35 Burst results for "Smallpox"
Will vaccines make a difference responding to the next outbreak?
"I'm health reported teigen tyler and physician in journalists alter norman swan. It's the last corona cast of summer fridays. twenty-six yes. We are on the last current cost of summer. And i feel like i am. Maybe potentially jinxing us by talking about an outbreak. But let's talk about the scenario norman. Where if there was another outbreak in australia. Now that we've got vaccine in the country vaccine which we know is quite effective at preventing disease and infection. Would that change the way. We've been responding to outbreaks in the past year. Yes would and in fact. I think we were probably the first out. Let's talk about. It was called ring vaccination. And it's now part as far as i understand it over the national immunization or vaccinations strategy. So what you do is as you do your contact tracing you would ring-fence vaccination around the person who's got the disease and the people that have come in contact with and maybe even the people that they've come in contact with so primary contacts and secondary contacts and you would do that with the pfizer vaccine because you've got a strong response early and is only three weeks between doses so within three weeks you're fully immunized rather than the astro which might take twelve weeks to get up to that sort of level of antibody response and so a and it's a race against time so that you because the incubation periods five to eight days but what some of the research is showing is that you get an early response to particularly the pfizer vaccine. Maybe even the astro too so you get a pretty good resistance there early on so that would be a good way to respond to outbreaks prior to very large percentage of the population being covered. So when you vaccinate sometimes depending on the disease some vaccines take a couple of weeks before you get an immune response. But then there's other vaccines like rabies. Where if you get bitten and you think that there's a chance got exposed to rabies. They give you a vaccine then. Do we know what the fires a shot does. Whether it's the sort of vaccine that you can give after exposure and give you some protection while it is all about the maths which is the incubation period versus the time for the vaccine to work so smallpox that's how they controlled. Smallpox control smallpox by massimo. Certainly helped but in places such as africa they controlled it by ringfencing and controlling the spread from that and so they find they find a case a main they ring vaccinated around the person with smallpox. So that in for anybody who might have contact come in contact with that person was protected and in that case the vaccine for for the smallpox vaccine worked faster than the incubation period of smallpox. In this case it's lying ball but it's worth doing because it's likely that you would get a responsibility and you're doing two things by this ring. Fencing are ring vaccination. I should call it. You are protecting somebody against severe covid. Nineteen disease the second thing you'd be doing is trying to prevent transmission and you'd hope those two things go hand in hand is a bit of evidence from israel that they do but it's not strong
Humanity's planet-shaping powers -- and what they mean for the future
"I work at the united nations and for the past couple of years. I have served as the head of the un's development program when i walked into the headquarters in new york city many years ago. The first thing i noticed was a sculpture standing outside under the flags of the nations of the world. It's called the knotted gun and it's still stands today to me that sculpture symbolizing exactly what the un was created to do seventy five years ago to build peace out of the ashes of war war. That had been defined for so much of human history as the struggle of nations against nations are the kinds still raging countries like syria and yemen that the united nations works to end every day. That's what i imagined that. Not a gun to represent but now another kind of war is brewing. One that increasingly defines the twenty first century with a dominant risk to our own. Survival is ourselves a few years or even months ago. If i had suggested that we're all at war with ourselves. It may have felt strange especially when according to so many metrics humans are on average healthier wealthier and more educated than any time in history. We have more knowledge. More science more choices today than the founders of the united nations could have ever imagined but somewhere along the way we lost our balance in fact think about this. Scientists are considering whether for the very first time in human history. Instead of the planet shaping humans humans are knowing shaving the planet it's called the anthroposophy and represents a new geological era today. Humans literally have the power to alter the atmosphere and the biosphere in which we live the power to destroy and the power to repair. No species has ever had that kind of power before within humans have achieved incredible things together from closing a giant hole in the ozone layer preventing nuclear proliferation to radicalizing smallpox. But we have also taken the earth and all the people on it to the brink. It's not the rational fair what we're doing today. One third of all the food produce on the planet goes to waste. While one in ten people go hungry inequality has become extreme twenty six people on the same wealth as half of humanity based on recent data today seven million people die from air pollution each year about seven million trees the very things that keep our air clean. Cut down every few hours. We spend over ten times more on fossil fuel subsidies alone than we do all. Investments in renewable power prolonging our common habit like a drug running through the economy's veins. You don't have to be an economist like me to know that these numbers just add up that our economic paradigm is neither sustainable nor equitable climate. Change rupturing inequalities record numbers of people forced from their homes by conflict and crisis for all of our power. These are the weapons we have built less tangible than a gun but just as real just as deadly at an epic pandemic and this year for the first time in twenty years global extreme poverty is projected to rise and global human development. A measure of the world's education health and living standards is set to decline for the first time since the measure began thirty years ago. Covid nineteen has not changed the future yet but it has revealed these deep flaws in our present bringing clarity to the fact that ending. This war against ourselves is not about tradeoffs. it's not about choosing between people trees between poverty or progress. It's about choosing to do things differently. In the midst of tragedy the pandemic has also given us a glimpse of what peace could look like where we can see the snow of a mountain for the first time because the smog has cleared. That's what happened in nairobi. My home of many years and one of the city's appalachian plummeted as human activities slowed down
Sydney isolated from rest of Australia as COVID outbreak grows
"Saw christmas wig. Norman and over the weekend we have seen. The sydney outbreak will the northern beaches outbreak really grow and restrictions of coming to place when we said good bata audience on friday nominee. Pretty optimistic that we were going to be out of now these thing before. Christmas is still feeling that way. I'm nervous i think. I don't think they're doing enough. The risk is that it overwhelms the contact tracing. It's just you. Don't you never know where it is. And yeah probably called it wrongly pepsi two racks about it but it is There are a lot of cases. They and they're not just in the northern beaches area when you look through the list of locally acquired cases there you there in sydney there in the north northern suburbs there in the eastern suburbs. not many. but there's just a few and you don't need many. This started with just one case from overseas. Probably aircrew of the prices. Speculating on somebody being in You'll getting exemption but either way it's from overseas and the system is broken down. Basically new south wales luck has run out so new south wales approach up until now has just been really intense contact tracing and that actually been pretty successful with keeping a handle on the cases. They're considering the work houses a few months ago. So the restrictions that they operating in the northern beaches a pretty tough. But there's still more that they could be doing. Isn't it well. I just think it's called smacking. But haven't mandated masks sydney white. I mean that's the first thing you do. You just tell everybody living in greater sydney soon as you walk how she wear a mask. I know you can't transmit it very well but taking a mask on an office you go inside just what soon as you go out you put on your mask and that means review go. You've got your mask on. It's cheap effective by seventy percent. You don't know where the viruses just mandate. I do not know why the new south wales government is so done on mask. Wearing how much of a problem is it that we still don't really know exactly how this outbreak kicked off. Oh it's huge that you know how well i think we know how tall it kicked off. Somehow from somebody from overseas the was negative until the tenth of december the genomic strongly suggests from overseas perhaps the united states and so it spread from somebody who's coming from overseas. The question was aircrew. Was somebody returning to from overseas somebody who was given exemption to go home and didn't stay at home. Who knows what the story might be. But it's definitely from overseas trouble is we don't know when and we're not really sure where we know where the super spreading events where the super spreading events in a bowling club and the avalon oursel- and there are other hotspots around hotspots places where people have been but essentially a very big dense people having a lot of fun good on them into there was a problem at that point but that was a super spreading event and from there. It spread outwards. And it's not just to satisfy curiosity that we want to know where these outbreak kicked off from. We need to know where the chink is armagh so that we can make sure that this doesn't happen again. Well no it's more than that. It's it's that's part of it but that's kind of done the track a little bit when you're dealing with an a pandemic that breaks out in clusters you've got to find all the clusters and you've got to find out where the cluster started so whilst you got to say well okay teagan you are at the avalon bowling club on on a certain date which was high risk and everybody that you've been in contact with. We want to know we actually want go before you know what happened. What were you doing two three four five days before then before you tested positive where where you and actually start the contact tracing back in time in history and what they're doing now is they're trying to do that new south wales back to the twenty third of november to give a bit of a margin beyond what they think might be. The first cases roundabout the first of december. So you to go back in time as well as get the immediate context and by there's going to be secondary context is going to be people who got first time around To second time around and it's out in the city and in other suburbs as well as outside the northern beaches and as we find out from victoria. it's very hard to ring-fence a suburb. But as we said i think in the last grown cast the northern beaches are fairly straightforward to ring fences the much more well defined than some of the really big in warfare suburbs in melbourne's northwest corridor. Really impossible but even so. It's still very very hard. It's a big densely populated area and ring-fencing is is only going to have a limited effect. You've really got to ring-fence greater sydney for a few days to see what's happening and maybe for a couple of weeks. It's christmas yes. It's tough but businesses already winding for christmas. The economic impact should not be huge. If you lock down sydney and just get this thing under control and not mess around. What we've seen from overseas is quite clear. And it's quite clear from victoria as well if you mess around and do a little of this a little bit of that. It doesn't work. it's simply does not work. You've actually got a fully lockdown victoria did. And if you do it you don't have to for too long every day. You wait can be a week at the other end and the other thing that we should be doing. Is speeding up vaccine approval. I know that we've said we can wait but now the face. We studies in the morning when victoria was in lockdown. But now the face re studies are in and it was fine to wait while we didn't have a problem we weren't there was no reason to just you know russian along because we could learn from overseas. But now that you've got this outbreak and it's big and is going to spread potentially through australia's biggest city and crippled potentially cripple the economy. There's a very good argument for getting going with immunization. So the tj good administration simply has to give a approval. I know go on about how they don't have an emergency approval process but that can be organized and they can they can be. There are ways for them to give urgent approval for this vaccine. It's not bureaucratically impossible and actually get the whatever they've got here in stock in terms of the five vaccine get into sydney's northern beaches and ring-fence immunization give it to healthcare workers their age care. Give it to the elderly and then you can give it to an efficient way to use it before it spreads. I realized we don't know that it's prevents. Transmission always really knows it prints disease but like everything else you just taking a chance that that it will prevent transmission and hope that it does and give it in that light. There's a lot that we do with this pandemic. we're not absolutely sure what what is the end of the individual things that work but you just gotta hit it. And now we've got a vaccine. We should hit in places like the uk and the us imperative to vaccinate is pretty obvious because the scale of the outbreak there is so massive in global terms. What's happening in sydney is pretty mine like does it still justify fostering vaccination he is because it could become big quickly quickly and be very difficult contain and create a of time now. This is a different public health. Aim this is much more like what. They did with smallpox with smallpox in poor countries massey. Muniz ation didn't work. It was very hard to implement it the way they eliminated. Smallpox was exactly this. This sort of ring-fenced vaccination you find a case and you immunize people around that person so that you you get this sort of halo. Immunized immunized effect and with the pfizer vaccine. You get fifty percent effectiveness at least with the disease with just the first does and within a few days and then one thousand four two or three three weeks so you. The effect is pretty quick. Would be an of faith that it prevents transmission. But it's worth ago. Why would we sit on this. Just go so at the moment the restrictions that are in place in new south wales in sydney are in place until wednesday night so basically the day before christmas eve is that going to be long enough or are we to say these extended while the restrictions are only on the northern beaches not greater metropolitan sydney. So that's not control the pandemic. I mean my. That's my prediction. It will not control the pandemic unfortunately spreading covid nineteen spreading. So that's the problem. I hope it will. Let's hope that contact tracers and not being overwhelmed and that the traces that are the cases that are popping up in south west sydney in eastern suburbs of city in the northern suburbs like hornsby they can pin them down the they're saying that they're traceable to the northern beaches outbreak but who they spread them to are the contact. Are they able to trace to them. So let's hope that they do the do contain it. But that's the so then. You've got the the lockdown simply there. You've got no mandated masks. They're just pleading with people to wear masks but just mandate masks sydney white right now. Just do it why. It's so frustrating that they're not doing that. Evidence based approach so christmas becomes unfortunately in sydney a superspreader event. Potentially if they haven't sorted this out and you're really done to very low levels of new cases where adly quickly quickly if you're not very low levels of new cases. They can't afford to allow christmas to go ahead with big family occasions. Otherwise it's going to go nuts unfortunately so the other thing that we really don't know much about yet he's exactly who's who when it comes to these outbreak and that was something that we were quite critical of the victorian authorities about when they were grappling with. The outbreak is new south. Wales being transparent enough well looking at the data. They're giving it is much easier to understand. There were lots of times in victoria. Had no clue whether we're talking about change. During the day the definitions were awed. Here you can see the breakdown you can see where the cases are. You can see where where there's locally acquired but they don't know where the sources. I think it's two or three at the moment is a little bit of discrepancy from the press conference and what they've published since the press conference. Yesterday there were two at press conference soon to be three on the table by today. I'm not sure we haven't had time too early for us to luke. Why would why we record this so nasty question. It does seem more transparent but what's lacking is public health measures in the community to control it and give the contact tracers a break and let them follow it through contact tracers but no matter how good the are if you get too large numbers of cases they get overwhelmed and getting extremely tired whereas masks would help just reduce that spread that little bit. That might make a difference. Yeah it's a really critical a couple of days in the lead up to christmas. But we're going to be keeping you informed but that's all we've got time for today
It's Been One Year Since the First Case of COVID Was Found in China
"It's been just about a year since the first symptomatic cases of a new coronavirus were reported in Wuhan, China. Viral pneumonia has hit central China's Fu Han city authorities have reported 27 cases in total, seven of which are critical. More than 35 million people in China are now on a travel lockdown. More than 800 have been sickened and 26 have died. As the virus spread like wildfire in Europe, we turned to one of the world's leading infectious disease specialists. My name's Larry. Brilliant. I'm an epidemiologist. Dr. Larry Brilliant, is CEO of Pan defense. He's best known for playing a key role in eradicating smallpox, a scourge of humanity for centuries. He previously led the school foundation's global threats fund. Was founding director of Google dot org's and he was scientific advisor for the 2011 film contagion back in March, right before the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic. This is how he assessed the situation. Very this is going to be a bumpy road. This is going to change the world for the next 12 to 18 months. They'll be outbreaks in States and countries they'll be cleared up the return again sees now they will play a small role in it. Travel and accidents replace small role in it. The case fatality rate will go up or down, not because it really changes or the virus changes. Based on how rapidly we find light cases or how rapidly we report deaths, But you have to realize that this is a novel coronavirus. And that there's nearly eight billion of us on the planet. None of us have immunity, except for a small handful. This disease is not going to go away by itself. We don't have an antiviral. We will not have a vaccine for 12 to 18 months. We're in for we're in for a tough time. But it is not A mass
"smallpox" Discussed on This Day in History Class
"At target. We know a good deal means a great deal. Now save more with target circle this week through saturday. Save ten dollars when you spend fifty on top toys and games with target circle like ll super surprise patrol star wars hot meals and more. That's ten dollars off when you spend fifty on top toys and games in store and at target dot com. Save more with target circle joining the target app or at target dot com slash circle. More to every moment for less. Only at target exclusions apply. Hi everyone. I'm eve and welcome to this day in history class. Podcast where we one day ship nuggets of history straight to your brain through your ear hole. The day was december ninth nineteen seventy nine members of the global commission for the certification of smallpox eradication. Signed a statement that declared that smallpox had been eradicated worldwide and that the return of the virus was unlikely smallpox disease caused by the very ola virus has been around for at least three thousand years though. Its origin is unknown. The disease was fatal for about three. Every ten people who contracted people who had a small pox fevers body aches. Rashes sores and scabs and it was contagious. Spread through person to person contact and saliva at first very elation was used to control the spread of smallpox variation was a method of immunization where patients would be purposely exposed to the material from smallpox pustules. So they developed symptoms of smallpox. These patients would develop a mild form of the disease and were less likely to die than those who contracted smallpox naturally but in the seventeen ninety s english. Dr edward jenner realized that vaccination could prevent people from getting smallpox at first cowpox was used to make the smallpox vaccine but in later years the vaccinia virus was used to create the vaccine by the twentieth century. The smallpox vaccine has become widely available vaccination against smallpox became mandatory in many places around the world in cases of smallpox declined but smallpox remained one of the main causes of death due to infectious disease in the nineteen fifties. There were around fifty million cases of the disease every year. When a ratification of the disease was discussed at the world health assembly nineteen fifty three. There was a little confidence that the effort would succeed. Since attempts to eradicate other diseases had failed but soviet epidemiologists victor shot off was convinced that freeze dried smallpox. Vaccines could be the answer. To an effective a radical program world health organization member states voted to start a global smallpox eradication campaign at the world health assembly in nineteen fifty-nine vaccination campaigns in some countries were successful in eliminating the disease but the global campaign was hindered by lack of funds lack of personnel limited commitment from countries and a shortage of vaccine donations. Smallpox continued to kill thousands of people. In other countries like india indonesia and countries in sub saharan africa so in nineteen sixty seven the world health organization launched the intensified smallpox eradication program which provided technical assistance to countries eradication campaigns. This program was more successful. Thanks to mass vaccination campaigns the establishment of surveillance system to investigate cases and the development of the bifurcated needle. The last known natural case of smallpox was in somalia in nineteen seventy seven hospital. Cook ali mao malene who worked in the smallpox eradication programs to malia was exposed to the disease while he was in a vehicle with two children who had smallpox he recovered in later died in two thousand thirteen of malaria after aleem. Oh marlene's case. Alab accident in england that caused a minor outbreak triggered the last known instances of smallpox. Janet parker was the last person to die of smallpox. In one thousand nine hundred ninety. Eight on december ninth nineteen seventy nine members of the global commission for certification of smallpox eradication certify that smallpox had been eradicated and in may of nineteen eighty the world health simply acting on the recommendation of the global commission announced that worldwide eradication had been achieved and that only people working with ortho pox virus in research. Labs could use the smallpox vaccination. After the disease was declared eradicated. The stocks of the virus that remained were destroyed sent to one of two labs the centers for disease control and prevention in atlanta and the state research center of variety and biotechnology vector in russia. Debate later arose over whether the remaining laps stocks virus should be destroyed the world health organization recommended destroying it but stocks of the virus still exist. Smallpox is the only infectious disease affecting humans. That has been eradicated. I'm eve coat and hopefully you know a little more about history today than you did. Yesterday have a hard time staying present as you. Mindlessly scroll through social media lucky for you were stuck in the past at t. H z podcast on facebook instagram and twitter. Or if you are so unkind you can send us a message at this day. At iheart media dot com. Thanks for listening. Mary history to all and to all good night. The radio on your dashes. More than radio that sirius. Xm button is instant access to a world of exclusive entertainment including ad free music channels for every genre and decade. You can also hear your favorite sports comedy talking news. Plus you can stream with the sirius. Xm app on your phone and connected home devices so grab your phone. Dial pound two five zero and just see sirius. Xm to twelve months for five dollars a month with a new select subscription call for offer details fees and taxes apply. You've probably heard a lot about portland on the news about the tear. Gas and the federal agents would snatch vans and the the anarchy. Would you probably haven't heard in the truth because the reality of what happened in portland is so much stranger so much. More incredible than what the mainstream media was willing to show. I'm robert evans. And along with all of the other voices on my podcasts. Uprising against from portland. I was there. Listen to uprising a guide from portland on the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you listen to podcasts..
Dr Fauci on herd immunity
"Dr. Fauci, what is herd immunity, and when do you expect the United States to get there? Well, herd immunity. You know, sometimes the the terminology is we use can confuse people. What herd Immunity means is that when you get a certain percentage Of the population that is protected against infection, either by natural infection, and we're not even close to herd immunity now as proven By the fact that we have had spikes in areas that have previous spikes, so the previous spike didn't prevent them from the subsequent spike. So herd immunity is when you get a large proportion of the population that's protected, which means those who are vulnerable and not either the vaccine doesn't work in them. They have a biggest susceptibility to getting adverse effects of an indelicate, eerie is consequence of the infection. The fact that you have so many people that are protected the virus. If you want to use a metaphor has no place to go. It's looking for vulnerable people, and most of the population is protected. That's how viruses die out. That's how we smashed measles. That's how we smashed polio. That's how we smashed smallpox. So that's the reason why you have an efficacious vaccine. You want to get his many people protected so that it's almost like if you have heard of strong animals. You see it in the movies about going into Africa and the beautiful scenery you see about herds of wildebeest or what have you You have the herd that's really strong. You have some weak ones in there. So when someone maybe the metaphorical lions trying to get in there and take care of the weak ones, the strength of the herd protects the vulnerable ones. That's what you mean by herd immunity. So it's a question of Two components and efficacious vaccine and getting as many people vaccinated as you possibly can. Those two combinations together, those two ingredients could protect everyone which gets to another important question that people keep asking. We've got to make sure we engage the community. To realize that the decision about the safety and the efficacy of the vaccine and the speed with which we did it. The speed was based on very exquisite scientific advances and an enormous amount of resource is that would put into operation warp speed to make this happen? There was no compromise of safety. Nor was there compromise of scientific integrity. Now we've got to get that was real. Yeah, the decision. I right, Go ahead. Now. Let me just say it. I didn't mean to interrupt this decision to say that this vaccine is safe and effective. The data were analyzed by a completely independent board. The Datum Safety Monitoring board, which in fact doesn't have to answer to the administration doesn't have to answer to the company. They're independent. They look at the data and they said in Both of those vaccines, both the Madonna and the and the Fiza that it is official efficacious and it's safe and to protect you, even against serious disease. Those data then get analyzed by career scientists that the FDA in association with an advisory committee that again is independent. When that decision is made. All of the data is going to be seen by scientists like myself and my colleagues, so the process is independent and it's transparent. So I know there's been a lot of mixed messages that maybe have come out. But one needs to appreciate that. This is a solid process. So when they say that the vaccine is safe and effective, if we want to protect the individual and all of our society, we should take the vaccine and I could tell you when my turn comes up. And the FDA says that this is safe and effective. I myself will get vaccinated and I will recommend that my family gets
Why Does It Take So Long To Create A Vaccine?
"Right now. Scientists across the world to working on creating a vaccine for corona virus. A vaccine is something usually a shot that gives your body immunity to a disease. If you have immunity that means you are protected from a particular disease. Thanks to vaccines. We no longer have to worry about terrible diseases like smallpox. Scientists have been working for months to make cruel virus vaccine. What's taking so long. I want to be able to hang out with my friends. I got used to. I hear you. There are well over one hundred fifty grow virus vaccines that are being tested right now and the hope is that we won't have to wait much longer. There is a really good reason why vaccines take a long time to make in order to understand what's taking so long it helps to understand how vaccines work. The human body is amazing and one thing that makes it so amazing is the immune system the immune system protects you from all types of diseases including viruses like covid nineteen the problem with covid. Nineteen is that it is such a harmful virus. It is often able to overwhelm the immune system especially older people and people who already have certain other diseases. That's where vaccines come in. When you get a vaccine you're actually fooling your immune system into thinking. It's been exposed to something harmful like a virus or bacteria. The name used to describe something harmful that tries to attack. Your immune system is a pathogen. In order to defeat the pathogen. The body makes things called. Antibodies that are designed to destroy the nasty pathogen. But here's the cool part. You haven't really been exposed to the pathogen yet. You just got the vaccine. That will prepare your body if you do get infected tool to sum it all up getting a vaccine trains your body. It's a fight off a pathogen. Like ramona virus by preparing your immune system to fight the pathogen in the future. If you become exposed so getting the coronavirus vaccine would be kind of like giving your body. The corona virus playbook so it knows what to do if you actually get corona virus in the future. It kind of reminds me of that. One time i was playing basketball and my coach told me that there was a player on the other team. That likes to do a crossover dribble to the right. And then drive to the basket for a layup. It was a really nice move but thanks to the heads up for my coach i was able to shut it down to wait a bit for the corona virus vaccine to become available because scientists need to come up with a way to introduce the corona virus pathogen to our immune systems then tested the vaccine in animals. Then test it in a few humans to make sure to safe and to evaluate the perfect dose then tested in the larger number of humans to see how it impacts different people and make sure it's effective and then once it's approved hundreds of millions of doses needs to be made but once it's made you should consult with your doctor about getting the coronavirus vaccine so that if one day you become exposed to the corona virus you can shut it down.
COVID-19 vaccine distribution faces logistical challenges
"Drug. Giant pfizer requested emergency authorization today for its covid vaccine which it claims is ninety. Five percent effective. Tom costello has late. Details it's shaping up to be the fastest vaccine development and us history after forty four thousand. Volunteers rolled up their sleeves. Pfizer today became the first drug company to seek emergency. Fda authorization for a covert nineteen vaccine. We will continue. The work already underway to make sure we can begin shopping. The vaccine immediately after radiation. We're approval vaccine maker. Moderna also expected to its data soon putting both companies on track for fda clearance within weeks. We could have a decision from fda and within twenty four hours of that we will have started distributing millions of doses of safe and effective vaccine to begin protecting our most vulnerable across america. Here are five key steps to authorization. The vaccine trials include at least thirty thousand people who are diverse in race age and risk groups. The fda requires two months of follow up safety data before drugmakers can even submit for emergency use side effects typically appear in the first two months so far both companies report. No serious side effects both pfizer and madeira claimed their vaccines are ninety. Five percent effect to the question will they completely prevent a cova one thousand nine infection and how long that protection. Last the fda's advisory panel will convene on december tenth review the pfizer data. Then the fda will vote on whether to approve it. Meanwhile cdc advisory group will recommend should get vaccinated. I i li efficacious and effective vaccines have crushed epidemics like smallpox and polio. and measles. we can do that. The fda expects to have enough doses to begin vaccinating twenty million people by year's end starting with healthcare workers the general public likely following in the spring or summer. All right now. Tom joins us tom. They're even more vaccines coming down. The pike in the new year your astra zeneca and johnson and johnson both expect to have their vaccine candidates ready in the first quarter. The military is already planning the distribution for all of this within twenty four hours of approval. It plans to start shipping the vaccine to all fifty states. It's a big logistical challenge and tom. A vaccine can't come fast enough as more than two thousand. Americans died from covid it a single day for the first time since may and the number hospitalized set a record at more than eighty thousand.
Dr. Fauci Urges Public to Double Down on Public Health Measures Until Coronavirus Vaccine Is Available
"Dr Anthony Fauci is calling vaccines and opposing force to fight the Corona virus outbreak Mad Madison reports. Speaking at the White House, Fauci touted vaccines by companies Fizer and Moderno that are 95% effective against the virus. So those of you not acquainted with the field, the vaccine ology that is extraordinary that is almost to the level. What we see with measles, which is 98% effective, the nation's leading infectious disease expert noted. Vaccines have crushed other disease outbreaks, such as smallpox and polio found, she argued. People are also in imposing force to covert 19 if they follow through with mitigation
COVID-19 treatment to receive emergency-use approval from FDA
"The excitement about the Pfizer vaccine against Cove in 19, echoing all around the world, but the cheering Coming from a site ofthe Middletown Road in Pearl River, New York, That was a bit louder because that's the location where hundreds of scientists have been working on his vaccine around the clock, and Sean Adams is live with that story, Shawn. Rocklin County Executive Ed Day called Fizer executives to say well done. He's tipping his hat to the scientists and the researchers here in Pearl River who have have persevered persevered and and apparently apparently produced produced a a quite quite promising promising covert covert vaccine. vaccine. The The core core Frizer Frizer effort effort has has really really always always been been there, there, and and I I get get to to see see it it to to see see it it developed developed such a matter that we're dealing with the crisis over my lifetime. Andi have Frizer partnership a bio in Tech. Come up with a A A vaccine that will deals with 90% of the infections is just an amazing thing. Right now. Lifesaving research has occurred here at this property, the old lead early lab facility for over a century work on diphtheria, smallpox and polio. Visor and bio in Tech will continue to monitor trial participants for effectiveness and side effects. So far no serious problems. It's not clear yet how long immunity will last in a few weeks they could seek FDA emergency approval. The goal is to produce 1.3 billion doses next year.
Why the worsening pandemic overseas is a risk to Australia
"Say Norman it's really heartening to see in Ustralia that at local outbreaks are really coming down to really really levels but the case numbers each day are still high and that's partly because of returned travelers. So people who've coming back to Australia from other countries, many of which have caught lodge outbreaks of coronavirus happening there. We know that last time the big outbreak in Victoria happened from an escape from hotel quarantaine and the New South Wales Health Minister. Bread has it has indicated that he's worried about the potential for something like that to happen again what? Is that scenario and Health New South Wales also worried about the resource implications. I mean, we said before that a few weeks ago I got information from the raw prince Alfred that. Nursing shifts a week were be used at that point for Hotel Corentin, and that's before we upped the ante trying to get thirty thousand streams back before Christmas and as you say, coming from high prevalence countries. So the risk has gone up as the second wave in Europe has gone up. So the risk to us of returning Australians has gone up as well in proportion, and so we're going to see more people coming back who are positive and we want expanded facility. So. It's fantastic that we've got this facility, the heartstrings facility in the Northern Territory which apparently can be expanded, but it can take about one thousand people a foreigner right now that's not going to get you there in terms of Christmas, and getting all these people back and it requires medical resources so that people who are arriving back who might be sick, and in fact, there are people arriving back through sickness. One reason why they WANNA come back to get medical care and distributor. And that was the other implication for all prince offered is that some people were coming out of hotel quarantine to come into hospital For Surgery and other things nothing to do with covid nineteen because they were just seek and they needed help and they're entitled to it. So the question is, how do you scale and what do you do in the government? A report has a report on this and you can take a risk approach, which is that you say, well, if you coming back from Britain or Italy or France, then that's high risk and go into high risk facilities, but if you coming from China. Or Singapore assuming you're not in transit in Singapore that you've been in Singapore for a while obviously New Zealand and other countries than we maybe have a light touch you can quarantine at home we can do ankle bracelets you allow the authorities to track go track you on your phone those sorts of things that we can do but they're all got risk attached to them and we just going have to be really careful because we're all rejoicing Victoria opening up and through the Fall of nobody just the pressure of positive cases coming back we could be at significant risk of some cluster outbreaks. So we got the Howard Springs facility in the Northern Territory, which is great and elsewhere in it's mostly been done in hotels which really useful for quarantine but not purpose built for it. Do we need to be thinking more about the along the lines of the quarantine stations that we used to have a century ago? Well, yes, not can't imagine that the. Government's not thinking about that. So we have these quarantine stations the to I know best of the ones one of the Mornington peninsula in Victoria and the one on south, head, New South Wales, and they were designed for exactly this purpose in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century ships coming back from overseas, which might have had smallpox on them or infections that they didn't fully understand people went to the quarantine station and stayed there for a while until it was sorted out. They could be re purposed. They're not very big really in terms of numbers of people that you could take them. There are army camps. There are other things that you could do, but it's where you might be geographically isolated. It's hard for people to get away from them, but you look after humanely in reasonable comfort while you're quarantining in addition to using home corentin when it's much safer to do. So I think that you can look on this as a national project we want Australians to come home and we're gonna find ways of doing it.
Gates: The U.S. isnt helping get a COVID vaccine to the rest of the world
"Many organizations are working toward a covid nineteen back scene but even once it's discovered, we'll still have to manufacture and distribute it around the world that is a big incredibly complicated and expensive task. But ultimately, it may be the only way out of a crisis that has devastated the global economy and according to a progress report from the gates. Foundation has actually reversed progress towards poverty education and carrying diseases that report is out now. And Foundation Co Chair Bill Gates joins me today for the first of three conversations. I asked him about the scale of the vaccine distribution problem. Well, the European countries have stepped up here we don't have enough yet to buy for the entire world. The US is kind of unusual. It's funded a lot of RND that is helping move candidates forward, but it's only funded manufacturing procurement for itself and so is the Congress looks at. No Supplemental Bill. The historical leadership that the US. Global health whether it's smallpox eradication an issue polio. Congress will step up as yet. It's been a no show on this. How frustrating isn't I wonder I? Mean you're personally funding factories that are all working on a vaccine. You're you're sort of trying to organize this extra governmental effort. WOMP certainly talking to the Congress about their great history that they're rightly proud of on a bipartisan basis of how the USA showed up here. The benefits are stronger than ever because even from a selfish point of view at stopping the epidemic returning But strategically, and from a humanitarian point of view we should do what we've always done. Help save these lives and help try to get things back on track the. Report shows that not just the deaths from Cova, but also the disruption to the economy, the schools, the health system causing gigantic setbacks even far more deaths than the disease itself is causing in the US you mean globally, mostly globally, their health systems far more fragile their ability to come up and borrow a lot more money at the government level isn't the same as what the US can do. So they're suffering far more. One thing that is a priority of the foundation it sounds like is is equity overall, and in this case, equitable distribution of this successful vaccine. Tell me about the role of manufacturing and shortages around manufacturing. That could make that a big challenge well, a number of the candidates including Astra. Zeneca Novak's Johnson and Johnson and snuffy can be made at very low cost and very high volume, and so we've set up arrangements where. Not. Just the company that invents the vaccine and supervises the trials but also other companies who have high volume manufacturing capacity can take exactly that same vaccine and produce billions of doses so that you get many factories getting up to speed ideally were getting over billion doses out in twenty, twenty one and enough to end the epidemic and twenty twenty
The crazy theory that masks are building up our coronavirus immunity
"So Norman, let's take a trip back in time today eight to a previous pandemic nine, the Spanish flu none of the plague. Let's talk about smallpox and you think that there's some things we can learn from smallpox to help us with covid. Nineteen Year? What do you think smallpox covid nineteen have in common that's the question hopefully eradication but probably not let's be real. Well, I don't think we'll ever eradicate unfortunately covid nineteen but that would be very nice. So rather than leave you in agony, it's cold variation now before Jenner. Edward. Jenner person who's the same name as the institute that developed the Oxford vaccine by the way so. Just, these things come under circles could develop the found out that the infection in dairy maids caught cowpox protected against smallpox before that happened in new developed that smallpox vaccination the way to actually protect against smallpox was to give a small does of smallpox particularly to children incredibly dangerous and what they would sometimes do get smallpox scabs and puff them up the nose sometimes they was scratch. It into the skin and the ideal would be go to small attack smallpox maybe one or two pox on their skin, and then they were immune for evermore. In fact, it's thought that the epidemic that killed aboriginal people are unsettling harbor just after the first fleet arrived might have been through the accidental or maybe even delivered vaccination of variation using smallpox the link is hypothesized by a recent. Paper in the New England Journal is that maybe You could get significant protection against the nineteen from a small dose of Covid nineteen just as you did with smallpox and this process called variation can be for second. Isn't that kind of what vaccine does? Yes. Does but much more safely. The. Dangerous things you're giving the live virus you'll give you the live smallpox virus and some children have died from variation and if you gave the live covid nineteen, sure you're going to be immune who knows how long for but you could die of the covid nineteen. So the idea and immunization is that you make that process safe either by doing what they're doing at the moment covid nineteen and using recombinant DNA, which is just the genetic material not. Really a long way divorced from the virus. There is a Chinese vaccine which uses an activated form of the virus, but the idea here is that is not endangering somebody's life by giving them the live Iris.
Africa now free of wild poliovirus, but polio threat remains
"The World Health Organization declares Africa polio-free. By Jeffrey Kluger. Nobody will ever know the identity of the thousands of African children who were not killed or paralyzed by polio this year, they would have been hard to keep track of no matter what because in ordinary times they would've followed thousands last year and thousands the year before and on back in a generations long trail of suffering and death instead, no African children were claimed by polio. This year or last year or the year before it was in two thousand sixteen that the last case of wild circulating polio was reported in Nigeria the final country on the fifty four nation African continent where the disease was endemic and with the required multi year waiting period. Now, having passed with no more cases, the World Health Organization today officially declared the entirety of, Africa polio-free. A disease that as recently as the late nineteen eighties was endemic in one hundred, twenty, five countries claiming three hundred, fifty, thousand children per year has now been run to ground in just two remaining places, Pakistan and Afghanistan where there have been a collective one, hundred, two cases so far twenty twenty that's one hundred to too many. But there's no denying the scope of the whol announcement today's victory over the wild poliovirus in the. African region is a testament to what can happen when partners from a variety of sectors join forces to accomplish a major global health goal says John Hueco, general, secretary, and CEO of Rotary International. It is something the world can and should aspire to during these turbulent times. It was Rotary and International Nonprofit Service Organization that kicked off the polio endgame in Nineteen Eighty eight with the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative the GPA. That program aimed to leverage the power of rotaries thirty, five, thousand clubs and one point twenty, two, million members in two hundred countries and territories worldwide to make polio only the second human disease after smallpox to be pushed over the brink of extinction.
Africa declared free of wild polio in 'milestone'
"On independent panel, set up by the World Health Organization has declared that Africa is free from wild polio. It marks only the second eradication of a virus from the continent since smallpox 40 years ago. The head of the W. H O Dr Ted Ross Adhanom. Gabrielle has hailed the achievement. Today is a day of celebration, and they offer hope. Today we come together to rejoice over an historic public held Sachs is the certification off while poliovirus eradication in the African region. I congratulate the people and governments off Africa for your leadership and determination. Your sax is is the success off the world. Pakistan and Afghanistan. And now the only countries reporting cases of wild polio.
The Covid-19 changes that could last long-term
"In 19 is probably never going to go away with or without a vaccine. But that doesn't mean the future will be quite as terrifying as the present is. We are joined now by Dr Veneto. Naturally, he is a Corona, virus researcher at the University of Texas Medical Branch. And he explains How we will adapt to this corona virus. Moving forward has a lot to do with immunity. Welcome to the program. Thank you. So why is it so hard? The first of all to eradicate this virus specifically Corona viruses. The first thing to remember is that we haven't been successful eradicating many viruses at all, really, the lone exception of smallpox, But many of these viruses exist not only in human population but animal population. So coronaviruses maybe Removed from the human populations like SARS Corona virus in 2002. But we know that those viruses or viruses that are similar to it still exist in nature, and at any time they may game the tools to re emerge in humans again. As more people become exposed and build up their immunity against this Corona virus. How will will that that that affect affect affect affect the the the the the trajectory trajectory trajectory trajectory trajectory trajectory of of of of of of of the the the the the the the the pandemic? pandemic? pandemic? pandemic? pandemic? pandemic? pandemic? pandemic? pandemic? Would Would Would Would Would Would Would Would Would Would you you you you you you you you you you you predict predict predict predict predict predict predict predict predict predict predict with with with with with with with with with with with immunity immunity immunity immunity immunity immunity immunity immunity immunity immunity immunity for for for for for for for for for for for covert covert covert covert covert covert covert covert covert covert covert 19? 19? 19? 19? 19? 19? 19? 19? 19? 19? 19? So So So So So So So So So So So it's it's it's it's it's it's it's it's it's it's it's still still still still still still still still still still still up up up up up up up up up up up in in in in in in in in in in in the the the the the the the the the the the Air Air Air Air Air Air Air Air Air Air Air Cove Cove Cove Cove Cove Cove Cove Cove Cove Cove Cove in in in in in in in in in in in 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 is is is is is is is is is is is really really really really really really really really really really really unique unique unique unique unique unique unique unique unique unique unique in in in in in in in in in in in a a a a a a a a a a a couple couple couple couple couple couple couple couple couple couple couple of of of of of of of of of of of different different different different different different different different different different different ways, one like the common cold coronaviruses. It spreads very easy, but unlike those it causes the severe disease. Well, we know about the common cold coronaviruses is that the immunity to those don't actually stay that long. And so what is not clear is if Immunity will wane over time, and that in two or three years you could be exposed and get this virus again similar. He got a common cold coronaviruses every few years. On the other end of that. Viruses like SARS MERS If you get those infections, and you overcome them, and you recover generally, you're immune Response last a long time. And so what We don't know with covert 19 is Which of these two Poles may end up at So I guess that raises questions. First of all about a vaccine how effective it will be. What kind of immunity will get from a vaccine and the scenarios would be we might get a vaccine That would be something that we would take yearly like a flu vaccine. Or maybe it would be more akin to vaccines That would give you one shot. And then you're immune for life. Those this sort of two options. Yeah, I think there's probably somewhere in between. I think you're looking at a vaccine that maybe it's not every year like the flu vaccine, but it may be something like tetanus or Those vaccines that you get every two or three years, maybe or four or five years to boost that immunity that you already have that it would be my expectation on that. So I guess this is the big question. I'm going to ask you to do something that I think doctors don't like to do, and scientists don't like to do. Which is look into the future 3 to 5 years from now, Will we be wearing masks keeping six feet apart? How will we have to change our behavior to co exist with this virus that isn't going to go away? Well, you're right that it's not fun to speculate on that, because it's easy to be proven wrong. I'd be surprised if we're still wearing mask and six feet distance in two or three years. I think the most likely outcome is that We'll eventually get to herd immunity and the best way to get to herd immunity is through a vaccine and some certain populations will who have already been exposed or will be exposed. Amen. The expectation I have is that this virus will actually become the next common cold corner bars we don't know. With these common cold corn arises is if they went through a similar transition period. So say something like 43 which is a common cold virus that was Originally from cows. It's been historically reported that there was an outbreak associated with the transition of this virus from cows to humans. That was very severe disease. And then after a few years, the virus became just the common cold. And so in 3 to 5 years, it may be that you're still getting Cove in 19. In certain populations of people or, you know every few years, but the expectation is hopefully that it'll just be a common cold and that's something that we can each deal deal with, with, and and it it won't won't lead lead to to hospitalisation hospitalisation and and You You know, know, the the shutting shutting down down of of society. society.
Supreme Court Victory, Progress for Native Americans
"One of the big rulings from this year Supreme Court term was mcgirt versus Oklahoma. The five to four decision declared a swath of the state near Tulsa to be part of the Muskogee creek nations reservation enforcing nineteenth century treaties the US made with the creek that landmark recognition of native American rights could lead to nearly half of the state being classified as Indian country but it also. Wrestled with questions of sovereignty on native American reservations. This is an issue that native American legal advocates Sarah dear who is a citizen of the Muskogee? Creek, nation has been working on for many years. We had a chance to speak with her following the decision Sarah. I'd love to hear your reflections on this decision as well as the broader impact. This could have for all native Americans. Well. Winning a treaty case in the Supreme Court. In twenty twenty is not what anybody was expecting. This case came about in a very interesting and unexpected way as a result of some folks who were prosecuted by home, and so they they were the champions for tribal sovereignty I. It's a very odd circumstance where you have perpetrators of crime on the one hand and celebrating their victory because it means so much for Indian country. So Sarah, you've worked on tribal law and issues of sovereignty for much of your career. Why is this such a pivotal issue for you and for Native Americans? The Supreme Court does not have a great track record with tribal issues and so when cases move their way through the federal system, you know from the district to the circuit to the Supreme Court. Feel like we're always playing defense like we're really struggling to get the issues of tribal tribal governments you know to be treated seriously, and so I think this victory is not just important for native people from my tribe are even if people from Oklahoma but to see a treaty be held up as the law of the land, the constitution requires is a tremendous lift for people all over the United States who care about tribal issues tell us more about the work ahead regarding this issue. Sure. Well, one of the restrictions that still remains on our jurisdiction over crimes is that we can't prosecute. Unless it's a domestic violence case. So that means that if a non native person commits a homicide or a sexual abuse case against a child, if they do those things and it's on the reservation, we have no power over them in terms of the criminal justice system. So one of my long term agenda items is to change that to just re restore tribes like any government can prosecute anybody who comes into our community and commits an act of violence. I'm currently sitting in Kansas right now if I went to Missouri and committed a crime, you know they could prosecute me. So why shouldn't it be the same tribes Sarah gear slightly another big topic in the news, of course, is the impact of the coronavirus across the world and we know that it has also hit native Americans particularly hard. Why is that and what kind of attention would you like to see around this issue? I'm. So glad you asked that I think the primary issue that we're seeing of course, the health disparities that already exist. Right. So we've been talking about how folks have a higher rate of of sort of vulnerabilities like diabetes or lung disease, those kinds of things, and so tribal nations suffer from those disparities as well I think it's also hearkens back right to smallpox in a way because tribal nations almost disappeared as a result of widespread adoption. Starting in the seventeen hundreds and even continuing into the Spanish flu era. In the early part of the twentieth century, you know very high death rates and so there's a sense that here's a sense of urgency about viruses that may not exist in other communities because we know we're barely here. In the aftermath of smallpox, and so we do take these things very seriously. I also think that tribal communities tend to be very small and and sort of. Close, and so that also puts our nation at risk in are like in some of our trouble cultures, you just don't. You don't knock go see grandma. Culturally like you go see grandma right and so that's been a cultural barrier and some of our communities towards the necessary necessity of isolation that's been a hard cultural thing to to deal with for a lot of native people. We're also at a time where we're seeing a movement across the nation focusing on several rights reforming the justice system. It seems like we're also seeing a lot more intersection -ality on issues that overlap for multiple groups here. Do you feel that native Americans are being heard in these broader conversations in this broader push for equality? I do I think that you know the black lives matter has really open doors for for many different issues although the the centering of of black bodies and police brutality certainly at the core, the discussions and the protests that we're having a really opening up a lot of conversations and those are conversations that native people have wanted to have on a national level and wanted to be able to. Take to a larger audience and I think we owe a debt of gratitude to black lives matter which is open. So many doors to talk about difficult historical issues and of course, that's our story right typical historical issues that that have really damaged tribal communities and so that opportunity has we've really benefited I think from other forms of activism and I feel very grateful for the work that they've done.
Researchers Throw Cold Water on the Panic Around COVID-19’s Alleged Short-Lived Immunity
"There was a study put out by King's College in London a few weeks ago, which found that covid nineteen antibodies in people who had been infected largely disappeared after two months. The headlines about covid nineteen immunity being temporary were all over the place with more than a few implying that this means will never have a truly effective vaccine and never truly defeat the coronavirus. It's all terrifying so I wanted to share some insight from Derek. Thompson over at the Atlantic spoke with a number of experts to get a deeper understanding of the study and inject some good news into all of the headline fearmongering. Now I'm not going to tell you that. The study was totally wrong and that we're all going to be completely fine nothing about covid nineteen is completely good news, but as Shane Crotty of urologist at the La Hoya Institute for -Nology told the Atlantic actually looking at the data. I feel okay about it. Quoting further from the Atlantic acquired immunity is. Memory when our bodies fight off infection, we want our immune systems to remember how to defeat it again like a person who, after solving a big jigsaw puzzle recognizes and remembers how to set the pieces the next time. The whole point of vaccination is to teach the immune system those same puzzle solving lessons without exposing it to the full virus. This is why Casey L. study initially seemed so dreadful it. It found that the number of certain active antibodies called neutralizing antibodies declined significantly between tests especially in patients with mild or no symptoms. Antibody levels are one proxy for the Immune System's memory. If they plunged quickly, that might mean that our immune system can't remember how to solve covid nineteen for more than a few months at a time do minus to start from square one with each new exposure end quotes. Now while those findings from the King's college study are definitely concerning, there are three main reasons to be skeptical about the study and therefore hopeful for futures. I, the study only looked at one part of our immune system, our vast mysterious immune system about which there remain many unknowns quoting again when a new pathogen enters, the body are adaptive immune system calls up a team of BCL's with produce antibodies and t cells to over simplify the B. Cells antibodies intercept and bind to invading molecules and the killer t cells seek and destroy infected cells, Evaluating Immune Response Without A. T cells is like inventory, national air force, but leaving out the bomber jets, and in the case of covid nineteen, those bomber jets could make the biggest difference. A growing collection of evidence suggests that t cells provide the strongest and longest lasting immunity cove in nineteen, but this study didn't measure them at all end quote, further study and a Francis Strasbourg university hospital found that patients recovering from covid nineteen had strong t cell responses, despite not having any detectable antibodies. Now second decline in antibodies that unusual Shane Crotty the Varela gist from the Loy. Institute for Immunology. said quote it unusual to have feeding antibody response after several months the off. Isn't that surprising when you look at something like the smallpox vaccine easy the antibody responses down about seventy five percent after six months, but that's a vaccine that works for decades. We need a study like this to look at Cova patients six months after infection to really know what we're dealing with and quote. And third, and finally it's possible that even these low levels of antibodies could trigger a larger immune response in the future like if the individual is exposed to SARS Cov to again, this goes back to the immunological memory. It's like the memories and that strong when it's not confronted, but win the trigger of the virus returns, so does the memory. Even beyond the critiques of this one study that caused so much panic in the news, there remain many other reasons to be hopeful. Vaccine Research continues to steamroll along at an unprecedented pace. Several studies on monkeys have shown strong long lasting immune response and a new study shows that patients who recovered from SARS East Asia indeed have long lasting t cell immunity. Plus Journalists Noah. Smith shared on twitter, pointing to research from immunologist professor. Akiko, it was sake. This news about antibodies doesn't necessarily mean the vaccine would be ineffective because quoting Sake, vaccines can elicit stronger immune response than natural. Those covid nineteen vaccines can and should induce more robust and durable protection than natural infection end quote. As no Smith sums it all up quote. One antimony bunnies aren't the only thing that can give you. Immunity to your body can probably remember how to make new antibodies and three vaccines can potentially give you longer lasting immunity than you'd get from actually getting covid end quote.
Trump heads to Mount Rushmore for divisive fireworks celebration
"Fourth of July this year as the cases of the Corona virus have surged around the country. Health officials air worrying that revelers eager to celebrate the holiday with others will create the perfect storm for the virus. To spread once again when when the the other other Americans Americans are are reevaluating reevaluating how how to to celebrate celebrate the the day, day, many many others others were were questioning questioning what what the the holiday holiday means means as as the the country country gravels. gravels. Now, Now, with with our our history history of of racism, brought to the fore by the summer's black lives, movement matters and Gloria Romero Is in Washington D. C. With a perspective on this different Fourth of July. It's a holiday that celebrates life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. But on this July 4th, those ideals are being put to the test by the cove it 19 pandemic, With new cases rising and at least 36 states hospitals and some of the hardest hit areas are struggling to keep up right throughout the city and throughout the county are really becoming saturated. And at this pace if it doesn't stop, we are going to be in trouble, and health experts worry the holiday weekend could add fuel to the fire. We're setting records multiple records this week. For new cases. But I fear that this could in fact get worse. Despite the crisis, President Trump is celebrating at Mount Rushmore. The 7500 person event will not have social distancing, which experts say poses health risk for everyone, including the president, who of the four faces. Washington, Washington and Jefferson on Mount Rushmore got smallpox. No one is immune to a novel virus, which has never hit us before. The faces on Mount Rushmore, also a reminder of another issue. Americans are grappling with this Independence Day racism. There's no question that Washington and Jefferson and all of our leaders have disappointed us and what it means to be black in America, I think is fair, too sometimes question. Whether America loves African Americans as much as we love the recent course of human events, leading to an Independence Day for the history books at the White House. I'm not
"smallpox" Discussed on This Day in History Class
"Nowhere is the gauntlet thrown down for MOMS. Like it is during the holidays. You WanNa get great gifts for everyone on your list and if you're newer expecting mom you're still trying to get everything together for your her baby in your nursery well. This year you could actually conquer the holidays with Ebay. That's right you can go to Ebay DOT COM to get croupier baby. And then you can just load it up with gift for everybody else and luckily Ebay has them all at a price you can afford and it's not just a great prices. They also have the best selection of every imaginable gift. You can think of check out Ebay Dot Com this holiday season to find the right thing for everyone on your list disdain. History class is a production of iheartradio. Hi Everyone I'm eaves and welcome to this day in history class. A podcast where we one day ship notes of history straight to your brain through your ear hole. Today is December December nine th twenty nineteen the day was December ninth nineteen seventy nine members of the Global Commission for the certification of smallpox eradication. Signed a statement that declared that smallpox have been eradicated worldwide and that the return of the virus was unlikely smallpox disease caused by the very. Ola Virus has been around down for at least three thousand years. Though its origin is unknown. The disease was fatal for about three. Every ten people who contracted people who had a smallpox got fevers body aches. Rashes sores and scabs and it was contagious. Spread through person to person. Contact Act an saliva. At first various relation was used to control. The spread of smallpox variation was a method of immunization where patients would be he purposely exposed to the material from smallpox pustules so they developed symptoms of smallpox. These patients would develop a mild form of the the disease and were less likely to die than those who contracted smallpox naturally but in the seventeen ninety s English. Dr Edward Jenner realized is that vaccination could prevent people from getting smallpox at first cowpox was used to make the smallpox vaccine but in later years the Vaccinia virus virus was used to create the vaccine by the twentieth century. The smallpox vaccine has become widely available vaccination against smallpox became mandatory in many places around the world and cases of smallpox declined but smallpox remained one of the main causes of death due to infectious disease in the nineteen eighteen fifties. There were around fifty million cases of the disease every year. When a ratification of the disease was discussed at the World Health Assembly in Nineteen fifty eighty three. There was little confidence that effort would succeed. Since attempts to eradicate other diseases had failed but Soviet epidemiologist. Victor shot an off. I was convinced that freeze dried smallpox. Vaccines could be the answer to an effective ratification program. World Health Organization. Member States voted. Owed it to start a global smallpox eradication campaign at the World Health Assembly in Nineteen fifty-nine vaccination campaigns in some countries were successful In eliminating the disease but the global campaign was hindered by lack of funds lack of personnel limited commitment from countries and a shortage of vaccine donations. Smallpox continued to kill thousands of people. In other countries like India Indonesia and countries in sub Saharan Africa so in nineteen sixty seven the World Health Organization launched the intensified smallpox eradication program which provided technical assistance to countries. Eradication campaigns pains. This program was more successful. Thanks to mass vaccination campaigns the establishment of surveillance system to investigate cases and the development development of the bifurcated needle. The last known natural case of smallpox was in Somalia in nineteen seventy seven. Hospital Cook Alima. Oh Marlene Who worked in the smallpox eradication programs Malia was exposed to the disease while he was in a vehicle with two children who had smallpox he recovered in later. died in two thousand. Thirteen of malaria. After Alamo Marlene's case a lab accident in England that caused a minor outbreak triggered the last known known instances of smallpox. Jen and Parker was the last person to die of smallpox in one thousand nine hundred ninety eight on December ninth nineteen seventy nine members of the Global Commission for Certification of smallpox eradication certify that smallpox had been eradicated and in May of nineteen eighteen eighty the world health assembly acting on the recommendation of the Global Commission announced that worldwide eradication had been achieved and that only people people working with Ortho pox virus in research. Labs could use the smallpox vaccination. After the disease was declared eradicated. The stocks of the virus. Iris that remained were destroyed. are into one of two labs the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta and the State Research Center of Morality and biotechnology defector in Russia. Debate later arose over whether the remaining lab stocks of areola virus should be destroyed the World Health Organization recommended destroying it but stocks of the virus still exist. Smallpox is the only infectious disease affecting humans. That has been eradicated. I'm Eve Jeffcoat and hopefully you know a little more about history today than you did. Yesterday have a hard time staying president as you mindlessly. Scroll grow through social media. Lucky for you were stuck in the past at td. I H Z podcast on facebook instagram and twitter. Or if you're so inclined you can send us a message at this day at Iheart Media Dot Com. Thanks for listening. Mary history the street to all and to all a good night for more podcasts from iheartradio visit with the iheartradio APP apple podcasts. Where every listened to your favorite shows. Did you know the air inside. Our homes is five times more polluted than outdoor air air filters can't get to the root of the problem. Microscopic allergens pathogens that live on our bids counters and other surfaces but the probiotic purifier by better air can better air uses environmental probiotics to remove those microbes from your home so you can literally breathe better. Learn more at better air. PROMISE DOT COM. There's a sixty day. No Risk money-back guarantee plus save thirty three percent. When you place your order now go to better air promise dot Com and start breathing better..
"smallpox" Discussed on MAD MONEY W/ JIM CRAMER
"Couple of the trees complications from the smallpox vaccine. It's part of a stockpile hopefully being ever meet it when the stock zoomed on the news emerging. It's been having a tough year. Okay. So it's really kind of interesting moment. Some of us because last year they bought a. Depth. Former for business and Teva recently got approval for generic version of the same thing. So could this talk ready to run? Let stink deeper with Robert Kramer, no, relation the presidency over merging pas Lucians to get a better read when his company and his process. Mr Chairman, welcome money. Good to see you, sir. Have a seed. All right. So let's go right into that's a gigantic contract, about smallpox when I heard about I said to myself, we're not later smallpox I can still see the vaccine. Why do we need to spend six hundred million dollars on smallpox? But apparently, there's some real issues with smallpox that we do need to be immune against right. Sure. So smallpox is one of the biologic threats that many countries including the United States is most concerned about from a weapon. So our country stockpiles, both therapeutics is well as vaccines to protect our civilians and military populations from the threat of smallpox. So the contract that you mentioned yesterday that we announced was for the therapy. Dick piece of our smallpox franchise. We also have a smallpox vaccine. They were in contract negotiations with the US government as well that we expect to complete in the coming months, and it's not just that terrible disease typhoid, cholera. These are all rain your wheelhouse. Right him. You must have some special expertise minute stuff. They are. So our company was formed in one thousand nine hundred ninety eight around public health threats in general..
"smallpox" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"Disease that is smallpox kills by overwhelming your immune system with the protein that counteracts antibodies that would normally prevent infected cells from replicating the virus to catch smallpox. It takes close contact with the person who is actively suffering from it which meant that people who cared for the ill. We're usually the ones who came down with it. What's a person comes down with smallpox survives their conferred a lifelong immunity to the disease, and even though they may still carry the virus? They aren't contagious to others even people who've never had smallpox before. By the middle ages smallpox had settled into Europe becoming endemic which means that settled into the human population kind of made itself comfortable, it went into hiding and made the rounds when newcomers who'd never been exposed to the virus entered the towns of people who are already immune to it. So in Europe smallpox became mostly a disease of children and immigrants. The local adults had all either died from it or survived it and become immune. Once it became endemic. The mortality rate for smallpox hovered around thirty percent. It killed about three out of every ten people who came in contact with it. But in the fifteenth century your began to spill over its banks, and it brought the disease to places that had never encountered it before. West Africa was first visited by slave traders from Portugal Spain who brought pandemics with them many of the villages that were rated had never been exposed to the disease. And so it spread quickly the people suffering those outbreaks were stolen from their homes, and there were taken to holding camps along the coast where the disease spread even more quickly. Those people were forced onto ships while they were actively ill making the horrific experience of being enslaved, even more brutal. Each time a ship set sail from Africa to the Americas over stuff with people ill from smallpox, it was like tossing a lit match onto a powder cake at I the ships were too slow to make it to the new world before the smallpox burned itself out the human cargo aboard where either no longer contagious over dead from it by the time they made land, but as ocean going technology improved those ships. Got faster and eventually one of those matches stayed lit. And it set off the powder cake of the Americas. It is difficult to overstate the effect that European disease had on north and South America, not just smallpox, but a number of contagious disease began to rage at once forming overlapping, epidemics, called Cindy mic's. The native Americans had never been exposed to these kinds of packages. And so they had no natural defenses against them. Which allowed the diseases to spread at unimaginable rates and kill untold numbers of people..
"smallpox" Discussed on The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe
"For bioterrorism and even beyond that through, obviously, this kind of new field of synthetic biology. We've seen some pretty interesting stuff happened in two thousand six Canadian researchers made horsebox from DNA that they ordered online. They were able to find pieces of DNA from different biomedical companies and put it together and create horsebox. So there's no real reason why with a little bit of creativity and a lot of hard work, we couldn't produce a synthetic smallpox and that could be even more dangerous, right? Because it could be engineered to be more virulent ample to spread more easily. Also, apparently smallpox could lie dormant in mummies because we know this mall pox existed in ancient Egypt. Like smallpox is super old disease, and we found traces like tens of thousands of years ago, and there's a chance that, for example, as permafrost melts as you know, we find these. Archaeological sites in places that were protected previously, we could encounter potentially dormant cases of smallpox in corpses. The next each man could have small exactly. And the researchers who discover him could contract smallpox which is really scary, right? Smallpox is a really, really rough disease like it's got a high. Were Taliban rate. It's incredibly painful. Three out of ten people with with smallpox died. That's hi. That's a lot of people. And even people who lived usually had scars, facial scarring, scarring all over their body blindness, not not very good outcomes. Now, the last outbreak in the US was as far back as nineteen forty nine. So it's not a every day threat, but the threat of bioterrorism through smallpox exists. And that's why these drug companies argue that it is important to develop basically a quote, unquote antidote an antiviral that in case of somebody is exposed, whether it be in a lab or through some sort of bioterrorism disgruntled employee, that's what they think happened. You remember with the anthrax attacks. And so there's a secondary company that's also developing a drug. It's called Brin sit of before I said. Brin Sydow phobia out of Durham, North Carolina, and that one got fast tracked because it was designated and maybe you know more about this Steve as an orphan drug, which I guess is a colloquial term for therapies for diseases that have a super super small market clueless technical. Oh, it is. There was an orphan drug law. Gotcha. You have to be. It's like being an endangered species. It's an operational definition. You have to be declared an orphan drug by the FDA, and then that grant certain rights and privileges to the pharmaceutical company who develops drugs for an orphan disease call. Okay. So then smallpox I guess, has been designated that as an orphan disease, right? Because nobody. Or for disease? Non-existent. Yeah. And so that means that we do have a drug that's about to come to market. It just got FDA approval and another drug that's been fast tracked, and yeah, so you know, some people might argue that this is a waste of resources, but other people might argue that we should be definitely better safe than sorry, because smallpox is not something that any of us want to encounter within our lifetimes. It's actually probably one of the greatest. I mean, it's kind of been hailed as one of the greatest marvels of modern medicine. The fact that we were able to completely radically this. I mean, just Google it Google images of smallpox thing, and you'll be reminded of a time when you did not want to be alive. I know it's like we talk about plague of holy. Yeah, exactly. And do you know why it's called smallpo- because syphilis at the time caused big part? Yeah, they called it the great pox. Yeah. Yeah. And so this was designated a smallpox as to distinguish it from from the great pox things..
"smallpox" Discussed on KTAR 92.3FM
"Six six five zero. JIMBO is our number as we talk with Jim who, calls. In from Hereford Wisconsin if you could, connect us with Jim. That would be appreciated Denver Medford Wisconsin Sorry, it is Tim if he'd, go right, ahead Well what town. Wisconsin I'm from Wisconsin originally Yeah. I, I'm in Medford. Wisconsin in northern north Northern. Halfway. Between old. Claire and. Washed off. All right okay got. It, all right go ahead good to talk it Well what. Question. Was was. This I. Heard the. Story a story that Young George Washington one time in his extensive young live actually traveled to the Caribbean with his brother, and that they. Had contracted smallpox that that his brother Paris from it but he. Survived and I've heard somebody historians have prophesized that because he survived smallpox it was one. Of, the reasons why he and Martha were never able to become parents Oh yeah that's a really. Interesting observation yeah that's mostly true. What the what, you're, what you've heard that that when George was and he was about nineteen and his brother was in his twenties mid to late twenties that that doctor recommended that the, older brother Lawrence. Go to a better climate because he had tuberculosis it wasn't smallpox. Curricula which is a long one disease and so George company him old the older brother Lawrence's wife, had a small child. And could go and so they went to the Caribbean together it was only time in his whole life George sailed overseas that one trip they they went to the island of Barbados and they. Spent several weeks there and George did contract smallpox and he. You know he was really sick he didn't survive I mean, he survived his brother was wasn't dealing with smallpox but he. Was, doing, you know struggling with terrific. Closest, and he was. Still having a hard time George left after a few weeks and went back to two British British North America to Virginia colony and, warrants went to Bermuda and that didn't work and he came back to for and he died shortly after so whether that. Was the reason that, George was apparently sterile I'm not. Sure I don't know enough about, physiologically about smallpox That came close to realty I know high fevers really high. Fevers can cause it and I it you know it's a, suspect smallpox does result in really high fever so that like Might be some some reason there I mean some some Basis, for truth in that story all right. Good good points Tim Fischer that you bring that up we think of of course of the. The presidency as, being more or less thrust upon Washington but in fact. He at one point did have a yen, for politics he ran for the Virginia house of Burgess says the the state assembly of what I suppose might be considered the. Get them, drunk platform I mean it was it's a well, maybe it, isn't all that different from our air I'm not sure you know we. Don't we don't handle alcohol quite the same way more money is in, politics now but in when he was really twentieth George did run for the, Virginia house, purchases which is like running for the state legislature and he of, course Virginia colony at this point and the first time you've lost and he thought that. He you, know. Maybe it, wasn't involved enough kind of go around, when the voters enough and the second time he ran he was he was a wilderness post. And you know, he had his duty was to protect the Virginia frontier. Units shoots responsibility almost two thousand men yet, he wanted to run in this election and so he could personally be there in the county Where he was. Running for election but he's sent his is agents and he, told them, don't let anybody go without what they want drink and and so he. Ended up in his run for, the Virginia house Burgess says he he, ended up spending buying the voters twenty eight gallons or Plum fifty gallons of, rum punch, thirty four gallons of wine or about a third of a gal, alcoholic beverage for each of the three hundred ninety four One third of a gallon You know you really had to buy your voters in those. Days, with. Something they've it well yeah I guess there. Was no cable, back then so you know what are you gonna do Yeah Yeah we'll take a quick..
"smallpox" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Disease through changes in its genetic sequencing how advanced is that genetic surveillance is very advanced for certain diseases for example in polio when a virus is identified and genetically sequenced you can actually tell we're that virus came from and how long it's been circulating so for example if a virus is found in the sewerage system in one country but it has a sequence matching a virus in another country you know that that virus came in from that other country in some type of person the same is true for influenza genetics valances what permits each year a new vaccine that is based on how the virus has been mutating so genetics are really a sign for the future but as we said earlier there are other tools there antibiotics here's good basic epidemiology looking for disease isolating patients and making sure that context or isolated or at least surveyed regularly to make sure they're not becoming sick but antibiotics themselves are becoming weak and less effective and therefore what the sepe is doing for vaccines is very important because eventually there will also be vaccines to prevent those infections which are now becoming less true beatable because of anti microbial resistance and i'll give you the example of smallpox smallpox was radicalized using a vaccine and in one thousand nine hundred was certified as a radical since then there's no need to use any antibiotics or anti.
"smallpox" Discussed on 1410 WDOV
"Smallpox is a biological weapon in the atlantic storm exercise in two thousand five in that exercise they also highlighted smallpox but this time they focused on it's intentional global us is a bio weapon so here we are with klay dex claimed meeting an unknown mother organism lead producers other organisms so this is the first exercise that use an unnamed organism the generated more mutated organisms and multiplied like an alien contagion source meaning an alien type of disease something that would trigger zombie apocalypse if you will you'd lennox storm scenario was group nato exercise or nato countries that came together for a summit and they had to tackle transatlantic joint responses to multiple leases a smallpox smallpox and so what they were doing is they were deciding how and if they would share resources and vaccines for instance former us secretary of state madeleine albright in the atlantic storm scenario battling albright played the president of the united states and the event was viewed on both the bbc and nightline kleenex though was not getting major coverage on any network it was an invitation only audience of about one hundred and fifty people and then they had a live stream of the event on facebook it was available to everyone so they said but if you do go to the clayton x facebook page i was not able to find any saved streams for replay coincidentally it was announced today that scientists are ready to tested experimental vaccine that is called the universal flu shot if all goes well if all goes according to plan the annual flu shot protects about sixty percent vaccinated people but they need to experiment.
"smallpox" Discussed on Breaking Math Podcast
"So the takeaway of this is that swe have a number and if we can make that number less than one than we kill off the disease like we do smallpox and there's ways that we can deal with viruses i mean like what three ways that we have our quarantine where you were one was who is infected is isolated from other people as to not spread the disease also sanitation which of course is just cleanliness and finally we've got vaccines and you'll notice that all three of these effect the beta number the rate at which disease can be spread because it's with senator johnson you like you have less bacteria sitting around so there's less than quarantined the bacteria have nowhere to go and was back scenes the bacteria has have nothing to do end up by white blood cells or i don't know if that's held back viruses are eaten in the body but yeah now one model that's pretty way used because it's pretty simple but can be using conjunction with other models to create very complex and nuanced models is called the sl our model and that stands for susceptible infected and recovered this is a different question isn't that right yeah and we're gonna talk about what that means in just a second but just so you're not lost us acceptable are people who have the disease yet and they're not immune to it infected are the people who are infected and recovered are the people who are it's pretty self or know anything about it and we talked about differential equations before but this model that we have here s i r model might be a very good way of actually explaining it if you had the background that we just gave you for a epidemiology so we have si and are which are the numbers of people who are.
"smallpox" Discussed on WTMA
"I'm john batchelor this is the john batchelor show john mack farragut his rich book telling the story of los angeles on the basis of its violence that beautiful city with all of those roadways that rests upon decades of violence and most of it was not answer most of the did not have justice very rarely and it also was a survivor of the weather and the climate and a chapter that john mack farragut devotes to plagues john i just have a quick list here fifty inches of rain in the in eighteen sixty one followed by two winters of drought where there was less than ten inches seventy percent decline in the arab bility of the land in that tie of land value in that time so you could give it away we also had a plague of locusts to strike the vineyards and then we had a smallpox that swept through and i guess pretty much wiped out the indians is that what this statistic means from two thousand two hundred so the indians were all gone by eighteen seventy is that correct professor yeah i mentioned before the indians composed the basically the working class of los angeles in the eighteen fifties and sixties but they were devastated by the smallpox epidemics smallpox was end democ then is it was it was conveyed all over the country and there were outbreaks of smallpox continually most people had contracted us you know a a case of smallpox as a child and a light case many anglos had immunities they might get sick but they wouldn't die indians had no experience with smallpox had no immunity so the mortality rates of indian communities hit by smallpox goes highest ninety percent so by the eighteen seventies the indians that remain in southern california have largely retreated to their home run theresa's in the mountains or the desert the and you have been replaced as the laboring force in agriculture in the vineyards and in the small manufacturing sector by the immigrant chinese which is an interesting feature fact so yes during the at one of the other things that that propels that change in the economy or is this drought that takes place during the civil war years two or three years of incredible trout like the drought that is now affecting california this drought killed the.
"smallpox" Discussed on KDWN 720AM
"Plus remember water resources were becoming scarce then the next one we're boils none of this was mersa methicillin resistant staff i doubt it but it could have been some staff infection but he became infected with these boils on their skin well if insects carry disease and you don't have clean water you don't have a good food source maybe you're going to be more susceptible to getting an infection pathogens can enter then societies easy costs f democrats and one theory suggested that maybe these boils were actually smallpox it might have been a smallpox outbreak why because researchers have found smallpox scars on recovered mummies and postulated that three thousand years ago an epidemic that could have occurred hail so he'll come next and the plague of hail and fire so hail and fire i think volcano and so many people postulated that there might have been a nearby volcano thirty five thousand years ago they say the santuary really volcano north of crete in the gnc erupted now remember dante's peak ashton everything was falling everywhere so maybe the hail could've come from that then came locus while locus for the landscape and honestly for volcanos nearby i mean i would be headed south also so that makes sense and then keep darkness so the ninth played was darkness so as you guys have seen clips eclipses don't really last that long i don't know how long the darkness was but without light the temperatures dropped work could be done crops gonna grow so scientists think maybe wasn't eclipse maybe it was a dust storm or might have been the plume of smoke from the volcano then the.
"smallpox" Discussed on KGO 810
"It's about smallpox and the thing about smallpox is smallpox uh generally kills about forty percent of the people that could become infected uh but the bad thing about pot smallpox is as you carry it and without symptoms you can give it to people that's what the horrors of smallpox was right we radic eta's smallpox will we kept to the soviets kept one and we kept one instead of this like an well we we need wanted his they got one again five hundred nuclear weapons but no we need smallpox so what they do as i said they could weaponized smallpox and turn it into something that we wouldn't be able to control i mean and it would it would do it would kill 100 percent of the people and the b noah a a immune noone would be me into a because by that it would spread so quickly so many people will die no one would know it was they could okay and i hear these things it's a really good book he also wrote a book about the abullah virus called um i was about these monkeys unrest in virginia it's a great guy richer press and get the book p r e s e on order on amazon demon in the freezer it'll keep you up all night terry ads about fifteen years old but it's still about that so what i heard about these mosquitoes i w i'd so we genetically alter them i so remember in drastic park where the frogs which sexes enough now they're all remember that park today oh yeah that's how they that's how he made it with i yeah they they are what are the it's how the raptors were meeting they were switching sexes and with a sum is a far frog and infant being a bright yet some a lower again some biologist gonna comments on am full s but some creatures can switch sex i know that right right right so what are these mosquitoes that.
"smallpox" Discussed on Survival in Motion
"Um your water sources london learned that the hard way and i think they eighteen 50s smallpox is a virus that produces boils on the skin it's been around a long time mummies from ancient egypt have been found to have smallpox scars early spanish explorers of america brought smallpox and killed off many indigenous people in america reportedly british soldiers defended themselves at fort pit in seventeen 63 by giving blankets laced with smallpox to the native americans trying to take the fort and that was the first known case of biological warfare smallpox is mostly a radic headed nowadays but vials of the virus still exist in government vaults so it could reappear polio is a virus that results in paralysis but there is a great vaccine for polio and the polio virus is not known to mutate all right to burki l'hostis or tb is a long bacterial infection it can be treated with antibiotics i mentioned these three mostly eradicated diseases smallpox polio and t because with government becoming more involved in health care medical services will probably be rationed in my opinion so you should get the vaccines whenever possible in stock up on antibiotics while they're still available and i say antibiotics or fish antibiotics so regarding smallpox that still exists in the hands of government somewhere a case has been made that the two thousand one anthrax attacks were conducted by government insider who took that strain of anthrax out of a government vault somewhere so we should always consider the possibility of government insiders acting against americans in bringing back old diseases not just anthrax or smallpox but whatever whatever else they have out there so again get the vaccines whenever possible and stock up on antibiotic.
"smallpox" Discussed on Quirks and Quarks
"Boom boom today on kortun quartz we are counting down the top six stories we didn't get to feature on the show this year and here's number six number seeks lab made post talks the smallpox virus killed hundreds of millions of people in the 20th century alone and devastated millions more the virus was eventually wiped out after edward jenner notice that milk maids who had contracted a virus called cowpox were later immune to smallpox so genard cooked up a vaccine and presto smallpox was done for or more recently scientists have questioned whether cowpox was really the source of that immunity some think it was another pox altogether that it was horse pox an extinct and harmless relative of smallpox that led to smallpox immunity fastforward to 2017 and as scientists working away in alberta dr david evans decided to try and test this hypothesis in hopes of creating a better smallpox vaccine and cures for other illnesses and in doing so he generated a lot of controversy some say a blueprint for a very real danger what did he do well he ordered some genetic ingredients online and made horsebox in the lab dr evans is the professor of medical microbiology and immunology at the university of alberta i welcome to the show colo first of all i think most people think that smallpox was wiped off the face of the earth why do you want to play with its vaccine well there continues to be a concern about the potential of it coming back uh it exists still as some stocks frozen away in a couple of high security facilities and islam beat suspected that there may be other unknown stocks and for that reason uh there's continued interest in having either antivirals and vaccines that would protect populations against smallpox if it came for came back well what me through what you did you wanted to make horsebox where did you get the ingredients we were able to take a sequence.
"smallpox" Discussed on This Podcast Will Kill You
"She describes and so this this smallpox epidemic that she describes around the late seventy hundreds was not isolated to the colonial states at the time so the areas of new england and eastern seaboard it spread across the country and this is you said american revolution right um so seventeen seventy okay in earlier she describes her 1777 to 17 85 okay the reason or one of the reasons is that smallpox was so devastating for native north and south american populations is because these were completely naive frank they had never been exposed to smallpox before and so for instance the spanish conquistadors had but probably exposed as children or the english they over across the board had lower mortality rate right ranging around thirty whereas some two to read about some native american groups had mortality rates upwards of ninety percent to 100 percent i mean it was on believe lebow but like one of the ways that they figured out how to end up with the vaccines is that if people were exposed to other forms of pox viruses by living with other animals then they could even if they never got smallpox if they were exposed to another form of pox virus might have had some sort of immunity which is why you saw lower mortality rates in the european population this is a nice little segue yeah into talking about inoculation and vaccination oh and the relevance to the fight against smallpox yep inoculation as a practice had been around for hundreds of years in certain cultures in regions such as among groups in western africa and in turkey okay but western medicine had ignored the practice chalking it up to old wives tales and uneducated nonsense so can you explain like what inoculation is sure inoculation is the practice of taking material so usually like plus or skin from a person who.
"smallpox" Discussed on This Podcast Will Kill You
"Saddle yep both domestic and wild yellow ungulates some gilts and they're both gone so cool awesome go and hopefully hopefully soon polio guineaworm some of the other diseases will be also on that list thanks to the carter foundation rights carter finishing is i dunno jimmy carter cool jimmy carter's doing a lot of work of for eradication that's awesome those yeah he's wholesome now that we've defined as terms let's jump into the biology aaron tell me all about smallpox left to erin okay so smallpox this one is a doocy no lie this is i know i mean we were already hit pretty hard beginning of this episode just starting us off with a bang i'm so here the basics smallpox is a virus it's a dna virus so if you remember influenza was an rna virus right this is a little bit different it is in a family of viruses known as the pox viruses and i feel the need to tell you that chicken pox is not a parks virus that's an important clarification really is chicken pox is caused by a herpes virus so it's a totally different family of irises but there are a ton of others pox viruses beside smallpox there are pox viruses that infect basically every vertebrate that you can think of there is monkeypox turkey parks dribble pox kmox dolphin books air air and when park aaron snake there's arod widow police king i think i think we get the point yeah literally that would i wasn't even the whole way what about fish will there's dolphin pox dolphins are my garage are you serious there actually are actually talking about since not alive.
"smallpox" Discussed on KQED Radio
"That you tell from your life and and lay against historic backdraughts yeah they're very they really give you pause for thought because so many times at you can take what you're looking at their and then move it forward to the technology of today we're talking about samples of the smallpox virus being under lock and key that now we're at a place of technology where if we can decode their dna which there's no reason either we can't wear hasn't been done you can reconstruct them and you can reconstruct them for both good and for that well you remember rare president no george w bush was so concerned about smallpox being used against us his weapon that he got on television and had himself vaccinated i i think that in and and i should i should mention that even though i'm an old hippie which is pretty apparent from the book bush appointed me to head up the commission that he established two presidential directive to look into bioterrorism in bear surveillance and i i can tell you i was pretty frightening two and a half years for me to take a look at what those possibilities are and you're right smallpox could be manufactured out of a pool protein juice it would be a bad choice for a weapon there are other biological weapons that would be better choices if your choice is to terrorise which is what terrorism is all about because we have such a good vaccine against smallpox because we have a strategy surveillance and containment how to deal with it and because even now we have people who still have the institutional memory and knowhow to stop if not rear radical smallpox unfortunately there are better organisms to worry about if you want to have a bucket of worry in the bioweapons category you're listening to tech nation i reagan mike yesterday is dr larry brilliant a physician technologist and philanthropist he was a medical officer for the world health organisation and a member of the central team in smallpox eradication in india you might know him as one of the cofounders of the well where's the first executive director of google dot org he is currently the chair of the skull global threats found and the author of sometimes brilliant.