15 Burst results for "Sarah Crosby"

"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

Science Magazine Podcast

07:55 min | Last month

"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

"Nineteenth. Two thousand twenty one. I'm sarah crosby each week. We featured the most interesting news and research published in science and the sister journals first up this week. Staff news writer. John cohen talks about the open questions around cove. Nineteen vaccines like. Do they cut down on the transmission of the virus. then i talked was researcher. Anders johansson about a new series on the formation of terrestrial planets. How did and rocky planets like earth mars come to be at the very beginning of the solar system. I this week. We have staff writer john cohen. And we're going to talk about the state of corona virus vaccines and some of the most pressing questions surrounding them. Hi john very good. So it's my understanding that you're on your way to being fully vaccinated. What's that like. Yeah i'm Let's see what days today. I think i'm six days in So i don't have any immunity yet from the vaccine. But i'm really excited and starting to feel like hey there's a new world out there. Let's just be clear that you've got the vaccine because you're volunteering at a vaccine center and a vaccination center you're actually under the eligible age. A lot of places is sixty five and older but a lot of this limitation on. Who can get the vaccine is coming from lack of supply. Do you see the supply increasing allot anytime soon. In the us or elsewhere in the world will it certainly has increased in the us by more than twenty five percent over the past few weeks and as you vaccinate a portion of your society fifteen twenty thirty percent. There's more supply for other people because the immunized a chunk of the population around the world supply still is a crisis a hundred and thirty countries. According to the world health organization have yet to vaccinate a single person and i had during sadly to doctors. I i knew very well died in zimbabwe a couple of weeks ago and you know in the united states we've vaccinated basically all healthcare workers. That's terrible and we should definitely talk more about inequalities around the vaccine as we go but for now let's get into some specifics of how vaccines are working. One of the big questions out there is will these vaccines stop transmission of the virus yet. Well it's a difficult question to answer. The clinical trials were by-in-large asking the simplest question. Can vaccines prevent people from developing any disease. For the most part that means mild covid nineteen severe covid. Nineteen is a rare event but mild is pretty common. Many people are symptomatic. In order to pick up a symptomatic infections. You have to do nasal slobs routinely on people which is really laborious and costly so vaccine studies did sub studies. Some of them did but for the most part they were simply trying to answer the question. Do we prevent moderate severe disease hospitalization and death to assess transmission itself. Ideally you would have a massive contact tracing showing on or a closed environment like a cruise ship or a household where people didn't leave. That's a tall order. And furthermore you have to do loads and loads of nasal swabbing to look at transmission in that setting there is a proposed transmission study in. Us colleges that plans to vaccinate one group of kids. Before the other ethically you can do that because none of the kids are eligible for vaccines because they can be in a relatively closed environment on campus. If you live in the dorms. Let's say you can do pretty good contact. Tracing you can do pretty good transmission analysis. So i think we will get the answer. I feel like this is information that i want as a person who wants to hang out with people who are vaccinated or eventually when i'm vaccinated but from a public health perspective if people aren't going into hospitals and dying of covid does whether or not transmission is stopped that become less important. Yeah i think we've somewhat been over excited about the early efficacy data from pfizer moderna. They showed us ninety. Five ninety four percent efficacy against mild disease. You know fantastic news. But they created this impression that wow it's gonna go poof. As soon as enough people get the vaccine. The reality is that those vaccines were tested. Earning time when the variously now see in south africa and the united kingdom weren't widely spread and the variant in south africa. We know gets around the vaccine a good portion of time and we also know that the variant and south africa doesn't seem to have an impact on severe disease and death that's prevented by vaccines which is great news. The vaccine still work. Even though mild disease becomes far more common at the end of the day. does it matter. I mean if we have covid nineteen. The causes coughing for three days and fever and headache. Yeah it's not great but we wouldn't stop the world for that. We stopped the world because this was killing. People and overwhelming. I see is and putting people on ventilators which is horrific. I mean i've seen it firsthand and separating people from their family. That's what we're really doing here. We're trying to get out of that. Rut does this mean that herd. Immunity is not a thing herd. Immunity is a thing it may not be something we achieve and it may not be something we need in order to get back to what we consider to be normal. I mean look forty to sixty thousand people. A year in the united states alone died from influenza every year tens of millions of people get infected with the influenza virus. We have a vaccine that prevents severe disease in depth to some degree and we function as a society. I don't know that we want to accept the covid. Nineteen is going to kill. Forty to sixty thousand americans. A year on top of influenza. But we have to start thinking that way. We learned to tolerate influenza and live with it and we hope for better treatments. We hope for better vaccines. We work on those things. And i think that's where we're heading with this. But could we still eliminate the virus from circulation is possibility using vaccines and social distancing. All these other measures. Well i mean. Let's work through the math china's a huge country. They have extremely low case. Numbers of covid. They have a total of one hundred thousand. We've had four hundred and fifty thousand people die. China shut it down a couple of months after it surfaced and now they have psoriatic outbreaks. Why do they have sporadic outbreaks. Because people travel people come into china. What that tells us is unless every country in the world contains the virus completely. The virus is a threat to everyone for as far as i can. Every country in the world contained the virus a hundred percent. Yes it can be done. We did that with smallpox. It was an enormous effort and it took years. Could we get to a point where we have a similar program to stamp this virus out. Yes we could. It probably would replicate. What happened smallpox. Where we had kimes go out every time there was a single case and do ring vaccination and flood the community around bet single case with vaccination so.

John cohen Anders johansson john cohen sarah crosby south africa Forty fifteen twenty thirty percent john forty one hundred thousand Five ninety six days earth china pfizer moderna today Nineteen vaccines united states more than twenty five percent
"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

Science Magazine Podcast

04:23 min | 4 months ago

"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

"Eleventh two thousand and twenty. I'm sarah crosby each week. We feature the most interesting news and research published in science and the sister journals. First up i talked with news intern. Kathleen o'grady about a new push for replication and standardization in the field of ecology using lessons from psychology replication crisis. Also this week. I talked with researcher. Andrew stouffer about some good news for the declining tasmanian devil. Now we have news intern. Kathleen o'grady she wrote a story. This week on efforts to improve the rigor of the field of ecology based on. What's happened in psychology. Hi kathleen hi sarah. Thanks so much for having me sure. Can you give us a quick synopsis. what happened. In the field of psychology things been bubbling below the surface for a very long time in psychology but things really started exploding in about twenty twelve when there was a very famous paper precondition that failed to replicate since then there have been other very famous findings that psychologists have not been able to replicate when they do them with bigger sample sizes. And there's been this movement in psychology to drastically improve the robustness of their research. With a whole lot of different measures. There is now move within ecology. Try and copy some of these tactics. Trying d- beef up the quality of ecology research. Why might feel. It'd be college. Be having some of these issues. What are some of the red flags. They're very similar to the ones in psychology. One of the big things is small sample sizes which essentially means that a lot of the results that you're seeing very erratic either. A small sample size could miss an effect. That's really there. We could find something that looks like an effect but is actually just experience finance just looking at noise and seeing something that isn't really there. There's very little replication going. On in ecology right now there was a study published last year that looked at nearly forty thousand ecology and evolutionary biology papers and ernie found eleven papers that reported replication attempt. An those only four of them reported that the replication had been successful..

Kathleen o'grady sarah crosby Andrew stouffer kathleen hi sarah ernie
"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

Science Magazine Podcast

08:14 min | 6 months ago

"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

"Welcome to the science podcasts for October two thousand twenty. I'm Sarah Crosby. Weekly feature the most interesting news and research published in science and the sister journals. First Up, we have staff writer, Paul Ryan, he talks about the. Rex Mission to. The asteroid venue. was has been there since two thousand eighteen and will finally a sample on October twentieth few weeks away. What have we learned so far? We also hear from researcher Hubert Lamb about a new treatment for Tinnitus. What used to be called ringing in the ears the team uses by modal stimulation, laying sounds in the ear and buzzes on the ton to change the brain and turn down the Tinnitus. Now, we have staff writer Paul Loosen. He wrote a story this week on a stack of papers published in science and science advances on the OH. Cyrus Rex Mission to the asteroid Banu Hi Paul Hello Okay on the podcast we last checked in omnia Cyrus Rex Mission in December twenty nineteen, the craft had been orbiting and surveying this asteroid for quite a while and some surprising things that popped out. For example, there are small ejection events, tiny rocks, jumping off the asteroid and surprisingly big boulders littering its surface, and that's meant a change to plans for a sampling from asteroid. What's changed about that? Paul before the spacecraft reached do they had thought it would look like this kind of. Plane like a beach was kind of the infamous term that Dante Lauretta. used. Had all these boulders kind of shocking. These polders are safety hazard and there's no spot that reached the criteria for a safe approach from the original plans. So they've had to reduce the area that they will sample by ten times. So much smaller sample area they had to pick a site they had to figure out if the crash could actually land there, but it hasn't happened yet. We're not there sampling is coming up in a few weeks October twentieth. In the meantime, we have this package of six papers. They tell them more detailed story of the asteroid surface. It's gravity or about these boulders what did you find particularly interesting in this in this new information about the asteroid one big question with sampling asteroid and bring it back to Earth is why are you spending one hundred million dollars to get a sample when we have all the stuff on earth we have tons of meteorites on earth kind of the volunteer sample return. These papers really show examples of several things that could be caught these samples that you just wouldn't be able to learn from a meteorite thing that really stands out to me the mess of carbonate veins in these boulders. At the parent body, the kind of planet testimony that venue Brokaw from once this major water system, Moeen through it as an ancient water world. When you save veins, you mean, there's just like you know what does that mean? Exactly this bright slash linear slash of mineral that deferring from the rest of the rock it's different than Iraq and you think it's made of something that indicates water y. so these carbonates are known to perform from water from hot water in precipitate out that water, you just don't get them. So the same things are evidence of water on Mars as well, and it's not just a little rock in of water it's like a little river of water. Yeah, so the ideas from meteorites they'd always, yeah, there's on these asteroids, but there's only little tiny pockets that don't around you know a couple of millimeters or something like that. But this is kind of showing that these. Mike had at least the parent body of Ben New had water flow in throughout the whole asteroid and probably a lot more water than once thought this definitely connects to the main this mission. What can we learn from asteroids that we can't learn for meteorites, but it also tells us something about the formation of the solar system. Then like what was going on way back when when we had has mills running around the have there's there's also the story of the Solar System? Merged even as Cyrus rex was launching, they realize that asteroids like Ben New Form Beyond Jupiter and migrate all the way in this is something only emerged meteoroid stays in the past decade realizing they have these two separate pools of asteroids and the samples from Ben you might be able to actually say if that's true does finding this carbonate, these veins of carbonate support the idea that asteroids delivered water to Earth definitely in this is a fairly well accepted ideal already with this further bolsters that claim provides institute remote-sensing evidence of Hey these probably had a lot of water. So maybe this was one source of the water it's not. Definitively rule something out because who knows. Yeah, it's definitely a major support for that one. Sad. But here is the boulders aren't the exact target for sampling was ours rex is not going to land on a boulder if it's just not possible, but we'll still be able to tell us more about these veins more about water content more about carbonates from the sampling that a new. Yes. So the this instrument that they used to detect this carbonate I that came from a close fly over the sampling site earlier surveys have shown that it's covered in carbonates. Or carbon burying molecule. So that could be like organic compounds like amino acids, other stuff stuff that they expected to see but there are signatures of that throughout the asteroid. So even the pebbles will have some stuff we mentioned earlier that the parameters for where the sampling can happen changed. Once the crafts had reached asteroid what are the risks here as we get closer to the date? Is there still big questions about whether this would be successful or or how much you can get the definitely they've created this hazard map. Of, the sampling sites, this kind of pure circle of green there's a chance they come in to this red area that is hazardous, and then the spacecraft students. Autonomous Louis will waive itself off and kind of retreat back testing that five meters away, or there's the chance says, hit a boulder a little bit and skews needs to press flat against the surface to be able to suck stuff up. So there's a chance that doesn't happen. They've the ability to says, and then try again at a backup site in January. If it doesn't work out. There is a chance that these boulders are very soft, but we don't want to find that out by landing something on them. You know they're really curious why they got what Ben will look like. So wrong what the surface would look like one of these papers try and figure that out and it finds that a lot of these boulders are so porous that they're kind of fluffy. So they always look like what a beach might look like in the radar or infrared signal that they got. Of Ben who explains why they had this kind of signal suggesting a beach the spacecraft could probably crush these borders if rammed into them, but they don't WanNa do that. That makes sense. So l know how much they got, but we're GONNA have to wait for the analysis for quite a bit. It's due to arrive in twenty, twenty three in Utah. We should mention why it's autonomously sampling to near Earth asteroid but right now it's not near Earth and it's much farther than Mars from Earth right now, there's a about an eighteen minute lag between what happens there and wheel here. So all has to be done a ton misleading because of that is there anything else you think we could learn from the sampling? There's the question of these one of the sources of life, this kind of chemistry and that was going on in the. Early Solar System for these organic molecules that men were delivered to Earth. Maybe there's some way of teasing out what this looks like for the altered on impact with Earth could be something that holy surprising when you get those samples back. All right thank you so much Paul. Thank you haul in as a staff writer for science you can find a link to his story and the related papers and science and science advances at science mag dot org slash podcast. Stay tuned for an.

Ben New Banu Hi Paul staff writer Rex Mission Tinnitus Cyrus rex Sarah Crosby Paul Ryan Paul Loosen Hubert Lamb Dante Lauretta. researcher Iraq Brokaw Moeen Mike Utah Louis
"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

Science Magazine Podcast

07:54 min | 7 months ago

"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

"Now, we , have contributing correspondent and gibbons. . She wrote this week about the likely earliest human footprints on the Arabian Peninsula high an hi Sarah how old or how early are these footprints but that's a good question. . They threw a whole package of dating methods at them and came up with in the Ballpark of twenty, , one, , thousand, , two, , hundred, and , ten, , thousand years old. . Now the dates are not absolute. . There's some questions about them, , but that's a pretty good ballpark. . How does this age compare to previous hints or clues that humans modern humans early modern humans were on the Arabian Peninsula. . Here's the. . We know that early hominids members of human family have been migrating out of Africa for two million years because we find fossils of our ancestors in the public of Georgia we find them in. . Asia. . We find them in Eurasia place, , but we don't know how they got out and the most logical route is they had to walk through Rabia because they couldn't fly. . They couldn't paddleboats a at that point the one landmass in the way between Africa where humans arose originally, , our ancestors arose and Eurasia is through Arabia. . So we know they had to go through there, , but there's a huge gap there are. No . tools older than three hundred to five, , hundred, , thousand years, , and what is there is not definitive. . The only fossil have a member of the human family from Arabia is a finger bone that is about eighty eight, , thousand years old. . So the mystery is, , where's the evidence of members of the human family marching through Arabia, , and then the second part of that is modern humans specifically, , our ancestors Homo sapiens arose probably in Africa, , because we see fossils in the ballpark of one, , hundred, , eight, , thousand, , three, , hundred, , thousand years of Proto early Homo, , sapiens arising and Africa, , and then we find more of these sort. Of . Early Homo Sapiens in Greece dating possibly back to as early as two hundred and ten thousand. . So we know that they got out right now we're just trying to find evidence. . Is there something that going on in the Arabian Peninsula that either people didn't want to hang out there for very long or that erased a lot of evidence. . Reagan. . Peninsula, , has covered with desert's it's very dry today the food desert where they found these fossils is parched arid but there were periods in the past where the planet was cooler and wetter, , and during those times hundred, , twenty, five, , , thousand years ago it was. . One of them, , it was green radio was covered with tens of thousands of lakes. . They were grasslands between them. . If you think about these early human ancestors, , it's not a separate continent or a separate place for them to go to its Afro Arabia, , right? ? Yeah. . So it's an extension of Africa if the client is good and they're following large game, , how were they able to find these footprints? ? This is a very large area and it's a few remnants of human passing through. . Yes. . So this team will have by Michael, , Leah and it's an international team of Saudi Arabians in a number of people on. . Has Been doing a search of scouring the deserts of. . Arabia. . For the last decade, , they start with satellite imagery which helps them see parched ancient lake beds which have sort of characteristic white halio souls often these ancient sediments that stand out in the satellites and then go down to ground truth what they see on the satellites, , an airplane shots they go in on foot in jeeps, , and in this case they saw this ancient. . Lake better rolling out as white sediment. . It had just been recently exposed by Rosen and they found the footprints of the animals which was amazing <hes>, , and as I looked closer to one hundreds of footprints, , it was four hundred mostly animals but they did identify a small number. . It was seven that seemed to be human footprints. . So they knew right away they were very excited about that that this was something that was important how Can you tell that they're human footprints and not some other upright walking relative? ? There's not a whole science of studying human footprints ever since the first ones are found in la totally in Tanzania and Kenya there've been a number of footprints that have been studied people use three D morphometric <unk> dimensional analysis with computational imaging or can really look at the depth and they could model how much weight would have been needed to make. . That footprint, , the length of the foot, , the stride between the steps, , and then they've done studies living people in their footprints in Africa to sort of test out those ideas and Lo, , and behold when they do that to these footprints, , they seem to come up with somebody kind of humor that was taller and maybe a little lighter weight more like a modern human of Homo sapiens and say an Andrew Tall so based on that. . They say, , Oh, , these probably were made by Homo sapiens although we cannot rule out that nanotubes might have been there to is there anything else can tell about these people by looking at these marks I think if they get more, , they can start to tell about their social structure footprint studies in Africa. . I've got quite complicated where you could see the direction that they're going in the payson different members of social groups you can. . To see what they are the packs of humans look like you know, , what size are they how many are in these groups? ? What are they doing a lot of the way in this case, , they're not spending a lotta time. . They're just sort of walking through. . This is a bantering group. . What is really really cool. . Though is that footprint site these are a snapshot of a single moment in time a single day most of the. . Time when you have an archaeological site in a layer soil that you get the fossils of the tools and the dates, , all that took place. . This fan is usually hundreds of thousands, , tens of thousands of years. . So if you find an animal bone near a prominent human early Human Boehner tool, , you don't necessarily know fear there at the same time as parch with footprints like these these were lay down in the same day maybe. . A couple of days and they dried out and then got caught up in preserved. . So we know they were all there at the same time. . So you get this really cool day in the life look at the and of the animals they were with, , which is really cool in this case and lots of animals. . Yes. . Almost four hundred footprints of animals including very interesting. . A wild asses which I don't think we're carrying burdens but. . That's kind of neat and they were elephants and the thing that's interesting about the elephants as their popular disappeared for the Middle East, , just in Africa. . Thanks for three hundred years ago and here they are in hundred twenty, , thousand in Arabia and the camps they also Campbell's it's kind of interesting that such large animals with Aaron. . It begs the question were these humans following them where they attracted them. . Going back to the, , we talked about it being about one, hundred, , , twenty, , thousand years old. . There's some question about the date but if that were cracked, is , there anything particularly Gordon about this time human history about what we know about migrations that we could link these prince two? ? Yes. . So what is really interesting is that genetic evidence says that everybody outside of Africa. . Came from migrations that happened in the last fifty to eighty thousand years. . So this state predates that we happen to know that early Homo Sapiens were in the Middle East pretty quickly after this or at the same time they're fossils in caves. . At school and cough so that our early sort of product Homo sapiens. . So we know humans are at sorta suggests that because we don't have DNA that dates back this early these were failed migrations. . These were members of the human family that went out they weren't shelled migrations for them they lived, , but they did not contribute to the gene pool of letting people today that's one hypothesis but it also shows that there's more complex story of groups of humans migrating out of Africa constantly whenever the weather excitement is right that it's three to nothing that they can get water follow animals to meet and trek. . Africa. . They can cross the desert. . It looks like humans were doing that whenever they could and so how do they contribute tour ancestry today a really interesting question and how many different kinds of hominids out there. . Thank you so much an thank you. . Sir, ,

Arabian Peninsula Africa Sarah Crosby Arabia Eurasia Rabia gibbons Asia Reagan Janet Denisovans Georgia Kelso Greece
"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

Science Magazine Podcast

05:59 min | 7 months ago

"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

"Well the science podcast for September. Twenty Fifth Two Thousand and twenty. I'm Sarah Crosby. Week feature the most interesting news and research published in science and sister journals. First Up, we have contributing correspondent and. We talk about what might be the earliest human footprints found on the Arabian Peninsula. Continuing our history of humanity theme. I talk with Janet, Kelso about the y chromosomes of our close cousins, neanderthals and Denisovans and how the Nanto why was mysteriously replaced with the why chromosome from very early modern humans. Now, we have contributing correspondent and gibbons. She wrote this week about the likely earliest human footprints on the Arabian Peninsula high an hi Sarah how old or how early are these footprints but that's a good question. They threw a whole package of dating methods at them and came up with in the Ballpark of twenty, one, thousand, two, hundred, and ten, thousand years old. Now the dates are not absolute. There's some questions about them, but that's a pretty good ballpark. How does this age compare to previous hints or clues that humans modern humans early modern humans were on the Arabian Peninsula. Here's the. We know that early hominids members of human family have been migrating out of Africa for two million years because we find fossils of our ancestors in the public of Georgia we find them in. Asia. We find them in Eurasia place, but we don't know how they got out and the most logical route is they had to walk through Rabia because they couldn't fly. They couldn't paddleboats a at that point the one landmass in the way between Africa where humans arose originally, our ancestors arose and Eurasia is through Arabia. So we know they had to go through there, but there's a huge gap there are. No tools older than three hundred to five, hundred, thousand years, and what is there is not definitive. The only fossil have a member of the human family from Arabia is a finger bone that is about eighty eight, thousand years old. So the mystery is, where's the evidence of members of the human family marching through Arabia, and then the second part of that is modern humans specifically, our ancestors Homo sapiens arose probably in Africa, because we see fossils in the ballpark of one, hundred, eight, thousand, three, hundred, thousand years of Proto early Homo, sapiens arising and Africa, and then we find more of these sort. Of Early Homo Sapiens in Greece dating possibly back to as early as two hundred and ten thousand. So we know that they got out right now we're just trying to find evidence. Is there something that going on in the Arabian Peninsula that either people didn't want to hang out there for very long or that erased a lot of evidence. Reagan. Peninsula, has covered with desert's it's very dry today the food desert where they found these fossils is parched arid but there were periods in the past where the planet was cooler and wetter, and during those times hundred, twenty, five, thousand years ago it was. One of them, it was green radio was covered with tens of thousands of lakes..

Arabian Peninsula Africa Sarah Crosby Arabia Eurasia Rabia gibbons Asia Reagan Janet Denisovans Georgia Kelso Greece
"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

Science Magazine Podcast

08:05 min | 7 months ago

"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

"Point eight percent decrease in Lewitt boots, and these decrease was concentrated among mothers who only had a primary education. Can you talk about the example us where increased transparency led to a lot of downstream effects? Yes. Look it on two different paper. So I favour was one wedded something that I think we Pinkel is very commonplace in the US but doesn't happen developing countries, which is just increasing debates across politicians in the run-up to elections, and then they took video recordings of these debates to rural. Areas in Sierra Leone and what they found is that this change people's information about who the candidates were and a changed would they elected importantly it seemed to have some effects in terms of accountability in that those who were elected in areas that had seen debates team to spend more though in recent work that I've done with courters, we took the next step forward and said if. That would've has been informed will hold politicians accountable does this mean that politicians if they know that the poor will get information actually how they behave an anticipation all coal accountability. So we walked on this in New Delhi, which is one of the largest cities in the world, the population of over each million awful whom I would say live in slums two years before the election, we sent politicians letters saying that a newspaper will be reporting on the performance and then be tracked to see over the next two years up to the election what effect it had on spending, and then what it meant electoral outcomes, what we found and. It's consistent with the debates. Favor is that political parties can play an important role. So we found one of the ways in which the anticipation of performance disclosures seemed to is that it improved politician performance and policies are more likely to give tickets to better performing incumbents. When you say better performing, do you mean that they spend money in their district on things that the people who lived in their district actually wanted them spend money on? That's exactly right. The third lever that you talk about for increasing representation, getting what people in poverty need from the government is engagement, and the example you use I think here is going door to door getting people to pay their taxes which I thought was a really interesting way to get engagement. How does that work I think what I really like about the staple is that it actually investigate these ideas in the context of the Democratic Republic of Congo, in a native is sometimes you might. Oh is so broken nothing by work and I think it's very reassuring to see that in a very poor setting that's just come out of conflict. If you'll give individuals many individuals who collect their taxes to the door to door campaign. But at the same time, you tell everyone that you can come to town halls you can participate you can raise questions than what you find is that those who had taxes collected from door to door those who have seen themselves be getting associates the State become more engaged in how the states would use those resources. In the town halls that was much better engagement and participation by who had tax collected, and they also report higher trust in the state you bring up a historical example in your view, which I was very surprised by. So this is how England. The vote from people who own land to I. Guess at this point, it was all men in the country. Can you talk a little bit about housing like that happens? Let me just put in a broader context and say one reason I. Find This and other examples of extension of the franchise really interesting because their cases of the powerful, arguably giving some of their par- and to me this really is what I think of is the catch twenty, two democratic reform. How do we get far to those who like it to start with? Yeah, and this was an example where multiple things came together. So I was actually a set of auditions who were quite idealistic. These insiders were offered and who. Wanted to see a better alignment between citizen politician preferences they will particularly he into reduce a lot of what they felt was exchanging resources for roads among a small set of people because it was a small set of people. But importantly, the second thing that also happened was this was the era off a lot of public health issues starting from cholera in Britain, and there was a growing recognition that public health concerns intertwine the fortunes of the rich and the poor, and therefore it was particularly important if you want to have a case policy response to public health rather than just exchanging favors. People when wants to include the poor in the process as well and as you can imagine, I, think that has some resonance today Absolutely. So how do we take these examples? This empirical examples, this research different interventions, and pull it together and go somewhere with it is the idea for NGOs to get back in the game or is this a advice for governments? What's the next step for this type of research at the next step of the Senate research is really to keep pushing Onward Phelan To, some extent hope a bunch of people pick it up. It would be NGOs could be international development agency, which are often bilateral engagements. It would be multilateral organizations like World Bank undergrowth be domestic government I. Think what I'm trying to push against as said is first overwhelming cynicism. Yeah. Something very often there's a sense of saying all these countries that just got up garments citizens just want private transposed there to to understand what democracy's about and so let's not focus on political institutions. Let's just focus on. Giving cash transfers lifting the poor out of poverty one by one and I think we now have a reason to strong evidence based that is less likely to work. We just give cash transfers but also that we know how to make some aspects of democracy will better but I think it's not an easy talk that said the hardest part is there are always. People who benefit from existing political systems and starting this on Sunday to think carefully about what a strategic coalitions that one can foam to push this cause. So what I would hope is that as people read this, they will be like a high come into the category of a connected political insider, but maybe I to form allegiance vague and International Development Agency our. Citizens in some form in order to create a constituency and so these are all examples are showing how one can use strategic alliances and Sundays recognition of how democratic and state institutions work. Thank you so much for Heaney. Thank you. Rohani Pandy is a professor in the Department of Economics at Yale University. You can find a link to her review and the special issue on democracy as science MAG DOT ORG slash podcast. And that concludes this edition of the Science podcast. If you have any comments or suggestions for the show right to us at science podcast at bay s Dot Org, you can listen to the show on the science website at science mag dot org slash podcast on the site you'll find links to the researching news discussed in the episode, and of course, you can subscribe anywhere you get your podcast. This show was edited produced by Sarah Crosby with production help from podgy million cantwell and Joel Golkar Jeffrey. Cook composed the music on behalf of Science magazine publisher triple as thanks for joining us..

International Development Agen Democratic Republic of Congo Lewitt US Pinkel New Delhi Sierra Leone World Bank Science magazine Rohani Pandy cholera Sarah Crosby England Senate Cook Heaney Yale University publisher professor
"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

Science Magazine Podcast

07:11 min | 7 months ago

"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

"Welcome. Science podcast for September Fourth Two Thousand Twenty I'm Sarah Crosby first up this week contributing correspondent kyw Cooper Schmidt talks with me about a second wave of corona virus in Europe. And as part of this special issue on Democracy Rohani joins us to talk about her paper that asks this intriguing question can democracy work for four people? Now, we have contributing correspondent Haiku for Schmidt. He wrote this week about a second wave of covid nineteen in Europe Haikai. I'm saying that kind definitively but can we say there is a second wave in Europe right now? That's a difficult question mean even just the word wave. I think it's really difficult in this context because a lot of the scientists talked didn't really want to use the word and understand it I mean you know way sounds like this natural ebb and flow and we're kind of used to it from other infections that have the seasonality. One of the talked to said, you know this isn't really like that. This is like a forest fire you can suppress it, but as soon as you let up. Incomes back. So I think that's what we're really seeing. We're seeing a resurgence and not some kind of natural phenomenon. It's just Europe did a lot in the spring to get the numbers down and now they've gone back partly because we've stopped doing quite as much. Where are the number is particularly climbing if you look at some of the hardest countries like Spain, for instance, it's Interesting to see that the last few days Spain extra had daily case count that was higher than the highest numbers that they posted in spring. Of course, you can't really compare those two because testing has really ramped up having ten thousand cases a day now is something very different from having had ten thousand cases say February or March. When you're busy only testing people who has symptoms. What are some of the drivers of? Resurgence of cases in Europe does a certain consensus that lot of basically is changing behavior about the Europe got the virus on the control a little bit. So the numbers went way down compared to say the US of Brazil, the whole debate started about how to reopen and what to reopen and ended up at least for a few weeks. There was Kinda like a fairly normal travel season. So a lot of people here from Germany for instance would go to Greece or Spain of France. And people just were a little bit less vigilant, and then of course, people also started going back in some cases to officers but everyone but we can see that in some countries, workplace outbreaks have taken over as the driver. But the other thing we see is that there is similar to what we saw in the US a few months ago that it's the younger people who are having the highest risk of infection at the moment. which is different from what it was a few months ago even talking about case numbers. But what about deaths are you seeing an increase in people dying from the infection? so-far, the resurgence has really been in younger people. So it's not that surprising that we haven't seen the kind of rise in deaths that we saw in the spring. But of course we've seen for instance in Florida. We know that when the start circulating in young people they're not completely insulated from the rest of society from the Oldham of honorable people. It might very well just be a longer time-lag until we see the virus starting to circulate Morgan in the oldest of the population, and then you would expect deaths to go up. Because surveillance has become better, we wouldn't expect to see the same increase in deaths that we saw in spring simply because we're catching much more of the milder infections among. So for now, if numbers don't go up significantly, the hope is that we won't see the kind of excess mortality that really devastating death toll that we saw in many countries in spring. We know so much more now about how the virus moves around. We know a little bit better about what is safe his all knowledge change the shape of the pandemic does it change? Are, getting, infected, who is getting infected? The big hope is that we can take out the biggest drivers. One of the things we've really learned about the viruses that spreads in clusters at the super spreading events so. Small, number of infected people tend to 'cause most of the secondary cases and this happens very often enclosed spaces with whether crowding, and maybe there's even shouting singing or things like that. Keeping these venues closed should already make difference. There is hope that some of what we've learned will make it easier to keep this on the control. The focus here is going to be on super spreading events on his clusters. How is that approach different than you know a general lockdown or a ban on gatherings? One of the things that some public health officials are saying we should concentrate more on tracing backwards in a sense trying to understand where the infections happened rather than going forward in defying the context of some of these people. So that gives you two advantages. One kind of tells you where all of these clusters are happening, what you might be missing and you need to concentrate your efforts to prevent infections. And it also means that you can pick up more infections that was muddling paper out that look at how these two contracting strategies compare with this virus. It's quite helpful to go back and then you can trace forward again because it just picking up more chains of infection. If. You assume that a lot of people get infected at these super spreading events and then a lot of people who are infected don't actually pass on the virus. It means that if you find anyone who tests positive if you'll find all their contacts and quarantine them the likelihood that any one of them would have become infected isn't even that big on the other hand. If you go back and see where that person was infected, you're quite likely to find some kind of cluster a super spreading event because that's where a lot of people get infected. Going back to what you were saying about travel or vacations being one of the drivers behind this resurgence on top of that, is there a problem with crossing borders just carrying the virus from one country to another maybe isn't the biggest problem? The problem is that when people are on holiday first of all, they tend to behave differently have more contacts. So they're actually more likely to behave in a way I think that's risky in a more likely to be infected even if the place where the holiday has exactly the same kind of risk profile as no home-country and then when they go home, if that country doesn't have the right kind of conditions than it can easily lead to the virus spreading. Countries have tried to grapple with us in different ways Germany started with a quarantine of fourteen days, which is basically if people stick to that, that should be a very good way of limiting spread from infections that people bring with them. But of course, let everybody was adhering to that. So at some point, Germany started offering tests at the airport, but then if you test. Some on the day that they return from the holiday picked up infection towards the end of the holidays you're not gonNA find that. But if you had a negative result at.

Europe Spain Germany US Cooper Schmidt Sarah Crosby Oldham Florida Morgan Brazil Greece France
"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

Science Magazine Podcast

02:09 min | 1 year ago

"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

"But I can work it out. Matzek equations explaining it. I don't have the same knowledge and I think that's really interesting and I wonder arrest operating slowly. Volvo to starts having more experiential understanding of these things in time I think that would be so exciting to be able to go to change our story to the point that we don't just think of ourselves you know wherever you're located on Earth looking out into the heavens but to place yourself mentally within our solar system in an arm of the Milky Way. Yeah this is how we understand our world scientifically and I think. Some people do have more of an experiential understanding. Perhaps they're all geniuses whose brains wise in a way that they can understand. This more intuitively than I can on this why we need this great Dodd Bassetti of minds achieve mindsets to help the rest of us take the next step when all culturally Belushi Johnny. Well thank you for helping us take a step along that journey by writing your books and sharing these new perspectives with everyone sharing this knowledge. Cy Marxist been such a pleasure and thank you for joining me for this interview with Guy Vince about her book. Transcendence how humans evolved through fire language beauty and time. I'm Dr Kiki Sanford and I hope that you'll join us again next month for peace between the pages of another science book and that concludes this edition of the Science. Podcast if you have any comments or suggestions for the show right to us at science podcast at as dot org you can listen to the show on the sci website that science mag dot org slash podcast. There you're gonNA find links to the research of news discussed in the episode. You can also subscribe on Itunes Stitcher spotify. Pandora and many other podcast. He places. This show was edited and produced by Sarah Crosby with production help from prodigy. Meghan can't well and Joel Goldberg. Jeffrey Cook composed a music on behalf of Science magazine publisher triple. As thanks for joining us..

Dr Kiki Sanford Science magazine Dodd Bassetti Belushi Johnny Guy Vince Volvo Joel Goldberg Matzek Jeffrey Cook Sarah Crosby Pandora Meghan spotify Earth publisher
"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

Science Magazine Podcast

10:37 min | 1 year ago

"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

"People who experience Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome. Have immense difficulty recovering from a traumatic event and many of those difficulties are tied to memory. They re live or remember unwanted memories and will even avoid things might bring on. Those memories. Appear GANJA PAN and colleagues published a paper this week that explores the role of memory in p. Tse especially suppressing memory and PTSD. They asked are People. That are better at suppressing memories protected in some way from. Ptsd high. Pierre. Hello Hi Sir. I want to start first with the people in your study. They're part of a very large long-term study on Trauma. And all the people that you in the study experienced the November twenty fifteen terrorist attacks in Paris and they've agreed to participate in this larger project and also in your specific project. Ptsd can we talk a little bit about this cohort? So obviously when the attacks UPENN's will or very shocked in France. Everyone was soaked beachell mile for anyone. Funds ends just after that does sound feet community feels that they had do something and and try to respond to tell by using knowledge and science. We saw that. We couldn't look the other way. We should take this issue and try to do the studies that could learn something from. Is it unusual to happen group of this type involved in research? Where there were they all have the same trauma exposure so. That's one of the strengths of this today. Because most of the time also to the real focus onto dysfunctioning all under operation. That rich petits the is much harder to understand things that works well in people who did not develop because as you said when you exposed to trauma some people will go to the beaches deal on some others will not most of the time you. You don't have access to about spins of other been exposed. The central MMA other execs in time was accent. Duration was there a lot of resilience to this particular trauma? What was the ratio like in? This population wants us with risks. Reprise is the proportion of Of sampler which was much higher was more or less fifty percents a year after the attacks in also type of trauma is usually ran from twenty. Thirty percents you also brought in a non-exposed groups you had your to experimental groups that were exposed to the same trauma and then you had a control group of people that were not exposed to that trauma and then you ask them to suppress a memory to get into an FM Orion machine and not think about something. You would think that suppressing a memory would be bad. It sounds bad so this idea was actually a for is not sufficient that is bad is not the action of of suppressing the mechanisms a system. That allows you to do it. That is actually compromised right. So if your got really strong suppression muscles you might very well do a little bit better after a traumatic event if you have the ability to suppress as needed this is what we saw. And the reason why we see that is because if you ask as to press on wanting memories Observe some of forgetting so she was here folks of active fogarty. Sue You can do this experimental and you can ask someone to forget something. We don't forget that. The beauty of the bagging. We just ask them to not think about it. That's a very different. Not all people at equities and this is why we saw that. Maybe some people are more fudge out more vulnerable to trauma because they don't have the resources linked to control and suppression skills. So let's get into the actual experiment that you did. Do you WANNA take us through. Kind of what? What a person involved in this study what they had to do this. So we use a task. You would create some some memories in the lab Memory with into the presence of wellness like So the way we do that simply by asking participants who overload on fails stimuli and he hit was words. Bigger of neutral objects Can you give an example of a pair? Could be fun since the words table. Fed with a picture of a balloon. They're not related in any in the Narino Treat. Adults really religious. Actually no now. We try to avoid abuse relationships with learning to be really not automatic. A Guitar was Windsor. Remember remember and we asked him to of allowances type of bears and wants to make sure that did that then. We explain press memories so what we tell them is offering so sometime. You see a world in green and win the words in green going to ask you to visualizing you mind a picture of the image as complete details possible but when the word is in the Red Corre we're GonNa ask you focus on the word and try ever seen to prevent the memories of a picture from entering your consciousness your emotions. They're actively trying to not think of something. Yeah and we won't to blank to mine and two nuts replaced by any other pictures. It was a picture comes to your mind. Wanted to push back but we want to know about it so we ask them. Did you have an intrusive experience on not this is your metaphor for PTSD so instead of a traumatic memory popping up? It's this paired. Memory this thing up your brain is trying to suppress it so people This is not the Nothing to too much experience the way we implemented intrusive memory and of course this is completely different but that important because using this kind of natural pictures within the study very general and basic mechanisms that will not be able to study if we use dramatic. Mateo. We want to make sure that the intrusive memory. The twin tubes interest rate is the same for every group that makes sense. You don't want people primed. You often feelings about them. Yes exactly. Did you see a difference in people that had? Ptsd didn't have PTSD that have been exposed to the same trauma exposed onto your resolved to the where much better done rejuvenating activity of the campus. Using the frontal cortex during rings bouncing. Suzy for Marine. See you're able to see this pattern in their brains but you saw less often and people who had the PTSD yes. The manager of this effect was much weaker. People repeat easy. You know if you're able to key in on this difference. Does that mean that you could do something to help people with this with this disorder? If you are able to say always see the difference in their brains we can do something different with treatment. I sing this is extremely important for the type of treatments can be proposed and I hope that he bathes away for reconsidering these type of Bacon is absent treatment of petits muscles the treatment they are what we call rich Whose Detroit correct the Itself to consider choosing until memory as disposed of the minority not as dysfunctional observateur system. That allows you to regulate. Your memory is definitely direct and true of Asli. It has been demonstrated a lot but what we are seeing. Is that in addition to this. There is also another parameter recreating the Marines. So instead of just doing a treatment that is focused on the trauma. You could as complaints this type of treatment by boosting issue liked the controller and control system that allows you to control roses so you can imagine them doing this kind of pairing exercise that you dead working on neutral turf and trying to strengthen this control you could actually envision something where you could lose. Control capacity result appealing to trauma. What about other conditions are any other conditions associated with this ability to suppress a memory or not suppressing memory Pacific charge too many condition and one of the As important we also carry studied on Bucks Creek condition is OCD. Obsessive compulsive disorder obsessive compulsive disorder. We must be no CD from images of patient that outdoing compressive stuff of the time that triggered by obsession. And what a help session down intrusive images so you can have so imagine that. This intrusive obsession In his trigger compulsive behavioral they actually do to same type of dysfunctioning in control mechanisms. As well thank you. So much peer us. Thank you for your time and for your interest will works very issue. Peer Ganja Pan is a cognitive neuroscientist. At inserm you can find a link to his science article science mag dot org slash podcast. Amac includes this edition of the science. Podcast if you have any comments or suggestions for the show right to us at science podcast at as dot org you can listen to the show on the SCI website. That's science math dot org slash podcast. There you'll find links to the research news discussed in the episode. You can subscribe of course on Itunes Stitcher spotify Pandora and many other places. This show is edited and produced by Sarah Crosby with production help from prodigy. Meghan Cantwell and Joel Goldberg. Jeffrey Cook composed the music on behalf of Science Magazine and its publisher AAA us. Thanks for joining us..

PTSD Pierre Tse Paris France Science Magazine Narino Treat Red Corre Sarah Crosby Windsor Meghan Cantwell Jeffrey Cook Mateo Suzy Detroit OCD publisher Bacon Bucks Creek Joel Goldberg
"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

Science Magazine Podcast

10:19 min | 2 years ago

"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

"Welcomes the science podcast for made tips two thousand nineteen I'm Sarah Crosby and this week show. I talked with online news editor David Grimm about domesticated, Pat, cognition. What our feline friends thinking, and why has it been so hard to figure out and Meghan Cantwell? Talks with Gregory Erhard at research into the effect of rideshare services. Like Uber lift on traffic. Now, we have David Grimm online news editor for science. Hi, dave. Dave you finally done it cats. Yes. Has that big question? What about cats this time in feature form? That's right is all about scientists during these social mind cats in other words, how do they bond with us? How do the Hemu the Cate with us? How do they have the kind of learned involved to live with us and people been saying this dogs for decades? But nobody staying cats are not had been till recently, which was very upsetting for me. Because I really wanna story the story about how how smart cats are. But haven't had the opportunity to do. So until now Ray I mean, that's my question. Every time we do a look how smart is an well it understands the world and social interactions, and I'm like what about cats? I have a cat. He definitely tells me things he wants for sure. And I have two cats cat owners purely a lot of the stuff to be true. But it's one thing to sort of seed in your home. So they're being tested scientific. Right. Your cat made tell you. It's. Hungary. They tell you wants to go out with different cries. Hey, but how do you capture that and say how it works in cats, more, generally? It's right. So we'll kind of stuff what kind of questions were they asking about cats when you visit. The this lab in Oregon. This is a lab out in Oregon, Oregon state university. One of these are trying to vote how emotionally attached cats are to do the pick up on our motion cues in one of the experiments. They do is they actually have researcher go into a room with a cat. You know, the cats kinda freaked out because the weird environment cats leaving their home, the owner of been leaves the room in the cats alone by itself and other cats even more freaked out right, then the owner comes back in Africa. Couple minutes and often the cat will come greet the owner want get loved headed by the owner and will often happens. The cat will start Goff and explore the room on her own. So the cap may be starting to look into crevices to sniff around maybe play with toys, and a lucky would see that say, well, the cat crew doesn't care about the owner of the owner showed that back up. The cat was at high the owner than the cat went off again. But actually, this is a sign of the cat is emotionally tach. The owner will be socially attached the owner because the Kansas simply saying you're here. I know you are trust you now it can go off and do my cat thing. I can go explore this room. I feel safe that you're here. So dash he does short type of motion bonding the cats have with us, and they many able to do this with different pairs of animals and owners exactly they stay show this consistently and different cats have different personalities, not all cancer going to do this. But the fact that some cats will do this suggests that this is something that inherently cats are able to do they actually have this ability to be very emotionally and socially connected with us. Is that unexpected considering that they are domesticated animals, you know, it's weird. Because in some ways, we would expect domestic animals to be somewhat comfortable around us. But clearly, there's a range. I mean, a horse or cower chicken, there's a different relationship there that we have cats and dogs. Pigs aren't sleeping in our beds for most part, and we don't have horses in our house, so cats and dogs, you would think they would have to take this to the next level. They don't just need to be kind of. -cially aware and kind of emotional aware of us. But you have to have really be tuned into. They have to know. For example, what we mean, we make certain gestures are one of the beams experiments with dogs is your researchers will point at one of two bowls or go gaze at one of two balls and dogs actually will follow this very well. And it's the whole idea was allow dogs must be like so tune into us that they know what our gestures me 'cause even ship pansies, we pointed something they don't know what that means a lot of Amil struggle with especially with the gays. Look if you just look really quickly at something. This is something that's been very rarely observed any other type of animal so dogs really taking that to the next level that turns out cats can do that too. So the fact that cats and dogs can do it may suggest that they have this social bond with us the social intelligence that a lot of other animals, even other domestic animals might not have other kinds of domestication are often for service or jobs like you're gonna be food. You're going to my field. But with cats it's been much more like your. You're gonna live with me. Right. And that's one of the really surprising things. Here's to because cats and dogs have a very different background dogs. They were very heavily domesticated by people think they were heavily bred to be workers and kept pan-ion's helping us hunt, and do all these very complicated tasks, and so the idea was will dogs must be much more tuned into us because we've done this very aggressive domestication with them whereas cats as you alluded to share we kind of just once cats showed up and start hunting, mice and rats. We just kinda let them be cats. We didn't do a lot of stuff with them in terms of domestication. And yet we're seeing the cats of all a lot of the same skill set that dogs have which may indicate that this is the skill set. Both animals really need in order to live, and he's very close kind of intimate situations with human beings. This is something researchers were really doing while dogs got their day in the sun. But what other labs are involved in what kind of questions are they looking at right. And so in whether reasons I wrote the story is because before five or six. Ago. There was very little being done at least in terms of social intelligence on cats. And now we're seeing these labs pop up all over the world. So this is lavon Oregon is lobby. Mexico's couple out in Japan is a couple out in Turkey and they're starting variety things like the gays steady. I loot it to also other ideas with social attachments, if you go into a room with a scary object with your cat like a fan with streamers of this fans. Streamers are coming out of it. We got a picture of it in with the story. This is gonna freak out cat you expect an an often does. But what's really interesting is the owner behaves very calmly around objects even tries to quote unquote, make friends with says what a nice fan and to the cat like between meet this fan. It's such a nice fan. What was remarkable is some research has shown that the cats actually can take on these emotional cues in is freaking out the actually approach the fan. I saw can actually go up to just lie down right in front of it. The scary fan with streamers coming out as the owner was being very calm and really projecting. This very friendly. Calm state of mind of the cat seemed to be picking up. On. And what does that mean? That means again that you know, cats and similar work has been shown with dogs that they're very tuned into us as to what we're saying. But also how were feeling these really pick up on this these emotional cues that we let out a lot of the seems like something a cat owner or some a cat aficionado is tuned into their animals kind of expect. But other bigger questions that they're trying to answer. Besides, you know, do our cats understand us and kind of get things. Sometimes we'll, you know, one of these beer questions is what actually happened the horse domestication out, which is cats and dogs, but with it some of these other animals, we've been talking about and if we can figure out that even cats and dogs have similarities may see something about inherently some of the stuff that happens over domestication would air. Interesting things is that there's this idea that human beings actually, self domesticated in than we used to be very aggressive on cooperative species. And that we found a way to be much more friendly cooperative with each other and something very similar. We know or we suspect up with cats. They also self domes-. Iq as humans had seen with very little role in their domestication. And yet they were able to figure out a way to become more friendly and more cooperative and more used to living around other creatures than their ancestor was and so it's possible that we can tease apart with happened in the cab mind, we can maybe shed a little light about what happened in the human mind as well now. All right. So as a as a cat expert was there anything that you was prising to you as you were business labs and reading this new literature. Yeah. You know, I think one of the things that surprised me is that scientists actually get brave enough to study cats because nobody really wants to study cats you bring a dog into laboratory and a dog for the most part is really willing to do whatever you wanted to do dog'll sitting at mar I sit an MRI, it'll do trial trial trial of experiment, whereas cats are gonna freak out even if you come into their home stranger or these will participate. There's the cats they're gonna walk away into the other room. Even some the early experiments were replicated because the people that did them were just so frustrated with working outs. And was really surprising actually, kind of nice to see. He now is that a few brave souls like this group in organic in some of these other groups are taken other shot at and they're finding new ways to try to get them to participate in the experiments, and because of that we now have papers that are starting to come out that are really showing revealing all these things about cats that we may have suspected, but we didn't really know for sure scientifically until now is any of this research going to help us better care for our animals will. So if you look at the article, we have a table called how socially smart is your cat. Oh, and you can actually do some of these tests mobile simplified than with the you do you can try some of the stuff at home and figure out, you know, does your cat notes. Name how emotionally bonded to you is your cat. Independent is your cat is your cap refer you to food or vice versa. So those a few relatively simple experiments. You can do to figure out not only does this mean for all cat kind. But what does it mean for your particular cat as well as you do these tests? I haven't done yet. I think we did a name. Name test, which I think I don't think we should are cast do Norte Duda their names. But we haven't done the other. You think your cats would be good test of a little? I'm a little afraid to test them personally. Mike has a freight of nothing, but he doesn't do anything. Yes. That's the other problem. So the two problems of cats are there either freaked out or they just really wanna have nothing to do with whatever you wanna try to figure out. All right. Well, thank you so much. Dave, thanks, David grim as the online news editor for science. You can read a link to his Catt article at science MAG dot org slash podcast. Stay tuned. For Meghan Cantwell's interview with Gregory Erhard about research into the effects of ride sharing apps on traffic.

researcher Dave news editor Meghan Cantwell Gregory Erhard David Grimm Oregon us Sarah Crosby Africa Oregon state university Hungary Kansas Norte Duda lavon Oregon Ray Goff Catt pan-ion Pat
"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

Science Magazine Podcast

08:54 min | 2 years ago

"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

"This week show is brought to you in part by LEGO Technic. LEGO Technic isn't just another LEGO set with bricks. It's real life. Advanced building. Some sets have interconnecting rods working years, even real electric Motors Tecnicas for the engineers, the petrol heads, your steam students from sports cars to hydraulic movers. If you build for power and speed than visit LEGO dot com, slash Technic to find your next Technic build and to see how LEGO recently built a life-size drivable supercar out of Technic parts. That's LEGO dot com. Slash Technic t. e. c. h. and I see LEGO Technic build for real. Welcome to the science podcast for October. Fifth, two thousand eighteen. I'm Sarah Crosby and I'm Meghan Cantwell on this week's show. I talked with science writer. Adrian show about mysterious particles zipping through the planet through Artika and how that may upset the standard model of physics. And I talked to Ben de l. about how flu epidemics operate differently in big towns and small towns. I'm Sarah Crosby. Adrian Chou is here with me to talk about some physics findings that made headlines this week saying, oh, maybe we're going to overturn the standard model. And Adrian is here to tell us how likely that is and what the finding was. Hi, Adrian, I sir. How are you? I'm good. I'm hoping that you give us a middling hope here that there's some substances hype, but maybe you know, we need to control ourselves. Why would you start with what was seen? The observation is of two unusual cosmic rays high-energy particles from space that seemed to defy explanation by the established theory which is known as the standard model. These are chew observations that were made with a balloon borne experiments called Anita, which stands for ant Arctic impulsive transient antenna. It's a radio antenna that has so far made four flights around the south pole. Its primary mission is to look for pulses that are generated when particles called neutrinos, which barely interact with matter slam into the ice and once in a great while they ought to produce a big shower of charged subatomic particles going through the ice that would produce a particular type of radio pulse in an NATs. The thing that Anita was looking for, but Anita hasn't seen any treehouse or neutrino signals. But what it does see is signals from other cosmic rays, not neutrinos, but from charged particles that strike the atmosphere in these also can set off a shower of charged particles that goes down and no so far have been protons, right? Those are typically protons. They're typically protons. Some of may be light nuclei from. And what happens is that that shower particles Benz in the earth's magnetic field that causes it to generate radio waves. And the radio waves typically bounce off the ice and backup to. The Nida ended in Anita sees this little pulse of radio waves, and that's how they even note. You know, that's how they detect the shower at all. Sometimes it will see a shower that's actually coming sort of sideways from way off on the horizon from cosmic Ray hits the atmosphere, and then the pulse come straight to. Nita doesn't have the bounce off the ground, and there's a difference between those two signals. Essentially, the ones that bounce off the ground, sorta get flipped compared to the ones that come straight to Anita. What about the strange ones? These bizarre observations that we started off talking about from their direction. They look like they're coming from the ground, but they don't have the slip in them. Right. And so what that suggests is that there's some sort of particle with actually coming up all the way through the earth before it makes shower particles in the ice introduces a radio waves. Radio is coming straight up towards the Nita couldn't couldn't. These just be neutrinos. The neutrino could in theory come up all the way through earth wants to degrade wild one would interact with the ice. Reduces upward going shower, and you could see that. But from the size of the shower, scientists know these particles were becoming up through the earth would be very, very high energy. Something like seven hundred thousand times the energy that's been produced at the biggest particle accelerators so far. And it turns out that the probability that neutrino would interact in the rock going all the way through earth's goes up with the energy, the idea that it would be at this level of energy and coming to earth kind of makes it incompatible with it being an entry now, right? And that's the argument that's made by this team from Penn State university. So they're saying that it, you know, some high level of confidence. You can't explain these events with standard model particle can't explain it with the neutrino. Does that mean may need a new particle is at the hypothesis then that's the inference, right? You can't explain these things with ordinary neutrinos. So you might need some sort of new particle and. And the truth of the matter is particle. Physicists have been desperate for some article on so bad. Yes, they do right because the standard model is this incredibly self consistent mathematical framework of all the known particles, but it has his big conceptual holes. It doesn't include gravity doesn't include dark matter. There's all these things that it doesn't do. What would be characteristics of this particle be based on just these readings is to ratings and Nita talk. It would be very heavy about five hundred times the mass of propellant. It would be produced by a very, very high energy, cosmic Ray hitting the far side of the earth. Innocent be heavy enough, basically punched through like a bullet through the earth in very, very rarely. It would interact in a way that produces a shower in his at what these particle desperate assist are looking for something in that size yet. That's prime target. So that's great. Okay. Well, what about the caveats, the questions that are leftover? I mean, this was seen twice by and then there's also an ice cube observation that might have also. I've seen the same thing. Yeah, I guess ice cube, which is destroyed. Ganic array of detectors sunk into the south pole. Ice also looks for neutrinos see some hint of upward coming events. Although researchers did this analysis safe, that's not strong enough to claim some sort of signal based on ice cube alone. All right. So what are some of the doubts about this? What are what are some of the open questions? Apparently, the sticking point is this whole issue of weather. Every time a signal reflects off the ice. It gets flipped over the way that this paper assumes that it does because it's the unflicting nature of the signals that makes them say at went through. Right, exactly. So that the shower is coming up words. I spoke to one of the Nita physicists in. He says, that's not a slam dunk to be sure. He says that he's not exactly sure how you might get this signal flip, but you have to remember the, they're looking for very small swivels sort of, you know, little. Bursts radio as just a couple of ups and downs in. There's a lot of noise. They're not proposing that slipped twice, so it flipped and then unflicting itself. There are a number of things that could happen. It's possible that you could have unspecified surface effects that would change this flipping. It's also possible when the shower itself hits the ice, the radio waves are gonna bounce off the ice, but all this articles are also gonna smack into the ice that will create more radiation. It's possible. The two types of radiation could interfere with that. You get the wrong Vollers ation of the signal. So you know, there's at least some concern that this relationship between the polarization of the signal and whether or not the shower was going down or coming up. So Adrian, what do they have to do to shore this up or to disprove it? Wow, more events certainly would help. You know, this could be a tricky one, right? Because you essentially comes down to how strong is this argue. About what happens with the radio waves. Reflecting off the ice in that could be a really messy problem. So I mean, if I had to guess, I would guess that this is going to be one of those anomalies that hangs on for a long time and people may never have a superstar would answer. I don't think that this will be just dismissed out of hand, but I don't think it's enough to save that they've overturned the standard model. Okay. Adrian, thank you so much shirt. My pleasure. Adrian cello is a staff writer for science. You can find a link to his story at science bag dot org, slash podcast. Stay tuned for an interview with Ben de l. about how influenza behaves differently in small towns and big towns and what humidity has to do with it.

Adrian Anita Nita Sarah Crosby Ben de l. Ray Adrian Chou Adrian cello Artika writer Nida Meghan Cantwell Penn State university staff writer
"sarah crosby" Discussed on KIRO Radio 97.3 FM

KIRO Radio 97.3 FM

01:44 min | 3 years ago

"sarah crosby" Discussed on KIRO Radio 97.3 FM

"Putting your info story for kim is back with story for what's going on out in the seat well orcas orcas season has begun here in puget sound and they've already spotted a brand new baby orca sarah crosby and her son were out on the shore at daybyday and hood canal when the entire family swam just a few feet in front of them mom baby and siblings all breaching the water there in the water right there karen look at his big fin syn the baby is it a baby i don't know what's cute the little kid or the baby orca but this match lineal group of transient orcas been visiting puget sound for many years it typically stay for several months in the spring and summer hunting seals sea lions and other mammals elissa lemire brooks with the orca network says they first spotted this baby a couple of weeks ago but they couldn't tell who it belonged to was one of our volunteers who i photographed decaf on april tenth off of kingston but that day that family was traveling with another family so we couldn't determine which one was the mom it wasn't until the most recent sighting on friday that they figured out who was mom they're one of our more kind of what we call residents transient pods because they hang around down in this area and the san juans quite a bit this is her fifth surviving offspring we know that transients eat marine mammals and resident orca eat salmon but how can you tell if this is a ramsey a resident or a transient orca a lot is we go on dorsal fin like the transients tend to be point here and sharper and have a lot more like nixon cuts because of how they take down their prey you know they're taking down many thousand pound sea lions and things like that but also resident orcas some of.

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"sarah crosby" Discussed on KIRO Radio 97.3 FM

KIRO Radio 97.3 FM

02:16 min | 3 years ago

"sarah crosby" Discussed on KIRO Radio 97.3 FM

"Virginia mason pedic's and sports medicine helping make knees hips shoulders and joints happy again virginia mason orthopedics and sports medicine remarkable kiro radio realtime traffic i'm tracy taylor cargo radio news ninety seven three fm tomorrow promises to be a busy day in seattle small violent crowds breaking up and moving throughout the city that's that's a worst case scenario so i know the incident commanders have taken that under consideration in staffed appropriately protesters of retallack on some downtown businesses seattle police say tomorrow's big rally kicks off at two thirty at judkins park with this year's message focusing on immigration enforcement we'll have live coverage throughout the day here on kiro radio five suspected gang members arrested in connection with a series of shootings in south king county here's radios hannah scott the five arrested between seventeen and nineteen years old and members of a gang known as the us that has been locked in a feud with another gang for the past year king county sheriff mitzi joe harrington says the five have been charged with the murders of one rival gang member last year and injuring another arrest should be a strong warning for other gang members that there senseless violence will be met with swift and decisive law enforcement action we will find you and we will shut you down investigators say they don't know if they're tied to the recent murders of two teenage girls and burien but do believe those shootings are also gang related thousands of people treated at good samaritan hospital in puyallup for being notified they may have been exposed to hepatitis c after a nurse who stole narcotics from the emergency room tested positive as did two of her patients conserve a nervous overall rescue saw where were notified much greater population beyond those that were directly care for the hospitals calling twenty six hundred patients who were treated in the er between august fourth last year and march twenty third of this year and got injections and narcotics or sedatives orcas season is now begun in puget sound and there's already a new calf that's been spotted sarah crosby and her son were out on the shore at debate in hood canal when the entire family of orcas swam just a few feet in front of them karen look at his big fin syn see the baby is it a baby yes it's a baby this group of transient orcas been visiting puget sound for many years mom now has five surviving cavs a look at.

hood canal burien hannah scott kiro tracy taylor Virginia cavs mason pedic sarah crosby puyallup good samaritan hospital mitzi joe harrington king county judkins park retallack seattle virginia mason orthopedics
"sarah crosby" Discussed on Sports Talk 1050 WTKA

Sports Talk 1050 WTKA

02:26 min | 3 years ago

"sarah crosby" Discussed on Sports Talk 1050 WTKA

"Dasa is an awesome person every time you step in the huddle with them you knew he was in the huddle you you have someone who you can trust back there and just all around greg guy nicest person i bet and just really humble but not afraid to last someone as one of the best quarterbacks on the straps and i'm just i'm really excited every time i see his name on tv or something just i know he deserves to be where he's at go first overall as he went first over on they want to surprise me sarah crosby joining us listen you're from the las vegas area you played high school ball ed green valley high school and when the team came to the las vegas bowl at the end of last season you change your number from seventy three to fifty eight to honor the victims of the las vegas shooting that it was an extremely touching gesture why was that something that you wanted to do and then how did that shooting impact you yeah so as soon as i kind of heard talks that we might end up in vegas bowl i realized that's my hometown and just she's jazzy just happened and the awesome if i can honor all the victims and their families and just the city that'll from in a way and kind of i mean i can change my number and as soon as i found out that we're going to the actual vegas bowl i talked to candy far are headed grandma guy and read idea through him and he agreed and he did everything in his power to allow me to change my numbers yeah the whole tragedy that's pretty much i remember the day happened and sitting in my room just feeling like i'm very just seeing all the tweet feeds on my twitter remember seeing my friends snapchat throughout the event and trying to get a hold of them making sure they're okay and just seeing how devastating event was and just is kind of hard for me to believe that there's actually happening and even when we draw pass 'cause we stayed at the delano which is adjacent to the mandalay bay the same property pretty much every time i just drive past the hotel and like walking into my hotel room i just kinda feel like an area vibe just not what occurs hair in october tarot crosby joining us without question.

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"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

Science Magazine Podcast

02:03 min | 3 years ago

"sarah crosby" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

"If you were just training someone how to have the irish dialect and how common is this form of there are a lot of people receiving this treatment in the us and in other places in the us it's not quite as common because insurance doesn't cover it in other places for instance sweden it's covered in their healthcare and so everyone gets of evaluation and can pursue training to change your voice and communication so it really depends on the country or the healthcare system right i feel like your your message about knowledge in diversity probably needs to be aired before we fine off i have learned a lot about the diversity of communication styles and gender and how some of our syria types of gendered communication are not actually born out in science right and it's really tricky to walk that line of capitalizing on the stereotypes but also not perpetuating them and that is a real challenge for trans women that i work with to sound sound assertive not think about sounding like a man or known like a man you know the thing about the characteristic you wanna sound like host to the gender identity you wanna sound like okay cool adrian hancock is here with me as a trip last meeting in austin her talk was called she doesn't want to sound like a man transgender communication interventions thanks so much adrian thanks for having me and that concludes this edition of the science podcast if you have any comments or suggestions for the show right to us outside podcast at triple as dot org you can subscribe to the show on itunes stitcher and many other places or listen to us on the science site at science mag dot org slash podcast where you can also find links to the research new stories disgust in each episode this show was produced by sarah crosby and edited by podgy jeffrey cook composed the music on behalf of science magazine in its publisher tra bless thanks for joining us.

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