37 Burst results for "Solar System"
Fresh update on "solar system" discussed on Best Comics Ever
"They had to do this right. Yeah storm vulcan. What you got is man. He's little have all these omega level mutant just sit here. Yeah we're gonna do the thing game a tear for forming mars. I've ever seen in my life. Listening to for me was that they did need help. You know like. I did appreciate that. It wasn't like you couldn't just roll out all the cohen omega levels. Like you had to go to rocko. I mean jamie counters own. I guess but he's also in other world. I did appreciate that. I think what both of your saying to like. I definitely the second time. I read it. I got outta my head a little bit about. It was like okay. It's easy to take for granted like that. Maybe like some of this stuff like they're going to do something with mars. Okay but but how they did. I think is very cool. And also like you have to respect and appreciate that like yeah and the history of the marvel universe which is very cosmic and all sorts of crazy things happen and there's titanium eternal is on moons of saturn leading. Were accustomed to this in the marvel comics bursts but like no one straight up claimed mars before that. Hasn't you know let's flex absolutely and it's like nick. They claimed a planet they claimed the solar system really is what they did. And it's like that that level of it. I think it's all almost just based on implication within this issue like we're gonna see the ramifications of this for months and months and possibly for years as we now have the potential at least to sit in our true raina vacs were mutants are like we own. We have a mutant space empire. You know immune kind has never operated on the level of the she are of the crease scrawl of any of these known empires before and actually seeing them start that and not just play little earth games which is most of what marvel comics is. That's extremely exciting to me. Because that's like this is new in. This is different and six months ago or seven months ago or whatever. There was no aramco in the consciousness of comic. Stephen put on mars..
Fresh update on "solar system" discussed on Kottke Ride Home
"Eight jupiter's moon iso aka the most geologically active world in the solar system. Thanks mostly to. Its four hundred active volcanoes. It's thought that. I owe has a subsurface ocean as well but it's not made of water it's ocean would be made of magma. Yeah just try playing. The floor is lava on i. Oh no way with that. Plus sulfur and sulfur dioxide. Frost coding most of the planet. The chances of life seemed slim. Blood heat is good for life and if there are some places we haven't identified yet that have escaped the fiery wrath of volcanoes in who perhaps some temporary little pockets here or there. There's a chance some type of life could survive there but moving along to number seven. Another moon of jupiter callisto proud owner of the oldest surface in the solar system and possibly a bonus subsurface ocean it even has a thin atmosphere of hydrogen carbon dioxide and oxygen which the mit tech review points out is more earthlike than most moons in our solar system. Buds callisto is very cold. The reason it's edged up to number seven is because unlike the previous three who keep getting picked over for missions. Callisto will actually get a moment to shine next year when it will be one of three moons explored by an upcoming european space agency mission with my new favorite name. Jupiter's icy moon explorer or juice. Maybe something's lost in translation. But it seems like they completely disregarded the m for moon so that they could just spill out juice as the acronym. And i'm here for its and continuing on our tour of jupiter's moons number six on this list is jupiter's and our solar system's largest moon ganymede also part of juice which means it is also very icy bites. Ganymede also has a subsurface saltwater ocean that possibly has more water than all of earth's oceans combined and it's also got a thin oxygen atmosphere and even a magnetic field. Something no other moon in the solar system has blit despite being a part of juice. Where a lot of data will be collected. A subsurface ocean is a tough thing to study. so that's where the life is lurking. We may have a tough time finding it and no plans to try just yet. Now number five finally breaking our streak of moons is venus in actual planet and one poised to get a lot of attention in the coming years with nasr's recently announced two missions to study it often referred to as a hellscape due to its extremely high surface. Temperatures literally hot enough to melt lead venus type of microbial life in its clouds. You might remember all the chatter a few months ago about las fien gasping detected in the atmosphere. Something that could be a sign of life and how that study got a lot of pushback. Even if we err on the side of there being no phosphine in venus's atmosphere there have been other studies looking at the planet's history of water for example. It's a lot of longshots boat. We're going to get a whole bunch of data back to give us a much better understanding one way or another soon for number four on the list we are back to moons but this time from saturn the most reflective world in the solar system due to its one hundred percent clean. Ice cover enceladus kooning again. It surface is ice cold. But there's quite a bit of activity going on underneath the moon ejects plumes that contain a myriad of different compounds including saltwater ammonia and organic molecules like methane and propane enceladus is thought to have a global salty ocean and found evidence of hydrothermal activity deep underground. Which could very well provide a source of heat. That's necessary to give life a chance to evolve and thrive and quote so sounds super promising but once again were hampered by the fact that there are no current plans to study it further. So we're left in the dark for now. Moving on to the top. Three ranking in third place is saturn's largest moon titan. Titans got it all a subsurface.
NASA Will Launch Two Spacecrafts to Venus
"Or Rupert Wingfield Hayes there? Now let's go back more than 30 years to a key time for space exploration. After a 15 month long cruise, the Magellan spacecraft will go into orbit around Venus Jelen will orbit Venus for one Venus Day equal to 243 Earth Days. Well, that was from 1989 1 of the most successful missions of its kind. It was the first spacecraft to take pictures of pretty much the entire surface of Venus before it burned up in the fiery atmosphere about five years later, now the US space agency Has announced to new missions to the planets. NASA's administrator is Bill Nelson. Very Tass Truth. And eventually, plus These two sister missions, both aimed to understand how Venus became an inferno like world capable of melting lead at the surface, So after all, the focus of late being on Mars Why Venus now question for our North America correspondent David Wyss. Despite the fact that Venus is the closest planet to earth and similar in size and mass and density and composition. It's received less attention than Mars and other destinations in the solar system in recent years, primarily because it's so hot, it's dense atmosphere traps heat from the sun, and that leads to temperatures. Of more than 470 degrees Celsius in some places, but scientists have long believed that Venus may once have harbored. Seas of surface water potentially suitable for life before unknown forces triggered that extreme greenhouse effect, and their interest was rekindled recently when astronomers said that they detected compelling evidence for the presence of a molecule in the clouds around Venus called Falls Feen, which would seem to
How the Sun Could Spoil NASA's Trip Back to the Moon
"Nasa is supposed to go back to the moon in twenty four as part of its program but recently seemed like they may need to push that deadline back a few years and while it's never good to rush something as serious as catapulting human beings into space. The mit technology review points out. There's one reason it might be better if they stuck to the original timeline. And it's the sons faults. According to a new study published today in the journal solar physics were going to be seen some extreme space weather. Roughly around twenty twenty six through twenty twenty-nine exactly when nasa might go to the moon if the current twenty twenty four time line is pushed back. Now what do they mean. By extreme space weather mostly solar storms quoting the mit tech review. The surface of the sun erupts with gas and plasma ejecting charged particles protons electrons and heavy ions into the rest of the solar system at millions of miles per hour. These particles can strike earth and the moon in just a matter of minutes. Earth's magnetic field protects us from them but the particles can still fry electronics in power grids on the surface and damage critical that manage. Gps until the communication services space weather could be extremely dangerous for any astronauts flying to the moon or trying to live and work on lunar outpost at the surface life support systems and power could shut down and solar activity could produce life-threatening levels of radiation between apollo sixteen and seventeen says matthew owens lead author of the study and a space physicist at the university of reading. There was a huge space weather event. That would have likely been fatal. If astronauts had been on the moon the time and quotes and this is something that i learned from that apple tv plus show for all mankind which showed a solar storm occurred that disrupted radio communication on earth and created a dire situation for the astronauts on the lunar base. But how do we know that this is going to be worse in the latter half of the decade as opposed to in twenty twenty four. Because that's when the sun will be ending. Its eleven year cycle cycle twenty five which began at the end of twenty nineteen.
Bladeless Wind Turbine Generates Electricity by Vibrating
"People think of wind power most imagine rows of giant turbines stretching across wide expanses of land. David yanez envision. Something else entirely. Jagna is co-founder of vortex bladeless. Eight spanish startup has the name of his company. Implies he's invented a blameless wind turbine if fabric structure nikon mast. instead of relying on rotating blades the cylindrical device vibrates back and forth as air moves around it. the technology is still in its infancy. We are working now. We've had various more device. We named device bore so far it only produces enough electricity to charge your cellphone or a small sensor but jagna says bigger devices could generate much more power the energy that the martini say to produce glows betty. Betty fast they hide so larger devices could be used to help. Our homes jagna says the bladeless designed is quieter less noticeable and lower maintenance than conventional turbans. So it could more easily be installed in urban and residential areas and because the wind often continues to blow at night when the sun is down. Home wind and solar systems could together provide power night and
"solar system" Discussed on Lex Fridman Podcast
"But predicting how that complex system unrolls is is very difficult because we know about predicting the weather unearth even. Oh my goodness a little very issue. We have on earth. People have tried to put together a global circulation models. You know we've done this. I people have tried to do these for other planets as well and it is a really hard problem so titan for example like i said it's it's one of the best studied atmospheres in the solar system and people have tried to make these global circulation models and actually predict what's going to happen. Moving into the next season of titan in those predictions have ended up being wrong. And so then you know. I don't know it's always exciting on a prediction is wrong. Because it means that there's something more to learn like your theory wasn't sufficient and then you get to go back and learn something by how you have to modify the theory to make it fit. I'm excited by the possibility of one day there'd be for various moons and planets. There will be a like news programs reporting the weather with the fe confidence of like if you can pick the weather. We talked quite a bit about planets and moons. Can we talk a little bit about asteroids for sure. What is What's an asteroid. And what kind of asteroids. Other so the astros. Let's talk about just the restricted to the main asteroid belt which is the reason it's a region of debris basically.
A Record-Breaking Flare From Sun's Nearest Stellar Neighbour
"Astronomers have detected one of the most violent still aflame ever recorded in the galaxy exploding out of proxima centauri the nearest star system that the sun the massive flare reported in the estra physical journal is the largest ever recorded coming from proxima centauri a small special tie. Game red dwarf star located just four point two five light years away. Proxima centauri has twelve percent the mass and fourteen percent the radius of the sun. It is a surface temperature of thousand seven hundred and seventy seven degrees celsius and is better thousand times less luminous than the sun. it's known to have. At least two orbiting planets one of which proxima b. is similar in size to the earth and orbits within the star's habitable zone. That's the region around a star with temperatures would allow liquid water central for life as we know it to exist on the planet. Surface red dwarfs are the most common type of star in the milky way galaxy making up about three quarters of all the stars in the galaxy. And because they're relatively dim it's easy to find orbiting except planets around them consequently the most common known source of exoplanets. And for this reason proximus story has long been a target for scientists have been defined life beyond the solar system. However there's always been a problem with red dwarf stars and that includes proxima centauri. They produce violent flares spilling out huge amounts of energy and plasma into the surrounding space. Eventually this would erode away any atmosphere around by planet. A would also radiate anything on the planet surface and that includes any hope of finding life on the surface of proxima b. The study's lead author assistant professor mcgregor from the university of colorado. Boulder says red dwarfs flare a lot more than stars like the sun and astronomers are only now beginning to understand the magnitude and character of their flays mcgregor and colleagues observed proxima centauri for forty hours using nine ground and space based telescopes including the square kilometer. Ray pathfinder as gap nassar's hubble space telescope the atacama large millimeter submillimeter array radio telescope alma and nasa transiting exoplanet survey satellite tests. This marked the first time. Astronomers have had this kind of multi wavelength coverage of a stellar flare.
Astronaut Michael Collins, Apollo 11 Pilot, Dead of Cancer
"NASA says Michael Collins has died he was ninety Collins made history on Apollo eleven Neil Armstrong was the first to set foot on the moon buzz Aldrin was with him Michael Collins was back in the command module speaking in twenty nineteen Colin says he'd always been asked wasn't I the loneliest person and the whole lonely history of the whole lonely solar system when I was by myself and that lonely orbit and the answer was no Michael Collins like going to the moon but I want to go direct to Mars his family says Michael Collins had been fighting cancer I'm at Donahue
The Mission to Get to Europa, Featuring David W Brown
"Episode we're going to explore europa the icy moon of jupiter and the mission to get there. Nasa is currently building that you rope. A clipper spacecraft which will begin. Its voyage to the jovian moon in twenty twenty four joining us today to discuss his new book about this mission is david w brown. David is an award-winning writer. Whose work appears frequently. In the new york times scientific american and smithsonian he's an aunt arctic owner and endurance runner a former us army paratrooper and a veteran of f. Ghanistan david just released his latest book. The mission an amazing behind the scenes narrative of nasr's deep space mission to jupiter's moon europa where alien life just by exist in an ocean beneath the frozen surface. David thank you so much for joining us. They really appreciate it. Thank you very much for having me. It is a pleasure. I am loving your book. The mission i think is fantastic. My third of the way through so not quite there yet. But i do want to ask you. The mission is about europa. Now some our listeners know that europa muna jupiter others might not but keep us a little bit more about why europa is so fascinating and why. It's important that we explored we rope a is a is a of jupiter. It's about the size of our moon. i guess the big difference between our moon and that moon is there's Two three times more water on europa than there is on planet. Earth say water. I'm not talking about some weird. It's strange green. Google technical definition of water. But i mean the same stuff is russian. Right you could plunge a cup and into the europan ocean drink it and though it would be incredibly unhealthy for you your body would know what to do with it Consequently if there's anywhere in the solar system likely to have life beyond earth it's europa
Ocean Currents Predicted on Enceladus
"New study claims. That ocean currents churning in the subsurface sees of this attorney an ice moon enceladus. The findings reported in the journal. Nature geoscience a based on the shape of enceladus twenty kilometer. Thick shell new hypothesis challenges. Current thinking that the moon's global ocean is a modulus apart from some vertical mixing driven by the warmth of the moons core and syllabus is a tiny frozen snowball just hundred kilometers wide. That's just a seventh of the earth's moon. It's the smoothest body. In the solar system is smooth as keeble and sold us attracted the attention of scientists in two thousand fourteen when a fly by the cassini spacecraft discovered evidence of subsurface after water was seen spewing out of guys alike eruptions through fissures in the circle tiger stripes in the ice neither moon south pole a spectral analysis of the water by cassini indicated that it was salty together with jupiter's iceman moon. Europa enceladus is one of the few locations in the solar system other than earth with liquid water. And that makes it an obvious. Target of interest for astrobiologists searching for signs of life but the oceans on enceladus are almost entirely unlike those earth earth oceans are relatively shallow with an average depth of just three point six kilometers. They cover about three quarters of the planet surface and a warmer at the top thanks to the sun's rays and cooler depth near the floor and they have carrots that are affected not just by the spirit of the earth but also by wind on the other hand and syllabus a piece to have a global spanning and completely subsurface ocean. It's at least thirty. Kilometers deep is cooler at the top. Of the i show and warmer at the bottom thanks to hate from the moon's core despite their differences the study's lead author analog from caltech says the oceans on enceladus do have currents based on the cassini measurements and observations on earth looking at the way ice and water interact drive ocean mixing. Dr
The Bodega Giveback Pepsi
"If you're black is the solar system the bodega is decide Hood orbits the bodega boys Jesus might you said I'm the kid. Well with the bodega boys remember them old like cowboy movies when they had the General Store. Yeah, you can go and get anything. It's a general slow Halo ended on the same page two beagles. I ever got home. It's like you part of family bodegas more than a store is the lifeblood of the community. I'm saying single genetically end in Trenton Joachim Walker's knee nobody. I've been coming here since I was about four years old, at least I've been a customer at this store for twenty nine years. I've been going here since the eighties. My mother would send me to the edge. She didn't have the money they give it to us. They trust us enough to bring it back which is it's not like every other store over here. That's why the store bed for so long. They look over the hood hard. All the big stores were sold out when you don't got it the same day guy had a shout to the bodega Thuggin it through and being there for us during these unprecedented times now real. But unfortunately this Brenda megado our wish if I could come out the house to see my grandfather maybe a few days before he was gone. But I was unfortunately I was unable to do that. I was only able to mourn his death. Yeah a little. 1:40 a.m. When he calls it affected all of us, we must have really had nowhere to go at times with him saying it was hard. This is the oldest or on a block from here to at least four or five blocks down. You won't see another story was very difficult for me to move around to certain places when the store was closed down by Andy Mineo. Finally did open up. It was just a blessing. Everything War has been four people over here will come back some cuz people respect that I'm getting choked up about it though, but it really serves Community it comes back to you in different ways when you get off when you live in New York City, you find a bodega that become your Bodega. You linked up bond with that person. That's your spot to loom my guys going on. Yo, we've heard good things about this Bodega. We heard you've been holding down the neighborhood. How long have you been here at a year? Maybe Batman a superhero Jesus you have done so much to the neighborhood on the behalf of Pepsi. We want to give You need something. From d r y this year has brought a lot of challenges. But if we learned anything is that being there for each other can mean everything because you've gone out of your way to help others have she's proud to provide me with financial support to help cover the cost of one year of rent for your store. Love your Pepsi family. My guys I'll be seeing you guys deserved it. You need more people like you to keep the world a great place. Enjoy it he making these chopped cheese sandwiches keep the doors open down in neighborhood, man. So proud of you getting. Okay, so you're going to know we appreciate you mad libs.
Could we colonize Mars?
"Are really only two options of other places in our solar system where humans could go to colonize mars and the moon and why not the other planets. Well the short answer to that is none of the others could be habitable. Even on their best days mercury and venus the two planets closer to the sun than us are just too dang hot among other things and once you get beyond mars which is one planet further away from the sun from us. Those other planets are either too cold or they made up primarily of gases. So it'd be like trying to live on a cloud pretty much so yes but a very terrible poisonous cloud is trying to kill. Yeah i don't like the sound of that at all. no but what about the moon. Why don't we colonize the moon. I we've already landed on it if we're so hell bent on colonizing something else. Why not the man okay. Good question. I've had the same thought. I recently read an article on the national space society website that provided this analogy with. I thought made a lot of sense so back. In the days of columbus the age of exploration some would call it. Europe was kind of the earth of today. It's where most first world people lived. Okay europeans were trying to explore unknown. Parts of the world that they could colonize so compare the moon to greenland and mars to north america con. Greenland was much closer to europe than was north america but it was only a stopping overplays. It just didn't have the natural resources that were needed and it wasn't large enough to create a real viable indigenous society. Gotcha north america on. The other hand was teeming with natural resources and was plenty large enough so to get their people. Had to be of hardy stock. Yep these were the kind of people who could be successful. So think of mars as north america in the fourteen hundreds and the earth as europe in the fourteen hundreds.
Meteorite recovered in the UK after spectacular fireball in the sky
"On the final day of february people in some parts of the uk were treated to a celestial light show as a meteor streaked in from space hundreds of videos viable have since been posted online by amateur photographers. We'll see even more special by analyzing the footage multiple networks of cameras for the first time in three decades in the uk the coporate and as it turns out very rare space rock the caused all this was successfully tracked down and recovered from someone's driveway. Phil sansom spoke to the uk meteo observation networks. Mary mcintyre to hear how it happened. There was a really bright fireball picked up across multiple networks. A week ago on sunday and later in the week we found out the in meteorite fight being recovered and this is an incredibly thing to happen in the uk actually even in the world to recover meteorite that's been seen as a fireball quite ready then we found out that it's one of an extremely rag kind of meteorite just so many special things and we just haven't been able to sleep because we're just so excited such a huge win for citizen science. It really was. Wow and you didn't even know what was coming. Did you just sort of appeared as a flash right. Yeah these things. You can't predict them. They're entirely random pieces of space debris and this one was really unusual because it was captured by so many cameras across the because we had a clear sky across the country. What does it look like. Is it just a bright. The whole sky lynx up or is there like an angle you can see and that's how you figure out where he's going. It depends way you see it from our camera so it was heading straight for us so actually on our camera was just an enormous flash and it was really difficult. Get any data from it. Because she couldn't see a flight path but there's a guy called rigid fleet down in wiltshire. Who caught it side on is the most phenomenal bright thing. Streaking across the sky just resulted in this enormous kind of explosion and it fragmented. We could see that there were multiple fragments there and won't she kind of do the calculations behind the scenes. They can figure out the speed. It was moving the angle through the atmosphere. It's exact path before it been up and once you do all that they can also figure out the mass. And once she know the mashed you can then calculate whether something may have survived and landed the normally something like that would be kind of kept quiet for fear of contamination but because of covid and the fact that the area that they think it landed was basically lots of farmland in the cox worlds. None of us are thought for a second that this would get recovered and if it was recovered not for many days when it been rained on all that stuff so it was. It was just incredible. It could have gone in a stream. I'm guessing it could have gone a sheep's trough and cheap eight it. Many fables in the k. Are thought to survive but the end up in the sea because the small island so who actually found dead and how one of the homeowners at actually heard third on their drives the previous your house and they just didn't think anything of it but once the natural history museum per hour video to local saint. If you see anything please have a look and they went out and there was a fragment some dust and kind of black raise on driveway. And i think a fragment bounced over the the walter. Next door's garden wants. People arrived on the scene from wednesday onwards. There was like a fingertip search of the area remote fragments being found in. We've now found about hundred grams of this. Which is just extraordinary. You said that not only was it. Amazing space rock. It's also a very special kind of space rock. It is it's it's a type of meteorite called a carbonaceous conned right and they're really important because most of them originate from the asteroid belt asteroids themselves the old because that leftover material from when the solar system formed four point five billion years ago. But what's amazing about carbonaceous conroy's they have these tiny little of material that actually predates our solar system some of them have organic materials amino acids in them and to get a sample that is really pristine like this is incredibly rare and so important for scientists to kind of analyze the material and find out the origins of our solar system and before also system. It's just being one of the most amazing stories of the decade and the hasn't been a full that's been found for thirty s in the uk. So it's amazing and what's funny as well as aren't their missions. Going on right now. Sending probes up to asteroids way out in space desperate to try and get any sort of sample from them. And we've just had one line right at our doorstep. It is well. There was actually a mission to the asteroid a writer and the quality of the some police comparible without sample return mission from right and they brought by lake tiny amounts of asteroids. And we've got four hundred grams of this. I mean you can't rely on them landing as a way of analyzing them because it just doesn't happen very often. I take me found all the time. But they've been led on the ground. Who knows how long. And still quite believe israel i just honestly when i found out i just cried because such an amazing
Astronomers confirm orbit of most distant object in our solar system
"Have identified the location of the most distant object that has ever been observed in our solar system. It's something called a planetoid. And it's almost four times farther from the sun than Pluta. The arguable planet. It is so far away that this little planetoid takes a full millennium 1000 years to complete one orbit around the sun. Was first detected back in 2018. But the teams now say they've seen it enough times. They've caught it on camera per se to confirm the exact location of its orbit and the path it takes. The planetoid, by the way, has a very cute nickname. It's called far Far Out Way made. Use a insurance for
NASA's Dragonfly Will Fly Around Titan Looking for Origins, Signs of Life
"To study this mysterious ocean world. Nasa has selected dragonfly as part of the agency's new frontiers program. This is innovation now bringing you. Stories of revolutionary ideas emerging technologies and the people behind the concepts that shape the future. Next destination in the solar system is the richly organic world of titan with a nitrogen based atmosphere similar to earth. This mysterious moon of saturn also boasts rainshowers of liquid methane organic sand-dunes deep impact craters. An icy subsurface oceans exploration by a single vehicle difficult titan is unlike any other place in the solar system but dragonfly is like no other mission and it is dragonflies design that sets it apart. Eight rotors helped the vehicle fly like a drone while allowing it to land at multiple destinations on the icy moon using years of cassini data. The dragonfly team has selected a safe initial landing site in short flights from there. The rotorcraft will fly to dozens of promising locations on titan collecting samples and examining the diverse environment while searching for the building blocks of life on another
A Weekend Of Chaos In Britain
"Been a weekend of chaos. in britain. the prime minister. Boris johnson gave a press conference on saturday which kick started a chain of events that is now being felt worldwide launch price former communications director at number ten downing street joins me now and monaco own editorial director tyler overlay is on the line from our studio launch. If we could begin with you can you talk us through. What's happened since saturday afternoon. Well basically christmas in britain has not quite been canceled. But it's come pretty close to it and it's enfold a pretty massive change of direction if not u-turn by the british government only on wednesday of last week. The prime minister was saying it would be inhuman draws people to cancel that christmas plans And then on saturday. He was forced to do a news conference in which he said that that is exactly what he was asking them to do. So that now people in in this country because of this new variant of covid nineteen essentially will be asked to just see a small number of people depending on where they live in the country on one day only on christmas day and then of course. We learned yesterday overnight. that's because of this New variant which is understandable because in great concern around the world. People struggled to see whether or not they have already with a. If they haven't they can they can contain the to prevent it coming. In from the united kingdom of borders closed all over the place huge queues to lorries trying to get to the at channel pulse dover in in particular where the crossing is to france and The french assigned that they won't take any huge queues at the an railway stations that get out of london and also chaos at the airports with likes being canceled to just about every destination you can of and it's hard to keep track of all the buddhas being closed at the moment. Tyler could bring you in here. What is the european view. We'll good afternoon georgia. European is one of not just canceling flights and cancelling connections. But also what we're seeing now. are now new quarantines going up so you know brits and also we also focused on maybe on a territory close to your heart or close to your heart also south africa as well because south africa is very much in the news as well it it. It is really in line with the uk as another country. is seeing outright bans on all travelers arriving whether the company from cape town or Or johannesburg into germany into switzerland and elsewhere as well so you have mean proper borders closes. It looked to for that moment. Yesterday we saw the dutch saying that. Okay airlinks We're going to be suspended but now we're looking at you. No one is allowed to arrive. in many countries the uk. And as you said almost minute by minute there are new measures going by countries across the continent here I mean lance one of your former colleagues listed campbell says it looks like the whole country is being put in brexit four by the rest of the world when incompetence meets venality and covert and brexit combined to expose the worst possible government at the worst possible. Time which you agree has this been woefully mishandled. Mile does have a way with words doesn't he. And he's absolutely right to in pretty much. Everything within the he says. Of course you have to separate this from from brexit brexit the final brexit deadline. Which is the thirty first of january. Hasn't yet hit us but as honestly suggests it's a taste of what we thought who's going to come anyway and he's also right to say that it raises a big question over the competence of the government other new variant of covid. Nineteen isn't boris johnson. Falls it's not anybody's walton in the in the british government but their reluctance to recognize. What so many other people around the world were recognizing and what their own scientific medical devices with telling them. Which was that the original plan for a five day. Christmas virtual virtually a free for all in the uk was just madness to only for that only to dawn on them on saturday. In the light of the new virus i think does call call call into question their their competence the end of the year when actually frankly dot competence has been called into question many times. I mean you think that johnson used the fact of the new variant to excuse his u-turn and was that then the perfect excuse for european borders to to fall like dominoes and shut us off physically from the block. Is there a little bit of perhaps schadenfreude going on here. We'll do spend a lot of speculation today georgina. You look at a number of different european news. Outlets are we also heading for some type of emergency extension Which could potentially happen. Which would again this would be of. Course be you know the perfect measure You have this new strain. You have borders. Of course being closed eros suspended cetera There there's no better excuse to if they wanted to kick this into the grass. I mean no one wants this But certainly you have to think here we have incredibly busy government Who have to deal with logistics issues. they have to deal with A media and public storm around this. I think we could be could be heading for certainly if you're listening to a lot of the correspondence at have brussels today. Maybe an extension talking about those logistical issues. Lonzo i mean. There are serious concerns about supply chains. How will the border closures affect availability of because then indeed traffic. Kent is already gridlocked in terms of traffic coming into the uk. Of course the roots are still open. If people wish to use those rates as a question ma about whether eu holiest would want to send their vehicles into the uk If they didn't get out again especially in the run-up to christmas and the other thing to remember is that a quite a lot quite a high percentage of trade across the english channel is unaccompanied freight. So it goes in containers dr flirt. It's picked up on the other side so there's no physical as a human being crossing with it and that can continue so the supermarkets and the many people in industry. I'll say don't panic yet. But we may be days away from them saying actually. Now's the time to panic I mean tyler is britain and by extension boris johnson. The sick man of europe. Is this an unprecedented crisis. Could we compare it to. I don't know one thousand nine hundred nine well if you look at some of the headlines in the papers certainly in the german press. We've been seeing the word pariah state being used at. This is not something that you throw around lightly georgina and of course. Adrian has lancer as well. You're there've been so many missteps on the part of this government of boris johnson's government over the last year You know just you fits and starts Throats and certainly near the stop start notion of of how to deal with this and then there's just the pure calms issue that you had the health secretary matt hancock. You're really using the words out of control. No one wants to be quoted and heard to be using the world words out of control. But that's of course what is what is popping up in the media all over the place so this is very much a situation Which is a on number ten. Watch and i really. I mean unfortunate viewing You know when we have just a little over week to run to the end of the year absolutely. I mean the whole thing about boris. Johnson is his popularity. He's been trying to do everything. Save christmas to just remain popular. He's he's a brinkman he makes. He puts off decisions until the last possible moment. He's had to do this thing he didn't want to do. What does this mean for his future. Well it certainly calls into question. I think quite a lot of wiser heads in the conservative party. A wondering about the man that elected as their leader elected him as the leader essentially because he was offering a clean break with the party's and and with the country's past as a member of the european union but there were a lot of alarm bells were ringing even before he was elected leader of the conservative party so prime minister about whether he had the kind of character to do the job. Not as those questions are even more relevant today but one aspect of his character is an shown this time and time and time again is that he thinks he can get away with almost anything so things he said in the past that might have ruined other people's political raise. He shrugged them off with a joke or or a struggle. Whatever it whatever it may be decision sees a potential scandals in his private and professional life. He thinks he can trump the more often. Just get on with it. And i think that Which is a kind of you know. Fly by the seat of your pants. Premiership simply isn't up to the task that now faces and and we're we're finding that out and a lot of people paying the price for it absolutely tolerate wonder. If i could just end with you. I don't know how much of an astronomer who are but saturn jupiter comes closest. They've been in almost four hundred years today. The the two giants of the solar system will be just not point one degrees part in the night sky that makes them appear to be one bright star just about the moon the great conjunction as it's being called also coincides with the winter solstice. Now we all know what happened. Two thousand and twenty years ago when there was a bright star. Do you think this is a potent from the heavens. Are we to expect the second coming or the end of days. I think we were corresponding last night. Georgina did use the word biblical then. So i didn't know if that's sort of foxfire. D'you into into that orbit certainly feels like that with this. It is really a convergence on on so so so many levels. I mean if you if you break this down thinking about the the the the ongoing political story that we've had around brexit Really pretty much a year that we've now been dealing with at least global level with this pandemic And then all of these other we call them niggly. Bits that are also I think surrounding the uk at the moment As well so this will be on. This will be revisiting. The story of sure later today and we'll be talking about it across the week for sure. Absolutely and i think just to tear each other up if we could schedule a zoom call later where we both sing. Tutsi-run emma sheet. Is christmas eve That would go some way to alleviating the absolutely. I think that's going to have to be heavily on the playlist this afternoon. We'll look forward to chatting later. Thank you very much to tyler and to launch price
Jupiter and Saturn will form the first "double planet" in 800 years
"What astronomers call a great conjunction, the closest they could be seen in the sky together. For nearly 800 years, according to Scientific American and Astronomical conjunction occurs when any two heavenly bodies appear to pass or meet each other as seen from Earth. To make one great, though, requires an encounter between our solar system's two largest planets, the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, a line to allow the giant worlds to seemingly convene roughly every 20 years. But the last time Jupiter and Saturn appeared so close was July 16th. 16 23 back when Galloway was still alive, a little more than a decade after he first used to telescope to discover Jupiter's four largest moons that now collectively bear his name, Great conjunctions. Have at times drawn scientists to speculate over their possible links with major events. For instance, Johannes Kepler investigated whether the star of Bethlehem Which in the Nativity story of the Gospel of Matthew Guided the three wise men to Christ. Birth was a great conjunction. Calculating that one in fact, did occur in seven BC Is it possible the Madge I or Wiseman and we don't know. There were three. Remember the Bible never mentions three Wiseman. But is it possible the Madge I who were basically astrologers were following the great conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter? Well, one did occur in seven BC, So the timing seems to be about right. Where is he? Who has been born king of the Jews for we saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him. It makes sense to me that God would use such an alignment of heavenly bodies to announce the birth of a king or other important events like sign posts. Genesis Chapter one verse 14 and God said, Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night and let them be forced signs and for seasons and for days and years. He determines the number of the stars he gives to all of them their names some Fort 1 47 4, But for those that study Astro theology, they see the Bible as Astrological allegory. The story of Jesus they believe is really about the sun s u N rather than son s. O N. Passing through the Zodiac each year. And indeed, there are numerous examples where the life of Jesus, beginning with his birth seemed to align if you will, quite neatly with the astrological Zodiac. Consider that the sun s U. N is reborn every year on the 25th day of December. That is the days begin to lengthen during the winter solstice. Jesus is born in the stable between the constellations of the horse and goat secretaries and Capricorn. 30 years after Christ birth, he was baptized 30 days after the sun s U. N is born. It enters the sign Aquarius, the water bearer Thies are but two Now to be clear. I'm a Bible believing Christian. I believe the Bible
The Great Conjunction
"Astronomers use the word conjunction to describe the meeting of planets and other objects in the sky but the meeting of the two biggest worlds in our solar system is known as the great conjunction occurring every twenty years this century the orbits of earth jupiter and saturn periodically align making the two outer planets appear almost like a double planet in our night sky and on december twenty. First which just happens to be the winter solstice twenty twenty. the two worlds will be at their closest. In centuries making this the greatest great conjunction look low in the southwestern sky in the hour after sunset for the amazing sight the two gas giants which are still millions of miles apart will appear to be separated by just a tenth of a degree or roughly. The thickness of a dime at arm's length jupiter and saturn won't be this close again until twenty eight so happy sky watching all and to all a clear night
Prof. Jack Burns, Professor of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences at the University of Colorado in Boulder - burst 01
"Welcome to the site of accents. Podcast where we explore emerging ideas from signs policy economics and technology. My name is gill. Eappen we talk with woods leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest scientific senses at unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation be color a wide variety of domains. Rare new discoveries are made and new technologies are developed on a daily basis. The most interested in how new ideas affect society and help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation v seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide edited content of conversations bit researchers and leaders who low what they do a companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense dot com and displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense dot net. If you have suggestions for topics guests at other ideas please send up to info at scientific sense dot com and i can be reached at gil at eappen dot info mike. Yesterday's a jack boone's who's a professor in the department of ece fisa goal in planetary sciences unto colorado boulder. He is also vice president images for academic affairs in blue sage for disuse system system. Jack while thank you. Joe is good to be with you. Thanks for doing this so you at your team. On deeply involved in the upcoming nasa missions to the moon including The designed to place radiofrequency absolutely on the far side of the moon and be kevin deemed really back there for almost fifty years. Now i know that china s landed. I was actually looking at some photographs that just gained today from From their lander. I israel in india. Almost got there but Fleas land properly. And so so. What's our interest. What's sudden interest in going back to the moon after fifty years. Yeah i don't know that. I would characterize as a sudden interest i think on the part of the science community and really the exploration community interest has been there for a while but what has changed in the last decade is the cost doing missions And the accessibility of the moon in this new era in which we have now. Private companies like spacex and like the blue origin company. Jeff bezos company They've put considerable private resources in developing new rockets of with reusability to lower the launch costs and also technology which was extreme in the nineteen sixties to try to get to the moon. All hannity vetted from scratch now is relatively straightforward at gill as you mentioned Even a small countries like israel Private companies have contracts with nasa to fly payloads. Now it's it's it's realizable to Envision going to the moon at a relatively modest cost certainly in comparison to the sixties and seventies. Yes so that's a. It's a very interesting phenomenon. Now it's it's almost like a business model question. Space is Blue blue horizon blue origin. Laura gin and that is another company. Lakers peterson things. Well lockheed you ally the united launch alliance which is the lockheed and boeing Company as well they all have these new generation of launch vehicles that are capable of going to so nasa in some sense outsourcing Some of the transportation right to so captain made a selection or are they going to do essentially multiple companies. Do it the the plan is to have monk multiple companies just like the commercial crew program To the space station there's boeing and spacex And for the case of the moon for the un crude landers that Landers that are just carrying payloads nasa has identified a out a dozen companies To be able to transport a payloads to the moon and at the same time. They're also undergoing competition right now. They selected three companies to design as part of a public private partnership the next generation of human landers. So that's the same. Mostly the same group that has spacex blue origin and the third one is is dynamic which is a company in huntsville alabama rate. So it's nassar's goal here is They are they going to take contracts from other other countries do send pedal to the moon in these companies. The the way this is working now is nasa is buying services so they're no longer buying rockets or landers which they will then own operate Instead the philosophy is To buy a ride for example a seat On a human land or or by space for a payload so these companies that are responsible for indemnifying Making sure they have a proper insurance for losses They take A bit of the risk and and then proceed along those lots now. What that means is that the companies then they own the intellectual property they owned landers they rockets they own the The other transportation devices. So that means they can sell seats. They can sell payloads to for example a european space agency Or the russian space agency or individual companies. That might want to puts a payload on the moon Investigation in this kind of a lower gravity environment so it's much more entrepreneurial than what we had before and it lowers the cost to the taxpayer for doing all these things by the artist program. Which is the new human programs. The moon the Recently released cost to get the first woman in the next man to the moon by twenty twenty four is a factor of ten less than the apollo program. Yeah it's interesting. I remember jack I was involved a little bit on the economic side of the next generation. Space legal program two thousand two thousand one two thousand two timeframe and this was a program was supposed to replace the shuttle and we did not go forward with it and i guess so. What was the arranged with the russian system to get their astronauts into space station. Yeah the the problem was that you might recall The shuttle accident that occurred in two thousand three And then president. George w bush declared that the shuttle really wasn't safe And that needed to be replaced and it took a while. We're still in the process of of fully replacing it. The last shuttle launch was twenty eleven If i remember correctly so in the meantime in order to get to the space station What we did is contract with the russians to use their soyuz spacecraft to go back and forth the space station so we. What we did is the buy seats. Those seats cost about seventy five or eighty million dollars so they weren't cheap but eventually got us back and forth. He said before we get the details of the Admission stack help philisophical question so way we have technology advancing the about conflict. Television's really taking off machines. Getting lot smarter What does sort of the basis for sending humans Could be not accomplished thing that human could do with machines if that's a good question i'm glad you answered that you ask that question because Excuse me i think what we're looking for now is is Really different mode for doing work on services like the moon or mars. Excuse me in that. We unlike apollo you had a single astronaut. Geologists such as astronaut harrison schmitt on all seventeen doing classic field geology. With a shovel to now advance unit twenty-first-century. We're gonna to do. Is i like to say we're going to bring Silicon valley with us to the moon. So we're going to bring advanced robotics. Be telly operated. That will use a machine. Learning artificial intelligence And will team with the astronauts so that they will these. These rovers advance scouting. They will identify interesting places and then the role of the astronaut is to make critical decisions on what to investigate What the samples. Look like i. i still think it's true. I've been told from my colleagues who are geologists stromer But who are uninsured. Scientists in that the difference for example between. Let's say the The curiosity rover on mars. And what it's been doing and having a human on mars that the work that the curiosity rover has done last seven years could be done in two days by geologists. a that's the difference and to also bring back. You know better selected samples and so forth. So there's no replacing humans and that's not going to happen anytime soon but you you do your point being. You only wanna use humans when you actually have to. Because their time is valuable and they're expensive and also Walking around even on the surface of the moon is dangerous. Because the you know the a space where the asian micrometeorites another possible dangerous but going into this new environment. I think what we're going to be able to do is reduced risk and improved efficiency. The i don't remember the numbers but a human Mission is about ten x the cost of a non human mission. Obviously the the efficiency and like you say what begin out of it different but guess on the cost side. It's about the fact of a magnitude different you know. That's hard to say because robots still are very limited in what they can do. They're just so many things that only humans can do is a little bit of apples and oranges but yet you're probably right that on the ballpark about a factor of ten. Maybe even more. But there's also much more than a factor of ten improvement in efficiency. So you know. Those costs will balance out and obviously the advantage of a human is You know they've been. The unexpected happens in michigan learning in As long as you have heard of data to teach a machine but then the unexpected happens machines. noel exactly. The rover gets stuck. It suffers a mechanical problem. That If you have a human there at least in the vicinity can help fix it. And move orders you know i think about for example servicing of the hubble space telescope and that was done five times by human astronauts and The astronauts such as john grunsfeld did to the servicing missions was very clear that the telescope could not have been repaired in upgraded by anything other than humans because the tab the complexity of the task the ability to be able to get in and To make repairs Make on the spot. Decisions just You know there was no replacing that so hopefully humans have a few more years of Do i think we've got many years to tell you the truth. I think it's going to be you know in reading some of the literature. I think it's going to be a quite a long time if ever that. We have truly Intelligent self aware machines can operate with the same decision making kick be very good at repetitive calculations outstanding job of there but You know making creative innovative entrepreneurial. Decisions were We're nowhere close to that yet So i do that. A multiple missions being planned An international collaboration so he's the first one that is supposed to take off as leave. Yeah artists is the new name for the human missions to the moon Artemis in greek mythology was the sister of apollo The twin sister of apollo. She's the goddess of the moon. So that's very appropriate. Since nasa has already declared bet up for that first landing which nasa has been planning for twenty twenty four would Would have that first woman in the next man on the surface the first expedition by humans to the moon in the twenty first century. So optimistic applaud. Its name the program programming program. Yeah exactly right so so andrade damasio multiple things going on And so do we have sort of a space station like that is going to orbit the out. Yeah in fact. That's honored design. And we'll be under construction in the next few years has called the gateway lunar gateway. And it's it's not like the space station in the sense of being gigantic And being really limited to that single orbit the gateway is really more of a spacecraft is going to have a pulse in system using a new generation of solar electric bad is ion propulsion That will be piloted for potential for optometry use in going to mars. I have just a couple of modules that will be there it will be a place where astronauts coming from the earth on on the orion spacecraft which is a it plus the space launch system is a heavy lift vehicle that will take astronauts the moon they will dock at the gateway and then they will get into a reusable lander go to the surface. Come back in that lander and then the next crew that comes in will do the same thing so you don't throw everything away like we did during hollow in the nineteen sixties again. The reusability idea is Is key to keeping the costs down so so it is more dealer so can't be attached as as alright right. Ds change in the future. Cab edge more against it. We can in fact The japanese space agency jaksa recently committed to fly a module And nasa has invited others such as the russian space agency to think about them attaching A module as well so it definitely is modular. That way you can add habitats you can add laboratories And can can grow over time. But it's also the the idea is that it's going to be long duration spaceflight and it's away way from the earth's magnetic field so you've got the full range environment of what you would have going to mars. So i think nasa all also looks at. This is a prototype of the vehicle that would be sent to mars. Lucchese david some Conversations yet again. Remember that To go to mars you would rather start off. Start off from the moon. Is that still thinking or that. Exchange i don't think that's been decided but there's this potential real advantages of a loon. First of all launching from the moon versus the earth requires much less thrust. What what we call delta the. That's the change in velocity to Get off there. Because there's only one sixth gravity on the moon and secondly if we're successful in mining water from the minute we know now there's considerable amount of water at the polls of the moon That's hydrogen and oxygen. We can convert that potentially into rocket fuel. You wouldn't have to bring that from earth so the costs associated with launching some could be substantially reduced in doing this from the moon versus from your so people are actively working that right now and seeing if that might be the way to go i of think that might end up being How missions to To mars or undertaking so under optimus Are there plans to actually create a habitat a big enough habitat for people to stave or extended period of time. So nasa has designs. And once again i should mention this is. This is all international Insa is involved. The european space agency is involved in providing a module for the service module for the orion. It also will be working on the gateway. The canadian space agency is providing the robotic arm And the same will be true on the surface The idea is that the first few missions will of just get started That first nation in twenty twenty four is planned to go to the south pole of moon. Will we've never been to before and look at the water. Ice situation there but Over time by the end of the decade the expectation is that will have multiple habitats. And we'll have people staying there for long periods of time like the arctic station. It's run by the national science foundation. The mcmurdo station as called in which you have a number of scientists come in and visit for anywhere from a few weeks to staying for year here so salama but when the next generation space program was in progress space. Too big big project. I would imagine spacex Others cab this business plan so what's the clamps time Do that The gay yes. So it'll be somewhere between three and five days to get from the earth and you're right about. The tourism spacex already has a fide a japanese businessman. If i remember correctly who has bought a A ride not the surface of the moon but to orbit the moon on a spacex vehicle. Sometime in a in a few years but the it'll be in a three to five days to get to the gateway and then Another day to get down to the surface. So i fully expect by the end of the decade especially given the accessibility to the moon by the private sector and by isa companies That they will be selling seats to wealthy individuals to spend a A summer holiday on the moon is so if the if the gateway is expandable perhaps Taxpayers can make some money nasa. Well it might be. Yeah but but once again this is. The transportation for the most part is probably not going to be through nasa but by these individual companies who own their own rockets their spacecraft and now they will sell seats to to wealthy tourists. yeah and so You you mentioned the european space agency. You mentioned the canadian space agency of so. Is this like the space station. A larger collaboration or those are the three major ones. Yeah it is and you're right. There are Oh gosh there's probably a dozen or so. Companies countries rather involved in the international space station and nasa envisions this much the same thing And i to. I order all the countries that are involved in. The international space station have been invited to become involved with the gateway And so as i mentioned several have accepted with With enthusiasms others are still keeping that around and take a quick break jack. Benny come back to talk about the radio. Frequency of savitri on the far side of the more that you're designing you bet sounds good. This is a scientific sense. Podcast providing unscripted conversations bit leading academics and researchers on a variety of topics. You like to sponsor this podcast. Please reach out to in full at scientific sense dot com back Jack you're talking about upcoming missions to the moon Some of the manned mission some of some of the technology that you're sending up there there is a gateway bridges like the space station but attested propulsion its zone. Sorta are based entity source. And it's more dealer things could be attached to it. That may be subject is imploding. Creating that a launchpad so to speak to go to mars perhaps habitats that a large announced a mining for water mighty for hydrogen and other things and so he the program is called autonomous. So could be portal light program and underneath optimists. There are various things being planned right. So what are the The primary objectives all of those radius approved betas projects. I should say under under optimus. Yeah we'll go. let me let me start off by just looking at the difference with The apollo program because the apollo program ended fairly abruptly once the political goals were reached and it was never Really a sustainable program so Nasa and i think all of the governmental space agencies are looking for is for arsonist to be the beginning of a sustained presence on the moon and in space and using the moon as a stepping stone for human and robotic exploration of the solar system including getting the mars so the philosophy of artists is really quite different. So you're there the stay So you need to figure out how to live off the land. So that does mean as you're saying mining's water being able to grow crops being able to manufacture Equipments the habitats themselves from the From the of the regular or the soil material so using the the kind of advanced manufacturing capability three d. printing Electrolysis so that's a really different approach. And it means that what will be worked on is not just get there but a flag in the ground rather in full of soil and return on instead it means You know how do you figure out how to be there for the long haul so that means than learning how to to excavate how to build How to really maintain a life in a in a certain sense of independence. Part of the reason you want to do all that is because that's exactly what's going to be
Japan's capsule with asteroid samples retrieved in Australia
"A helicopter search team has spotted a capsule carrying asteroid samples that landed on a remote area in southern Australia as planned. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency released the small capsule earlier today and and said said said it it it toward toward toward Earth Earth Earth to to to deliver deliver deliver the the the samples samples samples from from from a a a distant distant distant asteroid asteroid asteroid that that that could could could provide provide provide clues clues clues to to to the the the origin origin origin of of of the the the solar solar solar system system system and and and life life life on on on our our our planet. planet. planet. I'm told you're
Japan's capsule with asteroid samples retrieved in Australia
"A Japanese capsule carrying asteroid samples has landed in Australia Japan Space Agency said. It's helicopter search team has spotted a capsule on a remote area in southern Australia as planned Sunday local time, the agency said. Haya Busa, too, had released the small capsule Saturday and Sunday. Toward Earth to develop. Do deliver samples from a distant asteroid that could provide clues to the origin of the solar system and life on our
"solar system" Discussed on Get Sleepy
"solar system" Discussed on Get Sleepy
"Bouts carving around metrics through spain's and maybe just maybe there's a planet mike water and grass and bright summer sunshine. That's helps things grow with fund memories dancing across your mind and a thousand tiny stause twin like night lights to guide you home. You fool into a deep and contented sleep our.
"solar system" Discussed on Get Sleepy
"Has dense atmosphere protecting it. Sapphires alongside titan stands a irregular hyperion shaped more like potato than a sphere. It is one of the many moons but might not look how you'd expect. It may have once belonged to a larger moon. Broken apart by a massive impact.
"solar system" Discussed on Get Sleepy
"But then out of the corner of your eye you spoke to another object. Weth investigating ganymede is the largest moon in the solar system larger than the planet mccurry ganymede sits baron and silva in jupiter his open. It's entrapment in the poll of the gas. Giant is what makes this great spin a moon rather than a planet of its own. It's his accompanied in its rotations by more than seventy other moons. Some have names and some a still waiting to land. Won't they'll be cooled up. Four of these are special in that own right. They all the gala leeann moons and with a very fast satellites discovered in the sixteen. Hundreds by galileo after the own ganymede is one assays. Callisto whose ancient craters sparkle on its surface. They are joined by iso colorful and volcanic jupiter's mighty gravity has created solid tides on its surface with great peaks and valleys. It has an oil slick quality with the colors of citrine. Amethyst and ruby blend together in bright patents.
"solar system" Discussed on Get Sleepy
"Do you see the clouds. Drifting across the sky above while that swear our janney will begin so sit back relax and in just a few seconds. We will be soaring.
"solar system" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"Disrupted interrupted upended. We're anxious frightened grieving. But that does not mean that we can't reach one another in ways that are both powerful an intimate in the way we live now each day. I'll talk with people across the great human tapestry. What's life like for you today? How are you feeling what's going on in your house? We're all challenged by the relentless news and by the shattering of our routines in the way we live now in just fifteen minutes each day. We'll be reminded that we're not alone. That we're more alike than we are and that our voices when shared pierce our `isolation and bring us comfort. Listen to the way we live now on the iheartradio APP Apple. Or wherever you get your podcasts. All right so we're talking about the tallest mountain in the solar system. Our first runner up for tallest mountain is not here on. Earth is not on any moon. It's not on Jupiter. It's actually on Mars. Yeah it's sort of amazing little Mars right. It's much smaller than earth but has much bigger features. It's very dramatic and this mountain on. Mars is the Olympus Mons and it's almost twenty two kilometers high wide. Mount Everest almost nine kilometers Monica. Our tallest volcano is ten kilometers. This thing is to its basic called. Mount Olympus like the Greek God exactly. It wins the Olympics of Mountains AIDS enormous deal as not just tall right. It's also is also really big because there's not that much gravity ours and so it sort of flows becomes really broad and the whole mountain if you look at the edges of it it goes. It's like the size of France while you were to walk from the tip to the base. It'd be like walking from the center of France to the border. Yeah you can take like the outline of this mountain and superimposed on France. And you're like yeah. That's about the same. Do you think that's cheating a little bit like if you have less gravity does that? Is that like steroids kind of in the Olympics is it's like or you know how the it's easier to hit a home run hire altitudes 'cause there's gravity you know. I think people were thinking bigger planet bigger mountains but you're right smaller planet last gravity bigger features to maintain a big mountain area and easier to build it up and easier to maintain it. Yeah things don't roll down as much and so that's pretty impressive. As Twenty one point nine kilometers and is volcanic right stuff spewing out from the inside of Mars. Mars doesn't have tectonic activity as far as we know so volcanoes are impact is the only way Morris could get up onto this list and this is a volcanic mountain right. So that's the biggest mountain on a planet in the solar system veteran like you just counting planets or moons. That's it. This is the biggest. That's the number one feature on a planet in the solar system but but the most impressive is a really really weird feature is on an asteroid an asteroid. It's not even on a planet. It's not even on a planet is not even on a moon. It's on an asteroid. There's this one asteroid in the asteroid belt. It's pretty big. It's like five hundred. Kilometers wide wishes sizable for an asteroid. And it's got this feature on it from an impact crater and thing you have to understand is that the crater itself is four hundred kilometers. Walk away what what. Wait wait. How can Is Like most of the asteroid is a crater. Yes the whole like back. Half of this thing. The South Pole is thing is just a big crater like this thing was totally rear ended. And it didn't get any insurance information because nobody fix this thing up like the whole back of this thing was just blown out in a big crater ticket. It's like if you take an apple and you take a giant bite out of it that's Kinda would get. Yeah yeah but it's even weirder because this impact happened like a billion years ago but the mountain is actually at the center. And that's the mayor don't understand at all and the mountain has his name is called Rea- Silva and the mountain at the center of this crater is twenty two kilometers high. So it's like just taller than that mountain on Maure wait okay. So to the biggest mountain in the solar system is not a planet it's on an asteroid called what Vesta is is the name of the Asteroid Vesta Jessica van asteroid is five hundred kilometers wide. It has a whole. That's four hundred. Kilometers wide and in the middle of that whole is a mountain. This is such a weird stricter to think about. Here's weird stuff out there in the solar system. And that's why I love these episodes because like it's basically like a bowl like a flying bowl with a mountain of Guacamole in the middle floating out in faith. You had lunch yet or maybe you should have a snack before these episodes nine another banana. These pretty weird. I was looking at pictures of this thing. And it's definitely something weird look at Okay so if I go what does it look like? He looks like a huge hole with the mountain in the middle of the flying hole with a with a pimple in the middle and we've learned a lot about vest actually because bits of it have fallen to Earth. How like this collision happened? In billion years ago and a lot of the asteroids in the asteroid belt used to be bits of Besta and then some of them fell the earth. And like you know we can pick up a rock here on earth. Who can be like this? Rock doesn't seem like he was formed on Earth. Seemed like the moon. Seems like Mars or seems like this weird asteroid and pretty cool way to explore the solar system just by finding little bits of it here on a anytime anything. We can track it like this visit. Barat came from that asteroid zillion miles away. Yeah because a lot of these had their own different history right and that leads to different fractions of ice in different kinds of ice and different kinds of rock and different You know heavy metals and stuff and so from those sort of fingerprints you can tell where Iraq came from which I think is amazing. Is We found? Bits of VESTA. Yeah but VESTA in my mind is the champ is just slightly edges out Mars but it is more impressive. Okay so it has a feature that looks like a mountain that is a mountain. I guess is a triangular is is just a giant. Bump at the peak to base is twenty two twenty two kilometers. Yep and the edges of this crater also very dramatic. They don't quite rise twenty two kilometers but they're on the same scale the teams. And you're saying it's mostly made. Outta is nominated Iraq. Yeah it's like twenty percent rock and mostly ice right in this people don't understand there's a lot of ice out. There in the solar system is huge. Chunks of it in some of those outer planets are icy giants so there's an enormous amount of water for. Who's in in ice in the outer solar system? We have no shortage of resources. Like those movies where the aliens come to steal our water. It's like what are you doing this so much more water. There's a bunch is tomorrow. With sucking up our oceans with giant vacuums and Mike Woods so So the the biggest mountain in in the solar system is mostly made out of ice mostly mandated. Ics Ice Mountain. No kidding it's like you can ski on it year. Round for a long time over the years like investor but the weather changes very much and said this is out in the asteroid. Bill Beyond kind of our planet's or in between our plan and it was in the inner history bills not in McCoy built. And so it's not actually too far full. Well there you go. That is the biggest mountain the tallest mountain in the solar system to meet isolating an asteroid which is pretty amazing. Well I think we ran down the list Daniel. We found our champion. Yes I think we did. We can crown it. If we could get to the topic we can get to the base of it. I think all right well. We hope you enjoyed that trip. Into Extreme Mountain. Thanks for tuning in the extreme universe episodes and keep sending. Us Your questions and suggestions. We love our listener. Mail Easter listening..
"solar system" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"Daniel and heartaches the universe the production of iheartradio in which we take a tour of everything out there in the universe. Everything crazy everything fast. Everything's slow everything. Hot everything dense everything that you want to know about. The Universe explained in a way that hopefully make sense and entertains. Here's Dr We take a look at the everyday life the physics of the every day and we also look at the extremes of the universe although the biggest the brightest the loudest the craziest things out there in the universe. And bring it to you here on this podcast because one of my favorite things about the universe is that it is so extreme. Here life on Earth is actually pretty calm and slow and comfortable but out there. In the universe things are exploding. Things are hot. Things are dense. There is crazy stuff happening out there. And that's how we learn about the universe. Go to those places were crazy. Things happen and that shows us. What is possible in the universe? Thankfully we don't live in one of those crazy we Earth is pretty calm. I think well not these days definitely not these days. But in general in cosmic sends we are in a pretty quiet part of the solar system. And you'd rather live in a complex. You don't WanNa have a vacation home on a neutron star. I feel like life is pretty exciting enough already as it is. I think I need more mountain extremists better. They offered the tours of neutron stars ski down a slope on the mountains of I. O people definitely do. Yeah at this key level would take a long time though. Well we have a series of podcast. We've been really enjoying all about the extremes of the universe. We did the hottest place the coldest place the biggest thing. What else did we do? Did the empty EST thing. The brightest things did the biggest explosions in the universe. There's a lot of it out there in the universe you know. And it's interesting to think that there is sort of a maximum of these things you know. There is a maximum brightness. There is a maximum emptiness. There's a maximum size of things. Yeah and each of these was fun to explore. Each one taught us a little bit of physics along the way while hopefully educating you about all the crazy stuff that's happening in the universe. Yeah like you said. I think it's interesting because it really kind of pushes your brain a little bit to think beyond that of what is around is or to try to wrap your head around things that are that bigger that brighter that's small. I think we've done smallest too right. Yeah well we don't know what the smallest thing is right to smallest thing so far we've done the funniest far joke space banana that's in the queue for later. Tease the audience with that one. But I think each of these teachers are something because if you learn what's the day is possible thing or the smallest thing of the highest thing it shows you what the universe can do and I think that that's what's exciting is prying the universe open figuring out what possible what's out there and also just you know pulling ourselves out of our little cosmic neighborhood and realizing that most of the universe is pretty different from the kind of stuff that we experience right. So today on the podcast. We'll be talking about one. Such extreme in the universe as part of our extreme universities and so they were talking about something that I think everyone is. Maybe you're probably familiar with it. I think we can all see one. Maybe when we look outside our windows every day I hope so. It's something that I certainly enjoy. I've always lived near one of these things or in one of these things. Are I guess on one of these things having around you haven't lived under one? That's where tire. Yeah that's worse. That's where you're headed the mirrors and the Buckeyes. We'll be asking the question. What is the biggest mountain in the solar system? The biggest or the tallest Daniel was going to ask you. Are we doing biggest tallest lake? Do you want to know? Whereas the highest point sort of based a peak or the highest point above sea level or like the most stuff underneath the peak like a really not very tall mountain but really wide would that count or like if he had a a really thin but tall mountain would that be the biggest well from a skiing point of view. You definitely would prefer tall and thin too short and fat right now man. I mean I don't WanNa be all mountain body image stuff over here but you know when it comes to skiing. There is a difference. Yeah well I think you know think. Aren't they sort of the same? I mean if you think about mountains you'll have sort of the same shape right so this triangular shape. You don't see like round mountains or like square mountains or tall and skinny mountains. They're all sort of triangular shape. So aren't they the same thing like the Talas means asking? Also the biggest in terms of mass think he s if all mountains were the same shape than you're right. The tallest would be the biggest but not an expert in geology. But having done a tiny bit of research for this podcast I learned that they're not actually all the same shape our star square mount their tall and thin and they are shorter and fatter mountains. Like we'll talk about it but like volcanic mountain can be pretty flat and also depending on the amount of gravity. The shape of all cannock mountains during a formula for like the slope of a mountain depends on where the rocks are made out of and then also the gravity because you have a lot of gravity. Flattened about You have less gravity. They'll be bigger. Yeah steeper. Yup So if you're a booster for one particular mountain you think should be champion. You might have you know a bone to pick at the end after we declare our champion. Okay but on the PODCAST. I guess you're you're using taller. Like distance between the base of it to the peak of it I think based on peak is the best measurement. It depends what you want and mountain if what you want is an amazing view than you really want to be sort of highest point above sea level but imagine like a really big mountainous like this is the whole planet. You're not going to get a great view if you to sort of walk to the top of that thing so really. What you want is based to peak right. You want to be above everything else around you. So you get agreed view icy. We'll give you the best per spagna like exactly the views on for the views. Yeah but there's one more caveat which is what if part of the mountain is underwater like imagine underwater mount with only very tip sticking on a wet. If it's like cloud cover up to the very peppino then you can't see very much a little tip. Then you know views at all if you're standing as usual the deeper we dive into a topic that more rediscovered and the more aboard the audience gets as we keep on discussing the definition of a mountain. But for the PODCAST. We're just GONNA go with. The base is defined as G. Squared stops being a mountain and other mount all start a whole other conversation aware mountains Cheese and the whole earth is one being mounted amount. The Milky Way is a mountain. But you might be surprised also to learn where the highest mountain in the solar system. That's right and so that's a question we'll be asking. Today is what is did tallest. I will go with tallest. What is the tallest mountain in this solar system by which I mean really sort of? What's the biggest one? Because it's really just about size and in cresent and and I know for me. The word tallest Disney convey that gut level press. We're asking what is what is the most confusing podcast in system. What is it the tallest mountain in the Solar System? And you might be surprised. It's not here on earth. It's not even on Mars even or Jupiter and so we'll get to the answer here at the end of the podcast but I. We were wondering how knowledgeable people are about out in the solar system if people knew. Where is the tallest mountain in this whole process so I walked around campus that UC Irvine? Before it was shut down. And I ask people. Where was the tallest mountain in the solar system and none of them are? You'll notice gave me the flag that you just gave me. None of them said well. Do you mean biggest or tallest. I want a clear definition. They all understood what our UC Irvine he said in the most positive complementary way positive. That's right yeah so people had opinions about this thing about it for a second if someone asks you where are you thought? The tallest mountain in the solar system is what would you say Mount Everest? There's no bigger mount somewhere else in the Solar System Jupiter. Probably not but it might be. I'm assuming not with plenty of things like that. Ethnic amounts biggest mountain in the solar system. Hard question I don't know if I could say for sure. I'M GONNA assume that it's an honor. That's probably a separate planet in our solar system. Yeah so which meant was planning to think is. I'm going to say ours ours. I would assume based on how gaseous the larger planets are not sure in terms of the planets that are closest to the sun. I guess I really don't know a ton about planets General.
"solar system" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"You are talking about how our solar system may or may not be different than other solar systems out there and we know we have a pretty good picture you you were saying of our solar system and it's taking a while but we can have a good idea of how our solar system formed sort of or widening rocky planets and then guess Asturian and so now the question is do is this what other solar systems look like. If I went to a nearby star would also see a similar blur son similar rocky planets in the middle and similar gas giant on the edges. Yes so maybe we should start from the center right from the star that is of course the easiest easiest thing to see our stars we call Yellow Dwarf and it turns out that even are kind of star is unusual. Only ten percent of the stars in our galaxy are yellow dwarfs the rest are something else we call a red dwarf and these names 'em have to do with not just like the size of the sign but also how old son is. Yeah they tell you something about where the sun is in its life cycle and there's lots of different sort of paths that a son can take depending on how much mass it started with and we had a whole episode about stellar evolution and based on the size that the sun started with it will follow a certain path. And so the name of the Star tells you sort of which path it's on on and sort of how far along that path is but most of the stars in our galaxy are Red Dwarf which means that they're older than our sun and they're colder and they're smaller smaller so if you want as much heat that we as we feel on earth you'd have to be closer to the star than you would be two hours so our son is kind of is big for compared to other stars was in the universe and it's also kinda young right like I think we're rescinded like in the teenage years of our Sun. It's big compared to move to the stars in the galaxy. Of course there are other stars out the totally dwarf it. There are these huge giants out. There that are fantastically bigger than our star. But they're unusual. Most of the stars in the galaxy are smaller colder and older than ours and ours is also different in another really fascinating way in that it's by itself are star. Doesn't have a companion stars. I like. There's another star orbiting it turns out Moose. Stars actually formed together to make a pair of stars right so our son is all alone. Or whereas a a Emma Watson sage. We're our son is self partner are star is like the runaway teenage star. It's all by itself self. In this lowly universe. Ninety percent of other stars in the universe are totally different than our sun. Yeah Yes oh right there if you WANNA extrapolate from our solar system to others you have to be careful because most solar systems have a very different kind of star and that doesn't mean it's going to be a completely different solar system or that it's impossible to live there but it means you want the same amount of heat for example you can't be closer up so the the goldilocks zone for the stars is smaller than it is for our star. The Sun is is colder. And then you need to be closer to it to be to have any life as we know it here on earth to have liquid water on the surface for example which is basically. Would you need to have life. We think life as we defined it right then needs to be close enough to the star to get enough radiation and that would be closer to those smaller colder stars than dowers and to ninety percent of stars are different out there. Which means that if you are in another planet in another solar system you know ninety percent of the time? It's not gonNA looks like it. Looks like he's not GonNa look like a bright yellow. You know son Yeah. It'd be a little redder and a little colder. It sounds I was like maybe I'm in a lot of Ormeau. Solar systems out there it would look like in Star Wars where they see two sons the horizon most of them have companions and those aren't necessarily Zerilli super close together. Sometimes campaigns can be Kinda far apart but most stars have another star pretty close by there orbiting each other but ours is by itself. And that's that's more unusual than typical so already are star is unusual in two ways and that it's by itself and that is a yellow dwarf so already our solar system is is is pretty odd compared to the universe what analysis. Let's talk about the earth. Is a planet like planet earth weird to have an solar system out there or is it pretty It turns out that the most common planet to have in one of these solar systems is not the earth. It's something called a super earth. It's a a rocky planet. That's like like ten or fifteen times. Bigger than the earth and the categorize these planets in other solar systems by giving them names relative to our planets that define nine the various categories of like you have an earth planet or Super Earth Up to you know ten to fifteen times the earth anything bigger than that they call it a mini Neptune. So that the names of these categories and most Salou systems have a super earth. It's the most common planet out there. Now you'll notice we don't have a super. Earth is no planet in our solar the system. That's a rocky planet. That's like ten times. The size of earth is the biggest rocky planet in our solar system the earth and Venus Venus is almost as big as the earth. uh-huh Mars and mercury are much smaller and so the earth is the biggest rocky planet in our solar system but most solar systems. You would find one. That's like ten or fifteen times bigger bigger in in terms of like the radius or like the you know the the weight of your ten times the mass which doesn't quite correspond to ten times the radius because you know there's some non linear effects there but it's a a lot more stuff rights Ten Times as many rocks came together to form a planet and so we don't really know what that means. This is something we've only recently figured out. We didn't know if that means that the distribution of rocks in our solar system was different when it formed or maybe there was a super big planet but a broken up. We don't really know is just random. We got unlucky or is there some important reason for why our solar system looks different. In this way we just don't know said that their side is under other earth. They would probably say that. We live Stephen meany earth. Yeah they were the. Hey look at this weird solar system we found it has only many rocky planets. How cute look those tiny little planets? Those tiny little people with tiny heads not only is our solar system weird in the Tara son is weird but also our birth is really weird to most urge out. There are much much bigger. Yeah in some solar systems we found out there just have more planets sort of tucked in close to the the son like we found this one solar system it's called the Trappist system. It has seven planets within six million miles of their son remember. The Earth is like ninety million miles from our son so they have seven planets tucked in like round the distance that mercury is while just spinning around like crazy spinning around like crazy so most of the systems we've seen have more planets close to the sun than ours now. This is hard hard to know. It might be that. There is a bias here because it's harder to see planets that are far from the sun because the we observe them remember as we see planets like passing in front run of the Sun if a planet is going around the Sun every hundred years. It just doesn't pass in front of the sun is often so it's easier for us to see planets that are close to their son. So might be that. There's a bias there that we're finding the weird ones I but they don't think so. I think they've accounted for that effect and they think it's still real that the average solar system out there has more planets. It's close to the Sun than ours interesting. So the average solar system out there is busier especially close in like more. I guess more concentrated. It was like a traffic jam every day all day for the for for eternity in literature on the other hand it means and is not as hard to get from planet to planet like your neighboring planet is more like a neighbor. You can jump from planet explain. It wouldn't take hundreds of days like it would take for us to get from Earth. Tomorrow's you could get to the next planet in just a few days right and maybe even more dangerous to write all those planets that close together they some of them could crash rush into each other. Right yeah and it can also affect each other's orbits like planets are big member. These planets are tiny things and so they can tweak each other's orbits lots more more Weird Gravitational interactions and we've also seen that we've seen that a lot of these. Solar systems have weird orbits like in our solar system things are very neatly laid out like the planets are sort of equally spaced and everything is separated and everything is mostly flat in a single plane and pretty circular though not completely but but uh other solar systems the orbits were seeing are really eccentric. There's much less circular some of them like there's one for example. I looked up and it goes from being just a few million miles of its from its star one side to two hundred million miles on the other so zuber close in Whiz out really far away right. Because orbits can be not not just circular motion can also be kind of off center from the Sun can comments have these weird elliptical orbits that go really far out in and come back and really close right. Young comments don't have to be sort of on the plane the planets and what we're seeing is that other solar systems don't always have the same orderly plane that the planets are girl all in different planes and we don't know what that means we don't know is that typical. Our solar system is just kind of weirdly randomly. Well ordered or maybe something happened in those slur system. There were some collisions because everything was crowded in. And they got tugged thrown off into weird orbits. We just don't know I feel like we're getting more and more into the idea that maybe our solar system is really weird like we have a weird sun and a weird earth and a weird weird arrangement of planets in a weird orbit. It's like it's just right. Yeah and we're like that kid that went to school for the first time and discovered that his family is really really weird. Nobody else eat butter pickles sandwiches for lunch and dresses in that weird way or whatever and the other thing that I find really fascinating. Is that in our solar system. We have all the gas giants on the outside. We thought we had an explanation for that that the gas was blown out by the solar wind but in other solar systems we finding these planets we call hot jupiters big gaffe giants that are close to their stars. Close close enough to be hot right. There trending exactly their viral Jupiter's number for example. There's a system of won't pronounce the name because it's just letters and numbers but there's a Jupiter size planet that's so close to its star. It orbits every two days what it's whipping around the sun every two days. Yeah but it's the size of Jupiter and so people wonder like how did this planet form is not enough gas in our understanding in the center of the solar system to form a gas giant. Aren't the gas either. Fell into the sun to form the star or got blown out by that star into the outer reaches though solar system. So how do you make a haunt Jupiter order. If it's just a cloud of gas would just kind of you know whipping around that fast when she's kind of break apart or dissolve ver- sm- smear it that somehow spinning around every two days. Maybe it has a really strong magnetic field which helps protect it.
"solar system" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"The billions of stars. But it's not unusual. Now I have no idea. It's probably random. If they're gases on that we're closer to the sun like star. Maybe they would like like dissipate faster. That Trans I think he's saying I think it's random I think it's going to be different. Goes for our solar system revolves around the sun. I think other system and so what do you think of those answers pretty good. I thought I felt like people had a strong strong opinion about this topic. You know everyone said. I think it's ex. Nobody's I duNNo. We're only only a few people said I had no idea but a lot of people that were like. I think I have an opinion about this year. Given that nobody really knows the answer to this question. I was a little surprised at the strength of people's opinions. I often often asked people questions and they go. I have no idea quantum what but this time people had an opinion. Maybe that's just because people have thought about this. They've wondered what other solar systems look like like. They've thought about traveling to the stars and walking on those planets and wondered if there would be like ours. I wonder if you would get different answers if you caveat each time. He asked these questions. Shinzo caveat them with owned by the way some of the smartest people in the world don't know the answer to this. It would be so much less fun. Who would want to answer that? Nobody I love when people speculate I love seeing them in their minds that take this question on sometimes for the first time in and formulate an answer and the my favorite moments are when you can see somebody giving an answer that sort of surprises themselves they think about it they give an answer that God I didn't realize I do think that that's it's fascinating makes you wonder how much we actually think about the things. We say sometimes just listening to myself talking like what did he do. Say So. That's the question of the day is is our solar system unique or is it pretty typical and it's not typical. How different could it be out there and you should count yourself lucky to live in a time when we will know the answer to this question? Some of the greatest minds in history Galileo Einstein Newton even recent eysenck people like Richard Feynman. They looked up at the stars and they wondered if other solar systems look like ours. They all died not knowing the answer. All you had to do is listen to this podcast. Yes yes so. You're welcome. Are you taking credit for all the scientific discoveries. Thank you or who personally built the Hubble Space Telescope with his Own Hands I signed the back of it. I don't know of anyone will ever. You drew a doodle on your. Are you the official cartoonist of the space telescope. That technically you can't prove that I didn't. They didn't sign the back of the Hubble telescope. I need another telescope trained on the space telescope to see the back of it does but yeah so yeah. It's an interesting question. I'm I'm sure a lot of people have asked Before so let's break it down for people Daniel. Let's talk about our solar system and then let's talk about what other solar system where we know about other solar systems out there right and our solar system is actually quite fascinating because it has some sort of trends in it and we have to remember that all of our knowledge of solar systems and how they're formed all of our theories how solar systems were built have been developed over decades or hundreds of years based on just this one for example our solar system. So you know. We tuned these theories to describe what we've seen here and now comes the big test to see whether these theories can be applied and explained other solar systems right because I think maybe people a lot of people don't realize said we we can't just up until very very recently and only just now barely early we haven't really been able to take a telescope pointed at another star and see another solar system right up until very recently. It's been a complete fleet mystery. What other solar systems look like? Yeah the first planet around another star seen just over twenty years ago so it's a blip in human history and even scientific fantastic story but even before talking about the other solar systems our solar system is interesting like there are some weird trends in it you know the first four planets in the solar system are are all rocky planets plan is basically come in two flavors rocky or gase antennas lake Sounds like a bad ice cream shop. Yeah like like like what happens when I like. Those intolerant prison goes tonight from shop. The first four planets have surfaces on them right you mercury Venus Earth and Mars. There's these are basically balls of rock rock and metal and we call those rocky planets and there's no gas plants in the inner four instead you know the four rocky planets then you have the asteroid belt and we dug into a reason episode and then after the asteroid bill you got the gas giants. The ice giants got Saturn Jupiter. You Got Urine. His Neptune soon and those are pretty different from the inner planets. Is there a reason. We don't have liquid planet or like wet planets like giant balls of liquid floating running around. Well we can't have liquid plants in the far solar system. We have basically ice giants urine. Neptune a huge fraction them is made of water. But it's frozen of course it's too cold out there. There is of course there's water here on earth but could you just like an entire drop of water be a planet. That'd be pretty amazing. I think the pressure from it would probably crystallize the inside so basically become an is planet with a ocean around it kind of like a Europa or. Yeah what's what's that's like a giant ocean. Europa has a huge extra thick crust of ice on top and then a layer of water underneath like an ocean underneath and then we don't know what's inside that. Yeah so that's like an eminem sort of the reason. We don't have liquid planets to just depending on the elements that we have in our solar system. I don't think you could make a blob of of liquid water large large enough stay liquid because the corner just be too dense that would form a solid like by the time it got big enough to be called the planet would it would totally not be liquid. Yeah the gravitational pressure would make the inside of it become a solid or or something. More dense wouldn't liquid anymore. Do you have this fancy swimming through like a planet sized pool of water with the Universe is biggest swimming pool that would be pretty cool. Nothing but a huge drop of water the size of the earth and then a single diving board owing thing. Yeah you're like you think you have an infinity pool. I have a planet Universe Uterus Infinity Pool but no we don't have any liquid planets in our solar system but hey maybe we'll find planets and other solar systems that are liquids and they will prove US wrong and maybe liquid plants are possible. But we don't happen to have have any in our solar system instead we have four rocky planets the asteroid belt and then the gas giants and the ice giants. And you're saying that's kind of funny in that it's sort of like a pattern. It's four rocky asked a rebel gas giant. It's not like rocky gas rocky gas gas gas rocky. It doesn't seem random. Here's a question from a listener Camille. Who just the same thing? Hello or hey. On one of the reasons episodes I have listened to your show all about the asteroid belt. Not that there must be reason why we have solid rocky planets before dusk to adult only gas giants afterwards. But you never I asked. This question is there isn't we. Why is this it? We see this kind of utter chaos dying to know. That's a good point. Thank you Camille for sending in that question and every time you see a pattern you think maybe there's a reason and you want to untangle that right now it's very dangerous when you're drawing conclusions from one example if you visit somebody's house and they're like Oh look their families boy boy boy girl girl girl girl girl. You're gonNA continue visit right. They all have young a younger girls and older boys. But if you're only looking at one house you're going to be totally wrong. That would be kind of impolite to ask. Daniel did you guys try doing something different. You know when you you know you'd be desperate to know though. UB Super Furious and also. There's lots of families where it's like five boys and then a girl and you know they were trying girl and they finally got one in nets when they stopped having kids. That's when they're closing shop. Yeah Somme our source assumes closed shop after after Neptune or Uranus. We're done trying to make a liquid planet. It's not happening for gaming sites site. We're trying to make a giant swimming pool but you know it just has an APP kids gotta go swim somewhere else to stop it. So we do have some explanations we've cooked up. But of course the proviso is we don't know if this works works until we try to apply to other systems and the basic idea is that you don't get gas giants close into the sun. Because the son has all his radiation radiation it's spewing up the solar wind and that basically blows out all the light elements hydrogen the helium. All if you need to make a gas giant all the gas it blows. Was it away from the Sun. So that's why you don't have gas giants close up to their star. It's kind of a cloud when it gets close assign which is kind of wish up right. Yeah and so. That's sort of the explanation for why you have rocky planets close in and then in the outer planets it's colder and so instead of having liquid water you have ice and that is helps the core of the planets form like you know. How does it plan a form? Anyway you know. The initials are disc of stuff from the form the whole solar system and some of spinning citizen fall into the Star and then the outer reaches. Its cold enough that you have ice. And that helps accumulate. The gravity very slowly gathered the stuff together. Because you have ice out there it can sort of advice to your basic planet core and they can get big enough to suck up all the gas and the the hydrogen and helium because remember hydrogen and helium is very light. Which means it's hard to hold onto? You need huge gravitational mass to attract that make gas giant to form a really big core. You're of some metals and some ice in order to pull in the rest of the gas and that can only happen in the outer reaches of the Solar System. Where you have ice and so the reason you get gas giants that's an outer solar system is because that's where the gas is and because that's where the ice is to help pull those light gases together into a gas giant at least that's our theory appearing? It's based on just what we've observed all right. So that explains why our solar system looks the way the Rocky in the middle and then cassie see out there in the edges of it into the. That's kind of the picture of our solar system. We have a yellow Sun some rocky planets some asteroids and then giants in gas balls swirling around the edges of precisely and remember. We've been aware of this for decades and decades and decades and so we have a long time time to cook up this model based on just this one solar system. It's become very fine tuned and and very sort of Baroque to explain. Exactly what we're seeing now comes uh-huh the test. Now we get to apply to other solar systems and see if it also explains what we see out there. Yeah all right so let's get into would other solar systems look like but first let's take a quick break..
"solar system" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"To our podcast Daniel and Hori explained the universe ape that gender of I heart radio in which we tackle all things about the universe that are mysterious. That are amazing that are bonkers from how the universe was formed to. How big big is to how old the earth is to whether or not your facial hair determines your evil or innocence yet or whether being a podcast or may sue a superhero or or not? I think we all know the answer to how but basically we talk about all the things that are interesting and different and fascinating about our universe right especially the things around us and we try to focus on the things that signs is asking right now the questions in the minds of scientists scientists. We try to take you to the cutting edge of current science and then D. obscure We don't use complicated. Words like De Obscure Fi. We try to make things as clear an understanding. You just contradicted yourself feel like we try to explain things in the simplest way possible when we explain art explaining we use. He's the most complicated words. Hey this is Dana Lahore. He explained the Universe Dana Lahore. Hey explain the explaining. And then we'll come through a new podcast Daniel and I explain explain Daniel and Jorges. That's right the spinoff podcast exactly and looking for that one yeah a lot of TV shows now like an after show So that's the better off. Solve all the PODCASTS. Yeah let's Talk Daniel and harangue doesn't need to have somebody else on it though where they can ridicule all of our the jokes now. Let's pretend to be some other person other ego I'll be David and you'll be gear Mo- Davydenko's as they've been ridicul. Daniela where hey all right. Well you know we talk about all the things scientists WanNa know and And how they look at the universe universe as well right like you know one way to look at the universe is to compare it to the things around us. That's right and something we're always trying to do in science is understand and our context is understand where we live because hey this is our planet in our solar system who we'd like to know is the rest of the universe similar to where we finding around us or is it totally different yet because we liked the earth presumably and it's pretty comfortable and I'm pro earth Pretty I'm taking taking a controversial opinion here at night. You're probably during the day. Well it's not like particle threaten to destroy the universe at any moment so on purpose right on. Hey intentions matter okay. I'm sure they matter once. We are all made out of Dissolved particles we want understand the world around us and we won't understand if there are other world out there and we'd also disliked no is the thing that we've been studying for the entire history of science is is it normal. Is it typical or are we studying something which turns out to be really unusual in that. We can't generalize from to get deeper truths about the nature of the universe. Yeah we liked the earth. We like our solar system but is the rest of the universe like us and we're an amazing moment in human history when we're for the first time really beginning glimpses for what the rest of the universe looked like you know for thousands of years all we could see where other stars but didn't even know of their other planets out there and then fairly recently in human history thousands of years ago we discovered that there are other planets out there and now super recently just like twenty years ago we begun seeing planets around other stars to become. Now ask an answer. This question people been wondering about for thousands and thousands of years so today on the podcast will be asking the question our solar system. We are or typical and either way we love it right. It's our solar system Whatever label you put on it we like it but we're still curious is it sort of the oddball solar system? It's the only one we've been studying for a long time or is it pretty typical. Oh yeah this is a really cool question and casino. I think you we grew. We grew up in this solar system right and we don't have we have no idea whether it's every other solar system looks like this one or whether we're like is this really weird odd special gem or disaster depending on how things work out of a source. Yeah and it's all. We could have studied for the longest time because our telescopes couldn't see any further so we were limited to only looking in in our cosmic neighborhood to studying our planet and the ones nearby and so of course we were curious. What else was out there in the rest of the universe but imagine if you'd only lived in your hometown town your whole life and you'd never received any news the outside world and so you didn't know that people eight differently in other countries and people were under the bathroom differently? In other countries and dressed differently only in spoke differently. You imagine that everything else in the world was sort of like your hometown. That's where we all right now in science were wondering if those other solar systems uh-huh are totally different or just the same as ours. Yeah you're saying humanities sort of like a like those mere cat seen documentaries we were just finally sticking in her head out of the hole in the ground that we've been living in and looking around us. Yeah but we've been desperate to do it for for a long time. We've only recently built a technology. That's let us see others older systems and start to get an answer to this question because I feel like most people just assume that the rest of the universe looks like our solar system and our planet Senate right like if you look at Mo- science fiction. TV shows and movies you. Everywhere they go they look suspiciously like Earth. Yeah and and I think that's a failure of imagination especially in the part of science fiction when you fly another planet and you know hey it has oxygen on it and trees and hills and water that look just like ours as an oath people on it that looked just like ours but their foreheads or slightly wrinkly. I think that's a failure of imagination but it's also sort of understandable because it's hard word to imagine things totally different from anything you've ever seen before that's why good science fiction is rare. Did you just insult all star Trek and Star Wars. That supposed to be sort of like a sub tweet did mentioned by name but yeah yeah and so the question is are those science fiction movies right are. Are there really other earths out. There are other solar systems like ours or are we unique in this universe and so as usual we were wondering how what people thought about this question whether people thought that we are unique or whether things are very different out there in the universe so I walk around campus and I asked random students about other random solar systems. Think for a moment. Do you think other solar systems look like ours ours solar system typical or is our solar system GONNA turn out to be really weird. The Galactic Oddball Ball. Here's what people had to say from what I know it's typical. I mean it depends what you say. Typical is considering.
"solar system" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"Seattle start watching now subscription required all right we're back and we're talking about news of the solar system crazy discoveries things that we're learning just recently in the last weeks and months about our own cosmic backyard increase will you were saying are there things we're learning that are closer to home home than the far reaches of space past blue and in fact there are people are probably learned recently in the science news that Saturn has been upgraded it is now the moon king of the solar system because it now has eighty two moons so speeding Jupiter Jupiter this second place moon owner that's right as as far as we know you know we can't say we know all the moons that are out there because we keep finding more as we look more carefully and build new instruments but so far Saturn has the most moons ends of the solar system and I don't know if that's a point of pride among planets or they just don't care how many moons Saturn have sat on now has eighty two moons that's a lot it's a lot of things to name also I don't even know the names of all these objects but you know scientists are going to be arguing about things the way scientists usually argue that things then there's going to be a long conversation about how to name all these moons are just going to have a lot of moons named after scientists or scientists dogs or family members or stuff like that sounds reasonable reasonable actually you can contribute you listener can participate because there's a contest out there to name these moons so if you have an idea for how to name the new moons of Saturn you should throw your ideas into the hat save the scientists found themselves come up with a good name we're crowd sourcing the hardest it is part of solar system science which is naming all the new stuff they find so usually when scientists are finding something new that means there's been some type of technological advance that's allowing allowing them to see things that they couldn't see before or detect things that they previously couldn't detect is that true here and it's also sometimes just a question of scientific resources sometimes we we have the device it's just been sort of pointed somewhere else and so here people were interested in questions about the formation of the solar system so they wrote these proposals to dedicate telescope the scope time to look specifically for these for moons around Saturn moons further out than the other moons these moons are really far away from Saturn they're like a very distant orbits so the scientific machine finally got around to thinking this is important that's right exactly or the scientists is to think this is important finally got the attention they deserve and you know all these moons they're not like really big objects looking up in the night sky you see our moon and you think that that's typical typical remember that our moon is huge compared to most of the moons in the solar system these moons are like rocks three miles wide and some of them take like three years here's to go around Saturn so really is just more like a careful catalogue of all the stuff around Saturn whether you call it a moon whether you call it a rock like we were saying before we love it all so where do these smaller moons come from like how do they end up orbiting these low these larger planets yeah that's a great question you might wonder like why are there moons moons at all why don't object is coalesce into planets and one reason is that these planets have very strong gravitational fields and those gravitational snowfields provide tidal forces if you're big enough then there's a difference between the gravitational tug on the side of you that close to the planet then the gravitational tug that's on the side of you that's far from the planet if you're large enough for that have a big effect that means because there's a difference in the gravitational force from one side to the other side that essentially the planet is pulling you apart because it's tugging on one part more than the other part and so if you're around a big enough planet and you're sort of the right gravitational zone the planet will tear you up he will shred you and so that's why you don't have all the stuff around Saturn's coalesce into one big moon that's why for example Saturn has rings as we think because the tidal forces are too great for those rings to coalesce into moons Saturn's so big that it's gravitational force is is doing crazy things to what's around it basically this is my technical interpretation I heard shredding I heard a lot of other things like so crazy things new you're totally right and it also gives us a bit of a window into the time line of Saturn because some of this stuff if he'd been around since the beginning of the solar system probably would have found a way to get into a stable place that it might have been able to coalesce into a moon like for example we don't know how long Saturn's rings have been around and we don't know how long they will be around it might be that another hundred million years or billion years they will eventually coalesce into an object that Saturn's tile forces won't pull apart and so if we look at where these moons are we don't think these moons could have been around for very long because if so they would have been slowed by all sorts of gas and dust that surrounds rounds Saturn and they were slowed them down there would who can sort of dragged down into lower orbits so by understanding of where the moons are the close by ones and the faraway ones and he gives us a window into the timeframe like how long is happening and was sort of dynamics a saturn look the same way since the beginning of the solar system or their new features features that aliens from a billion years ago wouldn't recognize the came and visited today so I learned a long time ago though in different types of scientists us time time to always ask what scale we're talking about so when an astrophysicist says these moons haven't been around for very long what is their long long weeks they don't mean months they mean hundreds of millions of years they mean timescale of the solar system which is four and a half billion years so so their way old but yet young for the universe yeah exactly they are hug probably hundreds of millions of years old which is pretty young compared to Saturday itself and other things.
"solar system" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"From the sun the less light they reflect and also depends on the color of the planet and its shininess some planets absorb more light than they reflect and so they are just harder to spot think scientists call this the Albedo which always makes me think of the Libido no it's not that exciting scientists get excited about different things thanks for different reasons that's right you gotta get interested in something that signs and the cool thing is at our in the same situation with urine his ineptitude and also all these little objects he's sort of trains Neptune objects a budget dwarf planets and Weird Rock floating out there in the solar system deep deep in the slow system system those orbits don't make sense sort of in the same way that urine issues to not make sense and then we found Neptune now we're looking at Uranus and Neptune and all these Trans Neptune objects and we're thinking these don't make sense these are weird orbits for them to have so piecing the puzzle together as we go further and further away from the sun it gets harder and harder for us to see what we're looking for yeah but the story is the same we ask can we explain everything we're seeing in terms of the objects we have you say well how would it make sense if we added another object and this is really fun because that's a clue if you build a model and then you're like okay this makes much more sense we add this new planet then you can go look for it gives you something sort of specific to look for rather than just scanning the sky and wondering if you're GonNa see something if you know where to look you have a much much better chance of actually finding it so what do we know about planet nine we don't even know it exists right we know that these trains Neptune objects have weird orbits like like they've clustered around a common plane that's tilted with respect to the solar system is a bunch of these guys with really long orbits and they're all tilted and that's not the kind anything you expect like he can happen but in order to get a tilt relative to the sort of solar system plane yet to have a collision or be tugged by something else and they did all these calculations and they found like a one in five hundred chance of our solar system ending up in this sort of situation without a planet nine so I wouldn't say they're pretty sure that there's a planet nine but it seems unlikely that there isn't a planet nine how do you like that sort of scientific were jumble there was a good hedge edge but before before these calculations for planet nine were made and before the erratic behavior of these other your body's became so obvious that we couldn't ignore them the existence of a ninth planet was kind of like relegated to the crazies that wear tin hats and jump around and lightning storms wasn't it I'm not a member of that community as not sure but you know people have been wondering about a planet known in for a long time and when Pluto discovered some people thought Aha there it is this answers the question about Uranus and Neptune's weird orbits and this other stuff but of course Pluto Oh can't actually explain that because its two tiny pluto is really small that's why it got downgraded from planet to Dwarf Planet so doesn't actually answer this question so oh yeah I think that this idea of of another planet out there was a bit bit of a crazy theory but now that we get more information with better telescopes to see more of these Trans Neptune objects and people have done more careful calculations that I think they're better received but you tell me you know some of these researchers don't you I do yeah Mike Brown who is is one of the researchers that actually worked to demote Pluto because he found other objects that were just as big or bigger Puyo wasn't as exciting anymore and Constantine begin again who was the theorist who helped do those calculations are both from my institution Caltech so I had the opportunity to talk to them when they had I I made this prediction and they kind of knew people were gonNA think they were crazy but they are crazy just not in a scientifically so they were very happy maybe to be making this outrageous statement knowing that they could back it up with math and they are very excited about the idea of observing what they've predicted but in Constantine's predictions the masses like five thousand times the size of Pluto so they're looking for something that's really really significantly large that's right Pluto cannot explain this weird stuff they're seeing out there and let me just say that I'm so jealous of those guys because it's sort of a scientific the fantasy to find evidence for something that seems bonkers because you know we know the universe is bonkers we know it has surprises waiting for us but you can't just make stuff up you have to discover it and so to be in that situation where you the Dadar telling you something fascinating and knew that you know most of the community is GonNa have a hard time accepting there are honestly seems like a lot of fun to me yeah these two guys they really enjoy shaking things up yeah but you asked earlier like what do we know planet nine nine well again we don't know that it exists but the hypothesis the sort of the theory that would explain these orbits more simply is that it's orbiting really far out there it's like four hundred to eight hundred times the radius of Earth's orbit so really deepen space and that far out in space it would take like ten thousand under twenty thousand years just to go around the sun one time that is a really really long time to wait to get data for your I'm just saying it's also really long time to have a birthday take your born on planet nine ten thousand ten thousand Earth years have passed before your first birthday and then also is going to make it really hard for us to see right and like coming I'm from a perspective the neuroscience perspective like the visual system as our primary system that's how we feel that we really know what's going on so until scientists can really put is on this planet is it going to be something that's accepted by the community do you think no I think you're totally right it's like a murder you need need a body you know it's until you've seen directly you're not sure that it exists I totally agree otherwise it's sort of circumstantial or indirect evidence it's the same deal in particle particle physics we suspected Higgs Bose was there we had a lot of clues about where it might be and how it might work all the other information pointed to it but until we actually we saw it until he created it and and saw in the lab we didn't even believe it existed I think in the same way this is a great idea but until they actually spotted they see light light reflected off of it they see it's motion completes its orbit I don't think it will be accepted as a real thing so I understand the thrill of discovery I understand stand how addictive and amazing it can be when you make a prediction based on the things that you think you know about the universe and that prediction is true but once we I'm going to be optimistic care once we see evidence of planet nine what is that GonNa tell us other okay then it's they're your friends are gonNA throw a big party and say we told you so we told you so which is probably gonna be really satisfying but it also it every piece of information mation we get about the nature of the solar system gives us a clue about how it formed because it rules out a bunch of stories scientists work in the framework of stories I think a lot of people the thing of sciences like super objective but in the end were telling a story we're trying to explain the universe trying to say this is what happened this and that the other thing and right now we have lots of different the ideas about how the solar system might have formed and the more data we get the more we can rule some of those out because they're inconsistent with that data so the more we know about the solar system especially she out in the far reaches the more we can get a sense for how things came together and that's of course important and interesting not because we wanna know like what is the context of our existence house how's our solar system formed but we WANNA know if our solar system is unusual if other solar systems might have formed this way if there are other planets like this out there and end so I think this touches on a lot of really deep and broad scientific questions so does planet nine half to be a planet or could it be something thing else with like a huge mess you put your finger right on the question there because what we know about planet nine if it exists comes just from his gravitational interactions we we can speculate about how much mass it has and how it's moving and how that is tugging on those other objects but you're right that doesn't tell us what nature is is it a ball of rock a ball of rock rock or a bowl of ice for example that have the same mass would have the same exact gravitational effects and even something crazy like a black hole We talk that up on the podcast once about what would happen if the Sun became a black hole I think a lot of people were surprised to learn that black hole has the same gravitational force as is a star of the same mass and so if you've fixed the mass of the object it really could be anything and had the same gravitational effects so we won't know until we we see it we won't know until we see it and there's been some press recently about the possibility that planet nine might be a black hole which is exciting because it seems cool and wow allowing be kind of awesome to have a black hole so nearby that we could study there's not a whole lot of specific evidence pointing in that direction but the cool thing is that if if it is a black hole there are some things we look for if a black hole if it was there would probably have a big Blob of dark matter surrounding it and we could look for dark matter smashing mashing into itself and giving this gamma rays and a black hole if it's there again because it's denser than a planet or something else might give us some gravitational attainable lenzing and actually in some data there are a few signs of sort of unexpected micro lenzing like weird distortions of the background galaxies that would it'd be consistent with a passing loop black hole but they're not really conclusive so it's more than like funds speculation at this point but yeah it's totally possible that planet nine is not a ball Paul of rock with water on it but tiny black hole leftover from the creation of the universe I feel a little uneasy about like a casual black hole in the backyard of our solar system for all you know you have a black hole in your backyard it doesn't sound like you have a really good inventory without their yeah I'm I'm not a big gardener no you're right black hole does us it sounds awesome it also sounds a little scary but this black hole if it exists is orbiting really far out there they're probably very stable and it's unlikely to come anywhere near the earth but ya it's if it's there it would certainly be the closest black hole to the earth and then you'd have to wonder like what if he got tweaked out of its orbit and plunged into words the sun actually just read an amazing science fiction novel of just that topic I was I was gonna say that sounds like a movie that I'm not sure if I WANNA see no it's a great science fiction novel by one of my favorite authors Greg Egan he talks about what would happen if a black hole passed passed near the earth but didn't gobble it and it has crazy effects on the tides and all sorts of other cool stuff anyway we don't know planet night is there if it's there we don't the black hole or another planet we don't even know what we would call it right if we actually discovery and we can't call it planet nine what do you think we should call it crystal I'd all I know is that scientists are historically I'm gonNA say bad at naming things I mean there's like a ligand protein Mike Receptor uh-huh pair in my field which is like sonic the hedgehog clearly these people were Sega fans and they couldn't think of anything on their own let's not not let them name this planet if it's discovery sheet all of our listeners to come together and come up with a good name I did a little survey and I think people are calling it planet nine some scientists Tiscali planet x some scientists are calling George and other ones are even calling it fatty so I think.
"solar system" Discussed on BrainStuff
"Production of iheartradio. in Hebron's Lauren Bogle bomb here there's something big lurking in the frozen hinterlands of our solar system that appears to be tugging at the a tiny worlds beyond the orbit of Neptune the object is assumed to be a hypothetical world called planet nine which has extremely far-flung orbit around the Sun and causes all kinds of gravitational chaos out there in the dark but as the search for planet nine wears on and astronomers have yet to so much get a glimpse of it some researchers are pondering the object could be might not be planted at all could it be a primordial black hole the solar system is a big place and while astronomical techniques are rapidly advancing many tiny bodies in the outer solar system have yet to be found planet nine thought to be a rather more substantial object however with massive around five to ten earth masses scooting around the sun at an average distance of four hundred to eight hundred astronomical units or a US since one a you is that average distance at which earth orbits the Sun that's ten to twenty times the orbital distance at which Pluto orbits the Sun So if exists planet nine takes between ten thousand in twenty thousand years to complete just one orbit the possibility of a large world orbiting the Senate such a huge distance is captivating studies of other stars system's reveal that exoplanets between the masses of Earthen Neptune are relatively common why our solar system doesn't contain a world with this mass range is a puzzle but a planet nine really is out there it would be profound historic discovery that would reshape our understanding of the system of planets that orbit our sun suffice to say any planet with an orbit this extreme would be very difficult to spot but astronomers are scouring infrared surveys with hopes of seeing distant object slowly crawl across the sky if it's out there planet nine should be emitting infrared radiation energy leaking from the planet since its formation but so far apart from the gravitational effect of something in the outer solar system there's precious little direct evidence for Planet Nines Existence Enter the Black Hole hypothesis in September nineteen astronomers Jacob Schultz Durham University and James Unwin of the University of Illinois at Chicago published a new study describing their alternative hypothesis the gravity personal weirdness in the outermost reaches of the solar system isn't being caused by planet at all instead they pointed to the potential presence of a primordial black hole a theory it's caused a bit of a stir no this kind of black hole does not pose danger to the rest of the solar system it'd be too small for that but in the distant regions solar system it's impact would be significant the only evidence we have for Planet Nines Existence are the gravitational effects it's having on Trans Neptune objects and Black goals are the most gravitationally endowed objects in the universe after all primordial black holes are the most ancient kind of black hole there hypothesized to a formed right after the Big Bang density fluctuations in the early universe what have rapidly formed black holes of all masses these ancient objects would have been flung throughout the cosmos and over time they would have slowly evaporated via hawking radiation smaller ones popping out of existence I but let's back up a step why does scientists think that some extreme object is out there in two thousand sixteen planet Hunters Constantine but Teagan and Mike Brown of Caltech announced their discovery of a group a very distant Trans Neptune objects the were all strangely clustered moving was similar orbital alignments their orbital alignment was also weirdly tilted so it appeared they were all being corralled by gravitational interactions with a larger planetary body but no other large planetary body exists in that region so Teigen and Brown hypothesized an as yet to be discovered planet was out there and so the hunt began while many theories of cosmic evolution suggest that primordial black holes should exist we have yet to directly observe one though there is some compelling indirect evidence take for example microloans what's the transient brightening of stars caused by massive object passing in front of them causing a brief brightening by the curvature of space time creating sort of magnifying lens analysis of these micro lens events suggests that there's a population of small black holes out there with no other visible clues except for their gravitational impact on space time mm-hmm Shilton unwin took a fresh look at the Trans Neptune object peculiarities and simulated. What would happen if a black hole with a mass of between five and ten earth masses had an extreme orbit around the sun sure enough their models suggest that primordial black hole with a mass within this range would cause orbital turbulences like the ones already observed in the population of Trans Neptune objects this could also explain why little optical or infrared observational evidence for planet nine exists a primordial black Cole would generate neither signal in fact if a black hole is nearby and may also be dragging around a cloud of dark matter that could be generating different types of radiation searchers therefore suggest based on their findings the experimental program needs to be expended including searches for high energy cosmic rays like x rays and gamma rays coming from moving sources while this is an interesting avenue of steady replacing hypothetical planet with a hypothetical type of black hole may be overcomplicating the mystery the planet nine we spoke with Mike Brown he said could blackhall explain the gravitational effects we are seeing in the outer solar system absolutely all we know is there is a six earth mass something out there and we don't know what the something is Brown points out that planet would be the most obvious something but as long as it has a mass of a few earth's could be anything but the plausibility of it being anything other than a planet is extremely low to say the least with tongue in Cheek Brown added it might be a six earth mass hamburger or a Burrito but yes it might also be a six earth mass black hole the physics of course don't care one bit what the six earth mass are made of you could equally well hypothesize that every exit planet that we only detected by the radial velocity method is a black hole is it possible yes does it make any sense in the unit I know while investigating other gravitational sources of what may be messing with Trans Neptune objects is good science. It's more likely the planet when is a planet and not a primordial black hole astronomers just have to keep searching and there's a growing consensus that will be discovered in the not so distant future we'll keep you updated.
"solar system" Discussed on Quirks and Quarks
"Was this arrival of an interstellar object uh anticipated by astronomers yes other been predictions for a long time that there should be a lot of this stuff out there because when our solar system is forming as the giant planets are growing the smaller building blocks that haven't yet been incorporated into a planet get tossed around by uh jupiter saturn uranus neptune's gravity and some of these will come into the inner solar system crash into the inner planets some will get tossed out to the outer regions and form what we call today are cloud which assists vast reservoir of comments and some will get kicked out entirely so it was long expected that there should be a lot of ice bodies in interstellar space but it had been a bit surprising that we hadn't seen one until now and the reason they they expected they'd be icees because there's more icy material in the outer solar system to get kicked out while if they're out there if interstellar space littered with either icy objects are asteroids why haven't we seen them before we have first it was surprising but when you think about it it's not this subject or more more is small and famed and it was moving fast so that means you need to be looking at the right place at the right time with a big enough telescope to see something faint and until recently we didn't have large telescopes that were serving a large portion of the sky frequently until we had programs to look for near earth objects so it was just right now is the right time we have the technology that could do this experiment what do you hope to gain from studying these interstellar objects.
"solar system" Discussed on KOIL
"The rippled out in the remaining material and this created a series of debris rings around the sun that matured or grew into over millions of years planets now this is an alternative the big bang idea wasn't a big bang it all the sun was just basically spitting out and swallowing up and spitting out material and eventually our planets were all made it were made so simultaneously but there are just coming out of sun the research indicates that the first series of shockwaves during shor short but very very rapid change in solar activity would have created the protoplanetary rings for uranus neptune and then of course pluto jupiter saturn and the asteroid belt all would have come how would have came during a series of less powerful shockwaves mercury venus earth and mars would have formed last when the sun was far calmer the bennett it was back that way back when to this means that our planet births is one of the youngest planets in a solar system the early strong glass congealed farther out and later calmer blasts coalesce closer into wars the sun this is how our solar system was made made from the factory known as the sun and that that makes some sense i like that idea never heard of it before but yes the idea that the sun it was spreading out the planets is something that is amazing in his our planet cooled and the sun was relatively quiet than that's when genesis began so how many years you think this took whether it be six thousand are millions of years the planet is a product of the sun planet was was actually created by the sun now these shockwaves that are heading towards the sun are gobbling back in this small is this thing might be albir near neptune it just seems to think it's really has to be blown away that the either oh mirror there are actually throwing in the idea the plan at nine maybe also polling on this thing so there's a lot of things to take into consideration or you're looking at the jet as the situation we look at the planets we you look at the the sun and and how it said alex bank nedic fluctuations and and these shockwaves you know it wasn't long ago that i was involved with.
"solar system" Discussed on Houston We Have a Podcast
"You know going to mars or you know are far flung aspirations of spreading throughout the the solar system and the galaxy n everything when you compare it to that it's you know doing hang quotes easy but it's still a monumental undertaking yet and that's why so we're doing that just like you said are the in the future where we want to go far right so we wanna go to mars we wanna really just expand our presence in the solar system so the international space station is a great way to practice that it's a good like you have a good understanding of what it takes to live in space to operate in space you could do a ton of science and learn how things interact and then if you learn how things interact he can design better systems to make them work better i think one of the one suck ethic capillary action i think was a it was a great one like the way that fluids move in phnom in spaces kinda cool because they sort of like create a ball and there's there's no down so if you're trying to design like a system that uh it like a rocket system in order to propel fuel you need to the fuel isn't going to go down ranking kinda needs to have that sort of capillary action and a path to get there like little those little tiny things are things that make the huge difference and being able to kind of explore system would all comes to down to gravity that's kind of the the ultimate differentiator between why everything we do in outer space is different from the way we do it on earth total the most of you touch on his.