Hubble to pump clips of past and engines, already one and Stage two high-voltage trees ready for flight. Terminal Chicks Avionics in stage and. Mission head ready for launch. In recent years, we've been focusing heavily on building up raptor production and launch capabilities for electron rocket right now. The team rose complete vehicle off the factory floor once every eighteen days on pursuit of our ultimate goal to launch weekly missions in the near future. We'll stations is L. D. on mission now on. This should be good flags in your. Be On, please confirm flat computer as goes agreeing, go screen begun, please order sequence and confront out of seeking select stations Audi on mission, we currently go forward or seeking Saad and can thin ideas go flaw. ECHO IS UNINTENTIONAL PAL. Pressing locks looks loaders complete system as re-circulation answering discussing Carol's. They wanted Sich to oppress off low injure pitch, and what a deluge is active for rating engines in. Non. Savin six. Five four three. Two. One. Statement propulsion nominal. Churches. At t plus forty five seconds into flight, and we've had a successful lift-off from pad at launch complex one next up. We'll be Max. Q, which is the point when the rocket is under the maximum amount of aerodynamic stress during its ascent. Piglets supersonic. US through EXCU. There's that call it from the team. In Mission Control, confirming electronic has passed through Max, coming up or three events, which will occur in close proximity chattan stationed. Engines will power down on the first stage commonly known as managing cutoff or Meka. Overstayed. To separate them the Jackie Mapo. On Stage Shoe Lignite as the as the vehicle continues onward entering state one Brennan Detect, mode. The first stage before nominally with main engine cut out, stayed separation and second-stage ignition all happening on Chiduo justice expected. Meka. Provided clean stage. One and Stage two separation electronics continuing on nominally nozzle on that section stage engine, beginning to go as it makes its way to orbit. or now at t plus three minutes with varying separation coming up in a few seconds. Sharing Jefferson. Long Way from a vehicle they're the payloads are now exposed ready for deployment, continuing to climb at ninety five hundred kilometers per hour. An Electron is currently at one hundred and forty kilometers altitude. We're now four minutes into flight and electrons continuing to look good. We've got a couple of boxes left to take off ahead of kick stage separation, those being battery hot swap in second engine cutoff coming up shortly. Electron is soaring to space speed of ten thousand nine hundred kilometers per hour. Stage to propulsion nominal. Known about ninety seconds time, attornal performance battery hot swap the pumps on the Rutherford engine are powered by batteries. Once these ben depleted. We swap power over to a new battery, allowing us to save, mass, on the way to or Two hundred six, preventing else chooses a hundred and ninety kilometers. Speeds preplan eight clothes. Specific. Tributary? Discharge oral, raging hot. Roughly the first signs of a problem occurred during the second stage engine burn when the video feed suddenly stopped five minutes and forty one seconds into the flight telemetry continued for a few more seconds, showing a sudden until tell drop acceleration at the time. The rocket was traveling at thirteen, thousand seven hundred kilometers per hour, and climbing through an altitude of one hundred and ninety four point eight meters before falling back to the surface and burning up in the atmosphere, less than two thousand kilometers down range above the South Pacific Ocean cal stations on Miss George. Shading response by so as you can see electron, thirteen, thousand seven hundred kilometers per hour is a hundred and ninety one above the surface as are waiting for battery hot swap. At this time, it looks like the signal for our video. Feed feeds become too easy to receive the mission of the move forward by day to avoid predicted bad weather, it was the second electron launching just three weeks, and the company's fastest turnaround time between mission so far rogue labs is now working with the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States to identify the cause of the problem. The mission's primary payload was the sixty seven kilogram cannon c set one be Earth imaging satellite, which was to be deployed into a five hundred kilometer high sun synchronous. Synchronous orbit also aboard for the ride with five one planet. Super Earth observation n-nor satellites and the Faraday when six unit keep set for the British capital in space missions, which is carrying numerous technology experiments, rocket lab zone the other failure so far on its very first mission back in twenty seventeen, which failed to reach orbit judo telemetry issue, not a rocket problem this space time still to come the strange galactic structure, the center of the Milky Way Galaxy and studying the red supergiant Antares all that and much more still to come on space time. Astronomers studying a strange unexplained structure known as the tilted disc located near the centre of our Milky Way Galaxy the tilted disc, is an elongated ring like Longitudinal cloud of ionized hydrogen located inside the Galactic Central by and apparently distantly surrounding secretaries, a star, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. Well hydrogen close to the galactic centers being ionized by stars. The energy source ionizing the tilted disc, remains a mystery, but now thanks to some twenty years worth of observations, astronomers have finally figured out just how much energy permeates the center of the Galaxy Reporting in the journal Science advances, they claim the Milky Way. Center occupies a middle ground of galactic radiation levels known among astronomers as Allina Todd Galaxy. That discovery could one day hope astronomers track down exactly where all that energy comes from and understanding. Understanding the source of the radiation could open by not just the nature of the Milky Way, but also countless other Cima galaxies in many ways. The mookie way is among the most mysterious galaxies, although we call it home. How view of the galaxies dense and active center is blocked by immense clouds of gas and dust is like trying to work out the shape of a forest when you're stuck in the middle of all the trees, and that's way when the Wisconsin H Alpha Map telescope comes in. Years Ago University of Wisconsin Whitewater. Professor Bob Benjamin noticed an anomaly. What reviewing two decades? The information gathered by Wham about ionized hydrogen gas across the galaxy guests that's ionized as absorbed enough energy to strip off its electrons, and it gives the for redheugh which telescopes likewise can capture beneath the dock, gas and dust towards the center of the Galaxy when detected a protruding bubba. Levine is hydrogen that appear to be heading towards the earth, which shouldn't be possible because of the rotation of the galaxy now because this bubbles extending away from the heaviest clouds of. Of Dust, it acts like a sort of window, allowing researchers to see deep inside further towards the center of the galaxy that would normally be possible and measuring how much of the guests was ionized could tell them how much radiation existed in the Galactic Centre. So Benjamin colleagues set website squarely on this protruding bubble to gather additional information on the ionized nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen that resided there by combining this raw data from Wam with new and updated muddling. The authors were able to estimate the three dimensional size, location and composition of the ionized gas. Results showed there was a large amount of ionized gas permeating the center of the Milky Way which had never been seen before. They also found that the composition of the ionized gas and the nature of the radiation producing it changes as you move away from the Galactic Center and that suggests that what's happening at the very nucleus, the galaxy close to the central supermassive black hole. Hole Secretaries. A star is different from what's happening a little bit further away. You ve already Asian the Galactic Center is what places it into this category known as Line A-. Bet a third of all galaxies we see a classified as liners. It's sort of a catch alter for galaxies with more radiation, their centers relative galaxies dominated by stars, but still less radiation than active galactic. which are actively feeding supermassive black holes? The authors say that tilted discs unusual trajectory on an orbit headed towards earth is due to the elliptical rotation of the buyer, the Milky Way. However the source of the radiation in the book waste tilted disc as well as in other line galaxies remains a mystery, but now that we know that the Milky Way falls into this category. It office at Chad's for up close observations of radiation sources. Try and pin down just what is creating all that energy this report from the University of Wisconsin within the Central Bar region lies, a mysterious structure, called the tilted disc that has made of ionized gas. Just a small piece of this tilted disc is visible. peeks out through a hole in the dust close to the center of our galaxy, allowing visible light to pass through. The tilted disc gets its name from its orientation appears tilted compared with the rest of the Milky Way. Scientists of used wham or the Wisconsin H, Alpha map to discover a faint red glow of light that is a telltale signature of ionized gas. By comparing other colors of visible light coming from. Hydrogen Nitrogen and oxygen scientists can diagnose the source of ionization. They find that close to the nucleus of the galaxy gases ionized by newly forming stars, but as you move further away from the center, things get more extreme in the gas become similar to a class of galaxies called liners. This is much different than how gas outside the bars classified. This mysterious type of gas has an unknown source of ionization in the Milky. Way Can now be used to better understand its nature. Wham in this researcher funded by the National Science, Foundation and the unique telescope is the only one in the world powerful enough to see the faint glow of the tilted disc. The research was led by scientists from the University of Wisconsin and embry Riddle Aeronautical University in his published in science advances. This space time still to come. Astronomers create the most detailed map yet of the red supergiant star Antares and later in the science report you data shows that hate waves it becoming hotter, longer and more frequent all around the world, all that and more still to come on space time. Astronomers have created the most detailed matt yet of the Red Supergiant Star Antares Rocket John's like Antares and it sped. An Kasim does a bloated, relatively cool star. As nearing the end of their lives through the vast Dila wins, they stars launch heavy elements into space, thereby playing an important role in providing the essential building blocks for future generations, stars, and ultimately for life as As. We know it about this mistress to how these enormous Stella wins launched, and the detailed study of the atmosphere event tarries the closest red supergiant worth provides a crucial step towards that answer. Antares marks the heart of the Scorpion in the Constellation Scorpius the name Antares means rival of Mars because of its appearance and location, which appears to be opposite to Mars and sky. Despite being some five hundred fifty light years away, Antares, still the fifteenth, Brightest Star in the night sky, and the reason that sir bright is because it really is one of the biggest known stars in the universe. In fact it's enormous eighteen times, the mass of our Sun Ten Thousand Times the Sun's luminosity, and at least eight hundred eighty three times the sun's radius. Fan tarries were placed at the center of our solar system where the sun is visible surface Ferdousi would engulf mercury Venus Earth Mars and the asteroid built and extend almost as far as the orbit of Jupiter. To better understand what's happening astronomers of us the unprecedented sensitivity and resolution of both Alma the Atacama large millimeter submillimeter array telescope in Chile, and the National Science Foundation's Karl G Jansky very large array telescope in New Mexico combined, they studied the size and temperature event Harry's sphere from just above the stars, Visible Surface, the furthest fear through its Kremikovtzi. All the way out to the stellar win region. The end result is the most detailed. Detailed, radio yet of any star other than the sun. Elmer observed Antar is close to its firdous fear in shorter, a wave wavelength, and the longer wavelengths observed by the very large array review, the stars atmosphere further out seen invisible I'd antares diameter piece to be eight hundred eighty three times larger than the Sun Bowing Alma and the very large array review, its atmosphere and radio wavelengths, the red supergiant Ted at to be even bigger. Longer wavelengths to the very large array revealed the super giant atmosphere out to nearly twelve times. The stars radius the study's lead author. Alemanno Gorman from the Dublin Institute. For Advanced Studies, says the size of stock in very dramatically depending on what wavelength of light you're observing that star in the radio telescopes measured the temperature of most of the gas and plasma in Antares atmosphere and most noticeable was the temperature in the chromos fear. This is the. The region above the star service, which is headed up by magnetic fields and shockwaves created by the vigorous rolling conviction of the stellar surface, much like the bubbling motion in a pot of boiling water, not much is known about Koroma's fees, and this is the first time that this region's been detected in radio waves. Thanks to Amer in the very large array. The office discovered the stars chromosomal extent, some two and a half times the stars radius. By. Comparison are sunscreens. Fear is only one two hundredth of its radius. They also found that the temperature of the crime is fear, and Antares is much lower than previous optical ultraviolet observations had suggested in fact it takes just three and a half thousand degrees Celsius, after which gradually declines now by comparison, the Sun's Christmas fee. Richest temperatures of almost twenty thousand degrees Celsius a Goldman, says the difference can be explained. Explained because the radio measurements act like a sensitive thermometer for most of the gas and plasma in the stars atmosphere, whereas previous optical ultraviolet observations were only sensitive to the very hot gases and plasma astronomers, also for the first time, so a clear distinction between the Kremlin fee and the region with still a win start to form in fact in the very large image, a huge win. These visible ejected from. Is and lit up by its smaller Hana, companion. Star Antares be a spectral type B blue, white main sequence star more than seven times, the sun's mass and five times its diameter. Antares is reaching the end of its life as it runs out of fuel balancing between the outward push of nuclear fusion in woods pull of gravity will end causing the start collapsing, go Supernova, and that's like it happened any time now which esther nautical terms could be with the next million years or so or it could be tomorrow when it does explode, it appears bright in the Earth's sky's the full moon, and it'll be quite noticeably visible even during daylight hours. The study's findings are reported in the journal Astronomy Astrophysics. This space time. And I'm to take another brief look at some of the other stories making using science this week or the science report and you study warns that heatwaves are becoming hotter longer and more frequent in almost every part of the world, and the findings reported in the journal Nature Communications Show. They're also accelerating. Have a better understanding of what's going on. Researchers have developed new heat wave metric, which they calling cumulative hate, which has just how much extra hideous produced by these eight waves, it reveals that during Australia's worst hate wave season, an extra eighty degrees Celsius of cumulative hate above the long-term average, was baked into the land, meanwhile in Russia in the Mediterranean, individual heat waves, so an extra two hundred degrees, Celsius plus of cumulative heat compared to the long term averages. And Studies found that no matter how you smoke cigarettes, vaping or waterpipes. It's still really bad for your body a report in the European hot. Journal has confirmed that all forms of smoking stiffened. Arteries causes inflammation and damage. DNA and this leads to a variety of health problems, including increasing the risk of being faked with Covid, nineteen suffering were symptoms and a greater likelihood of dying from it. The authors say quitting completely is still the most effective way to hold heart and lung issues down the line. And you study was that kids with certain sleeping problems in childhood, maybe at a higher risk of developing psychosis and borderline personality disorder in adolescence, the findings reported in the Journal of the American medical. Association based on a study of thirty thousand children over thirteen years, and the authors found that kids work more frequently at night at eight months of age and kids who have less regular sleep routines at six months thirty months, and nearly six years of age or also more likely to develop psychosis in their teens. They also found that those is slippery shorter time period at night. Those who had laid a bedtime at three and a half years of age also tend to show higher rates of borderline personality disorder symptoms. The authors say the findings could help identify kids might be at high risk of psychosis and could lead to sleep divisions that may even prevent the onset of these mental disorders. And you study has found that humans invented string at least one hundred and twenty thousand years ago, a report of the Journal plus one found that modern humans were collecting perforated cockle shells, and then wearing them on strings around their necks at least that far back in antiquity. The naturally perforated shows were found in a cave in Israel but work at exactly how win they were used researches collected new shows, and then simulated the different way patents against liver, sandstone and string then compare these patents with original shells. They found that the way patents on the simulated shelves from contact with a string as well as from show to show contact was the closest match suggesting that shows were hung close together on a string. The scientists say this suggests that string making technology probably I developed sometime between one hundred sixty and hugging twenty thousand years ago. Which I guess means have now tied at all up in a nice neat though. And that's the show and now space-time is broadcast on science own radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC, and through both IHEART radio, and on Tunin Radio, or you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple. STITCHER BITES DOT COM PUCCA cast soundcloud, spotify, YouTube audio, boom Pud beam, android, cast, box front space time with Stewart, Gary Dot com, or from your favorite download podcasts provider. You can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the space time online shop. Shop, and grabbing yourself a few goodies, or by becoming a space time, Patriot which gives you access to commercial free double episode, versions of the show as well as burners, audio content, and other awards just go to a patriarch page to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details. If you want more space, time our blog where you'll find all the stuff, we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images, news, stories, videos, and things on the web I find interesting or amusing. Just, go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot TAMLA DOT COM. That's all one word in lower case, and that's Tamba. Without the it can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through our space time youtube channel on facebook. Just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary. Space Time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian Sky Telescope magazine Your Window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from BITES DOT com.
Southern Launchs First Flight's a Big Success
"Love this podcast support this show through the ACOSS. Support, of HR. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is based on series twenty-three Episode Ninety Nine for broadcast on the twenty third of September twenty, twenty coming up on space time the first flights from Southern Launches Australian Rock Arrange two, hundred and sixty three new near Earth objects detected over the past month and another successful test. The SPACEX is latest starship prototype test article all that and more coming up on space. Time. To Space Time We'd Stupid Gary Southern launches undertaking its first flights from its new rocket test range in West and south. Australia. The successful missions launched to space capable rockets within two hours of each other on sub orbital ballistic trajectories from the Connecticut Test Range forty kilometers north of said, Juna the successful flights full at a technical issue during an initial launch attempt earlier in the week, which resulted in an engine ignition misfire. Launches carried electronic warfare payloads for strain defense, contracting, D. WC systems the tests payloads rich equipped with a miniature suite of antennas, sensors, and communications equipment. The flight profiles require the payloads to be deployed Minton six seconds after launch at an altitude of sixty five kilometers, and then continuing the penalty to an APP. Achieve Eighty five kilometers before intercepting signals from especially position radar setup down range the payloads. Carried out their readings during the descent phase of each flied a safely parachuting back to the ground some ninety five kilometers north of the launch pad thirty minutes and twenty five seconds after the blast off the flight. So suggested how will the delicate electronics of each payload survive the rigors and sixty jig celebration forces off the launch for these first test flights southern launch utilize the new t minors darts. To states sounding rocket developed in the Netherlands, the unusual three point four meter long thirty four kilogram need like rockets using a chlorate composite solid fuel propellant Anna designed to accelerate a payload to Mac five point two in just six seconds reaching out at us over one hundred and twenty kilometres. The Test Range is designed to allow companies to both test and retrieve their launch vehicles and payloads after each flight in order to examine how the equipment perform during the mission gleaning information. That can't be censored telemetry southern over launches, which were also to begin this year will take place from the company's Wail as way launch complex on the peninsula twenty seven kilometers south west of Port Lincoln though then fly over the great southern ocean primarily on polar orbits. This space time still the come two, hundred and sixty three new near-earth objects detected over the past month and another successful test flight space is new stash prototype all that and more still to come on space time. The latest data from the European Space Agency's near Earth. Objects Coordination Center, indicate there now at least twenty, three, thousand, four, hundred, twenty, three asteroids and one hundred and eleven comments on orbits which are the Cross or at least bring them close to Earth's orbit around the Sun. In fact, astronomers have discovered three hundred and fifty more near Earth objects so far this year than what they detected over the same period last year, it brings the total number of near Earth objects discovered since January two, one, thousand, seven, hundred, and forty, including some two, hundred and sixty three over the past month alone. Let's just hope. It's a case of getting better at finding them rather than there being more them out they as we reported last month at least one of those near-earth Objects Got Awfully close asteroid twenty, twenty q Jeez down to around three thousand kilometers about the Indian. Ocean in the hours before it was discovered by the Vicki Transient Facility Observatory, this flies now officially classified as the closest impacting asteroid ever observed even though we only it after its nearest approach studying asteroids and comets when they need the earth, allow scientists to better understand these potential harbingers of doom as country scientists, classic goods from the European Space Agency explains. Scientists that the European Space Agency ice studied comments and how they interact with the space around them. What is CONTA- small objects in our solar system. They usually just a couple kilometers in diameter is about the size of the chores small city. And made up off ice and thus. This. Ice and dust is very, very loosely Pam so There's a lot of small spaces in between this means the density is quite low. So if you had a really big bathtub, the comet would actually flottant. Also have very small garment tation of coal. So you jump on a comet. Just a little bit. You would just vote away. Comics have all kinds of shapes. Most of the ones that we've seen aw kind of potato shaped. They hurt through our solar system at speed about a thousand times faster than you can go into car. So this about one to one hundred kilometers per second. And the ones that we know most are. Those go closer to the sun. there. The comment heats up because of the sunlight on its office and the Isis become a gas and leaves a compensate stunned into space. And this causes the gases to be accelerated away from the comment, which then forms A. And this is what most comments are known for some of these tales of so bright that by just looking at the night sky with a small telescope by clueless, you can actually observe these tales yourself. Where do you come come from? About four, billion years ago, our solar system didn't exist none of the planets. Formed. There was just a giant Nebula around the sun that was made up of Iceland. And the planets then sought to slowly form and started to collect the NEBULA around him. But small rocky beginnings of comments also. And They Very. Very slowly collide to get some of them continue to grow and became moons and planets but some of them were just small didn't grow much further and eventually they moved out at to the edge of solar. System. It saying planets or even a passing galaxy from outside. Our solar system can give from leading tiny push and they start to journey back into our solar system Neha, the planets and near up, and this is where we can observe comments as well because these comments pass up until then had a very quiet and undisturbed life. They haven't been heated up by the done. They have very small gravitation though they're not compressed by gravitation and that means that these comments on. The left office that we can observe from? Their formation of. Our. Solar System. They can tell the story of what this formation period this time whether climates. Whom tend the moon surround? Them actually looked like so we can understand how the solar system was made by looking at carts. Can we visit a comment? Yes. Well not we ourselves but we can send little robots space. To the comet to observe it for us the fast major comet that we were able to observe with spacecraft was comet Halley in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, six. It was visited by a fleet of little robots from all over the world from the United States from Russia from Japan and also from your. They observed the comet but only very briefly, they couldn't stay. That's much too difficult for such fast communist Halley. Parts they flew by in a couple of hours and they collected all the data that we can then is this helped us see what commits look like the shape. And what the dust is like that surrounded. By the scientists wanted to study a comment in more detail and over a long time to see how it. Evolves from being very far away from the sun to bury close to the sun. So in two thousand, fourteen, the European mission was actor arrived at Comet Sixty seven P or your mantra Sankoh. And it was able to stay there for two years. Abs Up the comet and its surroundings. And Rosetta Little Sibling Fillet even landed on the comet and took pictures just a couple of centimeters from the surface. This is quite an achievement for a little spacecraft that's just the size of a washing machine. At the end of the coming decade. So at the end of the twenty, twenty s we're GONNA launch. Another commentary mission is called competent to sector and it will be the first spacecraft ever to fly by a comet that has just come from the edge of our solar system. This mission will tell us how comets change as they approach the sun and it will help us understand our own planet and how the solar system. That's. From the European Space Agency and this is space time. Still the come another successful test for SPACEX, his stash it prototype, and later in the science report, you claims that covid nineteen really was invented in the Chinese government laboratory all that and more still to come on space time. And Let's take a break from ash show for word from our sponsor named Dot Com. As their slogan says search and by the Mainz from named shape at the lowest prices. Now, this is the service that team it bites dot com use the by manage Outta may names and we're really happy with the service support and value we're getting buying the right demet name shouldn't be hard and with name shape, we're found it to be anything but that and you can find your dream domain and join over two million happy customers when you registered with name shape trusted with well over ten million Maine's you'll know you're in safe hands when it comes to turning your website ID, interest. And they've got some excellent tools to help you find the right name, the handy search engine well, do he's topping desired name, cross your fingers and press search, and if what you want so ready gone, it does happen sometimes they'll come up with some great alternative ideas and if you're looking for some new inspiration, try the new website domain name find peace mode. It'll help you discover thousands of names fast with found their prices to be excellent management tools intuitive and the reason to us with excellent customer support if you need it all in. All a great experience all around if you're looking to pick up a domain name or two. So why not check them out and help support our show at the same time just visit Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot com forward slash name cheap. That's base time with Stewart Gary Dot com forward slash name cheap and name cheapies. One word you'll find the you are all details in the show notes on our website just visit the support page that Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot com forward slash named jeep, and now it's back to our show. You're listening to spend time with Stewart. Gary. SPACEX has successfully conducted six test flight of a prototype test article. For Elon, Musk's long dreamed of starship interplanetary transport as with the previous test a month ago the Yes in six flights saw the prototype lime to Ajit of one hundred, fifty maters before safely returned to Earth Musk, says the latest test up was however smoother and more controlled if each of the next few months go as smoothly. Yep. Still undertake the first orbital flight of stash next. Year. Once operational, the two stage reusable launch system will be capable of transporting one hundred and fifty tons of people in Chicago orbit and one hundred tons on missions to the Moon Mas and on interplanetary journeys across the solar system. It would ultimately replace basics is existing Falcon nine and Falcon heavy launch systems as well as the dragon capshaw with Moscow already touting stash into to NASA to transport cargo to the surface of the moon this space. Time. anti-matter. Take a brief look at some of the other stories making using scientist week with the science report a scientist who studied the initial of the covid nineteen pandemic in China says the deadly virus, which is now cured almost a million people infected around thirty million others was invented in the laboratory by the Chinese government. Just, Dr Liming Yang who was forced to flee China in April has reported her findings on the open access digital platforms and Odoardo. Yang had been working at the Hong Kong Universities Public Health Laboratory scientists division a World Health, organization. Infectious. Diseases Research. Center, she says, her findings were deliberately suppressed by the Chinese government and she was ordered to only report cases that could be linked to the Wuhan wet markets. Yang's paper is titled unusual features of the size Kobe to genome suggesting sophisticated laboratory modification rather than natural evolution and delineation of its probable synthetic route paper was co authored by three other doctors specializing for all. Yank includes the a piece of being created in a laboratory over six month period and shows biological characteristics inconsistent with the naturally occurring synodic virus. Now, this contradicts reports in the journal Nature which conclude the deadly size curvy to virus, which causes covid nineteen probably originated in Chinese horseshoe bats is the thirteen virus before mutating naturally and then jumping from animals to humans possibly through an intermediary at the Wuhan went markets near where. The first human case was recorded on November Seventeenth Twenty nineteen that yen insists that the natural origin theory though widely accepted lack substantial support alternative hypotheses suggest the virus was naturally occurring that escaped from the Wuhan Institute of Raji Research Laboratory, Judy poor security protocols. Another hypothesis is that it was released accidentally when an underpaid Warren Institute of lab worker sold infected research animals to the local wet markets in order to supplement their income. Whatever the truth we now know that the Chinese government and the World Health Organization, covered up the initial outbreak in November December of Twenty nineteen despite the high number of fatalities recorded the Wuhan epicenter and wall Beijing Band people in we'll hand from traveling to other parts of China it continued allowing them to freely travel overseas spreading the deadly infection globally doctors. And journalists to report the outbreak arrested by the Chinese Communist. Party with many other mysteriously dying or disappearing at the same time. The Chinese government ordered Chinese companies globally to begin buying up any and all available supplies of anti drugs and ventilator machines, as well as gloves, masks, whisperers, and other personal protective equipment shipping it all back to China by the container load. A massive one, hundred, ten square kilometres chunk of greenland ice cap is broken off in the fine northeast an Arctic a report by the National Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland says the event is further evidence of the worsening impact of rapid climate change. The glacier section that broke off measures some eighty kilometers long by twenty kilometers wide scientists say the show is now lost some one hundred and sixty square kilometers since nineteen, ninety nine. And he study warns that the death of a family pit can trigger a sense of grief in kids that is profound and prolonged and can potentially lead to subsequent mental health issues. The findings by scientists that Massachusetts General, hospital and reported in the Journal of European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry shows that the strong emotional attachment youngsters have the pets can result in measurable psychological distress, which can serve as an indicator for depression in children and adolescents for up to three or more years after the loss of beloved family pet these days about half of all homes in developed countries have at least one. Family usually either a dog or a cat and researchers found that the bonds that children for with pets can equate to secure human relationships in terms of providing affection, protection and reassurance. The simple fact is the death of a much of family pet is likely to be one of the first major losses a child will encounter in their lives. Scientists found that sixty three percent of children will be exposed to the death of a loved family pit within the first seven years of a child's life, and while this teaches kids about the circle of life, it can be traumatic with long lasting effects. Scientists have used DNA analysis to show that the Vikings who pundit in pillaged Britain originally came from Denmark all those who attacked Ireland Iceland Greenland would from no way the findings were reported in the journal Nature also showed that Swedish ragging sell their long birds Eastwood's towards the Baltic states the study analyzed DNA, from four hundred, forty, two ancient humans across Europe in Greenland covering the bronze. Age. From two thousand, four, hundred BC through to the early modern period of around sixteen hundred eighty that scientists also found traffic wasn't one way with many viking age individuals both within and outside Scandinavia having high levels of non Scandinavian ancestry which suggests movement and interbreeding across Europe. It's been revealed that the imagined threats of five telecommunications and now starting to cause real world attacks on Silva Towers Amelie. The latest evidence that virtual disinformation is leading to actual violence. Tim Mendham from restraint skeptic says a new report by the Reuters Institute for the Study of journalism at the University of Oxford as found that celebrities, politicians and other public figures account for around twenty percent of all disinformation about issues like five gene credit virus. There are a lot of people who are concerned about fifth generation telecommunications. You mentioned the word radiation. LATE GET WORRIED Yeah he was sort of a basic misunderstanding that radiation covers a multitude of scenes from the sun goes from the earth from anywhere in telecommunications. The radiation being made today is what's called non ionizing radiation. So it doesn't have an effect on bodily Cox Cetera housing radiation does that's the x ray part of the spectrum, and that's certainly coast damage as we have been over communication stuff comes down low in the ways links if you'd like and therefore not as concerned. But obviously people just react to the turn radiation am I instantly assume that going to be harmful to them on the issues with five G. telecommunications is that you need a lot more antennas because it's weaker same transmit antennas around the place and getting people worried because I think the more you have the stronger the signal, what's not making out for a week signal and it's basically most stronger estate November. Four Jay which has been around for a long time but there's Some people They Danka any further than signed the word radiation, and that's enough and of course, some of them are taking it price thing GonNa straight some of them taking more extreme burning them telecommunications towers if good case actually recently in in one of the New South, Wales, Rachel towns. was complaining about how it was affecting her really badly hill couldn't sleep problems run until I. was actually no five G. Transmitter in the area. So she was loved that Caraba. Like to what was going on That I don't think she did. Like quietly. Planning something else any other the microwave the high tension powerlines thing who knows but not at choose blaming five and sorry definitely not the case we'll see. I guess the other issue here is people are still blending five Jay full nineteen you they are here so. A lot of things are being blamed for nineteen interesting things. They've had been campaigns about five G. Anti Vaccination Taivon between issues one particular campaign of protests, Machos. Yes. Speeches and things in Melbourne was saying that five G. is causing ivars kind of nineteen. The next speaker said, Kinda Dante didn't exist. It's really. Slots. Like obviously caught. That it didn't matter. 'cause you think onto, they have a multitude of of climbs which. Thing contradictory and that don't don't even really and the other issue is, of course, a drags an old the people who are anti anti that the government conspiracy people the anti vaccination people you'll find that at a five jay practice much. It'll be a lot of other people coach telling on each other stayed on each other with a sense of paranoia and conspiracy. Feel strong which makes them feel that they cause more justified. That's minimum from Australian skeptics. And that's Now. space-time is broadcast on science own radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and through birth I, heart radio and tune in radio or you can subscribe and download. Space Time is a free podcast through apple stitcher. BITES DOT COM. PUCCA CAST soundcloud spotify. Youtube. audio boom pub Beim, android cashbox from space time with Stewart. Gary Dot com off from your favorite download podcast provider. You can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time Patriot, which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as Burns audio content and other awards. Just go to a patriarch page through Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details. If you want more space time check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff. We couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images, news stories, videos, and things on the web I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot, Tamla Dot com that's all one word and in lower case, and that's tumbler without the aid. It can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at space, time with Stewart Gary on instagram through. Space Time Youtube, channel on facebook just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine, Your Window on the Universe You've been listening to space time with Stewart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from bites. Dot Com.
Detecting Exotic Quark-Gluon Plasma
"This is space time series. Twenty-three episode forty five for broadcast on the thirteenth of May. Twenty twenty coming up space time using colliding neutron stars to detect sonic flow. Plasma Jovian cloud like bans discovered on the nearest brown dwarf earth and Ariane six appears to be still on-track for a maiden flight this year all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. You computer modeling suggested that an exotic substance nuts quack low on plasma which is generated by merging neutron stars could be detected through gravitational waves. Plasmas the substance which showed the entire universe during the first few seconds after the Big Bang. Thirteen point eight billion years ago from roughly ten to the miners tended into the at six seconds after creation and before the formation of matter as we know it today it's composed of quarks which are a of elementary particles that make up protons neutrons they can usually be found in the nucleus of atoms. And on which are another ellen. She particle which axes a gauge bows on for the strong nuclear force between quarks which also binds the atomic nucleus together. Quite Lou on plasma has been recreated in Paddock accelerator collisions on earth. And it's previously been hypothesized as existing at the sense of neutron stars. You try and stars are the densest objects in the universe out of black holes. They created with massive stars far bigger than the sun explode as core collapse SUPERNOVA. These events are so powerful they crush the electrons and protons that up. Adam's it was sort of a training fluid. The end result is an object somewhere around one and a half times. The massive at one point four million kilometers wide son crash down to an almost perfect sphere just twenty kilometers across when to Neutron Stars. Clyde at merge they usually collapsed the former stellar mass black hole that alternatively if the masses just right they could former hype a massive neutron star in which matter and the core the new object become so incredibly hot and dense it dissolves any remaining neutrons and protons into the component quacks and glue ones thus producing a quack low on plasma back in two thousand seventeen it was discovered for the first time that merging neutron stars dot gravitational wave signals which can be detected on earth this signal not only provides information on the nature of gravity but also on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions however when these gravitational waves were first discovered in two thousand seventeen they weren't recorded beyond the merging point. And that's where this new study reported in the Journal. Physical Review It is comes in the study's authors simulated merging neutron stars and the product of that merger to explore the sorts of conditions under which transition from hedren such as protons and neutrons into a quack. Lou on plasma would take place and how that would affect the corresponding gravitatational wave. The simulation produced a quack lou on plasma and it lifted clear and characteristic gravitational wave signature. The study's lead author Luciana resulted from. Goethe University claims that compared to previous simulations this new gravitational wave signature was clear and easy to detect so the same thing would occur in a row gravitational wave received from future neutron style merges. It will be clear evidence for the creation of low on plasma in the present universe. This space time. Still to come Jovian Light. Cloud bands discovered on our nearest. Brown dwarf neighbor and despite the global covered nineteen corona virus pandemic Ariane. Six is still on track for its maiden flight this year all that and much more still to come on. Space Time. Astronomers have discovered that the nearest brown after earth has cloud bands similar to those seen around. Jupiter Brown dwarfs failed stars. That don't have enough mass to trigger the core nuclear fusion process which makes regular stars like our sun shine instead they fill the gap between the largest planets which around thirty times the mass of Jupiter and the smallest stars known Spectra Type Red Dwarfs which are around seventy five to eighty times the mass of Jupiter. Or if you prefer zero point zero eight Solo mashes astronomers studying. The Brown Dwarf Loom in sixteen a observed cloud bands similar those seen on cheater seven. It's the first time. Scientists views the technical plora metric to determine the properties of atmospheric clouds outside our solar system women sixteen as part of a binary system containing a second brown to offer sixteen bay at a distance of six point. Five light years. It's the third nearest system to the sun. After Alpha Centauri Bhanot Star each of the two Brad doors in the system has about thirty times of Jupiter. Despite the fact that lumine sixteen eighty six hundred birth have similar masses similar surface temperatures of about a thousand degrees Celsius and presumably both formed at the same time. They have remarkably different weather. Systems Ltd. Sixteen B shows no signs of any stationary cloud bands instead exhibiting evidence of more irregular patchy clouds and this means lumine sixty be has very noticeable brightness variations as a result of its cloudy phages. Research is used an instrument on the very large telescope in Chile to study polarized light from the lemon sixteen system polarization property of light that represents the direction of the light wave oscillation. It's the same principle employed by polarized sunglasses. The blackout one direction of polarization juicing glare and improving contrast but instead of trying to block out the way and this study the astronomers were measuring it. You see when lots reflected of particles such cloud droplets it can favor a certain angle of polarization and by measuring preferred polarization of light from the distant system. The author could determine the presence of clouds. Even though they couldn't directly resolve either Brown does cloud structure to work. Exactly what the light catch on. Its Way through the Brown dwarfs atmosphere they can pay their observations with a range of models of Brown dwarf atmospheres. Such is ones with solid cloud. Dick's ones with St Cloud. Bands and even Brown dwarfs that are Blade Judah there faster tation and the authors found that only models of brand with atmospheres with cloud bands match the observations. They were getting from lumine. Sixteen a this a space time still to come Iran six on track for its maiden flight this year and later in the science report warnings that cell phones could be acting as Trojan horses for Corona Virus. All that and more still to come on space time. Let's take a break from our show for word from our sponsor express. Vpn rated number one by Tick Raider. You may be wondering why you need a virtual private network. Well it's in the name. It's all about privacy. You Really Want Big Brother. Tech companies hackers governments and who knows who else knew ping in on your online activities. Now you might not have anything to hide but it's still really creepy and it could be dangerous for you and there's you care about also. How often do you run across a website and you want to get information from it but you find out that the GEO blocked? It's all very frustrating and it's becoming an increasing problem and that's where express. Vpn can help you express VPN's simple and efficient way to protect your online privacy. It's intimate with our borders from the world's leading VPN provider so. Protect Your online privacy today and find out how you can get three months free at express. Vpn DOT com slash space? That's try express. Vpn DOT com slash space for three months free with a one year package visit try express VPN DOT com slash space to learn more. And of course you'll find the link details in the show notes and on our website. That's try express. Vpn DOT com slash space? And now it's back to our show. You're listening to spend time with Stewart Gerry. Well the Speidel a setbacks being caused by Global Covet Nineteen Corona virus pandemic maiden flight at the European Space Agency's new Ariane six rocket is still slated to take place before the end of this year launching thirty small one way broadband satellites into orbit the new Ariane six heavy lift launcher which will replace the existing Ariane five rocket has taken a workforce of over six hundred companies from thirteen European nations including three hundred fifty small and medium size enterprises to find in the design and start spacecraft production at the same time the European Space Agency's being completing final touches to its new Ariane six vehicle assembly building and launch complex at the spaceport in French Guiana. The new Ariane six core stage would be powered by upgraded Vulcan two point one version of the existing Ariane five vulcan two main engine still burning liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen depending on payload requirements attached to the core stage will be either two or four strap on page one solid rocket boosters. The same boost is used as the core stage than you Vegas launch vehicle. Also on the go. It's men flat this year. You walk into on engine will help repel around six. During the first ten minutes of flight up to an altitude of around two hundred kilometers delivering one hundred thirty five tonnes thrust already to complete I. On six launch vehicles one for ground tests to crew and the second rem six two for the maiden flight have now been completed and work is continuing on the first series production batch of fourteen. Ariane six launches sled it to fly between twenty and twenty one and twenty twenty three. Then you launch vehicle. We'll have a new upper stage using the new Vinci. Reignited liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen engine. Which will also sure. The upper stage will deorbit following payload placement. The idea being to reduce the amount of space junk up there. Meanwhile a new state. He's encompassing materials that is furthest is also currently under development this report from act in the forest of Lamps House. Nash stood God lies. The German Aerospace Agencies Institute of Space Propulsion over the last forty years. Nearly all the liquid propulsion engines of every version of the Ariane launch vehicle. I've been tested here. And he says new Ariane six is no exception with its maiden flight in sight. Many of its components are being checked here to accommodate this new vehicle. Several of the tests facilities have been modified so for the moment we have the P. Four P. for one which is a high altitude test facility where we have made already the development and qualification testing of the Wind Vinci engine and we have the P. Fife Which is testing currently the main stage and she came to point one for the Sikhs and we are now in the process of receiving of accepting the new test facility for the upper stage which is called the p five to five point. Two facility is new and has been specially build to test Iran sixes stage. It looks like launch pad complete with different floors in the tower similar to the ones at Europe's spaceport infringe Kiana operations inside. This facility are monitored from a central control room after final preparations at countdown marks. The start of the test just like an actual rocket launch the Ariane six upper stage incorporates vinci. Reignite. -able rocket engine. This reignition is a key feature adding versatility to Ariane six missions. While this engine has already been hot fire tested it's essential to also understand the overall behavior of the whole APAs stage before Ariane six is maiden flight in development over launcher system launch system. You want to test the stages say in the most cruel causes condition to the flight one so we want to have a real stage taste not just an giant which is performed in now test bench cross by here at the Ariane six upstate stage testament all aspects of the flight assimilated such as the preparation of the stage and also the flight itself. It's important to know how the upper stage behaves when the VINCI engine is running the upcoming launch of Ariane six generates a lot of activity here in Lampoldshausen but also in factories and Research Santa's all over Europe and of course in Kourou where a massive launchpad is being built will the development of Ariane six. The approaches new design and manufacturing are done almost in parallel an important task for ISA and European Industry the difficulty ovarian six the challenge of an is also given by this And we know that we have a little bit more than five years to build old launch system and to qualify the older launch system. And this is a real interesting kind of challenge that we have because we have to. Coordinate synchronize mainly developments at the same time despite this tight schedule the many parallel bills and developments. Isa and industry accepted the challenge to develop this launch system in only five years from Kourou to lamps house and the development of Ariane six continues at full speed in order to offer a competitive launch vehicle for the commercial market while at the same time. Securing Europe's independent access to space and that report for me. Tv featured Anne Frank Head of Facilities Department with the German Space Agency de la and the European Space Agency's I six launch systems architect manager. Pierre Dominica arrester meanwhile aces director space transportation. Daniel Schwender says Iran sixers development is continuing with future advances to be installed as they become ready. This includes the new police upper stage as well as similar improvements for the VEGAS CEELO and system development is going full speed ahead which does not mean that. You're not face some challenges of course by a I'm happy to report that Rn Sixty is going ahead. Full speed. And in addition to that and I think that's a key aspect is that industry just now started. Production of a fourteen launchers are on six reignition of the upper stage allows you to deploy constellations in different planes. It allows you to increase the versatility of launcher for different missions. Also for escape missions for exploration they are already thinking about the evolution of Ariane. Six and Vegas see those launchers They will be a dedicated focus on the upper stages of post launchers in terms of engines in terms offer of structure to be adapted because at the end of the day see lost state or the upper stage is a one which will deliver satellite or satellites plural in orbit and. This is where a number of a flexible aspect can people in so we are keen to work on this standing neuenschwander director of space transportation. Meanwhile we're across more than six hundred paperless being finishing construction of the new Ariane six launch complex in Karoo the massive launchpad some twenty eight point five meters deep and two hundred meters wide required. Some wanted to sixty seven thousand five hundred cubic meters of concrete at enough to fill sixty seven Olympic sized swimming pools one of the key components the seven hundred tons launched table that will support the Arian six launch as now also assembled and position on the launchpad this massive structure so big. It arrived in several separate paths by ship and was then welded together and fitted with some of its equipment at a preparation site that Tundra and fifty meters from the launchpad moving this massive structure into its permanent position at center. Launchpad was a complex procedure. I A temporary row. I had to be built hydraulic. Jacks installed and mechanical guidance system used to roll the giant four meter. High 20-meter-long eighteen made a wide table into position. Once it was positioned exactly over the center of the ped- It was then loaded with millimeter precision into its final position or its mechanical hydraulic and electrical equipment. Were installed also now in place. The eight thousand two hundred ten mobile gantry which will storm protect Ariane six until it's retracted. About five hours before its launch this space time still to come. The science report including one is that cell phones could be acting as Trojan horses for Corona Virus and logging founder. Vada profound effect on this. She's catastrophic bushfires all that and more still to come on space time anti-matter take another brief. Look at some of the other stories making inside this week with a science report. Scientists have conducted review of seven studies. Which looked at using the drug hydroxy clerk went? That's the one touted by us. President Donald Trump finding it really is worthy of further study as a treatment took over nineteen. A report in the Journal of Medical Rollie found. The drug may help he's favor and one suggested it may help people's cuffs clear up as well of raw they've found the drug also appeared to slow the progression of lung disease but there was no evidence that it can actually cure curve. Nineteen clear up all the symptoms in a significant way or save lives and you study warns that phones could be acting as Trojan horses for Corona Virus. And it's urged the billions of users of mobile phones worldwide to decontaminate the devices daily research by scientists that Bond University reviewed fifty six independent studies from twenty four countries finding that Franz actually host a staggering cocktail of live viruses and bacteria the systematic review which actually predates the current curve in Nineteen pandemic found Gordon Staff and a coli microbes were among the most common bugs on the phones the authors reporting in the Journal of Travel Medicine Infectious Disease. Say Cell phones. Touchscreens are sort of like five star. Hotels bugs providing safe temperature controlled environments and a free buffet for microbes thrive on their anyone with a cell phone to decontaminate the device daily. And you study is shown that logging of native forests increases the risk and severity of wildfires. And very likely had a profound effect on the recent catastrophic bushfires. The findings reported in the Journal Nature. Come in the wake of Australia's worst farce FIS in recorded history. The devastating bushfires could at least thirty four people destroyed more than six thousand buildings including two thousand seven hundred and seventy nine homes burnt out some one hundred eighty six thousand square kilometers and killed more than one and a half billion animals including many highly endangered species. Paleontologists have identified the first complete skeleton of a Gondwana therion a badger like mammal which lived on the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana. The seventy million-year-old fossils were discovered in Madagascar at one thousand nine hundred ninety nine it's been named Aldo Theorem hooey from the mallaig se would meaning crazy and the Greek word for beast. That's because phages distinctively on the Malian large hole at the top of the snout forums which are aligned with the spine typical of a mammal while it's back legs more spayed out like a reptile. The crazy beasted previously been described from a few pieces of jaws teeth and skull. The new more complete discovery reported in the Journal. Nature provides a far more complete picture and a piece to represent a young and all around three point one kilograms making it among the largest none of the era which was dominated by the dinosaurs or say their larger size is likely to be g to evolving in isolation on the island of Madagascar Iran has unveiled a new KHURANA virus detector. The problem is it looks almost identical to the fake bomb detectors. Tehran was flogging. A few years ago. Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard May General Hussein. Salamis is promoting the device claiming. It's an amazing scientific. Hightech marvel capable of detecting corona virus. In just a few seconds from a distance of one hundred meters he says as there's no need for blood tests or putting health workers in any potential danger of infection but the thing is the same device devices previously been flogged by the Iranian government's Islamic Revolution regard as a bomb detector as advice able to sniff out fuel smugglers detect people with AIDS and even find lost golf balls back in the days when this device is being pushed as a bomb detector Iran managed to scam millions of dollars from gullible governments across the Middle East and this fire aways Thailand in two thousand thirteen. The Egyptian government pushed a similar device claiming it was a tool for detecting hepatitis. The gadgets now being called the six fifty one. I'm sure as a special offer if you buy it today. You'll get a set of steak knives. Plus Block of apartments and Tasmania. And that's the show for now. Space-time is broadcast on radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through both IHEART radio and tune in radio or you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple. Stitcher BITES DOT COM Puckett cast soundcloud spotify YouTube audio. Boom boom android cashbox from space-time with Steve With Gary Dot com or from your favorite download. Podcasts provider you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time patron which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burners already content and other awards. Just go to patriarch page through Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details if you want more space time check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images news stories videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot TAMLA DOT COM. That's all one word and in lower case. And that's Tumbler. Without the it can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through our space time youtube channel and on facebook just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space. Time with Stewart. Gary space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine. Your window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart. Gary this has been another quality. Podcast PRODUCTION FROM BITES DOT com.
Why the Universe Exists
"This is space time series. Twenty three episode thirty nine for broadcast on the twenty ninth of April. Twenty twenty coming up on space time the strongest evidence yet that you traders explain why the universe exists a possible second planet detected orbiting Proxima Centauri and chips. Begins IT Scientific Mission? All that and more coming up on Space Time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. The difference between Neutrinos and the antimatter counterparts may provide scientists with the best evidence yet to explain why the universe exists when our universe came into existence. Thirty point eight billion years ago equal amounts of matter and antimatter created. The problem is when matter anti Madame eight they knowledge each other and serve. The universe should have exploded in a sudden flash of GAMMA ray energy virtually at formed. But clearly it didn't and despite all their efforts scientists can't explain why in fact it's become one of those ultimate questions that humanity ponders. Why are we here? And then if you're a scientist the immediate follow on question Scott to be. Why don't we live in a universe dominated by matter rather than antimatter after all the difference between matter and antimatter is charge or is it? The current laws of physics can't explain why matter persists ready matter why the universe is made of the stuff. The Best Physicists. Have been come up with is suggesting that they've got to be some sort of differences in the way matter and Eddie. Meta behave which can explain. Why Mattis persisted and that dominates the universe now. New dater is thrown more support behind the hypothesis. That neutrinos reason the universe is dominated by matter. See every particle of matter as an antimatter. Quivalent and you train is different than antimatter. Equivalent called the Anti Neutrogena. They should be exact opposites and they've properties and behavior which is what makes them and now at each other contact but now a report of the journal Nature Claims and international team of researchers which make up the teacher K. Collaboration have found the strongest evidence. Yet fitness trainers anti-chavez behave differently and therefore may not what each other out one of the study's authors Patrick June from Imperial College. London says the findings bring science closer than ever before to answering that. Fundamental Question of why matter exists in the universe if confirmed June says at the moment is over ninety five percent sure it will have profound implications for physics and should point the way to a better understanding of how the universe evolved. Previously scientists have found differences in the behavior between matter. Antimatter versions of Subatomic particles called quarks. But the differences observed Farren quacks. Don't seem to be anywhere near large. Enough to account for the dominance of matter in the universe however T to occasion you results. Indicate differences in the behavior of neutrinos eighty trainers appear to be quite large like quarks neutrinos fundamental particles but unlike quarks which make up. Pretty well everything. You train is very weakly interactive with mobile matter in fact there so weekly interactive that around fifty trillion neutrinos from the sun passing through your body right now with that you even noticing them you trainers. In the anti-neutrino counterparts h come in three types flavors electrons neons and towers. It's they travel. They can oscillate or change from one flavor to another evidence that neutrinos oscillate into electron neutrinos was first discovered by the T two K EXPERIMENT. Back in twenty thirteen to get the new resort. The authors find beams of me on you trainers anti neutrinos from the J. Pack Facility at Tokyo and Japan and detected how many electron neutrinos and anti neutrinos arrived. Did the Super Kenya Candy Detector. Two hundred ninety five kilometers away. They look for differences in how the neutrinos and neutrinos change flavor. Finding that you. Trina appear to be far more likely to change than any trainers now. The new results aren't the complete at a yet. But they're big step towards finding that answer. And of course there are still many more questions about these strange elemental particles that need to be answered in order to get the full picture. Such as what are the rule masses of the different flavor? Neutrinos in fact do they all have mass. And what about the mind-blowing idea that neutrinos may actually be their own anti particles? This is space time. Still the COM- astronomers pick up some tantalizing clues about the possibility of a second planet opening proximus and nearest neighboring star system. The European Space Agency's chips mission successfully completes three months of in orbit commissioning. And he's now ready to begin. Its science mission. All that and much more still come on space time. The strongest of received some tantalizing clues about a possible second planet opening Proxima sensory our nearest neighboring star system a report in the journal Astronomy and astrophysics and on the pre prescription dot archive dot org claims that a signal. Possibly from potential new planetary candidate Proxima see has been picked up using the doppler shift. Radio Velocity or wobble method the Doppler. Shift radial velocity method. Uses the detection of an episode of slight wobbling a host star course by the gravity of an orbiting planet Proxima Centauri is a spiritual type? Im- RED DWARF STAR with about one seventh diameter and a bed and ate the mass of the sun located some four point. Two three light years away. It's part of the office story. Triple star system orbiting the two other thousand system after Centauri A and B at an average distance of about zero point. Two one light years. Scientists have long speculated about the possibility of other planets orbiting Proxima Centauri ever since two thousand sixteen discovery of the First Planet Proxima B. Nearest exit planetary neighbor that confirmation was made by astronomers using the European Southern Observatory in Chile also employing the wobble method Proxima B. has about one point three times mass of the earth and its Proxima Centauri at an average distance of just zero point zero five astronomical units. That's about seven and a half million kilometers. Which is in the habitable zone the region around a star where temperatures would allow liquid water essential life as we know it to pool on the surface of a terrestrial planet by the way and astronomical unit is the average distance between the earth and the sun about one hundred and fifty million kilometres or eight point three light minutes the first hints of a possible second planet opening Proxima Centauri surfaced in radio velocity observations taken in January from the extra fiscal observatory of children by astronomer. Mario Damasio but that data wasn't clear enough for any firm confirmation. It seems to suggest a second planet much further out than Proxima B. possibly around one point four eight astronomical units says D'Amato together with Flo Astronomer Rafael Grant and from the Astronomical Observatory Padova decided to search for more evidence by looking through the four years via infrared server planet or shine. Data's IT shine us. The European Southern Observatory's very large telescopes veer or speaker parametric high contrast exoplanet research instrument to hunt for exoplanets the authors attempted to separate out the faint hints of a signal from planet. All the noise in the background stars and as they did so they kept getting the same spic not enough punditry detection but also likely to be caused by simply random noise alone now if the spike is a planet it somewhere around seven point two eight point six times the mass of the Earth. So it's a super earth depending on how the date is interpreted. Also may we'll have a ring system similar to that of satin but as well as being hard to pin down the data has another problem. And it's quite a big one. See the study assumes the presence of a data this garage Proxima Centauri and the problem there is observations using Alma. The Atacama large millimeter submillimeter telescope doesn't show any evidence of any such dust disk in the system. Sir I guess that means more observations would be needed either confirm or finally rule out the planet's presence. I the way we'll keep. You informed this space time. Still to come CI OPS begins its science mission and the expedition sixty two crew returned home to a very different world from the one they left all that and much more still to come on space time. Okay let's take a break from our show for word from our sponsor express. Vpn rated number one by Tek Reiter. You may be wondering why you need a virtual private network. Well it's in the name. It's all about privacy. Do you really want big brother? Take companies hackers governments and who knows who else nipping in on your online activities. Now you might not have anything to hide but it's still really creepy and it could be dangerous for you and those you care about. Also how often do you run across a website and you want to get information from it but you find out that the GEO blocked? It's all very frustrating and it's becoming an increasing problem and that's where express. Vpn can help you express VPN's a simple and efficient way to protect your online privacy. It's intimate with our borders from the world's leading VPN provider so. Protect Your online privacy today and find out how you can get three months free at tracks. Vpn DOT com slash space? That's try express. Vpn DOT com slash space for three months free with a one year package visit try express VPN DOT com slash space to learn more. And of course you'll find the link details in the show notes and on our website that strike express VPN dot com slash space. And now it's back to our show. You're listening to Spain's time withstood Gary. The European Space Agency's exit planetary mission. Chips has successfully completed three amounts of in orbit commissioning and is now ready to begin at science mission. Chips Project Manager Nichola. Randall says the spacecraft's now they're taking observations of known exoplanet hosting stars chips which stands for characterizing exit planet satellite was launched back in December two thousand nine teen on a mission to study planets orbiting stars beyond our solar system and then accurately determine their size by studying how much they block out from their host stars as they pass or transit in front of the star as saint from chips as position actually knowing their size together with their orbital distance from the host star by the gravitational impact on that Starr will tell us dramas about their density and from that the possible composition as well as constraints on their structure formation and evolution. But before any of that can be accomplished mission. Managers I needed to ensure the one point five meters spacecraft survived its violent launch of the space and that all at silicate scientific instruments are working properly chips as orbital commissioning and testing began when it first opened its is to the university end of January and shortly after that took its first intentionally blurred images of stars for deliberately focusing is at the core of the mission observing strategy which improves measurement precision by spreading the light coming from distant stars over multiple pixels in the detector following initial in-orbit systems checks in January and February mission managers then began analyzing the response of the spacecraft and in particular of the telescope and detector in the actual space environment in March focusing on stars its properties. Were already well known. These active is sort of controls to ensure that chips as photo metric. Observations were accurate and the satellite was precise stable during the final two weeks of in orbit commissioning chips observed to exit planet hosting stars as the planet's transit in front of their stars and blocked at a fraction of the starlight. One of the targets was HD nine thirty three ninety six a yellow sub giant star located three hundred twenty light years away slightly cooler in about three times larger than our. Sun. The focus of the observations was killed live and be a puffy guest giant planet about thirty percent larger in size than Jupiter. Which is in a much closer to its star and make you in the sun and the light from the star showed a clip coast by the eight hour long transit of kilty Levin be now from these data. Scientists have been able to determine very precisely that I am of the planet to be one hundred eighty one thousand six hundred kilometers and that's with an uncertainty of less than four thousand three hundred kilometers about five times better than any previous measurements from Earth. Astronomers have now started observing a selection of early science targets including the hot super earth fifty five Cancun which is covered in love ocean as well as the wall Neptune. Jj Four thirty six P. which is losing its atmosphere due to the glare of its host and then this a white dwarf it's gotTa check out with Surviving Planetary System this report from a Sativa. I dedicated mission to study. Xm planets camps launched in December and is about to start. It's signs operations. Join the last few months successfully completed its in orbit commissioning phase and the space craft telescopes optics detectors and electronics. Were all working as expected. The chaos telescope opened its cover in January and in February targeted. Its first star around one hundred fifty light years away in Montana Constellation. The triangular shape is due to the three struts. Supporting the telescope's Primary Mirror. It's also deliberately out of focus because the stars light is spread across many pixels to make the measurements more. Precise counts will soon start observing hundreds of stars outside our solar system the are known to have orbiting planets. It will measure the minute dip in light caused by exoplanets as they transit a star caps is a small or s class mission. It was developed by each in cooperation with Switzerland within budget and in less than five years and built by a consortium led by the University of Bern the instrument team in Bern works closely with the Science Operations Center at the Geneva Observatory. This is why commands a prepared for the spacecraft somewhere data is down linked and analyzed and processed the mission Operation Center for Kelps at the National Institute of Aerospace Technology Site. Near Madrid sends. These commands it operates a monitors the spacecraft and ensures that the telescopes data flows smoothly to Geneva. The observatory is also where scientists discovered the first exoplanet in nineteen ninety-five. Today there are over. Four thousand camps will observe hundreds of exoplanets that range from rocky and possibly earth like to gaseous ones like Jupiter. It's precision measurements will be key to understanding there in a structure formation and evolution scientists from institutes have contributed to the chaos mission have GTO's guaranteed time observations. There's also a guest observe a program for researchers worldwide. The science mission continues until October. Twenty twenty three until expand our understanding of exoplanets and the universe. We live in three expedition. Sixty two crew members have returned safely to Earth following this seven month. Stay aboard the International Space Station the crew so's Emma fifteen captial touchdown onto the canopy of the giant orange and white parachute on the cars extent. Step four hours and twenty six minutes after undocking from the orbiting outpost but the crew of arrived. Una very different planet. Compared to the one they departed from with lockdowns and economy in recession dominating. The planet in the wake of the covert nineteen corona virus pandemic traditionally crew returned to Earth aboard. Soyuz are extracted from the capsules and undergo preliminary medical checks and a welcome home ceremony in a tent on the ground right next to the spacecraft however the cover ninety not break as resulted in a change of program with the crew immediately airlifted by helicopter to bike and all from where they boarded their respective aircraft taking them out of the Star City Moscow or direct to Houston Texas. How Times have changed this? A space time coming up next the science report and growing calls for an independent investigation into the curve in Nineteen Pandemic. And then you gene. Editing approach which can attack ninety percent of corona viruses including curve in nineteen all that and more still to come on space time And Tom now to take another brief look at some of the other stories making using science this week with science report. China's communist government and the World Health Organization have both issued statements saying the covered nineteen virus wasn't created in a laboratory statements follow growing international calls including from the Australian government for an independent investigation into the origin and spread of the pandemic. But what makes Beijing statement and that of the World Health Organization so interesting? Is that the denial that the virus was developed in the Wuhan Policy. Research Center wasn't the allegation being made. The actual allegation is that the virus was being studied at the research center and that it accidentally leaked that into the ceramic community Geeta poor biohazard security and control at the level for such facility. The claims are based on two United States Intelligence and national security reports which found that China instigated. Todd security protocols to the facility had exactly the same time as the first word patients were presenting with covered nineteen and that. China then prevented people from your hand from traveling to other parts of China but didn't impose restrictions on people travelling from had to other parts of the world. Us President Donald Trump has now ordered a full investigation into the matter. Meanwhile The Washington Post is reporting that. Us Embassy officials have visited the Wuhan Institute of Technology Facility in two thousand eighteen warned of an adequate safety at the lab which was conducting risky studies on Karenna viruses from horseshoe bats. The Post reports that researches showed how the current of viruses can interact with ace to human receptors allowing the transmission of Saz like viruses from vets to humans. Scientists have developed an eugene editing approach which can attack ninety percent of corona viruses including curve nineteen pacman Stanford Prophylactic Antiviral crisper in human cells the approach slices through the viruses genetic makeup stopping it from functioning and replicating however the technology reported in the Journal cell is still in the proof of concept stage with the biggest berry being the safe use of Pacman in the human body and you study says regular use of aspirin defined as taking at least one or two tablets. A week is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of developing cancers in the gist of tracked research reported in the annals of Oncology Cam est evidence from one hundred and thirteen observational studies. Finding those who took aspirin had a twenty seven percent reduced risk of Bell Canada a thirty three percent reduced risk of ASAF A. Go cancer a thirty. Six percent reduced risk of stomach. Cancer and twenty two percent reduced risk of pancreatic cancer however the researchers urge caution saying the drugs and he'd be taken for this purpose consultation with the doctor. You can weigh up. The risks of side effects and you study is found that estuaries on the southeast coast of Australia and now warming at twice the rate of oceans and the atmosphere. The findings were reported in the Journal. Nature Communications once at the apparent accelerated impact from climate change on juries could adversely affect economic activity as well as ecological biodiversity in rivers and lakes worldwide scientists from the University of Sydney. Who carried out the research? Say that it shows esters are especially vulnerable to a warm environment. The researchers say changes in Estrin temperature acidity and salinity affect marine and bird life as was the millions of people who depend on rivers lakes and lagoons site is found that on average. Estra systems experienced the two point. One six degree temperature increase. That's about zero point degrees each year. The findings based on twelve years recording more than six thousand two hundred temperature observations in one hundred sixty six estuaries along the entire Lin- kilometer stretch of the New South Wales Pacific Ocean coastline. The increase in temperature is an order of magnitude faster than predicted by Global Ocean and atmospheric models according to the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Aaron. See temperatures on a strategy of increased by about a degree since one thousand nine hundred eighteen study also found that acidification of history was increasing by zero point zero nine. Ph units every year and there are also notable changes to the salinity ESTRA systems with creeks and lagoons becoming less saline while river salinity increased team of the strain scientists. Believe the vote the way to address a decades long challenge in the of quantum materials namely spectral cheating of proposed quantum light sources. They say the results using anatomically thin material constitute a significant step forward in understanding light matter interactions of quantum systems into dimensional materials. It also moves forward. The journey towards scalable on chip devices for quantum technologies. You can read the study in full in the Journal. Advanced materials and that's the show for now. Space-time is broadcast on sites on radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through both IHEART radio and tune in radio or you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple. Still Chat Bites Dot Com podcast soundcloud spotify YouTube audio. Boom Pud beam android CASS box from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite download podcasts provider. You can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop in grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time Patriot which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burners already content and other awards. Just go to patriarch page through Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details if you want more space time check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images use stories videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot TAMLA DOT COM. That's all one word and in lower case. And that's Tumbler. Without the it can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through Space Time Youtube Channel and on facebook just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space. Time with Stewart Gary space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australia and sky and Telescope magazine Your Window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart. Gary this has been another quality. Podcast PRODUCTION FROM BITES DOT com.
Brightest Supernova Ever Seen
"This is facetime series. Twenty-three episode thirty six for broadcast on the twenty second of April. Twenty twenty coming up on space time. The brightest Supernova river scene PIPPI Columbus groups past the earth at thirty kilometers per second and discovery of fine thrids of million degree plasma woven through the sun's atmosphere. All that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. Astronomers have discovered the brightest most energetic likely most massive supernova ever seen a Supernova is the spectacular explosive destruction of a star in a blast so bright and powerful it can briefly outshining entire galaxy starshine fusing hydrogen in their cores into helium and they can happily continue doing this for millions even billions of years. Stas doing so a set to be on the main sequence but eventually the core hydrogen starts to run out and this was the delicate balancing act between gravity crushing down towards at center and Nuclear Energy. Pushing the star outwards to end and gravity winds causing the stiller core to collapse inwards now this additional mass crashing down causes dramatic increase in pressure and temperature in the core eventually. Triggering helium flash. Making it hot enough for the court to begin fusing helium into carbon an oxygen at the same time a hydrogen show begins burning around the core and the stars out allies expansion medically due to the increased heat and because it's now further away from the core the outer envelope that the star is also cooling down further in the process turning more reading color the style has transformed into a red giant eventually. Lerma stars like our sun fees mostly core helium into carbon and oxygen. But because they're below what's known as the chargers sake our limit which is around one point four four times the mass of the Sun. They don't have enough mass diffuse the carbon and oxygen they cord a heavier elements and so the fusion process ends. This chanter sake limits important in physics because it's a barrier for something called electron degeneracy. They quantum mechanical effect arising from the Pauli exclusion principle which prevents more than one firm on such as an electron from being in the same minimum energy level quantum state at the same time in simple terms. It's the most you can squish something down. Now eventually what's left behind now exposed white-hot core and it's a white dwarf and object about the size of the earth which was slowly cooled down over the AONS and eventually trillions of years time become a black wolf however stas foul massive than the sun face a very different fate because this massive with high court temperatures and pressures they feed hydrogen to helium through a different process and then go undefeated progressively heavier and heavier elements cabin nitrogen oxygen neon magnesium silicon sulphur nickel and eventually. I on but I is the end of the line no matter how massive is star is. It's not massive. Enough diffuse is into heavier elements and so the delicate balancing act between gravity crushing down towards the center and then nuclear energy pushing out with riches its final conclusion and once again gravity is the winner causing the static collapse but these stars have enough mess that there immense gravitational collapse he's able to push through the electron degeneracy barrier of the Channel Sake. I limit crushing. The 'cause negatively charged electrons and positively charged protons together to form neutrons tightly packed into a fluid neutron NEOM and releasing vast amounts of energy in the form of a call collapse supernova explosion and the SUPERNOVA and allstate catalog this essay in two thousand sixteen. Aps had ten times the explosive energy of a typical Supernova. A report in the Journal Nature. Astronomy suggests that SEM 2016 Abe. He is maybe an example of what's known as a pulse ational pair instability Supernova possibly formed through the merging of two massive styles just prior to the explosion. One of the study's authors either Birger from Harvard University says this ship inova spectacular in several ways. Not only is it brighter than any other supernova river scene but it has several properties and features that make you rare in comparison to other Supernova explosions. The ship it over was first identified in two thousand sixteen using data from the Pan starrs panoramic survey telescopes and rapid response system at four year. Follow up study then tracked. It's slow evolution and significant energy release cavill images retrieve during the study revealed a rising light curve dating all the way back to December two thousand fifteen allowing the authors to better understand the nature explosion of the Supernova in a typical Supernova radiation invisible. Light cancer just one percent of the total explosion energy of around say ten of the power of fifty one eggs but in this in two thousand sixteen. Aps explosive energy was tend to the fifty two words which is unprecedented and Supernova radiated about fifty percent of this energy making it outshine normal Supernova by five hundred times the intense energy put put it to an incredibly massive progenitor star at least one hundred times. The mass of the Sun North is temporary. The explosion got that big on its own spectroscopy. Observations during the follow up study revealed a restless history for the progenitor star in the family is before it exploded the stash it massive show of gas as it. Paul said it violently and it was the collision of the explosion debris with this massive show that led to the incredible brightness the Supernova essentially adding fuel to the fire but in two thousand sixteen. Aps also held another surprise for scientists unusually high levels of hydrogen gas. Massive stars typically lose the majority of their hydrogen to Stella Wins Long before they begin pulsating. The fact is in two thousand sixteen. Aps held onto its hydrogen suggests that it was most likely composed of two less massive stars that merged together since low. Mass Stars can hold on to hydrogen for longer. The nearly merged star would have been heavy with hydrogen and also high enough in mass degenerate. Powerful gamma rays in the core which would interact with atomic nuclei to produce electron positron pairs that annihilate each other in the process producing more gamma rays and triggering more parents ability and pulsating parents to -bility Supernova. They caused by draining energy. In the production of these electron positron pays the wall parents. Stability Supernova complete disrupts the star in a massive Supernova stars. Paul Sessional Parents. Stability eruption shits a quarter of the styles mass. I making it too. Small for continued electron positron pair creation and the authors suggested then underwent a core collapse Supernova. Hyphen over this space. Time still to come. Maybe Columbus swoops past the earth at thirty kilometers per second and stunning images. Reveal fine threads of million degree plasma woven through the sun's atmosphere. All that and more still to come on space time European Space Agency's Bibi Columbus spacecraft as just taken a close gravity assist fly by the earth swooping down over the South Atlantic Ocean at an altitude of twelve thousand six hundred seventy seven kilometers while most gravity assisted designed to slingshot spacecraft to a fastest speed. This one was designed to slow down the probe from thirty point four kilometers per second data. Just twenty five kilometers a second well that expanding propellant genie enormous gravitational field of the sun getting to its nearest at mercury can only be achieved through a series of complicated maneuvers and the fly by was the first of nine gravity assist maneuvers a wedding baby. Columbia Jerry at seventy two mercury spacecraft has now been flying towards Venus and in October. It'll perform the first of two fly bys off veinous. The final six tightening maneuvers will use the gravity of Pepi Columbus Ultimate Destination Mercury. The Fly by has given mission managers a chance to test the science instruments book baby Colombo examining the Earth facing side of the moon spectroscopy thermal infrared for the first time and without any absorption from atmosphere the view from space provides valuable data for Lunar Research Bibi's Columbian uses a spectrometer which covers a wavelength range from seven to fourteen micrometres as what was a radio with wavelength range of seven to forty micrometres. It's capable of identifying minerals in the mid infrared at a special resolution of five hundred meters from distances up to seven hundred forty thousand kilometers away. Pity Columbia was launched back on the twenty Tober twenty eighteen aboard an Ariane five rocket from the European Space Agency's spaceport in French Guiana. It's the most expensive European project explore another planet ever undertaken the spacecraft visited Mercury Way Nashes Mariner ten mission in the mid Nineteen Seventies. And its more recent messenger mission which orbited Mercury from twenty seven to twenty fifteen baby Colombo will study Mercury's internal structure. It's planetary environment. Its interaction with the solar environment and the solar wind. The spacecraft consists of four sections which the tax at specific points along the journey the two primary sections of the European Space Agency's Mercury planetary orbiter and the Japan aerospace exploration agencies. Mercury magnetics ferrick. Orbiter the two orbiters will orbit mercury at different altitudes the MACRA punditry but is designed to analyze the planetary surface composition while the mercury magnetic we'll explore its magnetosphere a third section the European Space Agency's Mercury transfer module is located at the base of the stack and supplies power to support to orbiters as well as propulsion during the cruise phase of the mission. Ross protects the oh but from the extreme temperatures as they get closer to mercury in the sun. Then there's also a magnetic over the sunshield an interface structure it's fitted between the two orbiters and will provide additional protection for the macra magnates very over before it is over seven temperatures mercury range between four hundred and fifty degrees Celsius on the day side to minus one hundred and eighty degrees Celsius on the nightside on the fifth of December. Twenty twenty five after six fly by of Mercury Becky Colombo will enter an initial capture orbit this report from Asia TV since its launch. Almost two years ago Colombo has been steadily making its long journey to mercury. The animal's planet in our solar system during this time instruments have been checked and software updates installed the trajectory has also been refined by firing it's thruster and solar electric propulsion system. This is commanded and checked regularly from the ground. The space craft is deliberately traveling virus scenic route the fly bys put on the brakes reduce speed and help obtain the correct final orbit around Mercury during the first fly by Becky Colombo will take much closer images of the earth and moon and a self youtube as it did. Shortly after launch showing one of the unfold solar arrays and two antennas within hours of the fly by scientists will use the opportunity to calibrate the onboard ultraviolet spectrometer feebis they then have several days to make measurements and checks on some of the other instruments senses with a nail biting half hour when due to its position with the earth there is no contact with the spacecraft regular spacecraft and instrument checks on its two orbiters from. Isa and Japan will continue after the earth fly by with further software updates and fine tuning mission. Scientists will also operate some of the instruments to monitor the solar wind and examine how the son interacts with the spacecraft. Although no science was originally planned during the journey it was also discovered the Mercury Gamma Ray and Neutron Spectrometer inside. The European orbiter can detect gamma. Ray Bursts another added bonus the main aim of the fly by however is to put on the brakes and decelerate the spacecraft into a closer orbit towards Venus. It's next pit. Stop Best Colombo will fly by Venus in October? With a second fly around the planet in twenty twenty one six further fly bys will take place around mercury before the spacecraft arrives in the planned orbit in December twenty twenty five seven years after launch. A new study has revealed. The Sun's Outta is a filled with previously unseen. Incredibly fine magnetic threads extremely hot million degree plasma these new high resolution observations reported in the Physical Journal will provide a strontium is with a better understanding of how the sounds magnetized atmosphere exists. And what it's made of until now certain parts of the Sun's atmosphere headed peed dark mostly empty but the new images revealed these five hundred kilometer wide strands with hot electrified. Gases flowing inside them. The exact physical mechanism. That's creating these pervasive. Heart strands remains a mystery. Researchers want to know birth hound. Why phone and what they tell. Science about the eruption of solar flares Colonel Mass ejections and the solar storms they produce which can affect life on earth. The autry shop images were taken by. Nasa's High C- high resolution kernel image at telescope flown into space aboard a sub orbital sounding rocket telescope can pick out structures in the sun's atmosphere is smaller seventy kilometres the highest resolution images ever taken of the. Sun's atmosphere scientists. That have plans for Nether High Sea launch and overlapping the mission objectives with those of nurses para solar probe. And Isa's orbiter this space time. Still the come. Each study suggests only six percent of curve in nineteen cases have been identified and the Great Barrier Reef experiencing its third car bleaching event in five years all that and more still to come on space time antimetric another brief look at some of the other stories making news inside this week with a science report and you study warns that the carrot estimate for the spirit of the deadly curve in nineteen hours of dramatically underestimated and the true number of carrying infections is more likely to be in the tens of millions the official World Health Organization figures show just two million cases of covered nineteen of being reported so fact globally with the death toll from the disease which originated in Wuhan China now approaching two hundred thousand however a report in The Lancet Medical Journal claims that countries have on average only discovered about six percent of their true corona virus infections. This means the true number of actual curve nineteen hundred cases of being dramatically underestimated insufficient delay. Testing may explain why some European countries such as Italy and Spain are experiencing match higher casualty numbers relative to report it confirmed cases than say. Germany which is detected estimated fifteen point six percent of infections compared to only three point five percent in Italy and one point seven percent in Spain. Detection rates are even lower in the United States at one point six percent and the United Kingdom at just one point two percent now in shop contrast to this South Korea repairs discovered almost half of all its code. Nineteen infections and you studies. Confirm that the risk of dying from curve nineteen associated. Pneumonia is highest in people over the age of sixty five especially with other major illnesses. Such as heart problems in diabetes a report in the European Respiratory Journal found multiple organ failure especially respiratory failure heart. Failure occurred rapidly after patients were admitted to hospital. They stress that intensive should be provided as soon as possible for patients with severe Ovid Nineteen Monja. Australia's iconic Great Barrier Reef is experiencing. Its third car. Bleaching event in five years scientists with James Cook University. Say the twenty. Twenty bleaching is severe and more widespread than earlier events. The findings are based on the study of one thousand nine. Thirty six reefs during the last two weeks of March researchers say it's also the first time that severe bleaching his truck or free regions of the Great Barrier Reef northern the central now large parts of the southern sectors all at once coral bleaching original scales is caused by thermal stress spikes in sea temperatures during unusually hot summers and thanks global warming. We're getting more. And more of those. The first recorded mass bleaching events the Great Barrier Reef Becky Nine Hundred Ninety eight then. The hottest year on record and four more mass bleaching events have occurred since as more temperatures who are broken by global warming in two thousand and two twenty sixteen twenty seventeen and now twenty twenty Vichy. February had the highest monthly temperatures ever recorded on the Great Barrier Reef since the Bureau of Meteorology Sea surface temperature records began way back in nineteen hundred many corals die when bleaching severe in fact in two thousand sixteen more than half of all shallow. Would've Carl's died in the northern region of the Great Barrier Reef Marine. Biologists have discovered a giant fifty meter long. Seifun of four. Possibly one of the longest animals ever recorded among thirty new underwater species discovered during an expedition exploring the Indian nations in England's submarine canyons scientists from the Western Australian Museum of Curtin University Geoscience Australia and the scripts institution of oceanography took pattern the month. Long Expedition About Schmidt Ocean Institute's research vessel Falco using an underwater remotely operated vehicle aravida diving to depths of four thousand five hundred maters expedition allowed scientists to click the first giant hydroids in Australian waters. Discover lots communities of Glass sponges in Cape Range Canyon and had served for the first time in Western Australian waters bioluminescence tanning octopus squid. They're also able to study long-tailed sea cucumbers and a large number of unique. Mollusks barnacles and squat lobster species but one of the highlights of the expedition was the signing of the largest specimen ever seen of giants. I fun for Palomina. Siphon offers a massive gelatinous string like floating colonies of tiny individuals awards that clean themselves thousands of times. The specialized buddies. That's coming together to work as a single organism well. Despite promising on numerous occasions to end the country's horrific wet markets China has officially approve their reopening as the global curve nineteen corona virus pandemic continues to wreak havoc around the world unsurprisingly. The corruption stained world. Health Organization is packing China's decision. Even though China's wet markets have been found to be the viral API says for most of the world's recent pandemics including bird-flu size and covert nineteen these diseased ridden blood cirque markets. Don't engage in any animal welfare practices with highly stressed animals commonly push it alive. Beijing has introduced temporary bans on the consumption founding of wild animals but admits they want policing it with the details to minimum from Australian skeptics. Has has made a a judgment fairly recently that the winning a ban on the consumption and farming of wild animals. Now it has to be wild. So it's sort of Taken from the from the wild rather than braids necessarily this has been a major issue obviously especially with the current ivars. This is possibly in response to that. That with the trouble is that certain places. Obviously the eating habits of Chinese people in China is is. There's a lot of people. Eating exotic animals Pops up half of the danger of backseat turning these animals extinct. There's also the danger of sort of bringing in diseases that shouldn't be amongst the human population and that seems really bird. Flu Epidemic doesn't have to be exotic animals Domestic animals just as good. Same with Swan flew at At providing viruses which which can kill conditions under which they can't and under which they killed. That's the issue surely. Yeah well that's what these markets in in Hara Wuhan Riddick places these yes. These are true hell halls well especially if you're the animals kept in tiny cement and sometimes they cooked alive. I mean you could. You could any civilization do such as well. The interesting thing is just recently just the last couple of days The Chinese government has recommend bad bile as a treatment for rent of Rs and that ball. He's taken from lies days. Who were kept in cages? Barely larger than that. That's right and but the thing is that apparently another gusting have yeah. Apparently there's a lot of people that I prefer wild bear bile. So you have to Greg from the Walter bringing on then pumped into the TV then ones ball and drying up that way rather than have been bred in captivity so there's a lot of double standards. He that that should really be clamped down tightly across China's to the attitude was eating wildlife. What's been happening in places like Beijing is a very strong feeling against eighty wildlife as has been practiced elsewhere but yeah other places. Obviously it's still guys on T. minimum promised rain skeptics and that's the show now space-time is broadcast on sci on radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through both IHEART radio and tune in radio or you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple. Stitcher BITES DOT COM. Pucca CAST soundcloud spotify. Youtube audio boom Pud beam android cashbox from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com off from your favorite download podcasts provider. You can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time patron which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burners or content and other awards. Just go to patriarch page through Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details if you want more space time check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images news stories videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot TAMLA DOT COM. That's all one word and lower case and that's Tamba without it can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through Space Time Youtube Channel and on facebook just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australia and sky and telescope magazine. Your window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart. Gary this has been another quality. Podcast PRODUCTION FROM BITES DOT com.
Alien Stellar Stream Discovered in our Neighbourhood
"Love this podcast? Support this show through the ACOSS support a feature. It's up to you. How much you give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty three episodes, seventy six full broadcast on the twenty fourth of July, twenty twenty, coming up on space time, alien stellar streams discovered in our galactic neighborhood tracking satellites from the Arctic and Red Planet Rush. Hour with remissions bound for mass this month, all that and more coming up on Space Time Welcome to space time. We'd Still Gerry. Astronomers have discovered a stream of stars close to our solar system. That didn't originate within our own Milky Way. Galaxy a report in the journal, Nature Astronomy claims this alien stock loss data which has been named Knicks after the Greek goddess of the night slices through the disk of the Milky Way in an arc, extending some six thousand light years above and below the Galactic plane, early estimates suggest the stellar stream consists of at least two hundred and fifty stars, still a streams of thought to be the remnants of globular. Or some galaxies that have been stretched out along the orbit by the Gravitational Tidal Forces of logic galaxy before being disrupted, the data shows the knicks stream piece to be rotating with the Mogi Way's galactic disk, but it's also moving towards the Galactic Center the authors also detected an additional stellar stream with have dubbed mix to it has similar motion and still A. A characteristics to nick's but opposite velocity, suggesting that it's related might be debris from a separate passage of the same dwarf of Galaxy through the Stella Disk the oath is made the discovery using data from the European Space Agency's Guy Satellite, are they then ran that data through sophisticated computer modeling? Notice the feedback, relativistic, environmental five project, resulting the discovery of Knicks. Launched in twenty thirteen geyer is studying the movement of more than one and a half billion individuals stars across the sky in the process, creating an incredibly precise three dimensional map of our part of the galaxy and knee by space. The PHYA project uses deep learning algorithms and artificial neural networks in supercomputers to create a simulation of galactic evolution. Across time the authors added differences between stars originating the Milky. Way from those created from beyond the galaxy to the fire program, and then included the guy data and crunch the numbers the program success. We identified the Milky. Way's Galactic Halo, which contains a lot of oldest is often unusual. Unusual orbits and importantly it also identified to previously known streams of Alien Stars the. Guy Is Sausage, which are the remains of a dwarf game that merged into the Milky Way between six and ten billion years ago, and the Helmi Stream the remains of another dwarf galaxy discovered in one, thousand, nine, hundred nine. That is also being cannibalized by the Milky Way. The authors say Nix was likely once it's wolf. Galaxy Globular Kosta that merged into the disk of the Milky Way at a low angle and in progress orbit, one of the study's authors Lyndon Asleep from the California Institute of Technology says. It's other the remnants of. Of Galactic merger between the Milky Way in another galaxy or the disc styles from the Milky Way that have been gravitationally into a new orbit, following a collision between the Milky Way in another galaxy, it nicely slots in with astronomy and the standing of galactic evolution galaxies grow through a process known as galactic cannibalism, a series of mergers and collisions with other galaxies, for example, the milky ways currently stripping matter from at least four nearby, said light off galaxies, two of this satellite to off galaxies, the large and small magic clouds, I connected to each other by gravitational titled Stream of Stars Known as the magic. Bridge and they're. They're also losing material to the Milky Way through another bridge known as the metal and extreme, then as the cat, US Major Dwarf Galaxy which at twenty, five thousand light years is actually closer to our sun in the center of our galaxy is, it's also being totally disrupted by the Milky Way with a filament of stars, trailing behind that as it orbits around the Milky Way forming a complex ring like structure, wrapping around Al Galaxy at least three times, and is the secretaries to of Royal, Galaxy, which is already collided with a disk of the Milky Way on at least three occasions, and he's losing more and more. With each pass of course collected cannibalism works both ways with the Milky Way now destined to collide with and be consumed by the much more massive and Drummer Galaxy, m, thirty, one and dromedary, currently approaching the Milky Way, at read one hundred ten kilometers per second, depending on which set of calculations you believe, the cosmic collisions likely to occur sometime between three point, seven and four point five billion years from now this evening, colleagues next job will be to. To use ground based telescopes to obtain detailed spectra from the stars in extreme in order to determine their age exactly when they joined the Milky Way and to understand the chemical composition in order to see exactly how they differ from the stars that form the Milky Way this space time still to come tracking satellites from the Arctic and Red Planet Rush Hour with three missions bound from us this month, all that and more still to come on space time. European Space Agency's Operation Center dumpster Germany operates a number of satellite tracking stations known as s track European Space Tracking Network. These stations support various ace emissions and facilitate communications between mission managers on the ground and spacecraft such as Xm Newton Mas Express Baby Colombo guy. Solar orbiter the Copernicus Satellite Constellation, and the Galileo satellite navigation system, many of the satellites that gather information and health of our planet hoping. Hoping with awards, transportation and navigation and taking important scientific missions are on what's known as polar orbits which take them over the planet's North and South Poles and keeping in touch with spacecraft as their fly over these desolate remote areas isn't an easy job. While space time, listeners would be familiar with the European Space Agency's new nausea tracking station Perth Easter operate similar stations in Spain Argentina Sweden Kenya Belgium. Chile and the curious space center in French Guiana, but none of his isolated, or in such an inhospitable and desolate environment, as val sat acis most novel Ground Station located on a windswept mountain plateau on the island of Spitsbergen. Swell bad Norway well above the Arctic Circle. The complex of more than two dozen dishes is a vital link collecting data in communicating with the missions flying above them as well as Asia. Swale sets also providing satellite. For NASA, no the US geological service in a waging coastal administration and the Space Agency's of multiple countries, including, Taiwan South Korea India, Germany, Italy, and Japan this report from act. Dancing above these satellite antennas at the small bars satellite station high in the Arctic. Here next to one of the most northern cities in the world is the perfect location to track polar orbiting satellites, including some for the European Space Agency. Peer Up. There is at station twelve Martin about to a trekking antennas. This station is unique and we have a perfect location for attracting liles Bass quotes. And the main reason being that we can see fourteen also foregin daily orbits. Spherical domes protect the antennas from the harsh weather. Conditions of the environment inside the antennas work like any other ground station, following a satellite to collect its data check, it's health and send commands back. Data from eases Earth explorers such as AO listen. Smalls are down linked to fall set as well as from the sentinel satellites for Europe's Capanna Casse environment monitoring program. Eight of these antennas are dedicated to tracking the copernicus sentinels. The visibility of this. Sensitive satellites pair are about fourteen minutes from the time they come from the horizon and the time they are. Not to be simple longer, and during that time we download the payload data, the housekeeping data, and sometimes we speak to the satellite that means commanding the Seth Light. In addition to the earth. Satellites, the ground station also supports Europe's Galileo Network for navigation as well as I search and rescue. while. This location is optimal for communicating with the satellites orbiting close to the North Pole to snow, cold and long periods of darkness makes life for people working here a challenge to ensure that the environmental conditions do not affect the ground operations teams of two people working twenty four hour shifts to monitor each satellite pass. On the day from the satellites are very important for lots of people around the world when it comes to. Whether the hell is the the the future of the PLATTE. Planet of course, so it's it's really nice to be part of that and to to help people get this information and distributed. Across the globe, teams at ground stations work around the clock to download vital information and track the health of satellites that are checking the health of our planet, and the report by city included spouse that station director, Ole, Pitta Strom, Stat, and case at Central Service Manager Cheng Johnson this space time still come Red Planet Russia with remissions bound for Mars this month, and later in the science report news at the virus that causes covid nineteen has been found to be structurally different from its nearest bat virus relative all that most come on space time. Well, it seems to be rush out on the road to mass with three missions, currently targeting the Red Planet Nasa's Mars Twenty Twenty perseverance rovers just been made with Atlas Five Launch Vehicle in preparation for its flight from space. Launch Complex Forty one at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida slated for July thirty. It had originally binch for launch and July seventeenth, but have been put back three times I. July twenty because of a faulty crane, then to July twenty second after potential contamination issue was identified with ground support lines, and finally to July thirtieth. Liquid oxygen sense alive presented off normal data during a waitress rehearsal mission managers, deciding additional time was needed in order to understand and resolve the issue at this stage. There's no panic as the launch window to Mars remains open until at least August the fifteenth, these are designed to provide the shortest journeys between Earth and the red. Planet which is based on how the orbits of the two planets line up, and they line up best during a narrow window every twenty six months. The six Wilbur Body Perseverance rover will land on an ancient river delta in forty five kilometer wide jezreel crater in the Mash Northern, hemisphere on February the eighteenth next year, and that touchdown date is set firm regardless of which date launches once. Perseverance has wheels on the ground, ill such signs of past live studied the local atmosphere, weather geology and collect samples for title. Title Worth Future Joint NASA. Mission slated for twenty thirty one. It also test new technologies including oxygen harvesting equipment new materials, which be used during a manned mission to the Red Planet, and it will even launch a little helicopter named ingenuity. Perseverance is based on the existing. Mars Curiosity Rover which has been exploring the nearby gale crater since its arrival in two thousand twelve. But Nassar isn't the only agency on its way to Mars China's Tianhe Win One. Oh, heavenly questions! Mission is also bound for Mars flying on a Long March. Five rocket from the wing spacecraft launch site on Hainan Island in the South China Sea it includes both an arbiter and a Land Rover. The Land Rover's design appears to be barred from this spirit and Opportunity Rovers in owner to reach the surface, the land that will use a parachute, retro rockets, and ultimately an airbag for final touchdown. Meanwhile Japanese age to be rocket is carrying the United Arab Emirates set alight. The one thousand, three hundred and fifty kilograms satellite will study the Martian atmosphere from for full mash. In Year six hundred eighty seven earth days, hope carries three primary, Science Instruments and infrared spectrometer to measure the lower atmosphere and analyze the temperature structure, a high resolution imagery to study marsh and Liberals and an Ultraviolet Spectrometer to measure atmospheric oxygen and hydrogen levels. A fourth plan mission demise, the joint European Space Agency Russian Roscosmos xhosas mission was also expected to launch this month, but is now being postponed to twenty twenty two G to arrange of technical problems compounded by the COVID nineteen pandemic. This space, time! And not to take another brief look at some of the other stories making news inside this week. With a science report, new researchers concluded that size covy to the virus that causes covid nineteen is structurally different enough from its nearest respect virus, relative that it's most likely the result of two or more distinct coronavirus, combining a report in the journal Nature. Structural and molecular biology analyze the spike protein which enables the virus that bind to an end to human cells for both sides, covy to and the closely related virus rit thirteen. They found that other structures were similar size covy to has a more. More stable former, the spike leisa protein, and is able to bind approximately a thousand times more tightly to the human h two receptor protein. The study suggests that a bad virus similar to Rit g thirteen would be unlikely to infect human cells. What supports the theory that says curvy to is actually the result of two or more virus swapping Diana now for those conspiracy theorists survey. There's nothing sinister about that. The sort of events known as recombination occur quite commonly in nature for example when two viruses infected intermediate host animal, but on the other hand it can also be made artificially in a laboratory. And you study looking at sexually similar European countries as found that the number of covid nineteen fatalities tends to be lowering areas with book. Ulysses vaccination is more prevalent. The findings were reported in the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences took into account variables like population density access to healthcare and the stage of the covid nineteen pandemic. Now this observation isn't after confirmed that the burglar says vaccination gives protection against the covid nineteen virus, but the authors are pointing to an ongoing Austrian clinical trial as a possible source for more solid evidence. We'll keep you informed. The World Meteorological Organization bricks. The annual average global temperature is likely to be at least one degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels for every year of the next five years, and it also warns the temperatures will be more than one and a half degree Celsius high during at least one of those obvious, the predictions take into account, natural variations as well as human influence on climate, however, the research does not take into account changes in emissions as a result of the coronavirus lockdown, although the impact of the drop in emissions, this year is not expected to lead to a reduction in a role. Calm, the oxide atmospheric concentrations, which is the driving force behind global temperature increases. And you study claims the world's population will reach nine point seven billion by twenty sixty four. The findings were reported in the Lancet Medical Journal also suggested the global human population will vince dot to decline tour at eight point eight billion by the turn of the century, the new computer model estimates are around two billion low than previous studies have suggested researches say that by twenty one hundred predicted fertility rates. Rates in one hundred, eighty, three, one, hundred ninety five countries will no longer be high enough to maintain Karen populations without liberal immigration policies and twenty three countries could even see the population shrink by more than half including Japan, Thailand Italy and Spain. The study also predicts dramatic declines in working age populations in countries, including India and China, which could curb economic growth and lead to shift in global powers. Well if you've been hearing some eerie MONZ and groans coming from the attic basement, you're not alone. It seems there's been an upsurge in claims of paranormal activity in residential homes ever since the covid nineteen lockdown began while rational people could put down to spending more time at home, so having more opportunity to hear the house settle over, expand and contract with changes in temperature. Others insist this something strange in the neighborhood. So who you GONNA call well Tim Mendham from Australian skeptics. Skeptics of course story guys that is rising paranormal activity. and someone said that Moore I'm stuck in this house. The more there's a failing as one person said it's a wonderful example, this article of logical fallacies with the yeah. They don't understand what they're saying. Paranormal activity looking bad. I- surge of strength things happening, but it's not certain things happening just a surge of your time. You're spending time so a little noises and things that the flashes AIDS. That building's Craik if? They do all day long and all night long. If he had more time, you hear the more often, and you'll think they happen more often which they died. You're aware of them to more about yourself. In about the paranormal holdings and that sort of stuff never thing that someone said with his classic believes a philosophy that was talking about. I'm a fairly rational person, said one person I tried to think what are the reasonable tangible things that could be causing this when I died. Have those answers I? Start to think. Maybe something else is going on with a leap. By saying maybe something else is going on. Maybe you just and when I don't have those answers you stop it. They and you say I don't have the answers you can say. I have the answers. Therefore, this is happening like I see a lot in the sky. What do these days? I an IBM crossed. Things happen done what it is. They forgot exist visit seriously all these different things that people might base late from. Now to do now, but it's something that and it's a very strange in San. Mateo where people often might this? Because I know, it must be this at a dozen for because you know full, stop he now. You're going to have to leave it I. Guess It's also case if people often know how little they really don't know who they are underestimating wherever it was. Think. I think they do know a lot and people who do know a lot. I think a lot of the more you know, the more you realize you know. Wonderful! If you knew anything, you'd stop diagnosed. Sound a half the time to Mendham from a strain skeptics. and. That's the show now. space-time is broadcast on science own radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington, DC and through both I heart radio and on Tunin radio or you can subscribe in Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple. STITCHER BITES DOT COM. Puckett cast soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom. ANDROID CASS box from space time with Stewart, Gary Dot com, or from your favorite download podcasts provider, you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies, or by becoming space time Patriot which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burners, already content and other awards just go to a patron page through space time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details. If you want more space time, check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit. Fit in the show as well as loads of images, news, stories, videos, and things on the web, I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart. Gary Dot Tamla DOT COM, that's all one word, and in lower case, and that's Tumbler without the it can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through Space Time Youtube Channel on facebook just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary. space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine Your Window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart Gary. This has been quality. PODCAST PRODUCTION FROM BITES DOT com.
Dangerous Alien Life Warning
"I. Love this podcast support this show through the ACOSS support of HR. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty-three episode eighty, four for broadcast on the nineteenth of August twenty, twenty coming up on Space Time, and you study warns that Alien Life would be dangerous to worth Ling's NASA looking at a new mission to the planet Venus and the Kremlin tests you anti-satellite weapon system all that and more coming up on. Space Time. Welcome to space time we'd Louis. Gary. Studies found that alien peptides containing two amino acids commonly found in carbonaceous meteorites would pose a serious threat to human health. The findings reported in the journal micro organisms shows the immune. So response to these alien peptides was less efficient than the reaction to those commonly found on earth. The study suggests that extraterrestrial micro-organisms if they exist could pose an immunological risk to space missions aiming to retrieve samples from other. Planets and moons life on Earth essentially relies on twenty two amino acids. The research look at the reaction of Mammalian t cell immune responses to peptides can the amino acids Valen an Alpha Amino. I said teric acid which are commonly found on meteorites researches found t cells exposed to these a amino acids had active ation levels of just fifteen percent and sixty one percent respectively that compares to eighty two percent. Ninety, one percent respectively when exposed to peptides made entirely of amino acids found commonly on earth scientists say that is scary of unusual sugars or amino acids in high abundances on carbonaceous meteorites. Mexican siebel that if extraterrestrial micro organisms exist in some of the numerous liquid water reserves discovered our solar system, they could contain proteins that include some of these dangerous amino acids we know that both the Jovian Moon Europa. And this attorney and moon enceladus contain liquid water oceans beneath an icy crust, and there's growing evidence that the Red Planet Mars also contains at least seasonal liquid water seeps. This is space time still to come NASA looking at a new mission to Earth sister. Planet Venus and they may talk about demilitarizing space but the criminals just tested a new anti-satellite weapon system all that and more coming up on space time. Okay. Imagine the earth now fill the skies with thick son obscuring clouds of self uric acid boil away the oceans by cracking up the temperature to nearly five hundred degrees Celsius and boost the air pressure by one hundred percent high enough to crush you like a pancake. What you now have is the planet Venus. Venus is a sister planet birth similar in size there in a similar location and our solar system they formed in the same part of the solar system under similar conditions and from the same material. And they different in almost every other way. But exactly how the sister planets evolved. So differently as being a burning scientific question for decades. Now a proposed new NASA mission called Veritas would seek to provide those answers Veritas. We transformed scientists understanding the internal geodynamics that shaped Venus the mission could also provide new insights, Earth's evolution and even help better understand rocky planets orbiting other stars. The last NASA mission to study Vanessa surface was Magellan back in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, four well, it provided tantalizing clues about Venus geology the instrumentation of back then couldn't explain the origin of many of the planet strain. Surface features proposed for launch in two thousand and twenty six their attacks were orbit Venus in P. Through it's obscuring clouds using powerful new stead of the radar systems to create three D. global maps. It would also be equipped with a new near Infrared Spectrometer, the figure out what the is made of, and it would make the planet's gravitational field determined the structure of unusual interior. Together, these instruments would provide clues to the planet's past and present as well as geological. Processes from its core surface on earth the Richard crust that envelops the planet he's broke into a jigsaw puzzle or tectonic plates or floating on top of the mantle and convective carrots. The mantle help drive the motion of tectonic surface plates as some of these plates the send back into the interior of the planet throw president is seduction they melt with volcanic outgassing releasing volatile such as water, nitrogen, calmed oxide, and methane into the atmosphere learning more about the geological processes. On Venus where the WOM- crust is a good analogy for earlier when the planets crustal plates were just beginning to form could offer a valuable glimpse into how these processes began on Earth Vera Test Geology Science team member Professor Jones Start. From Caltech, says, the biggest mystery is the extent of defamation structures on Venus areas of rock on the surface that boggled under immense geological pressure. It could be studied understand the nature of any tectonic activity on the planet producing high. Resolution three-dimensional topographic maps. Veritas would bring the focus structures that have previously been too small to resolve. These structures could include raised apostrophe on both sides of strike slip faults sort of like the San Andreas Fort, which would be an indicator of major tectonic activity. There are tests would also look for active surface. Faulting isn't interfering metric defamation maps and it would study the vast defamation structures known as terror. The huge plateau like features are thought to be analogous to continents. On Earth a leading theory is that Earth's continents formed when I enrich as Yannick Cross adopted Milton in the presence of water producing huge volumes of new listen rich continental crust that rose above the oceans. That's why the continental crust is grundig an ocean crust up Celtic, Veritas would construct the first global modern spectral maps of Venus's surface composition to determine Venus's Tetra plateaus formed in a similar way to Earth continents, and if they composition does resemble the continental crust of. Earth scientists say gain information about Venus's wetter past see on earth plate tectonics ve organism go hand in hand. But what about Venus confirming that Venus really is volcanically active as long suspected and understanding how that process works on. Venus is another really exciting question that scientists want answered using it spectrometer Veritas would determine if rocks recently formed from erupting magma before interactions with atmosphere would have had time to change their chemical composition. The spectrometer would also such hotspots from active. Eruptions while the radar instrument look for active faulting an indication of tectonic activity getting to know Venice's volcanoes and the geophysical processes causing them, what allow scientists to better understand the impact on the planet's climate, and perhaps even answer. Another question does the pilots interior still contain large quantities of water like Earth's does plate tectonics and Vulcan. ISM. Don't just affect how planet take shape. They're also intimately tied took planet's habitability. See Plate tectonics has strongly affected us long term climate by. The processes that keep the atmosphere imbalance ve organism which releases volatile into the atmosphere, and some deduction which recycles does tells back into the Interior. Also, the formation erosion of Earth's continents have a major influence on the composition of the oceans and atmosphere together all these processes provide the nutrients and habitable climate for life to thrive to unwrap the mysteries of Venus scientists need to look under the hood at. Vince interior at its geologic engine driving its geologic and atmospheric evolution. Then, we'll scientists discover Phoenix, and the Earth are fundamentally unique worlds or if their differences are only cosmetic and answering that question is key to understanding what makes other rocky planets habitable and ultimately allow life to emerge the find out more Andrew Dunkley speaking with astronomy Professor Fred Watson the truth about our sister planet. Venus they call it the sister planet because it's a rocky planet and it's about the same size as earth. But I think that's different stops or the the similarities. The differences. Surface. Temperature four hundred fifty degrees Celsius thick son obscuring clouds which at least with sulfuric acid it's. Incredibly different. The surface atmosphere pressure is about hundred times what it is here on earth. So you'd be flattened if you're standing on the surface, you'd be very, very squashed. The rocks themselves probably glowing. Because they so hot. Let me give you a quote from Dr Susan Smith who is at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena in California. She says Venus is this cosmic gift of an accident. You have these two planetary bodies earth and Venus started out nearly the same but have gone down to completely different Evelyn paths but we don't know why that is the you know that's the kind of setting the scene for a space probe which. The consideration is still at an early stage in his evil. Self they spice probe is being considered for selection under NASA, Discovery, program, and actually it will be jpl jet propulsion laboratory that would be the the managing organizations they offer nearly all these intend to planetary probes. So what is this space craft cold? It has a rather nice acronym. Actually it's very TASS is the name Venus 'em Mississippi Radio Science Inside Topography and Spectrograph Speaker Sexual. Right. You've got. Also what it does is it a whole list of things that will teach us Venus Emma. Radio Science in sorry I'm not sure what that is. To Griffin Spectroscopy So basically is an orbiting spacecraft to follow up on the last big mission to Venus in certainly in terms of studying the surface of the planet not was the Magellan spacecraft back in. Four and tell to believe he's twenty six years ago when that project in there are other spacecraft in orbit around Venus. The Venus Express is a European one. There is a Japanese one whose name eludes me at the moment, but they produce marvellous insight into the atmosphere of Venus remarkable imagery showing things like standing waves in atmosphere curious things like that. This would be I guess something that will build on all of those. The proposal is that it will be launched in twenty twenty. It will orbit the planet state of the art radar system. That's the big new facet on on this coast things have moved along since nineteen, ninety, four and. Out to be able to really say what's going on because Venus's. Is Essentially pay. So you have to have the radar to produce detailed maps. There is also going to be a near Infrared Spectrometer, which, of suspect, he's in some IB actually near Infrared Spectrometer, which will basically analyze what surface itself is made of, give you at least some some good insights into the Mineral Light Cup of the surface but the other thing is what we saying with Juno in orbits around Jupiter by knowing the details of the space craft jobs, you can essentially plot the gravitational field Venus and look in more detail than we have at the moment at the internal structure of Venus because the gravitational field is different depending on. What structure so all of these instruments and facilities will basically we hope give us some idea of how the planet has evolved geologically what the geological processes are that going on at the moment and as they say from its core to surface. So it's a holistic look of the planet. Venus there are lots of things we want to know are there is that plate tectonics on Venus? This is something that's not not really well known. So all of these questions on the table for the very task's mission. So I hope in six years time Andrew when my knees fully recovered you and I, we talking about the launch of the space craft. Endure he'd the guide to try and find out what went wrong with Venus. As I say with both and Venus started at. Pretty much the same and just went totally opposite directions. we became a livable world with water and oxygen, and all the things needed to create life and Venus. Went A. Lot. You know you can earn in Hill or they weren't too much `electricity not that we would set. could we learn? Could we learn anything from the demise of faintness? As potentially livable world that might help. That's why we study these rocky planets because we've got two opposite extremes on other side of Mars and Venus. And the more we know about them the more we understand the atmosphere of our own plan on the geology of our own planet vets, Dr Fred Watson and astronomer with part of Science speaking with Andrew Dunkley on assists the program space nuts, and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary still to come Russia, Monte, calling for the banning of weapons in space yet there's growing evidence the Kremlin's testing new anti-satellite weapon systems and China launches another high resolution surveillance satellite increasing its is in the sky. Star come on space time. Okay, let's take a break from our show for a word from our sponsor. VPN rated number one by Tek Raider. Wondering. Why you need a virtual private network? Well, it's in the name. It's all about privacy. Do you really want big take companies, hackers, governments and So else nipping in on your mind activities now you might not have anything to hide, but it's still really creepy and it could be dangerous for you and those you care about also, how often do you run across a website and you WanNa get information from it but you find that that the Geo blocked it's all very frustrating and it's becoming an increasing problem and that's were express VPN can help you express VPN's a simple. And efficient way to protect your online privacy it's intimate without Borders from the world's leading VPN provider. So particular online privacy today and find out how you can get three months free at trikes. VPN Dot com slash space that's try express VPN DOT com slash space for three months free with a one year package visit. Try Express VPN DOT com slash space to learn more and, of course you'll find the link details in the show notes and on our website that's try expressed vpn dot com slash space, and now it's back to our show you're listening to spend time with Stewart Gerry Moscow was conducted space-based anti-satellite weapons test firing a projectile from its Kosmos Twenty five three satellite the controversial Cosmos five forty three was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome Becky November twenty nineteen as part of the Kremlin so-called inspector series spacecraft these spacecraft designed to change their orbits. So they can allegedly inspect instead of the condition of other Russian satellites in orbit however early the She Washington raise concerns about the spacecraft's true nature after spotted the Kremlin maneuvering the cosmos, twenty, five, forty, three, and another satellite. The Cosmos Twenty five forty two close to an American satellite and deadly hoping the United States wasn't watching the Pentagon's concern that these Russian satellites are actually designed to install electronics and take control of American and allied satellites or attach tracking devices or possibly even explosives to them. Washington says that Moscow's actions by firing a projectile impacts from the Cosmos twenty-five forty-three contradicts the Kremlin's call for Atta space arms control this space time. Still the come China's growing is in the sky and later in the science. And you study confirms that New Zealand's Melting glaciers at ten times more likely to have been caused by global warming all that and more still to come on space. Time. China has launched another high resolution surveillance satellite is out of its growing constellation of almost one hundred is in the sky keeping a close watch Beijing's friends and enemies. Then you go being nine four optical remote sensing satellite was launched aboard a Long March today rocket from the Yucatan satellite launch. Century northwestern China's Guanzhou province. The spacecraft was placed into a four hundred, ninety four. By Five, hundred, thirty, kilometer high orbit Beijing claims the new satellite will mainly be useful and surveys. Crop yield estimates solar disaster, prevention and mitigation but military analysts claim the satellite will also used to track adversary sailing and places like the South China Sea. The Straits of Taiwan and the East China Sea as well as monitoring China's growing interests in the Western Pacific and Indian. Ocean. Also, board for the launch was a small secondary payload that Xinhua said Light, which will study Earth's gravity and atmosphere understanding the planet's gravitational fields and atmospheric environment helps improve the accuracy of missile targeting systems. Emission also marked the lunch of a Long March two D rocket and the three hundred and forty second launch of a member of the Long March rocket family. This space. Time. and Tom Out of take another brief look at some of the other stories making it inside this week with a science report. Well, it seems whole chunks of the globe of come to a stop for covid nineteen lockdowns causing what's now the longest and most prominent reduction in man made noise on record a report in the Journal. Science measured vibrations caused by human activity finding that global lockdowns have reduced seismic noise around the planet by up to fifty percent. The findings based on data collected from two hundred and sixty eight seismic monitoring stations in one hundred seventeen countries around the world as countries began implementing lockdowns to prevent the further spread of. covid nineteen from China Clay Patent started to emerge the so-called anthropoids as it's become known I became noticeable at the Chinese Epi Center in late January followed by countries in Europe and the rest of the world of March April and May as the full extent of the pandemic became known in all one hundred, eighty five seismic monitoring stations recorded significant drops in the high frequency anthropogenic signal correlating to lockdowns in those regions it was most pronounced in high density areas such as cities but researchers say the effect was also noticeable immoral low density rural areas, even stations that are incredibly isolated such as the middle of the fat filed Germany's black forest. May, well, a new study looking at your chances of getting covid nineteen in a commuter situation such as aboard a train or aircraft have found that sitting within three seats of an infected person meant you have on average is zero point three, two percent chance of catching the virus. The study also showed that passengers travelling seats directly adjacent to an infected passenger suffered the highest level of transmission with an average three point, five percent chance of contracting the owners. However, it also found that sitting on the seat previously occupied by infected person only increase your chances of contracting covid nineteen by zero point zero, seven, five percent much lower than previously thought the findings by scientists from the University of Southampton reported in the Journal Clinical Infectious Diseases. Study concluded that New Zealand's Melting glaciers were ten times more likely to be caused by man made global warming than by any other process. The findings report in the journal Nature Climate Change show that this increased likelihood is driven by present day temperatures being around one degree higher than before the industrial revolution. The study suggests that as the earth gets warmer, though be an increasingly visible human fingerprint on extreme glacier mass loss of the coming decades. Paleontologists discovered a new species of theropod dinosaur in Portugal. NEW CA-CAR DONTE Asari and DONOSO named Lusa Venuto Turkey is based on fossil fragments from two individuals from the Jurassic one of the fossils has been dated to around one hundred, fifty, three, million years ago and the other to around one hundred forty, five, million years ago. The Ancient Predators reported in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology h around three and a half meters long animated tall. And that's the show for now space-time is broadcast on sites radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC, and through both I heart radio and on June radio or you can subscribe and Download Space Time is a free podcast through apple stitcher. Bites. Dot Com Puckett cast soundcloud, spotify YouTube, audio boom, Pud beam android cashbox from space time with Stewart. Gary Dot com or from your favorite. Download podcasts provider you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies all by becoming a space time patron, which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as bonus already content and other awards just got a Patriarch Page Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details. If you want more space time, check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff. We couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images, news stories, videos, and things on the web I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Tamla Dot com that's all one word in lower case and that's Tamla without the it can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through space. Time Youtube Channel on facebook just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary. space-time is brought you collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine Your Window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from BITES DOT com.
Ancient Galactic Mystery Deepens
"Love this podcast. Support this show through the acoss support of hr. It's up to you how much you give. And there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support. Now this is space time series twenty three episode one hundred and twenty one for broadcast on the thirtieth november twenty twenty coming up on space time and ancient galactic mystery deepens pristine extraterrestrial ganic compounds discovered in a fiber meteorite and how nasa plans to phone home from the moon. Oh that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd stewart gary. A new study of distant galaxies in the very early universe is discovered that they were already far more massive mature than previously thought. The findings reported in the journal astronomy astrophysics raises major questions about how inching galaxies could have gotten so big so quickly the observations were made as part of the largest multi wavelength survey ever undertaken of the early cosmos scientist. Look back some twelve point. Three billion years going back to a time when the universe was less than one and a half billion years old. It's a time when the cosmos a piece of experienced a sudden growth spurt. The survey could alpine was designed to investigate the gas dust and one hundred eighteen distant galaxies during this eight bark using the giant keck and subaru observatories. A monaco in hawaii. One of the study's authors and trace faced from the california institute of technology says he was surprised to find. Galaxies had evolved so much faster than expected. The authors simply didn't expect to see so much dust than heavy elements in these early distant galaxies. Galaxies are considered to be more mature for one of a better term when they contain a significant amount of dust and heavy elements produced by early generations of stars. The problem is galaxies in the early universe. Really haven't had all that much time to build stars. So astronomers expected them to be dust poor and contained very low levels of heavy elements. They also expected them look like train wrecks because early galaxies often collide with each other. So there's a lot of gravitational perturbation going on instead. They found many of the galaxies in the survey showed relatively mature features including structural diversity and the first sides of rotationally supported discs which could eventually lead to spiral galaxy such as i wanted milky way using multi wavelength studies allows astronomers to get a more complete picture of how galaxies form and evolve. So as well as the optical observations from kagan subaru the authors also gathered up to data from vista from the very large telescope in chile. And from this. As hubble space telescope perspective they analyze these galaxies in infrared using nassar's earth orbiting spitzer space telescope and in radio wavelength with alma the atacama large millimeter submillimeter array radio telescope in chile. The radio infrared revealing places of star formation hidden by dust of the galaxy selected for the alpine survey chosen from a catalog of altered distant objects with high quality spectra that spectrum being obtained from diaz the cake observatories deep imaging multi object spectograph. The study will tell. Scientists more about the early universe the unique properties it contained and the unique way at influence galactic evolution. This space time still to come. Scientists discover pristine extraterrestrial organic compounds in samples recover from fiber meteorite and how nassar intends to phone home from the moon. All that and more still to come on space time you okay time to take a break from show for word from our sponsor a great courses plus you know in these uncertain times. It's important to take a little time out to focus on yourself to do something that lifts you up and makes you feel better and one of my favorite ways to do that is by learning with the great courses. Plus that way. There's no down time you see the great courses plus isn't just the nava streaming service. 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This must see in our skies and this is a great place to start learning. Just what's up there and learning so easy. Thanks to the great courses plus app. Let you watch or listen anytime anywhere. The whole idea is to make it easy for you and you can start your journey with a great courses plus today now i see just you sign up through a special. You are roll. The great courses plus dot com slash space. That way you'll get a fourteen day free trial with unlimited access and you'll be hoping to support our show so don't forget the great courses plus dot com slash space and you'll find the euro details in the show notes on our website. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space. and now. it's back to our show. This is space time with stewart gerry. Scientists discovered pristine extraterrestrial organic compounds in samples recovered from fiber meteorite. The fiber all streaked across the skies ontario in the united states west. On the night of january sixteenth. Two thousand eighteen eventually slamming into a frozen lake in michigan. Scientists used with radar to determine. Exactly where the pieces landed. And then meteorite hunters. Were quickly able to collect the samples before their chemical makeup was changed to much by exposure liquid water. The study of some of these samples is now provided scientists. A glimpse of what space rocks are like when they still in out of space. The findings were reported in the journal. Meteoroid dixon planetary science shows the meteorite contain pristine organic compounds which could tell researches about the origins of life. The study's lead author. Philip from the university of chicago in the field museum says the meteorite special exit fell on a frozen lake and was then quickly removed before it became contaminated with planet earth being so pristine allows scientists to see unaltered materials containing a rich inventory of extraterrestrial ganic compounds. These same kinds of organic compounds will likely delivered to the early earth by meteorites and might even have contributed to the ingredients of life on question. We get asked a lot is. What's the difference between the media or meteoroid the meteorite. we'll meteorites spacewalks that have fallen worth when things like asteroids collided at space fragments can break off these bits of rock a code meteoroid 's and they'll continue flooding through space pretty well forever unless they get caught up in the gravitational pull of another body such as a moon or a planet once a meteoroid desert atmosphere. It's called the meteo. Big ones a cold five bowls and if they explode in the atmosphere they referred to his bowl. Eids serious sky watches. Never call them. Shooting stars pieces of media that survived the trip through the atmosphere and hit the earth surface echoed riots. When the fiber flew of michigan scientists. Use nurses with a raider to track with the pieces went now whether rate as a mentor detect hail and rain but pieces of meteorite. Which are the right size can also be. Detected so with a radar helped show the position and velocity the meteorite allowing search teams. Zero win the area within a couple of days meteorite hunters found the first pace on the frozen surface of strawberry lake near hamburg michigan sites determined that this meteorite was an h four conrad which makeup just four percent of all meteorites falling to worth unusually it showed a high diversity of organics. Scientists aren't sure. How the organic carbon containing compounds responsible for life on earth. Got here but one hypothesis is that they hate the away here on meteorites. That doesn't mean that meteorites themselves contain extra terrestrial live rather some of the organic compounds which hope make up the building blocks of life might i formed on an asteroid and then later felt worth this space time. Still the com-. Nasa plans to phone home from the moon and later in the science report and you study claims high vitamin a. e. andean take could be linked to fewer respiratory complaints. All that and more still to come on space time. You look tired. I take it the caffeine toothpaste and adrenaline face serum aren't working. Well maybe you should ask santa for a nectar mattress this year. And if the big guy brings you another unicorn finger. Puppet don't worry because mattresses start at just four hundred ninety nine dollars and she gets three hundred ninety nine dollars in accessories thrown in as well as at three hundred and sixty five night home trial and a forever warranty go to nick. Sleep dot com. Today nassar is selected bell labs to develop and you lose a communications network based on cellular for g technology. The agency will test the four g. l. two year long term evolution technology to help support future exploration efforts on the moon potentially enabling live video streaming and remote control of lunar rovers basis and infrastructure. Nokia bills already developed an ultra compact low powered space haden's base station intended as the centerpiece of a feature luna network and it's slated to be deployed to the moon in late. Twenty twenty two. A prototype of the new lunar base stations already been tested under simulated lunar conditions at the european space agency's high power radio frequency laboratory. The lab used radioactive strontium ninety and high energy ultraviolet lamps to seed low energy electrons. Well testing the performance of the base station across three different temperature ranges to qualify for lunar operations engineer especially concerned about a multi pack defect caused by strong radiofrequency energy in vacuum generating an avalanche of secondary electron emissions from the rif device itself resulting in the damage or destruction of the equipment. The good news is the prototype. Bay station survived the test with flying colors. The find out more about the project entered. Bentley is speaking with astronomer. Dr fritz watson they are now looking at putting the four jay my ball phone network or cell network on the moon with the support of nacchio which is got a few people upset in the astronauts oil. Yes so now says altemus project which is blaming to sign the first woman and the next man to the moon in twenty twenty full. That project is aiming actually at the southern polar region of the boone. Part of the project is to build Permanent base on the moon permanently inhabited base with a view to learning about long-term spaceflight principally with the idea of going tamaz in the next decade so the ultimate program is actually pretty broad brush thing and the image envisages lunar lander may be happy. Tation modules actually sitting permanently on the moon surface. So what has happened. Is that nasa has recognized that if you've got astronauts wandering around a lunar rovers and things of that so trying to find their way without the benefit of gps. The need is for satellite communications. And what they've done. What nasa has done a to really contracts nokia the nokia company at she. The american company to develop a cellular network on the moon his facilitate as i said long-term lunar habitability providing communications for key aspects such as lunar rovers and navigation the luna four g networks. So that contracts already been voted forty point one million dollars to develop that network The immediate consequence was a lot of very upset radio. Astronomers because radio strongly uses the most sensitive at tennis in the world to look at signals from deep space which would be basically flooded out by the nokia cellnet specific frequencies. This is one thing that we have to be clear about. It's not like flooding something on the ground with white light where you've got. Every frequency represented these communications preconceived quite specific but at least one of them and suddenly one the styling network as using as very close to a radio astronomy band of interest of interest. Because where a lot of forgetting molecules actually emit radio waves deep in space because this for life things of that sort which of course radios spectrum. Is that really interested in. And if we're going to be flooded out in those wavebands by communications either from constellations of spacecraft above the earth or by phone networks on the moon. We are struggling. We're going to be struggling. And i think radio astronomers are going to have to be working with the communications people to try and mitigate the consequences of it's already happening by sex. I'm sure radio astronomy talking to knock here as well about what the lunar proposal moves like now half that can come to some sort of agreement or understanding it would be a terrible thing to have. Bicycling an arm cut off by radio. Signals from satellites and aluna for j. network and lose that connectivity with the potential of discovery. I think that would be a a really big giant leap backwards The big question from me that phrase with this four j. network on the moon will the astronauts be able to find home. Probably had to ask someone had to ask for it can phone home except eighteen. That's professor fred. Watson and astronomy department of science speaking with andrew gently analasyst. The program space knots and this is based time. I'm stewart gary. And i take a brief look at some of the other stories making news in science this week with the signs report and you study has shown that high of vitamin a. andean take could be linked to fewer respiratory complaints. The findings reported in the british medical journal. Based on research looking at more than six thousand adults of eight years scientists examined their diets and respiratory history. Things like colds and asthma. They found that vitamin a intake. Both from died and supplements were associated with a lower prevalence of respiratory complaints. Interestingly vitamin d intake from supplements not from died were also associated with fewer respiratory complaints. The findings will undoubtedly add to the current scientific debate on the value of vitamin d supplements. And you study is confirmed that the covid nineteen pandemic as resulted in one of the largest drops in global carbon dioxide emissions in history. The findings reported in the journal nature. Communications are based on near real time. Data collected during the first half of twenty twenty compared to the same period. Twenty nine thousand nine comebacks emissions dropped globally by an estimated eight point eight percent which is far larger than the drop during previous economic downturns such as the global financial crisis or even world war two the researchers noted that emissions came back as soon as a country relaxed that's lockdown restrictions but substantial differences between some countries remain of one point three million people now being killed and almost fifty million infected by the covid nineteen corona virus since it first began spreading out of china to the rest of the world almost exactly a year ago. You're a search warrants. At the growing problem micro. Plastic pollution may have an even greater impact on fish survival and behavior than the degradation of they call reef habitats researches raised damsel fish in micro plastic polluted waters and then placed them on either alive or dead and degraded coral patches. The findings reported in the journal of the proceedings of the royal society. B showed that those really micro plastic environments those released into dead. Carl habitats were bolder more active and had lower survival rates than those in the control group. The effects of plastic exposure were also more pronounced than reef degradation alone. The author suggests efforts to address micro plastic injection should go hand in hand with efforts to restore car reefs. Scientists have developed a tiny device no larger than the coin which be attached to your arm and generate power simply from the breeze of your arm swing as you walk. The device isn't technically turbine but consists of two plastic strips in a pipe that flutter clap together when there's airflow this generate static electricity researches say they want to make the device even small and improve its efficiency so it can be used to charge devices like cell phone sustainably. They also plans to make a bigger version. One capable of competing with existing wind turbine technology. You can read the study in detail in the journal cell reports physical science. It's amazing the sort of lengths people will go to to try and convince you. They've had some sort of supernatural experience. And an awful lot of these claims. End up on the disc of tim. Mendham from australian skeptics claims show real effort with a serious attempt at special effects drama and theater. They're still phony but at least is making the claim of tried. But then according to tim you'll find others which is so bad. It's had not to laugh this story about eight women who is show that was guys activity inside or outside of the house because adults very Upset and frantic and running around like crazy right. They might have been ghost monitors themselves. It's a video which is well worth having a look at to see some of the crappiest proof of dust you've ever saying you're gonna cover a dog run landry and ran ran ran and then staring at in front i were at the front door was probably probably the owner Just coming aimed at the video winding the mary. You often wonder about these things. People play cameras in the corner but rooms to fill these feelings activity then. These stocks are running around jumping on the lounge looking outside and on the lounge. Strangely placed is a large blanket which is half off the lounge and during the media. You see one corner of this blanket. That's near the flow lift up and it's the most obvious of string attached to the plank lifting that you've ever seen a lot it just moves exactly at the pace of string attached to a blanket with live so it's sad but i look a lot of guys and all and that sort of thing but This is this has to be one of the worst. Dogs look like adding running ran backing staring out the window during that thing. So someone's outside monkeys. It sounds like it's it's done just for the tiktok value. this is a tiktok value. I think really. I mean it's it's so poorly on that bunk within microseconds but they think it's impressive by looking at it but The and they're they're surprisingly for some of these really bad person. The paranormal people. Who believe i take any over the value of heard of sake octopuses or is it occupy psyche crocodiles. Of course we've had to pick elections. And now the sake costa sake course. It's it's actually autocracies okay. Woman has a whole that. She's for a while and she consulted a psychic animal. Whisper to find that more about the horse. Now this long. I may the psychic actually revealed a lot of information about From the host apparently goes passed on by the host. Which whose name is fred. And the psychic said that the host told her spouse needs to freight the sake course rating talking and so. That's the interesting community. The host of course which was the source told us psychic that the lady would make the love of her life and the man would have a scar on his leg. He cosi told the psychic that one if the woman's daughter has had ridden the host but had an accident by falling off. Put the top of that. I can say it goes to the black piney that Had passed away some years before that the lady would show her business and up in business and it would be going right down. It's like giving historically interest in Future advice on business advice you could say that probably if anyone knew this woman who looked up at facebook page. Which is pretty easy to do that. You can gather information about people that reveal themselves so like a daughter having an accident. Pioneer died awhile ago even thinking about career prospects selling the business and opening up new one. All that stuff could be found on On the website and you combine that with told reading while yeah yeah the interesting thing about finding a life with a scar on lake. We die much about that goodwin. Pirates higher hose also said that actually this man with a scar would be toll on half and that he would be young now he used told have dot. Hey but he's actually quite all. I think was wrong on that one. Trent abilities reliable hosts the host. Of course of course it's any how. How old is to fridays. But yes he's he's not one hundred percent reliable which makes plastic sonke to mendham from australian skeptics. And that's the show for now. Space-time is available every monday wednesday and friday through apple podcasts. I tunes stitcher koogle podcast. How can castes. Spotify cast amazon music bites dot com. Soundcloud youtube your favorite podcast. Download provider and from space-time with stewart gary dot com space times also broadcast through the national science foundation on science own radio and on both iheart radio and tune in radio and you can help to support our show by visiting the space time store for a promotional merchandising or by becoming a space time patron which gives you access to triple episode commissioner free versions of the show as well as lots of burners content which doesn't go away access to exclusive facebook group other awards. Just go to space time with stewart gary dot com for full details. And if you want more space time please check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as heaps of images new stories loads videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space. Time with stewart gary dot tamla dot com. That's all one word. And that's tumbler. Without the aid. You can also follow us through at stewart. Gary on twitter at space time with stewart gary on instagram through space time youtube channel on facebook just go to facebook dot com forward slash. Space time with stewart. Gary and space time is brought to you in collaboration with australian sky and telescope magazine your window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with stewart. Gary this has been another quality. Podcast production from bites dot com.
Debate Continues Over the Age of the Universe
"I. Love. This podcast support this show through the ACOSS support a feature. It's up to you how much you give and there's no regular commitment just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty, three episodes seventy-nine coming up on space time debate continues over the age of the universe growing signs that a new oceans about to open up in Africa and Japan and China loan separate missions bound for the Red Planet Mas, all that and more coming up. I'm space time. Welcome to Space Time We'd Stewart Gary. New. Observations by the National Science Foundation's Atacama cosmetology. Telescope has downplays the age of the universe at thirteen point seven, seven, billion years give or take four, hundred million years. The findings reported into scientific papers published on the PRE press physics website I've dot org a based on a new more accurate study of cosmic microwave background radiation. The first light in the universe created some three, hundred, eighty, thousand years. After the Big Bang when protons and electrons form the first hydrogen atoms thereby allowing photons to move freely. The age of the universe also reveals how fast the cosmos is expanding a figure known as the Hubble constant the etiquette cosmetology telescope measurement places lobby constant at sixty seven point six kilometers per second pick Pasig that means an object one mega passive or around three point two, six, million light years. From? Earth. would be moving away from us even stationary at a velocity of sixty seven point six kilometers per second to the expansion of the universe. The new calculations are in close agreement with the standard model of cosmology and support similar measurements provided by the European Space Agency's plaque satellite, which found the Hubble constant to be sixty seven point four kilometers per second Mega Pasok. However, it doesn't resolve A. Lingering discrepancy with multiple other measurements of distant galaxies, which suggests hobbled constance more likely to be around seventy four kilometers per second pay megapass Vic, a significant difference, and this discrepancy between these two different figures has sparked concerns that either one of the sets of measurements must be incorrect and both sides are equally certain. They're not all more concerning -ly that a new cosmological model of the universe might be needed. The lead author of one of the Study Simon Allah from the flat. Institute, says, the new data adds a fresh twist to an ongoing debate in the astro physics community and it raises the possibility of unknown physics play meanwhile that lead author of the other study Steve Choi from Cornell, university says the new estimates agreement with the plank data provides these team with confidence in the measurements both the added Chemicals Molly Telescope and plank measured photons from the cosmic microwave background. That leftover hate from the Big Bang now cool to just two point seven degrees above absolute zero Friday this time three, hundred, eighty, thousand years after the big the universe was otake with photons created and reabsorbed almost immediately. The idea is if scientists can estimate how far light from the cosmic microwave background had to travel to reach of, they could estimate the universe's age but that's a lot easier said than done in fact judging cosmic. Distances from Earth is extremely hard. So instead the office measure the angle in the sky between two distant objects with the earth and the two objects for me. A sort of cosmic triangle. If scientists know the physical separation between those objects, they can estimate the distance of the objects from Earth subtle variations in the cosmic microwave background radiation glow offer Anka pull instaphone, the other two verticals of the triangle variations in temperature and polarization resulted from. Quantum fluctuations. In the early universe, there were amplified by the expansion of space time into regions of varying density which went on to form today's galaxy clusters and cosmological model. Suggest that these variations in the cosmic microwave background radiation typically spaced at every billion light years of surface temperature and roughly half that for polarize ation the Atacama cosmetology telescope mentioned the cosmic microwave background radiation fluctuations with unprecedented resolution in the process taking a closer look. At. The polarization of the light, the plank satellite measured the same light but by measuring its polarization in high fidelity, the EP created by the Atacama cosmetology telescope reveals more of the oldest patterns ever seen this space time still to come early signs of what will one day be a new ocean opening up in Africa and Japan China loan separate missions bound for the Red Planet Mars all that and more still to come on space. Time. Scientists say sixty kilometer long cracking the Ethiopian desert, which I up in two, thousand and five with the equivalent of several hundred years of tectonic plate movements. In just days, we'll continue spreading eventually forming a new ocean within the next five to ten million years. The findings reported in the Journal, a US transactions of the American Geophysical Union, a based on numerous occasions global. Positioning system satellite readings of the rate of tectonic plates spreading along the arid east African fire region a triple point with the Arabian Nubian and Somali plates are all pulling away from each other how it by convicted hate from deep within the planet and propelled by seafloor spreading from the mid ocean ridges more than a dozen large tectonic plates make up the crust constantly colliding. Tearing Pot, sliding pastoral, subjecting under each other and in the process, breaking up old continents and creating new ones. You data is allowing scientists to measure these plate movements with millimeter per year accuracy, allowing them to see what's happening in five greater detail than ever before. Over the past thirty, million years, the Arabian plate is being solely moving away from the African plate in the process creating what we now know as the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden meanwhile slow gradual split as being seen with the African Somali played in eastern Africa ca leaving from the Nubian played at a rate of about five millimeters per year. This is opened up what we now know as the Great Rift Valley six thousand kilometers of the Earth's crust splitting through. Era Trailing Kenya and going through Create Lake Tanganyika and eventually, Lake Malawi in Mozambique scientists studying the badlands to the Afar region are already seeing dense owes Yanic basaltic crust, which is very different from the light at continental Greek crust the before. Eventually the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea will create a new ocean by flooding in over the Afar region and filling in part of the Rift Valley System. This is already a raging with some of the world's largest volcanoes including the Alley Volcano considered the gateway to hell by locals because of its often of a flowing lava lake, one of only eight in the world and by far the longest surviving this space time still to come Japan and China separate missions to the Red Planet Mars, and later in the science report Israeli scientists developed a new drug which could radically nineteen from the lungs in just a matter of days all that and most come on space time. Show your support for space-time Here's how. Join our insiders family via patriotic super cast. The choice is yours. For just a few dollars a month, you get access to the triple episode commercial free versions of Space Time each week. Plus other rewards like bonus content and an invitation to join our special patron only facebook group. And at Super Cast, you can even take one of our new bundle options. Get all the details at. Patriot. Dot Com slash space time with Stewart Gerry where you can see the various reward levels and see what works for you. Or. VIA SUPER CAST BITES networked out Super Cast Dot. Tech. And of course, you have the satisfaction of knowing that you're helping us develop the show into the future. Link details are in the show notes and on our Website Space Time with Stewart Gary. Dot Com. And thank you to all our patrons your generosity and support are very much appreciated. This space time with Stewart Gary. Japan and China of H Lawn separate missions within days of each other for is the Japanese. Aerospace exploration. Agency Jackson has launched an age to a rocket carrying the United Arab Emirates hopes spacecraft on a mission to study the Red Planet from orbit. It finally blasted off from the Taniguchi myspace center thousand kilometers southwest of Tokyo following a series of delays due to ongoing bad weather with uncle. Interesting. Of Conservative. Thought that attended I must. Never looked. To ripple number. From. Transparent at six thirty am. Incident. Colonist. Announced has been switched from the House of the. Little That leads says flying about possibly Gershon today's. The answer is, of course in the punishment cushioning talking to launch a very ill. Inter she. Is. The probe will spend the next seven months on its five hundred million kilometer journey. Tim Is the two hundred million dollar mission will study the Red Planet's atmosphere from orbit for a full mash year the equivalent of two earth years. It's will allow her to collect data on how whether on mass changes across the planet over the course of a day, and of year, it also study how the planets losing its tenuous carbon dioxide. Atmosphere hopes equipped with an image or two spectrometers providing detailed images, the planet surface, and tracking the composition of the Mush atmosphere. Meanwhile. China's launched its and win one Oh heavenly questions. Mission also bound for the Red Planet, the spacecraft, which includes both Obama and a land rover blasted into space aboard a Long March five heavy lift rocket from the wing. Chang. Spacecraft Launched Center on Hainan Island. In the South China Sea the missions expected to achieve orbit insertion sometime between the eleventh and twenty four February. Next year, the three, thousand, one, hundred, twenty, five, kilogram orbiter will produce new high resolution maps of MAS analyzing its surface composition and looking for minerals. Then in late April, the missions Landa will be deployed using parachutes retro rockets in a bag to descend down to the surface with touchdown plan for the planet here. Once on the ground two, hundred, forty kilograms, rover will roll. Down a ramp to the surface spending ninety days studying the soil and searching for signs of past or present Mash Life Beijing's using this mission as a technology demonstrator for future sample return mission to Mars Plan for the early twenties thirties so far only the United States is successfully Land Rovers on Mars a joint Chinese and Russian mission to Mars in two thousand eleven called. Phobos grunt failed when the spacecraft failed to leave Earth orbit as well as the Chinese enjoyed Japanese United Arab Emirates mission. The United States is also launching a new mission to the Red Planet. The Mas Twenty Twenty Perseverance Rover, which is tagging the forty five kilometer wide jezreel crater and he's carrying what will hopefully be the first helicopter the fly in the Mash and atmosphere. A fourth Martian mission this one by the European. Space Agency and Russia was to launch this year as well. However, technical issues passed the ongoing cove nineteen arenavirus as forced mission manages to delay the flight until twenty, twenty two the next time Mars will be close enough to Earth to attempt such flight this space time. This is a cast recommends every week we pick one of our favorite shows and this is one we think you're gonNA. Love. Life's greatest mysteries remained shrouded by the thin veil separating the ordinary from the store extraordinaire. Wouldn't it be great if there was a podcast that could help answer these burning questions and decode the truth. To but until then check out hysteria fifty, one weekly odd cast. It takes a comedic look at the world of the weird hosted by me Brinton him John Go forth that thing conspiracy about all idiots and me British announcer guy remember buck the truth is out there but you won't find it here. Stay woke meet sex. CAST is home to the biggest broadcasts from the US and around the world subscribe to this show and hundreds more now via cast or wherever you get your podcasts. anti-matter take another brief look at some of the other stories making using science. This week with the sides report Israeli scientists have developed a new drug, which could radically the covid nineteen virus from lungs within a matter of days researches at Hebrew University in Jerusalem and New York's Mount Sinai Medical Center. If they could potentially downgrade covid nineteen severity to nothing worse than a common cold researches revealed that the FDA approved drug fina vibrate or try core could reduce lasko visibility reproduce or even make it disappear. United. States and Canadian scientists said well thing that we may lose most of the woods polar bears by the end of the century. The busy facing starvation as global warming melts more and more say I surround the Arctic a report in the journal Nature Climate changes found that the disappearing is is forcing the bays onto land where food sources of few and. Far. Between before they've had the ability to store enough to survive scientists estimated how long Polo Biz can survive without food before birth the cubs and the adults start to die rapidly finding that many polar bear populations have already crossed that threshold researchers say the cubs are the first to go followed by the males with solitary females likely to survive the longest. Paleontologists have discovered a new species of Sarah. Dinosaur. In northern Switzerland name shallow should see the tin along bitterest dinosaur lifting what is now the Swiss cantonal Schaafhausen during the triassic period approximately two hundred and ten years ago Sarah Pods long necked long tail dinosaurs with elephants in like bodies and feet that look a lot like Fred flintstones dino they include the largest animals that ever walked on the planet and were the dominant herbivores in many Jurassic and Cretaceous Ecosystems. However the origins earlier volition of this group is less well understood the new findings reported in the Swiss Journal of Geosciences. Well as lockdowns ease and many people who've been working from HAMAS, slowly starting to return to the workplace scientists, the reminding people to remember their pets may now suddenly find themselves home alone many for the first time. One thing that many people have actually enjoyed during these difficult months has been spending more time at home. Would they pay it and for some it's been an opportunity to have a pet for the very first time. Now, after months of constant company at home, it can be confusing for animals if earn is routine suddenly changes quickly. Veterinarians. warned that some pets may experience separation anxiety no one's around during the day. Dogs particular crave human company, and earn. It'll be spending more time back in the office will need to condition their furry friends to feeling positive about time alone. Vet Say the simplest thing is to leave them alone for a few minutes to start with then five minutes ten, then twenty, eventually thirty, and so on that way, they not left feeling isolated for long periods. Remember your pets love you not just for food water shelter, but also is a dear friend other options include someone to take out for regular exercise during the day invest in doggy daycare or arrange play with your. Friends dogs remember pets a creature of habit. So establish a routine cavs rest play exercise and learn time during the day while you're at work in order to return them to a normal habit also encourage pits to play with their toys and to rotate toys regularly to keep them engaged. You can also make feeding fun with puzzle failures, chew bones, and scatter food to increase the time and mental energy spent foraging and eighteen. Medical. Authorities say this bain a drop in vaccination rates across. Australia. In recent months doctors, and now trying to determine whether the reduction is due to an increasing at VATSA campaigns or because of fear and attending clinics because of the ongoing covid nineteen coronavirus pandemic to Mendham from a skeptic says, the reduction coincides with a campaign aimed at politicians, which is calling for a evaluation of vaccination programs. Recent figures from the Department of Health would up till March in which case way between ninety and ninety five percent of children having sex night, which is which is. And you want to be ninety, five percent take her. The different vaccinations have different effective rights but during the maizels outbreak in tomorrow and America and various slices vaccination, go to be push as being a good thing obviously people maizels. Saying people die for some reason during this pandemic. Team thing it has encouraged anti vaccines to come Adam Michael claims often tightly contradictory three premiums. I will say one is better. If the government just to get you to vaccinate and they just have a numbers are unreal and say white work and Blah Blah Blah they can say contradictory things at the same time. Does not exist but they receiving a letter media coverage unfortunately some time ago we understood Dr Campaign that was done by skeptics from various people random. The media realized that my stuff you not all the stuff that was saying Ravi should stop giving them publicity. I was want some time. They had an open slather, but it seems like because of these high profile because of the pandemic is probably because a lot of people are very scared about it and the Anti Vaccines. That they getting a good writing the media one person say there's been nine hundred percent increase, which is non times. You know the coverage that they might have had some time ago. The actual numbers of vaccinations going them whether that is a response to the anti vaccination publicity or whether it's just the fact that people are in lockdown and don't get vaccinations, they're not at school get the kids can get back selections at school not necessarily visiting a doctor to get vaccinated that might be a reason why vaccination rights have gone down certainly, the media coverage of anti vaccination is a worry is real in town planning team famous eighty s all over the place unfortunately. Getting when the have major campaigns link at Vaccine Anti Five G. and Saying that the vaccination doesn't exist. It's a corner five G. spreading the vaccination, which is probably the contradicts that I can have a little ludi element to it, which has a has an attractiveness to the media, but there's also a kind of panic and ready great concern coming trying to find a cue which doesn't exist to the grave and a treatment that doesn't exist very well, and the a using that the fact is that if other vaccinations which you still made, you'll still need flu vaccination you'll still need the antigen the. Vaccinations old or of Nice people know me have you still made the opportunity to. Have them done by Dr or whatever is slower because people are in lockdown probably lodge or they just have. To doctor the mammoth or what it might be and because school. So for one reason, another anti vaccination rights are down by how much Diana and the very raising at people in my question or either. But certainly. There's a major increasing exponentially activity and coverage. Not. Vaccination people aren't seeing the doctors right now for the normal breast cancer checkout. So colonoscopy things things which prevent cancers through early detection. So where there's a great fear that there's going to be an increase in diagnoses of the sorts of illnesses in the future, right correctly. Right especially if the hospitals taken up on current biased cases. We're seeing very low hospital admission rights full coronavirus coming will days room to move people have these treatments, but they're not doing just frightened of actually finding out. Wide, skate they ask it and that's up to me. That's a major reason why people are. Refusing to have test them because of what are revealing what that impact on working working on auto, what they can do? I tried era contractor sadly funny and he's Karenna, vars and cause US ally for two weeks and guys all the work as the IT's disappointing. But it's not surprising that some people might be wary of being tested. That's Tim Mendham from a train skeptics. And that's the show for now space-time is. On science own radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington, DC and through both IHEART radio and on the radio or you can subscribe and download, space time as a free podcast through apple. Stitcher. Bites Dot. com. PUCCA casts soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom Pud beam android cashbox from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite download podcasts provider you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the space. Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time. Patriot which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burners audio content and other awards just go to patriarch page through space time with Stewart. Gary Dot Com for all the details. If you want more space time, check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff. We couldn't fit in the show as well. Loads of images, stories, videos, and things on the web I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary, dot, Tamla Dot com that's all one word and in lower case and Tamla without the it can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram throughout Space Time Youtube Channel on facebook just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary. space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine Your Window on the Universe You've been listening to space time with Stewart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from BITES DOT com.
20: Volcanically Active Vesta
"This is space time series. Twenty three hundred twenty four broadcast on the eleventh of March twenty twenty coming on Space Time signs that the asteroid Vesta remained volcanically active foul longer than it should have. Looks like South? Australia might be back in the space race this year and the Phantom Express project scrapped all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. You evidence indicates the asteroid four. Vesta remained volcanically active foul longer than it should have. The findings reported in the Journal. Geochemistry and COSMO chemistry raises new questions. About how long small planetary bodies can retain their hate after formation the five hundred and twenty five kilometer wide vista is the second largest object in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter only Dwarf Planets Series Big Stone spacecraft visited Vesta in two thousand eleven discovering that it is a far more complex geological history than previously thought with a completely differentiated metallic core Silica metal and thin basaltic crust. The new findings based on our gone gone radioactive decay dating techniques shows that Vesta was volcanically active for at least thirty million years after its formation. Some four point five six five billion years ago. The study's lead author professor. Fred Jordan from Curtin University says vest is the only large intact asteroid which is full differentiation. And that makes it of tremendous interest to scientists trying to understand more about planetary formation. Jordan colleagues analyze will preserved samples of volcanic meteorites which originated from Vista and were eventually discovered in the snowfields. Van Tactica the Ghanaian. Dating provide very precise ages for a range of western meteorites. Giving scientists clues about event timelines on the ancient space rock the result show that Vista remained volcanically. Active for at least thirty million is following its formation that significantly longer than what most models had predicted and it was totally unexpected for such a small asteroid which should've called quickly. Jordan says all the heat providing radioactive elements should have completely decayed by that time. The findings suggest that pockets of magma's must have survived investor possibly slowly cooling as Paschel Magma Russians inside the Asteroids Christ. The meteorites also show impact dates for some of the LARGE ASTEROID COLLISIONS INVESTOR. Witchcraft massive crater. Some will ten kilometers. They out of the product planets volcanically active crossed the authors also identified meteorite samples from ejected breed that originated fire taper down inside bitter and that allowed them to better understand how long it took for vistas depressed. Ole To cool down. The thing is some of these rocks located to deepen the crust be affected by asteroid impacts and yet being relatively close to the mantle. They were strongly affected by the natural. Hate grading the pro planet causing them to be metamorphasized. The findings suggest that the first flows of erupted lava investor were buried deep into its crust by later more recent lava flows essentially layering them on top of each other. They were then cooked. Modified by The Hague's proto-planets mantle the authors also concluded that the meteorites they analyzed were excavated from vestige during a large impact possibly around three point five billion years ago and within gravitationally bound into a rebel policy droid where they were protected from any subsequent impact. A rebel asteroid is from a group of ejected rocks a symbol under the run gravity. Creating an asteroid. That's essentially nothing more than a pollock's clump together. Jordan says when combined all these findings have provided science with a glimpse of the first fifty million years vestis history. They also show. Volcan isn't can last longer than previously thought on small protoplanetary bodies which could mean Volkan his money earlier. Earth may also have been far more energetic than previously thought. So I think this was probably what What's the most interesting for me? Because I'm also volcanologists. I like my volcanoes and the fact that the raid was kind of covered with crocs That pretty interesting but of course comes the question hour long. Did this can last. 'cause it's on earth it's still going maybe on. Venus maybe on Mars but on On the smaller after like best I must have been really short so the only thing that people could do is modeling. Six right so they modeled the energy of the system and it did you saw long divall canyons. GonNa Laugh then. They use also meteorites to date stuff like a bit like we did with a different technique which is based on Zioka. So it's uranium. Dating a gun is very useful but even basic rocks like this. You don't have that many so they're very limited in what they can date should come. We see a picnic and that is based on the decay of put. The two are gone and put the is like bad books. If you want to get rid of the everywhere. So that's the good thing for us. You can apply all dogs but modern to to all those meteorites. They're always gonNA content but that Japan but the trick for us. The problem is that it's very sensitive to impact. So you know if you look at the moon it's been impacted so much to death. I mean it's obvious. With the number of craters same vista same from everywhere actually in the system. So it's very heavy but I'm Bob and has a lot to answer for this one to yet so the property pets you've gone so if interested by impact. Easterly other inaugurates the testing but Phobos Kenny. It's charter yet. I'm very interested by volcanoes until our do that We look at you crite. That are call and bridge shaded and those one day. That's the minority of those so Ukraine. What they are they are the pathologic rocks coming from Vesta but and those one they were unbridged Shitty so that means that not been shocked to for people like meat are priceless because they can record the pristine volcanic history of now Sheila. No matter what I'll shut down the steelers tiny shocked. I always paradox. So but that's how you know. Even a tiny beat up shut can tell you part of their to what we did. We extracted Muros of pleasure class. So those one. You really need a big shock to open the clock and those were not open on those meteoric those unbridged shade Ukraine so we could access the volcanic history of Vista to unprecedented levels. That are the technique. Couldn't do because like I said before there was no Zioka so now we tried to apply that some rocks some volcanic rocks and in particularly to rocks that are full sold. Magma Chamber Hugh so they'll magma chamber in the crust of this stuff so if you have Magma Chamber yeahs can tvd basically Mike Mike's schooling on the shoulder and we do things and that kind of a younger. What people thought with their mothers and previews dake not by much? I mean it's is so small. Volcanic activity must have seemed very very early. But still that's thirty million years. Tell your time that was much stronger than what people before. Sokaia back to your initial question. What implications for us now if older models point out to you know using energy and stuff through Kenneka Titi very shortly investor and yet we show. He was in fact longer than what people thought to. What about US right? You don't work on that at all. We don't have rock icon bait anything. It's all about modal and speculation each. You want to be but well. If it's truthful Vista might be true for us as well and it must be trouser mas as well. Mas- should've solidified mostly. There are hints. That they could still be some liquid around the core of mass at. That's all speculation. It's again based models could be that Kinshasa Vulcan is still going on a number of terrestrial worlds. Yeah absolutely so. Look no no secret year. My favorite planet Venus understandably. It's thought would've been you know. No no well I was moving so I like it when I teach to my student. I call the Pizza. Moon of 'cause he looks like that but my theory is finished. I mean the teacher. We got from the associates which is just incredible. And it's getting more and more likely now that we are seeing fresh vulcan is when I say fresh within the last hundred million years on Venus I eat people stay away that they so some burst of eruptions. So I'm not really sure if you You know lightning or something like that but it could be eruption actually so they could still be going but obviously because we get this giant cloud cover and and the radio see only the surface. We can't see that so we need to send more probe to Venus in my opinion. Yeah but getting him to survive is the problem direction at burnt he can. Do the Russians have done that the Soviet Union but yet they have done it that they never lasted long. That we're a lot better than what we were in the nineteen seventies and eighties. Hopefully we'll have a better chance now. So let's look at vistas history. This is all coming from these meteorite. Samples you've got from at Arctic. What have these meteorite samples told you about the evolutionary history of Vista of volcano? But we just talked about but There were different kind of and Richie Ukraine and one of them. That was a very deep deep rock. That was deep in the crust and yet it recorded an impact so it's not impacted after so we kinda Steve Pristine but we know based on chemistry. Can you believe him that he just quenched to for the death so he must have been a exclude? The surface almost instantaneously. So what it means It's like you had the giants and their thing ten kilometer of crust and just putting that into the vacuum if you want upstairs and to me. It's kind of views that there were things like that happening but seeing Iraq it's fascinating and the Knicks Gig is like because this is still volcanically active. At this time you can imagine a giant sterry coming and smashing into our why on earth which is chemically active as well. And that's the picture that you would have had at the time. Invest and Yeah I don't think the scientific p very important this is just because I can imagine it finding very fascinating. Suffice obits at this deep impact so that was happening all the time and I think that the scientific community we focus way too much on the reality we are the forget the rest but yeah the tweet giant-impact on this everywhere pushing he's been banded up trading really looking at the geological history vista based on these meteorite samples. What does that tell you about? The main belt asteroids as a whole they are very different in some cases not just because they're on one or the other side of the snow line either well absolutely but vista that's pissing best is absolutely unique. It's the only differentiator steroids. Tina's largely intact in theory. Older red been shattered to pieces to find out where we have Iron Meteorites and even some as terracing the until he made a fire like psyche from the mistaken so that means before they were buried like Vesta differentiate but the complexity exploded. This is the only one remaining uneven. Eat like say this is pretty banged up so a lot of Sukur. They still lead a theory. They are just bought a shattered from so when you study Vesta it really helps you to spend the rest of the planet. Because that's the same solution but about the hysteria. The kind of different because most of them been never differentiated so teammate of pregnancy brick of the Salah system so-called country thick material. So that's totally different. I D I wear what you can compare the two weeks impact history so whatever buddies made up you know contract Basil As a mental. Even IRA IS GONNA record impacts all those body can tell you about. The practice started so their stock is one of them so depending where it easing yesterday balance you can see the bombardment history at this late. Look at the other part of this. Alexi stems abbots like different bombardment history because of the position of giant planet in order to have differentiation. Does that mean that the body's GonNa Remain Multon Falungong. Yeah correct so you need something to provide energy so quick you gotTa Craciun but because a lot of the stereo down the differentiated. We know. It's not enough. You need radioactive element. That's going to produce a lot of for example aluminium. Twenty six the most energy in Guam so it has a very short I flight so that means if you get a lot of it decays in very short period of time producing a lot of Energy Devil. Melting the system. Now we think. Vestal is not competitive moton and and then you're the differentiation policy so when people talk about big mouth ocean. I think that's more like a a partial magma magma and sings moving around so you see. Saudi rock can move only to be liquid. She grew on us. The mental is completely solid and yet it's flexing just moving around except it's very slow pace over the years so I think that's that was the same partial Martian and some pocket of Magma. So why is for can activity less for Solo? I've seen what happened back. Some of the pocket of mccaw century Aluminium Twenty Six. So we use this nation so-called partitioning off elements of some element like to magma some elements like to stay soluble and apparently some different than mine. Some people have seen that aluminium twenty six crew like to go in the concentrating acting like my pocket and they stay liquid for much longer. Where would you like to go next this research? So let more meteorite. And that's why I got replaced it more to Nessa data. Rigi Nice people. They they feel requests me to write and you do something interesting. We've them to send you up. So that was widely studying this first part of what we were doing with launch repack like sal excellent for the back but We tried all look on On on Richie. One anyways but we just dead on seven I get some results for one in my lap. Another one that works very well. So we're GONNA so morning which is another thing we can do you. D- dial gin. So what they are. They're essentially concentrate of miracle piracy. And that's the meal that Either you find. You can Demento or in review from my chamber very coming on earth dairy us but when you have one of those from that. He's really cool because he tells you. What the tale of this Sullivan isn't it? That's elevates knowing that there's not much leaving We would like to see more do because that would be a trace eighty then if you want that we have peace of the mental. The mental must've fire scene analogously but movie selling is rocks. Alert of piracy. So we don't think come from the mental yet must be very deep in the crust. So does one. Nobody can do much with it because it's fire scene so usually did. There's not much to play with. And we managed to date a few of those and we get some interesting legal but that's for another day. I'M GONNA push my research into this direction. Focusing on this stuff that not shocked like a few diode unite. The Hugh You Cry Aka Basil and we see what we got but we need more resources. I mean obviously Using these sticking Cammisa Fridge Jordan from Curtin University and this Space Time. I'm Stewart Gary still to come south. Australia could be back in the space race this year and Acer the Australian Space Agency's Official Headquarters Open Adelaide. All that and much more still to come on space time. It's been many decades since the last spacecraft reloaded own it into orbit from the woman a rocket range in South Australia's fan off that South Australia could be back in the space business this year with a company called seven launch expecting to conduct its first commercial space flights from its new. Air Peninsula launch complex before the end of the year. The company says its planned whale as way spaceport could eventually carry out up the forty space missions a year the facility Port Lincoln on South Astray Peninsula with Lawrence South over the great southern Ocean. Interpal Roberts South Korean space company PARODY AEROSPACE AS already sign up to use the facility with some eight launches now shared to fly it helps to launch. Its first rocket blue whale one prong whale as Wayne July. The eight and a half meters tall one thousand seven hundred ninety kilograms to stage launch vehicle back by. Samsung is designed to deliver one hundred fifty kilogram payloads into five hundred kilometer. High Sun synchronous orbits the company claims. It can carry out. Its flights is two million dollars. Pallone JR Perte says well as well as an ideal location because of minimal aviation and shipping traffic. And also because it's a long long way from South Korea's belligerent. Northern neighbour wants blue whale once operational parody plans to develop a larger rocket capable of carrying payloads of up to three hundred kilograms into low orbit last year. The South Australian government granted the whale as launch complex major project status southern launches also developing a separate rocket test range on aboriginal antic. Kanimba forty kilometers from junior in the states. Foul West to trial launch vehicles. It's already signed contracts with supplemental trial flights over the one hundred and forty five kilometer test range which is over land thereby alive for the recovery of the rockets and they payloads for post flight evaluation. The companies now waiting for launch approvals from Australia's Civil Aviation Safety Authority and Acer the Australian Space Agency. Meanwhile a second company. La Equatorial launch. Australia will provide Lawrence Services for at least four sounding rocket flights for NASA this year from its new purpose built on them. Space Center Launch Complex in non boy seven hundred kilometers south east of the Northern Territory capital of Darwin the sub orbital flights using black brant rockets will carry a series of scientific payloads including spectrometers. The steady light spectrums from the office into a triple star system looking atmosphere around exoplanets and to take into still a guess so as to better understand the structure and evolution of galaxies so being just twelve degrees south of the Equator. The atom launch complexes located in. What's considered an equatorial sweet spot? Following payloads into space in fact only the European Space Agency's Curie spaceport in French. Ganor is better at just. Five degrees of the equator Brazil has even closer just two degrees but it hasn't been operational since a devastating launch pad explosion in two thousand and three being on the the equator provides launch vehicles with extra Delta v over lusty when launching to the east. That's all thanks to Earth's rotation which provides an additional one thousand six hundred thirty five kilometers per hour compared to launch sites at much higher latitudes and that additional boost translates into extra payload for the same amount of feel competitive facilities such as Cape Canaveral Vandenburg biking or or any of the launch complexes in either Russia or China L. A.'S. Also looking at providing services for the University of New South Wales spinoff company sky craft which designs and builds small satellites including three new surveillance satellites for the Australian Defense Force. This is space time. Boeing has decided to withdraw from the Phantom Express Experimental Space Plane Program the company's fat and Works Division at one. The latest one hundred forty six million dollars phase of the project in two thousand seventeen under a contract with the United States Defense Advanced Research Agency Darpa to develop a reusable wing space plane. The project began back in twenty thirteen to develop a space launch system which could operate like an airline with flights on demand the ability to quickly service and relaunched spacecraft and a small ground infrastructure footprint. For that sounds familiar. It should be very similar to nets as original plan for the space shuttle. However Phantom Express was designed to be autonomous the reasonable winged launch vehicle will be about the size of business jet it would blast off vertically from a launchpad using a single aerojet. Rocketdyne is twenty two men engine based on the air twenty five space shuttle main engines after releasing its single use APP a stage which contains the payload the booster within return to the surface and the taking a conventional runway landing may well after its release from the launch vehicle. The stage would fire up. Its own rocket. Engine accelerates payload into orbit. The plan was to be able to fly the same launch vehicle on ten flights in ten days with running costs of just five million dollars per launch and that includes the cost of the disposable stage missions would carry payloads up to forty nine hundred kilograms into low-earth orbit the proof that concept and a twenty two rocket engine assembled from leftover parts from the space shuttle program was testified ten times of ten days to confirm work building also completed fabrication of Commerce that Liquid Oxygen Cryer tank for the space plan in two thousand eighteen and according to joppa there were no technical barriers standing in the way of achieving its objectives. Phantom Express would fly off a refurbish space launch complex forty at Cape Canaveral at it would use either the nearby space shuttle landing facility or the skit strip runway for to protect worth. This is space time. A Russian Soyuz rocket is blasted into orbit carrying thirty four new Internet. Telecommunications Satellites Arianespace St Twenty seven was launched from the bike in cosmodrome in the Central Asian republic of Kazahkstan about a Soyuz. Two One bay rocket. It was the twenty seventh. So he's mission for Arianespace launched from bike and all the thirty four one web satellites on board deployed into a six hundred and fifty kilometer high polar orbit over sequence lasting some three hours and forty five minutes. The flight brings to forty the total number of one web satellites now in orbit. Eventually the Constellation will consist of at least six hundred and fifty satellites meaning at least nine thousand nine hundred flights. The plan is to have the wondered and fifty kilogram. Ku Ban satellites flying eighteen polar orbital planes. Eight satellite has a life span of twenty five years this space time and that's the show for now. Space-time is broadcast on sites owned radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through birth IHEART radio and aren't union radio or you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free twice. Weekly podcast through apple. Stitcher BITES DOT COM pucca cast soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom Pud beam android cashbox from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite download podcasts provider. You can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time patron which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burn off content and other awards. Just go to a patriarch page through Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details. If you want more space time check out our blog. You'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images news stories videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot TAMLA DOT COM. That's all one word and in lower case and that's Tamba without the it can also follow us throw at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through Space Time Youtube Channel on facebook just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart. Gary space-time is brought in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine. Your window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart. Gary this has been another quality. Podcast PRODUCTION FROM BITES DOT com.
Einstein - Right - Again!
"Space Time Series twenty-three Episode Twenty Eight for broadcast on the twenty seventh of April. Twenty twenty coming up on Space Time. Stas dancing around the monster. Black hole proves Einstein was right again. Need data suggests that into still a comet. Twenty-one Borisov originated from a red dwarf and may formally announced as the data Americans return to launching people space off American soil all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary. Astronomers have confirmed that stars orbit a supermassive black hole exactly as predicted by the great professor Albert Einstein. In his general theory of relativity the new observations reported the Journalists Toronto. Me and astro-physics show that star is to is orbiting around secretaries a star a supermassive black hole at the centre of our Milky Way Galaxy in a Rosette shaped orbit rather than in an ellipse as predicted by Isaac Newton's theory of gravity Einstein. One hundred and five year old general relativity theory predicts that bad orbits of one object around another are not closed as Newtonian gravity predicts but instead processes forward in the plane of motion. This famous affect I seen in the orbit of the planet. Mercury around the sun was the first evidence in favor of general relativity theory as the description of gravity located some twenty seven thousand light years away secretaries a star has some four point three million times the mass of the sun and it's offered by dense cluster of stars providing a unique laboratory for testing physics and some of the most extreme environments in the universe and one of these stars to sweeps towards the supermassive black hole getting as close as twenty billion kilometers about one hundred and twenty times that it since between the sun the Earth that makes s to one of the closest. I've ever found in orbit around our galaxy central black hole that its closest approach the secretaries as esters hurling through space and almost three percent the speed of light completing an orbit every sixteen years has provided a team of scientists including the study's lead author Ryan Hopkinsville from the Max Planck Institute the opportunity to test general relativity using the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. But in order to do this the author knitted to follow the orbit of S. Two over a period of twenty seven years finding for the first time that the stars orbiting the massive black hole justice predicted by Dr Einstein. What it means is that general relativity is providing a precise prediction for how much it's over changes and the latest measurements from this research. Exactly match that theory. Kenzo says this effect Schwartzchild procession has never before been measured for a star around the supermassive black hole. The findings exquisitely measures is to Schwartzchild procession in its path around Secretary Say Star S. Two's orbit processes meaning that the location of its closest point to the supermassive black hole changes slightly with H. Orbit in such a way that the next door. But he's a Ted with regard to the previous one thereby ultimately creating a Rosette shape most stars and planets have non circular orbits and therefore move closer and further away from the objects. They circling the sobered around the Sun. And even the moon's open around the Earth a birth examples of this gins all says that the more than one hundred years since iodine first published his general theory of Relativity. Scientists have never attempted the same effect in the motion of a orbiting. The Compact Radio Source Secretaries a star at the center of the Milky Way. This observational breakthrough strengthens the evidence. That secretary taster must be should massive black hole of a full million times. The mass of Sun. By team I in studying massive black holes and the formation evolution of the universe if you envision the solar system and what Newton and kept one knew about it and you have the planets orbiting the sun on an elliptic or or circular orbits and these ellipses. If there's nothing else in the way is a figure which is always the same okay. It stays the same in the end. The Planet Overthrown Sundsvall time. Not so in general relativity and Several effects. Yeah one is just due to the fact that the space time makes the audit of the of the planet process move forward rotate issue like a little bit Forward it over time and if the sun has angular momentum say rotates that there's a second effect which is also precision we must as scientists. That's our that's the scientific method. Keep on testing in different parts of strong stays with `serious correct in order to either. You know find. It is correct or not correct. So that's that's what we're doing here. You're looking in part of a parameter space in mass which has not been looked at. There's a second motivation we'd have and that is to actually show that the object which is in the center of a mill of the Milky Way is a massive black. Old is so far but it might not. It might be a double object might be triple object who knows and so by making the measurements. We are measuring F. B. Making basically. You're firming up the evidence evermore that this is indeed a supermassive black hole. Not a third if you like is the biology of black holes in their environment because black holes are not lonely objects because of that gravity day attracting other objects would expect in fact to be the massive black hole in the center of a galaxy to be a typist. Surrounded by a cluster of stars may be still black holes or maybe so-called intermediate mass black holes so these would be objects that cluster of stars and maybe stellar black holes. Oh maybe so-called intermediate mass black holes so these would be objects of say a few hundred to a few thousand sola mass. They've not been seen but they might exist effect. We're seeing now is basically a true for for for objects with mass general tippety In contrast to Newton also says that a gravity affects the motion of massless. Things like light. So if if if if you have a flashlight or laser and you're closer black hole and you shine that to us at a large distance. Then the laser light asked to climb out of the massive gravity around the black hole in its energy lessons. And so we see red shifted so that's one of the effects of the next one we were would like to seize effective spin so if a black hole is rotating then it takes said space time around with it and a star which would be moving there or gas which would be moving. There would see that and start to wobble and if you can see that you can measure the spin of the black hole. That's Professor Meinhard. Denzil from the Max Planck Institute and this is space time. I'm stupid Gary. Still the come. Observations suggest the interstellar comet twenty-one Borisov probably originated in star system around a RED DWARF and May twenty-seven officially nominated as the date for when Americans return to launching people into space off American soil. All that and much more still to come on space time. Let's take a break from our show for word from our sponsor express. Vpn rated number one by tick you may be wondering why you need a virtual private network. Well it's in the name. It's all about privacy. Do you really want big brother? Tech companies hackers governments. And who knows who else. Knew Ping in on your mind activities now you might not have anything to hide but it's still really creepy and it could be dangerous for you and those you care about. Also how often do you run across a website and you want to get information from it but you fine at the Pierre blocked? It's very frustrating. And it's becoming an increasing problem and that's where expressed VPN can help you express VPN's a simple efficient way to protect your online privacy. It's Internet with our borders from the world's leading VPN provider so. Protect Your online privacy today and find out how you can get three months free at tracks press. Vpn DOT com slash space? That's try express. Vpn DOT com slash space for three months free with a one year package visit try express VPN DOT com slash space to learn more. And of course you'll funneling details in the show notes and on our website that's try express. Vpn DOT com slash space? And now it's back to our show. You're listening to spend time with Stewart. Gary You sedation suggests that interstellar comet twenty-one Borisov probably originated in the stash system around a Red Dwarf Borisov seemingly came out of nowhere last year swooping through solar system from another part of the Galaxy. Astronomers knew it was alien to our solar system because of its speed of course but it still looked just like any other comet they had seen until now as journalists have used this. Hubble Space Telescope to study. The comets chemical composition discovering that. It's rich and cabin monoxide at liberal simply uncharacteristic for comments from our solar system one of the study's authors. Kathleen mad from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory. Sitcom at twenty one barrasso provide science with its first glimpse into the chemical building blocks of another solar system of course comments of the solar systems. I see dirt both the compressed mountains of ice gas and dust dating back to the very formation the solar system four point six billion years ago as dirty snowballs gate closer to the sun the warmth of the Sun Evaporates. The IS IS CREATING BRIGHT COMA OR GAS CLOUD. Scientists can then study the coma examining expect to determine its chemical makeup and letting scientists see how molecular compositions and abundances change with distance from the Sun. Now a comment from another star system would convey similar information said the authors used the Hubble space telescopes cosmic origins spectrograph to analyze versa of ultraviolet. Light over four distinct periods between December twenty nineteen January twenty twenty. This allow them to watch is carbon monoxide water oxygen and carbon dioxide ices guest into vape from the comet but the researchers surprised to find that. Bruce's Bright Kerma was rich in carbon monoxide gas relative to water vapor a finding that measurements from NASA swift. Space Telescope was also able to confirm over the same period in fact the carbon monoxide was at least fifty percent more abundant than the water is and that's a value more than three times greater than the average any comment measured in the Inner Solar System. Even though the composition of comets in our solar system can vary significantly from one to the next astronomers have never seen a comment this close to the sun with this much carbon monoxide compared to water you say carbon monoxide is is an extremely volatile molecule shifting from iced gas with the slightest ray of Sunshine. Now in our solar system that face change begins around eighteen billion kilometers from the sun almost three times distance between Pluto and the Senate. It's firths point on the other. Hand water resist sublimating to a gas from a solid until the crisis what we call the snowline near the inner edge of the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter around three hundred twenty to thirty kilometers from the sun and for comets once inside the snow line what are almost always dominates over other gases effect only a couple of comments of broken that rule but even those when compared with the amount of carbon monoxide. Borisov puts added any distance were significantly lower Borisov's of carbon monoxide implies that it came from a Planetary Formation Ridge and that was very different types of its chemical properties compared to the disk from which solar system was formed the authors suggest that Borisov probably formed far from star at a point in the star system. We're carbon monoxide is would be stable that way put a from a large planet could still eject the comment from Home Star System reporting in the journal Nature the authors say that all these spaces tend to suggest that birth south probably belonged to a disc of icy dusty debris around a red dwarf star the most abundant star type in the Milky Way galaxy red dwarfs a relatively small cool stars at best just half the mass of the Sun and just a tenth of its luminosity and what that means is that carbon monoxide could remain an ice at just being kilometers from the star. And that's roughly eighteen times closer than in our solar system and many red dwarfs are likely to have large planets orbiting the distances while it's impossible to determine the exact stop or solve came from the molecules that spewing out of provided enough gla searches to at least picture what that system may look like. Bris of made its closest approach the sun around December thirtieth twenty nine teen. And he's now on its way out of the solar system. Scientists will continue studying this fascinating Stella visitor as long as they can until ultimately leaves us solar system and returns to the space between the stars. This is space time still to come. Nasa confirms Americans will resume flying into space off American soil on May the twenty seventh and tensions between Iran and the West or escalating as Tehran undertakes another missile test dressed as a space mission in violation of United Nations anti-nuclear agreements. All that and much more still to come on space time. Nassar's confirmed that Americans will resume flying into space from American soil on May twenty seven. The United States is relying on Russian so US flights to get people into space ever since the early retirement of the space shuttle fleet with the landing of Atlantis on. Sds One thirty five way back on July the twenty first twenty eleven. It'll be a major milestone for NASA's commercial crew program designed to use private contractors to transport crew to and from the space station allowing Nassar instead the focus on its optimistic space missions to the moon and Mars using its new Orion capshaw SOS rocket and they first American crew to fly off American soil in a long time. We'll be Robert Ben Kim. Douglas Hurley will fly to the International Space Station in a space x crew dragon to captial from launch complex. Thirty nine a at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida however. The flight won't be the three hour to work. Fast rendezvous journeys which become commonplace for Russian Soyuz missions to the space station instead space x planning a more sedate twenty four hour flight to the orbiting outpost at this stage. It's still not known how long the crew will remain on station before returning to Earth in March Twenty nineteen a dragon to capture of success. We undertook the demo one and Mantis wide to the space station returning to Earth and splashing down to the North Atlantic Ocean. Six days later the new dragon two capsules. A based on the original dragon capture design which was only used for cargo transport although it was always designed to eventually carry crew as part of NASA commercial crew program like the original Dragon. The Dragon twos reusable and will launch Falcon Nine rocket unlike the original dragon which had to be Grad by the space station's robotic arm and then maneuvered manually to a docking port dragon to we'll duck automatically the spacecraft designed to remain docked to the space station for up to two hundred and ten days in Orbit. The dragon to looks different from its predecessor with new updated out of moldings and the rules are different inside with new generation. Flight computers in avionics new life support systems and room for up to seven crewmembers. Another big difference is instead of the iconic banks of controls dolls which is monitors which were so commonplace on spacecraft ever since the dawn of manned spaceflight pilots to fly the dragon spacecraft using touchscreen console and while the original dragon used eighteen drake reaction control system thrusters main repulsive attitude control. Maneuvering and reaction systems. The dragon to us just sixteen side Mattis Drake thrusters together with eight. Super Drako rocket engines to fitted an issue foreside matter thrust the pods eight super. Drako will be some two hundred times larger and more powerful than the conventional Drako. Ics thrusters though provide propulsion for the emergency escape system. The fly the catchers out of harm's way during a launch or a set emergency that also be used for orbital maneuvers and originally there also designed to be used for repulsive landings. That's been put on the back burner for now in favor of parachute splashdowns. At Sea Dragon to also differs from its predecessor. In using side mounted solar arrays fitted directly under the service module hull instead of the original dragons deployable solar array which are extended once in all of it the service model code that trump by SPACEX also houses all the auxiliary equipment in hate removal radiators. And it has little fins on it to provide aerodynamic stability during emergency boards and you spacecraft also uses a movable ballast shield which provides more precise attitude control of the captial during atmospheric entry as well as the crew version of the dragon to there'll be a cargo version capable of carrying up to three thousand three hundred seventy kilograms of supplies and equipment which is being juice now to replace the original dragon cargo ship which completed its final mission earlier. This month you'll listen the space time still to calm tensions increase between Iran and the West as they rang conducts another missile test. The Sky's the space launch and later in the science report and you study wants that people infected with covered nineteen may become contagious a day or two before they start to feel ill all that and more still to come on space time. Tensions between the West and Iran continued to escalate with Chairman undertaking. Another missile test in violation of United Nations anti-nuclear Agreements. Tehran claims the launch utilized. A Bahasa or Messenger. Two stage rocket to place a new art military spy satellite into a forward and five kilometer. Height low-earth orbit the launch. Apparently took place from these limit. Revolutionary Guards show route missile range three hundred and thirty kilometres northeast of Tehran. Now if accurate. It's a major development in. Iran's get family of air to surface guided missiles sake these are normally designed to be launched from fighter jets and carry nine hundred kilogram. Mark Eighty four smart bombs over range of only about one hundred kilometers. It would also mark a major departure from. Tehran's previous practice of using North Korean base. Scud ballistic missile technology for their spaceflights like that of its close ally and technological partner. North Korea expert Ciaran space program as a thinly disguised cover to develop missiles ultimately capable of delivering thermonuclear. Warheads this successful launch follows a series of recent failures including an attempting February to launch a similar rocket into orbit another failed similar launch just over a year earlier in January twenty nineteen followed by the failure of Safar rocket a month later and then a spectacular launch pad explosion during fuelling at the Cigarette Imagine Khameini Missile Launch Complex last month the United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency criticize. Tae Ran for not answering questions about possible. Undeclared nuclear material and nuclear related activities at three locations. The nuclear watchdog warned that the Islamic Republican almost tripled its stockpile of enriched uranium since November from three hundred and seventy two kilograms up to one thousand and twenty one kilograms in violation of its two thousand fifteen anti-nuclear codes. This means that with weapons grade enrichment Iran would only need another thirty kilograms of uranium to produce an atomic bomb. The oil-rich nation insists. Its Nuclear Program is exclusively for peaceful power generation purposes that Iran is also refused to allow International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors access to three suspected nuclear sites where traces of enriched uranium residue has been found including one-sided. Tacoma's Abed which Tehran describes as a COP cleaning factory this space time And time now to take a brief look at some of the other stories making news in science this week with a science report research warns that people infected with curve in nineteen may be most contagious a day or two before. They start to feel ill. The findings reported in the Journal. Nature suggest an estimated forty four percent of curve in one thousand nine cases may spread from person to person before symptoms appear the findings efforts to track down context of people with curve at nineteen should include those encountered several days before a patient's symptoms begin scientists found swapping the noses of ninety four current. A virus patients found levels of the viruses. Genetic material picked immediately after the onset of symptoms then declined over the following twenty one days the authors say. The findings suggest that virus production may be strongest at the start of infection before the body's immune system kicks into kill viruses and reduce symptoms. Research is giving antibody rich plasma to severely ill curve in nineteen patients are reporting significant improvements in some cases the pilot study findings reported in the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Include one trout in which ten patients were given us so called convalescent plasma resulting in a rapid trump in the virus load in their bodies. Researchers say that within three days Dr Sawyer. Improvements in the patient's symptoms ranging from shortness of breath and chest pains to favor them coughs however doctors put out that larger randomized. Trials will be needed in order to confirm the findings me. Well separate trial administering convalescent. Plasma five patients reported in the Journal. The American Medical Association also found improvement in symptoms within ten days of their infusion. The findings raise hopes that donated blood from people who've recovered from covered. Nineteen could be used to boost the immune systems of more vulnerable people and help fight infection. And you study of more than two thousand toddlers. Found that those who watch television or videos at twelve months of age were more likely to show greater autism like symptoms by the age of to a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Found that kids who had less interactive play with a caregiver at twelve months of age. Were also more likely to have greater autism spectrum symptoms. The research suggests that parents should avoid screen viewing for kids younger than eighteen months. The concentration of atmospheric methane has reached new record levels data from a network of sapling stations operated by Noah. The United States National Geographic and Atmospheric Administration show that concentrations of the potent greenhouse gas are rising with an accelerating rate of increase methane. Can't come from Metro sources such as wetlands but also from human activities including oil and gas extraction and from livestock farming. Climate scientists are describing it as one of the fastest growing rates in the last twenty years. Well I've got to admit of not visited any entertainment sites and stopped attending the Arias but it would appear that at least some of them are covering more than the usual who was seen with. Who and why they were later arrested gossip and it appears at least one of them has come up with a sensible list of ten scientific explanations for paranormal activity as Tim. Minimum from the skeptics explains I remember. Tv show up in the UK with someone. Sort of ask the question. Had you know you have halted and I think it was kind of the community? Said it's not the way to know anyway. Always suggestion for what people believe is goes to central paranormal activity in the house. The particular article that appeared I di- neither side very well. If an entertainment side called the Toko and not the people can look it up. Say Okay Oh Tokyo and these are real or not. I raised in his infra. Sound which is a very very low Sam Oven belie the level of hearing. If you're an elephant you'd be familiar with it. It probably could be true. Volcanic activity weaned the ice and even by elephants so Well Kim a lot of volcanic activity around where I am electro magnetic fields which are over anyway As far as the impact on using them to make a living all my life so I quite like electromagnetic fields way frequencies aren't gonNA sign my head of the mind using those okay mold and this is actually something which has been discussed a lot. Actually that toxic mold on your walls etc. The world's got hold house which hasn't been for a long time and you get into the weapon. Rimington's moldy walls. You can actually get some sort of psychedelic sort of reaction from the mold himself carbon monoxide poisoning. Yes yes that's true that can upset you. Gas Lakes that sort of thing or whatever can obviously send your sleep paralysis. Which is this phenomenon that you wake up. You think you wake up being a dream and you cannot move this -ducted by aliens. Isn't it this standing in the bedroom looking at you and things like this? Because that's all you waking up sort of hop bye through the wrong time he's GonNa Sleep Cycle. And you just feel like you. Can you believe you can't move on? And they said well you've figured you being held by something but actually not what? I'm not either exploding head syndrome. I've not heard of this over time. Obviously exploiting hit you know that it had that thing that when you falling asleep and suddenly you jump. Yes Oh yes says you just as you drifting off to sleep right you get it annoying jump like something happens in USA bucket falling failing this is actually a bang here exploiting head. It's actually bang like I kind of just happened quite a lot. Yeah and it's annoying because you think oh it's something happened in. The House has the has all the crockery also. Something what's happened but he has jumped on the dishes that it's which is mowing because I didn't have a cat. It's like the jumping when you just Kinda we just falling asleep and this is the thing that bank perfectly normal. Nothing critically go. See Your Paranoia. But some people say flashes abroad lots at the same time just falling asleep. Suddenly whammo you get hit with a torch in your face. But it's not they just you. Having these dreams chronic sleep deprivation was night's sleep and you're not getting you probably can't believe anything And things happen to you or you think you say things your senses. Avi in the best form so that's pretty straightforward one of the things. I recommend with say this drug thing. That's the one that doesn't surprise me. Now you get into the sort of areas there's the influenced by the people who say this. House is haunted. And then you stop believing that. It's the haunted. Have Spooky House sitting with the guys who has their infrared goggles on an old sort of stuff and it feels spooky as a bit of fun. Things really easily. Well that's why people say movies scary. Maybe I know yeah I mean and it works and it's fun and they will but it doesn't necessarily mean that what you think you say is actually the and that brings after the last one the power belief and people who believe in guys will tend to see ghosts and those who came not to. I've always found it interesting. That ghost hunters will hardly ever go into a house. In fact nothing they. They'll always find something. Business Business Panther the funds. I mean most guys. How DOES NOT MAKE MONEY? But they're just going. Yeah the people who think they should be honeyman guys like Bill Murray federal but Camouflage the collective right why but That what them I guess. I guess they got their backpacks on. I think sincere people biologically I just really WanNa see guests and if you really want to say something you will. It's minimum from Australian skeptics. And that's the show now. Space-time is broadcast on sites on radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through both IHEART radio and on tuning radio or you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple. Stitcher BITES DOT COM pucca cast soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom Pud beam android cashbox from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com off from your favorite download podcasts provider. You can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time Patriot which gives you access to commercial free. Double versions of the show as well as burners ordinary content and other awards. Just go to patriarch page through Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details if you want more space time check it out blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images news stories videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot TAMLA DOT COM. That's all one word and lower case. And that's Tumbler. 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Construction Starts on NASAs Psyche Spacecraft
"Love this podcast, support this show through the ACOSS support of HR. It's up to you. How much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty-three episode seventy, three for broadcast on the Seventeenth July twenty twenty, coming up on Space Time Nashes. New Psyche Mission to metallic asteroid and new hypothesis. Try and explain the Tunguska event, and the International Space Station I may cost change because of space junk all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to Space Time with Stewart Gary. Construction's now underway on new spacecraft to explore the metal, Rich Main Belt Asteroid, sixteen psyche, the huge, two hundred and seventy nine kilometer wide space rock contains about one percent of the total mess. The entire asteroid built between Mars and Jupiter scientists think that unlike most other asteroids, which rather rockier is he bodies? Sacchi is largely metallic on nickel. Similar words core. In fact, it's thought to be the exposed core of differentiated product planet that. That was torn apart losing its crust and metal in titanic ancient collision, and since we cannot examine core up close and personal, exploring the asteroid psyche could provide some useful and valuable insights into how earth and the other terrestrial woods formed. The psyche mission is slated for launch in August twenty, twenty two, and with approval for construction. The mission has now moved from the planning designing phase into the actual manufacturer, the spacecraft and IT systems. Like all NASA missions your work on Psyche, withdrawing up that digital blueprints then came the building of engineering models, these within tested and retested to confirm the systems would do their job once they're in deep space. Finally, there was the key stage which is just occurred. They critical design review. That's when Nasser examines the designs of all the project systems including the three. Three main science tournaments as well as all the spacecraft engineering subsystems from telecommunications and propulsion through to powering the avionics in the flight computer mission, scientists engineers work together to plan the scientific instruments that will investigate psyche. The Psyche spacecraft will study the steroids, composition and surface features. It'll be equipped with a spectral image at the photograph that surface and collect data about. About the composition degrassi there'll be a magnetometer to measure the asteroids magnetic field, and they'll be spectrometers to analyze the neutrons and gamma rays coming from the surface in order to reveal the elements that make up the asteroid itself. The probe will also test than you deep space optical laser communication system. The mission team forty made prototypes in engineering models of the science. Science instruments as well as many the spacecraft's engineering subsystems, these models are manufactured with less expensive materials and those that will fly on the actual mission so that they can be tested before the actual flight highway spilled. The idea is to understand down his seven or eight levels of detail exactly how everything the spacecraft works together to ensure that it all performances. Performances needed allowing the science to be gathered and the data to be sent back to Earth. The components a I bought individually. The main body spacecraft called the solar electric propulsion chassis is really being built at maximum technologies in Palo Alto California in fact right now engineers are working to attach the propulsion tanks in February Max I would deliver the solar electric propulsion. Propulsion Chassis to Nest Jet Propulsion Laboratory's main cleanroom at Caltech in Pasadena California. And then they'll deliver the solar arrays which provided the path of the spacecraft's systems a few months later, and that marks the start of abloh NASA. Speak for assembly test. Launch Operations JPL which is managing the whole mission will provide the avionic subsystems including psyches flight computer the brains. Brains of the spacecraft right now that equipments all spread out on different racks in a cleanroom engineers attesting HP separately before integrating it with the next, and once everything's connected. They'll test the full system with the software operating the electronics exactly as that will be during the flied Psyche Project Manager Henry, Stern says the degraded system so sophisticated comprehensive testings critical to expose. Expose and correct every problem now. Because well, let's face it. You can't go out and fix the problem after lunch. Psyche is set to fly in August twenty, twenty two, it'll. I traveled to Mars for a gravity assisted may twenty twenty three on its way to arrive at the asteroid in early twenty, twenty six. We'll keep you informed. This is space time? Still the come scientists have developed a new hypothesis to explain the lack of debris from the tanker event largest asteroid impact in Earth recent history and the international space stations being forced to make an unscheduled course correction in order to avoid a possible collision with of Space Junk, all that and more still to come on, space. Time. Okay let's take a break from show for word from our sponsor. The great courses plus one of the many things I love about the great courses plus streaming service is getting to learn from actual experts who know what they teach. These are the people who actually carried out the research. The first place real professors have spent years of fields, researching and writing textbooks, and then in padding they knowledge to future generations of. 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That's the great courses plus dot com slash space, and of course will include the euro details in the show notes and on that website that's the great courses plus dot com slash space, and now it's back to our show. This. Time with Stewart Gerry. On the morning of June the thirtieth nine, hundred, nine, eight, a massive explosion with a force of a five megaton thermonuclear device, equivalent of a thousand and Russia bombs smashed into northern Siberia. The blast was so powerful it lit up the night sky in London a third of the way around the planet with an orange glow, allowing Brits to read the evening newspapers without using artificial lighting. Seismographs thousand kilometers away also recorded the it sparking intent scientific interest researchers were able to triangulate the blast to the remote Tunguska. River region of northern Siberia, but the place was so isolated. It took a scientific expedition nineteen years to get there. What greater them was a scene of utter devastation. The entire landscape of being flattened. The explosion raised some eighty million trees over an area of more than two thousand square kilometers mature trees was simply snapped off at their bases, covering the ground for hundreds of kilometres like matches, and all putting away from what appears to be the epicenter thought to be the location of what he's now like Chico locals who witnessed the blast, described the column of Blue Light, moving across the sky, and the cool summers morning air followed by tremendous deafening explosion, the blast and the eyewitness accounts were all consistent with what. What would have been an asteroid impact, but mysteriously no crater was ever found, and that's led scientists to speculate that the asteroid probably abors before reaching the planet surface. The idea of an Airburst was also consistent with while the unusual characteristics of the impact side. All those flat and trees pointed away from the blast zone, except that is for those at the very epicenter, curiously they remained upright computer simulation support the idea of an explosion caused by the ablest of a medial somewhere between one and two hundred meters across. Now if it wasn't, Meteo may have come from the Beta towards media shower. A debris trail left behind by the comet DP Anki, which the earth passes through twice every year in junior Tober Anki. itself is thought to be a piece of a much larger comet that break apart between twenty and thirty thousand years ago, following numerous interactions with the powerful gravitational field. Field of Jupiter. Now as the name suggests, the towards radiant or apparent point of origin is in the constellation of tourists, the ball the towards Meteo shower is made up of larger more massive material. The most Meteo showers think pebbles instead of dust grains. That's because as well as all. The usual debris produced as comet. St Gas in splatter fragments off into space. Space from evaporating volatile material, enke's orbit means it's also encountering gravitational tidal forces from Earth and other planets causing lodge breakoffs well it all combines to make the torrid stream of material, the largest media streaming the solar system, and since the media stream is rather spread in space. Let's take several weeks to pass through it causing an extended period of Meteo shower activity. Activity compared with a much smaller periods of activity from other media showers think weeks instead of days also included in the Stream is identify flow of gravelly. METEOROID TURRETS SWAN for to be a ribbon of rocks, roughly seventy five million kilometers wide by one hundred fifty million kilometres, cross and chip together by chip. This gravity occasionally earth passes through the lodge meteoroid of. Of the density towards warm and thought it was one of these larger chunks, which may have caused the infamous Tunguska event, the idea of a neighbor I was supported by an examination of were debris trapped in paid from the blast area, which was collected during the nineteen seventies, eighties, scientists, using high resolution imaging and spectroscopy identified polycrystalline aggregates have carbon minerals such as. As diamond lawns, the light and graphite nanometer sized paddock was launched the light form together with diamond and graphite particles in carbon, rich material that's been suddenly by shockwave such as those that would be generated by meteoroid impact. Scientists have found I nickle alloys, Charlotte and tonight together with tiny inclusions, divine sulfides, all of which are often found in meteorites so the mineral. Mineral Composition Fan in the tango skip it all piece to be microscopic visages as evidence of what was the largest meteoroid impact in recorded history, and very similar to that found in the Canyon Diablo Meteorite, which produced the famous barringer impact, Crater Zona, so mystery, solve right, not yet see. There's a problem a big one because there's simply no debris from an Airburst. Airburst the thing is when they twenty meter wide media Eberstadt severence. Guys of children blinks back in two thousand thirteen fragments of the space rock were found scattered right across the landscape, even in a nearby lake, but other than those microscopic sized iron nickel grains. We talked about no fragments of the Tunguska Meteo ever been found certainly nothing comparable with shown the blends. And that's led some scientists to explore alternative causes. Now a new hypothesis in the monthly notices, the Royal Astronomical Society argued there fragments because the asteroid never fragmented instead it glanced off Earth, atmosphere and continued on through space, and that's not as revolutionaries it sounds media was have been nine to skip across the atmosphere, one example being the great daylight Bible caused by Space Rock, the size of a bus, which was saying glancing off the upper atmosphere by Utara Wyoming. In one, thousand, nine, hundred, seventy, two. The authors use computer modeling to explore several different scenarios looking at different size, meet yours travelling at different angles and different velocities. Eventually, they found that an I an asteroid about. In, size coming to within ten kilometers of the Earth surface at a shallow angle would have remained largely unscathed and would continue orbiting the sun. They claim that rabbit compression of nearly asteroid would have been enough to create the blast region observed to find out more entered. Ugly is speaking with astronomer Professor Fred Watson Siberian, Times. has come up with a new theory about how. How the at twin goose event originated bicycling that that thing that happened over one hundred years together flattened massive areas of Siberia with that that the shock wave of an asteroid impact now according to the Siberian Times another theory is that the asteroid didn't actually hit the earth. It skimmed the earth and went back out the other side of the atmosphere so. How close modern asteroids skim by without co without crashing into it, and all being pulled into the gravitational field, and how large is the size of the one that would skim earth versus those that often Pamela Planet on a daily by Bassus Yeah, that's I actually saw that article as well and I think it is a really interesting suggestion, so what prompts the suggestion that? Maybe it was something that basically grazed the skim through the atmosphere detonated probably but then the bulk of carried home on his journey through space. Space one of the reasons why people like us idea is that it's very hard to find any evidence of debris as a result of the Tunguska, event is no single crater. People have looked at the whole landscape around there is full of lakes and the reason suggestion of a lump of something at the bottom one of the likes, but nothing that would count for the eighty million trees that were essentially flattened by that explosion, which if I remember? It was one thousand nine hundred nights his. I think you mentioned earlier. So the if you postulate a grazing impact than Pecan, back the physics work, and apparently they do, you can neatly answer why this no mater is no asteroidal daybreak that has been found in the district, so how close my an asteroid skin by the without crushing into it and obeyed big into the gravitational field, so what it depends on is a spate of approach. You've got something going relative to the US. US Let me do a quick calculation here at less than about eleven kilometers per second than it will probably hit you because that s escape velocity, and it works back when foods, but most of these things are traveling much faster than that, because the ascorbic velocities thirty kilometers per second around the sun hand asteroids in obits that gives them a whole range of velocities as well so you might get things. Things up to seventy kilometers per second on the high end and ECON. Get things because he got the asteroid going in the same direction, so it all depends. If you have something going really high speed, then it will would skim through the atmosphere. will be slowed down by the atmosphere, but not really significantly that the phenomenon that we're saying with this object, so you get a interaction with the. The atmosphere explosive fund very likely to to coast debut on the ground, but the height that this would happen I'm guessing that you talking about high steady kilometers or something like that to the surface that while not would. If something was going fast enough, it would not be appreciably slowed down by the atmosphere, even that sort of debt, but it would cause a big object particularly would cause. Dramatic detonation of the allies at least so the thing about. The Patches Mrs good as a mile a missive. A five hundred kilometers. He's much better because it doesn't interact with the atmosphere despite call the toll, but if you've got something that penetrates deep into the atmosphere them, saying maybe closer to fifty kilometers, I think fifty kilometers. Disney assume talented. The explosion took Guscott than if it's going fast enough, it will keep on going once again. How big is the size well? It really is dependent on speed. What the size determines is how much it comes out the other side of the atmosphere. If it's big enough, then they'll be still. Something left to fly on back. Back in Soviet if it's smaller than I would guess you talking about fifty Mehta's or something of that size than you might get complete detonation and produce some debris on the ground, which is exactly what happened with the Chelyabinsk episode, where there was an explosion, thirty kilometers above the ground, and there's a daybreak field downstream of that the biggest landed in a like that thing didn't carry a hominid full bits around the some, but basically still to be about thirty twenty to thirty meters across the current situation with objects is NASA is working very hard. Funding. Observatories. Adapt very high level to determine everything everything down to a size about hundred fourteen aces dot, c, the current threshold now something that big hitting us is definitely GonNa do city or statewide damage, but it doesn't lie out civilization, so that's the current threshold for objects to be filed a think. Congress mandated Nassar to facilitate finding ninety percent of such objects because he's always a statistical thing. You never quite know whether the last one's GonNa come from. That's Dr. Fred Watson and Strom with the Department of Science speaking with Andrew directly on. The program space nuts, and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gerry. Still to come the International Space Station forced to change course because of space, junk and China launches its ninety second reconnaissance spy satellite. Why does it need so many in the sky all that and more coming up on Space Time? The International Space. Station has been forced to make an unshared course correction in order to avoid a possible collision with a piece of space junk. The Russian federal space in Zeros cosmas fired up the orbital maneuvering engines of its progress Ms. Fourteen cargo ship docked to the orbiting outpost in order to carry out the cost change the burn lasted about one hundred seconds increasing the station's orbital velocity by that half a second and its orbital altitude by about nine hundred meters safely avoiding the space debris European Space Agency says there are now some thirty four thousand. Thousand objects more than ten centimeters in size, orbiting the earth, and the refer the nine hundred thousand objects between one and ten centimeters in size, and a further one, hundred and twenty eight million objects, a centimeter or lesson size, currently circling the planet, and all of these traveling around twenty eight thousand kilometers an hour. It seems river humans venture. They leave their rubbish behind. This is space time still to come. China launches. It's ninety second reconnaissance spy satellite, and later in the science report confirmation of a new more contagious variant of the covid nineteen virus. That and more still to come on space time. China's Ahmad of spy satellites is continuing to expand with the launch of two more high resolution reconnaissance satellites, the first to fly was the golfing multi mode imaging spacecraft, which was launched the Border Long March four B rocket from the tie. You and Satellite Launch Center in northern China's young Zee province. The spacecraft's quick with a large. Focus High. Resolution camera designed to provide sub millimeter level full-color images, and features a multi spectral Imager, an atmospheric synchronization, calibrating to reduce the impact of cloud and fog as well as its military intelligence gathering applications, some of the spacecraft's features will also be made available for selected civilian uses approved by the Chinese Communist Party the mission also carried the Zhabei, poll, Eighty, one zero to aerospace education satellite, which is carrying a range of scientific technical experiments for school students. Then just two days later. Beijing launched another reconnaissance satellites aboard a Long March two D rocket this time from his. You Want Satellite Launch Center in southwestern, China's Inner Mongolia Beijing of classified old. Dido's bet the Cheyenne six Oh to satellite, the Chinese state run media simply described it as an experimental remote sensing satellite intended Space Environment Study and related technology experiments Beijing is the same description for the gang series military reconnaissance satellites. This latest launched brings tonight he to the number of reconnaissance spy satellites now being operated by China to monitor what other countries on the earth below are up to the flight was also the three hundred thirty eighth launch of a long series rocket this space time. And and time to take another look at some of the other stories making using science this week with a science report back in early May news broke about a reportedly new more contagious variant of the COVID, nineteen virus, that story was based on a piece of non peer reviewed research independently published online, the preprinted, this new variant or the virus at a particular mutation. It's spike protein, which made it more transmissible than other. Other forms thereby representing urging concern for containment in vaccine development now a revised and peer reviewed version of the same paper reported in the Journal cell has additional data, still showing the strain to be more infectious, but it's not yet known. If that means, it'll be more transmissible, all lead to a more severe disease as a result, it's not known if this new strain has had a meaningful impact on the covid nineteen pandemic. And you study is found that an increase in carbon dioxide emissions equivalent to five million cars. A year has been caused by the loss of SEAGRASS meadows around the Australian coastline. Since the nineteen fifties, the stock findings were made possible by new modeling carried out by marine scientists at the Center for Marine Ecosystems Research Eighth, Cowan University a report in the Journal, Global Change Biology calculated at around one hundred and sixty, one, thousand, one hundred and fifty hectares of Seagrass, had been lost from strays coastline since the nineteen fifties resulting in a two percent increase in annual carbon dioxide emissions from land. Use Change. Scientist say semi transparent solar, still that could be incorporated into window glass set to become a game changer. They could transform architecture urban planning and power generation a report in the Journal. No Energy Claims Scientists from the AFC center of Excellence in. Science and Monash, university have succeeded in producing these next generation prosecute solar cells that generate electricity while allowing light to pass through the now investigating how this new technology could be brought into commercial products with Australia glass manufacturer is the technology will allow two square meters of solar window to generate as much electricity as a standard rooftop solar panel, rooftop, solar conversion efficiency of between fifteen and twenty percent or the new semi, transparent cells have conversion efficiency of seventeen percent of still transmitting more than ten percent of incoming light. And you study has found that although flowering plants evolved around one hundred million years ago, it took them around fifty million years or so diversify and bloom into the flowers. We know today a report in the Journal. Nature is documented the evolution of families of flowering plants on global scale and uncovered a patent where the diversification the families of flowers we know. Know and love today, and the ecological expansion of these species took place last after the families originated. They found that on average. This leg took between thirty seven fifty six million years with plant families, living in tempered arid regions, having shorter legs, and those from Tropics, the authors say this just some type of interaction between evolutionary innovation and Ecology in shaping the. Dynamics of flowering plants. Researches at the University of Harrisburg, claimed the verb artificial intelligence software, capable of predicting whether a person is likely to commit a crime and adjust this simply by looking at their face, the authors climb they. Program is an accuracy rate of eighty percent. But Tim Mendham from Australian skeptic, says the claims, a hauntingly similar to phonology wrapped up with a touch of facial recognition. Guys back to. The Nazis The we girls, so it's a paranoia. Maladies Astrology Saddam Hall Lot. If you probably goes back, even food I back to the eighteen hundreds, and it was the theory that you can tell if someone's personality, the bumps on their head, and that different parts of the skull we're divided about the various characteristics of someone grumpiness, sleepiness, dumping US whatever you want to use it, so that was phonology, and it's total garbage, but that was more recently. Someone's been putting forward theories that you can tell someone with the propensity for criminality bothers that they hit they from the proportions, their faces, which is basically saying you're genetically predetermined. Cream if you have these facial structures Cetera, the research, three years I artificial intelligence software, and that they receive a ninety percent accuracy rights that whether a person was a criminal just by looking at the policy, there's major ethical issues that said you can sort of stop. Putting people saw just because of the Shankar there. Of Se sort of research problems with it as well. It's heavily criticized by from an ethical plenty of the Antrim Scientific Twenty signed that there's very little really to support those arguments which had been around for a while, and there's been previous sort of research, supposedly scientists, the scientific thing and my slim I'm very poor and have been highly criticized straightaway and criticized scientifically as much as they have been from antics modeled Levi memorial plenty of the the. The, it's an appalling idea that you can sort of predict what someone's behavior is going to by the shape of the and yeah that you know what they're GONNA! Do in the future. This is the film minority report about people predicting what future crimes and a half gets out of hand I, also remember I was one sexy. Working in an is in country, which I will not nine where they actually showed some lovers on the way to a rubbery. rubbery because they don't rub something beforehand. So just being a preemptive, and that's the trouble with this thing that this is supposed to be preemptive pre crime, you consider. Stop people doing something just based on the check, the sites, which is the same as for knowledge which is shake of the head the skull. You can tell what someone's going to be like. It's the polling. It's fine lodged as I understand in as much garbage, bad software in bad. Bad programming, yeah, yeah, go gator garbage in garbage out. That depends on what you set the parameters to record something and you're going to get resolved. You wanted I went to these particular. Researchers have diligent. They were or even if they'll just having a jerk, but certainly they reaction to and a lot of people was very very quick and very very critical, semi side of as he put the paper them off a website. Anyway, it's Mendham from Australian skeptics. And that's the show for now. space-time is broadcast on science own radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC, and through both IHEART radio and Aunt Union Radio. You can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple. STITCH AT-BATS DOT COM Puckett cast. spotify YouTube audio boom boom, android cashbox from Space Time with Stewart Gary? Dot Com, or from your favorite download podcasts provider you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop, and grabbing yourself a few goodies, or by becoming a space time patron, which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as Burns, audio content, and other awards just go to patriarch page through Space Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details. If you want more space time, check it out blog where you'll find all the stuff we. We couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images, stories, videos, and things on the web I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Tamla Dot, com, that's all one word, and in lower case, and that's Tumbler without the it can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through our space time youtube channel on facebook. Just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart, Gary Space Time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine Your Window on the universe. You been listening to space. Time, with Stewart Gary? This has been another quality podcast production from bites. Dot Com.
Earth May Have Been Wet Since it Formed
"Love this podcast support this show through the ACOSS. Supportive HR. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. Hey, everyone I'm John Jess and we're the host of the beauty podcast fat Mascara here to tell you about Dr Atkins New Super See retinol Brighton and correct vitamin C. Sierra. We often interview dermatologists on our podcast and two of their favourite skin-care ingredients to recommend a retinol vitamin C the serum has both in one lightweight layer formula the new strive acton serum helps to smooth fine lines and it's clinically proven to visibly Brighton and firm skin to learn more about straight becton. Super See Retinal Brighton, incorrect vitamin C serum visits, Dr Acton Dot Com. This Space Time Series Twenty Three Episode Ninety Four for broadcast on the eleventh of September twenty twenty coming up on space. Time, and you meteorite study suggests the Earth's water may have been there from the very start necessary plotted hunting test spacecraft completes its primary mission and China launches it's one hundred and eighty nine spy satellite all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome. To Space Time. We'd Stewart Gary. A new study of meteorite suggest the earth may have had water from the time at first formed the findings reported in the Journal. Science Avenue check to the ongoing debate about the origin of water for years. Astronomers figured that the giant impact between the early Prado Earth and Amas Planet. Court, Thea, which ended up forming our present day earth and moon system would if initially produced a Magda. Dot that any water present would have evaporated leaving the earth and moon dry that intern would have meant that its present water supply must have arrived. Later, scientists originally thought it would have accumulated through continued comet bombardment early in the solar system's history. However, subsequent analysis of the hydrogen to deteriorate show the water founding comets shows that it's different from the ratio of hydrogen to deterioration in water found on earth and so astronomers turned their attention. To meteorites and asteroids instead, and this new study suggests that Earth water may have come from materials that were present in the in the solar system at the time when the planet formed, the study's authors of determined that a type of meteorite known as an instead Conrad contain sufficient hydrogen to deliver at least three times the amount of water containing earth's oceans today probably a lot more instead Conrad's entirely composed of material from the inner solar system. Essentially the same staff which made up the earth originally the study's lead author. Loretta Peony. From the University of Lorraine says Earth's building blocks may well have significantly contributed to its water. The findings of surprising because building blocks often presumed to be dry but hydrogen bearing material was present in the in the solar system at the time when the terrestrial planets were forming even though the temperatures were too high for water to condense. The authors used both conventional mass spectrometry as well as secondary ion mass spectrometry to precisely measure the continent composition of the small amount of water in-instead icon meteorites, and was surprised to discover that instead I contract which were believed to be dry actually contain an unexpectedly high then swatter these days instead, contracts are exceedingly rare making up any two percent of all known meteorites about their isotopic similarity to the earth make them especially compelling. You see in any steady victory terrestrial materials. The abundances of elements isotopes can be used as the distinctive signature to determine exactly where that elephant originated and instead out contracts also have similar oxygen titanium in calcium attends to those found on earth, and this study shows that they're hydrogen and nitrogen isotopes are also similar to those found on earth if instead contracts were original building blocks as they similar isotopic composition. suggests. It implies that these types of contracts supplied enough water to Earth to explain the origins of earth water. Even when you include the giant impact, the authors also suggested the large amount of the atmospheric nitrogen. The most abundant component of earth's atmosphere could also have come from these instead conned rights. Undoubtedly, the debate will continue. This is space time still to come messes planet. Hunting. Space Craft completes its primary mission. And China. Launches it's one hundred and eighty ninth spy-satellite. More still to come on space time. Let's take a break from for word from our sponsor, the great courses plus we all deserve to be out of further our knowledge in Cape Learning. That's what the great courses plus is all about. It's a fantastic streaming service founded on the idea that education should be accessible to everyone and they make it possible to learn from the brightest minds out there able most of us would never otherwise have access to professors from the very best universities in the world, like Harvard, Yale and Stanford, as well as experts from the National Geographic and Smithsonian. This is college level learning about without the. Student loans the pressure of how Michael Grades or the need to reside in the US and the Great Courses Platt makes it possible to learn whichever way works best for you. Allowing you to watch listen to lectures at any time anywhere now one thing I recommend that you do since you log on to go and check out the latest courses because there's some really interesting things that pop up for example, this week I saw you on code learn to sing. That's probably one should take, and then there was this new course courthouse science shape science fiction that's definitely think Andrew from space. Nuts would be into up that. He needs any hope of course, it's a fascinating 'cause, and if you've ever aspired to write science fiction or just wanted how the authors stopped, they stories from becoming data as soon as they published or what are the advanced sciences in Star Trek and star wars really all about with this course Ulan just what that's based upon importantly also show you how science fiction really does inspire scientists and it will put you onto some great reading may not have considered. So why not unlike a world of knowledge with the great courses plus and for US based timelessness you can check at any cost or lecture for free today that's right. Free access to their entire library. So don't wait any longer sign up today using special url start your free trial at the great courses plus dot com slash space. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space that way they know you came from us and you'll be helping to support our show. That's the great courses plus dot com slash space, and of course, there's your real details are in the show notes and our website, the great courses plus dot com slash space, and now it's back to our show. You're listening to spends time with. Stewart Gerry. Nastase transiting exoplanet survey satellite tests as now finished its primary mission imaging about seventy five percent of the sky is part of a two year long survey in capturing this giant mosaic of the heavens tests found some sixty six new exoplanets worlds beyond our solar system, as well as the two thousand one hundred candidate planets, which astronomers than now working to confirm test project. Scientists, Patricia Boyd from this as God space flight center in Greenbelt Maryland describes the orbiting Observatory as a roaring success producing tired of high quality observations providing valuable data across a wide range of scientific topics. Monitors Twenty. Four by ninety six degrees strips to the sky notice sectors for about a month at a time using its four onboard cameras. The mission spent its first year observing thirteen sectors comprising the southern sky, and then spent another year imaging the northern sky now, and it's extended mission tests turned around to regime serving the south. Meanwhile, the test team of introduced improvements to the way the spacecraft collects and processes data it's cameras now capture. A full image, every ten minutes, three times faster than during the primary mission, and you fast mode allows for the brightness of thousands of stars to be measured every twenty seconds along with the previous method for collecting these observations from tens of thousands of stars. Every two minutes the fast and measurements will allow test a better resolve brightness changes caused by stellar rock stations and capture events like explosive flares from active stars in fact, greater detail. These new changes will remain in place for the duration the extended mission which will be completed in September twenty, twenty two after spending the next year imaging the southern sky test will take another fifteen months to collect additional observations the north and Survey Aries along the ecliptic the plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun An area which the satellite has yet to image tests works by looking for transits that. Is. The telltale dimming of star caused when an orbiting planet passes in front of the stars seen from Texas viewpoint among the missions newest punditry discoveries, our first earth sized world name Teo. I seven hundred day, which is located in the habitable zone of its star. That is the region around a star with the conditions would allow liquid water central life as we know it to pull on the planet surface. Tests also revealed a newly formed planet around a very young star, a microscopy, and it's founder Neptune size world orbiting to stars in addition to its planetary discoveries, textisms of the opposite of accommodate our solar system as well as numerous. And Supernovae it's discovered. Surprise eclipses in a well known binary system solve the mystery about a class of pulsating stars, and as we mentioned earlier, this week explored a strange word experiencing star modulated seasons even more remarkable tests witness the black hole in a distant galaxy shredding and consuming sunlight star missions like tests hope contribute to the astro biology, the interdisciplinary research on the variable conditions of distant worlds which could have a life as we know it and what foam that life might take this report from this TV. Tests. The transiting exoplanet survey satellite is says Newest Planet Hunter. The mission is for two years and is now mapped about seventy five percent of the sky. This enormous area of coverage give scientists. Opportunities to search for new worlds beyond our solar system as well as other cosmic phenomena. Tests completed its initial sky survey in July two thousand twenty. This giant mosaic is made from twenty-six sector images. Each sector is twenty four by ninety, six degrees strip of sky monitored by Tesla's four cameras for about a month. Test discovered a trio of planets around Jj. Three fifty seven, a red dwarf. Star just thirty one light years away the systems farthest planet with about six times or mass is especially intriguing. Orbits in the outer part of the Stars Habitable Zone if this planet has an atmosphere thick enough to keep it surface warm liquid water could exist their. Tests found in other planetary trio or the Star L. Ninety, eight minus fifty nine. The innermost world is the littlest found by tests and his twenty percent smaller than Earth. Later scientists announced tests observed a star being torn apart by a black hole. Catching one of these tidal disruption events showcases the missions ability to spot many kinds of short-lived phenomena like stellar outbursts and Supernova underscoring Tesla's importance for studies beyond exo. In early twenty, twenty scientists announced test is I earth sized planet orbiting in its stars Habitable Zone. This world called Te'o I seven hundred D is a little larger than earth and probably rocky. Based on tests and Spitzer data researchers were even able to model potential weather systems analysis of the planet's atmosphere. If it has one will have to await future space based observatories like Nasr's James Webb Space Telescope. Tests has found many systems very different from our own tijuana thirteen thirty eight has neptune sized planet orbiting pair of Stars Kelly nine as a fast spinning star with hot polls and Cooler Equator Kelp Nine B orbits over the polls resulting in star induced seasons that only lasts a few hours. Now, that its primary mission is complete tests will return to the southern sky for another year long survey. Many new planets, as well as more brief cataclysmic events await astronomers as they scour the flood of tests observations. China has successfully launched a new spy satellite as part of its ongoing programme to provide Beijing with continuous uninterrupted satellite coverage of key strategic areas of the globe such as the South China Sea the Taiwan Strait to bit the border with India, the citizens of Hong Kong, and it's built in Rhode. Initiative interests the golfing nine five remote-sensing satellite was launched aboard along much today rocket from Asia Satellite Launch Centre in northwestern. China Galloping nine zero five has submillimeter level resolution as well as his primary military application Beijing says, the satellite will also be used for land surveys city Planning Land Right Confirmation Road Network Design Crop Yoda's dimension and disaster, prevention and mitigation. This mission brings to one hundred, eighty, nine, the number of reconnaissance and Earth observation satellites which have now been launched by China's communist government, not including military navigation or defense communication satellites. The mission also included a multifunction test satellite built by the People's Liberation Army's Academy of Military Sciences and the to five experimental satellite for the People's Liberation Army's military academy. Birth of the spacecraft will undertake communications navigation and remote sensing experiments. This is space time. And time that'd take another brief look at some of the other stories making news in science this week with science report. A new trial has raised questions about just how effective rim disarray really is trading covid nineteen after it was found to have mixed results in patients with moderate pneumonia, the study reported in the Journal of the American medical. Association found that compared to standard care those treated with the drug on a five day course had a statistically significantly better clinical status by day eleven. However, the author say this is of uncertain clinical importance that's because in a similar group received. The drug for an average of six days there was no significant benefit and a-coming notarial says there are now three randomized control trials forum disappear hospitalized patients with differing results, and that raises the question of whether the differences down to the trial design. Oh, whether the drug itself is less effective than I hoped the covid nineteen pandemic which spread globally from its origins. In Wuhan China has now killed some nine hundred thousand people worldwide at infected over twenty, six, million others. A new study was that despite all the green intentions mining threats to biodiversity caused by renewable energy production could end up surpassing those averted by climate change mitigation. A report in the journal Nature Communications is Matt Mining Sites Globally, and it assist how they coincided with biodiversity conservation sites. The authors found mining could potentially influence an area of around fifty million square kilometers of the Earth's land surface with eighty two percent of mining areas targeting minerals used in renewable energy production. They also found that eight percent of mine areas coincide with nationally designated protective zones seven percent with key biodiversity areas and sixteen percent with remaining wilderness sites considered important priorities for halting diversity loss. And you study suggests that women who are pregnant or tried to have a baby should consider voting caffeine a report in the British. Medical Journal looked at thirty seven observational studies about the effects of caffeine on six negative pregnancy outcomes miscarriage stillbirth, childhood, leukemia, low-birth-weight Charter the Beastie and preterm birth. A total of forty two separate findings were reported in the thirty seven studies and of these thirty two found that caffeine significantly increase the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes while a further ten fathom no or inconclusive associations. It began by beating humans in chess. Now, an artificial intelligence controlled virtual fighter jet has just beaten a human pilot in the dogfight the a I had a clean sweep winning five rounds zero during the finale of the US military's outfit dogfight challenge the challenge is put on by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Darpa. The wind is being seen by some as a turning point what machine learning systems capable of the battlefield to get their yard official intelligence had been through more than four billion simulations or about twelve years with a flight time. When I was a kid, I thought a chiropractor was a soda specialist medical degree like being a pediatrician or orthopedic surgeon. It was only much later in adult life that I discovered that chiropractors weren't real medical doctors. Sure. They undergo extensive training even obtaining bachelor, Masters and doctorates and they chose and courses. But chiropractice aren't medical doctors. They don't complete a medical degree which involves the sixty seven year program of medical sciences and clinical medicine, and they don't issue prescriptions, and of course, the mineral degrees only the start to become say family doctor that is GP or General. Practitioner requires a further three years of vocational training covering many more detailed aspects of medicine not covered. In the undergraduate training and there are lots more exams and fellowship exam. Instead Kara practic training involves a range of sometimes lists conventional treatments. In fact, the Chiropractors Association of Australia Positions Chiropractic as an alternative health system distinct from mainstream medicine and Tim Mendham from strain skeptic says, these non mainstream treatments can include subjects which are dividing even the Chiropractic community such support for nonscientific supernatural force, which they call vital ism contracting has two major fundamental things. Then was first founded a hundred years ago that it has this issue of subjects station, which is your spine being out of whack, and that causes ninety five percent of diseases, etcetera. no-one's really show what action as and. Now, I'm sure. It's the basic tenants chiropractic that this thing exists and therefore that's why they keep doing x rays and chiropractors that not necessarily necessary before subway station, which is a lot of contractors would say it exist K. concept and there's a big battle on the Cairo wars it's called between believe in. Fundamentalist belief in Chiropractic by the site if I forget finding applies to vital is right. Rattlers is the spirit you'll buy penalties if you like. That sort of thing of the spirit which will to Q. You right. It's even more mystical and mysterious than publication is if contracting was developed in the sixteen hundreds, you can understand botulism in pre scientific world. But chiropractic been around for you know hundred hundred twenty. What does it mean having to use two years? No. Not a huge amount of time and such things as botulism really smell of. Nineteenth Century spiritualism and things like that have. Areas like that. mean a spirit and it's also. True naturopathy as well. I look at their sort of the ability of the body to heal itself and how does it happen and this is sort of strange energies that does that. So tightly Fanta and there was quite a good racist type which you can look at it from a publication called Chiropractic and manual therapies and is GonNa chiropractic thing let's go Bible is in Contemporary Chiropractic help or hindrance, and they should. That it's a giant and hindrance to the profession being taken seriously, and that's part of the car I was as well. So finding a subway station they finally got. These things unscientific and really if you take using them in your profession, you're looking like someone rushing ran with a strange after it on. Striking metals and that sort of stuff it's very good for their industry and which is really about lower back pain treatment anything else which sort of just counting. So yeah I mean. It's a strange concept in really shouldn't apply rolling anything affect effective evidence based medicine. Is there any size to support tire practice treatment at all or are we really just talking here about physiotherapy? Because yet therapy in mice with them, sort of chiropractors would agree the guy who founded who created the whole concept retire practice Gonna I'm Daniel Palmer American and it was sort of spam tonight in the mid nineteen ninety s that's been around for a hundred and twenty plus years and the whole concept that he. was very much nineteenth century spiritualism non am not evidence-based theories to support some strange accounts as he climbed had happened that he would some of being blind opening day for something that was his first patient, but he's always by Moody's. This will happen I'm this whole concept of trading ninety, five Santa conditions because of manipulating your spine is totally unscientific really hasn't passed any real property i. mean they find everything from from? Ivy. Took they'd waiting to bad dreams. They allow chiropractors also usually what's called the website technique, which is maybe lighting a phases or a baby, an infant within the room, and then tracing cracking response newborn infants from looking days all in fact sounds extremely dangerous extremely dangerous. If if a rank amateur, even not rank amateur sounds twisting make suddenly became the sort of creating situations which will give you a strike other strata while you're damn ATTRAC-. Very dangerous to a lot of the stuff I mean this dangerously medicine everywhere things can go wrong right button suggestion that contract takes can do now he is not correct when you're dragging this botulism. And Things, we have evidence at all a lot of practice pretty upset and there was a battle between the various chiropractic associations some that follow the fundamentalist views put forward by Tom. These are views monitoring i. But now and so. Interesting, any bodily is one of those ones I. Really Chiropractic want to be taken seriously by anything apart from their new ideas in the world I should drop that's to Mendham from Australian skeptics. This is a cast recommends every week we pick one of our favorite shows and this is one. We think you'RE GONNA love. From the Manhattan, the Martini to the Nagourney cocktails and spirits has never been more popular than they are today. I'm Nora Raum, the daily South editor and I'm David Wandering the daily beast senior drinks columnist, and we're the host of the podcast life behind bars puts won the two thousand eighteen tales of the cocktail spirited award from the world's best drinks podcasts. Yes. We get paid to drink for a living. So shakeup drink and join us for a mix of engaging stories and historical facts about the greatest bartenders and the greatest drinks of all time. Cheers tears. CAST is home to the biggest podcasts from the US and around the world subscribe to this show and hundreds more now via gas or wherever you get your podcasts. And that's the show. Now, space time is broadcast on sites on radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington DC and through both IHEART radio and Aunt Union Radio, you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through Apple Stitcher DOT COM pucca cast soundcloud, spotify YouTube audio boom, Pud beam android cast box from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com or. From your favorite download podcasts provider, you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop grabbing yourself a few goodies all by becoming a space time Patriot which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burners audio content and other awards just go to a Patriot on page two space. Time with Stewart Gary Dot Com for all the details. If you want more space time, check out blog where you'll find all the stuff. We couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images in your stories, videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot. TAMLA DOT COM. That's all one word. And in lower case and that's tumbler without the, it can also follow us through at Stewart Gary, on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through Space Time Youtube Channel on facebook just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary Space Time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian. Sky And Telescope magazine Your Window on the universe. You been listening to space. Time with withstood Gary this has been another quality podcast production from BITES DOT com.
World-famous Arecibo Dish Seriously Damaged
"I. Love this podcast support this show through the ACOSS support. Of HR. It's up to you how much give and there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the show description to support now. This is space time series twenty-three episode eighty, eight for broadcast on the twentieth of August twenty twenty coming up on space time the world famous error CBO radio, telescope dish seriously damaged. So Ho- discovered, it's four thousandth comet and SPACEX is stalling constellation launches at six hundred and fifty fifth satellite all that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to Space Time with Stewart Gary. The national. Science Foundation has been forced to suspend astronomical observations from its iconic heiress CBO radio telescope in Puerto Rico after the three hundred and five media dish was seriously damaged following cable break numerous panels on the parabolic reflector were destroyed when a three inch auxiliary cable suddenly snapped causing thirty one meter gash across the dishes surface. The cable also damaged up to eight panels in the Gregorian dome. which houses the Alfa multibeam receiver and it twisted a platform used to access the Dome engineers and our reviewing the damage in assist the SORTA repairs needed the bring the world famous facility back online. We'll keep you informed this space time. Still the come Soho discovered it's four thousand combat and SPACEX stolid constellation launches at six, hundred, fifty, fifth satellite all that and more still to come on space. Time. The solar and Helius Freak Observatory spacecraft Soho as discovered. It's four thousand comet jointly operated by Nasser in the European space. Agency Soho was launched way back in December nineteen ninety five aboard an atlas to rocket that even make that anymore from space launch complex thirty, six B at the Cape Canaveral Air Force. Base. In Florida at launch complex doesn't exist anymore either it was initially on a two year mission study the Sun's Interior as well as its Koroma's fear transition. Region, Corona and solar wind. The probe was placed into the Legrand Jian L. One position where the gravitational pull of the earth and the Sun Castle each other out allowing spacecraft to their location to remain in a stable halo on it at that position relative to the Earth as it orbits the. Sun. The missions successful it's been extended multiple times and is now expected to last at least until twenty two of this report from NASA TV. Soho. Stands for Solar Helius Observatory. And it's a mission that was launched by Isa the European Space Agency NASA in nineteen ninety five studied the sun. The Sun is a star. And the universe is made up stars. But, the sun is very close to us. We're able to see the sun in great detail. So if we can understand our son, the mount allows us to have a better understanding of the rest of the stars and the rest of the universe. Well, the first time I saw soho image my reaction was basically. Blown away, I've never seen the kinds of detail kinds of structure, the kinds of dynamics that were going on and in sort of image of the sun before I think that this is probably true for a lot of scientists. One of the ways it's so hosted. He's the Croat. Is using what we. Call. Corona crafts. and. So corona graph creates an artificial eclipse because the sun itself surface of the Sun is about a million times brighter than this outer. Structure of the Corona, we need to block that bright disk out. So you can see the much fainter outer corona using. So using technique called helium seismology, very similar to seismology Earth we're actually able to see inside the sun, and so what we were able to do is see the layer of the sun just below the visible surface, we call the convection. And that's where all sorts of. Dynamics going on inside of the sun is bubbling up to the surface. And that's really where all of the the solar phenomena. That we see is I developed, and so we were able to see underneath the surface and see these flows of solar plasma. See the formation of sunspots, and this is something that's never been done before we're actually able to see the details inside of a star. And that report from setv featured Alex Young from this as got out space flight center in Greenbelt Maryland. The comet was detected by the US Naval Research Bar Trees Launch Angle spectroscopy chronic graft instrument aboard Soho. The instruments designed to see extremely faint emissions from the Solar Corona The Sun's outer atmosphere but during its quarter of a century of operations, instruments also turned out to be a somewhat more than capable combat hunter discovering wool over half of all known comets these included many there would otherwise be completely On observable from Earth due to their proximity to the sun, Jonathan Alley the editor of a strain skied telescope magazine says the majority of these comets were affected by citizen scientists as part of the US naval research the bar she managed Son Grace Project that Swan is an acronym and describes one of the instruments that the board spice Crops Soho, which also is an acronym, the solar an historic observatory. Now, this is the spice crop. It's been out there and spicy years and years and years. And Its job is just to look at the Sun. It just stands at the Sun old I long gathering data about the on. Learning multi great things about the sun and so it's taking pictures of the Sun all the time. But there, there are biproduct this accidental serendipitous byproducts, products of this, and that is that sometimes you get little comments that Too Small or too. Distant to be noticed otherwise but when they get close to the like renegotiated close. Very, very nice. They call grades, and what happens is they get very close to the sun and the sun heats them up and over gassing stuff comes off the comedy and you get this big gas cloud around it and sometimes a little tile and then you can notice them brought you. Normally notice them from here on earth because they're too close to the sun to be seen but. The wavelengths and everything that the SARS fresh cropped looks at the stunning. and the way that can block the sunlight out from the sun itself and the surrounding space means that these calm moments turn up on the pictures taken by dispatch cross. And, some people You know have discovered lots of comments just by going through the data that comes back die from this selloff ESPECI- crop. It's actually now just wrecked up it's four thousand comet. The stuff I scratch Croft and Asia those have been discovered by all the astronomer I called. Michael. Mattiazzo. WHO's a followed by a competent well? I was GONNA say onto by nine but. You don't have to do this skirt the daughter, and he told me like he gets the data from the suspect craft and analyzes and his photos of these now, which is pretty good going I. Think. no, you don't get to name them. They do end up with a catalog name but you only get some time nine. McCormack like that if you use your own equipment, so your own telescope in your backyard. Saw these one was you'll using data taken by an instrument on board a spacecraft the belongs to someone else. So does end up with a catalog number, but it doesn't get your name. Out Your backyard telescope and common but no one's ever seen before. Yeah. It will get you online at gone to Jonathan Alley the editor of a stray and sky and telescope magazine and don't forget if you're having trouble getting copy strain sky and telescope magazine from your usual retailer because of the current lockdown travel restrictions in always get a print or digital subscription and have the magazine delivered directly led a boxer inbox subscribing. Easy. Just go to sky and telescope dot. Com Dot a U that skied telescope dot Com dot AU, and you'll never be left in the dark again. SPACEX has completed its eleven styling Lawrence with another fifty eight of the broadband intimate satellites placed into orbit the mission aboard a Falcon nine rocket from space launch complex forty the cape can ever leave for station. Florida also carried three planet sky sets. My name is Kate Tyson. I'm a senior certification engineer here at SPACEX. This morning's launch represents a couple of milestones are fourteenth mission of twenty twenty, our ninetieth Falcon nine mission and the first time for re using a booster for the sixth time. To date, we've launched nearly six hundred startling satellites to orbit as a reminder. Sterling is a constellation of satellites that can provide high speed limit latency Internet all over the globe, particularly in remote or rural areas where connectivity is limited or completely unavailable. We have three small sat passengers on board today's mission for our customer planet the operators of the largest constellation of Earth observation satellites. You may remember we also successfully launched three sky SOx for planet on a Sterling Mission in June earlier this year. The satellite's. Mission will enable high resolution imaging of a single location up to twelve times. They'll be joining eighteen sky sats already in orbit completing planets fleet of twenty one satellites making it the largest high resolution fleet of satellites in orbit to date. Now in order to make room for those three rideshare passengers, we will be launching fifty eight stirling satellites today into low-earth orbit instead of the usual sixty as we have done in the past. But right now, all systems are go for an on time liftoff this morning Falcon nine Stan seventy meters tall, which is greater than the wingspan of a seven forty seven aircraft today's fleet will be these six flight for this booster. It previously supported the Telstar eighteen vantage mission irradiate the first Starlink mission as well as the third and eighth sterling missions. And this will mark the first time that we're flying booster for it's sixth mission. The first age has nine Merlin engines that do the bulk of the work to get Falcon nine off the ground and up into the thinner parts of the Earth's atmosphere before separating from second-stage and making its way back down to Earth landing, we will be attempting to recover this first stage for the. Sixth, time this time will be doing that on our ship. Of course, I still love you which is currently stationed in the Atlantic Ocean about three hundred, fifty nautical miles northeast of our Cape. Canaveral Florida Watch site on top of the first stage is the stage. The reason it's black as opposed to the rest of the vehicle is because it is unpainted tps thermal protective system and that. Is What protects the composite material in which the inner is made out of. The university is what connects the first stage the second stage and protects the second stage is single Merlin vacuum or Mbacke engine during lunch. That Mbacke engine ignites after the first stage separates and will propel the second stage along with planets three sky sets, and our fifty eight stirling satellites into an elliptical orbit above Earth surface. Falcon nine has been loading propellant since team on is thirty five minutes. As a reminder. Falcon nine uses a rocket grade kerosene, which we call our P. One for our fuel and super chilled liquid oxygen or locks as our oxidizer. Currently. Are One and locks are nearly fully loaded on both stages and liquid ostrich in will continue to be topped off right until the last minute countdown. The stack of fifty eight stirling satellites and three sky SOx or safely enclosed. Right inside of that structure are payload fairing, which is a seventeen foot diameter structure at the top of the rocket. The fairing protects the satellites from aero thermal heating, aerodynamic lows and contamination during the assent face. Once we reach the vacuum of space will jettison those bearing halves while the second stage will continue on to orbit. The faring halves that we're using today previously flew on the Starlink mission that we launched earlier this year in January we will be attempting to recover are these faring happens today using our recovery ships, mischief, and Ms Tree. The vehicle the satellites and weather and the range are all looking good for an on time liftoff of ten thirty. One. Am Eastern. To. Go for launch. Okay. So we're in the final phase of the countdown. Fifteenth erling satellites. This guy's slow to orbit and. Nine. Five. Four. Three. Who? Want. Their. LIFTOFF AT A. Fairly. Successful liftoff of helping our. Complex forty for this eleventh Starlink mission. The three planet sky sets and or fifty eight stirling satellites are on their way to speak Merlin Andrew. Scientists the moment of greatest aero dynamic pressure. EXCU right. We just went through Max q and the vehicle is now supersonic and Merlin engines have throttled backup. So coming up in about a minute, we'll have three events happening back to back I will be main engine cut off. This all nine Merlin engines will shut off to slow the vehicle down in preparation for the eventual operation. This is where the first stage separates from the second stage with stay stage wanted starting to make its way back to Earth for landing. While second-stage, we'll kick off the third event of in the sequence SAS one second engine start one. This is where that Merlin documented will ignite and begin to propel the second stage along with our payloads into orbit everything can to nominal for state one. STAGE SEPARATION CONFIRMED Ignition. All right. So there we sell those three events will happen in quick succession stage. One is now making its way back to Earth Griffin slowly to point the Merlin vacuum engine beginning to develop that healthy orange glow as it continues its turning onto orbit ferrick separation confirmed. Nominally while the second stage continuing to do its job, the first stage is making its way back home to Earth. In the next few minutes, it will be executing to burns. The first is the entry burn where three of the engines at the bottom of the first stage will light up and begin to slow this down as it reenters the upper part of the Earth's atmosphere. The second burn is known as landing burn. This is a single engine burn that will bring the vehicle speed down rapidly in order to make a soft landing ship one coasting using nothing but those Griffin's smart. Here, and there as they continue to steer and we also utilize nitrogen gas for occasional little bursts of that nitrogen gas and we use that for attitude control second-stage continuing nominally now at one and a half Jeez acceleration. Stage to continues on nominal trajectory Dan. Burn utilizes three engines. At the base of the rocket. Burn has concluded. second-stage trajectories still looking nominal. Terminal. Guidance. Stage one. and. Landing Burn has begun. Touchdown and shut off. Successful landing. Of. The first stage booster. Once, again, this is the six time that we have utilized this booster on a mission. Also marking its sixth landing. So turning our attention. Back. TO SECOND-STAGE WE'VE had confirmation of second engine cutoff or Seco one. And we also have confirmation of a good. Three Planet Sky Sets would applaud sequentially beginning at twelve and a half minutes after launch follow twenty, six minutes late at by the styling satellites, this mission now brings the total styling satellite constellation up to six hundred and fifty five of the orbiting spacecraft. This space time. And China take another brief look at some of the other stories making us in science this week with a science report it now seems the Covid nineteen corona virus could be as deadly as the nineteen eighteen flu pandemic current will heal folk. Figures show that more than twenty two million people are infected with covid nineteen and the diseases killed more than eight hundred, thousand people since it first emerged in Wuhan China. Now report in the Journal of the American medical. Association warns their deaths linked to the covid nineteen pandemic in new. York Iran power with the peak death rates seen during the nineteen eighteen influenza pandemic during the pick of the nineteen eighteen eighteen and what influenced outbreak in New York. City. There were around two hundred and eighty seven point one. Seven deaths per one hundred, thousand person months compared to two hundred and two point zero eight disc per one hundred, thousand per month during the first few months of the covid nineteen pandemic however, the nineteen eighteen flu pandemic also started from a higher baseline and prior to the current pandemic. The starting death rate was much lower. Thanks in part to modern medicine, which means the relative increase in death is actually much greater for Covid nineteen then during the pick of the nineteen eighteen h one, N, one influenza pandemic. A new study warned that twenty two Australian native freshwater fish species are likely to become extinct within the next twenty years unless there's new conservation. Save Them. Ten of the doom species are in Victoria five in Queensland you. South Wells' four Westralia two and one in Tasmania. You can read the study in four in the Journal of Pacific Conservation Biology? A German researchers develop new algorithms that can distinguish between trawl messages and those tweeted by public figures on twitter UCS views fifty tweets previous studies identified K. features, intro tweets such as timing hashtags, geographical location, but the new study reported in the Journal. Plus one looked at the language of the tweets. Themselves identify distinctive patents of repeated words which can be is despotic twitter troll. This approach was able to distinguish between troll tweets and the technique may be useful for combating online misinformation campaigns. Good news those mammals out there that is middle aged men in Lycra. It seems stopping for the Cup of coffee on your morning. Bike ride may actually help your cycling performance a reporting the Journal plus one claims caffeine proof power up by eight percent in a cycling time-trial researchers found that cyclists attacked the first kilometer, a four kilometre time-trial more aggressively when they ingested caffeine rather than the. Placebo. For almost forty years now Australian skeptics have been offering up to one hundred thousand dollars in cold hard cash to anyone claiming to have supernatural paranormal or accountabilities and a willing prove it under proper scientific tests conditions many of tried but so far none of proven themselves and for more than two decades. Now, the US Center for Inquiry Investigations Group has offered a similar hundred, thousand dollar prize, and again, no one has ever succeeded. So the US group are now raising the stakes bumping their offer up to a cool quarter of a million dollars. Tim Minimum from Australian skeptic says, there's still a Menagerie of self professed psychics and mediums in both countries who claim they have special psychic telepathic or telephonic abilities. But for some reason, I unwilling to prove their claims and a proper scientific examination. Forty, years in fact, escaped started it off with a challenge towards diviners and that's shutting Dick Smith and Philip added. Various people got together and put up ten thousand dollars to anyone who could prove divining. This was this was in nineteen eighty. That fact. So we've had a challenge fan and May as being on the front line of the skeptic's I. received applications for the challenge every week, and it's now I absolutely have now stands up Stanford one, hundred, thousand dollars it was real money actually have the money. So if someone does win that, Kinda, get the interesting thing is when you first off someone what he's skill, they often get a vague or survey skill like I can tell if someone's going to be speaking twenty years right and then you would you test and they start getting it gets difficult them at that site. Most people when you say this test ninety, five percent dropout, I think I can find out I'll continue this where's the money and so much of the Brian Lives? Yeah. The huge majority drop out that's when they have to do a test. Accusing well, we we say we've saying that dominate me. You gotta be scientifically tested and they really just talk. About people who can be tested, and then you try and figure out what sort of tastes because any test we do has to be mutually agreed both sides have to understand what the. Message showing you're absolutely if one percent no one can say after the pistol that wasn't a fairytale even though they do that anyway. But if you agree beforehand, it's the past and this is the kind of an agreement that. Satisfies both peoples criteria for failed tests and you do it. What we have is an initial tests just to see what people skills I the controlled conditions, and then he's like an indicate. Interested. They were going for proper full test, heavyweight scientific taste, and that's one hundred thousand dollars comes into play. Never. Round figures. We don't even have. We don't even have people who get past prefers. We'd probably tasted about a couple of hundred people I've people got through that I. I think yeah. Let's figure out what it tastes. We've done taste of a lot of people a lot of the my water diviners. Lovely people certainly genuinely believe that I have the skill as opposed to a lot of other people who claims goes low psychics. It's probably easier than a medium someone who's sort of saying that dad but then you ask them for something concrete I might psychics especially. The day we'll give you a such a awfully sort of response and answer that I really satisfy anyone except for someone who's desperately. Trying to think very very specific and he's not the sophisticated psychic will do a lot of background research and amazing how much information people get out of that on facebook and things like that. So I am I had someone who was trying to be district signed. This psychic has says something about a frame they hadn't knowledge and I said Yeah and I found that in. Older things that would point to what the psychic sign on this person's facebook page it's so easy. You cannot psychics a whole range of things you can ask you if you the one taste of psychic was someone who can send messages to someone else in America and we have people in America wading through look after the people on that and. We said simple words like, are you thinking about pain pilots took ten animals? So that sort of thing which they try not to have the obese ones and then you choose something unusual. Champing if they can do it, we've done people with we've actually gone through to a aimed at a taste. Test and discuss the results and if it's purely by chance go. Just, putting a coin, they had to perform much better than chance to even. Have A. Plotting interested the skippy Scott to the universe doing annual. Fee for diction test where everyone in the predict some for the following year than the end of the year they had good. Their predictions were they compare themselves to so-called professional mediums and psychics and things like that, and it's all pure chance. We accounting ongoing with those scaping many through which soldiers who? Is doing assessment of socks predictions over the last fifteen twenty years predictions sex making magazines especially at the start of a year about the coming twelve months and the usual things oil family will amount for baby. Yeah. Yeah, you get. Someone, the Royal Family is going to have a baby. So we've looked at face and it's an ongoing project is just growing like topsy as you say, and we've got hundreds and hundreds, hundreds of these things to say, and it takes awhile to say she after to look at it as an actual tangible climb like something definitely shade or they will be an earthquake summary in the world. Yeah. Thanks a lot doesn't help. Can you be more specific? What specific in in Actually look at it to see if it happens. I mean there's so much all a politician will have scandal. Yeah really. Not Be having with a failure, but I mean, so we project on the wind hopefully you're supposed to be reporting of the end of last year early last year, and it just keeps growing and growing and growing and whatnot keep discovering more and more predictions and they have to stop at some stage but the preliminary result is that a bad ten percent interesting not necessarily even saying correct they close. So if someone came to you and say, I can get this right one out of every time that was your comic I wouldn't use them and the same psychic some really the ones that are getting or sort of pretty obviously mice. Yeah. So that's testing she came to psychics. Muslims wanted some of them say, Oh, I want the money needs to you talked about the two hundred, fifty, thousand, dollar challenger, one hundred. Hundred thousand hundred and sixty thousand. Well, that's what that's what we say. We say if because you say you can do this. So we can do do what you say you can get the money. Oh I don't want to celebrate with money tight money from clients don't you? Well with duct tape, it gave it to a charity. We'll still gives you the hundred thousand and we'll. We'll give it to a charity on your behalf, right, but they don't want to be tested because. Frankly. I think with I old file they exposed whatever we have. Come to us and saying every other side cafe was show except for me. I'M GONNA. Live loss of community has anyone even come close now Attleboros we've tested. No one has got more than chance. Windy. Saying like, what is this container full of sand or was it the water simple as that the average fifty fifty so no they had no indication amongst diviners or psychics, astrologers or psychologists or anyone you tonight. Psychology. PSYCHICS radio from things. Okay. I. Close to your handle Mercedes. Cocky, you know make. Assumptions about you we've. Actually giving them things like Pans Yup and I'd I'd like that. Uses all the time? But. You're reading something else you're not reading update adds Tim Mendham from Australian skeptics. And that's the show. Now, space-time is broadcast on sites on radio by the national, Science Foundation in Washington DC and through both IHEART radio and on Union. Radio. Oh you can subscribe and Download Space Time is a free podcast through apple. STITCHER BITES DOT COM podcast soundcloud, spotify YouTube. Audio Boom Pud beam android cashbox from space time with. Stewart, Gary, DOT, com or From your favorite download podcasts provider, you can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time Patriot, which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burns ordinary content and other awards just go to patriarch page through space. Time. With Stewart Gary, DOT COM, for all the details if you want more space time, check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff. We couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images, use stories, videos, and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot TAMLA DOT COM. That's all one word and. In lower case and that's tumbler without the it can also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram through our space time youtube channel on facebook. Just go to www dot facebook dot com slash space time with. Stewart. Gary. space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine. Your. Window on the. Universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart Gary this has been another quality podcast production from DOT com.
Centaurs Identified as Permanent Interstellar Visitors in our Solar System
"This is space time series. Twenty-three episode forty-one for broadcast on the Fourth of May twenty twenty. May the fourth be with you coming up on space time. Cintos identified as permit interstellar visitors to our solar system keeping track of Betty Colombo and New Vision revealing more Iranian rockets secrets. All that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to Space Time with Stewart Gary. Astronomers believe they've identified the first known permit population of asteroid it's originating from outside our solar system the nineteen asteroids belong to a group known as center was a population of ancient rock circling the sun in the outer solar system amongst the orbits of the gas in Ice Giants Jupiter Saturn. Uranus Neptune cintos appear to have characteristics of both asteroids and comets and they have very unstable dynamical. It's caused by the gravitational debate of the giant planets. They're associating with some of them thought to only have lifespans of a few million years as well as the giant and their moons centers. Also have to navigate between the Jovian trojans than at Union Trojans Kinda built object and scattered disc objects astronomers estimate. There is somewhere between forty four thousand and ten million kilometer or more in diameter in the solar system. The largest confirm center is ten one nine thousand nine Chirico. A two hundred sixty kilometer wide object with its own ring system. The nineteen yearly identify potential interstellar. Santos I believe being captured from other star systems billions of years ago and have been orbiting our son in disguise ever since the first confirmed into still a visit to our solar system was the asteroid our discovered in twenty seventeen it speed and it's hotter. Bollock trajectory means. It could only have originated from outside our solar system and they must have come from another part of the galaxy but it was already on. Its way back out again. By the time it was identified then late last year. A second into still a visitor. The comet Barista was identified also bite speed and trajectory. It's now become the center of Intense. Study as volatile gases. Boiling off the comment. A providing new insights into its chemical composition and therefore the chemical composition of other star systems. But it too is only a temporary visitor. After swooping around the sun in December it now also is on a course back out into interstellar space however this newly identified collection of potential into still arrest droids. I thought that being president our solar system virtually since its birth four point six billion years ago it works something like this stars a born invest stellar nurseries deep inside molecular gas and dust clouds and as it forms each has its own planets and asteroids but they not formed alone but rather close together with lots of siblings and being so close early on minced. Ads were constantly pulling gas in early. Proto planets and asteroids away from each other a process that would continue into the stars began to drift apart and make their own way through the galaxy. The new findings reported in the Journal of the monthly notices the Royal Astronaut Michael Society based on numerical simulations which have turned back the clock to the earliest days of the solar system producing sort of snapshot that allowed the authors of this paper to see where these groups of asteroids were originally located and the computer simulation suggests that at the time of the snapshot these specific nineteenth centers were orbiting the sun in a distinct region beyond the reach of the original solar system planetary disk and also they were moving perpendicular to the orbital plane shed by the planets and other asteroids the new findings fuller research back in two thousand eighteen by the same team of authors which suggested that one particular Santo Fifty one forty one seven poker may also be of intestinal origin. The three kilometre wide asteroid is in a resonant co orbital motion with Jupiter and its orbit is retrograde meaning. It's circling the sun in the opposite direction amongst other bodies in the solar system and the author's initial computer simulation suggests that it too could be of interstellar origin as well as providing a more complete picture vests solar system than you study also provides new clues about the suns early birth cluster. How in Distiller asteroid capture could have occurred and the role that Inter still matters played in chemically enriching. Our solar system and shaping its evolution. This is space time. Still the com- A two kilometer wide potentially hazardous near Earth object as just flowing past space. Luckily at a safe distance and keeping track of the European Space Agency's mercury bound. Probe Baby Columbo all that and more still to come on space time. The two kilometre wide potentially hazardous neo near Earth object as just flown past earth space. The Mountain sized asteroid called Nine Hundred Ninety two past safely at a distance of six point three million kilometers sixteen times the distance between the Earth and the moon its closest approach to earth was above the Great Barrier Reef Asteroid Nineteen Ninety eight to was discovered by the Near Asteroid Tracking Program at Necessary Propulsion Laboratory back in July nineteen ninety eight and for the past two decades. Astronomers have keeping a close eye on see what sort of threat it poses to the earth. They've concluded there's virtually no possibility of an impact with the earth in the next two hundred years. Bit Good News there. It's nick close. Encounter with Earth will be in fifty nine years time. Twenty seventy nine when it will pass a little closer than what it did this time. Only about four times the oath mid distance despite this nine hundred ninety eight two is still categorized as a large potentially hazardous asteroid. That's because of the cost of thousands of years. Very slight changes in the asteroids orbit could cause it to present far more hazardous threat to Earth. What it does now. This is one of the reasons why Strana being tracking it so closely during its current close approach using both telescopes especially ground-based radar to keep an eye on it. He's observations were unable even better longtime assessment of the hazards posed by this giant space rock module close approaches by large asteroids as big as nineteen. Ninety two I rare the last time something like that happened was the asteroid Florence back in September twenty seventeen it was about five kilometers across but luckily flew by it. So I'm eighteen times. The distance on average ajar expect asteroids of this size the flypast out China roughly once every five years or so and since they big asteroid the size tend to reflect more light than smaller asteroids do and therefore easy to detect with telescopes. In fact astronomers estimate that they've already identified about ninety eight percent of all near Earth asteroid the size of nineteen ninety eight oh to Elijah. But of course that means there's still another two percent out bay hiding in the darkness of space and then there were the heaps of asteroids smaller than two kilometers across which are yet to be discovered pleasant dreams. This is space time still to come. Keeping Track of the European Space Agency's make rebound baby Columbus spacecraft and the release of New Vision is allowed experts to get more details about the secrets behind. Iran's rock program all that and more still to come on space time as the European space make rebound baby Columbus spacecraft undertook. It's thirty kilometers per second fly by the earth the other week scientists with the University of Western Australia were keeping close on on it just to make sure things went. According to plan the Earth Fly by was the first of nine gravity. Assist Maneuvers Bibi Colombo needs to undertake during its seven year journey to reach the planet closest to the Sun without being overwhelmed by the sun's enormous gravitational field so well most gravity assisted design the slingshot a spacecraft to a fast the speed. This one was designed to slow down the probe from thirty point four kilometers per second data twenty five kilometers per second as it swooped down over the South Atlantic Ocean at an altitude of just twelve thousand six hundred seventy seven kilometers still to come a to fly bys of Venus then six of mercury before the spacecraft will finally enter orbit around the Sun Scorch Planet University of Western Australia team worked closely with Baby Columbia mission manages in Europe to provide continuous the space probe using the Australian Research Council Center of Excellence for gravitational wave discovery or off grabs Zenko telescopic ginge in mind you. The task was made it a little bit more difficult because of the curve in nineteen lockdown restrictions forcing the telescope control of Bruges Sandri to operate the telescope remotely from his home in the Perth Suburb Claremont. As well as keeping track of baby Colombo the Fly by also provided useful test for the European Space Agency's Planetary Defense Office allowing it to tickets capabilities to coordinate. The observation of future potentially hazardous near Earth objects something difficult to do in the southern hemisphere because of a lack of suitably sized telescopes PIPPI Columbia was launched aboard an Ariane five rocket in October two thousand eighteen from the European Space Agency's spaceport in French Guiana. The spacecraft is made up of four sections these the European Space Agency's make re planetary orbiter which is designed to analyze poetry surface and composition. Then there's the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agencies Mickey Magnets Very Corbetta which will explore the planet's magnetosphere. These two orbiters are designed to circle the planet at different altitudes. A third section is the mercury transfer module. It's located the base of the stack and supplies power and support to the two. Oh but as as well as propulsion during the cruise phase of the mission and it helps protect the openings from the extreme temperatures as they get closer to mercury and the sun the fourth section is the magnetic son showed interface structure it's fitted between the two orbiters and it will provide additional protection for the mercury magnetics freak over before into so orbit baby Colombo is slated to achieve mimicry orbit insertion on December. The Fifth Twenty twenty-five once in orbit it'll study the planet structure it's magnetic fields the surrounding niece based environment the planet interaction with the solar environment and the Solar Wind Macquarie is the smallest and innermost planet in the solar system. It has a diameter of four thousand four hundred eighty kilometers at the moment. More on that later it's highly elongated orbit around the sun takes just seven point nine seven earth days the shortest of any planet in the solar system and make re rotates in a way that unique in our solar system. See it's tightly locked son in a three to spin orbit resonance meeting that relative to fix background. Stars Mickey rotates on its axis exactly three times every two revolutions that makes around the sun so if he was standing on the surface of Mercury. You'd experience only one victory in day for every two mercury in years. Mercury a piece to have a solid silica crust mantle overlying a solid iron sulfide out. Kula at depot liquid core layer and then a solid core scientists estimate that make you escort occupies some fifty five percent of the planet's overall volume. That's quite a lot. Concerning the Earth's core outer and inner ernie makeup about seventeen percent of the total volume one hypothesis to explain Mercury's proportionately lodge core suggests a planetary collision billions of years ago which stripped away most of the planet's original crust and mantle. In fact possibly as much as half of the planet so rich on mass. It's not the only hypothesis to try and explain the planet's large core. But you gotTa admit it's the most spectacular one make you a surface features extensive. Mari like planes and heavy cratering very similar appearance to the moon. Metal indicates the planets being geologically inactive billions of years one unusual feature of Macri surface. Is it's numerous compression folds or Ruth's Chris crossed the planes as Mickey's interior cooled. It contracted and service began to form creating wrinkle ridges in. Lubbock scopes associated with thrust faults. These cops can be over thousand kilometers long and summer up to three kilometers high and they can be seen on top of other features such as craters and smooth plains all of which indicates some of them fairly recent savage mapping suggests the pirates already shrunk by bet fourteen kilometers in diameter and is continuing to shrink today. The lunar reconnaissance orbiter discovered similar small thrustful on the moon another thing the moon mercury having common and again like the Moon Mercury has almost no atmosphere and therefore an inability to retain hate in fact mercury surface temperatures very diagonally more than any other planet in the solar system ranging from scorching four hundred twenty seven degrees Celsius in the daytime. Down to freezing minus one hundred and seventy three degrees Celsius at night. January says as what was improving sizes understanding of the planet mercury the baby combat mission will also offer new insights into how the earth and solar system formed. He says the Sedco Telescope was put into play to help monitor the mission following a request by the European Space Agency. E-eh fly is due to the fact that when you launch the prob- The tweet another. You need a lot of proponents and in the case of Internet. Which means that curious. You mean also to conflate a lot of potential energy so that you have to fact that. Y'All enough into kids address and then DC so they quest lots of competitors and propel us so when you want to launch this you need to have a big rockets cost a lot of the best solution to avoid that east to us. Going to trust you stems and I fly by of Mercury so had to reach. Why is it so difficult? It's just due to the fact that you don't have as many fans you had before in the sixteen seventeen when you're looking at is not difficult. If you put a lot of propels you can reach very fussy. But if you if you don't Stances on something which is extremely people it is but not points so let me but you into our lots of fiber is in case of the Colombo. You will have one Friday and then stay out from from From us and from course before reaching the final of this nation. How did the University of Western Australia undertake these observations and why in other to gain the maximum from stems? You need to burn some Other popular before reaching the lowest point of the library and he gave me an old woman of that. You have to do where a couple of hours before I kind of was right below the probe when you started and We're able to follow nearly up to The process point when everything is stopping. So that means that we are the best place that will make your obsessions and they contacted us because We already in contact through another forgotten. But we have which is supposed to money to the F. to be sure that The neighboring of the F. is safe fall in backed us as we more bodies on a couple of 'cause buddies that could Written life on us but need to be heard and We have to ask so but if we take something we've makeup stations and DIV Christie's position of Y'all beat into Fairly if it safe or not. So we teach do is they give us anything with appropriate because he was watching and the fly by at changed. The spacecraft's velocity from thirty point four kilometers per second down to around twenty five kilometers per second without the native any fuel. That's that's what it's all about. I guess is as you said earlier. You just need to change mass. Obviously the U You ever you ever small. Change the mess of the pro. So that means that you would have minimal Burning fuel during that time and that would be enough in order to make things the courage of. Yes we do. This free Basically free energy. He's not completely free technique and he gained something increased is deferred seeing the size of the earth. This is something that would never be miserable. We were noticing exchange that self designed it and decided in the late ninety s so at the time the only thing we're knowing both mercury was what nine out of ten I've made so a couple of age and of Not that much. So of a probe had been designed to either maintain fielder in order to understand how the planet we'd Interact. We've allowing we'll also have a mattress. We make a lot of teachers to have a bit of a face. They ask some eighteen months. They would just to be sure he's walking. I would say that all of us more probes things that we'd be done at the same time the only thing that we do technique at ease but There is no landa because he was from a mission. That's the Bruges Sandri from the University of Western Australia and this is space time. I'M STEWART GARY. Still the come you images of last week's Arabian rocket launch providing more details about the test. And exactly what really happened and later in the science report we look at all the available data on how the curve in nineteen virus infects the human body all that and more still to come on space time new images of last week's rainy and rocket launcher providing more details birth about the test and also that what really happened. Now as you remember last week's program we raised suspicions of Tehran's original claims the Gas Messenger. Two stage rocket was used for the flight. Well turns out those suspicions which justified the new image is clearly show the launch vehicle. Wasn't a hat that's claimed by Tehran. But it was actually a Shahab three long range ballistic missile the same sort of launch vehicle. We had seen these types of tests before as we pointed out in last week. Show that has these actually a short range surface. Missile usually launch from fighter jets towards ground targets and so the use of such missile on and orbital on system always seemed strange. Have three is raining. Copy of North Korea's not Dong Ballistic Missile Series. Which itself is based on old nineteen eighty s Era. Soviet Union Scud missile technology but equipped with a new upgraded forty percent larger Scott rocket motor which is being developed by Russian scientists when the Soviet Union collapsed Pyongyang provided the scientists and their rocket engine designs with a new communist dictatorship to call home. Then you images show an exhaust plume. Whose color suggests the launch vehicle. Shehab three I age is fueled by on symmetrical DI methyl hydrazine. Propellant at an oxidizer composed of nitric acid with twenty seven percent die nitrogen oxide the launch vehicle. Second Stage is based around the new domestically-developed Salman Solid Rocket Murder. And it's being seen with some trepidation by the fence. Experts has it's likely to be the first step in developing a far larger solid rocket. Booster little is known about the third stage of the rocket stag other than it's liquid fueled and equipped with six by propellant reaction control thrusters that combine rocket stack blessed off from a mobile launcher from the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Cheroots missile range three hundred and thirty kilometres northeast of Tehran. The launch place. Iran's new no-one spy satellite into a fortune twenty five kilometer high low-earth orbit initial reports suggested the satellite was a three unit cube. Set images show? It's actually a six unit keep set fitted with a High Webcam and that in itself is interesting because as a spy satellite it wouldn't provide images of the ground that are as good as what's already available from several commercial. Earth observation satellite operators and it suggests that the root purpose of the flight was to test the new missile stack especially the new second stage. Solid rocket motor. The flight was in clear violation of Iran's two thousand fifteen anti-nuclear agreement with the United Nations. Us Secretary of State. Mike pompeo criticized launch describing. Iran's space program as nothing but a cover to develop ballistic missiles. The same tactic used by. Iran's ally North Korea as it developed nuclear weapons and missile systems needed to deliver them and as we mentioned last week also comes as the International Atomic Energy Agency reports that the Islamic republic is almost triple that stockpile of enriched uranium since November jumping from three hundred and seventy two kilograms up to a one thousand and twenty one kilograms. Another violation of its atty Nikolay Records United Nations nuclear watchdog says Iran. Now only needs another thirty kilograms of uranium. Have enough fissile material to build an atomic bomb at the same time as all this is happening. The Atomic Energy Agency's inspectors being refused access to three suspected. Nuclear sites enriched uranium residues being detected including one side at which they ran describes as a copy cleaning factory surely the only Catholic Lady Factory in the world classified as top sacred. This space time still come the science report and we look at all the available data on how covered nineteen infects the human body. Oh that and more still to come on space time and turn out for a brief look at some of the other stories making news inside this week with a science report the world has now suffered almost a quarter of a million deaths from the covert nineteen corona virus and over three million people of nabbing infected with the deadly disease which spread from the Wuhan wet markets in eastern central China. Now a new report in the journal Science has combined all the available data on how curve in nineteen infects the human body. The data tells us the virus a piece to target as two receptors which have found in the upper respiratory tract at the back of the throat and nose while most people will recover and someone even notice it others will go on to develop far more dangerous symptoms with the virus meeting through the Airways of the lungs into the tiny sx Alveoli by another area rich and h two receptors where oxygen transfers into the bloodstream. There the virus triggers inflammation dramatically affecting respiration and causing pneumonia. And from there often a rapid downhill slide into acute respiratory distress syndrome. The body's immune system response trying to fight the virus goes into a damaging hyper-immune overdrive unleashing chemical cytokine storm into the blood with immune cells even attacking healthy tissues causing widespread blood. Clotting leaking blood vessels and sending blood pressure crashing twenty percent of patients going to suffer hot damage possibly because the hotline is also rich and Esther sceptres. The blood clots can also trigger strokes and combined with a low blood pressure can cause kidney failure further poisoning the blood which then affects the brain causing a whole raft of other problems including issues with the central nervous system delirium and loss of consciousness. In about twenty percent of cases the virus infects the small intestines which are also loaded with Easter receptors and with a virus causes stomach problems nausea diarrhea in the five months since the curve in nineteen virus emerged and spread around the world of eleven hundred. Clinical trials have been registered globally including over five hundred randomized controlled trials. There is currently no effective treatment for covered. Nineteen the most common therapeutic agent currently being trialed hydroxy chloroquine which is currently involved in two thousand four trials with potential sample size of twenty five thousand participants. That was followed by seven trials using Pine Avia Return Avia and five trials testing desire. And you study one. That warmer weather in the northern hemisphere is some stotts may not the transmission of Curve. Nineteen a report in the European Respiratory Journal. Looking at the spread of the virus found no difference between more sunny woman areas and coolest anyone's researches say social distancing suffice remain as important as ever even as the weather changes now. Do you remember that Jim? Research vessel the Polish Donald Pollstar. Which has been deliberately locked in? Arctic ice in October as part of a study to climate change in the Arctic. Well it's being forced to leave it station because of the ongoing nineteen pandemic a report in the Journal. Nature says travel restrictions. Flight cancellations have disrupted necessary. Crew changes on the vessel. Ship is now traveling to Vauban where it will change. Crew and scientists expedition organizers have rephrased the ship at the same spot in about three weeks time and you reporters found that fifty six percent of kids aged eight to twelve and sixty nine. Percents of teens aged thirteen to eighteen watching videos online every day. Now America's National Center for Science Education has launched a new program designed to combat online misinformation about climate change and evolution to Mendham from Australian skeptics. The programs designed to promote effective science communication skills and teaching kids. How to distinguish fact from fiction is essential media. Us Oganization? I did a survey looking at perplexingly. How much Videos KEEPS WATCH ONLINE. And it might surprise you that Teenagers Thirteen to eighteen sixty nine percent of them watch videos online every night. That doesn't surprise me at all. Much of Eight to twelve year olds fifty six percent roles. I watching videos online healthier than the Macho. I was twenty four seven with a sit in front of the box of Simmons. I got home from school and I wouldn't leave till mom forced me to get a bit on. I hit in front of the fire and I put up a book of Biblical history and things and sit there and how. Mtv was basically there's a lot of misinformation and not peer reviewed videos so teaches Trying to understand how to count a lot of the False information that's out there invidious and for all the effort that looks like youtube and Google Fitter at trying to sort of keep the garbage of What's posted on their sites and teachers struggling against these sort of struggling with trying to Establish with the students looks good scientific information. What's bad for my group of the? Us called the National Center for Science Education which was launched these setup to Kanta creationism anti evolution. Theories supposed scientific evidence thing taught in American schools. Which is a lot stronger in American schools entities in Australia and in fact that Llanview doesn't exist in this group setting up to Canada that the number of major campaigns against various textbooks which assault which basically discount evolution in favor of Fundamental Christian creationism CETERA. They then moved on to other areas like climate change again. This is a big area for misinformation so vast applying that training and supplying teachers with information as to how to counter a propensity to not believe in science to not have faith in science actually believe in fight science. It's not necessarily to give them the answers. It's the process which is important. Teaching people pretty thinking skills so that they understand differentiate but that makes teaching the teachers had to communicate properly and a lot of teachers come straight from wherever they come from. Adam I come from a science background but not necessarily the science communicators. So that's what they're trying to do. Just listen to Asha that could do that. Actually Tim Mendham from strain skeptics. And that's the shows now space-time broadcast on sites on radio by the National Science Foundation in Washington. Dc and through both IHEART radio and on the radio or you can subscribe and Download Space Time as a free podcast through apple. Stitcher BITES DOT COM pucca cast soundcloud spotify YouTube audio boom Pud beam android cashbox from space time with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite download podcasts provider. You can help support the show and the work we do by visiting the Space Time online shop and grabbing yourself a few goodies or by becoming a space time Patriot which gives you access to commercial free double episode versions of the show as well as burners audio content and other awards. 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