7 Burst results for "Seven Hundred Million Years"
In Defense of Plants Podcast
"seven hundred million years" Discussed on In Defense of Plants Podcast
"Chris earl it is great to have you on the podcast. I'm a huge fan of your work. Let's start off by telling everyone a little bit about who you are. What it is you do. Hey i'm here. Mainly because i have website at conifers dot org orgy gymnast sperm database. That i started back in the late. Nineteen nineties and has been online ever since then and provide some rationale there but basically one of my primary interest in life is understanding. What's going on with biological received these conifers. How this supposedly primitive group of plants has become in remains one of the most dominant groups of plants in the world there only about six hundred fifty species of conifers in the world and yet they dominate most of the world's forested ecosystems including essentially all the mountain for a steady coast systems and it is ecologically evolutionary an interesting problem that ties into mental questions about biological diversity in the functioning of global ecosystems. And then that doesn't pay very well. So i'm also a consulting ecologist. I work on a variety. Ecological problems must by clients or government agencies. And where did this love. Really begin for ecology then specifically conifers. I mean when did you realize that was kind of the group you wanted to hone in on this kind of an early bloomer. In those respects i was about seven years old decided i was going to be a scientist was thirteen. When he said it was going to be an ecologist and then in the summer of nineteen seventy five i spent mostly rock climbing in yosemite along the way got to know of the some of the climbing rangers and some of the park scientists and and they drag me along to help out with some of their field work occasionally and i learned about things like a pest insects and their influence on the long term dynamics of forests in yosemite national park and that was pretty interesting It didn't stop me from going to get a degree in geology but In the courses studying geology ended up working with tree rings and Worked at the laboratory. Tree-ring research in in arizona did a lot of work with that and then when i moved up to the university of washington Trimmings was under the geology program in arizona was under the forest ecology program in washington. And so that kinda got me credentials as forest ecologist the nets What my doctor is awesome. So it's been a fun journey Longtime in the making which is always exciting to hear someone that has this background that started when they were super young because i think it up doors to observations and lends to a greater passion for learning the subject in a very deep way so from that mindset. When you started to turn your attention to conifers. I think a lot of people can empathize with this idea. That they often get pushed to. The side is like you said kind of quote unquote primitive plants. But every conifer we see on the landscape today truly is a success story. Many hundreds of millions of years in the making. There's nothing primitive about these plants so to speak right correct. You often hear the expression living fossil and it's really a misnomer because everyone of these ancient organisms and it's just plants there are were shoot. Crabs for instance around for seven hundred million years they have had to survive every one of those seven hundred million years and they've done it by continuing to function really well in their environment. Okay it may be something that they got good at a long time ago. But they've had to stay with edit through all the changes that have occurred over that vast ecological timespan and so These these so-called living fossils actually represent a very robust ability to adapt to a changing environment. One that has continued to to serve them over vast spans of geologic time. I just had a geneticist on recently. That's been looking at conifer genomes. And even they kind of taught this idea that even the stuff that we're seeing is not hanging on as it was there was rapid diversification of recent groups and you know quote unquote relatively recent history. So these are things that are still being very dynamic in their environment changing to sue conditions and finding new ways to exploit their their niche space was earlier that's true of conifers We can identify some individual species that have been around for tens of millions of years but mostly when people say conifers are ancient. They're talking about families of conference gaining an end to a lesser degree genera-. Actually pines are the oldest genera- bushing on hundred million years smile. Let some genera- are only a few million years. Old preps majority of species are only a few million years old so they are really the most current representatives of types of adaptation had been around for a great deal of time and speaking of long spans of time. I mean one of the main reasons we connected with over a lecture that you gave based on the longevity of some of these organisms. And i think when you look at the list of oldest organisms trees tend to come out on top and of those a lot of gymnast. Berms tend to be up on that list. Is there any indication. Why jimmy sperms particularly have such a propensity for live long and prosper sort of thing. Yeah there are. There are some indications that very fact that some stuff that is so new just came out last week there a couple of points here. One is the question of what we mean Lives along time. Okay people tend to be very anthropogenic about grandfather. Lived a long time right and no trees are not like human beings you know you cut the limb off a tree. It's not nearly as bad as if you cut him off a human being. I okay trees. Earn sets colonial organisms for instance. They're sending called branch. Autonomy theory says basically a branch lives or dies by itself if ranch is able to produce food and send good stuff back to the mother tree than the mother tree sends nutrients in water branch if the branch stops producing at that level than the mother treat cuts off dies and in fact an old tree can go through variety of sets of branches over the course of its life so in a sense..
Startuprad.io - Startup Podcast from Germany
"seven hundred million years" Discussed on Startuprad.io - Startup Podcast from Germany
"Start read that podcast and youtube blog covering the german startup scene with news interviews and live alone. Welcome from In my case from new york city this is this month and german startups by star. Break i l in an us recording with Joe from frankfurt am mine. Hey joe hey guys and me christian from new york city It is fall. We are back from osama break. And that's why we bring you another bonus episode as part of a news coverage of the german. Start up seeing We call it. The unicorn checker becomes longer and longer every month. It seems and we recorded this episode on september. Twenty eighth of two thousand twenty one repping. July august and september speaking about the company's fu in germany are now part of the very delicate club of unicorn startups to bonus episode of following our special coverage from june. Because and let's dive right into it. We have new unicorns to announce. Chris may interrupt you one bit here. It is not only germany but the german speaking area including austria switzerland. And of course if if little stein ever has a unicorn it goes here as well. I mean historically kind of the same and bad times bet history. That's not a focused on that. So badejo. I really don't know Anyway we have new unicorns to announce In germany the munich-based ecommerce specialists who immersed tools raises one hundred and twenty million euro from investors like adsell german retailer lever which now makes valuing the company at one point six million euros or one point nine bill. Roughly one point nine billion. Us dollars. We have bain capital who pays a seven hundred million euros who pay seven hundred million years for a forty percent stake in berlin brands group turning that one into a unicorn Briscoe.
Kottke Ride Home
"seven hundred million years" Discussed on Kottke Ride Home
"The grand canyon is among the most all inspiring sites in the world and carries within it a few mysteries chief among them is the great unconformable a term coined in the mid eighteen hundreds and used in reference to a few other rock faces but referring to roughly the same thing a gap in the geological strata for the grand canyon. The great unconformable is a gap in the sedimentary record of about a billion years in some places there are rocks dating back five hundred twenty million years that lay right on top of rock layers from one point four billion years ago the cause of this billion year gap is something. Scientists have debated for generations. Now a new study from geologists at the university of colorado boulder published last month in the journal geology is shedding new light on what may have led to the great unconformable quoting cu boulder today the team reports that a series of small yet violent faulting events may have rocked the region during the break up of an ancient supercontinent called rudeina. The resulting havoc likely tore up the earth around the canyon causing rocks and sediment to wash away and into the ocean do explore the transition bear peak lead author of the new study and a graduate student in geological sciences at cu boulder and her colleagues employed a method called thermo chronology which tracks the history of heat in stone peak explained that when geological formations are buried deep underground. The pressure building on top of them can cause them to get toasty. That heat in turn leaves a trace in the chemistry of minerals in those formations and quotes and from vice quote by analyzing minerals collected in seven locations across the grand canyon in her colleagues. Aim to find evidence that might support one of the various explanations that scientists have proposed to account for the missing gap in time. The results revealed distinct temperature patterns in the ancient rock samples even within the relatively small region that the team sampled for instance peak and her colleagues found that samples from the western side of their field. Studies contained rocks that had risen to the surface of earth about seven hundred million years ago whereas samples from the eastern areas. Were still miles underground at that time. Buried in hotter and denser layers of the planet and quotes that two different events may have resulted in the eastern versus western. Parts of the canyon was very surprising. The researchers do still think. It had something to do with the break-up of virginia. Just that it tore at the eastern and western parts in different ways at different times and the team will now be studying sites of the great unconformable in other locations in north america to compare and find additional insight although the grand canyon was certainly one of the best places to start as peak. Explains it the grand canyon is like quote earth's history textbook if he scaled down the canyons. Rock faces you can jump back almost two billion years into the planet's past and quotes so there is a lot that we can learn about the earth writ large just from studying the grand canyon but nonetheless. The team is excited to investigate. How other parts of north america and the rest of the world may have been affected by the break-up over denia and not just rely on answers from one location. No matter.
SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"seven hundred million years" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"Data from the european space agency's guys style mapping satellite as revealed tantalizing evidence that the haiti stock loss to the nearest stock lost. The to the earth is being destroyed by the gravitational influence of massive but unseen structure within our milky way galaxy. If true it could provide the first tantalizing evidence of a suspected population of so-called dark matter. Saab does these invisible hypothetical clouds of dark matter particles thought to be really from the formation of the milky way more than twelve billion years ago and now spread across the galaxy making up an invisible substructure that exerts noticeable gravitational influence on anything that drifts to close each a research fellow theresa job covert together with colleagues from asia and the european southern observatory made the discovery while studying the way a nearby stock loss to the hades is merging into the journal. Background stars about galaxy. The team chose the simply because it is the nearest stock loss to the sun. It's located just over one hundred and fifty three light years away and he's easily visible in both the northern and southern hemispheres as a conspicuous v-shape of bright stars. That marks the head of the bull in the constellation taurus beyond the easily visible bright stars. Telescopes can reveal more than one hundred faintest is all contain unisphere core region of space. Roughly sixty light years across stock closed a thought to be made a stars which originally all formed at the same time but the only loosely gravitationally bound. So they'll naturally lose stars over time because the stars moving within the class that gravitationally turbe each other. This constant tugging gradually changes the stars. Velocities moving some towards the edge of the cluster and from there the stars swept out by the gravitational pull of galaxy forming too long still trails. One of the star trials trails the cluster. Well the other pulls out ahead of it. These are known as tidal tails and have been widely studied inclined galaxies. And no one's ever seen them from a nearby open star cluster. Very recently the katie detecting tidal tails is spotting with stars in the sky. A moving in a similar way to the stock lasta. And that's where the guy space telescope comes in. It makes this easy. Because it precisely measures the distance and movement of more than a billion stars in the galaxy previous attempts only limited success bigs astronomers could really any look at stars that closely already matched the movement of the stock pasta and that would exclude members that lived earlier in the hades six hundred to seven hundred million year history and so ah now traveling on different orbits twenty stand the range of orbits the look for the authors constructed a computer model that would simulate the various gravitational perturbations escaping stars in the cost of might feel during the hundreds of millions of years in space. It was after running this code and then comparing the simulations with real data that the true extent of the heidi's titled tales were revealed in fact the authors found thousands of former members in the guy data and these stars stretching out for thousands of light years across the galaxy into enormous tidal tails. But the real surprise was that the trading title tail seem to be missing stars and this indicates that something much more brutal is taking place than the star cost us simply gently dissolving running the simulations again the authors found that it showed that the data could be reproduced if that taylor collided with a cloud of matter in tanning something like ten million solar masses. And the problem is is simply ana gas clouds or star classes that massive nearby so if visible structures can be detected in future targeted searches the authors left to speculate that it could mean that the mystery object could be a dark matter sub halo hypothetical clumps of dark matter that are thought to help shape a galaxy during its formation. It's all just an idea but it is tantalizing. Nevertheless this space time still to come more. Alex discovered in the russian section of the international space station and the styling constellation now has more than thirteen hundred satellites. Oh that and more still.
"seven hundred million years" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"Very combination so in general when you look In the very early universe the galaxies are relatively small most of them in terms of the number of stars that they have but we do see rare cases where the galaxies are starting to get reasonably large meaning that they must have out formed starts very very rapidly to get that big over a relatively small amount of time But even more so and this is sort of getting at this point about which objects for him i. We also see black holes. That are very massive Even i think the winner now is around. Seven hundred million years after the big bang is the must be sort of earliest massive black hole. We see and the way we can tell. The mass of those objects is actually gets into this whole question about inclination and doppler shifts. Is if you look at the my call. Extra like a affluent lamp where it emits radiation. It lights up the gas around it and that gas is orbiting around the black hole. And so we'll have some of. It will be traveling very fast in our direction. Another summit will be traveling very fast in the other direction at. So you get this observable doppler shift in the in the light that you see and how massive the black hole is determines how fast that stuff is moving. And so it tells the if you see a broader emission line. Which is the sort of radiation at a particular wavelength for example that submitted by hydrogen. That we see the broader the doppler. Shift the larger the shift towards blue and red due to these losses. That tells you that there's more gravity and therefore there must be a more massive object there and we see objects well in excess of a billion solar masses. So that's you know two hundred times more massive than the black hole in the in the milky way less than a billion years after the big bang. The problem there is that we also know that black holes can only grow so fast if they eat material to quickly The best do they eat. As as we mentioned at the very beginning of the radiation they give off as a signature of how fast they're growing and if you So if they're going more rapidly than they give off more radiation but if they give enough radiation that radiation actually has a pressure that can push against the material is falling in and that is larger than the gravitational pull inwards can't grow anymore and so a lot of interplay between how massive black hole is and how fast it can grow the bigger ones and correspondingly grow more quickly. So if you start off small it takes a long time to get big because you have to. You can only grow vast when you're when you're relatively small and then there's a lot of rapid growth read at the end and if you try to work out the statistics of this exponential growth as it were about it. It's interesting that you know in this in these days of covert that have a lot of people obviously have become familiar with the concept of exponential growth. But for those calls something we think about all the time if you'd work it out. There's no real good way for a black hole to start at a reasonable size. The you know the round the massive a star or Even up to one hundred times massive the sun and actually get to this really really large mass In such a short time. So that's a big puzzle And you know there are a lot of potential solutions including forming big black holes from scratch early in the universe But that's that's definitely something that is..
24 Hour News
More and More Asteroids Smashing Into the Earth
"Giant rocks from space are falling more than they used to. But scientists say there's no reason to worry. A new study finds for the past two hundred ninety million years asteroids have been crashing into earth more than twice as often as they did. In the previous seven hundred million years asteroids, still only hitters every few million years on average at NASA list of potential big space. Rock crashes shows no pending major threats on its impact danger scale, scientists in Canada the United Kingdom and United States looked at impact craters on earth and the moon that were larger than twelve miles wide and estimate about two hundred sixty asteroids hit earth in the past two hundred ninety million years. The study appears in the journal
25 Hour News
Asteroids Crashing Into Earth Twice as Often as Before
"Than twice as often as they did. In the previous seven hundred million years asteroids, still only hitters every few million years on average and assez list of potential big space. Rock crashes shows no pending major threats on its impact dangerous scale, scientists in Canada the United Kingdom and the United States looked impact craters on earth and the moon that we're larger than twelve miles wide and estimate about two hundred sixty asteroids hit earth in the past two hundred ninety million years. The study appears in the journal science. An agricultural tourism pioneer has died. Her Teichmann