35 Burst results for "Royal Society"
New Study Shows Ancient Primates May Have Lived Alongside Dinosaurs
"Did a primates the precursor to all modern primates including humans live alongside dinosaurs. The theory has been batted around over the years but a new study published this year and the journal royal society opens science provides further evidence that that may have been the case. The study is based on new analysis of fossil teeth from the collection of the university of california museum of paleontology in berkeley. Those teeth were just laying undisturbed and uncategorized in her drawer. Ziam until then grad student. Gregory wilson mental. A happened upon them in two thousand three. The teeth are credited with originally having been found by the late. William clemens prolific fossil hunter an expert on the mammals of the mesozoic era who spent most of his time working in the hell creek formation in montana and who unfortunately passed away from cancer in november and the badlands of montana. As you may know from duress park is one of the best places to find evidence about the last dinosaurs and their extinction. Hell creek formation specifically quoting national geographic is critical to understanding what killed off non. Avian dinosaurs and how life evolved afterwards. It's rocks preserve a timeline of life on earth stretching from two million years before the mass extinction to about a million years after one of the few places in the world where fossils can be found on both sides of that boundary and quotes a skeptical that it was the asteroid alone and not other at the time ongoing factors that led to the dinosaurs extinction. Clemens focused on studying other animals that lived alongside the dinosaurs and potentially lived through the extinction. Events other animals potentially including ancient primates.
That Mouse in Your House: It's Smarter, Thanks to You
"You've ever hosted a mouse as a house guest you know they can be incredibly clever finding your food and that makes sense. They had to become better in traits like problem solving because we became better at hiding food from then on your guitar with the max planck institute in germany. She says that battle of the minds has made mice craftier over time longer. Demise was humans better. They are at problem. Solving there are more than a dozen subspecies of house mice worldwide and each began cohabitating with humans at different times in our evolutionary history. Take for example. We're marcus domestic. As it began raiding human pantries around twelve thousand years ago. Whiskas musculus our relationship with them began some eight thousand years ago and musculus castanos that one is a relative newcomer which began cohabitating only three to five thousand years ago and that spread in evolutionary life histories among the three groups gave guenter team and opportunity. They gathered one hundred fifty mice with constituents from all three groups and tested them with seven. Different food puzzles. Each puzzle was baited with a mealworm which the mice could only get by pushing or pulling live for example or extracting a ball of paper from a tube or my favorite opening the window of a lego house and they founded the longer amounts variety had lived with humans. The more likely it was to solve these puzzles. Basically what we are left at with trying to explain these results we see is that the mice really developed higher or enhance cognitive abilities. While living with humans the results appear in the proceedings of the royal society b and as the human footprint on the globe expands. Guenter says. it's more important than ever to understand how we influence animal minds to learn. Why some creatures like house mice adapt while others simply die out.
How To Talk About Human Population Issues Constructively
"So you sit there and you realize like all of these discussions about overpopulation are historically pretty racist in jingo gewiss stick and eugenicist in their origin because nobody You know maybe this is touchy for your listeners. But you know nobody ever takes a picture of like a pga tournament with a whole bunch of white people crowded together and say on god. There's too many people on the planet but they sure do zoom in on a big big crowd of black or brown people in some city and say oh my god there's too many people on the planet right and so that's just the nature the origin of of this debate. Even if people were right in their assessment that there's too many people on the planet earth can't support that many people the framing of it was wrong and then because of this kind of paternalistic eugenicist racist you know origins of the concern the pathway. to resolving it was always paternalistic kind of the population policy approach. Not realizing i think in the fifties the nineteen fifties through the nineteen seventies the power of empowering strategies and again if we just Empower educate integrate into the workforce And provide access to family planning technology for all women on the planet this would resolve itself. And that's really the crux of the book. And what's funny. I think is when i give my you know my big lectures my big talks with all my maps and my powerpoint. You can feel the tension in the room until i get get to the fact that it can be resolved or women's empowerment and then you just get like a round of applause and cheering and nobody knew it's not in the in the you know the popular mind and i think that's the biggest problem we've had. Who are people really having those discussions. Still about overpopulation. They are. But i believe it's a generational thing and i actually don't try to impede malice to you. Know a lot of older generations the language you learn when you're young you use it even if it doesn't necessarily fit your do your new view of the world You know we all fall back on old habits and old language But also you know. I gave some talks at the royal society and the royal geographical society. And you know some of their some of their older patrons would come. And i appreciate them showing up but i get questions from old british you know folks in their seventies and eighties and they say you know but don't we need population policy to keep those people from you know breeding animals. And you're like dude. I don't think he meant to phrase it that way. But in some cases they do and that's part of the problem right because there is a history of that. And if i were someone you know from another part of the world you know where the total fertility rate is is higher and i hear somebody come in and start talking about population and their white from the us or the uk or or europe. I i'm sure i would. Squint my eyes and listen very carefully about the words coming out of their mouth because it is part of the history of this whole thing and you know it's just yell at people say chris don't write this book. Don't go with that message. You're gonna end up being one of those people. And i'm happy to say but i'm not one of those people read the damn up And it really does come down to. We have exceeded our planet's longterm ecological carrying capacity every additional person we add to the planet incurs further ecological debt that will take generations to pay down but we can't even pay down until he bring the population down right to our long-term meek. Lots kathy and i'm more than happy to debate is three billion four five. I've i've dared anybody to try to tell me it's seven point seven or higher and nobody's even tried like even the people that you know want to try. They don't even try because they know they can't defend it. And so you know give or take a billion we've got a long road ahead on this issue but
Zebra Coloration Messes With Fly Eyes
"Everyone loves zebras. No doubt it's a natty stripes but recent research into why. The stripes exist indicates that the markings maybe something of a mixed blessing for the zebras. The them new research adds to evidence against old ideas somehow stripes cool them down or confuse predators such as lions confusing. Lions will be nice for them but the good news is that a group of researches have additional evidence in support of a hypothesis. They proposed in two thousand fourteen. Stripes seem to confuse biting flies causing them to overfly or crash into the zebras. The study is in the journal. Proceedings of the royal society be various. Ideas have been tossed around in the last one hundred fifty years about the african at quit stripes. This debate goes right back to the birth of evolution darwinian. What is exchanging letters on the subject. Martino a biologist who studies animal vision the university of bristol and lead author of the study. How'd is colleagues sorta mechanism for how stripes 'cause insect confusion the began with domestic horses in great britain. The cover the horse is we've rugs featuring an array of designs from single colored black or grey to check patents and of cools zebra stripes. The research is then recorded videos of horse flies trying to get it. The horses detail of what these zapper starts with doing to host size as they were flying coming into land we found who spicer flying much faster as they came to land on strikes patents than they were when he landed on gray black faster and more emphatically the flies made successful landings much less frequently on the horses in stripes then on the solids but as more recent what also applies to chant seems something about black my patents as really confusing size. One assumption was a stripes affect the flies optic flow their prices known as the aperture affect. That's a fake creates a vision illusion akin to a barber shops poll and juicing distortion and causing flies to misjudge landings upon stripes surfaces but crediting the aperture effects ability to discombobulated biting flies appears to be flawed because the researchers found that check surfaces were just as effective a repenting flies as we're stripes once we lost the aperture effect is a possible explanation for house zebra charts affect your within the tend to other suggestions they might be some other kind of illusion softening in the eyes of these flies and it could also be the strike saw disrupting the so the search pattern these need to try and find undertaking more experience. Now trying find out which is the case. Whatever the resort evolution had a good reason to make abors a horse of a different color.
New species of water bear uses fluorescent 'shield' to survive lethal UV radiation
"Tar Degrades you know the adorable microscopic water bears that can survive basically anything like being frozen for thirty years and then being revived again or as a species surviving all five mass extinctions. will newly discovered strain of tar grade has another superpower protection from lethal levels of ultraviolet light. A recent study published in the Royal Society Journal found that the Para macrobiotics because our strain of tar grade I detected in Bangalore exhibits of fluorescent shield to protect against UV, light causing them to glow. Quoting. C.. N. For the experiment send deep M S RAPA Assistant Professor at the Indian Institute of Science exposed this tar grade along with another type of tar degrade hippies exemplary to UV, light all of the Para macrobiotics agreed survived for thirty days after fifteen minutes of exposure to the lethal raise the other tar degrade died within twenty four hours of exposure. The hardy tar degrade was also the only specimen observed the experiment to have glowed under the harsh light which the researchers revealed the key to their survival. The research team proposed that the tar degrade has fluorescent shield that absorbs the harmful light and emits a harmless blue light, which is what causes them to glow after discovering that their ability to glow was the tar degrade secret weapon S. Orapa made a fluorescent extract from the Para macrobiotics be alarmed strain and covered the other type of tar degrade used in the experiment in the protective material when exposed to UV light this enhanced tardy grade which had originally died from exposure to the radiation after a day showed partial tolerance and quotes. The light used in the experiment is stronger than the UV light that reaches us on earth from the Sun. But after conducting more experiments on tar degrades Esmeralda to expand his research and says, it's possible in extract of the fluorescent shield from the tar degrade could be used as a sunscreen for
Prof. John Flood, Professor of Law and Society at Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia. - burst 01
"Welcome to the site of accents podcast. Where we explore emerging ideas from signs, policy economics, and technology. My name is Gill eappen. We talk with woods, leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest. Scientific senses at unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation. Be Color a wide variety of domains red new discoveries are made. and New Technologies are developed on a daily basis. The most interested in how new ideas affect society. And help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation. V seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide unaided content of conversations bit researchers and leaders who low what they do. A companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense. Dot. com. And displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense dot net. If you have suggestions for topics, guests at other ideas. Please send up to info at scientific sense. Dot Com. And I can be reached at Gil at eappen. Dot Info. My guests today's facade John. WHO's professor of Law and society at Griffith University in Brisbane Australia. He's also adjunct professor of law at Queensland University of Technology and Research Associated University College Under Center for Blockchain Technologies, he who suggests on the Bloomberg professional globalization of law and the technology in law. But come John. Hello. Thank you. Sure. Yeah. So I want to start with one of your recent people, professions and expertise hog machine learning, and blockchain redesigning the landscape of professional knowledge and organization. In invite you say machine learning has entered the world of the professions. The different impacts automation will have huge impacts on the nature of work and society. Engineering architecture and medicine or early and enthusiastic adopters. Other professions especially law at late you say at in some cases with leptons adopters. could you talk about you know sort of the landscape all? Of Law, profession and. They today in terms of opting these technologies. Certainly Louis interesting because it's a very old profession is. Often considered one of the. Original traditional professions along with medicine and the church. And in a sense law has used different kinds of technology might say I mean does it? Based around writing. And then the printing press and So on yet that. It's always being based on a craft. A skill which the individual person is that enables them to do, whatever is quote if you like and. said, there's never been a lot of room for any kind of automation. Certainly, the has been space for using. A people who are not fully qualified as low as about as paralegals, people like that, who will do a lot of repetitive work document checking and things like that and so on. But what will get into now is the situation where automation through machine learning. There's other kinds of artificial intelligence. is able to start constructing documents example contracts. Check dollop a documents for particular clauses and things like that mature they're up to date and this incense is. Replacing now, the kind of work that noise will do. So I think in some ways more more of of the profession of law is gonNA be subject to automation, but distinction I would many because I think it's quite important here is that A lot of what lawyers do. Is actually quite. Active that that that that the drafting contracts overtime or or they're reviewing documents to some sort or another or they're getting through particular. Negotiation. And so you know a lot of it is the same, but they build up the expertise through doing these same kinds of were over and over again and What we're now finding is that instead of having young lawyers coming in and doing what you might call the grunt work of checking documents and going through discovery applications where he goes through the size boxes of evidence to decide. which are the appropriate documents you want the emails, the invoices order, this sort of stuff that is the kind of work which is lending itself to automation. And, and so that his taking away a lot of the work which is used for trading purposes with young lawyers and is just doing it much quicker. will quickly I mean More efficiently in many ways and probably expensive much much expensive a Lotta. This work is being outsourced to you know legal process outsourcing India or Philippines South Africa places like that. So yeah, that's that's right and so in some ways, the group of lawyers who do the work which requires the skill, the judgment. Is Reducing in some ways. That pool is getting smaller. Yeah Yeah it's it's interesting. The the distinction that you make between automation. And in my job and let's call it decision making right which is you know a lot of work in the business side of this. So for example. in the nineties in large pharmaceutical company So you think about you know rnd. People might think it has really complex selection of programs that design of them, portfolio management, risk management, all those decisions. Genuine companies be say well, senior managers with lots of experience and intuition make those decisions really well right and so that's statement would automatically implied that machines can really do much there. But what we find in the mid nineties says that is systematic analysis of data make those decisions. Don't better. Actually, I've Tom to humans humans. Always seem to make decisions. These are typically bonding the decision. So if you go back and look at it, alternative experiment has not been wrong. So we have no date to say it was a good decision at typically. So human scaffold, fifty percents of making good decisions So do you know just throwing a coin or letting monkey make those decisions so? Yup We found that even complex decision making that humans hold. you know close to their you know kind of domain I'm not necessarily. So we have machines That could do that much better than I. Don't know there's an analog of that in in law I I. Think The may be actually I mean Two three years ago the royal. Society in England decided to arrange a working party on machine learning. One of the things that they put together a a roundtable on machine learning professions resolved to talk about that night and I talked about the history of professions in technology and. and. I think one of the peculiar things that came out to in relation to law is that law. Has always been a sort of on its own. If you think about medicine, for example, medicines always had the teacher hospital institution that sort of straddles the academic quilt and the practice walls and brings those people together and as a result. INCORPORATES loss of, scientific, work. Engineering work as well computing work and things like that. And that's been the first teaching hospital king into existence in in the French revolution in Seventeen eighty-nine. A long history of that. If you look at law, there was nothing equivalent to that whatsoever and there is in fact, actually a big gap between what academy does on what the practitioners in your do so that As a result as before law has come to this a quite late but what we are. Finding I think is that Certainly the management consultancy finding is that because of the nature of a lot of what goes on in legal office a remarkable amount of it can be automated. So what we are getting now is companies setting themselves up to do this automated work. So. We have companies which do nothing but contract our instruction formation sort of company. The typical lawyer would would say to a client Do you WANNA contract classes. Yes I want this for this. And loyal galway draft contract back with it, and then in the con- comes back against as I need another contract, you go through the same process. which is good for the lawyer but not necessarily good kind. What we're finding now is the company's not can think of a few of them that will, in fact, go into the company's show order contracts. Let's see the entire. Corpus of contracts you've got there and they will analyze them. And basically say, all right. We can create a new contract in automated way fairly easily it may need some modification according to special circumstances but on the whole, it's fairly standard and and they can do that INNOVA systematic world meaning the contracts are reviewed that checked. If they're going to expire marketing, you want an unable just the system will cope with that if you're. Yeah. So yeah. No No. No so I was just going to say yes. So that the distinction you make, you know in terms education sort of systematic graduate level education that because as you say, it is low in one sense of soft proficient. You say in called professions like made it to text reengineering this team has a strong concern ensuring that expertise applied in the public interest when as low little bit different from from bad and economics in some sense sort of in the same same vein we have now made economics at really odd. of mathematics you know north of analytics there. Whether they are actually useful from policy making perspective is left to debate but at least it has been an attempt to make this make economic video hard. So so I don't know A. Fascination has been in in law I very much that will happen in law. Oh there things are beginning to happen I mean let me just boob. At. One example I learned in that workshop that I mentioned the Royal Society held. With somebody from the engineering profession talking about. The difference in skills between people who above forty I'm below forty he said. If he he was about Forty Years Austin design an aeroplane, takeout pen and paper Pencil, and paper and. I don't know anyone under forty could do that would know how to do that go onto a computer program undecided there. So you can see that the incorporation of technology into the academy through to the actual. Occupation. Than phones and things is is already a standard and they're in law. It isn't law. As you said, it's still very much a soft skill although I will argue that there is a difference between the way nor is viewed in different parts of the world. So in the United States A law is I think more tilted towards the sciences. So low in economics is one of the big things in the. US. So you got a lot of people working in the of lower economics who might go onto antitrust work no competition work and things like that which across a lot of economics, mathematics and Statistics and so on. In, say a Europe Australia and so on. Law is more allied towards the humanities. And the classics. So it doesn't have that kind of scientific underpinning in that way. So anything that's going to change in these parts if you like is going to be something that's going to be imported from outside. And is going to have a very dramatic impact when whether it does An and I think that's yet to happen. I don't think there's been sort of Cambrian explosion. If you like in in law, the will be one I'm sure but but law has an advantage over engineering economics or the other areas you might. That's With the nature of the rule of law and absent justice is since law as a a way of ordering society is absolutely crucial to everything else. Then, Law and lawyers will say will look you know we have a special status here is different amid leave engineer. We certainly want to make sure bridges stay up. We don't want down but we can design different kinds of bridges. We can design different kinds of legal bills, but they're also the fundamental rules If you want to you know if you're an engineering company and you want to build a bridge in a different country, you're going to have to do it on the basis of the legal rules, which will be just vise by the lawyers according to the country's there in so on. So in in that was what? I might put in a special category if you live. Yea. Yea. Let me let me push NBA John. So. The. The conference that you mentioned you know the Internet is under forty and engineers at. So so one could argue you know from an engineering perspective could argue e- It sexually dangerous. To not use machines to build aircraft the goes you know all the technology that cap today actually help us make the trap lot safer. granted. If you sit down with a blank sheet of paper and Pencil, you might get the principal right. But, but the technology has advanced so much that you really have to use. Technology to do so in some sense, engineering is pushed back. that. I argue this myself then they were naive engineering school. I had a V exposed at my daughter bent to school. She used the same physics book. Twenty, five. meter. I argue that that is sort of backward because data speed no need for an engineer to really learn Newtonian physics anymore because it is prescriptive, it's deterministic can make machines, learn it very quickly and so why spend all? Right. So so then you know if you think about the the law field. I wonder if there is a senior argument that is to say Dan and tape really good lawyer casts lot of intuitions dot expedients to crap something Contract or a discourse, but then maybe the machine scan actually do it even better We haven't really tested that hypothesis yet. Right be almost have this idea that humans are always dominant. Or machines but that the not be true as technology lancers. So what do you think about that in the in the? It's a very important point actually because the. American bosses. being modifying its ethical rules recently to say that lawyers have a duty and obligation to keep up to date with technology. So we already know the technology is now a an important part and I have to say when when I say the word technology, I mean this at all kinds of levels from what you can do with Microsoft word for example, it strays plug ins all the way up to artificial intelligence IBM, Watson, or something like that So that if if lawyers become. A. Uses of technology whether this small firms or big firms or what have you a under the Aba now they they actually have an obligation to make sure that they are up to date. They can't just say we didn't know what we were doing. So I think in that respect, there is a there was a move. The other move that is taking place is actually the push from from the clients. Now, this you have to look into ways one is with corporate clients. The corporation seen US lawyers have to use noise if you'd like want their work done. PHILOS- money on Chiba they wanted to more efficiently They don't want the best piece of work every time they want something that works and they want officiant. UTA A and so on. So it was interesting I think a few years ago. The General Counsel Cisco. Actually made a speech. Saying that he expected his. Lawyers Law firms who worked for the company to be reducing their fees year on year. Now, that's the opposite of what lawyers normally do, which is to raise them year on year. So say that that's one push which is. Very profound push now, coming from the client himselves who are using the beginning to use their procurement departments in in the companies and things like that to help purchase legal services the other aspects which is just as important in this is if you look at the role of lawyers and individuals. So if you is what access to to legal services, it's expensive lawyers are not cheap they charge our money We don't know how to judge the quality of their work and so on. because. There was a credence which we just know that So. On this is where technology can begin to step in and provide services which are. Efficient and often quite. what very well for the individual saying that this. Technology can be seen to be improving access to justice a Lotta people. Yeah. Yeah yes. I want to come back to this. John. I think this is a very important point. So bent on put has a lot of uncertainty. Uncertainty maybe not not the right term, but it's called deterministic. It shows beatty ability and so the determination of quality it's not as easy as hard media India nearing or. Right business economics legal all sorts of well foreign that category and the application of technology sort of a different different meaning there but I want to touch on one of the things that you say in the paper, and that is you mentioned this before and that's about training training the next generation. So you savior regulating bodies professions are involved in the collection and reproduction of knowledge intended to be used by the entire body professionals, and so there was an expectation here that you know seeing it professionals. Is Providing the wisdom that knowledge mission to train the next generation now in a technology driven. regime. discuss vacations right. Our expert is going to be a computer engineer in the future. And so so how does that work from from cleaning and knowledge Asian will I think this is This is a crucial issue in it's one which the profession hasn't. Really. Got To grips with yet I think because you think of technology in terms of Predictive analytics a document review and things like this most law schools are not preparing students for this they may be a a a a causal to on some aspect of technology, but it's not something which lawyers themselves are learning. So I think what is going to happen is we're going to find a blending of skills occurring. So law firms will be sense having to bring in a range of technologists who perhaps have. A scales a straddle, both sides of the lines, the lawyers like this too I think I think we're going to find an avangard Who will begin to develop skills that allow them to talk to both sides of the line, the tech people and? Below people if you likes and there will be people who will acquire develop these skills as well but that's that's still some way down the line I didn't think we're anywhere near there yet, and part of the reason for that I think is that you know law is still a very highly regulated profession and and the regulators themselves are in the same situation they are unsure about what is going to happen and they also feel they have an obligation to. Not only ensure that. Customers clients and consumers are protected but in some ways, the profession is protected to if you like so. You know it's it's a it's a fine balancing. There I. Think. It's a fight balancing act and you'd say if the changing changing things. So going back, you know you care as an individual eighteen status of expert. Some form of encapsulation of knowledge and analysis occurs enabling professional experts, derived diagnoses, decisions, and conclusion wrapped late. and you make some distinctions. Type of learning that. Human? Beings. That the distinction between doing drive and become a gift and laster Yes yes. Yes I think that's important. So the the the the principle behind this is that Individuals can acquire a lot of knowledge in in various areas. So as I say learning how to drive a car, you learn how to change gear you though with the speeds. Braking different rates, conditions, and things like that. So. If you WANNA take that further and become a formula one drive or something like that. Then you have to undergo a very different kind of training and that kind of thing becomes a lot more collective rather than individual because you start to you're you're going to be in a group that is gonna be doing a particular kind of our driving. If you like everybody in the group has to understand what each other is doing that group, you can't have people going right a racetrack at two hundred miles an hour or thinking individually feel like they have to have a collective consciousness. About. How to drive in that situation? That's nothing like how? You and I might drive. I'm not saying we bad drivers just saying spreading very different. So I think professional work is not. That different from this in a way. So once you you can go through school and you can do your law degree and you can learn your low. We can learn you engineering's this applies to or professions really. But in order to become a professional in order to become somebody who can operate function within that. Group if you like you then have yourself have to develop collective consciousness and and one way of thinking about it is that we we can kind of tacit knowledge. This assorted knowledge you learn on the job from people, which is not always articulated in a precise formulate kind way but it's something you pick up from the way. Somebody does something you just recognize aw that that's how they've done that might not be. Written down anywhere or anything like that. But you know that's different from now exiting differently from the way that wise doing I think X.'s doing it better I and you and you just, and you can absorb that. That's what I mean by this kind of tacit knowledge and that comes about from the professional context. As how the professional context develops becomes absolutely crucial to how you introduce new ways of doing things new my daddy's new skills new outlooks if you like and I. Think this is where we're on the cost of of this beginning to develop I mean we we know it's got to be done quite how it's going to be done. is yet to be. So. So let me make a statement John and I want I want your reaction to it so eat in hard sciences eight years against again medicine. Expertise has about a consistent happy of remorse. Whereas enor- economics and business in general, let's say expertise is not about the ability to apply rules but to deal with. and at and if that is true, it has lot of implications rate. It has implications as to how we might divide work. Between. And machine in the future. And the skills that universities need to impart on on on new graduates are also quite different. So I always argued in the business. engineering contexts that universities having changed the dog they get mentioned before they're using the same. Using the same. Out Thirty four years without asking the question are those skills relevant, anymore or more importantly watch. Really relevant for a human being in the future rate. do you agree with that that expertise assert more about dealing exceptions apply? Putting it actually. I. I can see the logic behind what you. Saying I think what distinguishes? A good professional whether it's a good engineer good architect or good lawyer or doctor is is somebody who has a certain? This may sound strange but it's the. Imagination. Creativity. about. Kind of flare that allows them to function on the nausea they they've got and developed over the years and the experience. Gathered from Nova pitching what they'd be doing over the years and so on, and it allows them to see around things in ways which they perhaps would. I can give you an example if you like a law. So I'm in in Germany and some other countries. For example, there's a particular way of bundling together mortgage securities I I won't go to detail about this, but this statute that enables you do it. And then you can sell these securities and get money. In certain countries, the UK, the US, and so on. This, NICI. So in a sense to put this kind of a a deal together it. Couldn't be done if you live. So a bank came to one of the large English law firms and said, look we wanted we want to replicate this in in the UK, want to set a market this we're not the statues off there. What can you do and what was interesting was that the law firm then went back to first principles lawyers who were looking at this went back I suppose they looked at some vape basic areas of law matter your trust. And contract from what have you? I'm from that they constructed elite supplement that looked very much like the one in Germany, but without stat sheet and they tested it and it worked. Out To be credibly successful. So much so that the German government started German legal profession started to complain because they said. You can only do this by statute and these we find a way of doing it three. I suppose using law and there it is an they were vowed shops by but that was a particular example if you like of of what you were talking about, they took the exceptions they went back to first principles and said you know or How would we get? This is where we gotta get to, and this is a way right at the beginning what are the steps we need to take and and? And that's what a good loyal will do if you. Right right? Yeah. So that's very important point. So you in your paper dawn as the DREYFUSS and rice note that the proficient performer immersed in the world of skillful activities sees what needs to be done. But decides how to do it. So as we move into a and other technologies, I think it's important point it is. Right from Dad benefactor culture we have been using humans as you mentioned before in lots of with meted activities big not designed for humans I would I would contend enjoy doing things over and over again, and if you had thought of doing that, yeah, because they have to do it for living right and so so we should be moving to word It would where anything that is with pita on delegated to the machine at automation in the bottom of that and Appealed autonation you can have intelligent automation you can have you know reinforcement learning those types of things you have some aspects of intelligence into the into the two. And deploy humans Don't Miss. They're really good at in some case. I'm. So you know we've been studying the green for ages be our no close. It feels to understand mother. Heck it does You know it's not neat learning it. Oh, BBC of. thirty years ago as see that person again, you could see you could you could have a feeling. Then you've seen that before and and what the brain has done actually not only as he that pattern but also age that matter intuitively for thirty years and say, yes, that face I, guess before. and. So there are some superpowers the brain has reaped have been applying the all all. So for a technology might allow. Look I. Think Technology will allow us to incredibly complex things without having to think about too much I. Mean if you look at the way a port functions, for example, any major port these days they've got millions of containers and ships going through them all the time. So there's a lot of paper going through the you those charter parties, bills of lading guarantees. So the lot of legal work that's being done it, it's all quite standard stuff. I mean everybody. KNOWS, what needs to be done and so on. Now, some people are beginning to think while the best way to handle a port if you like I for everybody should know is to put everything that's going on in the poor into a blockchain so that you can see the whole supply chain. You see when something comes in, you can determine when the goods are being offloaded. When they're being shipped, you can stop making the payments as a result of the. Operation of the smart contracts if you like, and the whole thing would be just one quite seamless. In some ways without that much human intervention really just need oversight Some bits of coordination so on. But at the moment is still a a lot of humans are vote in that shipping people, law people, all sorts of things which is. I think insane. That's a waste of resources. We know that there are people who have all kinds of problems that require that creative flair she like as so why waste money on the routine stuff when you could develop skills to the the real need if you like in that way? Yeah Yeah. So I, want that some that bit that John Blockchain, for example, as you mentioned. So so one reason especially in the professions like law and business humans have an advantage justice dimension of trust. and you know at least our generation we don't really. At eighty level, right. So so having that. Human human touch is still extremely important for us. Now, technologies like Blockchain, for example, actually allows that trust to be tensely decoupled, right? Yeah, and I think I think you're right. Look I. Think I mean one of the reasons we make contracts is because We, don't trust each other. So we we devised these documents with all the conditions in them. Something goes wrong. This is what will happen things like that and so on. What are the interesting things? You know people really rely on contracts are met you. You draw up a contract. And the to business people stick him in the drawer I never look at again less something really really fundamental goes wrong but they know sumit doesn't that never look at that again. So you say value of the contract, what did it actually do if you look at some of the Asian countries say like Taiwan or parts of China, you have a assistant coach Guanxi, which is where people developed effective relationships by knowing each other over a period of time around business that allows them to develop trust it. So You know there are different ways of of handling trust, but we we seem to spend a lot of time on trying to minimize something You know which we don't really do a lot of if you like. So I think one of the advantages of of blockchain is that it just it removes a lot of this from from the equation if there's certain things you know that can happen. as a result off if this thing that systems. Lead happened And you know. As, long as you've got oversight and you can see what's going on than. You don't need to be too concerned about it. It will just do what it needs to do in that way and So. Again. That's still very much in the early stages, but we are seeing situations where supply chains A shipping goods from one country to another can actually be done under smart contracts through a blockchain. Technology if you live. That that is now happening I associate goodful dealing with things like gum counterfeiting if you're. Producing. Particular high-quality could site move our phones or particular pharmaceutical products and so on you know it's one way of guaranteeing the quality of the product is you couldn't I say look you can examine the whole supply chain or the data is there. And you know his Eq- code look at it and you get the whole thing going all the way back The. Again, issues around that if you're dealing with the digital. Is Much easier once you start dealing with physical products then you have. A question of how do you get that first initial digitization of the physical if you'd like to goes on so though some people I know here in Australia who? Run A company called Beef Ledger, which is trying to export beef straight beef to China using the blockchain supply chain, which will. Guarantee the security, and the quality of the goods to the Chinese consumer APP because having problems with this before. But I will tell you now do doing something like that does require that the people you are dealing with. You're going to set this up with You have to have a trusting relationship with you before you can set up a technology that will do away with the So we're still in that. That's really early days. I think another a lot of time way to go right Yeah, but the technology works it. Clean potential one could argue contracts exist because they probably known performance if you have a technology that drives that probably the of non-performance zero, then you can actually get rid of for contract. Yeah limit. It is. Not. Goes back to that earlier point I made that. Most most contracts are fairly standard. You know a routine things they're there to. Record a series of transactions payments that have gone on between people without the to do much. If you like you know once you you're you're doing the business, the contract just kind of records that in perpetuity. So the small contract just takes that into a different area and an an actually does the whole implementation and execution without people to be involved in that too much and there's something goes wrong. But if it if it all goes right then back it is done you need to you don't you think about it Right. Yeah. Hasn't been jumping to another are forthcoming people globalization law at. A time of crisis in the? Global Lawyer and so in the say Nikolai Condom Nieve a Russian economists in the nineteen thirties believed the worst economy operates long sixty year cycles Then he called K. Braves. And you safeguarding coronavirus analysis, the fifth psycho young's from nineteen eighty to twenty thirty. It's you save twenty, nineteen forthcoming John You might have. I think so I think say because I, tell you off the what's happening this year I thought my good I couldn't My God. I was just. Owners because you know a contract device these waves up into into what he calls four seasons spring summer or winter at, and we're in the winter off this fifth cycle if you like this is. All the bad stuff happens and he's news war. Famine Disease I think wait a minute that sounds Yes yes. That's exactly right. A. But one of the interesting things about contractors was that you know he he a because he's A. Solid economists are installing a dip executed. By the way you know he he got fed up ninety that was the end of Nikolai unfortunately but he. He said instead of know if you like the ownership of the means of production are being the determinate for changeover from system system, he said it's it's technology and and that the technology will drive you out of the downswing of the last cycle into the upswing of the new cycle, and and the way that works is the win. You're in this kind of winter period because of the kind of economic. Gloom pervades if you like people tend to hold back in subsurface vestment in terms of technological innovation of what have you and so a lot of energy resources, resources, money capital if you like builds up to a second point when people say we're GONNA go for this is this is it? And that's when if you like technology comes to the fall on, really drives it forward. So from that perspective, what he's saying is that you know come right about twenty thirty. If. Things are going slowly now regarding technology they're going to speed up. In. This period and that's when it will. You know really also take take off and people have looked back over our preceding cycles and they've you know it works if you like not just their. Fantasy theory there are also the people who do Cleo dynamics in history these the quantitative historians and they've done a similar kind of analysis of historical periods and said, yeah, you know there are all these citrical. Processes that take place even revolutions occur and big upset occurs and what have you and and. One of their Perspectives which I find quite interesting is that they say one of the reasons for revolutions come about is caused a lease beginning to compete with each other and and an an I look at say trump in in America and I look at the Democrats and I I I would say Modine, India I look she in China and different groups of elites who are engaged really profound struggle for the future of their countries if you live. Out which again is leading to this kind of potential eruption of activity and a new ways of doing things. Yeah. It makes a lot of intuitive sense gone. So one way to think about this also. There are a lot of excesses. So innovating go good their excesses in the system people to believe that invincible they changed assumptions about. because they don't see any. and. Financial markets to right. So these cycles and real real mass that uniquely talking about you can see the. Happening in the financial markets more clearly. But what he's saying is that he happens mortgage and you ask in this paper in two thousand, nineteen for in many ways go. Crystallization off the settling ketone economic forces lost throat ear Kublai doomed as populous. Separates nationalism and lead clients and I think they have that we have probably the answer to that. But you see I think. One of the points I was trying to make an in in this paper walls that Global Law. If you like is is, is the a kind of synthesis off chaos? How do we bring some kind of order to chaos now once you start seeing the undermining? Of his global institutions, you see trump was withdrawn from the W. H. O.. He's he's are criticized NATO he he won't have the do with the International, Criminal Court and so we've got this kind of real life tension now between a an international legal order that's being built up since the Second World War both Ekit economic and legal order is Global And so we can't just a radical globalization I mean even even with covert, we can't eradicate mobilize ation we've got to. Handle covert the Kobe pandemic on a global basis. Otherwise, we'll. We're lost it retreats to a national. Approach is not gonNA. Work? We'll be defeated in that race is going to be global. Might. Be One of my questions in in paper was will who are the people who are going to be doing this? Kind of bringing the the order to chaos if you like and that made argument that it's got to be the global lawyer. And this is a person who not only understand their national legal system but also able to communicate with lawyers and officials. From around the world if you like. To be able to develop a kind of common. Language common discourse that enables them to stop putting these things together are, and it's not just a simple massa of saying mathematically, it works this way or not. It requires the kind of pulling together of people, but it requires that sort of common understanding which. Comes out of what I was saying about this idea of testing knowledge you know as you got this kind of professional consciousness you know how people ought to behave and how they will interact with you, and then that enables you to be out of bizarre to predict how you can do things and so on and so on. That basis I think we can operate kind of global order. It had a a below the institutional level if you're not kind of private. As opposed to the public according and that will put three. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah you know I the limit John I don't know if you think this way I limit one could as. Want to stay need for. Countries what does the need for legal system differentials? We set this up with the premise that it's easier to manage small chunks. one could also argue with Edmund Affect. -nology that you don't need to segment this debate that we have done. which might make these types of issues you know. See where you're coming from and I'm going to say yes or no? Yes, I think the home range of of questions that can be handled by the technology the ones we got pay I don't chain, etc. I don't I didn't see any issues there but there are a lot of decisions that needs to be made a book in terms of putting things together and resolve disputes that can only function at a human level because it's not. These are not decisions that are simple binary decisions. If you'd like, it's yes or no it's it's often a lot more nuance than complex about I mean, one of the resources in the World Kiva Zero System, the world amendment which is being fought over if you like is water, a water is probably one of the most valuable resources anywhere and it's you often find that rivers and things like that sort of flow between countries, they form borders. And and you are you know people if you look at the Nile, ESL start stopping in Sudan throwaway down to the Mediterranean. So he goes to countries all three countries, east European and then into Egypt's and so unwell well, who has the right to put it dime at a particular place and things like that all of that has to be cooled in act. You see a not going to be done at a human level that that's what caused the skills in negotiation judgment interpretation understanding if you like of the other people, no machine can do that I got. Yes before we conclude, I want to touch on one other thing So in the paper, you say as technology and culture intersect more and more. Ethical conundrums will intensify these raising questions about the rights and obligations of robots. And go beyond as moves. Three laws of robotics in two issues of rights of all moon. Algorithm, stem serves. So this is this is an area that be Kevin babies even even really form some notions allowed rights of all modes at rights of a are. Sai, gets more sophisticated. Yes. Yes. I do. I, mean I think this is one of the issues we already know some of the problems with algorithms and and you know can we can be are they transplanted from you see what's going on the ethical issues around the construction and implementation of algorithms and things like that. But I I I think looking into the future we all going to rely on things like robots. And various kinds of machines so much more so that if you look at a country like Japan, which is a a an aging population such that it doesn't have sufficient younger people to look after the people who need looking often. So machines, I'll be part of that, and that means people will stop forming real relationships with machines and and so that's when I would say. Okay. So let's think about how we View a potential rights of machine that we give. We give rise to humans. Yes. We know that we give rights to animals. Now we've also given rights to viz in forest in some countries as well as so machines I think our. Next logical step you know do we do we treat them with respect Let me give you one. Very classic example yet the production of. Robots for sex if you like is a major industry at the moment, some manufacturers say they want to program them say that people can act out rape fantasies will do we want that I? Mean you know should we be at first of all? You know? We should be having people behave in this particular kind of way, but even an uncertain if you do it against another human being, you'll be punished for it and you say we'll a machine is a piece of property you should be you should be doing that but I'm getting to think that maybe a machines should be treated with dignity say that we are treat ourselves with. Dixie. This a kind of reflexive situation here what we? Do to machines we do to each other, and they may again due to US depending on how they evolve and and move forward in that way is a very contentious issue. A lot of people would reject that right out of hand I agree I think we've got to stop thinking about stop dining forward because I. think we're going to at some point again. I. Don't know when. But at some point we will be having to deal with that. It's a it's a very important point. Joan. So if I understand you correctly, you know that the rights to animals the rights to inanimate. INANIMATE things like Lubers The recent those exist is because of its effects on humans and can see video a clear link in the future we would see a very clear link between a algorithms and robots ended affects on human. So this is not me You know each not fantasy in the sense that yeah, robots should have rights, but rather it's a more conceptual question. Any fraud did not have rights each going to cabin negative I I think that's absolutely true. I mean just to highlight that if you like this firm called Boston Dynamics that produces. Robots and they produced these videos of these. Now, these robots are resistant being pushed over and things like that, and it was quite interesting because a lot of people say all you can't treat them in this way. This is awful and so what I mean that that's the answer for more fighting to to the extreme extent. But it I think you know on the basis what you're saying, you know how we Oakland. Hold human beings accountable to each other in an increasingly complex world machines have become part of that. We can't just have them all sitting on the edge as though they're not part of who we are, what we are and how we do things. Right. So. Incursion Johnny fuel sort of look forward five years. At. The intersection of law and technology. But you think people see sort of the biggest. I. Think you'll see it two wins. On the you know for the individual The individual, you're going to see a lot of them just interacting. With artificial Tennessee, say lost questions about what my rights for this how do I deal with a tendency agreement? How do I complain against a producer company or something like that or that's going to be automated? is fairly straightforward to do and and it will only need A. Minimal. Amount of human inside of. An intervention if you like. At the other end at the. In I think we're GONNA see more and more technology coming in because as those basic functions that are. Being, carried out by junior people or or paralegals or things like that are the ones which are going to be increasing, automating creasing. I'm. We will replace the humans and just let machines do that because there's no point in wasting human resources on that whether that means we need fuel or more lawyers That's an open question I think it will that we need different kinds of lawyers We will need Roy Moore to logically aware much more sophisticated. They don't it's be programmers or odors or anything like that, but they need to have a quite a a a a strong understanding and gross what's going on in technology in that way if you like so. Yeah. We can definitely see an. Yeah, so I, think you mentioned the so from a structure perspective in all forum DC law firm sprucing to word. It a group of equity partners. Around it by machine so to speak well, I. Think. I was in that paper or another one I. I'm S-. Forecast. Law. Firms. Being. Distributed decentralized we'll tournaments organizations running on a blockchain with with the various people. into setting when they will no I. Think the law firm is still a very strong and powerful is Shutian, that's not gonNA disappear straight away. But certainly the numbers of partners who control things will shrink. They'll that will get smarter as proportion and yes, they will be surrounded by machines and they surrounded by people who are servicing those machines. Your excellent. Yeah. Thanks for doing this weekend. John really enjoyed the conversation. Thank you very much. It's been great fun and very
International Panel Warns Us to Tap the Brakes on Gene Editing, but That Wont Stop Us
"Disasters are mostly by definition unavoidable, but we can often take basic steps to mitigate the damage such as not building in flood zones are on top of major faultlines mitigating manmade disasters. Hand is almost entirely avoidable, but quite often we don't because we're victims of our own ideologies and collective pride. For example, last week a panel of genetics experts issued a direct and stark warning against editing genes of human embryos that are destined for implantation. The panel, which consists of experts from ten different countries was jointly convened by the US National Academy of Medicine the US National Academy of Sciences and the UK Royal Society. The present state of gene editing said, the panel's report is simply too risky for both individual embryos and the human race as a whole while technologies such as Christopher are fairly precise and targeting and editing certain genes. They wrote recent ventures have demonstrated that fairly precise isn't. Good enough for instance, when researchers at the Francis Crick Institute in London US crisper recently to edit eighteen human embryos in order to study the role of a particular gene in the early stages of human development about a half of those embryos contain what they called quote major unintended at it. Now, that phrase is a euphemism for harmful mutations and genetic damage, the kind that could lead. To birth defects and even life threatening medical problems like cancer and not to mention could permanently enter the gene pool to other studies were also cited in the same report and one researchers attempted to correct gene mutation that causes blindness in the other the attempt was to prevent certain heart defects. However, researchers found that in both experiments, a significant percentage of the treated embryos suffered chromosomal damage one. Genetics expert described these failures this way if human embryo editing for reproductive purposes, germline editing were spaceflight. This new data would be the equivalent of having the rocket exploded at the launch pad before takeoff. Still once again, this new report focus only on the technical failures of gene editing. Once again, any discussion or even any acknowledgement of the many ethical questions inherent to this very idea of. Gene editing were completely avoided. So now and what's become far too typical of the scientific culture of our age in which philosophy ethics are completely divorced from technology and science research proceeds with an ethical framework of utilitarianism built on a philosophy of scientism or to put it more. Simply gene editing will continue because you know scientists are only real hope to solve problems and if we can do. Something we should, and so even though this panel admits that it could be years before the technical difficulties of gene editing are ironed out experiments will continue and should continue though quote initially limited to serious genetic disorders that are caused by DNA variants and a single gene and should be used quote on when the alternatives for having a biologically related child that is unaffected by the genetic. Disorder are poor. Look Scientific. hubris is indeed a very tough train to stop certainly an international panel of experts admitting that gene editing dangerous and unnecessary but we should proceed anyway as long as it's with caution that's not going to stop any eager scientists around the world, much less the governments and corporations who are funding them. Now, the sincere desire to eradicate dangerous diseases including genetic diseases understandable. It's even noble. The longing to heal is just a reflection of God's image in US ethically sound and medically safe treatment should always be pursued but we should never proceed without a full awareness of the human temptation to become like God is genesis three puts it determining good and evil after all couples are already genetically screening donor sperm to create designer babies and governments like China have. Already. Demonstrated their willingness to experiment on entire ethnic groups we are a world and too often h church that proceeds with the most invasive and inhumane technologies without adequate or in some cases any serious ethical reflection now, there is still time to prevent the potential manmade catastrophe of gene editing time itself however won't be enough unless we have the will to say,
How Do Squirrels Organize Their Nuts?
"If you've ever watched squirrels going about their squirrel business, you may have wondered whether there's any method to their for lack of a better term not madness. It turns out there very well may be. Brain steps Christian Sager here despite how common North American tree squirrels are in many cities, neighborhoods, outdoor spaces. A big misconception exists about these little critters tree squirrels store their food tree fruit like acorns in their nests or dense to snack on all winter. Here's the thing they actually don't do that I. It's to know that both the eastern gray and eastern. Fox. Squirrels Dine on a varying menu of seeds, nuts, acorns, tree buds, berries, leaves, parts of Pine Cones, and other food some of us well, we don't like to think. About like bird eggs and nestlings and as well you know they'll have the occasional slice of found pizza. Some of that stuff they eat right away the rest they take to the nest or den for later. But when winter approaches squirrels faced with a challenge, they know instinctively that food sources will soon be scarce. So they gather all the food they'll need while also keeping themselves fed day today. That's why they're so busy in the fall when mother, nature has made sure that all the acorns have phone from the trees second. Gray and eastern. Fox squirrels are scatter hoarders, which means pretty much what it sounds like they hoard their food and then scatter it in locations where they can easily access it. That's usually close to the tree holding their nest or den, but they often expand into areas of seven acres or two point eight hectacres in rather than leaving their goods above ground where other squirrels can steal them, they bury them and this is called cashing about an inch maybe two point five centimeters under the soil and squirrels are known to crack open a nut before burying it so they can. Keep it from germinating when it comes time to eat they forage for the nuts they buried while squirrels possess a strong sense of smell which allows them to sniff out nuts from under a blanket of dirt researchers have long noticed evidence of strategic intelligence in the placement of their food. For instance, one study in two thousand eight reported that eastern gray squirrels engage in what's called deceptive cashing. They dig a hole pretend to throw the acorn in while they hold it in their mouth then it cover up the empty hole and run off to another secret stash place and they do. This it was suggested to fool other squirrels who might be watching them, but a new study from professors in the Department of Psychology at the University of California Berkeley and published in the September issue of the Journal. Royal Society of Open Science claims that tree squirrels use a pneumonic technique called spatial chunking to sort out and bury their nut scores by size type and perhaps nutritional value and taste. Now, when they're hungry later it's theorized they can remember where to find what they want in other words. The squirrels put specific nuts in similar places to help them remember what nuts were. Wear I e almonds were placed in one general area hazelnuts and another and I guess pizza would go and a third area. This pneumonic strategy has also been seen in rats. The finding researchers writing the studies show that a scatter hoarder could employ spatial chunking during cash distribution as cognitive strategy to decrease memory load and hence increase accuracy of retrieval squirrels have got a lot to think about in other words they need all the memory tricks they can get. So the next time you see a squirrel digging up not know that she might have just found the exact one she was.
Can people ID infectious disease by cough and sneeze sounds?
"This is scientific Americans. Sixty seconds science I'm Karen Hopkins. The supermarket trying to choose a right tomato when behind you, you hear. If you're like most people, you probably hold your breath. Tighten your mask an hope. You don't catch whatever patient zero is spraying all over the fresh produce, and if you're like most people chances are you're overreacting? Because a new study shows that we're not very skilled when it comes to diagnosing infectiousness based on the sound of a cough or sneeze. The work is in the proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences. Previous studies have shown that folks can tell when someone's sick based on how they look, or in some cases how they smell, so it's only natural to wonder whether the same would hold true for an assessment with our ears, so researchers asked volunteers to listen to audio clips of people, hacking and sneezing half of the cost and sneezes were produced by people with an infectious illness like flu or the common cold in. In half were produced by benign causes like eating too much cinnamon, all at once or sticking q tip of their noses Nicholas lack a Grad student in social psychology at the University of Michigan. We clipped these sounds from youtube videos in which people told their audience that they were sick. Many reported having been diagnosed by medical professional. All this said we could not directly confirm whether people in our sound clips were infectious. Infectious or not, and what he found across four studies of over six hundred participants in total on average people guest, four out of ten sounds correctly, which is consistent with random guessing in other words, they weren't very good at judging whether the sounds were infected, but being bad judges didn't dampen their confidence when asked how sure they were about their guesses on a scale of one to nine participants reported an average certainty. Certainty of seven, interestingly, we didn't find any evidence that people who were more certain about their guesses were any more or less likely to guess correctly, so what made them so sure that certain sounds warped sure signs of disease well, the cities they figured made noises that seemed the most gross, the more disgusting. They perceived a sound, the more likely they were to judge it infectious, even if the sound wasn't infectious, so. Might be deemed more contagious than. Depending on your own personal nasty ometer, all that's to say even if it seems like you can tell whether a cough or sneeze is infectious based on how disgusting it sound that feeling has the potential to mislead you in other words. You can't judge a book by its cover.
Sign Languages Display Distinct Ancestries
"More than one hundred forty sign languages. These are used today primarily by deaf communities around the world like spoken languages each sign language has its own grammar vocabulary and other special official features for example American sign language and British sign. Language are mutually unintelligible. In fact American sign language has more in common common with French sign language largely because French. Educators were instrumental in helping get deaf schools established in the United States during the nineteenth century. But while the lineages in development of spoken languages are well studied to haven't been a lot of large scale comparisons of sign languages the University of Texas Austin Linguist Justin Power. He and his colleagues aim to address that information gap. In order to study the question of sign language solution we I assembled a database of manual alphabets from dozens of different sign. Languages around the world so a manual alphabet is sort of a subsystem system within a sign language that is used to represent a written language so there's a hand shaped corresponds to each letter powers team chose to study manual alphabets because a record of them exists going back. To the late sixteenth century in Europe to uncover relationships between the alphabets the researchers use the same methods the US to trace relationships between different species based on their DNA. The methods grouped sign languages in this study into five main European lineages and those were Austrian origin British origin French origin Spanish and Swedish power says manual alphabets from Austria. France and Spain could be traced back to one handed manual alphabets from sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Spain. But each of those lineages evolved independently Hendley of each other and the British lineage which uses a two handed manual alphabet eventually made it to Australia New Zealand and India the study we also confirmed the French origins of American sign language and those of other countries including Mexico Brazil and the Netherlands. Surprisingly the Austrian strean manual alphabet influenced sign languages as far away as Russia. But wow this lineage has largely died out remnants of it live on Icelandic excite language. Today the study is in the journal Royal Society Open Science Power Says Future Research comparing the vocabularies of different sign. Languages could provide even more clues about how they've changed over time understanding how languages evolve would tell us a lot about the way that language in general evolves.
What Makes Champagne Champagne?
"Champagne is a celebratory drink. Effervescent drink toast whip but sparkling wine was once the scourge of winemakers the famous. I don't Perignon was actually hired by a French. Winemaker to prevent wine from bubbling. So how did we get here. And what makes Champagne Champagne. Champagne is a type of sparkling wine produced in the Champagne region of France under particular circumstances. But okay hold up. What's a sparkling wine. When does it contain glitter. No it's a wine. That's carbonated meaning. It contains dissolved carbon dioxide gas which bubbles out of the liquid. Unless it's kept under pressure. Her that's why you might burp when you drink. Bubbly or beer or soda. Your stomach is pressurized. Not Pressurized enough to keep the carbon dioxide dissolved so it escapes as the gas other sparkling wines. Shouldn't technically be called Champagne and in some countries legally they cannot be called champagne though. That's really for labeling. Being in marketing folks not for dinner conversations and the Champagne region takes this seriously because it's their livelihood so what makes a real champagne a lot a lot of things. Actually it's all out in the Appalachian Region Control Regulations. And I apologize for my French. It's a set of rules created by the French French National Institute of Origin in quality which is a regulatory group in France. Meant to control the quality and branding of agricultural products like cheeses and wines for champagne to be labeled champagne. It must be produced from the growing of grapes to the processing of the wine in Champagne region and from one or a blend end of three main grape varieties chardonnay pinot noir and Pinot Mugabe. There are all kinds of rules about how you handle the grapes. How they can be planted in pruned? How much fruit can be produced her. Hector how much juice can be obtained from the fruit by weight and how it can be fermented and stored. The process of making. The wine is called the been told whole champenoise or traditional or classic. I you produce bottles of still wine. That have undergone a primary from tation that means that you take grape juice called must in the industry and add sugar and yeast to it. East of course is a microscopic organisms that among other things eats glucose and excretes carbon dioxide. And ethanol all the carbon dioxide is released from the liquid is a gas and ethanol is the alcohol in the finished wine when Ph level hits a certain point on the acid end of the scale scale. You strain out the yeast and bottle wine. So how'd you get the bubbles that's done by creating a secondary fermentation inside each bottle by adding an in a bit more yeast and sugar whereas the carbon dioxide was a byproduct primary fermentation. It's the whole point of the secondary fermentation to keep in the bottles. You seal them tightly with crown caps. The kind that beer is sealed with when the winemaker thinks it's good sparkling after a couple of months at least the caps are removed and spent yeast called. The lease is taken out in a process called riddling. Each bottle is then topped off with a bit more still wine and usually a bit more sugar to taste this. This edition is called the dosage then hefty corks are inserted and backed up by a wire cage cap hold in the now highly pressurized contents champions run about about five to seven atmospheres inside the Bottle Aka five to seven times the pressure that we experience just hanging out around sea level so being inside the bottle would be like diving fifty eighty to seventy meters underwater about one hundred sixty two two hundred and thirty feet which is deep. It's also about the same pressure as as a semi truck tire. The final product must just then be aged for at least fifteen months for a typical blended champagne or at least three years for a single vintage champagne and must have a minimum alcohol content but the very first sparkling wines probably didn't happen in the Champagne region and we're very probably accidents of unintentional secondary fermentation the first historical Oracle record a sparkling wines. Being made on purpose was in sixteen sixty two when an English scientist named Christopher Merit present a paper to the Royal Society about how Sun Wind Humans Simmons the time we're adding sugar molasses finished wine barrels to create a second fermentation and thus bubbles ciders. Were very popular in England at the time. And that's how they we're made with this wind curiosity before then sparkling wine was an accident and a dangerous accident. Legend and or history has it that the monk Dom Perignon was assigned to stop this live in the job the devils wine the temperatures in the champagne region get cold enough early enough that seller Lord. Bottled wine would stop fermenting in winter before the yeast was done. Doing its thing. And then when the weather warmed up in the spring the bottles would undergo a second fermentation Asian dramatically raising the pressure inside the bottles and making them go fizzy and then making them explode and this was actually a weird and huge and scary problem. It was common to lose four to ten percent of a seller due to bursting and bad warm friends could lead to thirty to forty percent of your bottles breaking or entire tire sellers could be lost. A single bottle going off could start a chain reaction around the seller. Workers had to wear heavy iron masks padding for protection when they'd go down a couple of technological innovations sorted this problem out glass quality and let's glass quality. The British worked out how to make glass was super hot whole fueled furnaces by sixteen twenty-three traditionally charcoal had been these safer and cooler fuel of choice but it was commonly produced from oak trees trees at the time and King James the First Navy needed oak for its ships the higher temperatures and cosmetic but useful additions of iron and manganese to the glass made the bottles. Charles much stronger. This led to that boost in the popularity of sparkling ciders and merits observance of on purpose sparkling wines by sixteen sixty to the wire cap that hooks under the bottles lipid secures. The Cork wouldn't come along until eighteen. Forty four until then. corks were held in with tied string to varying effect the invention of the riddling process in the early eighteen hundreds by the cliquot champagne house also made sparkling wines quicker easier and thus less expensive to produce as for why we toast with it. That's a little trickier but it has to do with war. Because of the Champagne region location it seen a lot of battles in. Its time the tradition of French kings being coordinated in the Champagne region started after a battle there in the fifth century. C E end. The tradition of celebrating champagnes wines grew from there alongside the science audience. That made the drink
What's the Science Behind Applause?
"The TV plus different. They have the ability to Jason. He plotted to start watching now. Subscription required hurt them to bring stuff production of iheartradio brain stuff. Lauren Bogle bomb here audiences around the world break out in applause at the conclusion of a stage. Play or a musical concert or when they're favored presidential candidates. Step to the podium. Humans have been applauding and approval approval. Since ancient times the customers mentioned in the Old Testament which depicts the Israelites. Clapping their hands and shouting God. Save the king for a young heir to the throne. But how does a group of people start applauding and what determines how many other people join and how long the accolades last. Those aren't easy questions to answer sir. Applause isn't a subject. Researchers have studied extensively and there seemed to be only a handful pardon the pun of studies in the scientific literature as is a paper from two thousand and three explains one theory. Is that audience. Applause is triggered by a few individuals who have a lower threshold of embarrassment than the rest of the crowd. These brave enthusiasts clapping lowers. The embarrassment cost for others but whether they actually join in the researchers concluded had to do with whether the performance instead witnessed crossed a threshold for impressiveness. That is whether the massive people was sufficiently pleased by what they'd seen heard. They found the People's liking for performance correlated to how long the audience kept clapping as the effort of clapping began to exceed their enthusiasm. Some individuals stopped clapping. Raising the embarrassment embarrassment cost for the remainder and giving them an incentive to stop the researchers also found that large audiences tended to applaud more predictably than smaller groups loops. We spoke by email with paper. Co Author Gary Lukin and associate professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin Madison. He said imagine that five percent of people applauded everything. A smaller audience has a larger probability of not having any such person that would be a tough crowd as an audience grows larger. The probability converges to five percent in other words to larger audiences are more likely to behave more similarly to one another than to small audiences for the same reason that if you flip a coin one hundred times you're more likely to get closer to half heads and tails and if you flip a coin. Ten Times more recently a study published in two thousand thirteen in the Journal of the Royal Society Details University of Leeds Mathematician Richard Pieman colleagues filmed groups of between thirteen to twenty college. Students watching or presentations. They found that there was relatively little connection between how much people liked what they saw. And the duration of their ovation instead they discovered that applause was a sort of social contagion that started with a single person in the audience who typically begin clapping about two point one seconds after after the speaker finished the clothing din spread rapidly through the groups over the next two point nine three seconds at five point five six seconds the I applaud typically stopped and by two point six seconds later on average. The rest of the audience was no longer putting their hands together as well. The researchers also came to another surprising conclusion. It wasn't physical proximity to another person. Clapping that triggered applause. Instead as man explained a National Public Radio interview it was the loudness. Nisa the applause. The got audience members join in. He said as soon as people can hear that other people in the audience are clapping. They begin to clap themselves so often. When you are feeling social pressure from audience members you couldn't directly see as you've probably noticed long ovation's tend to vary in the speed of clapping and go up and down down in loudness and at times. The audience may seem to be clapping in unison. In a study published in the journal Nature in the year two thousand Romanian researchers recorded applause from theater and opera performances by placing a microphone on the ceiling of the hall. They discovered the people who are plotting often started out clapping rapidly and chaotically but after a few seconds their class began to slow and synchronize into a distinctive rhythm which added to the intensity of the noise the urge to synchronize the claps they noted had seemed quote to reflect the desire of the audience to express Buddhism by increasing the average noise intensity paradoxically though ask people strive to make an even louder ovation to show their enthusiasm. They begin to clap more rapidly. That tends to disperse their clapping and destroy the cumulative synchronization. It's only when they slow their collapse. The applause becomes thunderous again. Today's episode it was written by Patrick j tiger and produced Tyler Clang. Breen stuff is the production of iheartradio's how stuff works for more on this and lots of applause worthy topics we hope. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com and for more podcast for my heart radio. visit the iheartradio. APP Apple podcasts. Or wherever you listen to your favorite shows how do our food stories change change during wartime Johnny strick Private First Class. Our veterans share where they fought who they said they ain't and what they missed. The move had powdered the next and I hated those politics. My name is Jacqueline. Were Pozzo and I welcome you to service. Stories of hunger. War A new iheartradio. PODCAST aguing Veterans Day. I November eleventh on the Iheartradio APP and everywhere. You find your favorite podcasts restore. That's the first thing we did join us.
Crystal Clear About Glass
"Now. We don't usually think of glass as being particularly tough in fact our opinion is usually that it's the opposite fragile but can we make our glass tougher and can we ever make it bulletproof and if so how would James Perry from the University of Cambridge looks at this kind of science and he's here to help us out James. Welcome to the program first of all why why is glass week in the first place I take a piece of glass and a lot something at it like a stone or something because Masher window why so turns out that the theoretical maximum awesome strength of class. If you decide exactly where you were putting all of those atoms of Silica oxygen is about a thousand times stronger than actual an actual lump of have class brittle materials glasses a prime example of this their defamation and failure up largely driven by floors and projections particularly cracks so as you call a material down it shrinks so few when you according you'll class at drinks down and the surface of it looks a little bit like a dried a pond with cracks all over the place so cracks are particularly problematic contention or if you bend him tools if you take a place of glass and you start bended ended the outer edges intention and the energies in compression the outer edge as you pull it a lot of this force in order the stress gets concentrated traded at the very tip of those little cracks so all of that force is concentrated on just one atomic bond which eventually will pop open the much lower stress than it would take to expand onto like a zipper is almost going to propagate yet down into the material so once it gets started it is going to accelerate precisely and you you said something interesting because she said when it cools down you end up with outside coup is going to call a bit faster than the inside and that's. GonNa have the effect of making those pondering calls as you say because you'll you'll get the outside being relatively stretched etched on the inside squeezed a bit. Is there any way of intervening to to change that then so that we don't end up with the glass being vulnerable in that way yes very much so so if we go back to the sixteenth century there's a fun little thing that came across the Royal Society called Prince Rupert's drops so if you take a blob of hot molten glass and drop it in a pool of water it freezes and it turns into essentially a tadpole and that tadpole you can walk with a hammer on the head or you can even shoot shoot. Let Bill it at it and it won't do anything but if you just tweezers detail your fingers it will immediately shattered into a million tiny pieces why so skip forward a couple of years to the turn of the century and we realized that by cooling very rapidly we'd toughened glass now how we use high pressure air instead of water you cool the surface very rapidly in that cools and then the inner bit cools much more slowly but as it calls it also so reduces in volume and so it ends up pulling outside edges in leaving it in the middle intention and the outside and compression and that stops stops a lot of those little cracks of the surface opening up which means if you are then loading this toughened glass then it's got to overcome the compression that's already under and then the tension required before it will fail so why does nipping off the end break it this toughened glass that is used for things like shelves or anything else you might find in the house you don't want it to fall apart a smallest knock the problem is it will fail and will fail really quite catastrophically because as soon as you break break through the layer and manage to tweak the tensile bit in the middle it pins apart so the drop the tail is so thin that outside compressive suppliers incredibly fit and so you firing these cracks right the way through from the tie-up top so the same kind of thing happens with toughened glass in that when it smashes ashes it pulverizes into thousands of tiny little cubes usually which in some applications is really useful because you don't end up with big pointy shots what you end up with a pile of little like a windscreen does you. You don't want to impale the drive. The you won't little bits of glass brushoff precisely but that's not so useful if for example you want to be able to still keep that barrier intact after that initial impact in other words bulletproof glass because you you want the the glass so that it will not fail in that catastrophic way across your whole windscreen and somehow somehow also be there as defense against the next projector because otherwise you could kill someone by firing bullets to demolish the windscreen and it might fend off the first bullet but if the whole thing smashes to pieces you for the next one and it goes straight
Why Does America Use Fahrenheit Instead of Celsius?
"Today's episode is brought to you by the podcast food three sixty host mark murphy celebrity chef and run tour with help from his friends. The restaurant industry takes a three sixty. Look at the world food food history science and culture tuned into food three sixty with new episodes every friday could listen and subscribe on apple podcasts iheartradio app or wherever you get your podcasts look to brain stuff production of iheartradio brain stuff lauren boban here. If you're an american you've ever ever had a conversation with someone from another country about the weather. You've probably been a little confused when he or she said the afternoon. Temperature is a nice twenty one degrees to to you that might sound like a chilly winter day but to them. It's a pleasantly warm springtime temperature. That's because virtually every other country throughout the world uses the celsius temperature scale part of the metric system which denotes the temperature at which water freezes as zero degrees and the temperature at which boils as one hundred degrees but the u._s. u._s. And a few other holdouts the cayman islands the bahamas believes in palo clinging to the fahrenheit scale in which water freezes at thirty two degrees and boils at two hundred and twelve twelve that means that the twenty one degrees celsius temperature that we previously mentioned is the equivalent of a balmy seventy degrees fahrenheit in the united states. The persistence of fahrenheit is one of those puzzling american idiosyncrasies like how the u._s. uses the word soccer to describe what the rest of the planet calls football so why is it that the u._s. Us uses a different temperature scale and why doesn't it switch to be consistent with the rest of the world. There doesn't seem to be a logical answer except perhaps inertia americans generally. I don't really seem to distrust the metric system. A twenty fifteen poll found that just twenty one percent of the public favoured converting to metric measures while sixty four percent were opposed it might make more sense of fahrenheit was old school in celsius with some modern upstart a sort of the new coq of temperature but in reality they were created only about two decades apart part fahrenheit was created by its namesake. A german scientist named daniel gabriel fahrenheit who in the early seventeen hundreds was the first known person design alcohol and mercury thermometers that we're both precise and consistent so that any of his instruments would register the same temperature reading in a given place at a given moment thanks to his working skill in managing glass when fahrenheit started out the key thing he was interested in was coming up with the same temperature reading all the time not comparing temperatures of different things or different times of day but when he presented a paper on his system for measuring temperature to the royal society of london in seventeen twenty four he apparently realized that he had come up with the standard temperature scale as well. We spoke with don hilfiger a research meteorologist to colorado state university's cooperative institute for research in the atmosphere and and also president of the u._s. Metric association a group that advocates conversion to the metric system he explained basically the fahrenheit scale was devised a zero as the coldest oldest temperature for a mix of ice and salt water and the upper end was thought to be body temperature approximately ninety six degrees fahrenheit making a scale that could be progressively divided by two do this resulted in the freezing melting temperature being thirty two degrees fahrenheit not very useful number. The boiling temperature for water was then set at two twelve again not not a very useful number the temperature's one hundred and eighty degrees apart again a multiple of two nevertheless the system apparently sounded pretty good to officials officials of the british empire who adopted fahrenheit as their standard temperature scale which is how eventually became established in the american colonies. Well meanwhile though in seventeen forty forty two a swedish astronomer named anders celsius came up with a less unwieldy system based on multiples of ten in which there was precisely a one hundred degree difference between the freezing and boiling temperatures of water at sea level the neat one hundred degrees symmetry of the celsius scale made it a natural fit for the metric system which was formerly developed by the french in the late seventeen eighteen hundreds but the english speaking world nevertheless clung stubbornly to its preference for awkward units such as the pound in the inch and fahrenheit went along for the ride but finally in nineteen sixty one the u._k. Met office then called the u._k. Meteorological office switched teasing celsius to describe temperatures in weather forecasts in order to be consistent with other european countries. Most of the rest of the world soon followed suit with the notable exception of the u._s. Or the national weather service still publishes temperature data atta in fahrenheit. Even though its own staff long ago switched celsius hilter explained the n._w._s. Catering to the public by reporting in degrees fahrenheit whereas whereas much of their operations such as forecast models used degrees celsius and automated weather observations the temperatures recorded in celsius as well should we choose to metric chicken weather reports the fahrenheit layer. That's now added for the u._s. Public could be removed. We also spoke via email with jay hendrix who heads the u._s. National institute standards and technologies thermodynamic meteorology group he points out that the fahrenheit scale does have one significant advantage quote. It has more degrees over the range range of ambient temperatures that are typical for most people. This means that there's a finer grain temperature difference between seventy degrees fahrenheit and seventy one degrees fahrenheit then there is between twenty one degrees celsius twenty two degrees celsius since a human can tell the difference of one degree fahrenheit. This scale is more precise for the human experience on the other hand though the advantage goes away. If a fractional temperature in celsius used hendrix explained for example the equivalent celsius temperature for seventy and seventy ninety one fahrenheit are equivalent to twenty one point one and twenty one point seven degrees celsius. Today's episode was written by patrick j tiger and produced by tyler clang brainstorms production of iheartradio's. How stuff works for more on this and lots of other topics that humans are sensitive to visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com and from our podcast iheartradio visit the iheartradio app apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows they i would much rather story that you tell off. My daughter was beaten to death. I'm katherine townsend host of the true crime podcast helen one gone and i'm heading back to arkansas on a new case to find out what happened to janey ward on september ninth nineteen eighty nine when there's no justice done it hurts. A lot of people floors listened to hell and gone. That's h. E. l. l. and gone on apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or wherever you get your podcasts.
Male Black Widows Poach Rivals' Approaches
"This is scientific. Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Christopher Dodd Yata for male black widow spiders. Finding a mate is risky risky business. They have to go on an epic journey. Catherine Scott in Iraq knowledge EST at the University of Toronto. If the population she studies on Canada's Vancouver Hoover Island she says the spiders only twelve percent chance of surviving their scramble over sand dunes implants and they have very poor eyesight and their traveling at night so one way males find females is by sniffing from afar the fair Ramon perfume on their webs but Scott has now discovered an alternative way males find mates by subjecting the spiders to a race for each male before he started. We weighed him in on a tiny scale and we painted him with racing stripes and measured the length of his his legs. We had a finish line of fairmount omitting females and we released males at various distances from those females to see whether they arrived out of females. Weber not and how fast they got their what suppressor was at the males that started farthest nearly two hundred feet away actually traveled fastest towards females else and the reason they poached the pads of their rivals. WHO's been continuous. Soak drag lines as they move. These spiders are much more adept at walking and running on silk than they are on the ground so we realized that maybe the males that we released far away from the females were encountering. These silk highways left by rival males else and running along them. The details are in the proceedings of the Royal Society. B and follow up experiments in the lab confirmed that male black widows are indeed willing to risk a run in with a rival to win a chance to pass on their genes a chance that makes it worth traveling along the Silk Road. Thanks for listening for scientific American sixty seconds science. I'm Christopher Indonesia.
YouTube Star Emily Hartridge Dies at 35 in Electric Scooter Collision
"Following the recent death of a popular British youtuber concerns over the safety of electric scooters are being raised now that they've been zipping around dozens of cities in the US and Europe thanks to new scooter sharing programs anally Hartree to presented the online series ten reasons why was killed in the collision with a truck at a busy intersection on Friday police didn't name her but hard to his death was confirmed by you to and her boyfriend a spokesman for the Royal Society for the prevention of accidents as it was Britain's first death involving an E. scooter it is illegal in the UK to ride motorized scooters on roads or sidewalks but the law has been widely ignored London police said Monday that a teenager is now in critical condition after a separate the scooter
Backpack Harvests Energy As You Walk
"This is scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Christopher Dodd Yada when you walked with a backpack. You know how the stuff inside sways from side to side now. Scientists have figured out how to tap into that motion to generate electricity city. Here's how it works. Picture pendulum mounted to a backpack frame and stabilized with springs on either side. The packs weight is attached to the pendulum so the pendulum swings side to side as you walk gears then use that swinging motion to drive a generator and the generator spits out electrical current to charge a battery volunteers carried that pack while walking on a treadmill and they wore masks to measure the flow of oxygen and carbon dioxide walking with a slightly swaying twenty pound load device did not significantly affect volunteers. Here's metabolic rate compared to win. They carry the same weight fixed in place in fact the energy harvesting pack reduced the forces of acceleration they'd feel in a regular PAC which might mean greater comfort for a long hike and the device did produce a steady trickle of electricity the operative word being trickle because if you up the load to forty five pounds the passive motion of the pact could fully charge a Samsung Galaxy S. ten smartphone only after twelve hours on the trail. The details are in the journal Royal Society.
Wheat Plants "Sneeze" And Spread Disease
"This is scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Christopher Dodd Yata, humans can spread disease by sneezy, but less well known is the wheat plants ability to do something strangely, similar from its leaves basically analogous to humans me is in terms of you have very fast and sudden expulsion of droplets that contained the disease or pathogen inside of it. And they kind of thrown away from the surface Jonathan burrito. A mechanical engineer at Virginia Tech, he and his team were studying the ability of wheat plants to expel spores of a common pathogen the wheat rest fungus from their leaves via this unusual mechanism. So the inoculated we'd plants with the disease created do on the plants leaves, and then studied the ensuing action with high-speed microscopy. Here's what they saw the leaves are extremely hydrophobic meaning water beads up to minimize contact with the surface and win two or more jobs, touch energy gets released in the form. Of catapulting action, which sneezes the droplets into the air several millimeters above the leaf surface. The droplets can then be picked up by light breezes or simply fall and spread to other plants. The process is surprisingly effective, at launching spores. The researchers figure each leaf can launch a hundred spores per hour during a morning, do the results and photos of the jumping drops are in the journal of the Royal Society interface. Next break oh and his team want to see what happens if they spray stuff on the leaves the changes the way do forms for if we painted a wet ability of the lease, but they're no longer super hydrophobic now to do drop will be unable to jump when they grow. They sort of claim to the leaf surface and not be something anymore. Such treatment could perhaps put a stop to wheat sneezes and slow down the transmission of disease. Thanks for listening for scientific American sixty seconds science. I'm Christopher Don yada.
"royal society" Discussed on Science for the People
"Find that at first people actually couldn't replicate his findings like they tried and they couldn't see what he saw. And this is kind of amusing to me because of course in research now if you can't replicate somebody's findings. Well, you know, that's that's like bad news. But in fact, they did end up replicating. Why couldn't people see what he saw at first? His microscope was a little bit different. He was using it in a very specific way the way he was using it the way he was. The way he combined the lens that he had with manipulation of light seemed to be different than other people were doing we're left to guess a little bit because we we don't have detailed description of exactly what he was doing. And how it was different from what the other scientists were doing. But I think the other thing is that by the time that he he was sending his drawings and letters to the Royal Society he'd been looking through a microscope much more than probably all but a teeny handful of other people in the world. And so we he he probably also had an ability in his mind to to interpolate sort of gaps in what he was seeing. And so, you know, maybe you saw two edges of something in the middle was blurry. But he'd seen enough that he could sort of piece together the middle. And so what he was showing. The Royal Society. And what he was describing were drawings. The no way he suggested depicted a moment. But really there were kind of collective montages of what he'd seen over many moments in into maybe in that way. It was actually kind of impossible to see exactly what he described because it wasn't a single view. But now, of course, you know, thanks to him, and thanks to many many other people over a couple hundred years, we now know we are surrounded by bacteria, and what really fascinated me was that some of this bacteria is from places I would never expect. So for example, there are bacteria that are found only in hot springs and in our hot water heaters in our houses. Can you talk about these bacteria? How did they get there? Because most people most people's hot water heaters have probably never been on vacation to Yellowstone..
"royal society" Discussed on The Majority Report with Sam Seder
"All right, folks. We're gonna take quick break when we come back. We're gonna talk to Dr Jason Hickel. Author anthropologist and fellow at the Royal Society of arts who wrote a book in I think it was twenty seventeen twenty eighteen. On the divide a brief guide to global inequality. And it's Lucians. We'll be right back after this. We are back Sam cedar on the majority report on the phone. It is pleasure to welcome to the program. Dr Jason Hickel, an anthropologist, author fellow at the Royal Society of arts into author of the divide a brief guide to global inequality, and it's Lucians welcome to the program. Jason hickel. Okay. So let's start with when we talk about the divide. Give us a sense of what we're talking about internationally like who are what countries are what side of of of what ledger and what determines that? Okay. So in the books that I I use the global north and global south which are kind of better these days than than west in the restaurant for through third world..
"royal society" Discussed on Miss Information: A Trivia Podcast
"Intensity of Starlight with a tool other than the human eye, and he made observations of clip says and various astronaut objects and published catalogues of carefully determined magnitudes for some three hundred stars using his own photo metric system. Nice. Yeah. He's doing. All my gosh. All over the place celsius is the first to perform published careful experiments aiming at the definition of an international temperature scale on scientific grounds in his Swedish paper observations of to persistent degrees on thermometer. Sorry, I didn't write down the title and Swedish. I'm he reports on experiments to check that the freezing point is independent of latitude in atmospheric pressure. And he determined the dependence of the boiling of water with atmosphere pressure. He also give a rule for the termination of the boiling point, if the barometric pressure deviates from a certain standard pressure. So he now he's now he's into pressure. In altitude and latitude when my God, so many things so he proposed the celsius temperature skill in a paper to the Royal Society of sciences and Uppsala in his thermometer was calibrated with value of one hundred degrees for the freezing point of water and zero degrees for the boiling point. But in seventeen forty five year after celsius, Jeff the scale was reversed by Carl Lineas to facilitate more practical measurement, you might know. Carlina says the guy that came up with all of those like genus species names for all that. Celsius originally called his skill centigrade derived from the Latin for hundred steps for years, it was simply referred to as the Swedish thermometer, but all he was still alive in seventeen twenty five. He became secretary of the Royal Society of sciences and applaud and served at this post for the remainder of his life. He supported the formation of the Royal Swedish Academy of sciences in Stockholm in was elected, a member at the first meeting of that academy celsius also very active supporter for introducing the Gregorian calendar in Sweden. This means he wanted to drop eleven days and abandoned the Julian calendar, but that did not happen during his lifetime. It took until seventeen fifty three celsius passed away aged forty two and seventeen forty four from two regular sus. Oh man damn to rookie. It a lot though only twenty years. Holy cow. Yeah. Studied the Aurora Borealis. And he studied figuring out longitude lot Scherf. He studied pressure. The earth is not a round. Came up with this with this. You know scale for for measuring things is still in use today. It's amazing. He had any time to eat and sleep. I know maybe I spent too much time doing both. And maybe I could be successful as sir celsius himself. No reason episode of the good place. Michael says to them you humans. You're only sleeping in shoeing. Oh my God. That's so everything's Michael are two of my favorite things at the beginning of the day. When I wake up in the morning. I'm like, oh my God. I can't wait to go back to bed. Yeah. Yep. My bet is a specially comfortable now too. No, got mattress topper, and it's scented which I didn't know this. When I got it on the lavender. It was in my car for four days when I picked it up work. Oh my garden. Like, why does it smell like lavender in here? When I first unrolled it. It was very punch, and I was like this is gonna give me a hack, but it put me out so fast. So good, congratulations. Thank you. I'm very happy with my mattress topper anyway, temperature you're talking about temperature. I third guy. Yeah. For the Kelvin scale. This is William Thomson what he was the first baron. Kelvin..
"royal society" Discussed on The Emma Guns Show
"I've gotten on my Instagram Jews won her came on. This course, the creative art of paradise. And he said your Instagram feed is stuff that you like to see and he's fully the Royal Society of the protection of birds I fallen yes. Yes. Heritage. Yeah. He gets these pictures because you don't want to be triggered want to CBS. Yes. And it's it is a you know, what you gotta if if you put it in there if you put it in your feed, it's going to come up without your warning. And then all of a sudden you're going to feel bad without now. I'll tell you little secret. So like there's times when I'm feeling good feeling strong feeling like, hey, feeling good. And then I'll go look at those things just myself just to be like, you know, what I'm good. And and then I'll go look at that Nogo. Okay. That's good for you. But I got me. I'm good. Exactly. But I won't put it in there. So it can just frigging sneak attack Browns. Okay. How powerful you. Yeah. Yeah. Best power. Exactly. So. Yeah. I mean, I like my system Meghan. I are ridiculously rimless mega mega high. We look at puppies puppies. Oh god. She'll like tag me, and like a dog like, you know, like eating well dogs dogs eating gently. And it's like, they give them a cookie, and they just take it. And it's this giant pit bull. Eating this. Like you have. Yes, we have two pit bulls. The cutest must amazing creatures. But anyway, yeah. And those things right. That's Instagram should be for if I can't sleep. And I know that they say that you should never pick. If I mind now, but that's look in the morning. It's amazing how quickly forty five minutes. What people like make soup co. Russia and sand Donner's love that the other night. I been sent Kiel sent Christmas Gil. Oh, yeah. A little Christmas offerings vaguely looked today. I was busy that day. And I was like, oh, that's nice. It's like go to put relations go to bars. And I put it to one side. And then I woke up at three o'clock. I was looking at Kohl's video watching these could do it myself. Did he do sell curl? Doubts that so. Just destroy Meghan. Get us a bar. So. Oh my God. Maybe you should have heated up the thing maybe needed to. This is looking is getting. It's hilarious. When you see? It is. Well, and that's another thing that I think is very interesting that actually Instagram is a good thing. I look I'm not hating on Instagram. I am a social media girl. I love social media it is it integral to the business as well. Yes. It is very integral to the business. But also. That that people pleaser in me that that let me be here to make you feel good thing..
"royal society" Discussed on WIBC 93.1FM
"You about our special guest tonight. Then k Ramakrishnan is a senior scientists at the laboratory of molecular biology in Cambridge in the United Kingdom back in two thousand nine. He won the Nobel prize in chemistry with two other scientists for uncovering the structure of the ride home and in two thousand fifteen was elected to the prestigious post, president of the Royal Society of London here is with us on coast to coast hell old Erin. Congratulations on your Nobel prize in chemistry. That was quite an honor. Thank you. I've had a lot of luck in my life. I don't know if it was locked. But that were you interested in chemistry of when you were a young boy. A little bit. But you know, there's no about prize in chemistry is a bit of a misnomer because. Everything is chemistry at some level of involves molecules. And so they often give the chemistry prize of people who are actually working in molecular biology, and so after the prize, I actually joked that you know, I would probably flunk undergrad examined chemistry. But. They didn't have the right category. But at least you got it. What is the Nobel prize consistent, by the way? Well, they give you, you know, the whole prizes about a million dollars. But it's usually shared between two or three people. It's very rare to get it alone. And in my case, it was three people. So you get about a third of a million dollars. And then you you'll get a gold medal, and you get to have fun for about a week and Stockholm which I talk about in this book. It is quite an honor. Indeed. Were you surprised when you were warded the noble price? I was surprised at one thing. I point out in the book is you don't get the Nobel prize, you know, out of the blue you have you you sort of have an idea that you're in the running and one of the ways that, you know, about it is that the Swedes, and by to lots of meetings scientific conferences, and that sort of giving you a once-over and. You know, just to make sure that you're not a complete fool, and you know, they're not gonna make a big mistake and. At one of these meetings. I had a big argument with a Swedish scientist in my field. And after a banquet and. I found out later that this guy was on the Nobel committee for chemistry. So I thought you know, my chances were basically zero. But it just shows you the guy really had integrity. I mean, that's what I think gives a no ballots prestige is that the people on these committees really take their job their history and their tradition. Very seriously. So even though we might quibble about their choices. And so on nobody ever questions their integrity. And the you know, we hear a lot every day about DNA and the incredible properties of what it is. And the fact that in the future we're going to be able to tell people how long they're gonna live maybe by their DNA as well. How fast is science advancing in this area? Okay. I think that the technology of signs is answering amazingly partly because we can now sequenced genomes very fast. That is to say all of the DNA and in any individual what used to cost the first human genome cost. I think a billion dollars or something like that and took many years decades, actually and the, but now you can do it in very short time. You no matter of days, and you're not bringing the cost down to a few thousand dollars and the cost could go down to below a thousand dollars at that point. Everybody's DNA could be sequenced. And you would know exactly what your genetic makeup is. Now genetic makeup. It's just it's not even a blueprint. You have to think of it as a recipe, you know, blueprint means that, you know, if you follow the blueprint, you know, exactly what the product will be like a car or a house, but a recipe is more like a set of instructions you follow it. And you hope the cake turns out, right? Okay. And so I I would say DNA's closer to a recipe because we have instructions in our jeans on how to make us but instructions are not hundred percent precise that depend on our interactions with our environment and so on so you can take two identical twins, and if you treat them differently or if they had different nutrition different experiences, they they will be somewhat different. It's it's a staunching. How a like they'll be that's genetic part. But they will also be different. They won't be completely identical. So that's the real kicker in trying to predict things entirely from jeans, and then key will we one day cheat death by learning everything we can about DNA. I know that there are lots of California billionaires who love their Ferraris and their lives so much or they do that forever and their funding a lot of this research. But I think death all for reason. And so to answer your question. Currently it looks like the normal lifespan for human beings is about one hundred and thirty years that is if we beat all our diseases and everything else we might live to be a hundred thirty years or so can we live beyond that? Well, possibly because they're finding genes now in worms, fruit flies that if these genes are are different that mutated or changed the flies worms will live, you know, twice as long three times long, and they're not sickly, you know, for the extra time to actually frisky and healthy throughout their life span. So so it does exist. They've extended a normal life span, and you have to ask why do two different species, which are pretty similar have very different lifespans. This is often the case is true within Saxon sought. So so there is a possibility that we might be able to. Extend our lifespan. But the reason death at fault is to make way, you know, death is is related to sex in the the the reason for sexist to allow jeans to recombine into new combinations. And to give the next generation of fresh shot at life, and part of the bargain is that you know, we die and make room for the next generation. So you know, we have to philosophically look at death as part of life. That's my view. That's not the California billionaire view who wants to live forever. They do wanna live forever or being a cryogenic chamber and. Also things. Well, I don't have to tell you what California's like they're actually for two years now in LA in Saint Louis back and forth in how do you like London, by the way? I live in London about two days a week. I'm actually based in Cambridge. But I took on this. It's it's a part-time honorary job. But it's you know, obviously, a big honor its prestigious it really is. Yeah. Yeah. I mean, this is the same position that was held by people like Isaac Newton Rufford. And so on going back all over the years. So when they asked me, there's no way I could have said, no. And it's also it means I've become a kind of spokesperson for British signs. So it means I spent two days a week or or more in London. It's a bit more because the country is going through a kind of chaotic period because it's, you know, voted to leave the European Union has implications for signs. So it's taking more of my time. I thought but I'm based mostly in Cambridge. That's why I'm calling from did, you know, the late Stephen hawking? I knew him slightly. I mean, he was obviously a very distinguished fellow of the Royal Society. And and once ya. I've seen him at colleges. I was at an event a fundraising event for Cambridge university's eight hundred anniversary. A couple of years ago. But I I wouldn't say I knew okay, we are with van key around my Krishnan. His book is called gene machine. Let me read you the subtitle the race to decipher the secrets of the rider song. Explain if you could to those of us who weren't bleecker biologists. What is what is a Roberson? Okay. So, you know, everybody thinks they know what genes are, you know, we talk about good jeans baggy jeans, a factor. But if you probe a little further and ask someone what is what exactly is a gene that say, oh, well, I don't know. It's it's a sort of thing that makes us us. You know, what a gene is is. It's a stretch of DNA DNA contains all our genes too long stringy molecule wedding. We have twenty three of them and humans other other species have different numbers. So we have twenty three pieces of DNA each long piece of DNA contains thousands of stretches which contain bits of information. You can think of this information as a recipe for how to make a particular protein. Now when when the common person thinks a protein to think of something in that, you know that but to have protein, but actually proteins really make us who. Who we are. We can see because of pro teams we can touch because proteins are muscles made a protein. So we can move their proteins in our blood that carry oxygen from our lungs to our tissues when we get an infection. We make proteins called antibodies that fight off proteins. They're proteins at our stomach and intestines that digest our food. So you get the picture protein stupid thousands of things to carry out all of the reactions. They make us who we are. And every one of those proteins is made by decoding instructions in our jeans. That's one gene for each one of these proteins, and that's houses of them. And the way that these decoding is done is by large. What I would call a molecular machine, we call it a machine because uses energy and moves along the gene and reads the instructions. And stitches together the protein what a protein is itself. Another long chain of building blocks called amino acids and its stitches together, the amino acids and just the right order and the order specified by our genes. So you can think of it as a giant machine. That's reading a ticker tape which contains instructions and putting together a protein stitching together, a protein molecule now when this chain of protein is made it miraculously falls up into a particular shape. It's as it says. I wrote down a sentence on a strip of paper and based on what the letters in the sentence where strip of patriot paper paperwork automatically folded into particular, shape that miraculous. Okay. But that's what happens. So what does that machine? Well, that machine is called the Ribe assume, and it's a it's such an old machine. It goes back to before there were any genes or proteins goes back to a really ancient world where everything was made of a molecule called irony, which is very very much like DNA except. Irony can fold up into three dimensional structures. And so it can not only carry information like DNA, but can also carry out reactions like proteins. So before the DNA and protein irony is taught to have done nearly all of it. And and and that's how life was taught to have started. Let's take the intelligent design out of the equation. God, whatever you wanna call it. When you when you look at the design that we do have how in the world did all of this seemed to fit together to work because we need all these parts to to make it happen. The you know. Yes. Well, this is this is a classic conundrum that when you face when you're faced with a problem. You think it could never have evolved. You know? So Darwin, for example, talks about the I if you look at the I and all the components of the eye the retina of the land that seems to fit together, and you think how could this possibly involved. Well, you can it doesn't evolve in one step. You know, what happens is you get sales that are a little bit sensitive to light. And then, you know, those become more complex, and then you get, you know, another layer of cells that concentrate the light into the sounds that a sensitive. So you get the idea it's not like somebody suddenly assembles a bunch of parts to linked to make an airplane or something like that. What happens is things evolve in small small steps each one kind of improves the situation and eventually you get something very complex and it's the same with the Ribot zone. Today's Ribisi home is a million atoms consists of both are. Dan proteins, and it's this fancy decoding machine. But probably the I home didn't even have a code. There was nothing to code there were no proteins well know jeans around and so well, no protein genes anyway..
"royal society" Discussed on KSRO
"They have an online petition now in London, and it is to have the police open back up their animal mutilation investigation, and they already have nearly. Thirty thousand signatures having been up for only about two days, and you can anybody can go to change dot ORG metropolitan police Creighton cat Keller. That's where they are signing up signatures and another vet at grove lodge veterinary group is speaking out against the UK, please closing down there mutilation investigation because they said we have sadly had to examine a number of these animals, and we feel professionally that they have not been killed by FOX's or other wild animals. The wounds are very clean and clinical and consistent with human intervention, meaning like with an instrument like a scalpel and I have at earth files dot com. The reports that goes with this first half hour on coast tonight, the phone numbers, and the Facebooks and the Email connections to snarl and to the Royal Society for the prevention of. Cruelty to animals, they want to hear from people, and they are really trying to say people get on that petition to let the police know that they can't get away with floating headlines when behind the scenes, they know that it is as strange as this report to you all tonight. I mean, this could be alien, right? I personally think that it is related to an alien intelligence without question after forty years of investigating large animals and small animals in both hemispheres I've been all over and as far as sheriffs are concerned deputies are concerned CIA NSA DIA NRO whistleblowers, we're dealing with an alien intelligence that is extracting genetic material tissue fluid all over this planet whenever it was. But how do you prove it when the governments of the world are terrified in leading the human family know, this truth and keeping everybody in the dark doesn't change anything. Just like the police in London. Saying that something doesn't exist doesn't change. What it does? We would be better off and stronger as an entire planet. If we were just all told the truth. Something we may never find that we need people like you to dig for the truth. That's probably the only way we're going to get answers. Well, I'm gonna keep God as long as I can't don't give up Linda's website earth files at earth files dot com up next the very terrifying story when you hear Linda get into it of the closure of the national solar observatory in New Mexico. What happened there what was it Linda went to investigate? And she uncovered some things that may shock some of you may shock the rest of you. And we'll get it. When we come back in a moment on coast to coast AM. Also, don't forget to like us on Facebook. Follow us on Twitter, Email me at Georgia coast to coast, AM dot com. Eddie time you want to steal. Join the coast to coast AM Facebook page with thousands of members. It's great.
"royal society" Discussed on KQED Radio
"So I guess the depressing conclusion might. Reach from hearing you speak is that ideology Trump's rationalism I think that we are seeing some evidence for. That in this, study but I don't think that that has to be the, final answer I think that policymakers communicators need to start paying attention to some of these cues that deepen cultural polarization so for example telling the other side that their scientifically, inept probably about idea probably not the best way to continue people coming together on what. The, basic science really does say. Or coming up only with solutions that are in Taganrog to one side and you know it if. You're listening to them? That those are just tag mystic solutions again probably not the best? Idea it's the sign or signal that we're not listening, maybe as well to beliefs on the other side Dan con agrees that whatever the solution none of us are able, to go it alone what's. Clear is that our ability to acquire knowledge is linked up with our, ability to figure out whom to trust about what ordinary people have. To do that and making sense of the kinds of challenges that they face but the amount that we. Know far exceeds, be mad to any one of us is able to establish, through our own efforts maybe know that the motto for the Royal Society in verba which means don't take anybody's word for it and it's kind of admirable and charming but. Obviously false not very practical is it can't be right I mean what would I do. I, would say don't tell me. What Newton said in the I'm going to try to figure out how gravity works on my own And speaking of Isaac Newton remember.
"royal society" Discussed on BBC Inside Science
"Especially in a world where. Prizes and millions of pants might be involved. And the final two authors Hannah fry in mountain dominate both from UCLA both very familiar to the radio for audiences. They present various programs. Well, I simply loved marks book. He gets on a plane in London, and he travels to San Francisco and he describes all liquids. He meets along the way and why they're important is really clever conceit. I think to use the plane journey in this way mock one, the Royal Society book prize a couple of years ago with his first book which is on solids, and this one is about liquid. I presume monkeys writing a to complete the trilogy with something about gas. Finally, Hannah fry well-known radio four audience. Oh yes. This is also a fascinating book. It's about algorithms and this is highly topical, I think, and it's a really engaging read about what they mean for us. So you know, an algorithm is essentially a recipe these days. It's usually taken to mean mathematical equations telling a computer what to do, and I think. The really interesting thing about this book is the way that she brings into it all the things we need to think about since our world is changing as a consequence of these algorithms and the final judging we have the shortlist now you all the chairs, the judges. When is the decision actually taken. We have a date for that meeting, but I've forgotten it. So I can't help you with still reading the books very carefully. And there is your summer reading too, as mentioned. We're interviewing all the authors over the next few weeks. In the run-up to the final announcement, the winner which is on the first of October, Dan Davis first up next week with the peaceful. Finally, today it's still a heat wave outside spare a thought for physicist Jalan Cherokee and forty colleagues who are now aboard the Odin Swedish icebreaker and scientific research vessel that set sail earlier this week. They are on route to spend a month anchored to Arctic sea ice to get there. They headed. I was foul balls and then a stop off in Greenland into the Arctic circle. All over the North Pole and then onto the ice on the Canadian side. The project is called Maka which stands for micro biology ocean cloud coupling in the high Arctic nice, Helen is going to be sending us diary entries from the trip, looking the science and life aboard and onto your search vessel. But before she finished packing earlier this week, there is a loss of packing to do. She pops into the studio to tell us what the mission is all about. Drift with the is John quakes sized about because I love the story of the Fram bonkers expedition where free of nonsense celluloid. Well, if it's difficult to get the North Pole, maybe we'll just freeze all cells into the ice and wait for three years a maybe we'll cross over the top and he wasn't far wrong. So we're being slightly more scientific. We know bit more than heated, but fundamentally we will. It'll take a week to to get over the top of the pole..
"royal society" Discussed on BBC Inside Science
"What is the role of the media in all this? What we have to do better. Firstly, actually asking women to comment on research which does the symphonic tastic drives, for example, five hundred women scientists is now a register where you can go on and you can find your women women expert. And I think five hundred women scientists is such a great example. So they set it up from America thinking overnight that get maybe five hundred women to sign up and they got twenty thousand for the world. Like that's ridiculous. That's how many women want to Komen. In the meteor and be invited to events like that. Just fills me with so much excitement, just wait. And before her Emma Chapman, there's links to five hundred women scientists and other stuff from today's program on the website, you can Email us BBC inside science at BBC, dot co dot u. k. Now it's August, and you may well be off on your holidays and therefore rooting around for a book to stimulate your mind and also a rollicking good read look no further today. The short list of the most prestigious of literary prizes for the sciences was announced the Royal Society insight, investment science book prize. This is the thirty first prize. Previous winners are who's who in truly great science writing Steve Jones guy, Vince Bill Bryson, Stephen hawking, Andrea wolf. The list goes on and on this year's shortlist is a doozy to Francis Ashcroft professor of physiology. Oxford is the chair of the judges, and she is here to tell us about the books the judges have selected from. So in order of author surname. The first is inventing ourselves. The secret life of the teenage.
"royal society" Discussed on BBC Inside Science
"And so most of the heat that we have to deal with on Pokka solar probe is actually from the the light itself from the photons coming from the sun. So we build a big heat shield that sits out in front of the space craft. It's about two point, three meters in diameter, roughly circular, and it has a whiter them white coating like an alumina that is plasma sprayed on, and that actually reflects an awful lot of the light of the sun tricky engineering challenges that you're trying to deal with it. What are the scientific questions that you're asking? What are, what are you as you looking at near the surface of the sun by flying so close, they mystery is the corona that hazy atmosphere that you see is that she three hundred times hotter than the surface of the sun. And so that kind of doesn't make sense. You know the the sun is a heat source, and yet you jump a little bit. Away from it. And suddenly you get three hundred times halter and said that is a mystery as what causes this material to get so heated. The second one is in the region where we see this incredible heating. We also see the plasma or the coronal material get very, very accelerated. And so it moves away from the sun at supersonic speeds, and it's expands out throughout our entire solar system. And so you know what is causing this heating, what is causing this acceleration? So you know, why is the solar wind as we call it? Was it born? Why is it created? Why is this atmosphere streaming away? And so that's why it's so important for us to get into this region an overall from the sort of broader perspective, what is studying the sun at this sort of resolution this productivity? Was it tell us about the solar Suman and earth? You know, learning about this star in our backyard. If you like, we can go up and we can really learn how Alice style works, and then we can actually apply that to other stars in other solar systems. But. More down to earth. Everything we do is based on on technology and when the sun has these really big storms, it can actually have very adverse effects on our power grids on our pipelines on a spacecraft. They old very much affected by these big events that come from the sun. We do very well at taking our observations and saying, okay, we've seen this and therefore we expect it to do this and hit the earth at a certain time. But I'll models if you take the set of sun earth system muddles right now a lacking the physics of what's going on in this coronal region. And so by completing the Parker solar probe mission will be able to put into these models, the actual physics that is driving the solar wind. And so we'll make transformational changes in our ability to predict when we see something on the sun, what the impact on the earth will be. And when when did you think you're going to get data back when when when do we expect the first days of package? We should get some data back the beginning of December, so very quickly. So you know, we'll we'll do office fly by and then pretty soon after that we'll be able to send some day to down, not not all of it because it's not a great aspect angle, but definitely some Nikki FOX speaking to us from Cape Canaveral in Florida. Parka goes up opening while on the eleventh of August ad Astra hot stuff. Now, alongside the groundbreaking research in the science behind the headlines. One of the things that we do on inside science is to talk about the culture of science, how it works, how it's funded who scientists actually are and subject we return to often is diversity in the lab. Physicist, Jess Wade has been chipping away at this issue. Most recently in a heroic project to write up a Wikipedia entry for scientists who was also woman every day for the lost two hundred seventy days and counting. Emma Chapman is an astrophysicist and last month won the prestigious Royal Society Athena prize for her work and driving policy changes about sexual harassment at universal. Ladies. There's a measurable attrition rate of women as they progress through scientific careers, and they asked Jess, while the scale of the problem is the fate of physics..
"royal society" Discussed on KSRO
"Or link from the coast websites and welcome back to coast to coast matt ridley back with us who was on five years ago with our friend you in cash was a long time ago met writes a weekly column in the times he writes regularly for the wall street journal as well he is a fellow of the royal society of literature and the academy of medical sciences and he's an honorary president of the international center for life in newcastle and a noted author and we're talking about his new work called the evolution of everything how new ideas emerge fascinating subject matt and welcome back to the program thanks for having me it's great to be back on the program i can't believe five years have gone by so quickly well me too actually because that was when my last book came out which was called the rational optimist it it it feels just like yesterday i am amazed matt at how just things develop how people conceive of something whether it's amazon or google now the tesla car all these new emerging technologies with somebody who's got a better idea the folks who came up with facebook for example i mean it's it is fascinating to watch these new ideas emerge it really is yes and there's a wonderfully on directed elementary it just it's sort of the images the right would they they come they come from the way people interact and they and they sort of the something inevitable about something incremental an inexorable and that's what i mean by eva lucien they also come about because people combine different technologies to produce new technologies you know that most of the technology we have combinations of other things sorta sorts of evolutionary aspect tool this descent with modification gradual incremental change that i think is really interesting and that actually makes tends to end up we ended up giving it a little too much credit for the people who end up top of the tree in these in these new ideas who who get all the credit for it in fact it's kind of everybody who's producing these new ideas are these people in like you just said we sometimes give them too much credit i mean not all of them are particularly superbly genius type people are they no i mean i i think well they are very talented people knew and it takes a lot of work and a lot of imagination yeah achieve what they do but there's a sort of inevitability about it i mean let me give you an example if thomas edison had been electrocuted before he invented the lightbulb we wouldn't have been without incandescent light bulbs i mean there were twenty three different people who actually came up with the same idea right around the same time thomas edison was just the best business among them and so it's true virtually everything you can think of google is is is a you can't came to prominence as a as a set changing company will lots of other search engines around at the time it was sort of inevitable that we would all be using such engines by now whereas you know when i was young there was no such thing and you know so you can there are very few inventions which would not have happened around the time they did i mean even relativity discovered by on stein brilliantly actually a guy called hendrik lorentz was was on the track of it would probably have got there a few years later and that's rather intriguing this business of the sort of simultaneous discovery or invention of things well as we developed the atomic bomb during world war two the germans were right on our heels they were working on to we just beat them to the punch isn't it interesting that this was supposed to be a incredible secret yet to powers at the time were working on technology that was unknown to everybody on this planet at the time yet they were both working on the same thing i find that to be amazing yes and actually in that example britain was kind of working in the same direction until they decided to send the people that are working on it david to the.
"royal society" Discussed on The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe
"The weapons and she writes a monthly true crime column called trace analysis for chemistry world the magazine of the royal society of chemistry she will be talking on saturday july fourteenth at four five pm her talk entitled it was the professor in the library with the poison she'll also be appealing appearing on a panel on sunday to the issue will be there for our live show panels workshops and beat in greets so hopefully we'll see a lot of our listeners there go to an dot org to look at all the speakers and to register for the conference well thank you all for joining me this week in our special tornado bunker so glad i could dial in doc until next week this is yours skeptics guide to the universe skeptics guide to the universe is produced by s g credentials dedicated to promoting science and critical thinking more information on this and other episodes please visit our website at the skeptics guide dot org where you will find the show notes as well as links to our blogs videos online form and other content you can send us feedback or questions to info at the skeptics guy dot org also please consider supporting the issue by visiting the store page under website where you will find merchandise premium content and subscription information our listeners are what make edge you possible and don't forget about bomb sucks most comfortable socks in the history of feet thanks to two years of research and development better yet for every pair of socks pompous sales donate one pair to someone in need over seven million pairs so far and now these scott this university listeners can get twenty percent off your first order just go to be s dot com slash skeptics and use the code skeptics.
"royal society" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts
"Joining me from london now is simon seabed mother fury he's the author of the bestselling two thousand eleven book jerusalem the biography he's a fellow of the royal society of literature and a visiting professor at buckingham university cells or presenter of several bbc tv series including two thousand new levin's jerusalem the making of a holy city his latest book red sky at noon is an epoch set in world war two russia it comes out in january thank you for joining us simon high great to be hilarious so your book came out simon six years ago were only interviewing now but i can't think of a more important moment actually to look at drew some to take this big expansive look i'm not going to get interested i'm not gonna sort of ask a lot of questions are hope it'll get a lot of questions about the policy issues should us have an embassy there or not i just wanna talk this hour about jewish limits history you have a a glorious book that you have written near beautiful writer and i if you would be willing simon i'd like to start with you reading a little section from the preface to your book this is the section that begins jerusalem is the holy city can you read that for simon shaw and you'll have to bear with me because it's a while since i rated but jerusalem is the holy city yet it has always been also a dan of superstition charlatanism and bigotry the desire and prize of empires yet if no strategic value the cosmopolitan home of many sects each of which believes the city belongs to them alone a city of many names and yet each tradition is so sectarian it excludes any other this is a place of such delicacy that is described in the jewish sacred literature in the feminine always asencio living woman always a beauty but sometimes a shameless haul it sometimes a wounded princess whose lovers have full sake half jerusalem is the house of one god the capital of two peoples the temple.
"royal society" Discussed on KQED Radio
"The journal the proceedings of the royal society b so can we confirm the legend warren not yet he here with the envelope blazes stephanie gale aphc candidate in the biological sciences university of buffalo who worked on the yeti research welcome to science friday bank here if behavior very very nice to have you of if there is bad news in this story i guess is for the fans of the yeti right yeah unfortunately well what did the what happened to the samples what did they turn out to be they all turned out to be from local bear in the area with the exception of one that within the dog ashley and and what area was that so from the himalayas area and the tibetan plateau area a you tested nine different jedi samples how did you get them so icon film company actually approached off on sunday that they had b sample and they want to use these samples and have a dna test them to try and get to the bottom of this meth or at least two hopefully illuminate the more information about this meth and see what science has to say about it and so what kind of tests so did you run on him so we if tractor dna from hair skin seacot matter bone and uh the one tooth of a dog say that again but the dog yeah ended up being the truth of the dog it was actually a kind merrick taxonomic bettman um it was uh stuff yati from the messner mountain museum and we took hair from this supposed stuff he eddie and we took a tooth from this supposed and stuff yeti and the hair ended up being of tibetan brown bear but the poos ended up being a dog the eu's what you've got russ right well.
"royal society" Discussed on The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe
"He became the deputy director of the research laboratory for archaeology at oxford university and much of his advances involved that much of his work involved dating objects which of course is critically important when you're dealing with archaeology archaeology so he in edward hall were instrumental in using proton free procession magnetometers to find buried remains i'm he developed with derrick while and the application of a squid in archaeology now squared stands for a super conducting quantum interference device that is essentially a cryogenic megatama there which can detect the subtlest of magnetic fields like ancic geomagnetism for example iit sensitive enough to measure field as low as i believe fivetimes 10 to the negative 18 tesla that debt is tiny the royal society said in aitken's biography it's largely through martin's enthusiasm and that of edward hall that the research laboratory for archaeology at oxford led the way in sciencebased archaeology so i love when i said when i read that they wrote sciencebased 'blabla thought you'd like that would steve so remember martin jim aitken match it him to your friends perhaps when discussing archille magnetic prospection or even flux gate magnetic grady armadores trust me grab army are legs steve i thought of that dead flux capacitors magna double it is luck skate meg norton flex gate magnetic grady arbiters it sounds they detect the drop off a magnetic fields just basically what the words are saying there but when i read that was like i'm so going to houston at us that will come up in gotha all the time i've never heard of archeology tree that before i had neither as it also targets the application of technology to archaeology is it also.
"royal society" Discussed on KELO
"Lucky guess right well as you new studying quantum theory that may shed some light on why some people are right on the money there's a journal called proceedings of the royal society and in their journal there is a proposal bet causation can run backwards through time essentially the future is influencing would pass and it's also influencing what we're doing right now we physicists behind this study reconsiders the basic quantum physics and came to the conclusion but without evidence that time reading only one direction in particle measurements could it back and forward go through time back and forward through time is essentially equivalent of basically you getting sick from something new a three days before that makes sense well federal which rhetoric cazalet he does is it could confuse you but what it is the particle could actually bringing the effective it's measurement backward through time to what it was originally entangled influenced by whoever is involved whose were a causal i guess you could say so the question is whether or not we can apply this type of pre cognitive type of a theorem and put it into the predicted programming a type of the talk and then you could see that is a coincidentally it become some precongress ever foreshadowing major event going on so who knows maybe this tv show tonight is influencing or as big influenced by a future event now if you doubt this type of pre cognitive or otherwise quantum retro because ali could be applied to these precautions thought or even predicted programming i took a.
"royal society" Discussed on Quirks and Quarks
"Whom well we made it to our one hundred fifty th birthday and i have to say we don't look at day over a hundred and forty nine across the country canadians are marking are sesikwe centennial with celebrations that look back at our first century and a half and look ahead to what the future may bring so we decided to do something special ourselves to mark canada's one hundred and fifty is birthday we put in a call to the royal society of canada our national academy of arts humanities and sciences we asked them to invite their members to reflect on the last one hundred fifty years of science and canada taking a view from within their fields and so on today show we'll be bringing you the voices of some of canada's most accomplished researchers to talk about our nation's history and maybe a little about our future in science so let's start right in with reflections from canada's most recent nobel prize laureate i am aren't mcconnell professor emeritus at queen's university in kingston ontario and cowinner of the 2015 nobel prize in physics canada one fifty would like to illustrate some of the major contributions of canadians in the field of physics but describing the work the four canadian physics nobel prizewinners interestingly tour from alberda to from nova scotia an all were born in cities of fewer than forty thousand people the first is professor richard taylor from medicine hat alberta he is the most powerful electron microscope available at stanford university to show clearly that there were structures inside protons and neutrons called quarks.