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Nutritional Yeast: Rising to the Occasion
This episode is brought to you by foil Cruyff-ian chances are you're tuning in right now because your the curious type Royal Caribbean is all about exploring new territory to is in literally their vacations bring you along to explore amazing destinations in the Caribbean. There's plenty to explore on board to like surfing, an endless wave on flow writers, sixteen storeys above sea level satisfying, your culinary curiosity with international flavors from award winning chefs onboard every night or defying gravity in the I fly as you skydive onboard. Why just vacation in the Caribbean when you can go on an adventure with Royal Caribbean. Come seek at Royal Caribbean dot com ships registry Bahamas. Hello and welcome to favor. I'm an areas, and I'm Laurin Vogel bomb and today, we're talking about nutritional yeast, which apparently some people call Newt. And I really don't like that. I really do. Not like that. Okay. I did see a recipe for Newt shoe cheese dip. And I find that straight delightful. Like, I can't argue with new show. Newt nah, no. I'm not word. You can't even explain why there's no particular thing. It doesn't sound nice. It does honestly nutritional yeast doesn't sound nice either. But it's but it's fine. I mean, it's it, but it is nice. It tastes very nice. Actually, it does. I I've used it quite a bit not so much recently. But back when I was more healthy than I currently. But I use as a cheese substitute kind of. Because it does have a flavor that can pass. I mean, it's good on its own. But if you're looking to cut back on cheese, it is a way you could do that. Sure. And I remember making particularly like a lot of pastas with it, and like topping it topping pastas. Oh, yeah. Yeah. It's also good as topping for popcorn. I look off guard. Well, sure, I was about to say that's nothing's going to stop you from eating popcorn. I mean, hopefully, not, but this brings us to our question nutritionally east. What is it? Well, nutritional yeast is a powder or flake. That's kind of toasty yellow in color, a cheesy or nutty flavor, and is basically dried yeast juice that sounds so appetizer allow me to explain. We've talked on this show before about Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A like we've talked a lot about it because it's a strain of yeast that's used to ferment green into beer and juice into wine. It's used to create air pockets and flavor in bread. It's the active ingredient and vegemite end or marmite and is also responsible for adding flavors to a whole bevy of things from Worcestershire sauce to chocolate all those good thing. Yeah. Do you want to do it? Sauce. Hey wars toss. Thank you Lord. It's like a major thing. I have to do it. I have started mentally doing that. Now since we did our. And I still haven't seen. And I mean that is literally the only clip of that Scooby doo series that I think I've witnessed so it's a powerful clip. If you know if you have no idea what we're talking about guess, either Google it or listened to that episode both probably about. Yeasts are microorganisms that in mass humans can use as like flavor and nutrition factories. It's started the opposite of assembly line manufacturing like in an assembly line. You have each unit on the line work on one small step in many step process of creating a large thing. Yeah. In a yeast colony you have many units each creating a small thing simultaneously by the sheer number of yeast organisms that you can grow quickly and easily in a colony you can get a large amount of work done. The sounds like it should be a children's movie. Oh, man, be movie or I would watch the heck out of a microorganism related children's film. Y'all get on that. Yeah. It'd be you me, and maybe three other people so good very about it. Yes. Okay. More ideas for children's books here against. Yes. In this case, the work that you are asking a yeast colony to do is to turn sugar into something better for us to eat than sugar when you feed yeast with cane sugar, and or beat molasses they'll eat that. And then use it to create stuff that they need to grow vitamins proteins, fats, fiber, perhaps the key ingredient that's created during this process is called good amac acid, which is a component of some proteins. And is what you're tasting. When you experience the flavor savory sometimes called Amami. It's in meats cheese soy, mushrooms tomatoes in its sodium salt for him. It's monosodium glutamate or MSG. And this is the flavor that is going to be at work in nutritional yeast. Yes, anyway, so to make nutritional yeast you set up a tank where you're yeast factory can get to work, and you wind up with this sort of fermentation soup. You send her fuse out the bits you want mostly like the east cells leaving most of the fermented behind and you wind up with liquid referred to as cream yeast. Oh, wow. Terms in this episode are just very spectacular. I I we could set up some kind of like vote about whether Newt or cream east is a worse nude worse. Cream yeast? I could convince myself it's like a cream share your something. Oh, okay. I mean, I'd have to do them. It's a mental gymnastics. But I could do it. But cream east is a cool thing it could go on to become baker's yeast because it's still active and alive, but in the case of nutritional yeast production, you're gonna wanna pasteurize this cream east to deactivate or kill the east cells, then you slowly, dry end or cook, the the cream yeast and usually in roller drum driers, which I just learned about and are really cool piece of machinery there, these a steam heated drums, and you apply a liquid to the outside of this heated cylinder as it's slowly spinning it rotates. And then creates a cheat of dried material from the liquid sound cool. It's really one of those like simple things. Anyway, I. So yeah. Yeah. You get the sheet of dried material, and then you mill that sheet to the flaker powder consistency that you want in them you package it. Yeah. Yeah. You do. It's like, oh, I didn't realize all this stuff went into nutritional yeast, but I probably should have it doesn't just grow on trees. No. Okay. Well, not yet. Anyway. Science one day. Some manufacturers will add extra vitamins at some point in this process. Maybe when they're feeding the east originally, maybe after pasteurization in order to boost the nutritional content of the final product, other strains of used can be used aside from a that one that I mentioned earlier, and researchers are psyched about the particular nutrients in a few particular species, maybe like being able to help us feed in, cultivate, a really a plus gut microbiome. But yeah, Saccharomyces cerevisiae a is the most common. It also sounds like either a character in a fighting game like a pirate ghosts character. I don't know. Why pirate ghosts is what I'm seeing? Or like a demon pirate. Goes does as surprisingly frequent fighting actor. Yeah, I think it's because it's sole caliber I suspect so soul caliber is one of those classics. It's one of the ones that me and my roommate's still play. And it has a goal. Host character, doesn't it has a pirate ghost doesn't it? Yeah. Guys. I'm so used to my brain just begging up nonsense. This is a pleasant surprise von taste, something like von days. Yeah. Okay. We will we got to the bottom of that mystery. Okay. But back nutritional us to. Yes. It contains by the way as I said earlier, but just to reiterate it contains no active used nutritional yeast will not grow in your food or in your body. It's super dead. Okay. It is an ex-east. All right. Yeah. No zombie. No worries. No, no, not that. I'm personally aware of actually that's when you should be wearing amount zombie east science. We we're giving a lot of homework the science and this episode. It has a couple of other nicknames apart from new. Hippie dust or. Yes, she. Yes. She you think. Sure. Yes. She in the US savory yeast flakes. They re with a you in New Zealand along with bru- facts bona Petit called it nature's Cheeto dust. Oh, I like that. It's like Ali magical. Does it's a pretty heavily like made product. But I'm not sure if nature is the right word, but maybe man's Cheeto dust. No, that's what Cheeto dust is. Anyway. Woman's. We can we can get to the bottom of this later. Yes. The word yeast might come from the old English word gist or gist in the Indo European word. Yes. Which meant to boil and nutrition wise, it's a product that nutritionists and marketers alike. Get excited about a serving is to tablespoons or about half an ounce and compared with an equal amount of like plane wristed chicken breast, nutritional yeast has twice as much protein and a butt load more vitamins and minerals like way over your daily recommended value of several vitamins and lots of these are inconveniently bioavailable forms as opposed to many meets where your body has to work on processing them. So. Yeah, your body can use them directly without having to make sure that you're pairing up other nutrients to create those more other nutrients rates. Yeah. It's also a decent source of fiber. It's low in fat that can be a positive or negative depending on what you're going for. But it does mean that nutritionally used it does not provide some of the good. Fatty acids, and like specific minerals that animal proteins do commonly contain if you are using it as like a nutritional supplement, by the way, it's better to eat that too tablespoon serving in like small portions throughout the day rather than all at once because your body can only process so much of a given vitamin at a given time anything over that. You'll just excrete. So. Yeah. Spread it out everything sprinkle it out throughout the rest of your day. Yeah. And oh, man, host side note, probably all of us could stand to consulted dietitian about what we eat. But if you are choosing a vegan lifestyle, please do your research, y'all. It's one hundred percent valid thing and eating all or mostly plant in fungus based foods has a lot of benefits but getting a good complement of nutrients just takes more mindfulness. So, you know, honestly, if you're a vegan, you're probably into mindfulness, and I shouldn't really worry. But I do we care about you. We do. That's why we ring out. These old lady goes. That's those are voices of carrying. Oh, oh, and nutritional used is light sensitive, meaning that you should store it in a cool dark place or in the fridge, which I guess is a cool dark place when you get down to it. I don't know. What goes on in my fridge? Oh, it could be lighting there. Heck could be Zule waiting. Just waiting. I got a new fridge. So hopefully Zule was out there. There. If we look at numbers one million tons of yeast are consumed per year that is total used for like baking and beer, and pharmaceuticals and bio fuel everything that total market value, by the way is expected to reach five point four billion American dollars by twenty twenty two. It's nothing to sneeze that a lot of yeast money. A lot of dough. Oh. Thank you. Right off the top of this old old, Ed. Oh, and while I'm talking about different types of east products. I wanted to note that nutritional yeast is different than supplemental brewer's yeast, which is also a deactivated yeast, but it's usually found in tablet form. Yes. There's a lot of types of yeast. Oh, yeah. That's a different episode. Yes. Indeed on a commercial level nutritional used can be added to processed foods a fish meat vegetarian protein substitutes. It can be in packaged snacks or meals can be in dietary supplements and nutritional used as a flavoring or supplement is getting more popular. But I am not sure about how much confined any numbers on that. Yeah. Difficult to get specific numbers on nutritional yeast. But as we talked about at the top sort of it can be used for all kinds of things onto stir fries popcorn pastas. And that's because of its flavor vegans do frequently use it as a cheese substitute. I hesitate to use words substitute because it's more like you're trying to get the flavor. Right, right. It's not like, you're not a texture yourself. Right. Yeah. I mean, it's nice. It's nice. It's shown way try to say, and it can help products that you're making with nut milks or or being milks taste more like dairy milk. Yeah. It has quite a long and interesting history. And I would say about half of it is marketing and in a good fund way. Yeah. Yeah. And we'll get into that. After a quick break for word from our sponsor. Today's episode is sponsored by Royal Caribbean. Chances are you're listening right now because you're the curious type, maybe you're looking to discover something cool and unusual or explore the unexpected real Caribbean is all about exploring new territory to as in literally their vacations bring you along to explore amazing destinations in the Caribbean. And there are tons of opening experiences right on board to like a defying gravity in the I fly as he skydive on board shooting down the ultimate abyss a slide with ten floors of thrilling twists and turns satisfying, your culinary curiosity with international flavors from award winning chefs onboard every night surfing an endless wave on flow rider, sixteen storeys above sea level, letting your imagination soar inside Skype pad a VR thrill ride at sea and realizing that adventure doesn't happen. If you just go along for the ride why just vacation in the Caribbean when you can go on an adventure with Royal Caribbean. Come seek at Royal Kirby. Ian dot com. Ships registered you Bahamas. And we're back. Thank you Spencer. Yes. Thank you. And we're back with N Toine van new in hook are hook. According to Ren and stimpy is that which I think so. Yeah, that's the Sandra enough of that is so funny. Because did I mention another episode at some episode? It all gets flurry up in here. But how looney toons the source of much of my cultural? Oh, yeah. Oh, it was the Tetra Zini upset. Oh, right anyway, one Antoine van loon hook was the son of a brewer and often considered the father of microbiology and one of the first microscope est. And he was one of the first to observe yeast under a microscope in sixteen eighty CE probably clear, but just in case just in case. For a while a lot of this used did come from beer bar. But it wasn't. Well, understood and was very unpredictable. This is where the word barmy comes from. Yeah. I love it and producers moved away from this east from your Barham, a eighteen twenty four cookbook called a new system of domestic cookery featured a recipe for MRs Rundle's, yeast, and it goes, Leslie thickened, two quarts of water with fine. Flour about three spoonfuls boil half an hour sweeten with near half a pound of Brown sugar when near cold put into four spoonfuls of fresh east in a jug, shake it well together and let it stand one day to ferment near the fire without being cupboard. There will be a thin liquor on the top which must be poured off Schick the remainder and cook it up for us. Take always force spoonfuls of the old to ferment the next quantity. Keeping it always in. Accession a yeah. Yeah. Beerbaum is the kind of foamy stuff that happens on top of Vada beer that's brewing, and as you can possibly imagine just taking that can lead to other flavors and a certain amount of unpredictability. And yeah, the microorganisms involved not they knew at that point. All the time. I mean, you know. Yeah. Keeping it always in succession is a great way to enter p just an an injury from the eighteen fifty five Canadian settler guide described the process of getting Bruce yeast and using it to make bread a story included in the guy tells of a woman shocked that her neighbors didn't know how to make yeast now she taught them this valuable piece of knowledge and from that time they were able to make light bread the girl, quote, shrewdly remarking to her mistress that a little help is worth a great deal of pity. Inter Louis pass store in eighteen fifty seven and he figured out fermentation, and he believed that east relies, and we're behind this fermentation thing. Scientists Emil Hansson took this research in expounded on it in eighteen eighty eight isolating yeast into its pure form with the industrial revolution. In full. Swing in eighteen seventy six brothers, Charles and max Fleischmann. Yes. That Fleishman revealed they're manufactured yeast at the centennial exposition in Philadelphia, which was attended by the way by Overton million people. It was a big hit and in one thousand nine hundred they added a research lab to their New York factory. And it looked bit different than we're used to this piece. Yeah. At first it was sold in kind of like these cakes like, yeast cakes. Yeah. Yeah. They were moist too. And they went bad fair. Quickly going back to the Fleischmann's for a minute. They were immigrants Charles was trained in yeast production and distilling and along with his businessman, James gaff. They started mass producing yeast at a factory near Cincinnati after the yeast the starter. It was rinsed press indicates and wrapped into foil. And that's where you get that before rinsing what they probably had was that cream yeast thing that we were talking about earlier. Oh, yeah. Descriptions of the texture of these yeast cakes remind me of like, Callen, clay, or like some of the the powdered like rice flour cookies candies that I've had sort of melt in your mouth, but also sort of chalky and pasty, and you know, with that sour stale beer smell that. You get off of vegemite or marmite. It's a lot of things happening at once. Yeah. And yes, they were moist they were made of fresh yeast rather than dried yeast, which is what you'll find in those little packets today that you might buy in a store, and because of this they attempted to sell them quickly. They would go door to door. Charles and gaff also opened Fleischmann's distilling company to make Jin with the grain alcohol leftover from east production smart, berry, while development of refrigerated railcars was a boon for Fleischmann's the development of bread. You could buy a store was nuts. So what do they do hired a physiological chemistry professor to look into the health benefits? This professors article published in the journal of the American Medical Association claimed that eating yeast could cure boils, acne and other skin ailments, and all kinds of gastrointestinal distress all cards the association. Of yeast with health food really took off in the nineteen twenties and thirties when folks figured out that yeast has a good amount of B vitamins. The word vitamin wasn't coined until nineteen eleven. Yeah. When the word was coined, no vitamins had actually been chemically isolated. And there was some debate among scientists about whether vitamins existed at all, but that did not stop food manufacturers like Fleischmann's for marketing them, especially when they were confirmed to exist and vitamins are all the rage in the US around this time I had to include this ad coffee. I had to beers good for you. But schlitz the beer was sunshine. Vitamin d is extra good for you. I love it was it was from a particular schlitz product us Schlitt, sunshine, vitamin d beer from nineteen thirty six slick sunny delight but with. Perfect. I'm not sure why we don't see that anymore. Who was touted as a cure to all kinds of things one ad for Fleischmann's yeast read, this new yeast is the biggest advancement in treating constipation in a generation. And then it would help you coat break the cathartic habit. Which by the way is not like a done done. It is like taking laxatives, right? Yeah. Because because sluggish quote sluggish intestines at the time were considered a serious affliction or were being called by some people a series of Lixion. I'm one British doctor wrote in nineteen twenty nine I should like to prescribe less feasting and more Ye sting the can't you feast on use. This is the point. I missed the point of the ad copy win over my head. And I will say to be fair eating yeast cakes does work as a laxative. So they weren't lying about that part. No perhaps exaggerating things oh, exaggerating. I mean, not being entirely scientifically straightforward about many other things, but the laxative effect they had down. But there are a couple other things just a few. Oh, yeah. They claimed it would help with headaches skin hair loss colds giving you pep. You're advised to consumer yeast cake at least thirty minutes before eating to keep your digestive track on track. Threes cakes day, presumably, I would imagine for three meals a day, a free pamphlet pushed by Fleischmann's was called yeast therapy and four million were distributed. And here's another ad. I love the festivities successful women today know, how to avoid the damaging effects of clogged intestines, the health effects were said to take months before anything noticeable happen. That's very convenient. It is. Cakes were sometimes advertised as creamy wholesome candy and that people should try illustrious by of. But yet another ad describe the taste as pungent an appetizing. It was everywhere that fresh food was sold like soda, fountains, grocers cafeterias, you could eat them as is or crumble them up into water milk or fruit juice tomato. Juice is the one that I saw specified you could also eat them on crackers peanut butter or jam sandwiches. I suppose you could. I mean, you couldn't not do that. There were options, and it was everywhere. But this push to associate yeast with health was not done. It was not and we will get into that. After we get back from a quick break for word from our sponsor. I can't believe it that Gerald is presenting the quarterly budget report with finger puppets book. Here comes one point seven percent decrease in fixed overhead I know everybody. No, I can't believe how easy it was to save hundreds of dollars on car insurance with gyco. You projected increase in organic Khukri revenue. Believe it. Geico could save you fifteen percent or more on car insurance. And we're back. Thank you sponsor. All right. So this campaign promoting yeast health benefits. It was a huge success. Oh, yeah. In nineteen Twenty-three the marketing firm behind it launched a contest calling for positive testimonials, eight thousand three hundred forty responses ruled in like this one I am a mail carrier. And it may sound strange that a man walking twelve miles a day six days a week should suffer from constipation after the first month of Ye seating, I noticed a remarkable difference. And when Saturday night came I still had some pep Clift. Fleischmann's yeast has relieved me completely of constipation, and I feel tip top all the time. The campaign integrated photos of the writers of these testimonial writers beginning in nineteen twenty five to be absolutely accurate in every detail. But according to one of the photographers working on this. That's not really what was going on. He said he would go door to door all over the city and would list the ingredients for a good photo a good shot and these were quote, ingenuity tact eloquence injuries. And he said many of the people he was looking at had moved in the city anymore. Many were sick many were too old too. Young too fat or to quote helplessly ugly helplessly that's harsh, sir. It is between nineteen twenty four and nineteen twenty-five Fleischmann's net. Profits went up seventy five percent sales were to. Two point four five pounds per capita in nineteen twenty seven what the company accounted for almost ninety five percent of the yeast industry in nineteen twenty nine. They started radiating their product to get some vitamin d in there to further their vitamin cachet vitamin d was said to prevent quote, soft boned week muscled teeth apprai- to decay. A nineteen thirty four discovery of a new strain of yeast that contained vitamin a which reportedly could help decrease your chances of getting a cold also was added in there. Yeah. And if you listen to our milk bonus, those vitamins DNA were being added to milk and around the same time as more and more vitamins and minerals were discovered yeast marketing cut even bolder if you could believe it claiming it was better for you than fruits and vegetables, quote, it supplies protective substances your stomach bowels need to work properly. And that no other food even fruits and vegetables gives you enough of them who. Yeah. These big claim raise the figurative eyebrows of the US government, specifically the Federal Trade Commission, the FTC they sent Fleischmann's a cease and desist letter in nineteen thirty one and seven years later, the FTC was victorious. Yeah. But added type before the crackdown yeast could prevent pimples furry tongue fallen stomach cure, bad breath, elimination of crying spells increase of. The skin's self disinfecting power the sharpening of intellect so many things that they claimed it could do one ad said it restored a woman's ability to walk. Yeah. They guar into wine actually gets turns juice into wine after a while. Why didn't they go all in on that? Right. Oh missed opportunity by the nineteen thirties. Yeast was a staple the first cross breeds of yeast entered the market Fleischmann developed active dry yeast as a way to get soldiers. Fresher bread during World War Two. And it was a big deal. It didn't need to be refrigerated could be activated quickly more and more improvements over the next few decades have the raising time of dough eventually led to the corley would bread baking process in nineteen sixty one. This is a high volume continuous industrial process that many say sacrifice flavor and texture for speed. Yeah. And these days a lot of dry yeast is used but east cake or fresh Easter compressed yeast is still available. It does still need to be refrigerated and will spoil even then after about two weeks, but some bakers. Prefer it to dry east products and professional bakeries today often do use it? If you're looking to use it in home baking, you might not find it in consumer shops. But it's sometimes available online or you could ask your local bakery. If you can buy some off of them here in Atlanta. I hear that star provision will sell some to you from their bulk supply. Oh, cool. Yeah. The public lost access to end interest in eating yeast cakes which as it turns out is a good thing. Because after all this drop off in fresh yeast availability around World War Two more recent research was done by folks with less of a stake in the results, and it revealed that eating living yeast is not beneficial. It's not going to cure, my crying spells chemicals. Sorry. Oh, no. Whatever will. I do. I feel a crying spell coming on. No substitute. I guess I'll just have to let it out. Oh. It's not good for you. Don't eat fresh east kicks. Advice at the episode. Yeah. Who've but the research community never gave up on yeast at large as a nutritional supplement in the late nineteen fifties research into the minerals selenium started showing that a it's an important mineral for mammals like rats, and humans and be that Saccharomyces Servizi. A is a good source of it. I think modern yeast nutritional supplements started as pills in the sixties based on research like this and by the mid seventies. Amid the rising trends of healthy living in -tarian ZIM tasty nutritional used as we know it today started showing up on store shelves. It was called out in a number of cookbooks as a good substitute for cheese flavor in non dairy recipes like tofu cheese and gravy throughout the nineteen seventies. And by nineteen eighty it was being used in package vegetarian, vegan foods like a like, tofu sausage. So he's the choices. Yeah. It was hard to single out the history of nutritional yeast. Yeah. I home in like all of these references that I collected at the end here were from like primary sources like mostly marketing materials, which I guess most of the research in today's episode was from as far as I could find known is really. Written a comprehensive history of how we got to nutritional yeast and how I don't know. I want to do I need to look into it more. Yeah. This is what we found this far. Yeah. I think it's pretty good overview. Oh, so much fun marketing. Oh, yeah. I love that old ad copy. But that about brings us to the end of this episode on nutritional yeast, and it brings us to listen. That was an evolution reference that Lauren won't get because disgust. One of the few movies. She's walked out on. But selenium is a big plot point in it justify anyone out there. All right. Katie wrote. I recently listened to the gum episode in quickly remembered a fascinating, albeit slightly disgusting attraction in the town. I currently go to school at awesome. I attend Cal poly in San Luis Obispo, California and in downtown SOL. Are you probably call it slow, but I'm not from around. There is the place called bubblegum alley. It's an alley between some shops where the walls are covered in thousands and thousands of pieces of chewed gum. I didn't find out about this place until a day or two after I moved into my dorm freshman year, a group I was with for ENT Shen went downtown. And bubblegum alley was one of the places we stopped at unlike some of the people I was with I refuse even step into the alley. Simply preferring to observe it from a foot away from the entrance. But able to see the police in all score. I was both horrified yet, MS. Mera's by the site as I could not begin to imagine. How many pieces of bubble gum are on the walls. I recommend looking this up online to see what it looks like if you dear for me. It was a small part of the things I've experienced at college. So far that I'm probably not gonna forget anytime soon who. No, I went forget that either. I'd be so afraid to touch gum. Oh, yeah. Yeah. Both of us like like like retreated all. Coleridge? Antonio wrote. I am a longtime listener since your first episode on champagne. Oh, hi who watched the recently released film, the favorite it set an England during Queen Ann's rain. So the very beginning of the eighteenth century late in the film as Abigail played by a stone revels at her fancy digs at the palace. She proudly proclaims my made is on her way up with something called a pineapple. I guess most viewers thought it was just some random joke as evidenced by this time article explaining the lines historical context, but I already knew about it having listened to your episode on pineapples. That episode remains one of my favorites. Yeah. Oh, and I still I my roommate, and I are rewatching true blood, which I'm a little bit of shamed. About. But man, I love that goofy show and we're in the third season right now where the king of Mississippi comes in. And he has this very fancy dining room that was designed by his vary. Fancy boyfriend, and and there's the centerpiece of this dining table is tower of fruit with pineapple right at the top where and I was like show designers. You're doing you're doing it. You're you're my friend. So happy the crown atop this for tower. Yeah. Well, kudos to them designers on true blood. And also this movie the favourite I've mentioned before on the show with our coworkers. Chandler is really good friend. He's very excited about things. He's always very excited. And that's one of the things I love about him. But he he's always very excited about getting me to see a movie any right now. He's trying to get me to see the favor favorite. You've got to see the favorite. Oh, I can't believe we haven't seen the favorite. Check it out. All right. It's got pineapple. Yeah. We'll laugh too loudly at that part. Perfect. Thanks to both of them for writing in. If you would like to write too as you can our Email is Hello at saver pod dot com. Where also in social media, you can find us on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram at saver pud. We hope to hear from you. We have a store online where you can buy like t shirts, and like laptop cases, or I don't know like bag bags like. Yeah. Oh, man. You can hold liquid in something with a picture from us. Not of of us know, we thought that would be creepy possibly. Yeah. But it could be a Cup of liquid that says heck and back to you. Yes. Wouldn't you want to drink out of a mug knit fest? I know I would I know you went to the store is is run by t public who helps us designs and they're mad geniuses. It's at a t public dot com slash saver. We hope to hear from you. If you're into buying stuff. I don't know check that out. Thank you as always to our super producers, Andrew Howard and Dylan Fagin. Thank you to you for listening. And we hope that lots more good things are coming your way. I'm Erin minke by now, you've probably heard about my newest podcast on obscured. It's a seasonal show that dives deep into a single major historical event. And this season has been all about the Salem witch trials with the release of episode twelve on December nineteenth the entire season is out. It's the perfect opportunity to get caught up and finish the journey. You started or to dive in and bench the entire show. But we're not done. Just yet starting on January second we'll be releasing all six of our incredible historian interviews for you to hear in full. These were great conversations with the leading scholars in the world of the Salem witch trials, and you won't want to miss them. Learn more about the show over at history on obscured dot com and listen along on apple podcasts. Iheartradio or wherever you listen to podcasts and stay subscribed. We'll have news about season to to share in a few weeks, and you won't want to miss out.