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2.3 Carolina

The Political History of the United States

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2.3 Carolina

"Hello and welcome to the political history of the United States episode two Point Three Carolina. Last week we spent our time going back and covering the province of Maryland in the case of Maryland. I admittedly should have covered it last season because yet most of those events would fit better than in the case of Carolina. However this episode is exactly where it belongs. My plan with Carolina is to have a short series of two episodes to cover its creation and early years so this is not going to be anything like our epic dive through New England or even our treatment of Virginia in Jamestown so without further delay was dive in and look at the founding of Carolina. If you look at a map you'll see. That Jamestown is located in Virginia. If you look to the south of Virginia you're going to have to go all the way down to Florida before you reach the next European colony specifically Spanish Florida. Not surprisingly the English had noticed this large amount of uninhabited land for the taking. Of course it wasn't really uninhabited. But that really doesn't pose much of a hindrance for the English. We will come back to that issue here in in a few moments the initial claim on. Carolina. Kim Back in sixteen twenty nine made by Sir Robert Heath. Carolina was intended to be a haven for the fridge. Humans now and here comes the real. Shocker Charles the I was just not feeling well he did go ahead and give the grant to heath. It was very clearly laid out that it was meant for members of the Church of England for. He's this made the entire Endeavor Alba pointless heath would never end up actually starting a colony or acting on the grant after the death of Charles. The first there was an attempt by the heath family to make their claim to the land. But Charles. The second wasn't having any of this either and declared the claim invalid. The next major tempted colonization would come. In the early sixteenth sixties the biggest hindrance to English expansion to the south had been fear of Spanish. Reprisal if you recall from episode one point six by the Middle Part of the sixteenth century Spain had become the dominant power in the Americas despite their growing influence however they kept a relatively small foothold. In what would become the United States? Well they did concede hold Florida. They never really had a sustained expansion to the north with said however the threat of Spanish aggression had long been a concern of the English which explains why there is such a large buffer zone to the south of Virginia however following the peace of Westphalia. The Spanish Empire entered into a long and gradual period of decline. Their decline as a colonial power had begun in sixteen fifty five when the English captured Jamaica with Spanish power. Now on the wane. The English felt comfortable expanding their holdings to the south of Virginia. The English had become increasingly interested in the prospects that the American colonies had in regards to their sheer amount of land added. We saw up in Maryland. English landholders realized that they could substantially increase the size of their holdings in North America beyond that the English monarch had maintain a hands off approach to this point for somebody looking to start a colony. The idea of having a literal fiefdom was interesting. Prospect in example of this type of settlement surviving was easy enough to find as well. All one had to do is look at our friend. Lord Baltimore up in Maryland here. You had an English landlord who was interested in expanding his holdings the province of Maryland offered this opportunity to do just that and discuss a moment ago. Baltimore had near total control over his colony with Spanish influence on the decline. It meant that there was less of a danger of aggression from the Spanish. Should the English settle further South Than Virginia? A Spanish decline came at a super convenient time for the English as well. The English discovered the cash crop. That was sugar. The probably sugar is that much like tobacco. It is a labor intensive and land intensive crop. Now there are various ways to deal with the incoming labor shortage this includes having more colonists over indentured servants yes slaves. The land on the other hand was a bigger concern. The islands of the West indies at were basically exhausted. There was a major shortage of available. Where you could grow sugar? And the soil itself was becoming increasingly drained of nutrients this shortage of lament that the cost to produce sugar was rapidly increasing. The effect of this is that sugar production fell completely into the hands of wealthy landlords and squeezed. Poor planters right out of the game. This increasingly angry mass was desperate for opportunities that were simply becoming less and less available throughout the islands of the Caribbean enter. Sir John Colton Colton was born in sixteen o eight as the second son of Peter Colton growing up in Dover Colton was of some means but would truly see himself ascent to prominence during the English civil war Colton spent the war fighting alongside the king and the royalists where he was marked with distinction. Earning the commission Colton would end up commend his own regiment. However as we know the royalists did not win the English Civil Wars Colton would end up having his land seized by parliamentary forces and cultured himself was forced to flee England or the relative safety of the English Colony Barbados. Colton would then spend the next decade as a sugar planter on that island. Seeing the less shortage Colton recognized that. The West indies were becoming over saturated to the point. There was little opportunity for anybody. Other than the wealthiest landlords Colton had good personal connections from his time in the war and was close personal friends with William Berkeley. The governor in Virginia Colton had become tied to the Berkeley family during the civil war. As it was William Berkeley's brother John Berkeley who would grant the commission to Colton? During that war John Berkeley is going to come up again here shortly as he is going to become one of the founders of the province of New Jersey. The situation in England had also changed by this time. Oliver Cromwell had died in Sixteen. Fifty eight upon his death is son. Richard Cromwell became the Lord Protector of England. The problem however is that Richard was definitely not his father without going into details as they are not really important for our story. Richard would end up resigning as Lord. Protector and England turned to the son of Charles. I who had been hanging out in exile in the Spanish Netherlands Charles. The second was brought back to England and was officially recognized as King on May Twenty Ninth Sixteen Sixty. I think recognized as king because to his credit. Charles the second had been telling everybody for the past decade that he was in fact the king the difference is it took until May of sixteen sixty before. Anybody really decided that it was time to listen to him or Colton. This presented him with new Charles. The second did in fact recalled those who had remained loyal not only to his father but to how Stewart in general Colton marking these check boxes found himself in a perfect position joining together with the Berkeley brothers as well as the Barbados Plantation. Owner Anthony Cooper. They set out with a plan to colonize the Carolinas. The Carolinas were a perfect place for such an ambitious project. Unlike on the islands of the West indies there was absolutely no shortage of land in North America. In fact to my Colton Carolina must have seemed like nearly infinite amounts of land. Picking up a handful of other major investors along the way including Edward Hyde. George Manek Sir. George Carteret and William Craven the Earl of Craven. The men mentioned above were not just wealthy but carried with them. Large amounts of influence monarch had been a pivotal player. Making the restoration happen. Hide was the king's chief minister. Not only did these men have money for the project but they had the power and influence to make it a reality on March twenty fourth sixteen sixty three. Their request was granted. Charles the second issue to grant to the eight men that gave them control of everything south of the thirty six parallel down to the state Mathis River near the border of Florida. Now oddly enough. I can't actually find anything to tell me. Worthy see Mathis River actually was as it appears to have been renamed so my awesome listeners. I would love an answer to this as anybody knows looking at a map. I suspect that the State Mathis River is now saint. Mary's on the Florida Georgia state line. However beyond me making what I think. Is it educated? Guess I've got zero to back me up on this so if you know the answer want to help me out please do either way Colton. And his company had just been given a very significant grant of lead. And we're now ready to jump into colonization game understanding the difficulty of getting people to pack up from England and travel across the Atlantic. The plan was to get settlers into the Carolina in a different way. Instead of looking across the Atlantic for colonists the focus was instead play some people much closer to that location. This gave several advantages over trying to get people in England up route. I as we SANJIV sound. The trip was extremely rough on one's health. Not only was the journey across the Atlantic. Excel FRAUGHT WITH DANGER. But things did not get much better. Once you arrived in colonial America the difference in climate led to long periods of acclimation and typically a high mortality rate having to learn the land and figure out how to survive took time and came at great expense to the colony. We spent a ton of time on this last season when we looked at the early struggles at Jamestown Wolves Plymouth. The Carolina investors had no interest in repeating these mistakes instead. They wanted something that will be immediately able to get on. Its own two feet and quickly become profitable recruiting. People already in. The new world meant that they will be able to avoid the worst of the process of acclamation. Secondly Colton was keenly aware of the land shortage in the West indies. He knew that there was already a large population place that was anxious for opportunity to make a profit with the land shortages. It was practically impossible for them to carve out a place in the West indies however the prospect of coming to Carolina afforded them the chance to establish their own plantations. Colton having spent a decade in exile in Barbados focused his efforts there. Laghouat named are proprietors as being the absolute proprietors of the colony. So much as it was in Maryland are a proprietors are going to essentially be running their own little kingdom. So let's spend some time looking at the charter itself and figuring out what we can learn from it in the beginning of the charter. It is interesting to take notice of the position of England in regards to the native Americans. The first paragraph grants the land in order to enlarge the empire and means of England and clean those parts of America that are not yet cultivated or planted and only inhabited by some barbarous people who have no knowledge of the Almighty God contrast that to what we discussed way back in episode one point seven as we looked at the English attempts to justify the fact that the lead was in fact not open clearly here in sixteen sixty three that has moved from being something of concern to little more than an afterthought of course a lot had happened over the past half century. One must question just how much of an effect the sixteen twenty two massacre in Jamestown add on the long-term relationship between the Indians and the English. Certainly as we see from this Charter. The Indians were essentially being written off as odd relevant. Not surprisingly the Connie was set up with the official station. Religion being the Church of England. The proprietor of the colony would have had the ability to build and found churches. However all of them were required to be both Christian and essentially falling within the bounds and limits of the ecclesiastical laws of England. There is nothing surprising about this. Considering the Charles the second was back into power at this point of the proprietors they had nearly unlimited power within the colony they had the right to sell and lease land pass lawn issues taxes so long as the laws being passed not in violation of the laws of England. They pretty much do what they wanted. For the more they have the ability to raise forces fight wars when needed and if needed declare martial law in order to put down insurrections as was pretty common. There was a standard provisions that things needed to be done upon the consent of the Freemen of the colony however it should also be noted that should emergency situations arise. There was a bypass mechanism in place for the proprietors. The eight providers also had the ability to pass their shares of the colony down to the heirs. This is an important distinction moving forward as it means that the power of the Connie was forever tied up in these men. We will see down the roadways that one Carolina transitions to a crown colony. England is going to end up buying out seven of the proprietors and essentially repurchasing the colony from the heirs of the original eight. The charter granted the ability to licensing trade and import whatsoever. The free nature of this provision and trade is going to be hugely influential in the growth of the colony. Likewise this is one of those genie's that England is never going to be able to put back into the bottle the American colonies are always going to recoil anytime. There's an attempt to limit their trade free-trade through the colonies is a key characteristic and is something that is ultimately going to help define the prosperity of the colonies the promoters of the Connie how the right to grant titles to those living within the colony. This may seem like a minor thing however it really goes more to show the power of the proprietors in effect. They were extraordinarily powerful landlords with the key difference being that they had an ocean in between them an inland these decisions. Such as granting titles selling ladd and the ability to raise armies taxes are born out of the pragmatic need for leadership. When actually reading the charter it becomes clear that the king at least to some degree recognized the difficulty that he was going to have personally ruling over the colony for the monarch the best and really only option was to make sure that those in power in the colonies were loyal to the monarch beyond that the rule of the king over the colony was actually somewhat tenuous shirt. Nobody was talking about independence. However but for the loyalty of his governors and landlords. The king held little actual power in the colonies. This is going to be a big deal in time but relative freedom from the home islands is something that the colonies will come to hold as a central part of their existence when England attempts to turn the clock back on that and take more of an active hand. In controlling the colonies resistance will become the order of the day the Charter of Carolina granted wide ranging powers to the proprietors. It gave them the power to work. Essentially as kings in their dominion as long as they kept everything within the bounds of the laws of England. They could basically do what they pleased that. We're GONNA come back to this next week and spend much more time focusing on the fundamental constitution of the province of Carolina. This is going to give us a chance to see how the government ends up being. Set Up to finish up for this week. I want to take just a little bit of time to discuss those early years in Carolina despite the attempts to recruit settlers from within the colony. What we still have seen is a series of starts and stops during the first several years of the colonies existence. It won't be until sixteen sixty nine six years after the original grant that we see an actual holiday really take root within the province of Carolina following the grant to our proprietors. Things got off to a rather slow start in the colony for the first several years. All the activities spent on scouting in exploration missions. Now these missions did have their place and ultimately would prove to be beneficial for the colony with Virginia and New England advance scouting is minimal at best. John Smith had sailed up to the general vicinity of the New England coastline around Cape Cod. But it isn't like he had really hit the ground order. Any kind of in-depth scouted in Virginia. It was even worse recalled that when the settlers landed in sixty seven they found the first clearly uninhabited plot of land of able and grabbed it as it turns out there was a pretty good reason why none of the local. Indians had settled that pot of land. The water was brackish. It was infested with mosquitoes and the tides basically managed to turn the water around the island into a Cesspool of human waste roanoke of course had existed prior to Jamestown but little was gleaned from the experience as it wasn't really all that close to the settlement Jamestown. It is worth mentioning. That roanoke is actually known. The Modern Day state of North Carolina Not Virginia and about one hundred fifty miles separate the island from the eventual settlement of Jamestown. In both these cases it makes sense why there was little. In the way of advance scouting namely such expeditions were expensive and ultimately impractical a expedition launch from England. For the sake of exploration was always going to be a difficult task. However by the Time Carolina entered into the fray exploration have become far easier. There was substantial English infrastructure already in place throughout North America no longer. Did you have to cross the Atlantic to begin scouting and exploring the landscape? You could just leave. Virginia in terms of getting settlers acclimated to the Environmental Carolina. This is a huge advantage. Over the earlier settlements. Those who are going to settle in Carolina are not walking in blind there. One House unclear expectations of what awaits them. The first real attempt to settle came in sixteen sixty. Five Group of colonists from Barbados agreed to Settle Carolina settling in the Cape Fear Region. The colony would ultimately prove to be short lived. Cape FEAR which is way south of Modern Day Wilmington. North Carolina is a small peninsula located off the coast of the mainland. Little grew on the outcropping in the colony would fail after a short amount of time unlike the original settlement at Jamestown. If a wasn't working the colonists had other options and really didn't need to just rough it out well in the failure at Cape Fear. The providers continued to attempt to entice. New Settlers to come out is sixteen sixty seven. The Treaty of Madrid was signed between England and with L. Getting into great detail about the treaty. Here is what you need to know the Treaty of Madrid into what had been an ongoing commercial war between Spain and England. Now when I say commercial war please understand that. There was some small scale fighting. Mostly IT EVOLVED. Commercial ships taking shots at other commercial ships. Well it never really explained to a full-scale war between England and Spain. The Treaty of Madrid did a lot fused the tensions that existed between the two nations this therefore further removed the chest that the Spanish word wanted to do something crazy like striking out atty settlement in Carolina breathing a sigh of relief. This treaty would tie off a serious concern for potential colonists. Finally in sixteen seventy two hundred colonists from Barbados arrived at the mouth of the Ashley River and founded the settlement of Charlestown located in modern South Carolina Charleston would later become Charleston and this marks the first down in Carolina to survive the Spanish despite the Treaty. Were none too thrilled with this development? Having claimed the entire coastline is part of Florida. However with the new treaty in hand any weakened Spanish empire there was little interest on the part of the Spanish to get into a war with England. Some land they did make an attempt to send a flotilla up to attack but then bad weather came along and everybody just decided to go home knowing that the best defense against possible. Spanish intrusions was having large numbers. The proprietors set out on a plan to rapidly increase. The population of the new colony widespread religious tolerance was offered among the groups. That were going to be tolerated. Were Jews is something that was unusual in the other colonies. Furthermore they had an extraordinarily generous headlight system for every member of a family brought over. There was going to be a grant of one hundred fifty acres. Even an imported slave would increase a claim by medicinal fifty acres. Furthermore just to get people in the door. The land tax was kept extremely low. Just half a pence per acre per year and moreover was totally deferred until sixteen eighty nine. This bone worked well and over the next thirty years between sixteen. Seventy and seventeen hundred the population of Carolina expanded from the original two hundred to arouse sixty six hundred. This massive population growth was key. For a couple of reasons I it provided a degree of safety over the Spanish in Florida. Whose population headlong stagnated around fifteen hundred. The growth of Carolina also meant that the Spanish were largely trapped in Florida sure other opportunities existed for expansion beyond Florida however the Atlantic coast was now entirely in English hands for the Spanish. It had the practical effect of pinning them down in Florida. Not that they were really making overtures to expand beyond Florida anyway. Second it should not be discounted that many of the new arrivals so the Carolina colony were slaves with many of the original columnist. Travelling North from Barbados. This is not a surprising occurrence grinner episode on slavery. We discussed the fact that the slave trade remained far. More active in the West indies than it initially was in North America with settlers coming from Barbados however many of them brought their slaves with them out of the sixty six hundred in the colony of seventeen hundred right around twenty eight hundred or forty two percent of the colony was made up of slaves those coming to Settle Carolina. We're made up generally of middle class farmers and artisans earlier in this episode. We had talked about how the islands of the West indies had become increasingly controlled by the wealthy loan. Large tracts of land the farmers coming to Carolina were made up largely of everybody else those farmers who want to share the pie but just couldn't compete with the wealthier landowners. Carolina was how they planned to get in on the action. As in the other colonies indentured. Servitude was a common thing with about a third of the population falling into that category. This was a particularly great deal for the indentured servant. As at the end of their period of being indentured they received not only basic farming tools but they also received a one hundred acre plot of their own. This would of course comedy steep price. They would have to endure harsh conditions for seven years but after that they suddenly had their own tract of land or their use for many. This was the best often only path they had to becoming landowners themselves for the more wealthy. Who did wish to bring over large numbers of slaves? The proprietors attempted to sweeten the deal. They agreed to begin counting slaves as members of the colonists family for the purpose of the head right system. What this means practically is that for every sleep brought over the owner would receive an additional one hundred fifty acres of land likewise the proprietors insured slaveholders. That they would not be interfering at all in the relationship. Between Master and slave and the planter would hold full power and authority over his slaves the real advantage that the Carolinas had is their sheer size. Unlike the cramped confines of the West indies. The proprietors could advertise to both the wealthy landowners looking for even more well at the same time they could attract that group of settlers who were basically excluded from the game down in the West indies. Carolina was big enough that it could give everybody what they were looking for. Next time we are going to spend some time going through the fundamental constitution of Carolina beyond looking at the structure of the document and the effect that it had on Carolina. We are going to give a little bit of extra time to look at. Its ultimate influence on the political documents. Coming out of the American revolution as well as the effect it had on its primary drafter one of the giants of the enlightenment. John Locke so I will see you all back here in two weeks time and we will dive in to the fundamental constitution of Carolina. Until then I hope you all have a great two weeks.

Carolina England Sir John Colton Colton West indies Virginia Florida Jamestown Charles North America Barbados Maryland Colton Carolina Church of England New England South Carolina Carolina Atlantic Three Carolina English Colony Barbados United States