17 Burst results for "Robert Lusty"
"robert lusty" Discussed on Baby-Led Weaning Made Easy
"Our early eaters. So. If you could tell where the audience can go to learn more about your work, your research surrounding sugar, as well as your books as well that especially the new book sounds really interesting your dog. Last thing I want to leave your audience with his just remember that real food is low sugar high fiber and processed food is high sugar low fiber processed. Food is killing us. It's that simple. In fact I'm just written an article called ultra processed foods addictive, toxic and ready for regulation. So my website is Robert Lusty Dot com I also am the Chief Medical Officer of a nonprofit here in the bay area eat real where we are getting real food into California a unified school district schools in the East Bay we. Have removed two hundred seventy thousand pounds of sugar from the Mount Diablo Unified School district in one year at ten pounds of sugar per kid frontier year by getting real food into the schools, and there's a method and madness to what we do and you can find us on April Dot Org my new book is called metabolical and you can find it at. METABOLICAL DOT COM on Amazon it's not available yet it will be available on May fourth but you can pre-order and what I do is I take the medical profession to task as we screwed up big time because we let the food industry and big Pharma dictate our policies and I basically take those all apart and deconstruct them for the reader and for the politicians There are several resources that UCSF sponsors, for instance, sugar science, Dot Org which is a group of independent scientists at UCSF and emory and a few other institutions who have vetted eight thousand clinical research articles and stilted into five ges for the general public with infographics and posters and things that you can put up in class at Cetera I was in the. Movie Fed Up, which is a documentary about how we got where we are today in terms of our processed food tobacco I was in a documentary called sugar coated, which explains why we got to where we are today in terms of are processed foods tobacco and I'm around Youtube Yeah you are you have one of sorry but the longest most viral videos ever like. Long and yet people watch it to the end. Can you tell them just as like a link to it in the show notes for this episode can give us the run out on that to be honest. I've never made it to the end, but I know a lot of millions of people have called sugar the bitter truth it's a UCSF Mini Med school for the public lecture. I gave in two thousand nine and it is ninety minutes of carbohydrate biochemistry. I never thought even my mother would watchet let alone. Eleven point, two, million people and still going strong and I gotTA..
"robert lusty" Discussed on Love Your Work
"Getting us to do things that aren't good for us is great for the Gross Domestic Product. We're so vulnerable to these things that if you can cut out the things that break you down and replaced them with the things that build you up. You can be way more effective than most people. I say you could be one hundred times more effective than most people. Here are eleven things you can do to be one hundred times more effective than most people before I go further. I want to acknowledge this list pisses some people off. I posit that it threatens their self perception. I'm not saying you're a bad person if you do or don't do these things. I'm saying you would be better off if you did. All of these things must be honest. It's darn near impossible to do all these things I know I don't. This is just a list. I aspire to also some people here this list and think it sounds like a boring life. I would encourage those people to get a life. I'll explain at the end of his episode. Okay on with the list. One no sugar. Sugar is an addictive substance. Sugar stimulates dopamine and the more dopamine you stimulate the more dopamine. You need in order to feel stimulated if you want to hear more about that listen to Robert Lusty on episode. One Eighty six. It is downright criminal. How much sugar surrounds us? Every day the last time I was in hospital the only things in the vending machine were products filled with sugar in hospital too. No alcohol again. Why is this normal? Just look at? How many bars and liquor stores on every city street at some point in my twenty s? I realized that each Saturday night I was regularly spending the equivalent of an entire working day going from bar to bar not to mention. The weight at drinking affected me the next day and likely throughout the week. You can accomplish a lot if you cut out alcohol. I'm lucky enough to not be addicted to alcohol but economist Tyler. Cowen shared on interesting perspective on this podcast. That alcohol is so harmful too much of the population those who are addicted to alcohol that the only responsible thing to do is to not drink so it won't be such a normal thing anymore. Three no caffeine. This one is hard for the coffee. Lovers Caffeine again is an addictive substance. What happens when you're addicted to something you don't use it? It uses you the more caffeine. You use the more caffeine you need until you simply can't get enough. Many people don't realize that their caffeine use is at the root of.
"robert lusty" Discussed on Love Your Work
"Aren't consuming where are you going to get inspiration? Well inspiration is bullshit. You've seen enough things in your life. You've had enough damn ideas. You never did shit with most of them near. Did I. Your need for inspiration is a fear of your own thoughts. It's a fear of doing the hard work of processing. What's in your head breaking out of the bullshit scripts that society rights for you and having an actual thought a true sometimes uncomfortable original. Thought you don't need inspiration. You need action. I can't deny from my own experience of going on a media fast then much of the time when I was consuming it was standing in my way of creating and wasn't creating what I wanted to do in the first place. This was an uncomfortable realization. I even had a couple of friends point out that reading. Books is a FORM OF PROCRASTINATION SACK. Relig- but they're right. How many books have you read? Can you recite what you learn from those books? Have you truly taken action? What you or did you just move onto the next book as you can see for me as someone who creates as someone who writes books and makes podcasts? This was a tough pill to swallow. I had to search myself for why I create what I create. I concluded that more than anything I create for my own self development in this world. Everyone is trying to get a piece of you. Facebook wants your eyeballs and your browsing history. The news media wants your attention. They'll manipulate your emotions. They will try to fool you into thinking it's somehow virtuous to be informed but it's all fucking bullshits on top of it. Addictive substances are all around us. How many lives have been destroyed by alcohol? Or ADDICTION TO PRESCRIPTION DRUGS. Go to a hospital looking the vending machine. Sugar sugar more sugar. It's so pervasive. We assume sugar isn't putting us in the hospital. And how many of US swear that we can't function in the morning and this we have a piping hot thermos of a psychoactive drug. Yeah Caffeine this shit is not right some of you are probably wondering what the FARC The news. Facebook and coffee had to do with my podcast. As I said I primarily. Make this show and write books to help myself because it brings me meaning. That meaning is strong enough to motivate me to take a break from listening to podcasts and reading books to save fuck the news fuck facebook fuck alcohol on every corner fucked sugar all around us. Fuck the caffeine. In every cop some people would describe this mindset as STOIC. Well my unpopular opinion is that stoicism is useless as a philosophy. It just rings hollow in my ears. Stoicism is not the cause of meaningful life a STOIC MINDSET. Instead is the effect of a meaningful life. All the things I described can be pleasurable. You could call my media fast. Eight dopamine fast as Dr. Robert Lusty taught us episode. One eighty-five pleasure which is triggered by dopamine is different from happiness which is triggered by Serotonin in fact pleasure and happiness are like polar opposites so. I don't shun pleasures by wave's stoicism. I don't shun pleasures for the sake of shunning pleasures. I do it because none of that. So called pleasurable stuff will help me be the human that I want to be. None of that will help me. With this journey. This journey of creating I create so that I can create. And so who would I be if I expected you to listen to my podcast? I'll reiterate yeah. I want podcast listeners. I want Patriot supporters. Yeah I want to sell books when I make money. I can create more things but the thing I hope for myself is the same thing that I hope for you. I want you to break out of the Matrix of bullshit that rules the thoughts and actions of so many of us on what you to stop consuming and start creating. If you're trying to escape the Bullshit Through Your Own Discipline Aka stoicism. You'RE GONNA have a bad time. There's nothing I can say to you. There's no inspiration. I can provide which will make that happen so yeah it makes me really sad. Sometimes that I don't have more podcast listeners. But then I tell myself David if they aren't consuming maybe they're out there creating and I have.
"robert lusty" Discussed on The Upgrade by Lifehacker
"With us is pediatric endocrinologists. Robert Lusty Hi Rob. Thank you so much for being here. It is my pleasure to be here. Thank you most. So even first came to public prominence for a lot of people when a video of one of your lectures went viral. The reason I show this is not just to show that the obese are getting obese or of course that's true but in fact the entire curve has shifted we all way twenty five pounds more today than we did twenty five years ago all of us tell us a bit about your background and what you do videos. The Bane of my existence really You know I didn't even think my mother would and she didn't and we'll sudden they're seven quarter million people The bottom line is I had absolutely no interest in being a public figure on the other hand I saw it was going on with children. I take care of children and for every Child I treated ten more. Were showing on my doorstep with obesity. Type two diabetes hypertension lipid problems early signs of heart. Disease Fatty liver disease. These are diseases that we never saw on children before. These diseases reserved for adults. And we're losing an entire generation when it became clear to me from a science standpoint what the problem was and realize that no one was approaching it or talking about it. I felt I needed to be talked about and so I did do that. Lecture it did by HAPPENSTANCE END UP ON YOUTUBE. And even by more happenstance it went viral. And since that time people have been looking to me for the answers. I am an accidental warrior. I'm not looking for fame and fortune. I'm just trying to fix a problem and it's a problem that I was sworn to fix you. Know as a pediatrician. So what led you from writing and talking about sugar to writing the hacking of the American mind. I was giving a grand rounds in psychiatry at a medical school here. United States and the woman who ran their outpatient recovery facility was giving me a tour of their facilities and she herself was a recovering heroin addict and she said to me. I was asking her. What being cleaned meant to her and she said when I was shooting up I was happy. What my new life has given me is pleasure. I thought to myself that's not right. That's opposite that is totally screwed up and But I went home in. That really bothered me and then We can have later. I was talking to my sister in law. Who Used to run the help desk at Pillsbury before they were taken over by General Mills and you know they would do things you know the people call in about problems with the ice crystals in there. You know poppin fresh dough and stuff like that. They were long gone that group but they were still all friends and they had a yearly gourmet club and they just had the gourmet club and the woman who had just had bariatric surgery. Said to my sister-in-law always looked so thin. How'd you do that and also I only eat when I'm hungry? And the woman said eating for hunger eating is about happiness again so jarring but of course I had heard that story before having been an OB physician for thirty some odd years You know hearing that from children from adults and I just went you know this is to obviously a big problem and it basically spurred me on through the book so you talk about pleasure and happiness being different. Can you explain that a little bit? So these are terms. That have been confused and conflicted. If you go online right now and Google pleasure or happiness. You will see the definitions. Virtually identical almost interchangeable the synonyms that we use for them. Go either way depending on. Who wrote it academics? Get it wrong too. I mean if you go right now to the Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy and look up the word happiness it come like they have two definitions one is hedonism and the other is the life satisfaction theory now has hedonism equate with life satisfaction and why they both considered happiness. I am like totally befuddled and you should be because the current definitions don't work okay. So what is the difference between pleasure and happiness? There are seven. Pleasure is short lived like in a house like a good meal. Happinesses long-lived maybe a lifetime pleasure is visceral you feel it in your body happinesses ethereal. You feel it. Above the neck pleasure is taking like a casino happinesses giving like habitat for humanity. Pleasure can be achieved with substances like tobacco Alcohol Street drugs. Sugar and happiness cannot be achieved with substances. Pleasure is experienced alone. Now a of people often get pleasure. D- together but you experience it alone whether it be at a beer party or Token on a on a joint whereas happiness is usually experienced in social groups the reason for religion. It's the reason for clubs. It's the reason why people congregating together families the extremes of pleasure no matter whether they're behaviors or substances doesn't matter all lead to addiction in the extreme. Where's there's no such thing as being addicted too much happiness and then finally number seven the you know sort of PSI exists. Pleasure is dopamine and happiness is Serotonin so two different biochemicals two different neurotransmitters. To different areas of the brain that they work on two different sets of receptors two different modes of regulation and. Here's why it matters. Dopamine isn't excited Tori neurotransmitter so neurons. WanNa be excited but they WANNA be. Shall we say tickled a brief? Ex- citation they don't WANNA BE BLUDGEONED CHRONIC CITATION. Neurons are very temperamental. And they're very fragile. They require a lot of energy all the time. Which is why you have to maintain glucose or your brain goes kaput. If you over stimulate a neuron it will die. Chronic over stimulation of neurons by excited Tori neurotransmitters cause neuronal cell death so the Neuron has a backup plan. It has a defense mechanism. It HASN'T OPTION B. And what it does is it down. Regulates the receptor for that neurotransmitter. In order for fewer neurotransmitters to be able to bind to receptors because there are fewer receptors in other words. It's protecting itself by downing the gain so the way it works in human terms. Is You get a hit you? GotTa Rush Receptors. Good down next time you need a bigger hit to get the same rush and the receptors go down and they bigger a bigger and bigger until finally a huge head to get nothing that's called tolerance and then when the neurons start to die that's called addiction. Dopamine drives its own receptor down which is why the first bite of ice cream tastes unbelievably. Good and the last maybe not. So much on the other hand. Serotonin isn't inhibitory neurotransmitter. It does not excite the next neuron it actually slows down and actually stops the next from firing and that is the feeling of contentment is the downing of that firing rate. Well because its inhibitory. You don't need to down regulate the receptors. Because we're not going to destroy the non we're GONNA actually put it to rest so you can't overdose on too much happiness. But there's one thing that down regulates serotonin dopamine so the more pleasure. You seek.
"robert lusty" Discussed on KQED Radio
"Radio here's your host Stephen Upnor it's hard to find anyone who doesn't like sugar and nearly just as hard to find anyone who doesn't think that they're having too much of it I really like I know it's bad for you but I I don't know I like it well right now I am staying away from sugar so right now I'm just trying to try to you better have a better diet I tried to cut back on it but I've never given it up I think it tastes delicious in the right thing and I think that this point it's probably an addiction that our body my body just needs to have so that yeah I I've never tried to give it up nor will I give it up anytime soon I think his friends and families it wasn't always thus sugar started out as a a minor commodity that was used for medicine and for spice up until I would say into the Middle Ages that's Elizabeth Abbott she teaches history at Trinity College university of Toronto she's the author of sugar a bitter sweet history she says the debate over what sugar is a food and drug or something in between it's not new Thomas Aquinas way back in the thirties entry he pronounced sugar of medicine he said the nutritious in themselves sugar and spices are nonetheless not eaten with the end in mind of nourishment but rather for ease in digestion accordingly they do not break the fast anymore than the taking of any other medicine one reason sugar was welcome in medicine was because a lot of medicine tasted terrible the combination of bitter roots animal feces even bits of course so yeah spoonful of sugar really does make the medicine go down outside of medicine however sugar was decidedly aristocratic for example or you know Iran today it was very very popular among the elite and they are the ones that started this this trend this architecture of sugar and they would make beautiful sculptures often life for example lifesize trees sugar was costly and sugar was rare but the sugar trade began to grow built on the back of the slave trade so by sixteen eighty sugar costs only half what it had in sixteen thirty that was thanks to slavery by seventeen hundred the percentage of imported foodstuffs including sugar had more than doubled and they quadrupled between seventeen hundred and seventeen forty and England and Wales consumed sixty times more six zero times more sugar though their populations did not quite double abit argues that was the industrial revolution the help turn sugar into an everyday thing bill started going from their farms and so on in two cities and into factories and they couldn't go home for lunch because they had you know maybe a fifteen minute break so sugar and tea and binders or some sort of as thing like that with often with jam on it was offered instead and that was what popularized it said that it fueled the industrial revolution because sugar tea and it would be really sugary has calories and they're not nutritious but they are units of energy the sugar boom helped create another boom they were still living through they had a lobby the was extremely powerful I think that we could see all the big heavy industrial lobbying probably stems from the success of the sugar lobby that's right it wasn't enough to benefit from slave labor and huge demand for their product the sugar plantations were profitable not just because of the demand but largely because of how they were politically strong if they had failures if they had hurricanes if they had bad crops which they often did they could keep the price they could get parliament to help them out with that with good legislation and at at tariffs and so on that would favor them and by the way the sugar lobby still a very important one and it has a lot of weight still and it now is a sort of an alliance of cane sugar planters and beach sugar planters and they do get together to to lobby when when they feel that their interests are at stake it was only recently uncovered that in the nineteen sixties the sugar industry paid three Harvard scientists to write a review that shifted the blame for heart disease from sugar to saturated fat much more recently coca Cola spent millions of dollars on research arguing that the real culprit in obesity is lack of exercise not sugary drinks so you can't blame people for being confuse maybe conflicted about the degree to which sugar is a health risk I brought this up with Robert let's dig a lot of people now are convinced that the US government and many others aired terribly into clearing fat to be the enemy or at least the enemy of the scope that was declared to be to be the cause of obesity and that and many people now believe as as you argue that sugar is a much bigger bill and how do we know you're not the guy that's wrong this time that you're not just another perhaps even well intentioned big brain just do gooder who was making a massive mistake awfully good question so this is known as the pessimistic medic induction fury what it says is well everything we knew ten years ago is already wrong and everything we know today will be wrong ten years from now so why should we do anything differently when we know that whatever it is that we believe today will end up being wrong so if you play that game then you might as well never do any research never do anything at all and just basically live with the current dogma there's also the confounding fact as pointed out by former FDA commissioner Margaret Hamburg that a lot of time you're eating sugar even when you don't know your eating sugar things like barbecue sauce and spaghetti sauce and soup actually have much higher levels of sugar than you would ever imagine talk to me for a moment about the smart choices program and and what the FDA did their well the smart choices program was an effort spearheaded by industry and number of major food producing companies came together to create a system where you would give different scores to different aspects of the nutritional value of the product and the total number of would then either give you the green Chad I have a smart choice or not the the title I got the name I gather was an industry yes not a not a right right exactly right I mean the problem with that was that you could the score adequately high to get that green smart choice check without the food truly reflecting I think what any sensible nutrition expert would view as a have a healthy smart choice you know some of the products that got the the smart choice label you know were very high in sugar you know over forty percent sugar we joked that you could practically take sawdust and if you added enough nutrients to it in the fiber of sawdust you know you could have it labeled as a as a healthy choices smart choice right so how long did that last so it was it was out there for a little while we expressed our concerns to the group that had put this together and was implementing at and I think they they listened and understood and they decided voluntarily to withdraw the program and there have been a number of efforts to look at other strategies for providing consumers with important information about foods the nutrition facts label of course is one important aspect but the nutrition facts label that son you know most processed foods and beverages in in this country was first put into place now more than two decades ago but then it was never updated and so when I was commissioner we decided it really did need to be updated to reflect both deeper understandings about how people each you know serving size for example but also advances in nutrition science and so we embarked on a process to update at I think the most important contribution that this updated nutrition facts label provides is in the area of added sugar as I understand it food and beverage companies are already adjusting their products to consider it the new labeling was that your intention well absolutely one of the goals of putting out that information is to encourage companies to reformulate foods towards you know healthier products and we've certainly seen that happen as we move towards this the implementation of this new nutrition facts label Stonyfield yogurt I believe decided to significantly reduce levels of of sugar before the the new facts label is actually in place FTA in some ways has the opportunity to use both the carrot and the stick you know knowing that we we could do mandatory guidelines on certain things it often encouraged industry to work with us to come to voluntary approaches but there's no doubt that the there are tensions one big argument for stringent regulations against of or maybe even an age limit of some kind meaning you can't really consumed much of it until a certain age is that there's a lot of scientific research showing that all kinds of habit formation happens when were very young and so obviously if kids grow up eating and drinking a lot of really sweet stuff it can be hard to back off given that fact could you see justifying some kind of sugar regulation that really targets as some people have suggested Robert lusting I'm guessing you're familiar with his his arguments that may be there should be a really stringent regulation of sugar when it comes to kids you know I think that clearly behaviors get established very early on developing tastes for hi sugar foods you know set you up poorly for the future we know that more and more American kids and adults are overweight and obese and you know just in the last thirty years I think we've seen rates of obesity in childhood double so we need to take that seriously we need to address that I am not sure that the kind of regulation that you're raising here and that some have put forward is realistic I think what we want is an approach that can really be implemented and really make a difference and I do think that the FDA's contribution around the nutrition facts label is really quite significant because it's gonna help inform consumers towards making smarter choices but it's also going to change industry behavior I think it's important to look at other areas of social policy as well as other ways to educate the public to make better choices such as what are some other examples are you mentioned other strategies in addition to the labeling well there's been a lot of debate about soda taxes and you know it's certainly been an area of some controversy but a number of cities in this country have adopted soda taxes and some other nations have Mexico being one prominent example and it really has been increasing awareness of of concerns around sodas why they represent you know really empty calories that put you at risk for excessive calorie consumption and adverse health effects and I think we're seeing shifts in social norms partly because of that debate generated by the soda tax and partly because of other opportunities where issues around sugar and the negative health impacts of excessive sugar has been raised but we're seeing consumption of soda come down quite dramatically in this country and I think that's an encouraging trend and and one that I think we want to continue to reinforce so Robert let's stick he like several others in in that camp argue that that sugar should be regulated substantially because it meets the criteria for substances that should be controlled or regulated unavoidable of the toxicity potential for abuse and negative impact on society so I'm curious what your thoughts are on sugar feeding those criteria whether you think that's even a useful framework I think that we need to reduce excess sugar in our diets and in the products that we consume I think consumers need more education and information but I'm not sure that I can really embrace you know the proposal to regulate sugar in that way because it would be to over reaching because it would be too difficult why it's a complex area to regulate in that sugar is you know our intrinsic components of many foods many foods which I should be part of a balanced nutritious diet fruits and vegetables and dairy products are good examples and I I think that you know some of the the concerns that have been raised you know may not be fully grounded in the best possible science not fully grounded in the best possible sites that you'll recall was Richard cons main objection to the idea of regulating sugar but there's another one too okay so if you reduce it or get rid of it or put up policies and laws regulating it what good is it going to do and we have no clue no real good evidence that it's going to do any good whatsoever and therefore unintended consequences become a very important factor Robert lusty egg meanwhile is as you have like we figured out by now in favor of just about any kind of sugar regulation you can't imagine taxes for instance and price hikes both of which worked to reduce cigarette smoking and are already being used on sugary drinks in a few places well the the modeling studies that have been done suggest that you have to raise the price of a can of soda by about twenty percent in order to see any meaningful reduction in consumption let's dig is also in favor of limiting the availability of sugar removing vending machines from schools for instance also banning TV commercials for products with added sugar also getting rid of subsidies subsidies for food make no sense because subsidies distort the market okay one last question perhaps ridiculous or impossible but let's say we're in a world where you could edit jeans quite easily and and it seems we're not that far from it whether we're talking about a fifty year old person or as I go how would you consider editing the genes related to what seems to be a craving Pratt's even dangerous craving for sugar well that's a really tough question we don't want to turn off our reward system entirely if we do we actually get into trouble we actually did this we did this experiment with the medicine back in the early two thousands the medicine was called reminded the aunt and.
"robert lusty" Discussed on Here & Now
"You so much for for your time. Thank you but also to the Americans on the mainland half always Reached after us and you know just shared with us that it means a lot so we appreciate it very much. So how are those New Year's resolutions. It's going if one of them was to climb on board the very crowded less sugar in twenty twenty trained. You're probably horrified to find out how insidiously sugar and it's evil evil twin. Fructose have been added to our food. There's a teaspoon of sugar and every tablespoon of Ketchup. Our next Guest Says Food Has Been Adulterated poisoned. And he's not kidding. He says sugar plays a central role in health problems including an epidemic of obesity in infants as young as six months that it's as dangerous as smoking or abusive alcohol. ooh And if you're doing the New York Times seven-day sugar challenge. They say even grapes and Bananas Have Too much sugar dot. Robert Lusty is professor of pediatric endocrinology analogy at the University of California San Francisco. Dr Rob People no sugar isn't a health food. Why is it so dangerous? Well so people both think that sugars just empty calories and they think well you get some discretionary calories during the day so why hi can they be sugar. Well if sugar were just calories than they be right except they're wrong because different calories in foods are burned and the absorbed digested Matab last in different ways and do different things and contribute to different diseases. Ages so I just want to underscore what you've said because the rule has always been calories in calories out you just gotTa burn it off somewhere in the middle and you're saying again that is not true. What do sugar calories do right? So why are sugar calories so different well. There are different for three reasons. The first is when when sugar is absorbed it goes to the liver and the liver gets overwhelmed. It has limited capacity to metabolize belies it just like it has a limited capacity metabolize alcohol just like it has a limited capacity to metabolize many of the toxins that we taken again because your liver is the detoxification centre of your body. It has a limited capacity for being able to deal with sugar when you overwhelm overwhelm it. The liver has no choice but to take the excess and turn it into liver fat and that liver. Fat is the driver of virtually every chronic disease that we are now currently suffering from. That's gone up in time. So tech to diabetes lipid problems hypertension cardiovascular ask disease cancer dementia non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease polycystic ovarian disease all being driven by liver fat and the liver. The fat is because of the sugar. And so you can basically have alcoholic fatty liver disease. If you're over twenty one or you can of non alcoholic fatty liver disease. And it doesn't make a difference because they are identical and so we have done several liver transplants. In Soda Drinkers Teenage Soda Drinkers Transplants. And talk about the insidiousness of Sodas. And I got you this is. I'm one of those people. I pride myself. I don't drink coffee but I picked up a little bit of a Soda Habit and it's just appalling tilt to think of how up it's an addiction. It's not APP. It's an addiction and anybody who says Oh you know. have this horrible sweet truth. That's sugar addiction. So sugar is addictive in the same way as alcohol in the same way. As nicotine cocaine amphetamine lean a heroin shopping gambling social media internet pornography. All of these stimulate same area of the brain colder reward center the nucleus accumbens anything that causes the release of dopamine is in the extreme addictive. And you call all this the Coca Cola conspiracy because you say it's not by accident It's not just that. There's a ton of caffeine added to sodas that makes you then P.. Pardon my in elegance they also add salt so the combination makes you thirstier so you drink rumour exactly so. They know what they're doing. Do you have to put salt in coke. There used to be a caller called royal crown. Cola didn't have any salt in it. I mean coca-cola knocked them out of the park but the fact act is you don't have to put salt in soda so this is by design well and then fructose are was sold to us as more natural sugar. It's this is in You know corn and beats and such but as you point out one of the things they do in freak does which has added to just about everything is stripped the fiber Barau out of it so that it has a longer shelf life so it has absolutely none of that benefit. And why is fructose as bad as sugar. So first of all love sugar is two molecules bound together Glucose and fructose now glucose is not all that bad suck right. But it's not that bad however fructose because it is metabolize into that liver fat in the liver. That's where the problem comes in. In addition fructose starts the aging reaction. It causes what we call. Characterization is the reason for wrinkles is the reason for cataracts this aging reaction. This Browning reaction does does it. Seven Times Faster Than Glucose. And now we have learned through work done at Joslin Diabetes Center that fructose specifically inhibits Amaya. CONJUL enzyme that causes those might a country to burn less well which probably is one of the reasons for the persistent weight gain and also chronic disease and glucose. Doesn't we do that. So there are some very specific differences between these two molecules however when you consume any form of sugar whether it's sucrose host which is table sugar cane sugar beet sugar stuff you putting your coffee or high fructose corn syrup or honey or Maple Syrup Oregon doesn't matter you're getting getting one of each molecule and so sugar is a problem because of the front toes molecule. Look we we have just a couple minutes left. I urge people to watch your lecture but you draw direct line from the state. We're in today to the health industry and the government in nineteen eighty two. We were told cut out fats and so everybody went to carbs and of course carbs are filled with all these sugars that you're talking about and by the way obesity went up when we cut cut out fats and went to carbs. You go back to Nixon in the early nineteen seventies who there was a political crisis. Food was too expensive. He directed his Agriculture Department. Department to cheapen it which they did by adding a lot of these you know corn syrup products. You call fructose. Yep you called fructose. A A poison and one would ask why were narrowed. FDA regulated poison. Well one of our biggest exports is our food of course the food industry pushes pushes back on your claims and the claims of others but people know what they can see with their own eyes. They don't feel well. They see their children are overweight. A lot of people now Are doing things like the New York Times. Seventy sugar challenge trying to cut back the first day. You know no sugar at breakfast. How would you help? People do This given that it is so addictive in it is so everywhere right so I will be very honest with you. We will not solve this problem until the food industry solves it for us and they have no interest in doing so because this is their gravy train. This is their juggernaut. This is how they went from one percent. Gross gross profit margin to five percent gross profit margin in the span of three decades. This is their livelihood and and they are not gonNA do anything they don't have to do and unfortunately the government's in bed with them because they're making fifty six billion dollars a year off. Export tariffs off our food. So the only way we are going to fix this problem is when there are more votes than dollars and right right now. We're just beginning to get some traction in the general public For this issue of food having having said that people need to understand what the problem is they have to understand the difference between processed food and real food and the differences processed processed. Food is high sugar. Low fiber high sugar for Palatability low fiber for shelf life. Real food is low. Sugar high fiber real food works processed. Food Food doesn't processed food kills because of these issues and we could repeat could fix this tomorrow if we wanted to. Problem is because sugars addictive. People don't want one of the saddest things in your lecture. Is You talk about Children and who have the serious health issues now that are traced to the juices that they're given and these are low income children in the juices come to them through the government with program. Exactly right it's got to be tough for you to see those children impossible Breaks your heart. You know the fact that matter is these kids. It's our victims and we know who the perpetrators are and the fact is You know the parents don't understand and so it promulgates we'll gates itself. The fact is what mothers eat. During pregnancy ultimately impact on the number of fat cells children in a born with and those fat cells. WanNa get filled so these kids didn't have a chance even before they were born. Never mind afterwards I I mean how do you blame a six month old for obesity. Fact matter is we have a problem and we have to address it and.
"robert lusty" Discussed on KCBS All News
"Many of whom will lose their coverage by October because of days in delays in rebuilding. A pediatric endocrinologists said that teen addiction to video gaming is affecting their brain development KCBS, Mike HOGAN says the World Health Organization recently recognized gaming disorders as a mental health condition UCSF professor of pediatrics Robert lusty said playing video games, gives one dopamine high, but it also kills brain cell neurons. Once those neurons have died, they're not coming back. And that's one of the reasons why addiction is so hard to treat. Because now you're ability to generate a dope. Min responses. Now inhibited, it's been attenuated because you've lost those neurons. Eighteen year old park land shooting survivor Cameron Caskey was attending Silicon Valley conference said teens like playing video games because it makes them feel like a winner when I defeat somebody in a video game I feel victory over them the way, I would if I defeated them in sports fi defeated them in intellectual conversation, and people really connected that Jim star CEO of San Francisco based, common sense, media, said, video games should carry warning labels. It's incumbent upon the industry to educate their users about the potential downside. The video game industry said there isn't enough evidence to justify the mental disorder. Classification, my Colgan KCBS more than one million dollars civil penalties and restitution orders have been awarded to people who were cheated by telemarketers. Many of them were elderly people, California attorney general havi Bezerra says the alleged, scammers are based out of Long Beach, and their victims lost money through bogus invest. -ment recovery services..
"robert lusty" Discussed on KCBS All News
"Year. He threatened the counselors who kicked him out of a residential treatment program. KCBS gentleman spoke with some experts about new information. The San Francisco, Chronicle obtained newly released records about last year shooting at the veteran's home in yawn, vill show that the perpetrator a former client of the pathway home program had talked about killing employees. When everybody looks back, they found this guy made threats, he told his friends, Michelle Licht is an attorney for mental health care providers and says, in general, they could benefit from more training in threat assessment and more support when they act on it, and how do we protect them? Sometimes they are rightfully afraid to call the police because it will put them in their family danger. It's easy for the perpetrators to figure out why the police paid a visit to them, therapist, and consultant to therapists, Rene, Lonner, joins licked and calling for better training would shows. Us. The first thing is the principal among predecessor professionals in it's been the principal for decades. Is that violence almost never comes out of the blue almost never gentlemen, KCBS, and man suspected of exposing himself to students outside Taylor middle school in mill Bray may be connected to similar inappropriate behavior on the upper peninsula, KCBS, marquee Schaefer reports police are making progress on the case center asking for the public's help this week near Taylor middle school. A man masturbated is two girls walk nearby. They ran away and reported a similar situation. Occurred may fifth in mill Bray and also involved two young girls who were riding their bikes in a neighborhood. And in that particular incident, he pulled over to the side of the road, actually got out of his car and was acting inappropriately, and the girls enough situation did a same exact thing. They ran to an adult that amateur sheriff detective Rosemary blanks. Wade the sheriff's office has released a suspect sketch of a black, or Hispanic man in his twenties, or thirties, thin build five foot eight or nine with facial hair across the jaw line. The car is amid two. Thousands Toyota or Honda silver with tinted windows in the back a spoiler and a sunroof the belief that there might be other similar incidents in other cities and surrounding areas. Anyone with information or surveillance video is asked to contact the San Mateo county sheriff's office in Redwood City market Schaefer, KCBS group of public and private water systems in California have launched a campaign aimed at convincing lawmakers to shield them from having to pay damages caused by fires that they didn't start but did fail to help put out while fire lawsuits, have typically targeted electric utilities, and they're down power lines that ignite the blaze, but some recent lawsuits have also focused on the public water systems that are supposed to provide water to fight the flames on lawsuit stemming from a two thousand eight fire force, the Yorba, Linda water district may seventy million dollars to twelve homeowners. It didn't start the fire, but a pump station was damaged and unable to get water to a neighborhood. KCBS news time twelve one twenty will workers who feel stress on the job. Can now get some validation for those feelings the World Health Organization now recognizes work burn out us something real in calls an occupational phenomenon symptoms include feelings of exhaustion cynicism about the workplace in difficulty actually doing the job. Dr David Spiegel is the director of the center on stress and health at the Stanford University school of medicine. What they call a syndrome, so, but they are saying it exists, and I think it's a way of saying, take it seriously. One study suggested that there are nine million people in Germany, with job related burnout, man, so more and more companies are setting up programs wellness programs to help people manage the work related stress symptoms include being tired down and not getting the joy that you used to out of work. Well, pediatric endocrinologist, says teen addiction of video games is affecting their brain development, KCBS, Mike HOGAN says the World Health Organization recently recognized gaming disorder as a mental health condition Scheffer, pediatrics Robert lusty said playing video games, gives one dopamine high, but it also kills brain cell neurons once those neurons have died, they're not coming back. And that's one of the reasons why addiction is so hard to treat. Because now your ability to generate a dope min responses now inhibited, it's been attenuated, because you've loss. Those neurons. Eighteen year old park land shooting survivor Cameron Caskey who's attending a Silicon Valley conference said teens like playing video games because it makes them feel like a winner when I defeat somebody in a video game I feel a victory over them the way I would if I defeated them in sports, if defeated them in an intellectual conversation and people really connect with that Jim stiers CEO of San Francisco based common sense, media, said, video games should carry warning labels. It's incumbent upon the industry to educate their users about the potential downsides the video game industry. So there isn't enough evidence to justify the mental disorder. Classification, mike. Colgan KCBS..
"robert lusty" Discussed on KCBS All News
"We'll build a few more over much of the bay area, and we might even get a little bit of rain mainly in the north bay other than that we shouldn't experience much rain at all in the north bay going into tomorrow afternoon. Just a weak little weather system that's going to be passing overhead, and because of that the temperatures will cool down a few degrees tomorrow. So daytime highs tomorrow will come in the mid to upper seventies from most locations across the bay and mid eighties inland, and then once we're done with tomorrow. Things are going to start warming up. In fact, it's going to be the warming trend that really starts to make the headline in the forecast from now all the way through Tuesday and Wednesday of next week by the time we get to the weekend temperatures inland or in the upper eighties. And then we should start hitting some low nineties for KCBS. I'm meteorologist Aaron peck with your KPI export cast, traffic and weather together on the it's on all news, one of six nine AM, seven forty KCBS a DJ DIGI dot com searching for a new or used car be happy, and visit DIGI DIGI dot com. KCBS news time seven fifty endeavoring Ingersoll at the key CBS editor's desk, as your Newswatch continues, the pediatric endocrinologist, says teen addiction to video games is affecting their brain development KCBS, Mike Cogan says the World Health Organization recently recognized gaming disorder as a mental health condition. Professor, pediatrics Robert lusty said playing video games, gives one a dopamine high, but it also kills brain cell neurons once those neurons have died, they're not coming back. And that's one of the reasons why addiction is so hard to treat. Because now you're ability to generate a dope responses now inhibited, it's been attenuated because you've lost those neurons, eighteen-year-old park land shooting survivor Cameron Caskey was attending Silicon Valley conference said teams like playing video games because it makes them feel like a winter when I defeat somebody in a video game I feel victory over them the way, I would, if I defeated them in sports, if I defeated them in intellectual conversation, and people really connected that Jim stiers CEO of San Francisco.
"robert lusty" Discussed on Freakonomics
"Well, the modeling studies that have been done suggests that you have to raise the price of a can of soda by about twenty percent. In order to see any meaningful reduction in consumption. Let's dig is also in favor of limiting the availability of sugar removing vending machines from schools. For instance, also banning TV commercials for products with added sugar. Also getting rid of subsidies subsidies for food. Make no sense because subsidies distort, the market. Okay. One last question, perhaps ridiculous or impossible. But. Let's say we're in a world where you could edit jeans quite easily and seems not that far from it. Whether we're talking about a fifty year old person, or as I go, how would you consider editing the genes related to what seems to be a craving perhaps even dangerous craving for sugar. Well, that's a really tough question. We don't want to turn off our reward system in tirelessly. If we do we actually get into trouble. We actually did this. We did this experiment with a medicine back in the early two thousands medicine was called Ramana bent. And what it was was. It was the anti marijuana medicine. It blocked the Endo Canaveral receptors in the brain. And by doing so reduced reward for alcohol and for food. In fact, people who took Ramon event lost a fair amount of weight. And it looked very promising until we started looking at the face three data and started realizing that a lot of these people became severely depressed. And in fact, many of them committed suicide, and we didn't realize it until we did those face retrials, and it was never approved here in the United States. Bottom line is if you take away reward you take away. The reason for living. So being careful about gene editing a rewards system. Most of the regulatory measures that Robert lusty would like to see around sugar lie somewhere between unlikely and impossible at least for now in any case. We asked a bunch of people in Times Square. They thought of to adventure. Sugar is one of the best things in the world. Should be taxed either probably attacks. But not a van. Because they don't think fan would work very, well, maybe a tax with I have people think about what they're buying a bit. We're off talk that was backfire really bad because look at the back, and they're assure war British attacks on T and people don't really like that too much. So totally right. A love of sugar seems from what we can tell pretty universal including among the scientists. And doctors we've been speaking with today from Richard Kahn, formerly of the American diabetes association. One clear thing that comes to mind is just pleasure sugars enjoyable to eat..
"robert lusty" Discussed on MyTalk 107.1
"Five one six four one one zero seven one did i get that right you did and thank you for clarifying that cassie right well i guess i gave out a wrong number two so i just got a little jumbled there before we jump back into topic i was thinking of something over break and i want to share with the listeners in our class called five steps to boost metabolism we have a really great graphic a great slide where it shows a loaf of bread and some delicious looking dinner rolls and the title on top of that slide is the body makes fat from carbs so true right it is and i really don't think it's any new way of thinking necessarily i mean i think even my grandma's generation knew that if they wanted to lose weight they needed to eat a little less or maybe give up altogether they're toast and their sandwiches and their dinner rolls so here's the question for all of you listening would you be willing to substitute a salad or substitute some cooked vegetables in place of the bread over the next three weeks and see how you feel it didn't take me long i was forced to give up bread for medical reasons and i cried and honestly overnight my cravings were gone and it didn't take more than a week or so that i did not miss the bread at all because the vegetables have so much more texture and flavor so i really encourage you i challenge you to give it a try try it for three weeks get the bread out replace it with vegetables and i think you'll find that some magical things happen that's right so back to our topic or to continue our topic we're talking about today are we a culture of high insulin i think we have said we seem to be we are according to jason fong dr jason fung in the obesity code he posed that question are we like the pima indians that cassie talked about and now it's all about process carbs for many americans so interestingly babies born to mothers with just station diabetes have three times the risk of obesity and diabetes later in life that is interesting it is and i look back joanne and i don't think all mothers you know like my mom's generation i don't think they were always tested right and i just wonder if some of the bigger babies that were born had right moms with just a national diabetes so something to think about right those children who are obese in childhood have more than seventeen times the risk of obesity going into adulthood and this topic is very near and dear to my heart because i was one of those babies that was born with insulin resistance my mom had jason just station diabetes and even all those years ago she did no and she was tested i was a preemie and i was fed formula containing corn syrup oh all those factors together i gained weight very quickly as an infant of course horse i have fought weight gain and insulin resistance my whole life so i didn't really learn the reason why until i started working at nutritional weight and wellness and i learned this information from dr robert lusty work book fat chance that was a big aha moment for me so dr less dig is a pediatric endocrinologist so about five years ago i've started putting these pieces together and i thought no wonder i gained weight so easily in my childhood and throughout my whole life and just knowing that has made it very easy for me to give up the bread okay okay there's the happy ending can now it's just like that's a no brainer for me now no one well you are such a positive person that i i would have guessed that's what you would have taken away because i can imagine joanna's i listened to your story you know if some people were to learn i was born insulin resistant i was born behind the eight ball i'm destined to weight gain they they may have thrown up their hands and said this is what's going to be right but you took it the other way and you said okay no yeah i was born at a disadvantage so i have to be more conscious and more mindful that's right and and give up the bread and i'm and i'm past the.
"robert lusty" Discussed on KQED Radio
"To voluntary approaches but there's no doubt that dido there are tensions so robert lustick he like several others in in that camp argue that that sugar should be regulated substantially because it meets criteria for substances that should be controlled or regulated unavoidable adi toxic city potential for abuse and negative impact on society so i'm curious what your thoughts are on sugar fitting those criteria whether you think that's even a useful framework i think that we need to reduce excess sugar in our diets and in the products that we consume i think consumers need more education and information but i'm not sure that i can really embrace the you know the proposal to regulate sugar in that way because it would be too a overreaching because it would be too difficult y it is a complex area to regulate in that sugars you know are intrinsic components of many foods many foods which should be part of a balanced nutritious diet fruits and vegetables and dairy products are good examples and i i think that you know some of the the concerns that have been raised may not be fully grounded in the best possible science not fully grounded in the best possible science that you will recall was richard khan's main objection to the idea of regulating sugar but there's another one too though keisu review reduce it or get rid of it or put policies and laws regulating what good is it going to do and we have no clue no real good evidence that it's going to do any good whatsoever and therefore unintended consequences become a very important factor robert lusty ig meanwhile is as you of likely figured out by now in favour of just about any kind of sugar regulation you can imagine taxes for instance and pricehikes both of which worked to reduce cigarette smoking and are already being used on sugary drinks in a few places well.
"robert lusty" Discussed on KQED Radio
"Camp argue that that sugar should be regulated substantially because it meets criteria for substances that should be controlled or regulated unavoidable adi taxes city potential for abuse and negative impact on society so i'm curious what your thoughts are on sugar fitting those criteria whether you think that's even a useful framework i think that we need to reduce excess sugar in our diets and in the products that we consume i think consumers need more education and information but i'm not sure that i can really embrace the you know the proposal to regulate sugar in that way um because it would be too uh overreaching because it would be too difficult why wii it is a complex area to regulate in that sugars you know are intrinsic components of many foods many foods which should be part of a balanced nutritious diet um fruits and vegetables and dairy products are good examples and i i think that you know some of the the concerns that have been raised it may not be fully grounded in the best possible science not fully grounded in the best possible science that you will recall was richard khan's main objection to the idea of regulating sugar but there's another one too though caso review reduce it or get rid of it or put policies and laws regulating it what good is it going to do uh and we have no clue no real good evidence that it's going to do any good whatsoever and therefore unintended consequences become a very important factor robert lusty ig meanwhile is as you of likely figured out by now in favour of just about any kind of sugar regulation you can imagine taxes for instance and pricehikes both of which worked to reduce cigarette smoking and are already being used on sugary drinks in a few places well.
"robert lusty" Discussed on KQED Radio
"That sugar consumption has been the cause has is the cause of our obesity epidemic and then subst let me diabetes but a i believe that the evidence for this is pretty weak when the city of san francisco wanted to add warning labels to soda con submitted an expert report on behalf of among others the american beverage association he wrote quote there is no scientific consensus that added sugar including added sugar in beverages please a unique role in the development of obesity and diabetes so if we looked as an analogy for example to cigarette smoking and tried to make the link between sugar and obesity or diabetes and cigarette smoking to cancer and say well okay what's been what's the differences okay what are the differences in the cigarette smoking realm the lowest snow looking rate produced an enormous incidence of lung cancer and the highest rate of smoking i was just simply off the charts in terms of the likelihood of developing lung cancer conversely with sugar consumption is less than a twofold increase at the highest levels this gets into tricky territory is concept as some studies do find a twofold increase in diabetes at highest rate of sugar consumption but other analyses including one by robert lusty egg argue that it's considerably higher that said the relationship between sugar and obesity is nowhere near as strong as the relationship between smoking and lung cancer according to the national institutes of health even late smoking results in a ninefold increase the next when is something called temporarily in other words is there association in time between sugar consumption and obesity so that held pretty true from about 1985 to the year two thousand where there was as obesity levels went up sugar consumption went up but thereafter starting in the year two thousand even to today sugar consumption has declined somewhere around fifteen to twenty percent whereas obesity rates continue to rise we don't see that at all with smoking the analogous situation in cigarette smoking rises cancer rises cigarettesmoking declines cancer declines this of.
"robert lusty" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"To voluntary approaches but there's no doubt that dido there are tensions so robert mustered you like several others in in that camp argue that that sugar should be regulated substantially because it meets criteria for substances that should be controlled or regulated unavoidable adi tux this city potential for abuse and negative impact on society so i'm curious what your thoughts are on sugar fitting those criteria whether you think that's even a useful framework i think that we need to reduce excess sugar in our diets and in the products that we consume i think consumers need more education and information but i'm not sure that i can really embrace the you know the proposal to regulate sugar in that way because it would be too uh overreaching because it would be too difficult y it is a complex area to regulate in that sugars you know are intrinsic components of many foods many foods which should be part of a balanced nutritious diet fruit and vegetables and dairy products are good examples and i i think that you know some of the the concerns that have been raised it may not be fully grounded in the best possible science not fully grounded in the best possible science that you will recall was richard khan's main objection to the idea of regulating sugar but there's another one too though caso review reduce it or get rid of it or put of policies and laws regulating what good is it going to do and we have no clue no real good evidence that it's going to do any good whatsoever and therefore unintended consequences become a very important factor robert lusty ig meanwhile is as you of like we figured out by now in favour of just about any kind of sugar regulation you can imagine taxes for instance and pricehikes both of which worked to reduce cigarette smoking and are already being used on sugary drinks in a few places well.
"robert lusty" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Availability of cheap delicious sweet food okay so many people do you believe that sugar consumption has been the cause has is the cause of our obesity epidemic and then subsequently diabetes but i believe that the evidence for this is pretty weak when the city of san francisco wanted to add warning labels to soda con submitted an expert report on behalf of among others the american beverage association he wrote quote there is no scientific consensus that added sugar including added sugar in beverages please a unique role in the development of obesity and diabetes so if we looked as an analogy for example to cigarette smoking and tried to make the link between sugar and obesity or diabetes and cigarette smoking to cancer and say well okay what's been what's the differences a k what are the differences in the cigarette smoking realm the lowest smoking rate produced inning nor miss uh incidence of lung cancer and the highest rate of smoking was just simply off the charts in terms of the likelihood of developing lung cancer conversely with sugar consumption is less than a twofold increase at the highest levels this gets into tricky territory is con says some studies do find a twofold increase in diabetes at highest re of sugar consumption but other analyses including one by robert lusty dig argue that if considerably higher that said the relationship between sugar and obesity is nowhere near as strong as the relationship between smoking and lung cancer according to the national institutes of health evenly smoking results in a ninefold increase the next one is something called temporarily in other words is there association in time between sugar consumption and obesity so that held pretty true from about 1985 to the year two thousand where there was as obesity levels went up sugar consumption went up but thereafter starting in the year two thousand even to today sugar consumption has declined somewhere around 15 to 20 percent whereas obesity rates continue to rise we don't see that are all with smoking the analogous situation in cigarette smoking rises cancer rises cigarette smoking declines cancer declines this of.
"robert lusty" Discussed on KQED Radio
"You're hearing morning edition on kqed public radio later this morning will on kqed science the bay area salt pawns are a relic of history dating back to the gold rush head of the salt pawns get there and why are they such bright pink colors that's on kqed science during morning edition at six 23 inc and again at 823 here on kqed public radio after morning edition it's forum during the nine o'clock hour it's the news round up from the gop tax overhaul to the status of special counsel robert mueller's investigation forum discusses all the latest national political news at ten o'clock here from dr robert lusty gone the hacking of the american mind dr lustick says that our addiction to smartphones and social media is largely driven by corporate profit in that the technology behind these devices has designed a traitor the same reactions as a drug that you see us f researcher joints forum in studio to talk about his latest book the hacking of the american mind the science behind the corporate takeover of our bodies and brains that's forum with michael krasny from nine to eleven this morning here on kqed public radio it's seven and a half minutes now after four o'clock good morning yeah it's morning edition from npr news i'm steve inskeep in washington and i'm david greene in culver city california this week may be a big moment for president trump republicans in congress really the entire conservative movement the house and senate are poised to pass a republican tax bill and send it to the president's desk treasury secretary steven mnuchin went out over the weekend to sell the bill here he is on cbs's face the nation yesterday people said we wouldn't get this done were on the verge getting this down the single biggest change to the tax system ever that president trump is going to sign this week in his priority along has been fix a broken system congressman andy harris republican representing parts of maryland uh supported this legislation and joins us this morning congressman orient good morning good to be with you well thanks for the time i know the final five hundred page bill came out friday night anything in this last virgin surprise you i know he knows a compromise between the.