35 Burst results for "South Pole"
"south pole" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"And that's the shut for now space-time is available every monday wednesday and friday through podcasts. I tunes stitcher. Ugo podcast casts. Spotify aac cast amazon music bites dot com soundcloud youtube. Your favorite podcast. Download provider and from space-time with stuart gary dot com space times also broadcast through the national science foundation on science own radio. And i'm both iheart radio and tune in radio and you can help to support our show by visiting the space time store for a range of promotional merchandising goodies all by becoming a space time patron which gives you access to triple episode commercial free versions of the show as well as lots of burners already content. Which doesn't go away. Access to exclusive facebook group and other awards. Just go to space time with stewart. Gary dot com for full details. And if you want more space time please check our blog. You'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as heaps of images new stories loads videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with stewart. Gary dot com la dot com. That's all one word. And that's tumbler. Without the aid. You can also follow us through at jewett. Gary on twitter at space time with stewart gary on instagram space youtube channel on facebook just go to facebook dot com forward slash. Space time with stewart. Gary and space time is brought you in collaboration with us strain sky and telescope magazine. Your window on the universe you being listening to space time with stewart gary. This has been another quality podcasts. Production from bites dot com..
"south pole" Discussed on Archives of Fabella
"And welcome back to archives of abella daily the podcast taking you to the far reaches of a magical world. Today is june twenty third equal to cancer. Third bucks are available on amazon. Please rate and review the podcast on itunes. Or wherever you listen to your podcasts and hit that subscribe button for more great stories right in your feed. June twenty third sixteen eleven is the day. The mutinous crew of henry hudson's fourth voyage says henry his son and seven loyal crew members adrift in an open boat. In what is now hudson bay. They are never heard from again. Meanwhile in the magical wonderland of abella a troll explored the south pole. I'm dillon foley and this is our countless of sabella Beyond our world.
"south pole" Discussed on The Small Business Radio Show
"The business. Expo dot com. Well early in my life. My father and i used to hike the appalachian trail. And now i've become a long distance cyclist challenging myself has taught me a lot about who i am. The people i team up with. But i would never imagine doing what my next guest has accomplished. Alison levine is a history making polar explorer and mountaineer. She served a team. Captain of the first american women's everest expedition climbed the highest peak in each continent and skied both north and south poles a feat known as the adventure grand slam which only twenty people in the world have achieved in two thousand eight. She made history as the first american to complete a six hundred mile traverse across west antarctica to the south pole ellison. Welcome to the show. Thank you thank you so much for having me well. You've done a lot of things that most of us have never dreamed. But actually you've done one thing that a lot of us have dream. You were the inspiration for a craft. Beer called conquer the route chocolate stout. I want to hear that story. I okay okay okay. So i was the keynote speaker at the craft brewers association annual conference in. I think it was really dc. The dc and there were five thousand craft rules there and so i was on stage. I was telling my story about serving as the team. Captain for the first american women's everest expedition. 'cause there's all kinds of great business lessons you know involved in including everett's you know. There's a lot of parallels between climbing that mountain and a balance that entrepreneurs face every day. And so i told my story on stage in this woman named carol wagner. Who was the owner of a bold missy. Burritos at brand new craft brewery that was opening in charlotte north carolina. She came up to me with her staff and she said we laud your story so much and she said what is your favorite kind of beer. And i said Chocolate stout and she said we're gonna name a beer after you and i said what are you. What are you talking about it. She said all of our ears are need after women who've made history and we want to get a beer after you so it was a conquered. The route chocolates doubt and You i joined. Sally ride zion. Anaya add Some other win They need beers after. But unfortunately oh annie oakley have the beer but unfortunately did not survive the pandemic so the owner carroll wagner has owns all the ip rights to the beers in a names it appears and so she hopefully will do something else with them but pulled missy brewery the actual brewery itself no longer charlotte which is heartbreaking. Hopefully he's got a few cases of it's still stored up. I do it was so good. They used you know organics chocolates. Is you know. They're really into sustainable. Using all ingredients that have been sustainably. sourced Yeah they're they're a great littleborough so sad to see that they didn't make it but i'm hoping that they'll come back at some point. You know. i feel to mention that you are the author. You're mentioning the leadership lessons of the new york times bestselling book on the edge leadership lessons from mount everest and other extreme environments. So i gotta ask you. I was doing a little research. Five foot four. What's a nice jewish girl from arizona. How'd you get involved in mountain climbing extreme sports. It just seems a mismatch right. Okay so as you just shared. I am from arizona and when i was younger. I was always intrigued by the stories of the early arctic. Antarctic explorers the mountaineers now but snell would watch documentary films. I think because it felt like an escape from the oppressive summer heat in phoenix So i it felt like an escape from these places. And so i've read the books and i'd watch the films but i never actually thought i would go to any of those places because i was born with a hole in my heart so long story. Short i. I was diagnosed at age. Seventeen with a whole. My heart. I was i was born with. I had one surgery when i was seventeen. That was not successful. Had another one. When i turn thirty and a few months after that surgery this lightbulb went on my head and i thought okay. I want to know what it's like to be. You know this explorer reinhold messner and drag one hundred fifty pounds sled across the center miles of anarchy guys and i should go to antarctica in do it if i want to know what it feels like diabetes mountaineers going to these remote mountain ranges. I should go to the mountains instead of watching films about them and if he's other guys can can do this stuff then you know. Why can't i do it too. So i climbed my first mountain at age. Thirty to fifty five now and i haven't stopped since it's amazing to me because i've become a long distance cycler but i didn't start until i was fifty seven so it's the same kind of thing but i have to ask you. Do you ever get cold. Because i hate the cold. I get cold all the time. And especially because i. I have something called called raynaud's disease which is a neurological disease that causes the arteries in my fingers and toes to shut down the nerves clamp down on the arteries it in my extremities so it leaves at extremists prospects. So i have to be very very careful in these environments. I use hands all the time. There are days when i'll see people out on the mountain climbing and just been liner gloves. And i've got on big huge down mets a that. It's challenging from an exterior thirty standpoint. But i have to protect my hands and feet when i go to any of these cold place. That's amazing. I've watched all the documentaries. On of course now the ever tourism about people going to ever isn't anything like that or is it totally different when you climb everest. Well i'll tell you. I didn't the crowds on the mountain. Either time when i was there in two thousand and two or in two thousand in two thousand and two. That's when i was served as the team. Captain for the first american women's everest expedition. We got to within two hundred and seventy five from summit and had to turn back because of bad weather took me eight years to get up the gods to go back and try it again. You know and kind of get over that failure but in two thousand and ten. I did not see a lot of crowds on the mountain. Either so i think it's been more recently. There have been more permit that have been issued by the ministry of tourism in nepal. But the problem isn't necessarily the number of permits that what they call a good weather window so there's only certain days that are predicted where the weather's gonna be good and that's when people all choose to go for the summit and there would the crowds have been reported during certain years. It's basically been where there have been fewer good weather windows so fewer opportunities to be able to go for the top where the the weather is going to cooperate. That's part of the problem. But in general. I do think they are issuing too many permits. They need to set a limit on it and keep saying that they will do something to limit the crowds. But they don't seem to be able to actually follow up on that that commitment they need the money in tourism especially now after covance. But i love the story you told during your x speech where someone said. Well you went to everest. But you didn't get to the top choices. I guess she didn't get to the top ever so you can tell a story about being i think. He was at j. P. morgan.
Alison Levine: On the Edge
"Our guest. Today is alison levine. Allison is a history making polar explorer and mountaineer. She served as team captain. The first american women's ever a sec edition and has completed the adventure grand slam which is climbing the highest peaks on every continent and skiing both the north and south pole feet. Which only twenty people in the world have achieved listen. Levin has spent four years as an adjunct professor of the united states military academy where she focuses on topic of leading teams in extreme environments. Currently she says on the board and faculty of leadership development group at west point one of the nation's premier executive leader development programs. She is the author of the new york times bestseller on the edge. Which is a compilation of the lessons. She's learned from climbing the world's highest peaks. She's also the founder of climb high foundation a nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the lives of jobless women in uganda training them to work as trekking guides for local mountains. Ladies and gentlemen please put your hands together and help me welcome retired. Deputy minister talk today me for a loop knowing what's bigger thing in there. Well done. Well do the research that was a while ago. Yeah it was back in two thousand and three. But i'll tell you i learned one of the best leadership lessons if i can. Just jump right in with joe. Leadership lessons from working for governor schwarzenegger and it was about treating every member of your team making sure that they know they are important to you as an individual. Not just as somebody in a job function. What i mean by that is For example when it was you know a few days into the campaign and arnold was walking by me in the hallway. And i'm sure you know there's a million people were gonna campaign an old buddy. you know. there's all these people that he's worked all these famous people at a worked in politics for years and years and years. He's political veterans. And i'm you know a a newbie. And he walks by me in the hallway and i work in campaign finance rights. Our jobs to raise the money for the ads spends and things like that and the events and he walks by me and he looked at me and he said Hey how's our mountain climber doing today.
Ocean Currents Predicted on Enceladus
"New study claims. That ocean currents churning in the subsurface sees of this attorney an ice moon enceladus. The findings reported in the journal. Nature geoscience a based on the shape of enceladus twenty kilometer. Thick shell new hypothesis challenges. Current thinking that the moon's global ocean is a modulus apart from some vertical mixing driven by the warmth of the moons core and syllabus is a tiny frozen snowball just hundred kilometers wide. That's just a seventh of the earth's moon. It's the smoothest body. In the solar system is smooth as keeble and sold us attracted the attention of scientists in two thousand fourteen when a fly by the cassini spacecraft discovered evidence of subsurface after water was seen spewing out of guys alike eruptions through fissures in the circle tiger stripes in the ice neither moon south pole a spectral analysis of the water by cassini indicated that it was salty together with jupiter's iceman moon. Europa enceladus is one of the few locations in the solar system other than earth with liquid water. And that makes it an obvious. Target of interest for astrobiologists searching for signs of life but the oceans on enceladus are almost entirely unlike those earth earth oceans are relatively shallow with an average depth of just three point six kilometers. They cover about three quarters of the planet surface and a warmer at the top thanks to the sun's rays and cooler depth near the floor and they have carrots that are affected not just by the spirit of the earth but also by wind on the other hand and syllabus a piece to have a global spanning and completely subsurface ocean. It's at least thirty. Kilometers deep is cooler at the top. Of the i show and warmer at the bottom thanks to hate from the moon's core despite their differences the study's lead author analog from caltech says the oceans on enceladus do have currents based on the cassini measurements and observations on earth looking at the way ice and water interact drive ocean mixing. Dr
Physicist Daniel Whiteson Explains: What Is a Neutrino?
"In the universe. That's there. There's a lot of them out there, but it just doesn't feel the same forces. It doesn't speak the same language that you and I and all the particles that make us speak or use right. That's right. Yeah, it's like, you know, it's like it's a It's death for something I can walk through the loudest bar. You know, with thump, thump, thump music right and not even hear anything. Don't even notice. It's there, right? It's not purposely ignoring you. It just does not hear it interesting. I was thinking a good analogy could also be you know how in the Internet today people communicate using Facebook or Twitter, or instagram or email. These are all different ways that people interact with each other on the Internet. But what if there was somebody who said you know what? I'm not going to use Twitter or Instagram or Facebook? I'm just gonna Respond to people if they write me a handwritten letter. That's right. Yeah, those people are social media knew. Trina. Yes. Yeah, that's kind of what it is. It's like everybody else is talking to each other in one way. But this one particle just says You know what? I'm gonna ignore those different ways to interact. I'm just gonna do my thing. Yeah. And given the toxicity of social media, that probably means the neutrino is the happiest particle And, Yeah, you know, maybe that's the key way should all learn from the treatise. Yeah, eh, So let's remind people, though, what the forces are so there's the strong nuclear force that ties the nucleus together. There's electromagnetism that's responsible for electricity and magnetism and light and all that kind of stuff. And then there's the weak nuclear force as the weakest of of these forces, And then there's gravity. Everything with mass feels gravity right. But in the case of particles, we don't really think about gravity very much because particles have hardly any mass at all. And so gravity doesn't really affect them to really those other three. So the corks the courts, they feel the strong nuclear force and electromagnetism and the weak force. Okay, so they feel everything electrons. They feel electromagnetism, and they feel the weak nuclear force. Neutrinos on Lee feel the weak nuclear force, which is called the weak nuclear force, because it's super duper week, not because it takes a week to act or something like that. So it doesn't just ignore some of the forces that everybody else fields but it only it like they wanted chose to interact with the rest of the universe. Is like the week is one. It's like the most inconsequential one, right? Exactly. It's like, you know, if you could only interact with somebody by sending him a letter to the South Pole, and the letters only go every six months or something. Right? And you know if the neutrino didn't feel any forces at all, then we would have no way to even know it existed. Oh, there could be a whole set of particles that Speak, even maybe a told different set of forces. Yeah, like people think about dark matter, right? Dark matter. We don't know if it feels any of these forces and that's what makes it so difficult to look for and to understand dark matter as far as we know, only speaks gravity, which is why you can only study it when there's like a galaxy sized blob of it. Neutrinos. You feel one of these forces, which is why we can talk about them and study them. Well, let's talk about some of these properties that I was reading about the neutrino. I read that it has a mass that maybe one lesson one million of the mass of the electron. That's right. Neutrinos are super duper duper low mass. And we don't understand why at all, you know, we look at the mass of these particles, the electron, the courts, the other ones. We have no idea why these particles of different masses. We did a whole episode on how they get their masses, which is by interacting with the Higgs Bos on some of them interact a lot where the Higgs goes on, and so they get a lot of mass, and some of them don't interact hardly at all. So they get almost no mass. We don't know why. Like why does this one interact with the Higgs a lot in this one. Almost None of it was like a bunch of parameters in the control panel. The universe and we don't know if there's a pattern to it or if they just set randomly the beginning of the universe. We have no clue, but it seems like an important hint. The neutrinos are so close to zero mass, but not actually zero. Yes. So they are kind of tiny, right? I mean, I know everything's appoint mask mathematically, but thieves things. I mean, they're not disappoint master there. Appointments that are really, really, really, really, really almost no Mass. That's right. But if again it doesn't affect their size, their physical size is a different thing from their mass, their masters like a quantum mechanical label, like electrical charge, right? Sound like something with more masses more stuff to it, But, yeah, you're right. Neutrinos are weird because they have almost no mass, but not zero like they're not the lightest thing in the universe. All right, photons have no mass exactly zero. They travel the speed of light neutrinos just less than the speed of light because have just more than zero mass these
WIRED Senior Correspondent Adam Rogers Talks about The Mission to Find Ancient Life on Mars
"The place that we landed this month is essentially what they believed to be a dead ocean right a lick a river leading into a lake. It is as researchers said to me not everybody agrees with that but but he said if there's a place that's likely to have the signs that something once lived there. This is that it is. It's a crater that was a the the delta of a river so there was a river that then spread out and came over the sides of these of this can walls and laid sediments down and it's in those kind of sediments that researchers have found the signs of ancient life here on earth and that they hope to find it there in these different colors and layers that they can identify but by texture than by their mineralogical constituent. So adam. What would that science outpost look like on mars. And how how would we build a structure to make it habitable. That's such a cool thing to think about. You'd really you'd like to not have to take everything that you need with you because it's really hard to move things from a gravity well into space costs a lot. Wait is the issue mass. So it'd be really great to be able to use the materials that are there to transform the soil or the rocks. they're into the structure. You can imagine kind of digging down into the ground into the regular. Maybe one of the canyons. Because part of the problem with not having an atmosphere is mars is positively lit up with ionizing radiation like everything from sunburn to cancer. So you wanna be out of that as much as possible be shielded from it be nice to not have to build shielding do it. It'd be nice to have a place where there was already water. There seemed to be places where there's frozen water there now. Those would also be places where there might be living things. You don't wanna mess that up. But if you if there wasn't if they were sterilized but there was liquid water. You could use the ice. That was there. You could use chemical processes to transform carbon dioxide in the regular into oxygen. Potentially that's something that There's instrumentation on perseverance to try to learn how to do. And then all of that would then be studded with with science doing stuff in the same way that like south pole station is or any of the other antarctic stations. That different countries have to study to the weather to study to look outward to have a telescope. there that you could see through thinner atmosphere and not have to deal with bad seeing conditions that happen here on earth you could imagine doing the kind of geological mining for potential resources even again getting them homes difficult it has to be. They have to be so valuable that it's worth sending the rocket and then sending the rock at home somehow. Maybe that's you know. That's possible.
Magnets, The Hidden Objects Powering Your Life
"Okay jeff brumfield. Where does our journey into the world of magnetism begin. It begins with a call to carlos. And a guy named tim murphy. They both work at the national high magnetic field laboratory in tallahassee florida. Normally you know. I do research and i learn about things but this time i just i just brought some bar magnets thought i would let you. That's all we do here so they just you know they're bigger and they give us money for it so expensive too. Yeah and they're painted. We paint them. They're so ready for this interview. They were born ready for this interview. These folks work with magnets all day long. Carlos heads the k. Twelve education programs for the lab. Tim is a physicist there. And like carlos was saying earlier they really feel like magnets need respect. I guarantee you that whatever direction you're looking right now unless you're in the wilderness. Right now there's probably a magnet in your line of sight and you just don't know it well and if you're you're in the wilderness you're standing on the biggest magnet that we have which is the earth the earth is a giant magnet with a pole and the south pole and where that magnetism comes from kind of complicated so for today. We're just going to stick to smaller baghdad's like the ones we use in our daily lives. Jeff i'll be honest. I don't really know what makes a magnetic field magnetic field. So how would you describe that which is kind of fascinating. Because you've turned yourself. Into the shortwave fisk there's gaps in my knowledge the only god what is a magnetic field exactly well so magnetic fields like i just said you know based on the field. Actually they're often said to north and the south pole and right opposite poles attract and light poles repel. So magnets can pull each other together. Push each other part in actually magnetism itself is half of fundamental force a called electromagnetism which also includes electric fields. But what i think is really fascinating is aside from gravity. Magnets are really the only fundamental force that we can just experience an encounter on a regular basis right and we can kind of see this magnetism action when we're playing around with magnets and they stick to certain metals right. Yeah yeah i mean the whole metal magnet thing is kinda complicated carlos. Tell you that everybody comes up. I see on. Tv shows all the time even the education tv shows. They say magnets metal. And i'm like no you got it wrong again. There's only three medals of her naturally magnetic iron nickel and cobalt. And what carlos means there is that there are only three medals that be permanent magnets that hold their magnetism forever and never other metals can stick to magnets but then there are a lot of medals. They can't so we just moved to. A new house has a stainless steel fridge. And guess what like all our fridge. Magnets don't work on this fridge anymore. so what makes them materials magnetic and others not so much well it actually all has to do with electrons. Oh our friends the electrons. Of course these are. The negatively charged particles in adams and when they flow they create electricity. That's right and whenever electrons move in in particular when they spin around something they generate a magnetic field as well as an electric field so magnetic fields have to do with spinning electrons exactly so the electrons are spinning around the atom and that makes like a little magnetic field but then in a permanent magnet. What happens is all. The atoms are facing the same direction. Imagine all these atoms lined up in a row and they kinda wanna do what their next neighbor is doing. So if their neighbor is pointed up right there magnetic moment is up than the one next to him says. Hey up is the the direction so they go up as well. So now you end up with a macroscopic magnetic field because all of these atoms are kind of lined up with their magnetic moments so all of these atoms facing the same direction is what creates one. Big magnet exactly. That's how permanent magnets work like the magnet. Cystic to your fridge. All the atoms in that baghdad are lined up in the same way and they make this big magnetic field that polls the magnet against your fridge and keeps it there. But then there's another kind of magnet and tim the guy you just heard there he actually works with this one. It's called an electromagnet for electro magnets. We actually don't care about the spin of the electron what we care about is the
New VIPER Lunar Rover to Map Water Ice on the Moon
"Nasa is planning to send a mobile robot called viper to the south pole of the moon to get a close up view of the location and concentration of water ice in the region. Jackie quinn an environmental engineer. At nasr's kennedy space center is working on one of the instruments. That will help the rover. Do its job now. I get to do a lot of work with water here on earth but i recently stepped over into looking for water on the moon. Now you know we have the opportunity to pair them. Mass spectrometer which is called 'em solo a mass spec observing lunar operations to pair that with a drill and to go out and look under the artemis program to look for these resources that could actually enable us to sustain life on the moon. Im- solo will look for resources such as water that might be used to grow food drink or could be split into oxygen for breathing and the fuel that would propel us from the moon to mars
New VIPER Lunar Rover to Map Water Ice on the Moon
"Finding resources on the mood is very important. To the this program because it allows human exploration to be sustained on the lunar surface and the says that steppingstone to get us on to mars. This is innovation now bringing you stories behind the ideas that shave our future. Nasa is planning to send a mobile robot called viper to the south pole of the moon to get a close up view of the location and concentration of water ice in the region. Jackie quinn an environmental engineer. At nasr's kennedy space center is working on one of the instruments. That will help the rover. Do its job now. I get to do a lot of work with water here on earth but i recently stepped over into looking for water on the moon. Now you know we have the opportunity to pair them. Mass spectrometer which is called 'em solo a mass spec observing lunar operations to pair that with a drill and to go out and look under the artemis program to look for these resources that could actually enable us to sustain life on the moon. Im- solo will look for resources such as water that might be used to grow food drink or could be split into oxygen for breathing and the fuel that would propel us from the moon to
Interview With Saray Khumalo, The First Black African Woman to Summit Everest
"You've heard me say many times that if you're gonna climb success mountain just to say that you did it well before that feeling it'll be pretty flat. We've also spoken many times about the need for doing things because of a greater purpose because not only will there be some amazing wins. There's going to be probably some mega losses along the way. If if there's something driving you giving you the resilience to overcome the obstacles. First difficulty is just permission to quit. However when you when you do decide to keep going have you considered the maybe the sky is not the because in life you are going to hit many psychological and emotional walls and you're going to get knocked on your ass that's just how it is. The question is do you have the internal and external emotional mental and even spiritual and physical sherpas to get you up to win. Well stay tuned. Because that's exactly where we're going. I'll guest on. This episode is set up khumalo. Her life is a story of remarkable resilience. She's overcome the odds. Most of us will never even likely face. She has met catastrophic failure and even death head on and she kept going not because of sheer willpower but because of being purpose driven seta is the first black african woman to summit everest and reach the south pole. She is an award-winning mountaineer. Philanthropist who has used to climbs to build libraries across south africa. She has recently partnered with apple to build digital libraries. She is also part of the forbes. Women african africa leading women's summit. Two thousand twenty one surat. Khumalo is a transformational and business. Executive coach of whom the south african president said. She reminds us that. Through courage and perseverance. We can achieve highest ambitions for the greater good of humanity. Ladies and gentlemen. Please put your hands together and help me. Kim having excited now you know. I always like to start the show by asking my guest in this age of influences. Where is an expert who somebody the we might not know. Maybe never even considered who has been a major influence on you and on your leadership. I have people actually. It's my mother and my grandmother. Mother didn't do too much school. She went up to from two is the second level high school but she could sell. I stood eskimo and she always believed that. The sky's the limit. Which is something bet. She used to tell my sisters nine. She ended up being a single mother with seven goals and she had two absolutely so you can imagine how what was going on the house especially living in the environment so that was a lot of fun but also my grandmother my grandmother. Is you know and my grandfather. We amazing people that were missionaries. Who really my grandfather always used to say who do not leave a lack of service. That is requested as a young kid. You don't really put much thought to it. But they've been just amazing people to me Because even though they did not have much there was always something to help a somebody else. always blissed while so. Are your grandparents still around. No unfortunately my grandmother was the last two to pass away. She passed away one hundred and one. Allison i'd crazy. What how and so if you put together the light your grandparents and that whatever coming from your mom what is that if you sort of able to boil it down. What would be the central philosophy that you've gained from from those two sources grandparents are mother. A lot of it came to the fore for me in two thousand nine and the fundamental philosophy is is that Is the is the concept of a wound to a because we are it realizing that i can achieve more with the right partnerships around me and i think that is fundamentally everything. It's supported me with my executive job is supported me on the mountain but but also to realize when set partnerships and not the partnerships that you need specific levels of where you are at because i mean you know about climate the ship let you use up to address best scam in not necessarily the same ones that you need for the summit. How do you appreciate them and really say goodbye in order for music summit.
Prof. Jack Burns, Professor of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences at the University of Colorado in Boulder - burst 01
"Welcome to the site of accents. Podcast where we explore emerging ideas from signs policy economics and technology. My name is gill. Eappen we talk with woods leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest scientific senses at unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation be color a wide variety of domains. Rare new discoveries are made and new technologies are developed on a daily basis. The most interested in how new ideas affect society and help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation v seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide edited content of conversations bit researchers and leaders who low what they do a companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense dot com and displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense dot net. If you have suggestions for topics guests at other ideas please send up to info at scientific sense dot com and i can be reached at gil at eappen dot info mike. Yesterday's a jack boone's who's a professor in the department of ece fisa goal in planetary sciences unto colorado boulder. He is also vice president images for academic affairs in blue sage for disuse system system. Jack while thank you. Joe is good to be with you. Thanks for doing this so you at your team. On deeply involved in the upcoming nasa missions to the moon including The designed to place radiofrequency absolutely on the far side of the moon and be kevin deemed really back there for almost fifty years. Now i know that china s landed. I was actually looking at some photographs that just gained today from From their lander. I israel in india. Almost got there but Fleas land properly. And so so. What's our interest. What's sudden interest in going back to the moon after fifty years. Yeah i don't know that. I would characterize as a sudden interest i think on the part of the science community and really the exploration community interest has been there for a while but what has changed in the last decade is the cost doing missions And the accessibility of the moon in this new era in which we have now. Private companies like spacex and like the blue origin company. Jeff bezos company They've put considerable private resources in developing new rockets of with reusability to lower the launch costs and also technology which was extreme in the nineteen sixties to try to get to the moon. All hannity vetted from scratch now is relatively straightforward at gill as you mentioned Even a small countries like israel Private companies have contracts with nasa to fly payloads. Now it's it's it's realizable to Envision going to the moon at a relatively modest cost certainly in comparison to the sixties and seventies. Yes so that's a. It's a very interesting phenomenon. Now it's it's almost like a business model question. Space is Blue blue horizon blue origin. Laura gin and that is another company. Lakers peterson things. Well lockheed you ally the united launch alliance which is the lockheed and boeing Company as well they all have these new generation of launch vehicles that are capable of going to so nasa in some sense outsourcing Some of the transportation right to so captain made a selection or are they going to do essentially multiple companies. Do it the the plan is to have monk multiple companies just like the commercial crew program To the space station there's boeing and spacex And for the case of the moon for the un crude landers that Landers that are just carrying payloads nasa has identified a out a dozen companies To be able to transport a payloads to the moon and at the same time. They're also undergoing competition right now. They selected three companies to design as part of a public private partnership the next generation of human landers. So that's the same. Mostly the same group that has spacex blue origin and the third one is is dynamic which is a company in huntsville alabama rate. So it's nassar's goal here is They are they going to take contracts from other other countries do send pedal to the moon in these companies. The the way this is working now is nasa is buying services so they're no longer buying rockets or landers which they will then own operate Instead the philosophy is To buy a ride for example a seat On a human land or or by space for a payload so these companies that are responsible for indemnifying Making sure they have a proper insurance for losses They take A bit of the risk and and then proceed along those lots now. What that means is that the companies then they own the intellectual property they owned landers they rockets they own the The other transportation devices. So that means they can sell seats. They can sell payloads to for example a european space agency Or the russian space agency or individual companies. That might want to puts a payload on the moon Investigation in this kind of a lower gravity environment so it's much more entrepreneurial than what we had before and it lowers the cost to the taxpayer for doing all these things by the artist program. Which is the new human programs. The moon the Recently released cost to get the first woman in the next man to the moon by twenty twenty four is a factor of ten less than the apollo program. Yeah it's interesting. I remember jack I was involved a little bit on the economic side of the next generation. Space legal program two thousand two thousand one two thousand two timeframe and this was a program was supposed to replace the shuttle and we did not go forward with it and i guess so. What was the arranged with the russian system to get their astronauts into space station. Yeah the the problem was that you might recall The shuttle accident that occurred in two thousand three And then president. George w bush declared that the shuttle really wasn't safe And that needed to be replaced and it took a while. We're still in the process of of fully replacing it. The last shuttle launch was twenty eleven If i remember correctly so in the meantime in order to get to the space station What we did is contract with the russians to use their soyuz spacecraft to go back and forth the space station so we. What we did is the buy seats. Those seats cost about seventy five or eighty million dollars so they weren't cheap but eventually got us back and forth. He said before we get the details of the Admission stack help philisophical question so way we have technology advancing the about conflict. Television's really taking off machines. Getting lot smarter What does sort of the basis for sending humans Could be not accomplished thing that human could do with machines if that's a good question i'm glad you answered that you ask that question because Excuse me i think what we're looking for now is is Really different mode for doing work on services like the moon or mars. Excuse me in that. We unlike apollo you had a single astronaut. Geologists such as astronaut harrison schmitt on all seventeen doing classic field geology. With a shovel to now advance unit twenty-first-century. We're gonna to do. Is i like to say we're going to bring Silicon valley with us to the moon. So we're going to bring advanced robotics. Be telly operated. That will use a machine. Learning artificial intelligence And will team with the astronauts so that they will these. These rovers advance scouting. They will identify interesting places and then the role of the astronaut is to make critical decisions on what to investigate What the samples. Look like i. i still think it's true. I've been told from my colleagues who are geologists stromer But who are uninsured. Scientists in that the difference for example between. Let's say the The curiosity rover on mars. And what it's been doing and having a human on mars that the work that the curiosity rover has done last seven years could be done in two days by geologists. a that's the difference and to also bring back. You know better selected samples and so forth. So there's no replacing humans and that's not going to happen anytime soon but you you do your point being. You only wanna use humans when you actually have to. Because their time is valuable and they're expensive and also Walking around even on the surface of the moon is dangerous. Because the you know the a space where the asian micrometeorites another possible dangerous but going into this new environment. I think what we're going to be able to do is reduced risk and improved efficiency. The i don't remember the numbers but a human Mission is about ten x the cost of a non human mission. Obviously the the efficiency and like you say what begin out of it different but guess on the cost side. It's about the fact of a magnitude different you know. That's hard to say because robots still are very limited in what they can do. They're just so many things that only humans can do is a little bit of apples and oranges but yet you're probably right that on the ballpark about a factor of ten. Maybe even more. But there's also much more than a factor of ten improvement in efficiency. So you know. Those costs will balance out and obviously the advantage of a human is You know they've been. The unexpected happens in michigan learning in As long as you have heard of data to teach a machine but then the unexpected happens machines. noel exactly. The rover gets stuck. It suffers a mechanical problem. That If you have a human there at least in the vicinity can help fix it. And move orders you know i think about for example servicing of the hubble space telescope and that was done five times by human astronauts and The astronauts such as john grunsfeld did to the servicing missions was very clear that the telescope could not have been repaired in upgraded by anything other than humans because the tab the complexity of the task the ability to be able to get in and To make repairs Make on the spot. Decisions just You know there was no replacing that so hopefully humans have a few more years of Do i think we've got many years to tell you the truth. I think it's going to be you know in reading some of the literature. I think it's going to be a quite a long time if ever that. We have truly Intelligent self aware machines can operate with the same decision making kick be very good at repetitive calculations outstanding job of there but You know making creative innovative entrepreneurial. Decisions were We're nowhere close to that yet So i do that. A multiple missions being planned An international collaboration so he's the first one that is supposed to take off as leave. Yeah artists is the new name for the human missions to the moon Artemis in greek mythology was the sister of apollo The twin sister of apollo. She's the goddess of the moon. So that's very appropriate. Since nasa has already declared bet up for that first landing which nasa has been planning for twenty twenty four would Would have that first woman in the next man on the surface the first expedition by humans to the moon in the twenty first century. So optimistic applaud. Its name the program programming program. Yeah exactly right so so andrade damasio multiple things going on And so do we have sort of a space station like that is going to orbit the out. Yeah in fact. That's honored design. And we'll be under construction in the next few years has called the gateway lunar gateway. And it's it's not like the space station in the sense of being gigantic And being really limited to that single orbit the gateway is really more of a spacecraft is going to have a pulse in system using a new generation of solar electric bad is ion propulsion That will be piloted for potential for optometry use in going to mars. I have just a couple of modules that will be there it will be a place where astronauts coming from the earth on on the orion spacecraft which is a it plus the space launch system is a heavy lift vehicle that will take astronauts the moon they will dock at the gateway and then they will get into a reusable lander go to the surface. Come back in that lander and then the next crew that comes in will do the same thing so you don't throw everything away like we did during hollow in the nineteen sixties again. The reusability idea is Is key to keeping the costs down so so it is more dealer so can't be attached as as alright right. Ds change in the future. Cab edge more against it. We can in fact The japanese space agency jaksa recently committed to fly a module And nasa has invited others such as the russian space agency to think about them attaching A module as well so it definitely is modular. That way you can add habitats you can add laboratories And can can grow over time. But it's also the the idea is that it's going to be long duration spaceflight and it's away way from the earth's magnetic field so you've got the full range environment of what you would have going to mars. So i think nasa all also looks at. This is a prototype of the vehicle that would be sent to mars. Lucchese david some Conversations yet again. Remember that To go to mars you would rather start off. Start off from the moon. Is that still thinking or that. Exchange i don't think that's been decided but there's this potential real advantages of a loon. First of all launching from the moon versus the earth requires much less thrust. What what we call delta the. That's the change in velocity to Get off there. Because there's only one sixth gravity on the moon and secondly if we're successful in mining water from the minute we know now there's considerable amount of water at the polls of the moon That's hydrogen and oxygen. We can convert that potentially into rocket fuel. You wouldn't have to bring that from earth so the costs associated with launching some could be substantially reduced in doing this from the moon versus from your so people are actively working that right now and seeing if that might be the way to go i of think that might end up being How missions to To mars or undertaking so under optimus Are there plans to actually create a habitat a big enough habitat for people to stave or extended period of time. So nasa has designs. And once again i should mention this is. This is all international Insa is involved. The european space agency is involved in providing a module for the service module for the orion. It also will be working on the gateway. The canadian space agency is providing the robotic arm And the same will be true on the surface The idea is that the first few missions will of just get started That first nation in twenty twenty four is planned to go to the south pole of moon. Will we've never been to before and look at the water. Ice situation there but Over time by the end of the decade the expectation is that will have multiple habitats. And we'll have people staying there for long periods of time like the arctic station. It's run by the national science foundation. The mcmurdo station as called in which you have a number of scientists come in and visit for anywhere from a few weeks to staying for year here so salama but when the next generation space program was in progress space. Too big big project. I would imagine spacex Others cab this business plan so what's the clamps time Do that The gay yes. So it'll be somewhere between three and five days to get from the earth and you're right about. The tourism spacex already has a fide a japanese businessman. If i remember correctly who has bought a A ride not the surface of the moon but to orbit the moon on a spacex vehicle. Sometime in a in a few years but the it'll be in a three to five days to get to the gateway and then Another day to get down to the surface. So i fully expect by the end of the decade especially given the accessibility to the moon by the private sector and by isa companies That they will be selling seats to wealthy individuals to spend a A summer holiday on the moon is so if the if the gateway is expandable perhaps Taxpayers can make some money nasa. Well it might be. Yeah but but once again this is. The transportation for the most part is probably not going to be through nasa but by these individual companies who own their own rockets their spacecraft and now they will sell seats to to wealthy tourists. yeah and so You you mentioned the european space agency. You mentioned the canadian space agency of so. Is this like the space station. A larger collaboration or those are the three major ones. Yeah it is and you're right. There are Oh gosh there's probably a dozen or so. Companies countries rather involved in the international space station and nasa envisions this much the same thing And i to. I order all the countries that are involved in. The international space station have been invited to become involved with the gateway And so as i mentioned several have accepted with With enthusiasms others are still keeping that around and take a quick break jack. Benny come back to talk about the radio. Frequency of savitri on the far side of the more that you're designing you bet sounds good. This is a scientific sense. Podcast providing unscripted conversations bit leading academics and researchers on a variety of topics. You like to sponsor this podcast. Please reach out to in full at scientific sense dot com back Jack you're talking about upcoming missions to the moon Some of the manned mission some of some of the technology that you're sending up there there is a gateway bridges like the space station but attested propulsion its zone. Sorta are based entity source. And it's more dealer things could be attached to it. That may be subject is imploding. Creating that a launchpad so to speak to go to mars perhaps habitats that a large announced a mining for water mighty for hydrogen and other things and so he the program is called autonomous. So could be portal light program and underneath optimists. There are various things being planned right. So what are the The primary objectives all of those radius approved betas projects. I should say under under optimus. Yeah we'll go. let me let me start off by just looking at the difference with The apollo program because the apollo program ended fairly abruptly once the political goals were reached and it was never Really a sustainable program so Nasa and i think all of the governmental space agencies are looking for is for arsonist to be the beginning of a sustained presence on the moon and in space and using the moon as a stepping stone for human and robotic exploration of the solar system including getting the mars so the philosophy of artists is really quite different. So you're there the stay So you need to figure out how to live off the land. So that does mean as you're saying mining's water being able to grow crops being able to manufacture Equipments the habitats themselves from the From the of the regular or the soil material so using the the kind of advanced manufacturing capability three d. printing Electrolysis so that's a really different approach. And it means that what will be worked on is not just get there but a flag in the ground rather in full of soil and return on instead it means You know how do you figure out how to be there for the long haul so that means than learning how to to excavate how to build How to really maintain a life in a in a certain sense of independence. Part of the reason you want to do all that is because that's exactly what's going to be
Moon has more water than previously thought, scientists say
"Suspected. In a pair of studies published today, scientists say more than 15,400 square miles of lunar terrain can trap water in the form of ice. That is 20% more area than previously thought. These ice rich zones are near the moon's north and south poles. Scientists already knew there was likely ice down inside these permanently shadowed ultra cold craters near the poles of the moon. Or sunlight never reaches. But these new observations show water molecules of president even across sunlit regions that indicates it may be more readily accessible than previous thought. And it's so future astronauts might be able to produce their own air water, even rocket fuel if they confined, usable amounts and develop the technology necessary to extract it. That is CBS News Space consultant Bill Harwood. Nearly 100 so called murder
Salty lake, ponds may be gurgling beneath South Pole on Mars
"David Bowie once asked the question. answer may be, and if so, it's likely underwater. A network of salty ponds. Maybe gurgling beneath Mars is South Pole alongside a large underground lake, raising the prospect of tiny swimming Martian life. Italian scientists are reporting this two years after identifying what they believed to be a large buried lake mile under the surface 12 miles long, they're getting more data from a radar sounder on the European Space Agency's Mars Express Orbiter. They say highly salty water is likely keeping the lake and ponds from freezing details in the journal Nature. Our astronomy. Chuck's Iverson, ABC News
Dismay as huge chunk of Greenland’s ice cap breaks off
"Climate milestone, one of the Arctic, the last big remaining ice shelves is melting a chunk of ice more than 40 Square miles in size has broken away from the ice shelf known as 79 End in northeast Greenland, and researchers have said the melting of this ice sheet near the North Pole the ice sheets near the South Pole is tracking the U N climate panels. WORST CASE scenario for global warming, suggesting global sea levels could rise some 16 inches by the end of this century, leaving hundreds of millions of people in coastal areas even more vulnerable to killer storm surges and flooding. Vicki Barker, CBS NEWS London Well,
Humans Have Caused the Most Dramatic Climate Change in 3 Million Years
"Recently Assad with some research colleagues at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, a look at a brand new science article in which are climate model for the first time had recreated the climate on earth over the last three million years, which covers the entire geological pleistocene epoch. The Pleistocene is so important as it constitutes a point of reference for life on. Earth. Because although sure our planet has existed for four point, five, billion years it's only in the last million years. That earth has looked at least roughly in the way as we know it, the continents were roughly where they are today. The North and South Poles were covered with ice. The atmosphere had a similar chemical composition to what we have today. Planet, Earth. Our earth has only existed for three million years. All, comparisons further back in time are quite meaningless. And the manuscript I hold in my hand is not just reaching. My brain is also striking straight into my heart. A deep humility settles in when look at the graph showing the variations in mean global temperature on earth over the past three, million years it shows that we have never throughout the whole plasticine exceeded two degrees global warming compared to our pre industrial average temperature of approximately fourteen degrees. Never. This means that Earth despite all the stresses and natural shocks from fluctuations and Solar Radiation Volcanic eruptions, asteroid impacts and earthquakes has regulated itself within an incredibly narrow range minus four degrees. Celsius were in deep ice age plus two degree Celsius. We're in a warm interglacial period lasting three million years. It's absolutely incredible. Especially since we know why. It's earth's ability to self regulate the ability of the oceans to absorb and store heat the ability of the ice sheets to reflect solar radiation the ability of the forests to absorb carbon dioxide and the ability to be a safe and store greenhouse gases. The planet is a biophysical self playing piano whose music sheet stays. Within the minus four plus to scale. If that is not caused for humidity than I do not know what humidity is. And a deep concern in hundred and fifty years. In the geological blink of an eye, we risk now tearing this Planetary Symphony to shreds. Let that sink in. The global average temperature is now changing hundred and seventy times faster than over the last seven thousand years and it's doing. So in the wrong direction upwards when the current orbital forcing meaning are distance to the sun and the current low level of solar activity means that the temperature should in fact, be slowing down. You don't have to be a physicist to understand that we have a problem. Climate skeptics like to argue that historically the climate has fluctuated so much. So why shouldn't it be fluctuating now? Obviously. It fluctuates. But we are now racing towards plus three to plus four degrees warming. Sceptics like to bring up the little ice age the time when Swedish King Call The tenth Gustav Marched His army across the deep frozen great belt and the little belt in sixteen fifty eight to beat the Danes or that the vikings grew grapes in Greenland during the medieval warm period. Yes. Of course, this is true but it all occurred within the natural boundaries of minus four and plus two degrees. And it's here within this sweet spot that we must remain for our own sakes and our future? In August two, thousand, eighteen at the peak of that year's drought and fires in Sweden and Europe. We published a scientific paper where we tried to establish whether we are at risk of pushing the entire planet away from its current state of equilibrium, the Holocene epoch where we have been since the last ice age. This is fundamental. Our Planet Earth can be in three different states. It can be in a deep ice age as it was twenty thousand years ago with large is. Extending over the northern and Southern Hemisphere with over two kilometers of ice above our heads here in Sweden an ice extending as far south as Berlin. This is an equilibrium state as it is not only lower solar radiation that keeps earth in an ice age. It is also the feedbacks caused by ice. As the ice sheets grow earth gets whiter, which means that more more incoming heat from the sun is reflected back to space more ice means it gets colder which means even more is and suddenly you have a self reinforcing mechanism. This is what makes an ice age and equilibrium earth remains. They're not only because of the external forces from the sun but also thanks to these inbuilt biophysical processes in this case, the color of ice. Earth can also be in an interglacial an intermediate state, which is what we have today where was still have permanent is sites at the polls and we have glaciers on land and the biosphere with forests, grasslands, and lakes roughly as Earth as we know it. It is these two equilibrium states and only these two states that the planet has been over the last three million years that is during the entire Pleistocene. But then there is a third state when earth tips over from self cooling feedback loops to self heating feedback loops, which leads to an inevitable journey to becoming a hot tropical planet that is four, five, six, potentially seven, eight degrees warmer than today where in principle, all the ice has gone and the surface of the ocean is more than fifty meters higher than it is today and where the conditions for live is fundamentally different all over the entire planet. This is what we call hothouse earth. Or Highs Zaid hot time in German where the article when we published it drew so much attention doing this burning heat wave in the summer of twenty eighteen that highs Zaid was chosen as the word of the year in Germany. In this research, we tried for the first time to identify the global mean temperature at which we are in danger of tipping over from our current state, the Holocene interglacial, and embarking on a journey that would inevitably take us to highlight our conclusion is that we cannot exclude that the planetary threshold. The tipping point where we kickoff unstoppable processes of self amplified warming is at two degrees. Bear in mind we are today at one point one very mind were moving fast along a path that reaches one point five in potentially only twenty, thirty years and two degrees in forty fifty years. This is one I would argue of the biggest. Challenges of all to test whether we are right. Can the planet cope with or Canet not cope with higher temperatures than two degrees? But. My conclusion based on the knowledge we have today is that the planetary threshold to avoid triggering high Zaid is most likely at two degrees. Of course, it's not so that Earth will fall off a cliff at two degrees. The risk is rather that we would then pass a threshold where the shift towards hindsight would become unstoppable. In other words, we face an urgency at the timeframe whether we pushed the on button on not triggering stoppable warming is within the next few decades meaning essentially. Now, if we pressed the UNBUTTON and kick off the great planetary machinery with feedback loops causing self warming, then the full impacts may play out over three four, five, hundred years before we reach a new equilibrium state hothouse. A planet with over ten meters, sea level rise temperatures, and extreme droughts, floods, and heatwaves making large parts of earth uninhabitable a planet we do not want a planet that cannot support US humans. This requires from us that we understand two different time horizons. The short term time of commitment. When do we push the unbutton but then also the long term time horizon when we have the full impact hitting on people these are different but ethically, I would argue only the trigger moment counts, we cannot leave a damaged planet beyond repair to future generations. So to summarize the decisive moment when we press don't press the button lies within the next ten to twenty years. With consequences for all future generations a moral, bum. Are High site article concluded that degree Celsius is our ultimate planetary threshold that we need to stay away from. This article actually came out six months before our climate modeling showed that we've never exceeded two degrees throughout the whole pleistocene, the last three million years. In Two thousand nine, our planetary boundaries size showed that one point five degrees is a boundary we should not transgress because then we enter a danger zone of uncertainty. So perhaps you do understand my feeling a deep concern of humility in the face of our latest scientific findings, which really only says, one thing tipping points are real and if they're crossed, they lead to unstoppable changes, which requires a new relationship between us and our planet, and that we realize that we are facing a new ethics. What we do today will determine the future on earth for all our children and their children.
NASA: New VIPER Lunar Rover to Map Water Ice on the Moon
"Ideas that shave our future NASA is planning to send a mobile robot called Viper to the South Pole of the. Moon to get a close up view of the location and concentration of water ice in the region Jackie Quinn an environmental engineer at Nasr's Kennedy Space Center is working on one of the instruments that will help the rover do its job. Now, I get to do a lot of work with water here on earth, but I recently stepped over into looking for. Water. On the moon. Now you know we have the opportunity to pair them mass spectrometer, which is called 'em Solo a mass spec observing lunar operations to pair that with a drill and to go out and look under the artist's program to look for these resources that could actually enable us
Solar Orbiter Snaps Closest Pictures Ever of the Sun – Reveals New “Campfires” Phenomena
"With summer here. Most of the news about our home star. The sun most likely will involve sunscreen right And that's something we should all be paying attention to. But scientists are also paying close attention to the surface of the sun, because despite it being so ever present, we still have a lot to learn about the sun. And they have just announced that the solar orbiter a satellite orbiting the sun has just sent back Some photos of surprising events on the sun's surface. Here to talk to us about these new images is Aneke to Groove instrument operation scientists for these solar orbiter she's based in Madrid, Spain, and joins us today. By Skype. Welcome to science Friday. No, I believe that these are the closest direct images of the sun's surface. Is that right? That's correcting the There has never being cameras actually observing the sum from that close, So we have had satellites going closer, but never with images never with telescopes. So tell us this being a radio program when you looked at those images. What air So what was that surprising thing you saw on the surface of the sun? Well, so first. We were really excited to see these first images because these are really the very first day that we got from the satellite. S so it's even just test images still, but we could already see new features. So about what we saw, Mamie was in the B imager. So that is a telescope that is looking at the Somme in extreme ultraviolet light. You cannot see that from worth because the atmosphere is blocking it. But we can see it from space. And so there you see part of the atmosphere that some the solar Corona and that atmosphere is currently very quiet. There's not that much activity on the sun. But now it turned out when we're resuming in that we see very little eruptions, which are much, much smaller than the ones we can usually see. And so this was quite a surprise because we have never seen these features before. And they were called campfires. If I'm reading this correctly, yes, because indeed they looked like this little flashes or flames off off light on DH. Actually, they they look like the many, many brothers ofthe solar flares and solar flares are much bigger eruptions off. Off radiation from the sun, and sometimes they also cause clouds ofthe solar plus muscle solar material That leaves the sun and so this thing to be And micro thin air. So to state so very small eruptions. That's kinda interesting. Do we know anything about Thies? Small eruptions? Ah, and how do we study these further? Well, so that's one of the strength ofthe solar orbiter that he does not only have these camera either has many different telescopes in total six, which will all observe the son of different wavelengths, so you see slightly different temperatures on the sun and slightly different lives. So the next bit will be to analyze these new features. In all those different types of light tto find out what exactly is happen and then we also have sensors which are measuring the environment on the spacecraft. And they can see what's actually coming out of the sun. So the effects ofthe these little activity on the environment of the sun and later also on Earth. So tell me, though, What mysteries you are most interested in and finding out more. About what? What keeps you up at night? Well, One thing that we are really excited about is that Salaam better will also look at the solar poles. So the North Pole and this house full of the sun, and we have never ever seen this before. We also don't know whether there's any activity going on there or how to some structure at these north and South pole, and this is important to wonder. Somehow, all these activity hurts. Because the sun has an activity cycles. It's not always as active. It has times several years where it's quite quiet, which is now the period we are in now and then we expect in two or three years from now there will be more solar activity. There will be some what we call solar storms. So this is the time when the sun is very exit, and then it will go back to a quieter stage. And we don't really honest that how that works, and we think that one of the keys Lie with the solar poles. So that's the part I'm most excited about. You know, I never thought about the sun having polls. I know that the Earth has polls. What creates the poles on the sun? Also, when I talk about poles, I talk mainly about the magnetic poles. So the son has a magnetic field while the earth magnetic things one me the North Pole and assess full But on the sonnets are much more complicated because there's magnetic field gets completely tangled. And this is actually what causes the activity and what causes this cycle in food.
"south pole" Discussed on Horror Fictional and True Stories
"WHOA wow, that's all you. That was pretty good. What do you think hope you agree with me? Hope you had a good time listening to that one because I really enjoyed reading all Fi, you well, let me know what you think that comment section below and I. of course we'll be back with you on Friday. Not quite sure what the, but definitely I will be back with you so. Wait a couple of days, and you'll have something new to listen to. Sit for me from Allah, so you have sweet dreams, everyone. But Grill sue okay..
Polar bears could be wiped out by end of century
"Bears could be extinct by the end of the century. That's according to a new study published in the journal Nature Climate Change, researchers say if global warming continues along its current trend, it will lead to shrinking sea ice, which in turn will force the bears onto land away from their food. Sort on DH. Here's CBS news climate specialist Jeff Bird Jelly. We just had an unprecedented heat wave in New York Dick right now, Arctic Sea ice Extent is at record low levels, and within a couple of decades, the entire Arctic is likely to be ice free during the summer, and that has big Cascade impacts all the way down the food chain. Study says that even if greenhouse gas emissions were reduced to moderate levels, polar bear populations near the South Pole would be lost.
"Exploration is dangerous work. There are unknowns challenging landscapes severe weather to contend with, and that's just the tip of the iceberg at extreme locations or just factual, non metaphorical icebergs and everything gets much more difficult. Early. Expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic circles near the north and South Poles were some of the most incredible undertakings in history. Of course there were plenty of failures, but every time someone tried. It helps the people who came after. Learn a little bit more. By the early nineteen hundreds several different parties from many different places had succeeded in exploring the frigid areas and returning to tell the tale. Eight! Adele Tuck was born not too far from this brutal cold, She I opened her eyes in eighteen ninety in Alaska, not far from the city of nome, which is on the West Central Coast at one time. Alaska was known to Americans as seward's folly because Secretary of State William, seward purchased the land from Russia for seven million dollars in eighteen, sixty seven. People thought it was a terrible mistake and a waste of money, but when golden were discovered, there seward was like who's laughing now y'all seward's folly more like seward's stroke of genius that you all were super wrong about L. K. man. We get it. Anyway Alaska would still not even become an official US territory until Ada was a teenager, she was initiate one of the indigenous groups of people native to land. But growing up, she never learned the survival ways and traditions of her tribe. She was raised by missionaries people who moved to the area to set up a school in order to convert people to their religion. It's a circumstance that happened to many native Americans and as a result, many traditions were lost for generations some forever. In school eight learned to read and write English read the Bible and learned cooking and other domestic skills, the reading and writing served her well, but as you might have guessed in a story about exploration, these domestic skills would not go near as far in helping her as more traditional skills like hunting, tracking and survival might have. As a young adult! Sixteen! She married a man named Jack Black. Jiang. Yep. You heard that, right? Jack Black Jack. No. He was not a cartoon outlaw, nor was he a professional poker player. He was a dog musher hauling freight across Alaska on a sled pulled by dogs. Together! They had three kids. Sadly, only one survived a boy named Bennett. But one day, Jack Blackjack left the family high and dry. Up and left her in the middle of nowhere which in Frigid Alaska can be a pretty serious predicament. Though he was not the greatest of guys she did keep his greatest of names and earned her future fame as Ada blackjack. When Jack blackjack deserted her. She was forty miles from their home in known, and she and Ben Walked the entire way back in the bitter Alaskan cold to make matters worse than it was very sick with burke. And infection of the lungs, so ada quite a small woman carried the boy much of the way.
What's next for Solar Orbiter after its historic launch to the sun
"Hey brain stuff lauren. Boban here a newly launched spacecraft promises to broaden our understanding of the sun called solar orbiter or the Solo for short it left Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Central Florida on Sunday February. Ninth at three PM. The new probes part of an international collaboration between NASA and the European Space Agency or ESA both parties contributed to its arsenal of scientific instruments. Some of these gadgets will remotely image the Sun It's atmosphere and the materials it spews forth others are built to keep tabs on the spacecraft's immediate surroundings during the wee hours of February tenth. Two Thousand Twenty European Space Operation Center in Darmstadt Germany got a signal confirming the orbiter's on board solar panels were functioning correctly so begins a seven year plan mission the orbiter is supposed to take to paraphrase. Robert Frost the route less traveled. You see all the planets in our solar system revolve around the sun on the same General Plane. Give or take a few degrees called the ecliptic plane. It's like a giant invisible disk a one that very nearly lines up with Sun's equator most of our space fearing devices are gravitationally confined to this plane but the so low is meant to escape it by exploiting the gravity of Earth and Venus the probe will orbit the sun on a unique and tilted pathway. This unique trajectory will give the solo twenty two close approaches to the Sun as close as twenty six million miles or thirty five million kilometers as well as bringing it within the orbit of Mercury to study the sun's influence on space. It will also give the solo the chance to do something no craft has ever done before take pictures of the solar polls looking down from above or up from below just like Earth. The Sun has a north and South Pole in two thousand eighteen the ESA used data from the probe to satellite trying to determine what the northern pole looks like. But probe to couldn't photograph this region directly. If all goes according to plan the solo will do just that. It's I close pass by. The Sun will be twenty twenty at about a third the distance from the Sun to Earth. And that's just the beginning. Another mission involves SOLO PARTNERING UP WITH BE Parker Solar probe launched in two thousand eighteen. This space craft is able to fly much closer to the sun and the solo ever will comparing the feedback from both probes. Ought to tell us. A great deal about the mysterious phenomenon called solar wind which are streams of charged particles. Any color pictures that the solo gives us should provide relevant insights to the sun's polar probably have a big effect on its atmosphere as a whole along with the winds unleashes. The Solos unique travel plans will put it in contact with intense heat and extreme cold. The new probe is going to revolve around the Sun. Very long very narrow oval shaped orbit as it nears the Star. Things will get rather toasty. And that's why designers fitted solar orbiter with reflective heat shield coated in titanium foil according to NASA this shield stand temperatures as high as nine hundred seventy degrees Fahrenheit or five hundred and twenty degrees Celsius. It's also got
"south pole" Discussed on Atheist Nomads
"The South Pole? I did not now. You're you're pretty much just base personnel right. Yep and after hearing the stories of people from poll. I don't think I WANNA go. Oh really got off a cold. There are well. Yeah but you're already like so freaking cold. How does get the average temperature in the summer? There is in the summer is like native twenty-five negative thirty okay and then in the winter you can hit native sixteen nine negative seventy. That sucks right. You're where you're at is basically sea level Yup and seven hundred miles north of the South Pole whereas the South Pole station is like eight thousand feet above sea level literally on the poll that Oh wow I didn't realize it was that high on two miles of ice. That's awesome so more like ten thousand feet. Yeah Oh that's like nine ninety seven hundred feet something like that noise. Wow that'd be frigging that'd be cold in a temperate region. Yeah wow what's interesting is at the South Pole. Hardly get any real wind because of the way that the Polar weather works. The wind comes down at the poll from the atmosphere right so brings cold air. But it's moving very fast. It's only when it passes the Transit Antarctic granges when it picks up speed. Oh as it's going across the plateaus it picks up speed interesting. Yeah so we'd have fifty sixty wins in the polls got like seven. I hate you guys. You know. But they're still colder fifty sixty knot winds so we're talking like hurricane force. You know because not a big deal. Fifty knots really liking it. It's pretty windy out right. And what was your job like? They're so I'm electricity. There and our job was to make sure that things didn't break got fixed when they broke our.
"south pole" Discussed on FT News
"Lot. More people visiting Antarctica as tourists rather than scientists. Did your trip tell you anything about the way? The continent and it silence a responding to the influx of tourists. And how that needs to be managed. I did see a couple of big cruise vessels while I was down there. And there's a lot more ice capable cruise ships under construction. So there's just been real explosion in tourism numbers this season this season being November Twenty nineteen through March twenty twenty. There's about a forty percent increase in tourist just from the previous year. I think that when it comes to governance of Antarctica it's not only tourism. That's a challenge. There's also fishing and there's also resources there. There could be oil or coal under the sea and the combination of tourism fishing and a region. That's becoming more accessible as the ice retreats basically just means that. There's a lot more pressure on the area so geopolitically how do you think it should be managed in future? Ooh That's a big question. Well it is managed by the Antarctic Treaty System which is in place and we'll be placed for a long time and the Antarctic Treaty which was signed in Nineteen fifty-nine by all the countries that lay claim to Antarctica. Essentially was a bit of a truce. They said the dedicate this continent to peace and science. No one will do any military exercises on it. No country will assert or expand its claim so everyone agreed to just get along and that's more or less worked out pretty well over the last sixty years but it's becoming harder and harder perhaps to have really hard and fast rules like should there be a firm cap on the number of tourists that visit into each year. That's one of the really hot questions right now and the Antarctic Treaty doesn't really have enough teeth to implement that type of really strict rule. So there's some questions that have arising about whether the Antarctic Treaty is fit for purpose for now. It's still sort of more or less working. I like to end by going back to your own personal impressions. What was the strongest feeling? You have in retrospect about the trip I think my strongest takeaway is that. Antarctica is a continent that never had an indigenous human population. And perhaps it ought to stay that way. It felt like a place where the human presence. It's a real imposition first of all. Because you can't really survive there unless you're inside. Some sort of highly insulated building or insulated bowed or inside. A you know a boat suit so it's the closest. I will probably ever experienced in my life to being on the mooner on Mars and having been there which was a real privilege. I can't say I'm eager to go back. Thank you Leslie. And we'll play out with some of the non human sounds from the penguins that you recorded on the trip. We'll put a link to Leslie's magazine Article. In our show notes and remember if you missed our recent episodes on the Gulf oil money flowing into sport Iran's flawed elections or Donald Trump's interference in the US judicial system. You can subscribe and listen on all the usual podcast platforms.
"south pole" Discussed on SPACE NEWS POD
"south pole" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Entrepreneurs
"Success of you know, I always say, it's when you're on a trip than the next trip gets planned, and it was that sitting around in the tent, and then as excessive it will, you know, that St. something else, and so having sort of the north the sort of next that was head down south the on tall Tate, which we then focused on did a trip down there and in two thousand seven which put us on a different level. You tall initial? Let's go to the south pole. I've always been a little bit curious. I'm not sort of conformist light to look at different ways of doing things than I went out and did a little such the south pole has being dumb, many many times also shade. So full GMs. And in some archive, I found this weird place. Cool the poll of accessibility. And this was the exact sensor of Antarctic continent. So you can physically get further away from the oceans, so the clear sort of in the name, no one had ever been on previously from Soviet expedition back in nineteen fifties using track vehicles. I think it was a two year endeavor. And when they did get to this point, they left a statue of Lenin safe for me, this is a neat place to go to there's a statute of lending. You know, this is really weird and screwed up. It's sort of. It was also sense. If he this is this is cool, the appeal of this polling, accessibility lent sell to also slight strange of sense of Hema for this endeavor. It wasn't an organized sort of an event it was it was the three of us looking to do something in a very big very scary place. She to Canadian guide co polandri on bold. He's not QC well known of, but he's he is probably one of the most experienced travelers in modern history amazing. King guide very modest. And we really lucky to have him have been with us. We wouldn't even begun to attempt without him the consensus was that Lennon wasn't going to be that this is fifty years ago. You know, the south pole station, they have he's great American based on mach three now and the other two buried so little statue of Lenin. Everyone's like, no chance not the case. He was sitting that just just remembering that moment right now Shiva's up my spine the last week the long achieve that the Russians the Soviets had left was was only the owls in the minutes. It didn't have the second. So it didn't give a precise location. We had a very large area to search. And as we arrived close to this point. We've actually been skiing nonstop for twenty four hours because we were losing our window to get there before we could get picked up and taken out and then the season ended. And then you start down that six months before the sun comes back and just saying this little black dots on the horizon and stopping and shouting to my teammates. Can you say it, and they're like fear? Thing and you'll mind starts playing tricks EV just been focusing on this point for last two years, and you'll just making it up, but we closer and closer in this this black dot grew. And then suddenly saw the silhouette of of the man that was was leading just sitting that two years of planning fifty three days seventeen hundred kilometers with a really incredible feeling. But like all these things, suddenly it's over. There was an amazing experience of live and the Arctic. We actually went back to South Africa on an icebreaker that just left me thirsting for more and always hurt for me. This is what I wanna do the rest of my life, my call as they went back to their their today's I sent myself out to Alaska learnt, probably the things before a devasting all this stuff in the first place. I mean, literally arrive with backpacks and hiking boots still with the price tags on it because we'll might experience being polar cold weather stuff. And there wasn't Alaskan kayaking. Hiking and whitewater rafting, but learning the sort of the the rudiments of guide training, and I thought for me the rest of my life will be taking people ice across ice caps and not mountains, the expedition type stuff that wasn't to be hence now we have a company based in London twenty staff, and we do trips will ever the planet and it's not necessarily cold. It's not necessarily hot is to stuff, which is interesting. It's stuff, which is experienced rich..
"south pole" Discussed on KIIS 102.7
"South pole jason yeah news dan good fear's way we no got it so let me take rachel who's in orange county rachel good morning i'm good is it too early for me something.
"south pole" Discussed on WiLD 94.9
"South pole you can't tell yeah money good sure fears where we got it party b finally talked about those pregnancy room where you can see what she said wild and eighty four nine dot com did you get to listen to her new album invasion of privacy ooh that track.
"south pole" Discussed on WGN Radio
"The previous marker so you can see this trail of uh south pole markers well i i was reading the book did the why are there to separate markers for the south pole there's like a ceremonial south pole and then there's the actual south pole why is excellent point well there's actually fixture in chokehold the most since 2005 the spin access of the earth the earth is actually spinning uh about its axis of course and the exact point where this axis crosses the ground so that would basically be if i'm looking at my glow this is where the rod would come out that connects it to the other end of the whatever its spending on right here that's right that's right so that's that's just call this spin access and rozier to the to the surface it actually wobbles around it it forms a a series of nested circles and which is near the socalled geographic poor which is where your gps will take you did you grabbed pole is a convergence of all the lines of longitude okay come together at one point ninety degrees south and i in fact point is called the geographic poor so theoretically that point the geographic pulse should be our access poll why is it not because you're actually wobbles it doesn't spin per electorate and trade if you were to look at the earth from outer space you you'd see why you wouldn't chief because it's so small but the earth does wobble around around the access and so the geographic reverence for it has to be one point on the surface that doesn't move and so that's how they define.
"south pole" Discussed on WIBC 93.1FM
"The thing i we claim that are basically yesterday had a ton of crap to set up for the trash guys and i wasn't even sure aid they were going to be in service today's raised trash um it was at the city's raise trash but i had a ton of crap sitting idle walk in and out by door like twenty times just a ton of crap credit those guys race trash man they took every ounce wit and they were out my house like eight o'clock this morning in the elements that note to the real hero of the real heroes career envy he um a lot of people were talking about i p s deciding to cancel classes for today and again there's always that one guy well when i was growing up we would go to school day was negative fifty an icy fire i got it but at seven a m today the temperature in indianapolis was negative 12 the temperature at the south pole station in antarctica was negative eleven it was colder in indianapolis at seven a m today than it was at the south point this was at the same time at the same time south polls warmly them in indianapolis by one fold agreed antarctica south pole warmer than indianapolis at seven a m today i think i s probably did the right thing listen i get kids are soft today we get it i understand but you can't have kids fanning out of the bus stop in this type of wind chill because i don't trust their parents are now to make sure they'd goats on or to make sure they got hats and gloves and all that kind of stuff and the good news is there still doing free lunches of some of the varies ipo schools around the city's love really cool um it was thirty degrees warmer in anchorage alaska today that it was right here in downtown indianapolis thirty degrees warmer anchorage that's how cold it's been a the good news tests if you wanna call up that were going to approve oh gosh twenty degrees tomorrow nigel that makes that'll be such a huge difference we're gonna be applied and george i know i mean that yes sarah palin is probably wearing tanktops an alaska today earlier today on our facebook page uh facebookcom hammer and nigel we ask for people to finish.
"south pole" Discussed on USA Today
"A plane returned from the south pole on wednesday completing a daring rescue mission to save the lives of two sick workers who were trapped at one of the hardest places to get to on the planet i'm charlene washington and i'm here with dole price high doyle a good afternoon yet today we're talking about quite an adventure are the just happened down there at the very bottom of the world when uh as the dangerous rescue mission was undertaken in what's the middle of winter down there so why are these workers here at the south pole station what exactly are they doing with this particular station at the rim in american uh the amounts anson scott of south pole station which is i believe the only one that right at the south pole at the very bottom of the world and what they do there is a scientific research they're all either uh uh there either employees of the us government or their contractors the couple folks that get sick uh this week were a employees of lockheed martin and they do a lot of a scientific research so i mean there are no permanent inhabitants human inhabitants of of the continent event artika i send out owned by any one it's just step managed by a several different governments of the world and several other governments have these the research stations down there i know there's a british one and a russian and i believe canadian and then the the one at the south pole as americans are these these were researchers and scientists studying a artika in her long exactly do they stay here at the south pole station for the w the folks who were you are over winter and that's what they call the group of people who were there on over the winter others forty eight of them uh they're year uh they are for this particular winter and in their summer people can come and go of you can take flights in and out all summer uh it's not a big deal is as much as it is in the winter and the reason it's very hard to get there in the winter pitch black and its allies on i yet unimaginably cold i mean.
"south pole" Discussed on USA Today
"A plane returned from the south pole on wednesday completing a daily rescue mission to save the lives of two sick workers who were trapped at one of the hardest places to get to on the planet i'm charlene washington and i'm here with dole price high doyle a good afternoon yet today we're talking about the clinton adventure are the just happened down there at the very bottom of the world when uh as the dangerous rescue mission was undertaken in what's the middle of winter down there so why are these workers here at the south pole station what exactly are they doing we'll this particular station at the rim in american uh the amundsenscott of south pole station which is i believe the only one that right at the south pole at the very bottom of the world and what they do there is this scientific research they're all either uh uh there either employees of the us government or their contractors the couple folks that get sick uh this week were a employees of lockheed martin and they do a lot of a scientific research so i mean there are no permanent inhabitants human inhabitants of of the continent event artika i'd send out owned by anyone it's just step managed by a several different governments of the world and several governments have these the research stations down there i know there's a british one and a russian and i believe canadian and then the the one at the south pole is americans of these these were researchers and scientists studying a artika in her long exactly do to stay here at the south pole station will for the the folks who who are you there over winter and that's what they call the group of people who were there over the winter others forty eight of them uh they're year uh they are for this particular winter and in their summer people can come and go of you can take flights in and out all summer uh it's not a big deal is as much as it is in the winter and the reason it's very hard to get there in the winter to pitch black in.
"south pole" Discussed on Innovation Now
"Sometimes called white mars and artika is the perfect place to study how people react when you just can't go home this is innovation now bringing you stories behind the ideas that shave our future nasa and the national science foundation have teamed up to conduct a unique psychological study identified as the ice project the study will look at isolation and confinement in extreme environments by observing people who actually spend several months set the south pole just how extreme is antarctica not only is ninety eight percent of the continent covered an ice but the sun disappears four months at a time the extreme wins and average belowzero temperatures make at the coldest place on earth the isolation absence of family interacting with the same people and going months without shipments of fresh food or male make it very similar to space flight volunteers will complete questionnaires provide saliva samples and we're monitors that record sleep and wake cycles researchers will look for signs of stress and changes in psychological health the results will help nasa prepare astronauts for future human missions to ice worlds in space for innovation now i'm jennifer pulley innovation now is produced by the national institute of aerospace through collaboration with nasser.
"south pole" Discussed on USA Today
"A plane returned from the south pole on wednesday completing a daring rescue mission to save the lives of two sick workers who were trapped at one of the hardest places to get team on the planet i'm charlene washington and i'm here with dole price high doyle hey good afternoon yet today we're talking about quite an adventure are the just happened down there at the very bottom of the world when i was too dangerous rescue mission was undertaken in what's the middle of winter down there so why are these workers here at the south pole station what exactly are they doing with this particular station at the rim in america the allman said scott south pole station which is i believe the only one that right at the south pole at the very bottom of the world and what they do there is scientific research they're all either uh there either employees of the us government or their contractors the couple folks that got sick uh this week were a employees of lockheed martin and they do a lot of a scientific research so i'll be there are no permanent and inhabitants human inhabitants of of the continent event artika it's not owned by anyone it's just managed by a several different governments of the world and several governments have these the research stations down there i know there's a british one and a russian and i believe canadian and then the one at the south pole is americans so these these were researchers and scientists studying a artika and how long exactly do they stay here at the south pole station will for the the folks who were you they are over winter and that's what they call the group of people who were there over the winter others forty eight of them uh there year of their for this particular winter and in their summer people can come and go of you can take flights in and out all summer uh it's not a big deal is as much as it is in the winter and the reason it's very hard to get there in the winter pitch in its on your unimaginably cold.
"south pole" Discussed on USA Today
"Are the just happened down there at the very bottom of a world where ma of the dangerous rescue measure and was undertaken in what's the middle of winter down there so why are these workers here at the south pole station what exactly are they doing what this particular station at the rim and american now the amundsenscott uh off south pole station which is i believe the only one with right at the south pole at the very bottom of the world and bill what they do there is scientific research they're all either uh their either employees of the us government or their contractors the couple folks that got sick uh this week were up employees of lockheed martin and they do a lot of a scientific research so i've read there are no permanent and inhabitants human inhabitants of of the continent event artika i it's not owned by anyone it's just a managed by going up several different governments or of the world and several governments have these the research stations down there i know there's a british one and a russian and i believe canadian and then the the one at the south pole is americans for these these were researchers and scientists studying i artika and how long exactly do they stay here at the south pole station the folks who were you there over winter and that's what they call the group of people who were there over the win others forty eight of them are their you're up there for this particular winter and in their summer people can come and go of you can take flights in and out all summer uh it's not a big deal is as much as it is in the winter and the reason it's very hard to get there in the winter pitchblack in.