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The State of Natural Language Processing in the Sales Process
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Aired 3 months ago 27:31
Linda Jensen and Kerry Zarchi Talk About Leadership Training
You're listening to what was the NASA in Silicon Valley podcast. So recently, the podcast is evolved into NASA in Silicon Valley, live a conversational live video show. Whereas always we talked to the various scientists, engineers, researchers, and all around cool people at NASA. So for the original podcast, we had a new thirty minute episode once a week for and Silicon Valley live. We'll have a new show every two weeks for an hour and you can watch us live on YouTube Facebook, periscope, and twitch. But if you want to participate in the live chat, we are using twitch dot TV, slash NASA. If you can't catch us live, that isn't a big deal. We'll have the on demand video available online and rebroadcast on NASA TV. As always you can catch the audio version of the show on this very podcast feed. But today we have a bonus episode aka episode. We recorded, but just haven't released yet. We have a handful of. These episodes that were gonna release from time to time in between the live shows for this bonus episode. A few months ago, I sat down with Linda Jensen, an associate director for workforce culture and engagement along with carries Archie the branch chief for entry systems in vehicle development, but she's also the acting branch chief for aero thermodynamics. So Carrie an, I are participants in a NASA leadership program that Linda help design and put together. The program was called laser, which is a fancy NASA acronym that stands for leveraging agencies, supervisory excellence and resilience. The program includes about twenty-five experienced supervisors representing all of the NASA centers. We talk about the program why it was created and what NASA does as an agency to make it possible for all these smart people to be creative and do things that have never been done before. But before I spoil the whole episode, here's Linda Jensen and carries. John. We always start the podcast off in the same way, and this is a slightly different episode, but we'll still jump in the same way. Anyways, we want to find out how did you get to NASA? How did you end up in Silicon Valley? And I know Linda is going to just jump in head, so I'm going to go west Kerry furs. Scary. We've, we've all chatted, we all know each other a little bit more. But for folks are listening, like how did you end up over here? So I was lucky. I had a adviser in grad school who had connections at NASA, and I interviewed at a couple of different places. One being here in one was a defense company on the east coast, and I kind of weighed those options and decided that NASA was way cooler and California was way cooler. So I came here twelve years ago. Okay. And I started as a contractor and then converted over to a civil servant, and I. Intend to be here until I retire re re you local, or are you from California from this area? I'm from Michigan, and I did good state to be from. I did undergrad at Michigan tech and then grad school at university of Minnesota. So I've been in the midwest had been in the midwest, my whole life. And then coming here was a bit of a culture and sticker shock. Yes, but I've gotten used to that now over the we always say, usually like there's no seasons and I'm like, no, there's only the best seasons. It's true. Yeah. So what did you study in school? So in undergrad, I was mechanical engineering and I then saw all of my classmates going off to work at car companies or creating little widgets for little things, and I decided that that was not the path I wanted to go down. So I went into grad school. I studied computational fluid dynamics with under aerospace engineering. Who in where? Right now you're working mainly arc jet, right? I'm working in the division which houses the arch, okay. Our division is. Tree systems, and we touch on everything from thermal protection systems to earth thermodynamics and facilities facilities which are simulating the environments, and then my branch, which is a systems engineering, caring about everything that gets into an atmosphere anything? Yeah. Anything in an atmosphere. People tend to think of like Mars, but it's also earth is re entry raider, but it's also to return or Orion return, or you know, Venus titan anything with an atmosphere. So I get a kick out of the mid west connection because you're like Michigan, Minnesota to California. I was Michigan but to a high auto and then eventually, California. But Linda, you also have a mid west connection, right news, sir. But you knew how to play euchre, do not to play you. It's like you can't play euchre without having a mid west connection. Eight mother is from the midwest. Out here, but I am a California native. Okay as my father before me. So my dad is actually a prune venture in this area. So yeah, so it's a very different now than it was. So tell us a little bit about yourself. How did you mean being from here? Did you always wanted to go into NASA or was it just. So I I grew up here and I actually went to school here too at San Jose State and about halfway through my couple years there, I found out about co op programs, and I got a call. I'm Ed, put my application into get a an internship somewhere in the valley. And on a Saturday morning, I got a call from the person that NASA saying, come work for us back because way back when nineteen eighty five. So I've been here a long time. I prefer to talk about that as I started in kindergarten, but now my stories. Five years old. Okay. Me, I was very young prodigy. Vicious. Yes. So what are you working on now? You know, what's your area of expertise? Well, I am. I love developments I have been in. I don't do the real work like Kerry does carry those real work. I do. I get to work with all the people who do real work. So I have been in development and leadership development organization development, and I love it. So I, I don't even know that I would call myself an expert as much as someone just has a huge passion for helping the people in this agency leaders in the agency do what they need to do to help our missions through some really good leadership in. It's like the coolest job, and I'm so lucky. I like, wow, this work. I feel the same way. Whereas like my job is to talk to the cool people doing. I don't do any of it myself. Talk to Kerry it'd be like, so tell me about this. I wanted to bring us all together. We just recently spent about a week together over in Wallops Virginia for what is known as the laser training. And of course it's NASA. We're going to have a tortured acronym, I'm sure because I, the laser, it's an s not as e in the middle. So it's not like pew pew of. So why don't you tell tell us a little bit what is for people have no clue. What is laser? What does that program? So laser is a an, it's it's leveraging agencies, supervisions supervisory excellence and resilience. That's what the acronym stands for this. I'm impressed. You came up with it off the top of your head. There is a great story about having named came to be if you want to hear that at some point. But basically it's a program focused on for supervisors and to help grow them and being, you know, our mantra is that we think better human being. Make better supervisors. And so it's a fourteen month program five week long sessions. Verse one was Wallops with some coaching and the target there is to not to train supervisors in the how to like you guys leave. We assume you know how to do jobs. It's more that how you apply the things that you need to do in high execute as a leader and that takes growth. So the only requirement that we kind of have at a very high level is that you need to grow. Okay throughout the year. And that's what we're after him from the conversations that we have there. Like I think it's a minimum of at least two years of being a supervisor because it's like you're not asking for the noobs or the people who are getting their feet wet is like you've done this for a while. So it's just a matter of like how to hone that. Yeah. So Kerry we, we both sat through this thing we we're the aims cohort. That's right. So like, how did you hear about it? You know? What was your? What were you thinking has kind of stepped into this whole thing? Well. Well, about a year ago I took the supervisory intensive program which is a very condensed version, I guess you say of laser and that kind of what it my appetite. I, I feel like supervision fits on me very well. I really enjoy this kind of work, and so I wanna be, I wanna I wanna hone that skill and I want to be better. Well, it's it's a funny thing that I've kind of realized we're typically, I mean, this is not just a NASA thing. This is for, I think in any organization, you're, you have a job, you're making your widget, you're the, you've really good at making your widget, you're the fastest bestest most excellent person at your widget making. And then they're like, you should be in charge of all the widget makers. And I don't know. I had this realization for you carry feels the same thing where I was like supervising the the widget makers is entirely different from actually just making it. You may have really good insight about it, but it's it's a different skill sets very different, especially from engineering going from. You know, hard skills to soft skills, people skills, and you know, being in engineering coming from that world, it's I feel like it's flexing totally different muscle. So I, you know, I have mentors that I speak to in in supervision, but I wanted to go the next step. I wanted to go further with it and that would be formal training. And I think that's one of the mottoes of laser also is supervision as a discipline. It's something that we're not formally trained in. And so this is I think our opportunity to kind of get that formal training. I don't know in Linda. I don't know if you hear this a lot. Like I somewhat feel a little bit of like the impostor syndrome almost for it's like, well, now I'm in charge. I got the job to be in charge of my widget makers, therefore I must be qualified in night. Must know everything there is, and I think you hit this harsh reality. There's a lot, but you don't know there's different nuances and things about leading a team that if you approach it the same way as making your widget that like, I don't know, it's it's not going to be as efficient. So yeah, I would say that this, this is about four years ago and we sort of entered into this whole realm of supervision as a discipline which hadn't been thought about. So especially in the station. See, we've got people with lots of really cool disciplines, right engineering and science and even project management. We tweet tweet that like a discipline here, and we of scratch their heads and said, wait a second. Supervision is really its own disciplined in. It takes something really different than what you're taught. And I think what I love about what we've been able to do is that we are treating that not only as disciplined and we're bringing, you know, in my field of development, a lot of really cool expertise to that. But we're also relying on model supervisors and people who actually have been in this job for a while and we bring them into hope teach. And I think it makes a huge difference in terms of what is possible. And I will say that when we were when we were first starting into this, we took this very appreciative and possibility oriented view, and we said, you know what? If we could create a cadre of supervisors across this agency who were really good at what they do in this discipline and excited about it and had passionate about it. And and I say for years later, we're getting there. There's a lot of people talking about this discipline, and I think it's it's having a massive impact on, you know, when we count the numbers, you know, we. Bye bye. When we hit supervisors at all levels aren't at and even if we only hit twenty five in this program, the number of people that are getting impacted is crazy. It's really fun, and it's neat to see. I keep thinking of mass as you know, always has an eye on officiency, whether that's a payload or an airplane wing in the bottom line is like, you know, when you have a group of humans working together, if you're not if you don't treat supervisory like being a supervisor as its own skill set its own, like trade in of itself, then it's just like you're not getting the most out of your people and then you're just not being efficient in some sometimes approach. I guess. I don't know. Carrie probably approaching leading your team. The same way in engineer is in some ways it could work, but another other ways it just may not. I think one of my not fears, but one of the things that I try and monitor is I don't want to be a hindrance to the people you talk about efficiency and I, I wanna be there to help them get their job. Done and help them be the best that they can be. So you know, obviously the better that I am at that than the better they are at their jobs, almost removing the barriers, ruling the blogs, make sure that they have the funding. They need the stuff, make sure you know, I'm not trying to be a hindrance on them and. Get in their way, or you know, ask for unnecessary reviews or meetings or anything like that. I just wanna be there to help move everything along efficiently. Is it maybe Linda talk a little bit about how did this all come together in a actually. I will say that way back when a couple of things kind of several things came together. I have an intense passion for this stuff as you guys know. I sleep. I'm like, I'm like, are scientists who can't not do their work. I do this all the time. So I had had a vision for a while and we have other cohort programs, right? We have NASA, I and other things that weren't targeted at supervisors, and I kept thinking we need to do something for supervisors in. We'd actually run a program here at aims. That was very like, it was the, it was the precursor to laser. It was the something that we did as a cohort program here. And at the time you know, the agency has a culture strategy that they put together. And the last one we did, which was about three or four years ago. They had three kind of main target areas for teaching the culture and one was connect people to the mission a little bit more. One was about communicating laugh. Forget it was on communication. And the third one was about building model supervisors. So when that came in, we sort of said what's go and and actually to be really honest at the time. I'm just a big believer that when you build sort of the, if you build it, they will come. I sell without trying to sell. We need to have supervisors get better, just never gets any traction. So we built laser and we didn't. We didn't, like we said, let's just get laser going because that's going to focus attention on supervision as discipline. And when we built it intentionally pulled in senior leaders to help us each it model supervisors sway at all levels. And I will say that then prompted how sip the supervisor intensive. We now have a second level supervisor program. We are building out. I virtual peach RSS. So the the, what's really kind of, I think nifty about the leaser story and the home, how it got is that we built this program on a win and sort of knew it would be good, but we sort of built it. We prototype that and we did some rapid prototyping and it just got a whole bunch of people involved. And I think now when we were doing the orientation. For you guys? I was. I was so tickled because our senior leaders are using the language supervision as a discipline. You gotta be who you are, you gonna grow. So it's like without without Bill without sort of selling ahead of time, it just everybody got into it. So it's super fun. Literally, the three of us we, we spent the last week in Wallops we're going to end up over at Armstrong later on this year. You said it was a fourteen month program, but Kerry. I guess. I mean, we spent the whole wheat together. We hung out those different modules. What stuck out to you? What? What can they like? You know, impress you or surprise you? I guess from, I would say by far the most rewarding part of that week was going through the stories and where everyone took turns standing up in front of the room and talking about who they are. They tell everybody a little bit. What when all into that? Because this is not normal from the normal like, hey, tell to truths in a lie, or let's all go around the table. Said, hi, my name is, and here's my title. The rate it was much more personal and it was geared towards people's values and how they viewed themselves and their personal experiences about how they came to be where they are. So it got very deep and very personal very quickly. But it brought down walls and we, I felt like we connected immediately with all. Twenty five people in the span of a couple of hours where you know, I feel like I know you so well. And that was really powerful, and it really set the stage for the rest of the week. And there was like I said, this immediate connection with with everyone there that was by far for me, the biggest takeaway. We don't want to give away all of Linda's secrets on how the holidays. It was. It was one of those things where like you have twenty-five strangers sitting in the room and then all the sudden like a couple of hours later people are bearing their souls. And I'm like in predominant, I'm going to go out on the ledge here like predominantly introverts, but standing in front of a group telling their life stories, and it was it was like after all, even though I'd never had a conversation with someone really felt like I had a deep conversation, I know this person so well, yeah, yeah. So Linda, what's your favorite takeaway on that? Or. The favorite? I love it. Well, I, I actually know what's coming in the program. So my favorites are still to come. Not that I'm not letting you guys in on that, but you know, I just think I'm curious from both of you like it's interesting to me that that that is something that stands out to people. And I, I actually like it's it's very so sweet to me because part of what we're also after is that I think people look at Bena branch. Maybe you guys feel like this too, but a supervisor, I one supervisor and it's like, where's the how to book? And there's a way to do this and the way to do it right. And it's like people get very boxed in in by having people tell their stories like it gets very, does get very personal and our belief is that supervision. There's no, there's no one way to do this and what's more important than actually knowing all the ins and outs of HR one to one and the things you need to do, but is really understanding who you are and bringing the unique human being that you are to this job because then you can connect with people, then you can really make a difference. So I just find that that storytelling for me is just it's such a great starting point, and it's so incredibly sweet, and I will tell you this last time. What was really special was just hearing Robert tall history. So we had, you know, the highest level leader in this agency at the time, and it's probably particularly sweet now given that he is now decided to retire, but and all of the leaders did too. So I'm also really for me what's striking has how there's something about getting in an environment like laser and everybody comes forward, like not just the people that are there who are supposed to be there and opening up, but everybody does. So. That Robert Lightfoot told us about you his time of like, you know, testing rockets, and then you know, here's a supervisor for a while and then went back for one more rocket test. Can't spoil the whole thing. That's Robert story to tell, but it just duck with me of in in for me because I could relate to it in the sense of when you're so busy doing your job and then you're like, yeah, moving up in my career, things are working out. I'm now in charge of it is sometimes going back, like for me going back to press releases the leg. Do you know do the typical that comes up and I quickly realized, wow, might teams a lot better at doing this than I am because typically I haven't done it for like five years. It's like I, it just kind of like you just of realized that your role is different in your role has changed, and now it's all about making their lives as easy as possible. So it can be as good at doing it. Right. You're a supervisor now you're not to a worker. I know it's, yeah, I, it's kind of weird, but one thing that took me aback it proceeds even the the get to know you that the story telling part is the travel to get to Wallops that nobody warned me out. I'm relatively new to NASA only for about like just over two years, but you know, for us in California, it's the flight all the way over to. I guess we all flew into Norfolk, but then the two hour drive over to Wallops over the ocean. And for me, at least it was during a during high winds storm in a little like tiny compact government rental car could feel the wind pushing me, but it was like, so we went all the way out there in its primitive -ly secluded. You know, it's like out on the ocean. You know, some rocket testing, but I'm sure there's some. There's a reasoning and the logic Linda to why you guys choose to pull everybody there at the top. Yeah. So everybody at NASA needs to be initiated into the wall of experience, this sort of thing. And and and actually this is a little bit about kind of even why we do this kind of stuff like, so going back probably forty years in this agency. This is like leadership development is built into our DNA. We used to take people to Wallops. You guys could have done this for two weeks, two weeks straight. You'd live there and and you know, in those wonderful dorms. And at that time he shared a bathroom with someone. So let's not go there because that was like. But there is something so it's not. It's not the greatest place in the world. The be, you know, it's a, it's a very secluded, but we find from like, so there's a little bit for us like we intentionally chose that will be at the centers for all the other ones, but there's a little bit of history and legacy and tradition associated with Wallops that as we think about shifting and changing the organization and becoming more efficient and making re re are transforming ourselves and even our mission. But there's something really, I think. Nice. It's like in the walls there. It's like you're standing on giants, right? Like, that's what's so we wanted to bring. That's why we're there. That's why we go there for this going there for laser. It's kinda make sure hanging onto the tradition, and it is where we started doing all of our leadership development training way back in the day. There's something I, I don't know how you feel about it carry. It was like, you can't escape each other. There is something like like camp. We're living in the same dorms. You're seeing each other. You can't just escape to go hang out with your spouse and go out to eat off. Campus goes like you're going to be driving a while to find a place. So yeah, camp is a great analogy here in there with everybody. You're doing everything together and there is no other option. Of jump starts those relationships too. It's like, so even as we do calls and and carry, and I have been on like different calls back and forth as we get prepared for to Armstrong in southern California. It's just like it's like these are old friends PBS like, yeah, it's only one week, but we're already farther along in our relationships than we should be. But not farther than you want to be. Right, right. Bad thing, how many more sessions to go to go for more than that's Armstrong than I think we go to Goddard and Marshall and then back to headquarters, I guess. I think that's right. Yes. So we'll into there's a funny story and how was laser named, you know, we talked a little bit about the tortured acronym, but go for it. So again, back, we are just starting this whole thing. We were at a session at Bolger center, five or six of us, and we were just starting to think about how to program and I wanted to design lays the laser program a fourteen month cohort pug on how long and all the details. And as soon as you start trek supervision. Oh my gosh, all kinds of trails. You can go down. We gotta select them, right, we got it. All right, people, we gotta get competencies all this stuff. And throughout that week, I kept saying, look, I am laser focused. Plenty said, let's name it laser. So the funny part of that story. So we sort of had decided we're going to name it laser. And then we came up with the acronym because that's how we did at NASA. But during that week, kids do not huge thunderstorm rolls through and right outside of our building, a lightning bolt struck a tree, knocked it off. Power went out and I'm, we might get definitely this laser. That's the story looking forward to the next couple of sessions. We'll we'll be hanging out and doing that. I'm guessing because like some of my fondest memories, I think probably throughout the whole thing was hanging out in the in the lodge with Linda's commentary around the the Winter Olympics in hanging out playing euchre. So yes, it's fun. So for folks who are listening, if you have any questions or comments for us, we are at NASA Ames on social. We're using the hashtag Massa Silicon Valley. So you have any questions for Kerry for Linda. You can send them our way. We'll loop everybody back in and we'll talk a little bit more just as a quick plug. We are at NASA podcast, but we are not the only NASA podcast don't forget to check out our friends who do Houston. We have a podcast, there's also gravity assists, there's this week at NASA. You can hear all of that. There's one big podcast app call or podcast feed called NASA, casts that combines all of this stuff into one thing. You can also catch us on the NASA app and on NASA dot gov. This has been super fund. Thanks for coming on over guys. Thank you.
NASA In Silicon Valley
Aired 2 months ago 1:12
The City Season 2: Reno
Next season on the city we had west to Reno. This scrappy city known for gambling and quick divorces has spent decades trying to prove it's more than just a second rate Las Vegas now. Some of Reno's most powerful boosters are fighting to reinvent the city as an offshoot of Silicon Valley. They've taken aim at a potent symbol of the image. They're trying to put a rest strip clubs. Ground zero in. This battle is an aging but lucrative strip club that sits on the edge of some of Reno's most valuable land the city wants to kick the club out, but the strip club is fighting back. They wanna see what war is show. What wars? The city season to Reno coming in twenty nineteen.
Aired 4 months ago 57:44
NASA in Silicon Valley Live - Genius Space Hacks
Hey, what's up? Everybody. Welcome to this episode of NASA in Silicon Valley. Live for September. Thirteenth twenty eighteen. I'm your host Abby Taber, and I have with me new face today. Mike o. host, Christina, Cheung. And if you didn't know this is a NASA, Silicon Valley, live a conversational show out of NASA as research center with the various scientists, researchers, engineers, and all around very cool people at NASA where we talk about the nerdy news that you need to know about. Absolutely, yeah. And you can watch us live on twitch. YouTube Facebook. But if you wanna ask questions to our experts who I'm going to introduce a minute, you need to be on twitch. So go to twitch dot TV, slash NASA watch us live, but if you miss us, you can watch us on demand later including on NASA TV, and there's always the audio version if you wanna hear the podcast version. So let's go today. We're going to be talking to you about studying life in space as in what happens to. Earthlife when we bring it into the weird conditions of space and later on in the show, we're gonna share some genius space hacks that are researchers have come up with really simple solutions to do this incredible research that they're getting done. So we're going to get to that later. But first let me introduce you to our guests today. I have with me sid son welcome. Sid is the manager of the space biosciences division here at NASA Ames and I have Sharmila about a chara. She is a senior scientist here studying life in Spain. Welcome guys. Now I'm going to be looking at the chat for questions from the audience. So while I'm browsing there, meanwhile, Christina, you wanna get us into the science today, and sure, definitely. All righty. So welcome said, and Mila, thank you for coming here and just to get the get all of us situated, what is baseball sciences? And why is this important that NASA space bow sciences research? So we are studying life in space. We're looking at all different types of organisms ranging from tiny, little microbes. Tissues sells, fruit flies other types of animals. And the reason we're looking at all these is we want to understand the risks that are facing our astronauts as we go onto Mars. Mars itself is gonna be roughly two or three year round trip mission for astronauts. There's gonna be a lot of risks that they're going to be facing. There's a high radiation environment. They're going to be exposed to. They're gonna be experiencing zero gravity as they're getting tomorrow's when they get on Mars, they'll be dealing with roughly a one, third gravity environment, ruffle relative to what we experienced here on earth. And then of course they had a long trip back. So there's a lot of changes they're going to be experiencing, and there's a lot of things that can be hard to study on the astronauts themselves. So we do our studies with mice. Fruit flies and other organizations. Oh, very cool. Shamila. Do you want to maybe expand on that? Yeah. So I was going to say that you know, some of this says, as we just talked about earlier that you want to know what happens in the humans are an astronaut's, but it's very hard to do these experiments on humans. And so you need these little surrogate s- so to speak, you know these tiny organisms. So you actually understand the basic biological changes that are happening inside the cell so that you can then send, you know, with your crew. Going out there in to Mars moon expirations. You can send them with the medications. They need some of the countermeasures and to know what to send and how to keep them healthy out there. You need to understand the basic biology underlying these changes, and that's what space by science is about him using. I already have a question you can tell me if you think we're going to answer this throughout the show, but Rev lucky shot wants to know what's the biggest difficulty in performing these tests in space. Very good questions. So I for me, I think the biggest issue is the fact that you'll limited in mass and volume. So the size of your experiment has to be and you don't need. You can't expect very much help from the crew because they're busy doing other more important things sometimes. And so you have to have it often be automated, has to be small, and yet you're gonna have to ask those important science questions, and you want to make sure that when the expand. Comes back, you can answer them so so designing that experiment so that it's successful useful, but also fits within the constraints of spaceflight are the challenge, I think, oh, we'll speaking of things that we need to send into space. I think we're gonna move onto. Let's play our first segment. Yes, I, I met, let's play and we will be answering the question. Has it been to space a role that filled ready. All right guys. This is a game. I have some questions for you and you guys watching can play along at home and if you get, let's say ten out of ten of my questions. We'll give you shout out. So. That's a prize. Shout out from NASA. I think that's pretty cool. Yeah. So the question is, has it been to space and I have for you? Ten organisms. All right. The bear. No. Sure. No, no Brown bears. All right. What about. The jellyfish jellyfish? Yes, we have flown jellyfish real. Yeah. Why would you fly jellyfish, why? Yeah. Well, it turns out jellyfish have these tiny little Oregon's that help them sense the gravity field that they're within. And so we wanted to understand what happens when they're an environment without gravity. Yeah, that's cool to me that ocean creature has that kind of sitting. I mean, I'm scared of a jellyfish stings. That's where it's nice that it's all contained true, very true in their tanks. Right. Ready Rogan's. That's one of the organisms we fly the most to do our experiments with here. All right. Here's an odd one. Sorry. Can you see on screen or I can. It's a square. Yes, we have done experiments. So another ocean critter. We've actually sent squared though. No, not giant. Squid. Tiny little squid. Why. Interesting experiment because these tiny squids they were growing from their baby stage. Essentially, they were going through some changes in their body and we wanted understand those changes would be different in the environment that they're experiencing in space. Yeah, rolling in developing have space changes that, yeah. Cool. What about. No. Oh eagle, the. Nation's favourite per. Didn't get a chance to go seems unfair. Those flying creatures know what about. Yes, the fruit fly by. Definitely. Yeah. Both are kind of cheering. Our favorite organisms indeed. Okay. Here's one of my favorites. Spider. Correctness have gone to space. I've gone to Spain for science. I, you know, I think we were talking about it, but what was so cool is that the spider made a web and it wasn't quite right. They took it down, built another one and was perfect. The second time the spider learn. Yep, that's yeah, that facet it was messed up. Yeah, it builds swimming was messed up down and new Hotta adjust and make it right the second time. All right. That's cool. There's a question critters. So many ocean creatures have gone to space. Why? So many? Is there a specific reason you choose marine animals of their different type organisms model organisms that we, there's a wide range of them. And just just from your quiz, there you pick the brain ones. California coastline. I love the ocean. A couple of people are asking about the birds. Okay. There's been no eagle, but have there been other birds and they wanna know how would they? Yeah. So we phone different eggs and space and seen how they've developed. I believe there's been some birds fun, but I'm not too familiar with the signs himselves with social with that, and they've been flying things like that been bumble bees and insects that why can they do they fly they succeed. Any do the bumble bee from what I remember there was a lot of tumbling. Clearly knew that that gravity. Yeah, figured it out eventually. Interesting. Here's another ocean creature. Oh, no. Tasty. Not even for the estrin. What about this guy? What is this guy. Yeah, this is new. Yeah, yes. We've done some interesting experiments with news because we want to see how what happens with the tail as it grows and space because there's a lot of tissue generation processes with it. And one of the interesting things we found out was Newt's grown on earth, their tails have a downward bend to them, but the Newt's growing in space because there's no gravity, the tales are perfectly symmetric and grow up hers. Finally the animal. And would you study something like that to understand how the human body could generate tissue? Is that the connection? Yeah, yeah. So there there are these. So so the way the cells actually divide are very similar between all different organisms and so Knudsen, you know, with stem cells and so on this a lot of applicable to. Yeah, a lot of similarities. Yeah, I have one more right now. Think hard. Our wall. No. A lot of issues fitting, right, maybe maybe. Certain complexities sending a gnarled space we did do at Twitter poll on this subject. I was last couple of days and it seems that our followers nailed it. The nor wall has not been space yet, not yet. Yet, not yet. You guys were right so well done. All right. That's all I got for you. So why the great diversity of organisms can you just kind of sum that up for us. Yeah. So different organisms have are studied in different ways. You know, one organism that I could talk to our rodents that we fly in space, a lot of the mice and rats that we have in space are used for different types of experiments. Number of them are involving bone and muscle research. And so we've had experiments on space station where he wanted them dammit, what happens over course of time with the bone at the are in the mice. So what we have here is a model of a mouse femur over the hip bone. And no, this is not the actual size of. Tease kids when I show them, I tell them that we're trying to find giant my son space station, and there is. No, this is a three d. model they actual bone is much smaller. It's more than just a fraction of an inch long, but the bone loss is significant in space and the bone loss. We see in mice, much faster than what we see with human. So typically, though bone loss and animal experiences within one month is equal to what an astronaut would experience across a whole year. So we could see results much faster and you know, not only are we NASA interested in this phenomenon because we're curious about what's happening with astronauts, but it's also drug companies who are looking to deal with come up with treatments frosty at prosise, very significant disease, fighting many, many people. So we're working with companies like Nevada's or Amgen or lily about new treatments. And when when examples of. What we're seeing is this is an example of what bone would normally look like. And you see this is the inside of the bone. Can you guys see that with the camera and normally inside of the bone does have this cheese like structure, but. And here in a lot of blue structure, it's just colored this way to straight, but the mouse Bono, I was saying in space after thirty days, he's experienced significant loss, and this is what we see after thirty days. So you'll see much more holes right in the middle. Yeah. And so with less structure, more home, that's definitely telling us at the bones are far weaker. And so we're worried about this. You know what's going to happen when astronauts have to do work, perhaps when they land on Mars, and if they're gonna have weaker bones, it's going to be much more prone to injuries and right, and you need to figure that out now right before they arrive. There's a question that might be related to this. What's the most notable breakthrough in the medical field that has been found through space experimentation, that a good example? Yeah. Yeah, exactly. We're, we're working with companies all the time to understand how this is playing out of so, and then we're doing experiments and cell biology immunology. Stunning how to prevent people from. Getting infections. So there's a wide range of different diseases that were were examining. Do you wanna talk more about some of the other experiments at aims? His sent to space and a rodent research is one of them. Right? You wanna? Yeah, definitely. So Shamila I know you are one of our residents fruit fly experts here as you can tell us a little bit about the fruit fly research system at NASA Ames, research center. Yes, certainly loved to. So here you can see this vile here is, you know, contains these food flies. You can see them. You know, you probably have seen them in the house. Buzzing around your rotting bananas and they're tiny, but they're extremely useful and so- flies for example, I used on earth to understand various disease conditions along with, you know, how does your immune system works? So when you get infected by micro bug and you, you do feel better and day or so, you know, how does that happen? How does your body cope? So the fruit fly actually has an innate immune system that's very similar to human. So we learned a lot. About immune system the brain. You know, how does the brain respond? And the new situation and being in space is definitely a new situation for most organisms. You say, flies a brain. It hasn't breaks. We talking like, I mean, he's got to be small, microscopic, yes. Was surprisingly very structurally, very similar. You know, in the way the neurons function and stuff, how is actually very similar to the many fewer neurons accelerate. So it's simpler which also makes it easier to study because then you actually, you know, can can look at changes in the brain and changes in the behavior new situations and start to draw correlations as to, you know, jeans are important, which part of the brain is important. So similarly, you know, the heart is another important, you know organ system, this several of these, you know, this Acadians system which means day and night and day. So when you have jet lag or you had their stayed up all night with an all nighter, you know your, your sleep is thrown off and study that in flies and you can study that and play that Nobel prize. Actually recently went to address awful. We search who worked that all out and crew is, and it's very applicable. Those same jeans or. Many of those genes and pathways are very applicable to humans. And that's how we know a lot about what happens in mammalian systems along with studies and other after that, but but a lot of this work was started with the cool. How did you tell me that your students develop at hardware? I was just gonna say that you know the other major advantage of doing something like flies in addition to its similarity to to the humans is that you can fit thousands of these flies into a one box this size which was developed in fact in my lab by summer students, and then NASA helped kind of rugged. Is it and making more robust. But otherwise, essentially, the design is that made by students and so we can bring back thousands of flies in a bucks, this small and you can just, you know, you can really study and understand a lot of very valuable systems that you couldn't do in humans or in a larger organism. Like you said, the eagle where you. Right. Listen. Eagles. You know, hardware developed here at Ames. I know there's also piece of hardware up here developed by aims researchers as well. Is that right? So what we have here is the it's a cassette from the bile culture system, and this is a system we developed at aims to grow cells and space. What we have down at the bottom in in pink and blue is the bio reactor. And that's where the cells actually grow and to keep the cells alive. We have foods that are circulating and fluids provide the nutrients, the gases to to supply the cells, and also carry away. The waste products looks like a really complex. Yeah. And then we have ten cassettes ten copies of these that are in what's called the bile culture system. So by having Tennessee's, we're able to examine multiple samples or different samples of whatever whatever cells we're wanting to grow. So cool. I'm gonna keep us moving because reading short on time, and we have so much more that we wanna ask. And I have a bunch of questions that I'm going to save in just a minute. This stuff is all things you've developed fairly recently and using. Now, what's next is they do you wanna talk about the salad? I, it's right. So real. You're also the principal investigator for another very interesting experiment called the sentinel how that's such a cool name. I mean anything with the word sensible and I think is brought it and you. Yeah. Grab the center. Let's bring it up here year. Oh, yes. Bios and while while sid is helping bring the model over so you can see what the satellite looks like. Let me show you what the yeast cells look like. So these are yeast cells not dissimilar at all to the yeast that you have that help make bread or beer. Those of you only above twenty one would know what I mean by beer. Of course. But so what you're seeing here, for example, each of these spots is actually hundreds and thousands of yeast cells each. In fact, one. Each of these colonies was founded by one single cell. So remember how I talk to you about fruit flies in an advantage being numbers. Well, similarly, there I could fly thousands of flies in a box that big here I can. I can fly millions and billions of cells in a satellite, the size wise number important because you need those numbers to do statistics and science so that when you see a change, you know it's believable and reproducible. So you need a large number. So what are we doing with these yeast in the satellite? And why is it interesting? Well, for one thing. Remember sid mentioned that when you go deep into space as more radiation, right? And so we want to understand what that radiation would do to biology. What would happen to astronaut who is going to Mars and coming back until we use these yeast cells who actually or which the cells have DNA repair mechanisms very similar to humans using. So when the radiation actually damages DNA, for example, in the east cell and then it's repaired, we can actually learn a lot about that repair mechanism using east cruzi how all of life uses the same things. Klay from ninety sell this to the fly to the to the eagle to the way we're all made up a very similar building blocks cells are going to go in that satellite, right? It's going to go in the satellite. The satellite go question, good question. It's actually. To go very, very far it's going to go towards the sun and it's going to insist months. It'll be about a third of the way to the sun, which is approximately thirty million miles surface long ways. It's a long way. Very, very, very brave, daring. You. And we learn a lot from them about how the DNA will respond in this radiation environment, how it will survive and and so on until we'll use it as a biosensor to understand the effects of deep space, and we'll have a something called the an LED spectrometer, which is also a dissimilar which will also measure the radiation. So they'll be the biological effect and an actual physical measurement which we will compare. Why is there so much radiation outside of that far into space Deasy you can kind of. Yeah, absolutely. So so we on earth are lucky in in a way and many, many planets have this thing of where we have a magnetic field that protects us. It's called the van Allen belt. Oh. That's right. Visual. And essentially this protective shell protects us from these highly energetic, highly damaging particles that would come at us either from the sun or from the cosmic radiation, and which could damage our DNA, which could damage our our cell membrane cetera different parts of of our body. But we're protected on surface. But then when you go to Mars or moon, you're going beyond this protective sphere, and that's why you know. And before we send humans for very long, duration missions. You want to send these these sentinels as sensors or just the name. Right? Right. Would you say that all this biosciences research is kind of ultimately leading up to sending humans further into space? Is that the final goal down for space by signs? That's definitely a very Mars on. That's right. So we've we've gotta move onto our next segment and last with you guys. We're going to do a rapid fire, so if Bill can throw 'em up there, we'll get started. This is a segment where we ask you a whole bunch of westerns. I'm gonna fire a bunch of questions at you, and you answer as many as you can in the next minute or so, because then we have to move on to our next guests. Okay. So there are bunch from our viewers. What is your favorite experiment that has been done in space Christian from Colin l.. And or. Well, that's Collins question I question was going to be if you could do a new experiment, what would it be? Okay. These are all excellent. I would say my favorite experiment in space was when we food flies for the for, we hadn't been flown for a number of years, and then we flew it to look at how the Munich changes and how it responds to an infection. When they come back from space and these fruit flies, you know, the experiments really successful came back. We did the experiment, and we found some really cool things about how the mutant system was petard by spaceflight and found actually that they would perturbed in ways that were quite similar to the way they are affected in humans. And that was very cool because we, we learned quite a bit about the basics of what happens rules. Here's another one from vanilla man, forty-seven besides bone structure damage, how. To space affect our body. Yeah. Well, that's a different changes. Cardiovascular changes, immune system changes. I was interesting because that rose only when the astronauts were in space for three months longer. Yeah. Yeah. And so those are the big the, the gross anatomical changes as we were just saying, but then even at the deeper level at the cell level, now, you know, people are scientists are beginning to do a lot more molecular biology and we're finding some pretty cool changes even at the sub cellular level, different organs inside the cell and how they function and how your genes make proteins, aren't a and proteins. Those are all affected by those are all changing. Those are all changing in tiny ways. So then you know, you can still survive in and do your job. But at the same time there enough changes that you need to understand it. So you know how to handle it for long duration time once I wouldn't want to send astronauts over blind. Exactly. Exactly. Yeah. Novus. Static wants to know. Do you expect experiments to be done in orbit around the moon? Yes, very much. Yeah, there's Nassar's envisioning something called gateway, which could be facility that will support experiments in space. So we've been starting to define what kind of research like do they're very cool. A lot to look forward to. Yeah, sure. Maybe one more quick one before we have to say goodbye. Do the astronauts have any involvement with any of the space station animal experiments, or are they run autonomously from Jericho? No, astronauts actually are big. There are partners in this. You know, for example, the food fly mission that Christina Iran recently, we had to have astronauts actually give the flies new food. They took the samples, they fix it and preservative and froze them so that when they came back down, we can analyze the molecular biology of the change. They were like our hands up there and we owe so much to them and all their hard work up their station. And that's for the ISS. But then when you do a satellite mission, like we talked about by sentinel, then it's completely autonomous all by itself, which John does, but it's just two different ways of doing science both useful, but very cool. All right. So I wish we could keep it for the whole hour, but we have more people to meet. So thank you so much for coming on both of you for having. And for those of you watching quick reminder today, we're talking about studying life in space and what kind of tools do we need to do that and what kind of questions can we answer. If you have questions, please leave them on twitch, dot TV, slash NASA. They are clearing out all the hardware that you got to see in the first half, and we're bringing in a couple of more researchers who are going to talk to us about the space hacks, genius hacks that they've developed in their labs to get research done, either here on earth or up on the space station. It doesn't always require some super specialized fancy equipment and they're gonna show us all about that coming up. All right. So Hello. Hello, welcome guys. So now we've got a re meet our crew here. And actually I thought we should start with you, Christina because you're our host for the day, but you're also a scientist, right? So yes, Abby, yes, I am the host to for today, but I also work with fruit flies in the lab scientists and then to my right we have. Hi, I'm Cassie Duran. I am a post doctoral fellow and a bio engineer researcher interested in stem cells in space and how regenerative mechanisms work. Very cool. Just seeing Richardson, Emma, senior research engineer. So I actually built system to recycle air in water in space. Awesome. Wow, very cool. And you know, it's great to know you guys. I'm just a little bit, but we're actually going to try to get, you know, a little better. So we're going to start another segment called weird science, your science. All right. So weird science. I wanted to ask you guys an also I will answer this myself. What is the strangest thing you've done in the name of science? And so while you guys think about it, I will start off with mine. And so my weirdest thing I've ever done with scientists actually in college, I ran a catering company with three other friends, and we catered for weddings for school events for family parties and things like that. But so we able to cook for, oh, three hundred, four hundred people at a time, and that was a lot of fun. But when I started working at NASA, boy, I did not think I would actually be catering for flies. So I actually make fly food every single week. Up to their specs. Of course, I don't discriminate against clients and I make food for them so that they can survive in they can grow weird. What? What is it? What's the food, your mix? The food I make is made up of some grains. There's also yeast lot of sugar. They love their sugar, and then we also put a quieting agent. So it turns kind of like a jello. Fly jello, lie. Chung fly, jello caterer great on my resume. Excellent. Pretty weird. Yeah, pretty weird. Little weird. Yeah, there's a little bit. I don't have any weird science like that, but I have a weird lead dedicated to science kind of story when I was also in graduate school, I was working on a personalized medicine project with with the guy who was sponsoring my PHD and we were trying to replicate skeletal joints so that we could create an implant that was specialized for each individual patient custom fit. Exactly. So for this particular project, we had done a three dimensional x Ray or a x Ray computed commute little can't see speak today and three d. c. t. or computed tomography knew I'd get you scan these. These. Fans out what I needed to do to complete the implant was to three d print these skeletal structures. So I could fit the implant perfectly and I needed a specific kind of printer in a specific kind of of material. And after a lot of searching, I found a print shop that could do it. And they told me about sixteen hours to prints, and the guy who was normally the tech for printing was not going to be there until two days later it would have. Oh boy. So I literally said, well, I know how to use a sprinter. Can I stay here overnight who prints this aid for sixteen hours? And I made sure the machine didn't break so that we had the printed model ready and we could fit the implants perfectly. So if I'm able to ask, what did you print what's toll model for this specific project? We were looking at the jaw or the specific section here called the temperament, dealer joints. When it goes bad, it goes really bad really quickly, and we were creating a tissue, engineered implant to basically correct that problem and then was the patient. All righty. So I wasn't the doctor, but from every I know it went really, really well. That's your dedication paid off your sleep by. Excellent. Weird, dedica- occasion, weird catering. What about you just eating? Can you top that. Why can describe some of the interesting experience I have. So when I first actually I got to aim one of my first job was develop a wastewater recycling system. Portable water. Pam to test the system. Yes. I needed a fifty five gallon barrel of urine and dirty shower water boy. Oh boy, oughta gallons. That's flies. E. that. Five gallon class bottle in the men's bathroom. So. On top and they contribute for the female. Such a great for the female. You know what I had to go around with a bottle and examples it can. Can I have your urine, please? Three times. History book forever the NASA document. And so that's how we got it. And we, we did that for week to try to mix this mixture of urine. I had fully out. And then you used it on your system? Yes, we did go actually, we did go all the way to portable water. Right? We didn't drink it. Drank it. I just. Important distinction to say that right now. That's pretty impressive though. That was that not my preferred John. I always say like four, the science right. Things to get the NASA job done right. So yeah, that is completely weird just but yes, but I guess what's not weird is using everyday items to get your research done because that's what you guys are going to show us in the next section, right? So we're gonna move on now to present to you, some of our genius space hacks. So as I was describing before, these guys sometimes encounter challenges in the lab and they need quick fixes or they need smart fixes and you don't necessarily need some super fancy equipment to do it. You can invent something a little creativity. So Christina, let's start with you and your flies this I hack. We're calling Lord of the flies sorters you already flyswatter extraordinaire. How many do you think you sorted over the years? Well, happy that is extremely flattering. Title the Fleiss orders. I guess I have sorted many flies in my lifetime. I would say tens of thousands at least Laura, yes, I, it's a lot to think about. It's a lot of hours, but are you sorting flies? Tell us where this all begins. That's a great question. So why do I swore flies? Actually believe it or not. Flies are actually they're different. They're not all the same. They might all look the same to the naked eye, but they're actually a little bit different and we do this so that we wanna make sure that we know for our experiments, you know what flies goes, where he sensually make sense. And so one of the most common I can see them realized in the close up I seen they're all they're all around top. So actually a one common way that we saw is between males and females. And so they are distinctively different, and we're able to see that under a microscope and so. Normally what we do in the lab is that we actually take flies that are in via like this, and we'll have a tray kind of out just about this big about cellphone sized trae or so in the will actually dump out the flies and they'll form a little pile. And unfortunately, we can't just tell the flies like. I grew on this. Lineup, unfortunately can't even get humans to do that, so it's not going to happen for flies. So how do we do that? Well, actually what we do is we use is, oh yeah, she's actually they're using the act. I don't know if you can actually see it on there, but she's actually using the hack. Paintbrush and you can see on the left is that she a females, I believe in on the right is a male's. Well, you can tell just get a season I can tell, but you learn after about a couple thousand flies. Is that takes. That's all it takes a couple thousand flies here there. Okay, so you just need an ordinary watercolor type paint reg? Yes, sort flies for space station experiments basically. Yes, exactly. And this is my favorite paintbrush it is not only because it's a beautiful color. It's Genta color, but also it has actually very sturdy bristles but actually still very soft. So what we can do actually pick up individual flies and place them where we want, what we want them to go. And we're also able to do like a sweeping motion, kind of move the flies into different piles genius. You need some specialized Fleiss sorting device. He'll we didn't craft store or watercolor set. If you take it from watercolor palates you can use. You can use for this. Awesome. So digital d has a question for you? Yes, flies ever escaped. Oh, yes. On this that yes, they have escaped, but mostly that's user error more so than the flies. But what we do is we were able to either kind of catch them in scoop backup or sometimes we just let them go. Farewell. Farewell wise. You can't join us in our experiment. Right? So this is the experiments Sharmila was talking about a little. Actually working her lab. So she is someone I'm very close to, and we sort flies all the time. Fascinating. Now as weird as that is, I just want to mention that someone has voted in just as the winner. I agree. Volunteer. Definitely take. Now as we move onto our second hack a little shout out to I am London who mentions I put fruit flies to sleep with sleeping guests. Vilocci class stay tuned here comes hack number two, which we were calling nighty night flies. Now that's not a nursery rhyme that you missed in your youth. That is about a way to make flies fall asleep fast, right? Christina. Yes, that's definitely very true. So tell us how does that normally work in the lab and then what's your Hackel about? Yeah. So normally the lab, actually what we do is we have a big carbon dioxide tank if we want, we can queue up the photo motive of you next to it, I think so why carbon dioxide? Because that's going to knock out your. Is there we go. So carbon dioxide actually put the flies to sleep. And when I say that, I literally mean put the fly to not put the flies to sleep. Yeah. Time we want them the wake back up. That's right. This temporary? Okay. And so what we do is so we actually have to do this morally. This is how we're able to maneuver the flies with carbon dioxide when they fall asleep. And so so yeah, that's why we have to use carbon dioxide. All right. But you were telling me then, okay. So the fly experiments go to the space station. They spend perhaps a month there right in some of the flies come back for you to study changes in them right ground, right? Yes. And then is that when you're gonna need hack because you have to go fetch them? Yes. So actually what we do is we actually have to go to Long Beach, California, which is down the coast of California's rope and north. It's actually Dow further south. And so we can't just strap tank to our car and expect expected drive down with it down with the eighty pound tank on the with this potholes and California for Californians we all know this. Yeah, that's just not gonna fly. Fly count, pun number one. So no, we were not going to be able to do that. And so what the genius scientists at NASA Ames research center, it was actually found a way to create portable carbon dioxide. Okay. Yep. How do you do that? Yeah, no, that's a great question. So actually what we did was we have a bottle and this is a fly bottle that we have in the lab all the time we hold a flies in. It's kind of like this vile just bigger and so we can hold more flies. And so what we did was we took a spare one and we fill it up with tap water, just water you can find in the sink. And then what we did was we actually were able to hack this by. What does that dropping. To antacid tablets, and so yeah, and tacit, tablets. So this is actually antacid tablets are used for indigestion. You can find it your local drugstore. Yup. These are just the same ones. So these tablets and so two demonstrate this hack, we're actually going to be able to show you how the flies fall asleep. But what I also wanted to make sure was that safety, I guess. Right goggle up. Now we're geeky science to. National very concerned about everybody safety always always including onset. So we did was that we have a bottle of water and then now we have a vial of flies, and so I'm gonna drop these two tablets. And then can I get a quick countdown from the folks here three to one there and you can see. Right? Yeah. And so what we do is we have to stop it with the rubber stopper and now we're actually able to. Di wrecked, the carbon dioxide out the needle. And what we can do is take the vial you can see they're all crawl up. They're getting all excited. And what we'll do is we'll kind of insert it in and we'll wait for the carbon dioxide to affect them. And as you can see, they're starting to drop starting to drop. That's pretty. They're dropping like flies out here. Can't. Well, they're all sleep at the bottom. You see them there. And so, yeah, now we have about, oh, thirty seconds or so able to sort the flies much like we did before the hack. We bring our trusty little paintbrush and separate the flies into their containers. That's not a lot of time though. No, no. We have some trained hands and the team that we work really fast and very carefully but accurately. Interesting. And while we're talking about working with flies and other organisms and putting them to sleep, letting them wake up, what can you guys tell us about the the precautions you take to treat animals correctly and humanely right there there rules around that right in your work that. Oh, yeah, definitely. I know I speak for myself in my own research, but I know these folks, especially Hassi here also very familiar with this as well. But yes, we take the utmost precaution and most sensitivity to the animals and knowing that you know, they are giving their lives. For us to be able to remove in science and they live good lives. Around eat a lot. They chill out all day in a nice more room. They're perfectly happy food. Yes, yes. That. And so we take here at NASA, especially, you know, we take very much care into that, making sure that we don't do things just for fun. You know, we do it for the of science to help and a help us as humans as well. Right, right. Now, thank you for that fascinating. So I hope that the the viewer who has done that before got a kick out of seeing an Esa scientists, putting flies to sleep probably in a similar way. Let's move on though to our next heck which Cassie is going to watch guavas through. So this is about sending spacecraft into space such as satellites and before NASA launches anything sends it up there for good to run an experiment, they're going to test it very carefully and give it a sort of space craft checkup, which is the name of this next hack Cassie. Can you tell us what's? What's the deal? And I can go into this little. So when we package experiments for flight, they're usually contained in these nice sturdy boxes. Anybody like drops it or if it needs to get on the space station, there's no gravity. So we orient them up side down. Sometimes they're attached to the walls. Sometimes they're the floors, they kind of go all over. So we pack them up in these nice sturdy containers. But once they're packed in here, we can't really check on them to make sure that everything inside is still working. So how do we do a go? No, go basically for for flight on an experiment. Decide this is good to go. It's working correctly because of course at NASA, everything has a backup and then a backup to the back. Okay. You wanna make sure that we're sending a working model? Yeah. So before we actually put things together, we do a last minute checkup and checkup is an accurate word because we use it trustee, go. Before anybody who's ever been to a doctor for. So literally, if I plug these into my ears, I can take myself stethoscope and I can listen for moving parts within, you know, the system. Sometimes it's a pump. Sometimes it's check valves. Sometimes it's gas going through the system here. All of that by moving around my stethoscope to make sure everything's in working order. Also listen, like what kind of sound are we listening for? Do you can you? Yeah. So like a valve will be click, click like, okay, okay. Literally as the valve opens, you'll hear it open as it closes, if there's any gases running. For example, you'll hear hissing noise just like we kind of heard a little bit when you're saying. Carbon dioxide. Yep, exactly. So that's so cool. Like why reinvent the wheel. Already going that thing already existed, and we call you a space doctor, please don't. But. That would be quite in there. All right. Let's move on next hack, which you're also gonna show is so give you a moment, get it up here, but I think you're gonna tell us about spinning for science and space. So we're gonna call this hack spin class. So this is about using a centrifuge, right? So I worked in a lab briefly. I remember what that is. Can you run us through though centrifuges how that works? Sure, absolutely. So one of the major things we have to do research, we have to be able to separate our samples just like Christina uses her paintbrush two separate flies. We have two separate cells from culture media from other like water components and things like that. And the way we do that is on earth. You know, for example, if you wanted to pour a glass of water, gravity, kind of does the work for you. You pour the glass of water and you're fine in space. However, because there's no gravity, we have to use other forces to drive fluids in certain directions. And one of the main ones we use is sent sent futures basically a rotary device that spins and creates. A load or force in a single direction. And with that single direction force, you're able to separate liquids based on densities or masses or move fluids from one position to another. Okay. Oh, on on that node thing. I know what that's all about. I happen to brought my dinner today. I am agrees, but we're talking about, I've got my wet lettuce throat in here. Right. And then I'm gonna get this more or less. That is exactly. And it's going to of throw the water against the wall. Drina bottom and my lettuce is dry is that is that same idea? Same idea, the differences. If I'm separating out microscopic cells need something a little bit more powerful than your arm. Sorry, wrong. But whatever. Could you? Could you sell it? Yes or anything in there. Cow down. So. All right, so yeah, so something a little more powerful than this, but a lab centrifuges bay thing. Right? You brought a picture, we actually say, you can pull that up. Oh, wow. All right. So it's a, it's a big machine. That's not a thing that you can easily launch the space station. Definitely not this. This thing would take way too much mass and way too much space. It's a big machine. So basically we needed a version of that that we could then use in-space that wouldn't take really any excess face. And that's our second hack third out. So how do we do that? We use it on true. Oh, my. Power is very traditional, like the astronauts will use. They have a couple of this station, but they'll use it for repairs. They'll use it for repositioning of gear on station, and we decided that we would use it as our makeshift centrifuge. All right, cool. And the way we do that is we have a drill and we used a three d. printer and we printed one of these. This is basically a centrifuge rotor and what this does get a zoom in on that. What this does is it has several positions along the rim where we can put sample tubes, and I haven't example of sample tube that's out right now. So this is a sample to kind of interesting and our sample to fits right into this rotor. So if I pop it open a little bit closer so I can see what I'm doing. So if I opened the lock, I can pop the tube right in my locked. The two back in I can then mount this whole thing. See if I can do that. Yup, I can't successfully. And then this if I had my sample in, I can literally run this and I would like to run it. But safety first. Another better than me. Forget every time. Because we work in. We can't forget. Don't let my centrifuge. This will spin nicely. I'm gonna spin it slowly because we're in studio, right? But yeah. And basically after this is finished bidding, I have photo of what happens with some died liquid and what you can see here. If we can do there, we go. We have two pictures. This picture over here is before the sample centrifuge see, you can see that all the sample is in the loading input. Well, and then after centrifuge, the sample has moved down and is now in the test window. And now from the state we could do whatever kinds of tests were looking to do. Let's see that video of Esther, not Caitlyn been housing this pack on the space station. All right. So she's as she is. That's exactly the same thing. You just the same thing same drill even or and she's having just as much trouble. And there it goes spinning and she's spending it at full speed. Awesome. I love that that's actually in use of their use, and she. Okay, they're happy. Well, we've got to keep moving because we honestly have like four minutes. Advice. So we want to hear about just Enes hacks. So this next one we're gonna call, take my astronaut breath away because just seen works on keeping air clean for extra noughts on space station. And I know that you've helped design some systems that are already in use up there and that you have some new research going on the you can tell us about, can you tell us the basics? What's the deal? We have to clean up the air that they've exhaled the estrin. Right? It's so we take all the information that you guys are doing and learn from it and the space station asked the astronaut, breathe out oxygen, breathing oxygen. They actually be out cardiac side. We need to do that Carney outside in the room like this to level as reasonable. So one way we do that is we use the material cost, solid Sorbonne's now absorbed. If you take a look at these sponge, you put this in water, Juarez absorb and you Swedes it out. Using pressure, put in the sun. The water comes back out another dabble of solid sore, but is like that a silica gel bag. Whether you find those. I've seen these in new shoe boxes. Yup. Jerky. You can eat your beef jerky but do not silicon right. So we use a materials that removes comrade oxide just like your Water Filter at home. We contaminant from your water. So in order to remove the carbon dioxide, we have to first remove the water. So we use a similar experiment material which is silica gel, tops, and same stuff in that packet is not saying, but similar. Okay. Came the space station, right? You flow air through space, station's systems biggers like two five gallon barrel, and then the airstream dry when it's dry. Then we moved the comedy. Carbon dioxide is removed by these dry parts. Yes. By the second orb that very reasonable to that is reusable because you know, you put this in the sun, the worry va- parade, you heat that up. The shoe to then comes off and it gets recycle and converted to methane and water. We waste nothing on onstage. No, we really everything is reusable regenerate, but it has to be saved, but you're right. Can't use a lot of chemicals. All right. What some of the, you know, current research that's being done on advanced research as we travel a little bit further from I s or international space station, we look at some other sorts are more effective that they use in the submarine, sometime cool and sandwich. Right? These are call liquid servants, liquid Sorbonne. Cool. So an example of this is the material on top right there is a liquid serpent absorbs you to women's mix in water. And when you ask you to actually becomes one face, that's cool. So this looks like oil and water or like salad dressings. Yeah, Senate absorbs here too, and it becomes mix mixed up and it will be so cool. So it's regenerated this region regenerative unreasonable that keyword. Incredible rust guys, so clever and I'm so sad to say that we have to say goodbye, the these conversations go so fast every time, but thank you all of you for joining us and thank you. Everybody for watching. This has been NASA in Silicon Valley live. As we said, we are a conversational show about all the cool work going on at NASA Ames research center. So tune in next time. We will be back on September twenty. Seventh to talk about video games and space. Slow join us, then you can watch us on twitch. YouTube Facebook and NASA TV, and you can catch the audio version on our podcast until then thank you so much for watching and thank you guys for joining us.
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