1 Episode results for "Staphylococcus Ogden"
Staphylococcus Aureus and the Non-Denial Denial
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I would've likely lost. Not just my I but my life then again I wouldn't have ever lived to acquire orbital so you lights because I would have died of the staph infections I had in childhood. Stella Aureus is not a normal part of the human microbiome but many people perhaps around a third are like me. Nonetheless hosts two colonies of it on our skin or in our nasal passages or in our digestive systems. These colonies are usually harmless but while anyone can get sick with staff those of us who live omitted. Every day are more likely to suffer infections. When I was in the hospital the infectious disease. Doctors made me feel very special. One told me you are colonized by some fascinating Lee. Aggressive Staff He told me I wouldn't believe the petri dishes if I saw them and went on to call my continued existence. A real testament to modern medicine. Which I suppose it is for. People like myself colonized by fascinating. The aggressive bacteria there can be no harkening back wistfully to pass Golden Ages. Because in all those pasts I would be dead in. Nineteen forty one. Boston city hospital reported in eighty two percent fatality rate. For staph infections. I remember as a child hearing phrases like only the strong survive and survival of the fittest and feeling terrified by them. Because I knew I was not fit or strong. I didn't yet know that when humanity protects the frail among us and works to ensure their survival the human project as a whole get stronger failing to understand that has held our species back for Millennia and in fact still does because staff often infects open wounds. It has been especially deadly during war near the beginning of world. War One. The English poet Rupert Brooke Famously wrote if I should die. Think only this of me that there's some corner of a foreign field that is forever. England Brookwood indeed die in the war in the winter of nineteen fifteen but not in some corner of a foreign field but instead on a hospital ship of a bacterial infection by then there were of course. Thousands of doctors treating the war's wounded and ill among them was a seventy one year old. Scottish surgeon Alexander Ogden who decades earlier had discovered and named Staphylococcus Ogden who sported a magnificent moustache throughout his adult. Life was a huge fan of Joseph. Lister WHO's observations about post surgical infection led to the use of carbolic acid and other sterilization techniques these dramatically increased surgical survival rates. In fact after visiting lister and learning from Him Ogden returned to his hospital in Aberdeen and tore down the sign above the operating room that read prepare to meet the God. No would surgery. Be a desperate last ditch effort. It could be safe and clean and survivable. Ogden was so obsessed with listers carbolic acid spray that his students wrote a poem about it. The spray the spray the antiseptic spray. A would shower it morning night and day for every sort of scratch where others would attach a sticking plaster patch. He gave the spray. It's all right but it's no Rupert Brooke. At any rate Ogden had good reason to give the spray. His first wife Mary. Jane had died after childbirth a few years earlier at the age of twenty five. There's no record her cause death but most maternal deaths at the time were caused by postpartum infection often due to staphylococcus aureus and dogs had hundreds of his patients die of post surgical infection so no wonder he was obsessed with antiseptic protocols. Still he wanted to understand not just how to prevent infection but also what precisely was causing it by the late. Eighteen seventies many discoveries were being made by surgeons and researchers about various bacteria and their role in infection but staphylococcus was not identified until Austin lanced a pus filled abscessed leg wound belonging to one James Davidson. Under the microscope. Davidson's abscess was brimming with life. Ogden wrote my delight may be conceived when there were revealed to me beautiful tangles tufts and chains of round organisms in great numbers. Ogden named these tufts and chains staphylococcus from the Greek word for bunches of grapes and they do often look like grape bunches plump and just a little bit oblong and also quite yellowish green. A few years later a German scientist noted that there were in fact several species of staphylococcus and named the one Ogden had found Staphylococcus Aureus or the golden staff but Ogden wasn't content with just seeing the bacteria. Obviously he wrote the first step to be taken was to make sure the organisms found. In Mr Davidson's pus were not there by chance. So he set up a laboratory in the shed behind his house and began trying to grow colonies of staff eventually succeeding by growing them. In the medium of a chicken egg he then injected the bacteria into guinea pigs and wild mice which became violently ill. Ogden also noted that staphylococcus seemed to be quote harmless on the surface despite being quote so deleterious when injected I have also observed this in so far as I am not much bothered by having my skin colonized by Staphylococcus Aureus but find it. Dilatot serious indeed when it starts replicating inside my eye socket. James Davidson by the way went on to live another forty years after his staph infection. Thanks to a thorough deriding and Ogden's liberal use of the spray the spray the antiseptic spray but staphylococcus aureus remained an exceptionally dangerous infection until another Scottish scientist Alexander. Fleming discovered penicillin by accident. Actually one Monday morning in nineteen twenty eight Fleming notice that one of his cultures of Staphylococcus aureus had been contaminated by a fungus penicillin them which seemed to have killed all the STAPH BACTERIA. He remarked allowed. That's funny Fleming. Then used what? He called his mould juice. I wish I were making that up to treat. Couple patients including during his assistance. Sinus infection but mass production of the antibiotic substance secreted by. Penicillin proved very challenging. It wasn't until the late nineteen thirties. That a group of scientists at Oxford began testing their penicillin stocks. I on mice and then in nineteen forty one on a human subject. A policeman named Albert Alexander who'd been cut by shrapnel during a German bombing raid and who was dying of bacterial infections in his case both staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus. The penicillin caused a dramatic improvement in Alexander's condition but the researchers didn't have enough of the drug to save him. The infections returned and Alexander died in April of nineteen forty one. His seven-year-old daughter Sheila ended up in a local orphanage. Scientists began to seek out more productive strains of the mold and eventually found one on a cantaloupe in a Peoria Illinois grocery store that strain eventually became even more productive after being exposed to x rays and ultraviolet radiation. But essentially all penicillin. In the world descends from that mold on that one cantaloupe in Peoria. That's not the astounding thing about the story though the astounding thing is that after scraping off the mold that became the world's supply of penicillin the scientists in question eight the rest of the cantaloupe even as penicillin stocks increased from not enough to save a single human being in nineteen forty one to twenty one billion units in one thousand nine hundred forty three to six point eight trillion units in nineteen forty-five there was growing awareness that the bacteria killed by penicillin were evolving resistance to it especially staphylococcus aureus the nineteen forty six Saturday evening. Post ARTICLE WORRIED ANTIBIOTIC. Use would quote unwittingly aid and speed up the subtle evolution forces which arranged for the survival of the fittest microbes. And so it was to be by. Nineteen fifty forty percent of staphylococcus aureus samples in hospitals were resistant to penicillin by nineteen sixty eighty percent today. Only around two percent of Staff. A infections are sensitive to penicillin. This all happened so so quickly. Sixty four years elapsed between Alexander Ogden's discovery of staphylococcus and the mass production of penicillin and sixty four years elapsed between the mass production of penicillin. And my two thousand seven bout with orbital cellulitis. In the end my infection did not respond to penicillin or to the next two lines of antibiotics but did fortunately respond to the fourth but antibiotic resistance is not only a problem for the future. Some fifty thousand people in the United States die of staphylococcus aureus infections every year. How recent is penicillin that police officers daughter Sheila? Who ended up in the orphanage? She's still alive. She married an American soldier and moved to California. She's a painter one of her recent paintings. Two picks a block of homes in an English Village Ivy grows up along one wall creeping over the rough stone to me. The great mystery of life is why life wants to be staphylococcus. Doesn't want to harm people. It doesn't know about people. It just wants to be like that. Iv wants to spread across the wall occupying more and more of it. How much as much as it can. So it's not staff's fault that it wishes to be wishing to be is the mark of life and the glory of it still. I can only give staphylococcus one and a half stars after the break. We'll turn our attention to the non. Denial denial but first back in seventeen. O Six a bishop and bear in in London Co founded the first Modern Life Insurance Company. It was called the Amicable Society for a perpetual assurance office. All I really want out of this veil of tears is to give an amicable society and Experience Perpetual Assurance. What a phrase that is perpetual assurance it seems to me that underlying problem with the anthropology gene is that we all want to feel perpetually assured but the world offers almost nothing that is either certain or perpetual there is however still life insurance policy genius makes finding the right life insurance a breeze in minutes you can compare quotes from the top insurers to find your best price so go get a slice of assurance for those you love life. Insurance takes just a few minutes to apply at Policy Genius. Dot Com policy genius. Get Life Insurance Right. Sometimes when I am exceptionally despondent about the condition of contemporary political life in the United States I will turn history especially to the politicking of ancient Rome. There's a famous document called the little handbook on electioneering purportedly written by Quintas Tovia Cicero to his older brother. Marcus Marcus is the famous CICERO. The Roman Warrior and orator who served as Roman consul in sixty three B. C. E. scholars dispute whether Quintas actually wrote the little handbook. It may have been a later creation but regardless despite being a couple thousand years old it is in some ways eight very contemporary document. It argues for instance that quote men are more taken by look and words than by actual services. It also points out that when someone asks of you something you cannot do. You can either promised to do it any way or politely refuse. The latter is the conduct of a good man. The handbook tells us the former of a good candidate. But what really gets me about the little handbook on? Electioneering is a paragraph on pointing out the flaws in other candidates in this case Roman Senator Caroline. The handbook reads. Why should I speak of him as a candidate for the console ship who caused Marias a man most beloved by the Roman people to be beaten with vine rods in the sight of that Roman people from one end of the city to the other forced him to the tomb rent his name with every kind of torture and while he was still alive and breathing cut off his head? The little handbook goes on to describe. Katelyn not only as a murderer but were still as quote a man who afterwards lived with actors and gladiators on such terms that the former ministered to his lust and the latter to his crimes. It's one thing to decapitate your brother in law but living with actors who minister to your lust that's properly disqualifying. The handbook also says that people quote would rather you told them a civil law by then give them a point blank refusal? It's a coincidence. But a wonderful one. That civil lies sound so much like civilize. I. I heard the term non. Denial denial while reading. Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein's book all the president's men about the Watergate cover up that led to President Richard Nixon's resignation back in one thousand nine hundred seventy four Nixon's press secretary. Ronald Ziegler regularly released denials. That did not actually denied the accusations in question. Ziegler once said for instance stories are being run based on hearsay innuendo guilt by association which is a criticism of the press but not a denial of the story in the decade. Since the Non Denial. Denial has become almost beautiful in its linguistic sophistication like after the national enquirer published reports of two thousand eight. Democratic presidential hopeful John F. Words having a child outside of his marriage Edward said that's tabloid trash their full of guys but that comment is carefully worded to say the tabloids often spread misinformation without saying that they were in this case spreading misinformation Edwards. Did eventually say the story's just false false is a word that pops up. In many non denial denials it's useful because it's vague like maybe the story is false. Because you didn't actually have a child with your mistress whom you supported with funds from campaign. Donations were maybe. The story is false because it claimed you boarded an airplane at noon when in fact you boarded it at twelve. Oh six the best. Non Denial denials sound like broad statements but secretly aren't former. Us President Bill Clinton issued. What seemed to be a blanket? Denial when he said of an affair I did not have sexual relations with that woman but it turned out that he had an extremely specific definition of sexual relations in mind when uttering those now famous words but there are many other varieties of non denial denials. You can answer a question different from the one you were asked. As when Chris Christie responded to allegations he'd closed a bridge for politically motivated reasons. By saying I am not a bully or you might use certain words to describe an accusation. That seem like denials. But really aren't my favorite is outrageous as when US Senator Marco Rubio described as outrageous a report that he mischaracterized his family. History many things are outrageous but still true especially in politics. Ultimately I think language exists to facilitate communication to make my thoughts transparent to you and yours. Transparent to me but language can also be used to make the past and the present confusing and even opaque and in those senses. The non denial. Denial is a failure of language. Still in the end I think I prefer non denial denials to the pure lies that some politicians are happy to tell the current. Us President seems not to be very interested in linguistic acrobatics and instead is content simply to lie both when it comes to big matters like claiming that China pays for US tariffs on Chinese goods and also when it comes to ridiculously small matters like the fact that he used to serve as his own spokesperson under the pseudonym John Barren of course. The president isn't the only politician to take stretching the truth to the level of breaking it but he is currently the most prominent. I suppose one could argue that. It's better to live with provable. False statements than the intentional obfuscation of non denial denials and I do realize that no American politician has as of yet anyway decapitated a political rival and paraded around town with a disembodied head. But even so I will confess that the Times in which I find myself have left me a little town chick. For the days of Civil Wise I give non denial denials to stars. Thanks for listening to the anthropology interviewed which was written by mean edited by Stan Muller and produced by Roseana Halls Rojo's and Tony Phillips. Joe Is our technical director and Brown makes the music. The pairing of today's episode was inspired by a quote apparently MIS attributed to Cicero. Politicians are not born. They are excreted. Penicillin really is excreted though. Thanks to Megan Austin and deep deep. I suggesting reviews of penicillin. I WANNA leave you today with my favorite fact. That didn't make it in. Today's reviews Alexander Ogden. The Scottish surgeon who discovered staphylococcus raised some wondrously radical children including his daughter. Helen who was a famous British suffragette in nineteen eight. Helen attempted to give a speech at London's Royal Albert Hall Arguing. That women should have the right to vote. Male stewards tried to pull her off. The stage violently. One pressed the lit end of a cigar to her wrist. Hellen Ogden responded by pulling out a dog whip and whipping the madden. It would be another twenty years before women in Britain had the same voting rights as men just as the daughter of that policeman treated with penicillin is still alive. There are British women still alive who were born in a country where women could not vote. History is new my friends and we are all of us making it all the time together.