35 Burst results for "Smallpox"

Vials labeled 'Smallpox' found in Pennsylvania lab freezer

AP News Radio

00:52 sec | 2 weeks ago

Vials labeled 'Smallpox' found in Pennsylvania lab freezer

"Hi Mike Ross you're reporting the CDC says frozen vials labeled smallpox were found in a lab freezer in Pennsylvania the centers for disease control and prevention confirms some frozen vials labeled smallpox were discovered in a freezer at a Pennsylvania facility that conducts vaccine research the CDC says the vials were incidentally discovered by a laboratory worker who was cleaning out the freezer smallpox which is caused by the very old virus plagued the world for centuries and killed nearly a third of the people infected the United States was able to end routine childhood vaccination against smallpox by the early nineteen seventies and the world health assembly declared smallpox eradicated in nineteen eighty the CDC facility in Atlanta at a center in Russia are the only two sites designated by the World Health Organization where very all the files are stored and used for research hi Mike Rossio

Smallpox Centers For Disease Control An Mike Ross Pennsylvania World Health Assembly United States Atlanta Russia World Health Organization Mike Rossio
Africa detecting just 1 in 7 COVID-19 cases, says WHO study

AP News Radio

00:45 sec | Last month

Africa detecting just 1 in 7 COVID-19 cases, says WHO study

"A World Health Organization study finds only one in seven cobit nineteen infections in Africa are being detected since the start of the outbreak Africa has reported more than seven million cases of code that nineteen and over two hundred thousand deaths a new WHO's study found that only one in seven infections are being detected end of your travel could bring a surge in cases Dr masterpiece of already is that world health organization's Africa regional director she says more accurate numbers of infections are needed to better curb transmission she says the U. N. plans to increase rapid diagnostic testing in eight African countries the initiative would test people who might be a symptomatic based on a ring strategy that was used against smallpox and Ebola you will target people living within a one hundred metre radius around new confirmed cases I'm Jennifer king

Africa World Health Organization Ebola Smallpox Jennifer King
Fauci says U.S. needs to aim for controlling COVID-19 as cases drop

AP News Radio

00:45 sec | Last month

Fauci says U.S. needs to aim for controlling COVID-19 as cases drop

"As the nation continues struggling with the virus pandemic Dr Anthony Fauci is laying out a map for what should come next felt she says eliminating a highly transmissible virus like covert nineteen may never happen we've only a radic Katie one that was smallpox instead will looking for a level of control of the virus may be about ten thousand cases a day but not interfering with normal daily life while case numbers are dropping they were still higher than ninety thousand we need to get that courage to go much further down and there's only one way to get there it's vaccination felt she notes about a third of eligible Americans are not vaccinated Sager made Connie at the White House

Dr Anthony Fauci Smallpox Katie Sager Connie White House
Biden Announces Vaccine Plan for Employers

MSNBC Rachel Maddow (audio)

02:03 min | 3 months ago

Biden Announces Vaccine Plan for Employers

"Vaccine requirements just announced by president biden are not out of the blue. They're not even the first ones we had for. Covert nineteen as new york times notes today. We've already got experience with large employers starting to require vaccination at among other things. But we've learned from that experience so far. Is that the requirements work. They succeed at their goal of getting more people to get the shot last month. For example the pentagon announced that active duty military personnel would have to get vaccinated that has just been announced so far. They haven't hit a deadline for it yet. But already the proportion of active duty personnel. Who had the shot has gone from. Seventy six percent to eighty three percent. Same deal with the. Va seven weeks ago. The va told its frontline. Health workers they had to get the shot since then the number of va frontline workers who've been vaccinated has gone from seventy seven percent up to eighty two percent and still rising same deal at private sector employers like united airlines for example employees. There were told last month that they'd have until october. Twenty fifth to get vaccinated. Well s- only september tenth. Now there's still plenty of time before that deadline hits but already just since laying out that eventual requirement the majority of united airlines workers who weren't vaccinated before that announcement have since become vaccinated. We know it works and we've had plenty of other vaccine requirements throughout our history. That have also worked. But as the president indicated today we also know that republican governors and republican elected officials will sue and try to stop these new policies as if they're totally novel as if this is some brand new idea. The united states supreme court has ruled multiple times going back more than a century that it is not unconstitutional to require americans to get a vaccine. Even if a person doesn't want to in the context of a serious public health threat you can be required to be vaccinated. They ruled that way back in one thousand nine five in the context of mandatory smallpox vaccine requirement in massachusetts. They ruled that way in nineteen twenty two in the context of vaccines being required of students if they wanted to attend

President Biden United Airlines New York Times Pentagon VA Supreme Court United States Massachusetts
"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

Stuff You Missed in History Class

06:48 min | 3 months ago

"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

"Just let me do my thing. I think my hang out. I'm going to eat the fish. That people are cooking for me. We started with a caterer cat end up with a catered to cat which is kind of not by design but how it works out well and and having gone to extreme lengths to feed a cat who was approaching the end of her life. I i'm i'm there for the making of fish and chicken. Oh he was getting that all the time though. That wasn't yeah. They made sure it was very soft at the end but he was cooked for his whole life. I don't know if mike ever ate a piece of kibble for example. I think he ate mightily. Well of course that was before the huge rise in the Industrialized pet food concepts so there may not have been kibble available steeton eaten yummy things. I love that the waitresses in the little sometimes see it referenced as a cafe san as a refreshment room. We're giving him scraps every day. I think it's very you would think he would have liked them more. But apparently don't touch me. Just put down the food and go Which is kind of how. I live my own life so we hope you enjoyed this on this week. I had so much fun. Doing it and it was exactly what i needed. It's crazy how much we have to pay for outdated impersonal healthcare and even crazier that we all just accept it. It's time to face facts. Healthcare is backwards. Luckily there's forward a new approach to primary care that surprisingly personal and refreshingly straightforward forward never makes you feel like just another patient backed by top rated doctors and the latest tech forward gives you access to personalized care whenever you need it using in-depth genetic analysis in real time bloodwork forwards top-rated. Doctors provide you with in-depth insights to better understand your genetics mental and physical health. They then create custom easy to understand plans to help guide you to achieving long term health with forward you get unlimited in person visits with your doctor and access to care anytime via the forward app offer. One flat monthly fee. It's time to stop accepting backwards. Healthcare and start moving. Your health forward visit go forward dot com today to learn more. That's go forward dot com. This episode is brought to you by aspiration. look. I know that. When i'm reading. News of all of the issues. Impacting our environment. I often come away from that feeling a little bit helpless so when i find a company that provides a service i need and helps the environment. I automatically want to do business with them. Aspiration is an environmentally friendly. debit card. Aspiration is not a bank. It's a game changer. Unlike big banks aspiration. We'll never use your money to fund fossil fuels with aspiration. You can choose to plant a tree with every purchase using your spare change. You can get paid up to two days early and you can get up to ten percent. Cashback at environmentally friendly partners access up to twenty times the interest of a traditional bank savings account and pay zero fees at over fifty five thousand. Atm's for a limited time. Aspiration is offering our listeners. Up to two hundred dollars when you open an account at aspiration dot com and spend one thousand dollars in the first sixty days learn details when you sign up for a better world at aspiration dot com aspiration financial llc members sipc. This episode is brought to you by aspiration. look. I know that. When i'm reading. News of all of the issues. Impacting our environment. I often come away from that feeling a little bit helpless so when i find a company that provides a service i need and helps the environment. I automatically want to do business with them. Aspiration is an environmentally friendly. debit card. Aspiration is not a bank. It's a game changer. Unlike big banks aspiration. We'll never use your money to fund fossil fuels with aspiration. You can choose to plant a tree with every purchase using your spare change. You can get paid up to two days early and you can get up to ten percent. Cashback at environmentally friendly partners access up to twenty times the interest of a traditional bank savings account and pay zero fees at over fifty five. Atm's for a limited time. Aspiration is offering our listeners. Up to two hundred dollars when you open an account at aspiration dot com and spend one thousand dollars in the first sixty days learned details when you sign up for a better world at aspiration. Dot com aspiration financial. Llc members sipc on the show we talked about eradicating smallpox. Which is i said. I was one hundred percent convinced. We already covered. Yeah one of the things that we did not get. Nc when episode in part. Because it's it's not it's not an easy thing to actually calculate for real but sometimes you will see numbers about like how cost effective. The vaccine program was and like how many millions of dollars countries invested into it versus. How many millions of more dollars. They saved by not having to response to smallpox outbreaks or treat people for smallpox or have all of the ongoing social and economic issues of people whose family members died of smallpox. And i wound up just leaving that out of the episode. Because i am tired of talking about people as though we are dollars. Yeah i think that's fair. I mean i understand the need for that kind of analysis but it does tend to kind of dehumanize the whole situation. Yeah yeah yeah. There are also entire books that look at like particularly the us involvement through a more foreign policy lens and looking at cold war politics and that kind of stuff and that is just not the lynn's that i took to look at this particular thing again. Because i was mostly more interested in the idea of saving human lives and stopping many thousands of year old deadly disease from freely circulating on the planet. That was where my focus was this time. Yeah i mean. I could see her. That might be top of mind. These times we're living in if I feel myself often vacillating kind of being like. Oh i'm hopeful. Things will get better and then it'll will just tanks it so this hopefully will be a bomb for people on.

aspiration financial llc smallpox mike Llc lynn us
"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

Stuff You Missed in History Class

05:51 min | 3 months ago

"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

"There's been some stuff floating around social media lately about how this was only possible because everyone did their part either implying or just flat out saying that everybody accepted the vaccine during this process. That is just not true. There was a lot of resistance and hesitancy especially in campaigns to vaccinate children. A lot of parents just didn't want to do something that might hurt their child or make them sick. The process of administering the vaccine also evolved over the years and some parents that had like pretty traumatic vaccine experiences that they want repeated with their child anti vaccine activists such as lilly load who worked for the national anti vaccination league and edited its journal distributed literature against vaccines in general and against the smallpox vaccine specifically well into this eradication effort aside from that because earlier versions of the smallpox vaccine were grown in the skin of live animals. Animal rights activists and anti-vivisectionists objected to their use. When methods progress to using tissue cultures mistrust of science lead people to object to this method as well in places like india smallpox vaccination had been routine part of the public health service since nineteen forty seven and yet there were still outbreaks for decades after that this lead people to claim that the vaccine was worthless or even that it was what had been causing the smallpox nation stopped vaccinating people for smallpox. Once the disease has been eradicated from within their borders and in some people this just reinforced that perception. Like they were no vaccines happening anymore. That must be why. There's no smallpox happening anymore. There were also religious objections to smallpox. Vaccinations various peoples and cultures interpreted smallpox as coming from divine will or interpreted existing methods of smallpox prevention or treatment as religiously significant and most of the last nations to eradicate smallpox. Were the same ones that had a long history of being colonized and exploited by european powers. So people were understandably suspicious of this largely western lead public health effort so the global eradication of smallpox happened in spite of hesitancy resistance. Not in the absence of it. So that how smallpox was finally eradicated. It does still exist. In a couple of labs there have been ongoing conversations about destroying those remaining stocks and it keeps getting postponed. I would really like it. If we as a global society could get control of the cova nineteen pandemic because unless the carter center program successfully in a radical. it's guinea worm disease in the immediate future. we don't have anymore eradication of diseases to cover on the show. When i need an optimistic story related to all this right where they would be a great to report as a history in the making but angers crossed of some listener mail for us. I do have listener mail. This is from alex. And alex wrote after our deportation of the acadians episode and alex throat. Hi tracey and.

smallpox national anti vaccination leag lilly india carter center guinea alex Hi tracey
"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

Stuff You Missed in History Class

05:37 min | 3 months ago

"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

"But at the same time more than seven hundred million people lived in bangladesh india pakistan nepal. They were all neighboring countries and it had become really obvious that a mass vaccination program just wasn't going to be able to eradicate the disease in this region. These neighboring nations had been trying to vaccinate their whole populations for years. They were one hundred and twenty thousand health staff working on the program in india alone so the strategy shifted to mirror what had actually worked in nigeria in the late nineteen sixties. Health officials quarantined anyone who contracts smallpox and used extensive contact tracing to determine who else might have been exposed they vaccinated their immediate families and the surrounding communities. This became known as the ring method. Basically making a ring vaccinated people around each active smallpox case so that the disease just could not spread monitoring and surveillance were critically important to this process since health workers could only make vaccinated ring around cases of smallpox that they knew about so health workers traveled from place to educating local. Doctors healers leaders and officials about smallpox reporting and seeking out an isolating active smallpox cases. And then vaccinating anyone who may have come into contact with these patients using this method pakistan saw. Its last reported case of smallpox in october of nineteen seventy four nepal. In april of nineteen seventy-five india in may of nineteen seventy five and bangladesh. In october of nineteen seventy. Unfortunately although ethiopia's last case of smallpox was reported in august of nineteen seventy six by that point it had been reintroduced into neighboring somalia which was still experiencing active cases in nineteen seventy seven. Donald henderson resigned. As the head of the intensified eradication program he was replaced by our rita who had been medical officer of infectious disease control in the ministry of health and welfare in japan before joining the world health organization that same year. Nine hundred seventy seven authorities started trying to contain an outbreak of the minor among nomadic peoples. In the desert region that spans parts of ethiopia somalia and kenya smallpox was reintroduced into kenya. But that introduction was quickly contained and kenya reported its last case in february of nineteen seventy seven in july of one thousand nine hundred ninety seven somalia and ethiopia went to war over control of part of this region and then that hampered efforts to control this ongoing outbreak in somalia somalia actually reported three hundred cases of smallpox in nineteen seventy seven. The last one was the case of alima oma lean who was a cook. It mirka hospital on october. Twelve nineteen seventy seven. A driver carrying to smallpox patients to an isolated camp stopped at the hospital to ask for directions..

smallpox india bangladesh nepal pakistan somalia Donald henderson ethiopia nigeria ministry of health and welfare kenya infectious disease rita world health organization japan mirka hospital
"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

Stuff You Missed in History Class

05:34 min | 3 months ago

"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

"When the world organization established the intensified smallpox that ratification program smallpox was still endemic in multiple countries in asia south america and sub saharan africa. And especially at first a lot of the financial support and a lot of the vaccines for the program were coming from wealthier nations where smallpox had already been eradicated nations like the united states and for these countries. Their motive was not just humanitarian. There was also a lot of money and politics involves for example if smallpox was eradicated worldwide. These nations would not need to fund vaccination programs and other countries or spend money vaccinating. their own populations anymore. For wealthier countries these smallpox vaccination programs also served as opportunities to vaccinate people for other diseases and to try to build political influence and goodwill in the places where the programs were operating also countries where smallpox had been eradicated. Still occasionally faced outbreaks were usually introduced through travel. Although these tended to be very small quickly contained they were still disruptive and expensive and sometimes sparked public panic global smallpox eradication would mean not having to deal with any of that anymore. There was a lot of self interest involved in the wealthier nations. Who gave money in vaccine and other support to this whole program. Although each nations still needed a plan that was customized to it's own needs. They're also needed to be a better unifying strategy behind this whole program. Something beyond a target of vaccinating eighty percent of the population that number feel like keeps getting repeated today the standard for what is needed but it had not really been based on epidemiology or on public health data had just seemed like a reasonable operational goal for the voluntary program and it also become clear that the number of vaccines administered did not really work as the goal since teams might wind up vaccinating the same people more than once deriving up their vaccination numbers without actually vaccinating more of the population. One big gap that needed to be filled with this was surveillance reporting methods. Were still all over. The place in radicalization was only possible if health officials actually knew when and where outbreaks were happening. This was something that just required a ton of communication from the world health organization.

smallpox saharan africa south america asia united states world health organization
"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

Stuff You Missed in History Class

04:26 min | 3 months ago

"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

"This was a simple needle and when it was inserted into vaccine vial. It picked up. One measured dose of liquid in between the two prongs the prongs themselves were designed to keep the needle at the correct angle and death with a person's skin and the two pronged structure that it needed fewer presses into the skin to administer each vaccine. This everything way. More efficient one violet vaccine could be used to vaccinate four times as many people and people could be trained to administer the vaccine with the bifurcated needle in about fifteen minutes even if they had no previous medical experience plus the bifurcated needles were cheap to produce. Although they were originally intended to be disposable at the world health organization's request they were made from steel alloy. That can hold up to boiling her flaming. They could be sterilized and reused over and over before they started to dull boy. Lable containers were designed so that vaccinators could drop us needles into the container as they went and boyle the whole thing at the end of a shift also. It was standard practice to clean a person's arm with pads that were soaked in alcohol or soap before giving them the vaccine. I know every time. I've gotten a shot. Here's a little alcohol. Wipe down on the injection site. But studies had suggested that this wasn't actually removing bacteria or other contaminants. It was just sort of moving. Things around. Studies confirmed that. The number of complications and secondary infections after smallpox vaccination was the same regardless of whether the vaccine was wiped down beforehand or not so most vaccination programs especially in more impoverished areas. Dropped this step and together. All of this brought the cost for smallpox vaccination down to about ten cents a person by nineteen sixty six smallpox was endemic in thirty one countries. That was down from the sixty three or more reported back in nineteen fifty nine. The number of estimated worldwide cases had dropped from about fifty million to somewhere between ten and fifteen million. Although the officially reported tally was still much lower somewhere between one point. Five and two million people were still dying of smallpox per year. This was better obviously but it was also clear that a voluntary vaccination program wasn't going to be enough to eradicate smallpox so the world health assembly back to proposal for an intensified smallpox eradication program which would start on.

smallpox world health organization boyle world health assembly
"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

Stuff You Missed in History Class

05:01 min | 3 months ago

"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

"The w. h. a. didn't consider smallpox to be a candidate for global eradication. It just wasn't a priority but five years later a delegate to the w. h. a. proposed a ten year eradication plan that delegate was professor victor don off who was deputy health minister of the soviet union and this proposal included vaccine donations that would be provided by the ussr but even with the promise of donated vaccines. This proposal. still didn't pass at the time. The world health organization was working on an anti-malaria program and that was really just drawing most of the focus in one thousand nine hundred eighty nine. The soviet union's proposal was reintroduced in this time. It was passed as a voluntary global vaccine campaign countries where smallpox was endemic. That is freely. Circulating were asked to institute mass vaccine programs with the goal of eighty percent of their populations and the countries where it wasn't which were generally richer were asked to contribute funding or vaccines toward the effort. At that point. Smallpox was being reported in sixty three countries and together. Those countries reported seventy seven thousand. Five hundred fifty five cases of the disease but it became obvious really fast at that number was way way too low for one thing. Those sixty three countries only included the ones that were members of the world health organization and some countries where smallpox was endemic. Were not members at that point and that included china which had population of more than six hundred sixty million people but even in those sixty three countries reporting was all over the place. In countries without a lot of public health infrastructure. Smallpox cases weren't really being tracked. But even in places where that wasn't the case sometimes. The only smallpox infections being reported were the ones that ended up in hospitals in reality the countries where smallpox was still endemic in nineteen fifty nine. Were home to more than half. The world's population and that total number of annual cases was probably more like fifty million. Not seventy seven thousand. This voluntary program was focused on national vaccine campaigns. And at least in theory each nation's campaign would be tailored for its own culture needs resources that infrastructure but that also meant there was really no central strategy at work. The world health organization's role was mostly just making sure that there was enough vaccine available and providing assistance nations asked for it..

Smallpox victor don soviet union world health organization malaria smallpox infections china
"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

Stuff You Missed in History Class

03:30 min | 3 months ago

"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

"Variation with smallpox virus vaccination with an attenuated version of accented. virus was also savor them vaccination with live unattended cowpox. Yeah there were still potentials for various complications but this was an improvement overall. It really didn't take long after the development of vaccines for people to wonder whether vaccines could be used to eliminate smallpox entirely but early attempts to do this faced a lot of obstacles as we talked about an episode on the royal philanthropic vaccine expedition early versions of smallpox vaccine lost their potency really quickly especially in hot weather and that continued to be true after vaccinia replace cowpox as the preferred virus for smallpox vaccines. But then in the nineteen forties. People started working on dehydrated and freeze dried versions of the vaccine. The vaccine institute in paris produced a freeze dried vacuum packed vaccine. That had a longer shelf. Life in the nineteen fifties leslie herald. Collier at the lister institute studied the preservation methods that were in use and how effective they were and he developed a process. that didn't require refrigeration. Even in tropical temperatures once the vaccine was reconstituted. It still had a short shelf life but until that point it could survive in the field for months. It also protected people from smallpox infection for at least ten years and offered protection against dying of smallpox for some time after that collier's method eventually became the world health organization standard for vaccine used for the eradication campaign. Smallpox was eliminated in north america in nineteen fifty two and in europe in nineteen fifty three and that was done primarily through mass vaccination campaigns especially ones that were done in response to outbreaks and this success came in spite of increasing resistance to vaccines and compulsory vaccine programs and the united states. This resistance led to a supreme court case in nineteen five. The city of cambridge massachusetts had been trying to stop a smallpox outbreak and had ordered all adults to be vaccinated or to pay a five dollar. Fine heading yacob's refused to be vaccinated and then after being fined took the matter to court. In the words of the court's decision quote the liberty secured by the of the united states does not import an absolute right in each person to be at all times and in all circumstances holy freed from restraint. Nor is it an element in such liberty that one person or a minority of persons residing in any community in enjoying the benefits of local government should have power to dominate the majority when supported in their action by the authority of the state. It is within the police. Power of a state to enact a compulsory vaccination law and it is for the legislature and not for the courts to determine in the first instance whether vaccination is or is not the best mood for the prevention of smallpox and the protection of the public health. We'll get some more on the campaign to eradicate smallpox in the rest of the world after a sponsor break. It's crazy how much we have to pay for outdated impersonal healthcare and even crazier that we all just accepted. It's time to face facts. Healthcare is backwards..

smallpox vaccine institute leslie herald lister institute smallpox outbreak Collier yacob collier paris united states north america cambridge supreme court europe massachusetts legislature
"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

Stuff You Missed in History Class

03:41 min | 3 months ago

"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

"Person to person and only infected humans so there were no hidden reservoirs of the virus that could potentially start a new outbreak. That's different from something. Like yellow fever. Which also infects other primates and is transmitted by mosquitoes another plus wants. a person had recovered from smallpox. They were immune for life for a number of reasons. Smallpox outbreaks also tended to develop relatively slowly. Once people were contagious. They were usually also too sick to really leave home. So outbreaks tended to cluster around members of the same household and their immediate neighborhood and then once an outbreak was identified. Swift action could keep it from spreading very far and most importantly there was a way to this. -rupt transmission of the disease in this case a vaccine in terms of the smallpox vaccine at first people prevented smallpox using technique called barry elation that involved intentionally introducing material from one person smallpox sore or scab into another person practitioners in asia. Were doing this as early. As the eleventh century and the techniques spread from there then in the late eighteenth century people started to make a connection between smallpox and another much milder disease that was called cowpox the smallpox and cowpox viruses are both in the genus or the pox virus and people who had contracted cowpox seemed immune to smallpox several people including edward jenner. Tried deliberately exposing people to cowpox as a way to prevent smallpox jenner. Call this vaccination after the latin word for cow so both relation and vaccination could prevent smallpox but since relation could also cause full blown smallpox. Vaccination was a lot safer at the same time. Though vaccination in its earliest forms carried some of the same risks that vary elation did including the potential for transmitting other illnesses like syphilis and hepatitis. From person to person during these person to person vaccination chains sometime in the nineteenth century. People shifted from using cowpox to using vaccinia virus which is another orthodox virus to make smallpox vaccine. The origins of the vaccinia virus are unclear. It is possible that it's actually some kind of hybrid of cowpox and smallpox or that it developed over time as cowpox virus was passed through multiple hosts in the process of making vaccines eventually vaccinia. Virus replaced cowpox virus four vaccination purposes just as vaccination with cowpox had previously replaced variation with smallpox itself. At first vaccines made with vaccinia virus. Were grown in the skin of live animals like calves sheep and rabbits eventually that shifted to growing the virus in tissue cultures or in chicken eggs. These methods replaced those arm to arm vaccination chains that we talked about an episode on the royal philanthropic vaccine expedition countries. Actually started to outlaw arm to arm bax nations. In the late nineteenth century many of the vaccinia strains used to make vaccines were attenuated or weakened by repeatedly passing them through a non human host. Things like chick embryo cells eggs or mice. This process resulted in a virus that produced an immune response when a person was vaccinated with it but couldn't reproduce in that person's body and make them sick so while vaccination with cowpox virus was safer than.

smallpox yellow fever edward jenner barry asia syphilis hepatitis
"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

Stuff You Missed in History Class

02:21 min | 3 months ago

"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

"Smallpox is a viral disease that has existed for millennia when it was circulating in the wild it spread from person to person through the air usually through face to face contact and it can also be spread through contact with contaminated objects and surfaces people who contracted smallpox typically developed a high fever and body aches and that was followed by a distinctive rash. There are two different strains of the very ola virus that were causing smallpox areola major and burial a minor now that name suggests burial a major caused more serious illnesses as many as a third of people who were infected with very all the major died. As many as ninety percent of babies died it was also particularly lethal anytime. It was introduced somewhere that hadn't existed before such as when european started arriving in the americas and in those cases smallpox usually killed about half the people who contracted it among the people who survived the disease. Smallpox could also be both disabling disfiguring. There was and is no cure for smallpox so even as science and medicine progressed it continued to be deadly but it also had some traits that made it a good candidate for a worldwide ratification campaign. Smallpox was easy to recognize in diagnose unlike say the flu which can resemble a lot of other respiratory infections. Smallpox passed directly from person to person and only infected humans so there were no hidden reservoirs of the virus that could potentially start a new outbreak. That's different from something. Like yellow fever. Which also infects other primates and is transmitted by mosquitoes another plus wants. a person had recovered from smallpox. They were immune for life for a number of reasons. Smallpox outbreaks also tended to develop relatively slowly. Once people were contagious. They were usually also too sick to really leave home. So outbreaks tended to cluster around members of the same household and their immediate neighborhood and then once an outbreak was identified. Swift action could keep it from spreading very far and most importantly there was a way to this. -rupt transmission of the disease in this case a

Smallpox tracy wilson holly fry edward jenner Takeda americas smallpox areola tracy spain us fever flu
The History of Smallpox

Stuff You Missed in History Class

02:21 min | 3 months ago

The History of Smallpox

"Smallpox is a viral disease that has existed for millennia when it was circulating in the wild it spread from person to person through the air usually through face to face contact and it can also be spread through contact with contaminated objects and surfaces people who contracted smallpox typically developed a high fever and body aches and that was followed by a distinctive rash. There are two different strains of the very ola virus that were causing smallpox areola major and burial a minor now that name suggests burial a major caused more serious illnesses as many as a third of people who were infected with very all the major died. As many as ninety percent of babies died it was also particularly lethal anytime. It was introduced somewhere that hadn't existed before such as when european started arriving in the americas and in those cases smallpox usually killed about half the people who contracted it among the people who survived the disease. Smallpox could also be both disabling disfiguring. There was and is no cure for smallpox so even as science and medicine progressed it continued to be deadly but it also had some traits that made it a good candidate for a worldwide ratification campaign. Smallpox was easy to recognize in diagnose unlike say the flu which can resemble a lot of other respiratory infections. Smallpox passed directly from person to person and only infected humans so there were no hidden reservoirs of the virus that could potentially start a new outbreak. That's different from something. Like yellow fever. Which also infects other primates and is transmitted by mosquitoes another plus wants. a person had recovered from smallpox. They were immune for life for a number of reasons. Smallpox outbreaks also tended to develop relatively slowly. Once people were contagious. They were usually also too sick to really leave home. So outbreaks tended to cluster around members of the same household and their immediate neighborhood and then once an outbreak was identified. Swift action could keep it from spreading very far and most importantly there was a way to this. -rupt transmission of the disease in this case a

Smallpox Smallpox Areola Fever Americas FLU Yellow Fever
"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

Stuff You Missed in History Class

03:54 min | 3 months ago

"smallpox" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class

"Hello and welcome to the podcast. I'm tracy wilson and i'm holly fry late march of last year. I researched and wrote our episode on the eradication of rinderpest because in that moment it just felt really weird to me to work on episodes that were not about the pandemic somehow because that was dominating everything in our lives but at the same time i wanted to work on something that felt kind of optimistic because the pandemic was dominating our lives so now it's almost a year and a half later here in the us. We had a pretty hopeful springtime regarding the progress of the pandemic. I know that was not the case in the whole world but we had what was looking like improved situations that obviously has taken a turn once again for the worst or at least the worst maybe not the worst of ever but definitely worse. Takeda return to the idea of wiping disease off the face of the earth so rinderpest of smallpox only two diseases that have been eradicated through human activity. Neither one of them is technically extinct. Because there are some samples of both viruses that still exist in labs. They're no longer circulating out in the wild due and we've talked about smallpox a bit on the show before we had our episode on edward jenner and the smallpox vaccine and how the vaccine was developed and then generous efforts to try to make it more widely available more recently. We did the episode arm. The royal philanthropic vaccine expedition and that was all about spain's efforts to transport the smallpox vaccine to the americas which required a chain of living human hosts we mentioned pretty briefly the eradication of smallpox in both of those episodes but we have not gone into detail about how that happens. That's what we're going to talk about today. And when tracy mentioned it to me. I so we've covered that no for just keeps coming out. We've said in like a sentence how it was done but it's more than a sentence worth of explanation. Yeah yeah it's just it's a. It's been just peppered in enough that my brain was like yeah. That was an episode right. Nope so smallpox is a viral disease that has existed for millennia when it was circulating in the wild it spread from person to person through the air usually through face to face contact and it can also be spread through contact with contaminated objects and surfaces people who contracted smallpox typically developed a high fever and body aches and that was followed by a distinctive rash. There are two different strains of the very ola virus that were causing smallpox areola major and burial a minor now that name suggests burial a major caused more serious illnesses as many as a third of people who were infected with very all the major died. As many as ninety percent of babies died it was also particularly lethal anytime. It was introduced somewhere that hadn't existed before such as when european started arriving in the americas and in those cases smallpox usually killed about half the people who contracted it among the people who survived the disease. Smallpox could also be both disabling disfiguring. There was and is no cure for smallpox so even as science and medicine progressed it continued to be deadly but it also had some traits that made it a good candidate for a worldwide ratification campaign. Smallpox was easy to recognize in diagnose unlike say the flu which can resemble a lot of other respiratory infections. Smallpox.

Smallpox tracy wilson holly fry edward jenner Takeda americas smallpox areola tracy spain us fever flu
Is Vaccine Hesitancy a New Phenomenon?

BrainStuff

01:59 min | 6 months ago

Is Vaccine Hesitancy a New Phenomenon?

"The vocal anti vaccination movement is fairly recent and was really kicked into gear in one thousand nine hundred eighty eight by a now discredited paper that appeared in the medical journal lancet which falsely linked vaccines with autism however vaccine. Hesitancy is as old as vaccines themselves. How stuff works also spoke with dr katherine edwards. The author of an american academy of pediatrics clinical report called countering vaccine hesitancy and she said this has been going on for centuries and pointed to a cartoon published back in eighteen o to the depicts people growing cow-like parts this was in response to edward jenner pioneering smallpox vaccine by using material from cowpox a medical historian by the name of elena kanas wrote in a twenty fifteen in the american historian that the first smallpox vaccine quote was met with enthusiasm but also dread while many patients and physicians were eager to fend off air as most feared diseases. Many others balked at the prospect of contaminating their healthy bodies with disease matter from an animal. And then when european countries began making smallpox vaccines mandatory. And the early eighteen. Hundreds she wrote that quote societies of anti vaccination assists formed to protest what they saw as unequal treatment and undue infringement of individual liberty. But they didn't get much traction. There was also little protest against the polio vaccine which was released in nineteen fifty four to wild enthusiasm in america according to conus she wrote parents so dreaded polio that they were quick to seek the vaccine for their children and course of politics never became necessary but as the decades went on american parents. Were not so excited about vaccinations for measles mumps and other diseases. She noted perhaps because people were used to living with these diseases.

Medical Journal Lancet Smallpox Dr Katherine Edwards American Academy Of Pediatrics Elena Kanas Edward Jenner Autism Polio Measles Mumps America
Will vaccines make a difference responding to the next outbreak?

Coronacast

03:11 min | 10 months ago

Will vaccines make a difference responding to the next outbreak?

"I'm health reported teigen tyler and physician in journalists alter norman swan. It's the last corona cast of summer fridays. twenty-six yes. We are on the last current cost of summer. And i feel like i am. Maybe potentially jinxing us by talking about an outbreak. But let's talk about the scenario norman. Where if there was another outbreak in australia. Now that we've got vaccine in the country vaccine which we know is quite effective at preventing disease and infection. Would that change the way. We've been responding to outbreaks in the past year. Yes would and in fact. I think we were probably the first out. Let's talk about. It was called ring vaccination. And it's now part as far as i understand it over the national immunization or vaccinations strategy. So what you do is as you do your contact tracing you would ring-fence vaccination around the person who's got the disease and the people that have come in contact with and maybe even the people that they've come in contact with so primary contacts and secondary contacts and you would do that with the pfizer vaccine because you've got a strong response early and is only three weeks between doses so within three weeks you're fully immunized rather than the astro which might take twelve weeks to get up to that sort of level of antibody response and so a and it's a race against time so that you because the incubation periods five to eight days but what some of the research is showing is that you get an early response to particularly the pfizer vaccine. Maybe even the astro too so you get a pretty good resistance there early on so that would be a good way to respond to outbreaks prior to very large percentage of the population being covered. So when you vaccinate sometimes depending on the disease some vaccines take a couple of weeks before you get an immune response. But then there's other vaccines like rabies. Where if you get bitten and you think that there's a chance got exposed to rabies. They give you a vaccine then. Do we know what the fires a shot does. Whether it's the sort of vaccine that you can give after exposure and give you some protection while it is all about the maths which is the incubation period versus the time for the vaccine to work so smallpox that's how they controlled. Smallpox control smallpox by massimo. Certainly helped but in places such as africa they controlled it by ringfencing and controlling the spread from that and so they find they find a case a main they ring vaccinated around the person with smallpox. So that in for anybody who might have contact come in contact with that person was protected and in that case the vaccine for for the smallpox vaccine worked faster than the incubation period of smallpox. In this case it's lying ball but it's worth doing because it's likely that you would get a responsibility and you're doing two things by this ring. Fencing are ring vaccination. I should call it. You are protecting somebody against severe covid. Nineteen disease the second thing you'd be doing is trying to prevent transmission and you'd hope those two things go hand in hand is a bit of evidence from israel that they do but it's not strong

Teigen Tyler Norman Swan Pfizer Smallpox Norman Smallpox Control Smallpox Australia Massimo Africa Fencing Israel
Humanity's planet-shaping powers -- and what they mean for the future

TED Talks Daily

04:34 min | 11 months ago

Humanity's planet-shaping powers -- and what they mean for the future

"I work at the united nations and for the past couple of years. I have served as the head of the un's development program when i walked into the headquarters in new york city many years ago. The first thing i noticed was a sculpture standing outside under the flags of the nations of the world. It's called the knotted gun and it's still stands today to me that sculpture symbolizing exactly what the un was created to do seventy five years ago to build peace out of the ashes of war war. That had been defined for so much of human history as the struggle of nations against nations are the kinds still raging countries like syria and yemen that the united nations works to end every day. That's what i imagined that. Not a gun to represent but now another kind of war is brewing. One that increasingly defines the twenty first century with a dominant risk to our own. Survival is ourselves a few years or even months ago. If i had suggested that we're all at war with ourselves. It may have felt strange especially when according to so many metrics humans are on average healthier wealthier and more educated than any time in history. We have more knowledge. More science more choices today than the founders of the united nations could have ever imagined but somewhere along the way we lost our balance in fact think about this. Scientists are considering whether for the very first time in human history. Instead of the planet shaping humans humans are knowing shaving the planet it's called the anthroposophy and represents a new geological era today. Humans literally have the power to alter the atmosphere and the biosphere in which we live the power to destroy and the power to repair. No species has ever had that kind of power before within humans have achieved incredible things together from closing a giant hole in the ozone layer preventing nuclear proliferation to radicalizing smallpox. But we have also taken the earth and all the people on it to the brink. It's not the rational fair what we're doing today. One third of all the food produce on the planet goes to waste. While one in ten people go hungry inequality has become extreme twenty six people on the same wealth as half of humanity based on recent data today seven million people die from air pollution each year about seven million trees the very things that keep our air clean. Cut down every few hours. We spend over ten times more on fossil fuel subsidies alone than we do all. Investments in renewable power prolonging our common habit like a drug running through the economy's veins. You don't have to be an economist like me to know that these numbers just add up that our economic paradigm is neither sustainable nor equitable climate. Change rupturing inequalities record numbers of people forced from their homes by conflict and crisis for all of our power. These are the weapons we have built less tangible than a gun but just as real just as deadly at an epic pandemic and this year for the first time in twenty years global extreme poverty is projected to rise and global human development. A measure of the world's education health and living standards is set to decline for the first time since the measure began thirty years ago. Covid nineteen has not changed the future yet but it has revealed these deep flaws in our present bringing clarity to the fact that ending. This war against ourselves is not about tradeoffs. it's not about choosing between people trees between poverty or progress. It's about choosing to do things differently. In the midst of tragedy the pandemic has also given us a glimpse of what peace could look like where we can see the snow of a mountain for the first time because the smog has cleared. That's what happened in nairobi. My home of many years and one of the city's appalachian plummeted as human activities slowed down

United Nations Yemen Syria New York City Smallpox Nairobi
"smallpox" Discussed on KPCC

KPCC

01:37 min | 1 year ago

"smallpox" Discussed on KPCC

"James aside again at this time, he exposed him to actual fresh smallpox matter and James Didn't get sick. It worked. Edward exposed James to smallpox more than 20 times, and he never got sick. James was immune to smallpox. Just going to state the obvious here. Testing live viruses on an eight year old kid breaks about 1000 at the gold rules, but it went down in history as the first official scientifically documented. Vaccination. And today we know why Edwards experiments worked. Here's a quick recap from biology class. Since cowpox and smallpox belong to the same family. Once James was infected with cowpox, his body was able to develop the defenses to kick it. And then once he was exposed to smallpox. Those same defenses were able to say Oh, hey, yeah, we recognize this and nip it in the bud. So here's where we get the word vaccine. Edward wrote up his findings in a report called an enquiry into the causes and effects of the very oli vaccine E in Latin. Very only means possibles and vaccine E means essentially something that comes from a cow. So very oli vaccine E basically means Cal pustules. Or cowpox..

James smallpox Edward cowpox official
Sydney isolated from rest of Australia as COVID outbreak grows

Coronacast

10:50 min | 1 year ago

Sydney isolated from rest of Australia as COVID outbreak grows

"Saw christmas wig. Norman and over the weekend we have seen. The sydney outbreak will the northern beaches outbreak really grow and restrictions of coming to place when we said good bata audience on friday nominee. Pretty optimistic that we were going to be out of now these thing before. Christmas is still feeling that way. I'm nervous i think. I don't think they're doing enough. The risk is that it overwhelms the contact tracing. It's just you. Don't you never know where it is. And yeah probably called it wrongly pepsi two racks about it but it is There are a lot of cases. They and they're not just in the northern beaches area when you look through the list of locally acquired cases there you there in sydney there in the north northern suburbs there in the eastern suburbs. not many. but there's just a few and you don't need many. This started with just one case from overseas. Probably aircrew of the prices. Speculating on somebody being in You'll getting exemption but either way it's from overseas and the system is broken down. Basically new south wales luck has run out so new south wales approach up until now has just been really intense contact tracing and that actually been pretty successful with keeping a handle on the cases. They're considering the work houses a few months ago. So the restrictions that they operating in the northern beaches a pretty tough. But there's still more that they could be doing. Isn't it well. I just think it's called smacking. But haven't mandated masks sydney white. I mean that's the first thing you do. You just tell everybody living in greater sydney soon as you walk how she wear a mask. I know you can't transmit it very well but taking a mask on an office you go inside just what soon as you go out you put on your mask and that means review go. You've got your mask on. It's cheap effective by seventy percent. You don't know where the viruses just mandate. I do not know why the new south wales government is so done on mask. Wearing how much of a problem is it that we still don't really know exactly how this outbreak kicked off. Oh it's huge that you know how well i think we know how tall it kicked off. Somehow from somebody from overseas the was negative until the tenth of december the genomic strongly suggests from overseas perhaps the united states and so it spread from somebody who's coming from overseas. The question was aircrew. Was somebody returning to from overseas somebody who was given exemption to go home and didn't stay at home. Who knows what the story might be. But it's definitely from overseas trouble is we don't know when and we're not really sure where we know where the super spreading events where the super spreading events in a bowling club and the avalon oursel- and there are other hotspots around hotspots places where people have been but essentially a very big dense people having a lot of fun good on them into there was a problem at that point but that was a super spreading event and from there. It spread outwards. And it's not just to satisfy curiosity that we want to know where these outbreak kicked off from. We need to know where the chink is armagh so that we can make sure that this doesn't happen again. Well no it's more than that. It's it's that's part of it but that's kind of done the track a little bit when you're dealing with an a pandemic that breaks out in clusters you've got to find all the clusters and you've got to find out where the cluster started so whilst you got to say well okay teagan you are at the avalon bowling club on on a certain date which was high risk and everybody that you've been in contact with. We want to know we actually want go before you know what happened. What were you doing two three four five days before then before you tested positive where where you and actually start the contact tracing back in time in history and what they're doing now is they're trying to do that new south wales back to the twenty third of november to give a bit of a margin beyond what they think might be. The first cases roundabout the first of december. So you to go back in time as well as get the immediate context and by there's going to be secondary context is going to be people who got first time around To second time around and it's out in the city and in other suburbs as well as outside the northern beaches and as we find out from victoria. it's very hard to ring-fence a suburb. But as we said i think in the last grown cast the northern beaches are fairly straightforward to ring fences the much more well defined than some of the really big in warfare suburbs in melbourne's northwest corridor. Really impossible but even so. It's still very very hard. It's a big densely populated area and ring-fencing is is only going to have a limited effect. You've really got to ring-fence greater sydney for a few days to see what's happening and maybe for a couple of weeks. It's christmas yes. It's tough but businesses already winding for christmas. The economic impact should not be huge. If you lock down sydney and just get this thing under control and not mess around. What we've seen from overseas is quite clear. And it's quite clear from victoria as well if you mess around and do a little of this a little bit of that. It doesn't work. it's simply does not work. You've actually got a fully lockdown victoria did. And if you do it you don't have to for too long every day. You wait can be a week at the other end and the other thing that we should be doing. Is speeding up vaccine approval. I know that we've said we can wait but now the face. We studies in the morning when victoria was in lockdown. But now the face re studies are in and it was fine to wait while we didn't have a problem we weren't there was no reason to just you know russian along because we could learn from overseas. But now that you've got this outbreak and it's big and is going to spread potentially through australia's biggest city and crippled potentially cripple the economy. There's a very good argument for getting going with immunization. So the tj good administration simply has to give a approval. I know go on about how they don't have an emergency approval process but that can be organized and they can they can be. There are ways for them to give urgent approval for this vaccine. It's not bureaucratically impossible and actually get the whatever they've got here in stock in terms of the five vaccine get into sydney's northern beaches and ring-fence immunization give it to healthcare workers their age care. Give it to the elderly and then you can give it to an efficient way to use it before it spreads. I realized we don't know that it's prevents. Transmission always really knows it prints disease but like everything else you just taking a chance that that it will prevent transmission and hope that it does and give it in that light. There's a lot that we do with this pandemic. we're not absolutely sure what what is the end of the individual things that work but you just gotta hit it. And now we've got a vaccine. We should hit in places like the uk and the us imperative to vaccinate is pretty obvious because the scale of the outbreak there is so massive in global terms. What's happening in sydney is pretty mine like does it still justify fostering vaccination he is because it could become big quickly quickly and be very difficult contain and create a of time now. This is a different public health. Aim this is much more like what. They did with smallpox with smallpox in poor countries massey. Muniz ation didn't work. It was very hard to implement it the way they eliminated. Smallpox was exactly this. This sort of ring-fenced vaccination you find a case and you immunize people around that person so that you you get this sort of halo. Immunized immunized effect and with the pfizer vaccine. You get fifty percent effectiveness at least with the disease with just the first does and within a few days and then one thousand four two or three three weeks so you. The effect is pretty quick. Would be an of faith that it prevents transmission. But it's worth ago. Why would we sit on this. Just go so at the moment the restrictions that are in place in new south wales in sydney are in place until wednesday night so basically the day before christmas eve is that going to be long enough or are we to say these extended while the restrictions are only on the northern beaches not greater metropolitan sydney. So that's not control the pandemic. I mean my. That's my prediction. It will not control the pandemic unfortunately spreading covid nineteen spreading. So that's the problem. I hope it will. Let's hope that contact tracers and not being overwhelmed and that the traces that are the cases that are popping up in south west sydney in eastern suburbs of city in the northern suburbs like hornsby they can pin them down the they're saying that they're traceable to the northern beaches outbreak but who they spread them to are the contact. Are they able to trace to them. So let's hope that they do the do contain it. But that's the so then. You've got the the lockdown simply there. You've got no mandated masks. They're just pleading with people to wear masks but just mandate masks sydney white right now. Just do it why. It's so frustrating that they're not doing that. Evidence based approach so christmas becomes unfortunately in sydney a superspreader event. Potentially if they haven't sorted this out and you're really done to very low levels of new cases where adly quickly quickly if you're not very low levels of new cases. They can't afford to allow christmas to go ahead with big family occasions. Otherwise it's going to go nuts unfortunately so the other thing that we really don't know much about yet he's exactly who's who when it comes to these outbreak and that was something that we were quite critical of the victorian authorities about when they were grappling with. The outbreak is new south. Wales being transparent enough well looking at the data. They're giving it is much easier to understand. There were lots of times in victoria. Had no clue whether we're talking about change. During the day the definitions were awed. Here you can see the breakdown you can see where the cases are. You can see where where there's locally acquired but they don't know where the sources. I think it's two or three at the moment is a little bit of discrepancy from the press conference and what they've published since the press conference. Yesterday there were two at press conference soon to be three on the table by today. I'm not sure we haven't had time too early for us to luke. Why would why we record this so nasty question. It does seem more transparent but what's lacking is public health measures in the community to control it and give the contact tracers a break and let them follow it through contact tracers but no matter how good the are if you get too large numbers of cases they get overwhelmed and getting extremely tired whereas masks would help just reduce that spread that little bit. That might make a difference. Yeah it's a really critical a couple of days in the lead up to christmas. But we're going to be keeping you informed but that's all we've got time for today

Sydney South Wales Victoria South Wales Government Avalon Bowling Club Smallpox Pepsi Norman Muniz Ation Bowling United States Melbourne South West Sydney Massey Adly Australia Pfizer New South Wales
It's Been One Year Since the First Case of COVID Was Found in China

World Affairs Council

02:06 min | 1 year ago

It's Been One Year Since the First Case of COVID Was Found in China

"It's been just about a year since the first symptomatic cases of a new coronavirus were reported in Wuhan, China. Viral pneumonia has hit central China's Fu Han city authorities have reported 27 cases in total, seven of which are critical. More than 35 million people in China are now on a travel lockdown. More than 800 have been sickened and 26 have died. As the virus spread like wildfire in Europe, we turned to one of the world's leading infectious disease specialists. My name's Larry. Brilliant. I'm an epidemiologist. Dr. Larry Brilliant, is CEO of Pan defense. He's best known for playing a key role in eradicating smallpox, a scourge of humanity for centuries. He previously led the school foundation's global threats fund. Was founding director of Google dot org's and he was scientific advisor for the 2011 film contagion back in March, right before the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic. This is how he assessed the situation. Very this is going to be a bumpy road. This is going to change the world for the next 12 to 18 months. They'll be outbreaks in States and countries they'll be cleared up the return again sees now they will play a small role in it. Travel and accidents replace small role in it. The case fatality rate will go up or down, not because it really changes or the virus changes. Based on how rapidly we find light cases or how rapidly we report deaths, But you have to realize that this is a novel coronavirus. And that there's nearly eight billion of us on the planet. None of us have immunity, except for a small handful. This disease is not going to go away by itself. We don't have an antiviral. We will not have a vaccine for 12 to 18 months. We're in for we're in for a tough time. But it is not A mass

Fu Han City China Dr. Larry Brilliant Pan Defense Viral Pneumonia Wuhan Infectious Disease Smallpox Larry World Health Organization Europe Google Travel
Dr Fauci on herd immunity

C-SPAN Programming

04:40 min | 1 year ago

Dr Fauci on herd immunity

"Dr. Fauci, what is herd immunity, and when do you expect the United States to get there? Well, herd immunity. You know, sometimes the the terminology is we use can confuse people. What herd Immunity means is that when you get a certain percentage Of the population that is protected against infection, either by natural infection, and we're not even close to herd immunity now as proven By the fact that we have had spikes in areas that have previous spikes, so the previous spike didn't prevent them from the subsequent spike. So herd immunity is when you get a large proportion of the population that's protected, which means those who are vulnerable and not either the vaccine doesn't work in them. They have a biggest susceptibility to getting adverse effects of an indelicate, eerie is consequence of the infection. The fact that you have so many people that are protected the virus. If you want to use a metaphor has no place to go. It's looking for vulnerable people, and most of the population is protected. That's how viruses die out. That's how we smashed measles. That's how we smashed polio. That's how we smashed smallpox. So that's the reason why you have an efficacious vaccine. You want to get his many people protected so that it's almost like if you have heard of strong animals. You see it in the movies about going into Africa and the beautiful scenery you see about herds of wildebeest or what have you You have the herd that's really strong. You have some weak ones in there. So when someone maybe the metaphorical lions trying to get in there and take care of the weak ones, the strength of the herd protects the vulnerable ones. That's what you mean by herd immunity. So it's a question of Two components and efficacious vaccine and getting as many people vaccinated as you possibly can. Those two combinations together, those two ingredients could protect everyone which gets to another important question that people keep asking. We've got to make sure we engage the community. To realize that the decision about the safety and the efficacy of the vaccine and the speed with which we did it. The speed was based on very exquisite scientific advances and an enormous amount of resource is that would put into operation warp speed to make this happen? There was no compromise of safety. Nor was there compromise of scientific integrity. Now we've got to get that was real. Yeah, the decision. I right, Go ahead. Now. Let me just say it. I didn't mean to interrupt this decision to say that this vaccine is safe and effective. The data were analyzed by a completely independent board. The Datum Safety Monitoring board, which in fact doesn't have to answer to the administration doesn't have to answer to the company. They're independent. They look at the data and they said in Both of those vaccines, both the Madonna and the and the Fiza that it is official efficacious and it's safe and to protect you, even against serious disease. Those data then get analyzed by career scientists that the FDA in association with an advisory committee that again is independent. When that decision is made. All of the data is going to be seen by scientists like myself and my colleagues, so the process is independent and it's transparent. So I know there's been a lot of mixed messages that maybe have come out. But one needs to appreciate that. This is a solid process. So when they say that the vaccine is safe and effective, if we want to protect the individual and all of our society, we should take the vaccine and I could tell you when my turn comes up. And the FDA says that this is safe and effective. I myself will get vaccinated and I will recommend that my family gets

Dr. Fauci Measles Smallpox Polio United States Africa Madonna FDA
Why Does It Take So Long To Create A Vaccine?

The Ten News

02:49 min | 1 year ago

Why Does It Take So Long To Create A Vaccine?

"Right now. Scientists across the world to working on creating a vaccine for corona virus. A vaccine is something usually a shot that gives your body immunity to a disease. If you have immunity that means you are protected from a particular disease. Thanks to vaccines. We no longer have to worry about terrible diseases like smallpox. Scientists have been working for months to make cruel virus vaccine. What's taking so long. I want to be able to hang out with my friends. I got used to. I hear you. There are well over one hundred fifty grow virus vaccines that are being tested right now and the hope is that we won't have to wait much longer. There is a really good reason why vaccines take a long time to make in order to understand what's taking so long it helps to understand how vaccines work. The human body is amazing and one thing that makes it so amazing is the immune system the immune system protects you from all types of diseases including viruses like covid nineteen the problem with covid. Nineteen is that it is such a harmful virus. It is often able to overwhelm the immune system especially older people and people who already have certain other diseases. That's where vaccines come in. When you get a vaccine you're actually fooling your immune system into thinking. It's been exposed to something harmful like a virus or bacteria. The name used to describe something harmful that tries to attack. Your immune system is a pathogen. In order to defeat the pathogen. The body makes things called. Antibodies that are designed to destroy the nasty pathogen. But here's the cool part. You haven't really been exposed to the pathogen yet. You just got the vaccine. That will prepare your body if you do get infected tool to sum it all up getting a vaccine trains your body. It's a fight off a pathogen. Like ramona virus by preparing your immune system to fight the pathogen in the future. If you become exposed so getting the coronavirus vaccine would be kind of like giving your body. The corona virus playbook so it knows what to do if you actually get corona virus in the future. It kind of reminds me of that. One time i was playing basketball and my coach told me that there was a player on the other team. That likes to do a crossover dribble to the right. And then drive to the basket for a layup. It was a really nice move but thanks to the heads up for my coach i was able to shut it down to wait a bit for the corona virus vaccine to become available because scientists need to come up with a way to introduce the corona virus pathogen to our immune systems then tested the vaccine in animals. Then test it in a few humans to make sure to safe and to evaluate the perfect dose then tested in the larger number of humans to see how it impacts different people and make sure it's effective and then once it's approved hundreds of millions of doses needs to be made but once it's made you should consult with your doctor about getting the coronavirus vaccine so that if one day you become exposed to the corona virus you can shut it down.

Smallpox Basketball
COVID-19 vaccine distribution faces logistical challenges

NBC Nightly News

02:36 min | 1 year ago

COVID-19 vaccine distribution faces logistical challenges

"Drug. Giant pfizer requested emergency authorization today for its covid vaccine which it claims is ninety. Five percent effective. Tom costello has late. Details it's shaping up to be the fastest vaccine development and us history after forty four thousand. Volunteers rolled up their sleeves. Pfizer today became the first drug company to seek emergency. Fda authorization for a covert nineteen vaccine. We will continue. The work already underway to make sure we can begin shopping. The vaccine immediately after radiation. We're approval vaccine maker. Moderna also expected to its data soon putting both companies on track for fda clearance within weeks. We could have a decision from fda and within twenty four hours of that we will have started distributing millions of doses of safe and effective vaccine to begin protecting our most vulnerable across america. Here are five key steps to authorization. The vaccine trials include at least thirty thousand people who are diverse in race age and risk groups. The fda requires two months of follow up safety data before drugmakers can even submit for emergency use side effects typically appear in the first two months so far both companies report. No serious side effects both pfizer and madeira claimed their vaccines are ninety. Five percent effect to the question will they completely prevent a cova one thousand nine infection and how long that protection. Last the fda's advisory panel will convene on december tenth review the pfizer data. Then the fda will vote on whether to approve it. Meanwhile cdc advisory group will recommend should get vaccinated. I i li efficacious and effective vaccines have crushed epidemics like smallpox and polio. and measles. we can do that. The fda expects to have enough doses to begin vaccinating twenty million people by year's end starting with healthcare workers the general public likely following in the spring or summer. All right now. Tom joins us tom. They're even more vaccines coming down. The pike in the new year your astra zeneca and johnson and johnson both expect to have their vaccine candidates ready in the first quarter. The military is already planning the distribution for all of this within twenty four hours of approval. It plans to start shipping the vaccine to all fifty states. It's a big logistical challenge and tom. A vaccine can't come fast enough as more than two thousand. Americans died from covid it a single day for the first time since may and the number hospitalized set a record at more than eighty thousand.

Pfizer FDA Tom Costello Moderna United States Madeira Zeneca Smallpox CDC Measles Polio Johnson Astra TOM
Dr. Fauci Urges Public to Double Down on Public Health Measures Until Coronavirus Vaccine Is Available

Bloomberg Best

00:37 sec | 1 year ago

Dr. Fauci Urges Public to Double Down on Public Health Measures Until Coronavirus Vaccine Is Available

"Dr Anthony Fauci is calling vaccines and opposing force to fight the Corona virus outbreak Mad Madison reports. Speaking at the White House, Fauci touted vaccines by companies Fizer and Moderno that are 95% effective against the virus. So those of you not acquainted with the field, the vaccine ology that is extraordinary that is almost to the level. What we see with measles, which is 98% effective, the nation's leading infectious disease expert noted. Vaccines have crushed other disease outbreaks, such as smallpox and polio found, she argued. People are also in imposing force to covert 19 if they follow through with mitigation

Dr Anthony Fauci Fizer Fauci White House Measles Infectious Disease Smallpox Polio
Why the worsening pandemic overseas is a risk to Australia

Coronacast

04:00 min | 1 year ago

Why the worsening pandemic overseas is a risk to Australia

"Say Norman it's really heartening to see in Ustralia that at local outbreaks are really coming down to really really levels but the case numbers each day are still high and that's partly because of returned travelers. So people who've coming back to Australia from other countries, many of which have caught lodge outbreaks of coronavirus happening there. We know that last time the big outbreak in Victoria happened from an escape from hotel quarantaine and the New South Wales Health Minister. Bread has it has indicated that he's worried about the potential for something like that to happen again what? Is that scenario and Health New South Wales also worried about the resource implications. I mean, we said before that a few weeks ago I got information from the raw prince Alfred that. Nursing shifts a week were be used at that point for Hotel Corentin, and that's before we upped the ante trying to get thirty thousand streams back before Christmas and as you say, coming from high prevalence countries. So the risk has gone up as the second wave in Europe has gone up. So the risk to us of returning Australians has gone up as well in proportion, and so we're going to see more people coming back who are positive and we want expanded facility. So. It's fantastic that we've got this facility, the heartstrings facility in the Northern Territory which apparently can be expanded, but it can take about one thousand people a foreigner right now that's not going to get you there in terms of Christmas, and getting all these people back and it requires medical resources so that people who are arriving back who might be sick, and in fact, there are people arriving back through sickness. One reason why they WANNA come back to get medical care and distributor. And that was the other implication for all prince offered is that some people were coming out of hotel quarantine to come into hospital For Surgery and other things nothing to do with covid nineteen because they were just seek and they needed help and they're entitled to it. So the question is, how do you scale and what do you do in the government? A report has a report on this and you can take a risk approach, which is that you say, well, if you coming back from Britain or Italy or France, then that's high risk and go into high risk facilities, but if you coming from China. Or Singapore assuming you're not in transit in Singapore that you've been in Singapore for a while obviously New Zealand and other countries than we maybe have a light touch you can quarantine at home we can do ankle bracelets you allow the authorities to track go track you on your phone those sorts of things that we can do but they're all got risk attached to them and we just going have to be really careful because we're all rejoicing Victoria opening up and through the Fall of nobody just the pressure of positive cases coming back we could be at significant risk of some cluster outbreaks. So we got the Howard Springs facility in the Northern Territory, which is great and elsewhere in it's mostly been done in hotels which really useful for quarantine but not purpose built for it. Do we need to be thinking more about the along the lines of the quarantine stations that we used to have a century ago? Well, yes, not can't imagine that the. Government's not thinking about that. So we have these quarantine stations the to I know best of the ones one of the Mornington peninsula in Victoria and the one on south, head, New South Wales, and they were designed for exactly this purpose in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century ships coming back from overseas, which might have had smallpox on them or infections that they didn't fully understand people went to the quarantine station and stayed there for a while until it was sorted out. They could be re purposed. They're not very big really in terms of numbers of people that you could take them. There are army camps. There are other things that you could do, but it's where you might be geographically isolated. It's hard for people to get away from them, but you look after humanely in reasonable comfort while you're quarantining in addition to using home corentin when it's much safer to do. So I think that you can look on this as a national project we want Australians to come home and we're gonna find ways of doing it.

Australia Victoria South Wales New South Wales Health Ministe Singapore Norman Hotel Quarantaine Hotel Corentin Europe Ustralia Hospital For Surgery Bread Alfred Smallpox Howard Springs Mornington Peninsula New Zealand Britain
"smallpox" Discussed on Everything Everywhere Daily

Everything Everywhere Daily

03:54 min | 1 year ago

"smallpox" Discussed on Everything Everywhere Daily

"Jeff Jenner tested it on 23 other patients including his eleven months old son. He called this technique vaccination his technique quickly spread around the world Napoleon off all his troops vaccinated he gave General Metal even though he was fighting the English at time, but very and Denmark made vaccination mandatory in 1810 in an earlier episode. I mentioned that wage. Autumn is Norman Borlaug had saved more people than anyone else in history Edward Jenner might very well be in competition for that title. Through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries our knowledge of diseases and viruses improved and vaccines got much better smallpox still killed Millions around the world, but the disease was finally getting under control. We began a great smallpox vaccines in the laboratory and didn't require another person to vaccinate someone unlike other diseases like Bubonic plague, which is spread by rats. Smallpox was only spread by humans to off humans that meant it was possible to actually eradicate smallpox by 1949. The United States had its last case of smallpox in nineteen-fifty the Pan American Health Organization set about an eradication program for all of the Western Hemisphere by nineteen sixty-three. Europe saw its next-to-last case in Stockholm, which came from a sailor which brought it from Asia in 1558 the World Health Organization announced the goal of the complete Global eradication of smallpox. This had mostly been achieved in developed countries, but there were still millions of cases per year in Africa and Asia birth. In nineteen sixty-seven, they announced the Final Phase to completely eradicate the disease they set up Mass vaccination programs for developing countries as well. As a quick response program for reported cases. They even offered bounties to people who are able to report smallpox within ten years. The number of global cases went from Millions to zero the last naturally occurring case of the very often a juror virus occurred in Bangladesh in nineteen seventy-five. The last case of areola minor was in Somalia in 1977 the last case of smallpox in the world. And the last person to die from the disease was not a natural case in 1978 Janet Parker a photographer at the Birmingham University School of Medicine in England contracted smallpox after working off the floor above a laboratory, which was doing research on the virus. In nineteen, eighty after two years without a single case the who announce to the world that smallpox the most lethal disease in the history of humanity had been eradicated since the announced eradication of smallpox. The issue hasn't quite gone out of the news entirely after the eradication all known stockpiles of the virus were destroyed with two Exceptions. There are still frozen samples of smallpox kept at research facilities in the United States Center for Disease Control and prevention in Atlanta and Russia's State research center for biology and biotechnology in Moscow..

Smallpox Jeff Jenner Edward Jenner United States Center for Disea Asia World Health Organization Pan American Health Organizati Denmark United States Norman Borlaug Somalia Janet Parker Europe Africa Autumn Bangladesh Atlanta State research center Stockholm Moscow
"smallpox" Discussed on Everything Everywhere Daily

Everything Everywhere Daily

03:53 min | 1 year ago

"smallpox" Discussed on Everything Everywhere Daily

"Jeff Jenner tested it on 23 other patients including his eleven months old son. He called this technique vaccination his technique quickly spread around the world Napoleon off all his troops vaccinated he gave General Metal even though he was fighting the English at the time, but very and Denmark made vaccination mandatory in 1810 in an earlier episode. I mentioned that wage. Autumn is Norman Borlaug had saved more people than anyone else in history Edward Jenner might very well be in competition for that title. Through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries our knowledge of diseases and viruses improved and vaccines got much better smallpox still killed Millions around the world, but the disease was finally getting under control. We began a great smallpox vaccines in the laboratory and didn't require another person to vaccinate someone unlike other diseases like Bubonic plague, which is spread by rats. Smallpox was only spread by humans to off humans that meant it was possible to actually eradicate smallpox by 1949. The United States had its last case of smallpox in nineteen-fifty the Pan American Health Organization set about an eradication program for all of the Western Hemisphere by nineteen sixty-three. Europe saw its next-to-last case in Stockholm, which came from a sailor which brought it from Asia in 1558 the World Health Organization announced the goal of the complete Global eradication of smallpox. This had mostly been achieved in developed countries, but there were still millions of cases per year in Africa and Asia birth. In nineteen sixty-seven, they announced the Final Phase to completely eradicate the disease they set up Mass vaccination programs for developing countries as well. As a quick response program for reported cases. They even offered bounties to people who are able to report smallpox within ten years. The number of global cases went from Millions to zero the last naturally occurring case of the very often a juror virus occurred in Bangladesh in nineteen seventy-five. The last case of areola minor was in Somalia in 1977 the last case of smallpox in the world. And the last person to die from the disease was not a natural case in 1978.

Smallpox Jeff Jenner Edward Jenner Asia World Health Organization Pan American Health Organizati Norman Borlaug Denmark Somalia Bangladesh United States Autumn Europe Africa Stockholm
Gates: The U.S. isnt helping get a COVID vaccine to the rest of the world

Marketplace Tech with Molly Wood

03:19 min | 1 year ago

Gates: The U.S. isnt helping get a COVID vaccine to the rest of the world

"Many organizations are working toward a covid nineteen back scene but even once it's discovered, we'll still have to manufacture and distribute it around the world that is a big incredibly complicated and expensive task. But ultimately, it may be the only way out of a crisis that has devastated the global economy and according to a progress report from the gates. Foundation has actually reversed progress towards poverty education and carrying diseases that report is out now. And Foundation Co Chair Bill Gates joins me today for the first of three conversations. I asked him about the scale of the vaccine distribution problem. Well, the European countries have stepped up here we don't have enough yet to buy for the entire world. The US is kind of unusual. It's funded a lot of RND that is helping move candidates forward, but it's only funded manufacturing procurement for itself and so is the Congress looks at. No Supplemental Bill. The historical leadership that the US. Global health whether it's smallpox eradication an issue polio. Congress will step up as yet. It's been a no show on this. How frustrating isn't I wonder I? Mean you're personally funding factories that are all working on a vaccine. You're you're sort of trying to organize this extra governmental effort. WOMP certainly talking to the Congress about their great history that they're rightly proud of on a bipartisan basis of how the USA showed up here. The benefits are stronger than ever because even from a selfish point of view at stopping the epidemic returning But strategically, and from a humanitarian point of view we should do what we've always done. Help save these lives and help try to get things back on track the. Report shows that not just the deaths from Cova, but also the disruption to the economy, the schools, the health system causing gigantic setbacks even far more deaths than the disease itself is causing in the US you mean globally, mostly globally, their health systems far more fragile their ability to come up and borrow a lot more money at the government level isn't the same as what the US can do. So they're suffering far more. One thing that is a priority of the foundation it sounds like is is equity overall, and in this case, equitable distribution of this successful vaccine. Tell me about the role of manufacturing and shortages around manufacturing. That could make that a big challenge well, a number of the candidates including Astra. Zeneca Novak's Johnson and Johnson and snuffy can be made at very low cost and very high volume, and so we've set up arrangements where. Not. Just the company that invents the vaccine and supervises the trials but also other companies who have high volume manufacturing capacity can take exactly that same vaccine and produce billions of doses so that you get many factories getting up to speed ideally were getting over billion doses out in twenty, twenty one and enough to end the epidemic and twenty twenty

Congress USA Bill Gates Foundation Co Zeneca Novak Cova Johnson Snuffy
The crazy theory that masks are building up our coronavirus immunity

Coronacast

02:32 min | 1 year ago

The crazy theory that masks are building up our coronavirus immunity

"So Norman, let's take a trip back in time today eight to a previous pandemic nine, the Spanish flu none of the plague. Let's talk about smallpox and you think that there's some things we can learn from smallpox to help us with covid. Nineteen Year? What do you think smallpox covid nineteen have in common that's the question hopefully eradication but probably not let's be real. Well, I don't think we'll ever eradicate unfortunately covid nineteen but that would be very nice. So rather than leave you in agony, it's cold variation now before Jenner. Edward. Jenner person who's the same name as the institute that developed the Oxford vaccine by the way so. Just, these things come under circles could develop the found out that the infection in dairy maids caught cowpox protected against smallpox before that happened in new developed that smallpox vaccination the way to actually protect against smallpox was to give a small does of smallpox particularly to children incredibly dangerous and what they would sometimes do get smallpox scabs and puff them up the nose sometimes they was scratch. It into the skin and the ideal would be go to small attack smallpox maybe one or two pox on their skin, and then they were immune for evermore. In fact, it's thought that the epidemic that killed aboriginal people are unsettling harbor just after the first fleet arrived might have been through the accidental or maybe even delivered vaccination of variation using smallpox the link is hypothesized by a recent. Paper in the New England Journal is that maybe You could get significant protection against the nineteen from a small dose of Covid nineteen just as you did with smallpox and this process called variation can be for second. Isn't that kind of what vaccine does? Yes. Does but much more safely. The. Dangerous things you're giving the live virus you'll give you the live smallpox virus and some children have died from variation and if you gave the live covid nineteen, sure you're going to be immune who knows how long for but you could die of the covid nineteen. So the idea and immunization is that you make that process safe either by doing what they're doing at the moment covid nineteen and using recombinant DNA, which is just the genetic material not. Really a long way divorced from the virus. There is a Chinese vaccine which uses an activated form of the virus, but the idea here is that is not endangering somebody's life by giving them the live Iris.

Smallpox Covid Jenner Norman Iris Edward New England Journal Cowpox
Africa now free of wild poliovirus, but polio threat remains

TIME's Top Stories

02:25 min | 1 year ago

Africa now free of wild poliovirus, but polio threat remains

"The World Health Organization declares Africa polio-free. By Jeffrey Kluger. Nobody will ever know the identity of the thousands of African children who were not killed or paralyzed by polio this year, they would have been hard to keep track of no matter what because in ordinary times they would've followed thousands last year and thousands the year before and on back in a generations long trail of suffering and death instead, no African children were claimed by polio. This year or last year or the year before it was in two thousand sixteen that the last case of wild circulating polio was reported in Nigeria the final country on the fifty four nation African continent where the disease was endemic and with the required multi year waiting period. Now, having passed with no more cases, the World Health Organization today officially declared the entirety of, Africa polio-free. A disease that as recently as the late nineteen eighties was endemic in one hundred, twenty, five countries claiming three hundred, fifty, thousand children per year has now been run to ground in just two remaining places, Pakistan and Afghanistan where there have been a collective one, hundred, two cases so far twenty twenty that's one hundred to too many. But there's no denying the scope of the whol announcement today's victory over the wild poliovirus in the. African region is a testament to what can happen when partners from a variety of sectors join forces to accomplish a major global health goal says John Hueco, general, secretary, and CEO of Rotary International. It is something the world can and should aspire to during these turbulent times. It was Rotary and International Nonprofit Service Organization that kicked off the polio endgame in Nineteen Eighty eight with the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative the GPA. That program aimed to leverage the power of rotaries thirty, five, thousand clubs and one point twenty, two, million members in two hundred countries and territories worldwide to make polio only the second human disease after smallpox to be pushed over the brink of extinction.

Polio Global Polio Eradication Initi World Health Organization Africa Jeffrey Kluger International Nonprofit Servic Nigeria John Hueco Rotary International Pakistan Whol Afghanistan Secretary CEO
"smallpox" Discussed on 77WABC Radio

77WABC Radio

09:34 min | 1 year ago

"smallpox" Discussed on 77WABC Radio

"All of us to combine the Revolutionary War history of Francis marrying in South Carolina, fighting the British and the Hessians. These are the 64th foot the seven foot the 19th regiment, British red coats, along with Hessians Germans who were imported by King George to fight against the Americans who were combined with the Tories at the time who were well to do South Carolinians. Who rode alongside the British. Those were all the dominating force and Frances Marion had nothing but of the promises of the continental Congress and stories about how well they were doing in the North again. Washington was doing in the north against the British in New York. And Pennsylvania. That's all they had to go on. So Francis Mary, and it's out there in 17 81 as the on ly resistance to British power on and we're about to show how Marianne not only used running engagements and warfare and firepower, but also how he took to siege mentality to pick off. Ah, the basis the forts that the British established a detail here, Scott. What does economy of force means when we apply to South Carolina and how the British intended to win the battle? What is economy of force? British had limited manpower. And supplies and they had a very large area that they were trying to dominate. So what the British did in the Southern campaign is they were going to adopt an Americanization campaign in which the British Army would move forward and Take battle to the Patriots. And then, as they would defeat these Patriots and move on against other units, they would leave behind them to serve Mawr in police action. Stories that they knew were going to rise up to the loyal standard. When the British came into the area and force you see a lot of that in the Insurgency that took place in Iraq. You see that being conducted now in Afghanistan, and it's something that occurred or attempted B occurred in Vietnam as well. So this is a tactic and it's kind of, I guess a strategy that The larger and the more dominant force will try to do so They can husband, it's resource is for different campaigns in other areas. The way I read. This is that marry in by himself becomes the Raiders. He becomes the Vietcong. He becomes the Taliban. He is here there, and everywhere. He's He's a legend as much as he is a fact and he only has to appear now and again. To be effective because he's always on the minds of the British. Hence. That's why they sent Watson after him in March of 81. Now it's April of 81 marrying has decided to link up With some of the forces of the Continental Army to make assaults on two forts. The 1st 1 is Fort Watson. This strikes me as a wonderful set piece for a novel, Scott, But you told the story so brilliantly, Fort Watson Is in a ground. It's 40 feet above the canopy that has been reduced all around it, so there's there's free fire zone all around it. It's occupied at this time. By the British force has enough men and enough firepower inside toe. Hold off any assault, marrying arrives, and he doesn't He has 380 men, but he doesn't have any large weapons. So he's in a quandary. You emphasize that when you when you start a siege, you best do it quickly. An additional factor here. Is that there's smallpox in the area. In fact, some of the men who are not inoculated in Marion's force are fearful because they think other men have smallpox. That's frightened me. Did it frighten them, Scott That it did. You have always have a problem like this in that in. Marion has a degree partisan control over these men, but he does not have a lot of legal control over him so he can compel them and he can You know, I asked them to stay. But if you're a partisan, and you think that there's smallpox in the area and you want to get away, there's really nothing legal that bonds you to the area. So for himto have Me and leave eyes, something that he's really got to keep mom full because he could go from 380. Ah, down in a downward spiral pretty quick. Detail here there are there's There's lots of talk of hanging of Tory's hanging of partisans of executing prisoners on and is, do you account for all that? Is that something that is mostly legend are their documentations of the partisans hanging people and the Tories hanging and the British hanging. There is documentation of limited hangings of that occur. But again, I think that for one Hanging that did occur you, probably through. Legend have about 10 that are floating around out there right and did marry and execute men who deserted. I did not find any documentation that he did. And of course, I've read through his orderly book. Which would be, um, kind of like a logbook of the days of events, and there are particularly towards the latter stages of the American Revolution Court martials being hailed, but you don't see the sentence is being Damn. All right. Here's the challenge from marrying all around. Fort Watson is a clear area and it's raised up about 40 feet. It's got a It's got a wall and the British are well supplied inside. Marien originally thinks he's going to cut him off from the lake from water, but they dig a well and strike water very quickly. So any assault they're shot down. Also, they have superior fire of superior firing position. So what Marion does is he approves the building of what is called the mayhem Tower. What's that, Scott? May empower is quite interesting concept. And really, what happened? Was they prefab eight power. They had a very dark night. They went out within rifle range of before and during the night very quietly, they assembled a prefabricated power. Oh, where the top of the tower is above the wall. Height, height wise, it's above the wall of the board. They put some sharpshooters up in the power during the night, and as the sun starts to rise and the Gerson inside the fort starts to stir They all of a sudden find themselves. Without the height advantage again that Indian mounds that the fort was built upon Was no was no match for the mayhem power that had been fed up, of course, obviously constructed over several nights but actually put together In the darkness that preceded them and actually pinned down in their own fort by a force with higher superior height. British Lieutenant James McKay command 73 British soldiers, 64th Regiment of Foot. 36 stories 109 inside and when they see that they've lost their height advantage, and they could be picked off. Importantly at that point, an assault force goes forward Ensign Baker Johnson and Robert Lee. Very brave and they're about to assault the fort and McKay surrenders. Marien Paroles thumb off quickly and and they all agree. This is a detail that comes from South Carolina's. Well, I learned from you. What is parole mean? If you're if you're captured and you sign a parole? What does that mean? Well, Paro what the town was a legal document that a man would sign. He basically tails his cap tours. It's a guarantee that he will go back. So his Quarters or his house and he will about by the law, and if he's called forth, too Come to the controlling authority to stand trial or things of that nature that he would do so at a later time, but it gets what it does is effectively takes him off the battlefield for the duration of the hostilities. It's something we don't have in the 21st century. So there is a there is a distinct difference between 240 years ago. And today now the second Fort Fort Ma. This is a plantation house that's been fortified by a very large British command, and it has strong points and marry in is now linked up with light horse. Harry Lee, Robert E. Lee's ancestor. And so Mary Ann is operating, not justice a partisan anymore. He's part of a larger, symmetrical warfare unit. The challenges time as I read you, Scott, he heard he's heard that the British are marching to relieve this fort and so he's gotta rush through. What does he do? Is Anakin salute fascinating tale and it's something bad. I think today we don't rightly know exactly the family details of what he did. But Marion waited until the next day when it was hot..

Scott Frances Marion assault South Carolina Fort Watson British Army smallpox Fort Fort Ma Francis Mary Pennsylvania Patriots Robert E. Lee Hessians New York Continental Army King George Taliban Iraq Raiders
"smallpox" Discussed on KOA 850 AM

KOA 850 AM

01:55 min | 1 year ago

"smallpox" Discussed on KOA 850 AM

"Two quick stories, both post 9 11 The 1st 1 of the things that we feared after the attacks of September 11. Was that Al Qaeda or some other Non state actor or even a state actor, Take Iran or North Korea. Might use smallpox, they might weaponized smallpox. So we did all of this planning for a biological attack. How do we How do we distribute vaccines? How do we How do we counter a smallpox attack? I mean, it was pretty. It was pretty intense stuff. And so I'm sitting in the Roosevelt Room. And we're being told by An epidemiologist. That smallpox could be weaponized the You know, blah, blah, blah, blah blown. They could do this. Make a div. Adam. I mean to me, it was just this kind of brain dump. Just word salad of B s. And I could tell you I mean the president sitting across from me and and this Doctor. You know, doctor who is sitting down on the corner where I can, I can kind of see him. Out of the corner of my eye, and and I'm listening to it. I'm just thinking it just doesn't make any sense to me. It just doesn't make any sense. So when the meeting was over On the drive back to my office. I I get on the phone and I call Call four doctors. A personal physician. And in three friends of mine who are internists. Tour internists in one isn't actually epidemiologist. Here's what I heard in the meeting today about.

smallpox Adam Roosevelt Room North Korea Iran president
"smallpox" Discussed on MonsterTalk

MonsterTalk

03:20 min | 3 years ago

"smallpox" Discussed on MonsterTalk

"The answer to see where were were L Ron and the ancestor of ehre Gorn have team together beaten sore on right? And they've got the ring and all they have to defeat him is take the ring and throw it back into the into the into the bowels of mount doom right omitted melt, and they take it there. And Elrod says throw it in you know, is door whatever whatever his name is. And why won't throw it in? He puts his hand says, no, you know, his power. He's an keep it. And that's exactly what Americans and Russians. Did they they had smallpox conquer? They had the ring in their hand. And it could have destroyed it then, but they didn't. And now it's been weaponized. If it's every used it'll be gonna be descent was that dramatic enough or you. You a question about that vaccination for smallpox is there actually treatment there's no treatment for treatment director, and well first of all there is a nation for and we have enough vaccine stockpile to treat caregivers. On the order of tens of thousands of of doses that are stockpile, but we don't have anywhere near enough to cover the whole population. And the other thing that's interesting about smallpox is there's actually several things that makes it almost a perfect disease. And that is it has a two week incubation period during which time you're contagious, but you don't show symptoms. So you can have it though symptoms, but you're giving everybody else, and and it's very very communicable. It's actually it's actually similar to cigarette smoke. It's actually the particle size of cigarette smoke. So if you if you can imagine somebody smokes and you walk by them, and they're not smoking, but you could smell the smoke on them. If they were small pox victim, you'd have cut smallpox. So. Yeah. In the class. What I would do is actually a bump a cigarette from somebody. And I put it at blow it into a bag with with a towel and bring that in the class in a plastic bag had opened the towel up and just wave it around. I see can you smell cigarette. Smoke and say, yeah, I can smell it while you're all respect. This is smallpox blanket you've opened infected with smallpox. That's the way to get your attention. Yeah. I remember in the navy. There was always talk about Plum island and other sort of sites where they stored the sort of viral, you know, genetic weapons, I don't know how you wanna go. Deeply disturbing because I imagine if you could vote on it, no Americans, or at least not a fish number of Americans would wanna keep these alive. But you they are they there's some always somebody willing to keep control. And they usually it's usually in in the context of what we need to be able to study it. So it can counter it. Yeah. So you're both sides are doing that. You know?.

smallpox Elrod mount doom Ron Plum island director two week
"smallpox" Discussed on WTVN

WTVN

03:02 min | 3 years ago

"smallpox" Discussed on WTVN

"Just what we look at the smallpox epidemic used to kill millions of people will they don't occur anymore. That disease has been eradicated most other diseases, by the way, they used to kill people aren't around anymore. What we're suffering? Most promo is degenerative illnesses caused by us simply living too long. Let me get back to the church of perpetual life for a moment. You have it's sort of nondenominational. You have Christians Jews you have Buddhists. Oh, absolutely. We have Thursday night services. Once a month where we have a respected scientists command and talk and I normally follow up with some updates on our berries human age reversal research projects at any given time. We have several studies going where we're trying drugs like metformin, another drug called data to nab a drug called rapamycin, many many medications that you wouldn't want to take the way the FDA tells you to take them. But if you use them off label, you may significantly delay your rate of aging, and we get together face to face, we meet people, and it's much different than how communications occur nowadays. And I said that church up so that people could get together and exchange information in an open forum. So we could figure out quicker how we can live longer. I don't want to belabor this point. But I'm fascinated by the fact that this church of perpetual life because you know, many of your members there. One of the principal tenant of their faith. Is that there is an afterlife. And that we sort of should look forward to that. You can't if you love this life. You'll lose it in the next sort of thing. It's a bit of a paradox. Doesn't contrast it all those who have a belief in an afterlife can retain their beliefs. We're simply advancing science. So people can live longer if we achieve immortality. And you'll want to hang around. There are always options to check out. I don't think I'll ever use those options. I'll probably just stay around indefinitely. If I'm able to that people don't have to. How does? What you're doing differ from the trans humanist movement in of the philosophy people. Like Ray kurzweil, doesn't we're really a trans human is church since the trans human is technology has yet to emerge to enable people to live forever. We have to deal with biology, which is regrettable. It's not gonna be as efficient as a trans humanist supercomputers were remerged into them and literally live forever. So we deal with our biological bodies. And we intervene with biologics so that we can prevent disease lay aging and reverse it whenever possible. So no, no real difference. Just trans humanism is looking at your two thousand fifty well, I won't be alive at two thousand fifty if something aggressive is not done to intervene into my aging process. And I'm doing that I'm taking a lot of off label medications people see what I'm taking they think I'm dying of cancer and every diseases existed. Well, these drugs if used properly can have benefits. All right Bill. I gotta jump in. We'll take a quick time out come back and discuss further the beastie boys' you gotta fight for your right to party. They are the big. Biggest-selling rap band in the world. Check out their new beastie, boys. Book named one of the best books of last year by Rolling Stone magazine. More with Bill Falloon on immortality right here on coast to coast AM..

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