34 Burst results for "Robert Lamb"
The Interior World
"Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb, and I'm Joe. McCormick, and today we're going to be taking a look at interior space. Get Era Two thousand twenty brings to mind the old curse. May You live in interesting times and one of the factors here has, of course, been the corona virus cove in nineteen pandemic and in an effort to fight the spread of the illness, save lives and prevent overwhelming are hospitals. We've made a lot of changes to our lives and these range from the simple such as just wearing a mask when you're out in public and you can't so full. Distance from people to the harder choices about employment, and in life choices, we've all been social distancing and stay at home orders teleworking in quarantine have meant that we've all been spending a lot more time at home. Now depending on your home, this could mean a lot of things, but we want to explore what this means from a biological standpoint for the most part here. Now, make no mistake spending more time at home has absolutely been the right move. But just as it's forced you to focus more on, say that weird stain on your ceiling we wanted to focus on the other often unseen aspects of life in home right much the same way that being say on a Spanish galleon out in the middle of the ocean might have made you pay much more attention to the biology and behavior of of ship rats than you ever would have otherwise I. Think being at home more and more is forcing all of us to Turner is and maybe our microscopes and magnifying glasses to the corners and the cornices and the showerheads and the drain traps and all of the wonderful places in our house where life dwells. we're going to really get into the difference really between the natural world outside of our homes in the unnatural world inside and getting into some ideas about how how we could perhaps enable our interior world to be a little more on the natural side of things. But. Before we get into all that, I wanted to take a moment here to discuss the history of houses in general, you know just to get into the concept of what a house is. Our first and most important interior artificial environment. So you can certainly look at a home as an artificial cave to a certain extent indeed, we have lots of early evidence that early hominids sought out shelter in caves in the same way that many other animals do these can shelter one against the elements and against predators and as recently as one hundred, thirty thousand years ago cave-dwellers were already augmenting these natural interior environments with things like rough stone walls using timbers so So you know, even one, hundred, thirty, thousand years ago we were taking naturally occurring interior spaces and. A little less natural. And of course, on top of just the shelter caves can provide. It also seems that caves had a strong sacred meaning too many of these prehistoric peoples those might be important, but ultimately, proximity to water is far more important thus as Kate Spin Brian fagin point out in. In the section of the seventy grade inventions of the ancient world about homes, most early hominids lived out in the open near streams and lakes built temporary structures, and most of this has been lost a time. But some of the earliest evidence of potential structures for homes goes back a one point seven, two point seven, million years ago with Homo Erectus sites in southern Africa, and these were potentially contemporary with the domestication of fire. The have been temporary tents, but they still would have been artificial interior environments. Now, more secure evidence comes from the Ukraine roughly forty four thousand years ago the the mammoth bone structures from mullet ova with recently see us on the show actually yeah we did talknet these that would have been structures in one of the northernmost habitable regions of the earth the time because this was during a time of glacial. Advance where the polar ice caps from the north were coming deep down into Europe and Asia, and and so this would have been far far north way up among the ice and for some reason, humans were building these structures out of the bones of mammoth and we don't know that there are still things. We don't know about those structures like how how consistently they were inhabited and for how long and so forth. Right? Now beyond this, the history of human homes is is largely dictated by local resources and local climate. Long process of trial and error ends up leading to the development of regional and cultural building forums construction methods. Before nine thousand B C e we see evidence of clay houses and Palestine what is today Palestine and before seven thousand BC we see rectangular dwellings in Anatolia. But but a home is far more than just a shelter. As the authors here point out houses became key to social structure as well.
Ice Like Stone
"Welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick and we're going to be talking about materials today but this is a really fun materials episode that will shatter like glass in our hands or will it I? Guess. It's a big question mark. Yeah we'RE GONNA be talking a lot about ice, but a lot of exciting stuff about is you're gonNA learn some new things about ice I think and you're also going to think A bit more deeply about what can be done and also. Perhaps cannot or should not be done with ice. So if you've read any of George are Martin's a song of ice and fire. If you've read that saga or if you've viewed the TV adaptation, a game of thrones, you're well acquainted with the wall but to reacquaint everybody, this is a fantasy world that's day stunt sort of a medieval European model, and in the far north, you have this massive three, hundred mile long seven, hundred foot tall wall of ice that we're told has stood there for eight thousand years is a barrier against the peoples and the supernatural horrors of the far north. Yeah. It's basically. HADRIAN's wall except much bigger and made of magic. Yes. Yeah. We're told it was built by brandon the builder with the aid of giants and the magical children of the forest were definitely to understand that there is actual magic in its construction. But also there's this idea that brandon was a master engineer that he's in the vein of these various engineering cultural heroes that you see in various cultures. But of course, the the real up feature that makes this while unique is that it is built out of ice not out of stone but out of frozen water. Yes it is a wall of ice so. Ignoring the magic for a second here. It sounds like a great plan, right? I. Mean Humans have been known to make shelters out of ice glaciers and snow has served as natural barriers to travel. So why wouldn't a it'd be ideal to construct this far northern barrier which is going to be dealing with you know with far northern climate why not build it out of ice good. Question is a block of ice not just as good as stone brick. Yeah. So I, I was looking around about this and Fortunately. There is already a great book out there that dives into this very question it sidled fire ice and physics the science of game of thrones by Rebecca Thompson, PhD A physicist, and author of the popular of Spectra Series of Comic Books About Physics and I should also note that Sean Carroll wrote the Intro Cool. So she first of all, this is just a really fun book. If you if if you're interested in game of thrones and science I encourage you to pick it up I love books like this. One about Dune. I I've been eyeing one about star wars. But she goes through various aspects of the books and the world of West rose in breaks about scientifically Indus-. So in a very engaging humorous but also West rose loving style. So, there's there's one section there where she tackles the wall and she points out that ultimately this question would an ice while work is a lot more complex than you might think. So for starters, there's not just one type of Ice Crystal. There are seventeen types of crystalline is that we know of plus there are three different types of amorphous ice and three hundred. Theoretically she says there might be as many as three hundred different phases of ice. Depending on some of the the research out there
"robert lamb" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"To invention. My name is Robert Lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. And we're back with another part of our exploration of the invention of the motion picture. So as we were discussing in the previous episode, so I think one of the things we've been trying to lay the groundwork for is that the idea of the motion picture like the movies we watched today was not one of these inventions that just like comes out of nowhere, right? The eureka moment that strike some brilliant inventors brain. The motion picture very much grew out of several streams of existing technology, right. Absolutely. There's not just one individual as this is this dream of motion pictures and then develops it in density and then unveils the motion picture for hungry for the hungry masses to view right. Ah, and it's something also that I think people's taste foreign away had to develop over time, and I think we can explore that. Maura's thie episodes go on. But like where we're starting today, I think there are three major streams. Of technology that air feeding into the development of the motion picture. So one is something we talked about last time that we might call animation devices like the FINA kissed a cope or the FINA kissed a scope. It's been called both or the Zoetrope. These were toys that created an illusion of continuous motion. By rolling through a succession of still images that took advantage of loopholes in the way that our eyes and our brains perceive images known as apparent movement. Basically, it was an optical illusion that allowed a bunch of still images to appear to us as something that is moving right. And these were devices that grew out of the age of photography, so these were not Ancient bio are really any older than photographic technology, right. But the these early animation devices were mostly known for animating like drawings or silhouette cutouts, right, But An interesting question you might have wondered about the times say it's the 18 seventies, the 18 eighties or so you might begin to wonder if you could combine the optical principles here in the these animation devices of a parent movement generated by looking at successive still images really fast with another technology and development, which, of course, is photography, so to replace these hand drawn or hand cut still images with direct records of scenes in reality. Exactly And then finally another technology that we've explored a lot less so far, but will become really important in today's episode that feeds into the history of the motion picture is something that's known as the Magic Lantern, and that's an invention that had existed for centuries by the time of the motion picture was invented, but essentially, you can think of it as kind of an early version of the slide projector. You ever like, Go over, you know, back in the day over to somebody's house, and they want to show you pictures of their vacation. And they go through the slide projector. It shows them up on a screen or upon the wall. Oh, yeah. I mean, I finally remember my family's own slide projector. I was never really allowed to mess with it on. And maybe that's why it was so fascinating. And then you broke it. No, I never never never got the chance. Okay, Summ School's used these to occasionally. Yeah, I definitely remember projectors. Slide projectors coming up in the classroom environments as well. Yeah, but basically it combines a transparent plate. On which in images drawn or otherwise captured Onda Linz and a light source that shines through the plate that has the image on it and through the lens, projecting the image on a surface or screen. Yeah, I mean, I should also add that of course you have You have other old Performance methods that involved you know, Shadow puppets? Yes. Which would have also been a projection based medium. Well, that's a really great point. I mean, one way to create a very crude version of a motion picture would be to use a magic lantern to project images and then actually just moved the plate or elements within the plate around. Kind of like you would move your hands in a shadow puppet show. You know, like, If you're projecting through a glass plate, and you've got things on the plate, you could Gonna have them dance around and fight each other and all that kind of stuff, But obviously you'd be fairly limited and what you could do with that. So all three of these are not motion pictures. And yet they all kind of converge into the idea of the motion picture. Right? If you combine these three principles you've pretty much got the earliest makings of a live action movie. But we're not there yet. A sort of early combination of thes. Three elements was another device that we mentioned in the last episode. Zo a Praxis scope, which was invented by Edward My Bridge, the photographer and inventor around the end of the 18 seventies. So you remember we talked about Edward my bridge in the last episode where he didn't just use one camera, but he would use a battery of cameras. To capture a bunch of images really fast. Absolute. Yes. Raised as a horse ran by this battery of count of cameras would go off, resulting in this thing this Siri's of images. They portray the locomotion off the horse, right. So if he wanted to, like, show off those images in a way that wasn't just like, you know, looking at them one at a time. He could sort of animate them together. And that's what the so praxis scope was. Four. He used a very complicated process to sort of treat and rear ender the silhouettes of all those still images taken really fast by a battery of cameras, and then it would put he would put them around the edge of a glass disk in sequence. Which could then be rotated in front of a projected light source, showing off the sort of realism of movement captured frame by frame. But of course, even if you look at this, this is sort of the principle of the motion picture. But I think most people wouldn't think that it was a movie just yet. Now, at this point in the story, we have to reintroduce a character who has already shown up On invention in the past. I believe he made an appearance in our X ray episode. Really? Yeah, He shows up a lot in the especially like the second half of the 19 hundreds. If you're dealing with inventions, whether or not he necessarily deserves all the credit for some breakthrough..
Volcanoes of Life
"Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb, and I'm Joe McCormack in today, we're going to be talking about something that I've been thinking about doing an episode on for a while ever since I read an article while back that really interested me, and that is the surprising and kind of counterintuitive link that has been proposed by many geologists now between life as we know it. It on earth and the fires of Mount Doom, specifically, the the most violent and scary of geologic processes like volcanic eruptions on the movement of tectonic plates. Yeah. This is a great topic to get into. We kind of had a I guess a preamble to this a couple of episodes ago when we were talking about eggs and we talked about the volcano birds and the idea of a volcano being seeming. Almost. Paradoxically to be something that can nourish. As opposed to something. That's just a purely destructive force. Oh, I. didn't think about that comparison at all. But yeah, the the way that the volcanic sand babysits the egg for for the megapode so that it can just run off and do its own thing. Yeah. Raised by a volcano. But so I thought a great place to start here might be with a brief reading from volusia. It is a famous old norse epic poem from the collection that is known as the Poetic Edda. Now, this is a synonymous work. The author is unknown, but the volusia tells the story of the norse Gods culminating in their destruction in the fiery doom of Ragnarok can I'm just GonNa read a couple of Quad trains here. In Anger Smites, the water of the earth forth from their homes must all men flee nine paces fares the son of Jurgen and slain by the serpent fearless. He sinks the Sun. Turns Black Earth sinks in the see the hot stores down from heaven or world fierce gross. The steam and the life feeding flame till fire leaps high about heaven, itself Nice and one fun thing about this poem. It's bit of Tolkien Trivia Robert Tell me if you've heard this before, but the name of the wizard Gandalf that first appeared in Tolkien's. Tolkien's the Hobbit and then of course, the best character in Lord of the Rings, the name of Gandalf comes from the Veloce token, actually borrowed the name from a section known as the tally of the dwarves from this epic poem. Originally, he was going to apply it to the character in the Hobbit, who became thorn oaken shield the leader of the Dwarf Party. But then he decided later on that, it made more sense to apply the name of Gandalf. The wizard. I think because again, Dal means something like magic staff l.. and. I think he made the right choice like, Gandalf. That makes more sense for the wizard than for Thorin. Think. So but cool thing that happens in this poem sort of part of the RAGNAROK. Myth is that there is a rebirth that follows this fiery doom know after the fire leaps high heaven and the Kingdom of the Gods is destroyed. Earth is not just left in cinders instead, there is a renewal from the fire and the author writes now do I see the earth new Rizal Green from the waves again, the cataracts fall and the Eagle flies and And Fish, he catches beneath the cliffs. So there's this great link between Fiery Cataclysm and rebirth and renewal of life in norse mythology, and and of course, you know these are symbolic elements. I'm not suggesting that they had some kind of scientific insight with this is something that I think is taken as a metaphor largely about human life itself, but coincidentally, it ends up kind of ringing true with things. We're finding out about geology and nature. Well, it's something you see in a lot of different mythological cycles, right I. mean you see it in Hindu mythology? In. Various. American mythologies. Thinking about. Meslin. South America in particular society that things will rise things will fall that there will be cataclysm that whole world will be destroyed, but new worlds will rise out of them and have risen out of them before. Yeah. I was thinking about themes of fiery eruption in the greening of the earth together or sort of a creator destroyer duality. One that came to my mind that that I thought, you might know something about because I know I've heard you talk about Hawaiian mythology before was the Palay myth. Yeah. Yeah. The Hawaiian got his Palay is an interesting example, a deity of fire and Volkan Ism I was reading a book titled Pay Volcano Goddess. Goddess of Hawaii by H are low nemo, and he points out that when Polynesian voyagers I arrived in Hawaii, they brought their gods with
The Horned Helm
"Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb and Joe. McCormick and today. We're doing the horned helm. This is going to be one of our essentially one of our invention themed episodes, but I decided. You know we really need to come back to armor, and the best place to start with armor is really the helmet I think the helmet is one of these wonderful things to consider because on the one hand, there is the more sort of combat, centric and medieval. And even fantasy idea of a Hillman Sifi. Fantastic with the concept, but at a very basic level, I feel like we all have some experience wearing a helmet taking this bit of artificial exoskeleton, slipping it over our own skull, and then enjoying its protection. Do you remember the scene in cone heads? Where it? It is revealed that Dan. Ackroyd Cohen Head Bell Dr Enjoys driving a motorcycle, but he's not a fan of helmet laws. No I. Don't remember this. Does he have a? A weird helmet or he just he can't wear human humans. I would imagine that's the source of his frustration. Because seems seems like bell. Dr Is actually normally pretty much rule follower, but but yeah he doesn't like the helmets, and I think it's probably because he has to get one custom made man. I haven't seen that in forever, but I do remember it had a really fun. Stop Motion Monster towards the end. Yes, yes. Bell Dr Scott to fight one with his Gulf skills. It also has a great line that for some reason is is just used for all occasions around our house, which is your phone is too young. Well, you know I. Don't remember if they wore helmets in that at all the more like space centric cone heads, but I feel like there was some sort of a horned crown that one of the more yeah I think. That's right so one of the we're. We're going to be discussing helmets in general, but but one thing that we're also going to discuss. Here is the idea of the horned helm a helmet with horns on it. It's it's an ancient motif in human civilization, and it ties into some earliest ceremonial practices. Practices and models of imaginative thinking. There's also do something so elegant about the idea thing that may be worn upon the head, and in doing so transforms the individual from a mere human into something, symbolically different a hybrid of human embiid. He's channeling the archaic chaotic gods of the Hunt. Oh Yeah I mean it's very therapy. It's what you see in those ancient cave paintings that so exciting when you start to see the human and the animal forms join together, suggesting fantastical thinking it's clearly there in the horned helmet as well. And and and so when you see these ancient motifs, one example that I was looking at before we came in here today. Was Robert Familiar with the the Sutton? Hoo Helmet? Oh, yes, yes, the sudden new helmet I. Had Papa Picture of it, but I this is one of these that I remember from an early age seeing perhaps on the cover of National Geographic, but it was certainly featured in some sort of Historical Book that I had access to his a kid. Yeah, it's just spectacularly creepy with these hollow is the way the mustaches rendered on the the plate of the face covering. I think it also had leather component when it was actually worn, but it's this decorated Anglo. Saxon helmet from I think it was from the seventh century. was buried in this in this ship burial somewhere in east. Anglia and I've actually seen this up close. And there are replicas of it that are really cool, because they reproduce the artwork that would have been originally visible on the sides, and although it's got all these panels over it, basically, it's a helmet covered with like comic strips, and in all the little panels there are scenes depicted in. In one of them shows these figures will like human shaped figures with horns, apparently wearing some kind of horned helmet. Oh, also evidence of Hornet helmets on a helmet. Yes, wonderful, yes, but it doesn't necessarily show the the characters wearing horned helmets say going into battle it appears to have more kind of a ritual religious significance surrounding the horns. Yes, in in this seems to be basically underlying the earliest versions of of this you know horned helmets go back thousands of years as far back as a twelfth century. See we see this in Cyprus Bronze Age Europe. and. The generally the idea is that yeah, this probably has its origins in in against symbolic tinkling thinking and ritual, and the idea that you're transforming. You're becoming something else. Which of course has a role in combat as well in a row and intimidation sort of role in the basic? behavior of making yourself look larger than you are. But, but then there's also this. Imaginative. Side to it there is this ritual aspect of mill, melting, man, and beast,
Heaven and Hell with Bart Ehrman
"Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb and I'm Joe McCormick and this week. We are going to be featuring a couple of interviews. That I recorded last week because last week Robert, you were out of quote, the office you or at least you off work for a bit and so so I recorded conversations with authors of some books one book. That's already out this year in one book. That's coming up so on Thursday of this week. We're going to be airing a conversation that I had with the author of A. A fascinating upcoming book about the evolutionary biology of cancer, but today we're going to be exploring topic in the realm of ancient history and religion. If you've followed us for a while, I think you probably know this about us that one of our favorite kind of trails to go down his tracing the evolution of religious ideas through ancient history I mean I think I've outed myself on this podcast before. As a the kind of nonreligious person who loves the Bible. Can I love to read ancient religious texts and learn about them and see how the ideas from. From the ancient world of super filtered through to us today and shape to the societies we live in, and that's exactly the kind of thing. We're GONNA be diving into in this episode I'm talking with a secular Biblical historian named Bart Erman about his most recent book, which is called Heaven and hell a history of the afterlife. This book was released in March of this year by Simon. And Schuster, and it's all about the Christian ideas of life after death where they come from ancient history, what influence their development and how they changed over time so? So there was a part that cited in the intro of Bart's book where he talks about a pew research poll that was conducted a few years ago. I think. Maybe it was in two thousand fifteen. Where it found that seventy two percent of Americans believe in a literal heaven and fifty eight percent believe in literal hell, and yet I think most Americans would be deeply surprised, even shock to learn what historians can show about the origins of these beliefs in the strange thing. Is that like the historical conclusions that Bart's GonNa talk about in this episode? Are Not fringe or unusual among secular scholars of the Bible, in historians of the ancient Near East This is utterly mainstream, critical scholarship, and yet I think regular people are especially in the united. States, are going to find it very surprising. Yeah, absolutely, and I want to stress something here for everybody, so I just got back. To work this morning and I plugged into a pre production cut of this interview and it's really it's really excellent, so if you're even slightly scared away by the idea of an interview with a secular biblical scholar don't be because Barda is tremendous. He's he's funny. Very High Energy. I think you're really going to enjoy this chat. Joe Had with Bart here. Yeah, parts full of knowledge, good humor passion for his subject. I think you're really going to enjoy the episode, but before we can do it I'll just give a little bit of background on Bart's here's his biography Bart. D Ehrman is a leading authority on the New Testament and the history of early Christianity, and the author or editor of. Of more than thirty books, including the New York Times bestsellers misquoting Jesus, how Jesus became God, and the triumph of Christianity, and that last one's really interesting. It's about how Christianity took over the Roman Empire and went from a really small religion, too dominant religion of the empire, and just a matter of a few centuries anyway, so he is a distinguished professor of religious studies, the University of North Carolina Chapel, Hill and he. He has created eight popular audio and video courses for the great courses. He has been featured in time. The New Yorker The Washington Post and has appeared on NBC CNN and the daily show with Jon Stewart as well as the history channel National Geographic Channel BBC NPR, all the hits his most recent book is Heaven and Hell just one more thing before we get into it I. WanNa mention obviously we are dealing with. With the audio constraints of of remote recording in the age of Covid, nineteen, so for example around the twelve minute mark in the episode there is briefly some background noise that sounds like a fan was turned on or some rain. It only lasts for about a minute or so, and so please just put up with a little bit of background noise, and it's very brief I promise. It's not the sounds of hell right. Now audio recordings of the underworld leaking up through some sort of mining microphone right? The well to hell was not unleashed office. So yeah, I would say without any further ado. Let's jump right in. Bardem and welcome to the PODCAST. Thanks so much for joining us today. Yes, thanks for having me so your Book Heaven and Hell I just finished reading yesterday, and I I really really enjoyed it. and I want to say that I started reading this book. It very opportune time because though I didn't plan it this way. I'm also currently in the middle of rereading. Rereading the divine comedy, actually my wife and I are reading it together and of course, the divine comedy Dante his wonderful poetry, but it's also psychologically fascinating because when you go through the theology of Dante, you get the sense of somebody who is simultaneously ingenious and thoughtful, and in some ways very intellectually bold and open minded for his historical context, but in other ways. Dante's also very limited and provincial in a word medieval like the way you see him taking so much pleasure in designing horrific tortures for his enemies from these. Petty Thirteenth Century political struggles in Italy. Working with ancient religious texts do you find yourself encountering? This kind of irony embodied within the same author or traditional lot
"robert lamb" Discussed on KXNT NewsRadio 840 AM
"During allegations of police abuse we talk about all that it end and the idea of the first amendment is under attack only one part of the first amendment and van yes Kerry will light it up Robert lamb from the rock group Chicago all shows forewarning I gotta I gotta give you look for warning I'm a huge Chicago so how big a Chicago fan of my please you H. U. G. there's no H. it's so big it's huge yeah I mean see him growing up her sisters growing up I've got CD's in the car that I've left the card in twenty years that still when you press play it Chicago because I'm not a fan boy that'll but I'm sure you did and I feel like an idiot because what I'm sorry I did well I do agree that it nothing to you today now I know I'm sorry so he's got a new song out and it's really good it's about healing and we'll get through this it's called everything's gonna work out fine and it's a very good song so I play some of the song during the interview my man how do you still sounds good well it's not him saying so I now wow that's a but but he's the guy that saying Saturday in the park he's the guy that wrote okay he's that guy you know he is that he wrote that song he wrote that anybody really know what time it is so the songs that are timeless from Chicago he's he's either singing background re singing lead on them and my assumption is it says Robert lamb's got a new song one of my the idiot you might be seeing it yeah I guess not the guy singing it sounds great but obvious conclusion that he would be surprised I suppose there's a bit of.
"robert lamb" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"Name is Robert lamb and I'm Joe McCormick and today of course we're going to be doing movie episode that's right we've been trying to do one of these a month just because there's so many so many films we love in so many films that either have wonderful tie ins to scientific and cultural topics we've discussed on the show or the you know they they allow us to discuss new things in new angles that wouldn't necessarily necessitate an entire episode on their own all right so what's on the docket today well this month we're looking at really one of my I I have to say is one of my favorite films the you know in terms of thinking about films you saw a definite point in your life that had an impact on your your your outlook in the film is nineteen seventy twos silent running I saw it for the first time this weekend yeah I've never seen before and seen like stills from it I think it's in stills of the robots because it's a very robot heavy film despite being one obsessed with with nature environmental themes of the robots can awful lot of screen time they do yeah and I think if you're having trouble picturing the film if we just mention like geodesic domes in space with with forests in them Bruce Dern and in three demean diminutive robots the kinda shambling around that's that silent running in a nut shell now this was directed by Douglas Trumbull right who is like a visual effects guy for many years yeah yeah he he provided special photographic effects for such classic sci fi films as two thousand one a space Odyssey one of the best yeah close encounters of the third kind Star Trek the motion picture Blade Runner and then later on the tree of life yeah and then he he's using the family too because his father was a special effects pioneer who worked on nineteen thirty nines the wizard of oz you can really feel the spirit of the sixties in this movie from nineteen seventy two but maybe you can also feel the despair of the seventies and it is the both of those spirits come crashing together in silent running yeah I thought about I've been thinking about this a lot recently in part because we're we're researching episodes about psychedelics and about psychedelic research and then the the decades in which actual medical research regarding psychedelics just completely languished and it always makes me think of hunter S. Thompson's commentary about the mood of the waves of the of the nineteen sixties crashing and falling back right and and once again I think you know that ties in to to to this film as well now before we continue though let's let's have just a quick audio sample from the original trailer for silent running just remind everybody a little bit about what we're talking about here based on the strange for a rare car the pharmacist the plans the growing things all the four return our ship this forest silent running every moment Enger as Mannix blows the mysteries of an unknown and limitless universe so.
"robert lamb" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"My name is Robert lamb and I'm Joe McCormick and today of course we're going to be doing movie episode that's right we've been trying to do one of these a month just because there are so many so many films we love in so many films that either have wonderful tie ins to scientific and cultural topics we've discussed on the show or the you know they they allow us to discuss new things and new angles that wouldn't necessarily necessitate an entire episode on their own all right so what's on the docket today well this month we're looking at really one of my I I have to say is one of my favorite films the you know in terms of thinking about films you saw a definite point in your life that had an impact on your your your outlook in the film is nineteen seventy twos silent running I saw it for the first time this weekend yeah I've never seen before I'd seen like stills from it I think it's in stills of the robots because it's a very robot heavy film despite being one obsessed with with nature environmental themes of the robots can awful lot of screen time they do yeah and I think if you're having trouble picturing the film if we just mention like geodesic domes in space with with forests in them Bruce Dern and in three demean diminutive robots that can assemble around that's that silent running in a nut shell now this was directed by Douglas Trumbull right who is like a visual effects guy for many years yeah yeah he he provided special photographic effects for such classic sci fi films as two thousand one a space Odyssey one of the best yeah close encounters of the third kind Star Trek the motion picture Blade Runner and then later on the tree of life yeah and then you know his it was in the family too because his father was a special effects pioneer who worked on nineteen thirty nines the wizard of oz you can really feel the spirit of the sixties in this movie from nineteen seventy two but maybe you can also feel the despair of the seventies and it is the both of those spirits come crashing together in silent running yeah I thought about I've been thinking about this a lot recently in part because we're we're researching episodes about psychedelics and about psychedelic research and then the the decades in which actual medical research regarding psychedelics just completely languished and it always makes me think of hunter S. Thompson's commentary about the noted that the waves of the of the nineteen sixties crashing and falling back right and and once again I think you know that ties in to to to this film as well now before we continue though let's let's have just a quick audio sample from the original trailer for silent running just remind everybody a little bit about what we're talking about here based on the strange for a rare car the pharmacist the plants the growing things to extinction you're just before we turn our ship this forced silent running every moment the danger as Mannix blows the mysteries of an unknown and limitless universe so.
"robert lamb" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"Is Robert lamb and I'm Joe McCormick and today of course we're going to be doing the episode that's right we've been trying to do one of these a month just because there are so many so many films we love in so many films that either have wonderful tie ins to scientific and cultural topics we've discussed on the show or the you know they they allow us to discuss new things and new angles it wouldn't necessarily necessitate an entire episode on their own all right so what's on the docket today well this month we're looking at well really one of my I I have to say is one of my favorite films on the you know in terms of thinking about films you saw a definite point in your life that had an impact on your your your outlook in the film is nineteen seventy twos silent running I saw it for the first time this weekend yeah I never seen before and seen like stills from it I think it's in stills of the robots because it's a very robot heavy film despite being one obsessed with with nature environmental themes of the robots can awful lot of screen time they do yeah and I think if you're having trouble picturing the film if we just mention like geodesic domes in space with with forests in them Bruce Dern and in three Dineen diminutive robots the kind of shambles around that's that silent running in a nut shell now this was directed by Douglas Trumbull right who is like a visual effects guy for many years yeah yeah he he provided special photographic effects for such classic sci fi films as two thousand one a space Odyssey one of the best yeah close encounters of the third kind Star Trek the motion picture Blade Runner and then later on the tree of life yeah and then he his it was in the family too because his father was a special effects pioneer who worked on nineteen thirty nines the wizard of oz you can really feel the spirit of the sixties in this movie from nineteen seventy two but maybe you can also feel the despair of the seventies and it is the both of those spirits come crashing together in silent running yeah I thought about I've been thinking about this a lot recently in part because we're we're researching episodes about psychedelics and about psychedelic research and then the the decades in which actual medical research regarding psychedelics just completely languished and it always makes me think of hunter S. Thompson's commentary about the mood of the wave of the of the nineteen sixties crashing and falling back right and and once again I think that you know that ties into to to this film as well now before we continue though let's let's have just a quick audio sample from the original trailer for silent running just remind everybody a little bit about what we're talking about here based on the strange flight carrying a red car the pharmacist the plans the growing things to extinction all the four return our commercial this forest silent running every moment the danger as man explores the mysteries of an unknown and limitless universe so.
"robert lamb" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"Are you looking to stuff to blow your mind my name is Robert lamb and I'm Joe McCormick and today of course we're gonna be doing movie episode that's right we've been trying to do one of these a month just because there are so many so many films we love that so many films that either have wonderful tie ins to scientific and cultural topics we've discussed on the show or the you know they they allow us to discuss new things in new angles it wouldn't necessarily necessitate an entire episode on their own all right so what's on the docket today well this month we're looking at really one of my I I have to say is one of my favorite films the you know in terms of thinking about films you saw a definite point in your life that had an impact on your your your outlook in the film is nineteen seventy twos silent running I saw it for the first time this weekend yeah I've never seen before and seen like stills from it I think it's in stills of the robots because it's a very robot heavy film despite being one obsessed with with nature environmental themes of the robots can awful lot of screen time they do yeah and I think if you're having trouble picturing the film if we just mention like geodesic domes in space with with forests in them Bruce Dern and in three demean diminutive robots that can assemble around that's that silent running in a nut shell now this was directed by Douglas Trumbull right who is like a visual effects guy for many years yeah yeah he he provided special photographic effects for such classic sci fi films as two thousand one a space Odyssey one of the best yeah close encounters of the third kind Star Trek the motion picture Blade Runner and then later on the tree of life yeah and then he his it was in the family too because his father was a special effects pioneer who worked on nineteen thirty nines the wizard of oz you can really feel the spirit of the sixties in this movie from nineteen seventy two but maybe you can also feel the despair of the seventies and it is for the both of those spirits come crashing together in silent running yeah I thought about I've been thinking about this a lot recently in part because we're we're researching episodes about psychedelics and about psychedelic research and then the the decades in which actual medical research regarding psychedelics just completely languished and it always makes me think of hunter S. Thompson's commentary about the mood of the wave of the of the nineteen sixties crashing and falling back right and and once again I think that you know that ties in to to to this film as well now before we continue though let's let's have just a quick audio sample from the original trailer for silent running just remind everybody a little bit about what we're talking about here based on the strange flight carrying a red car the pharmacist the plans the growing things to extinction you're just for and our ship this forest silent running every moment the danger as Mannix blows the mysteries of an unknown and limitless universe so.
Overconfidence: The Icarus Paradox
"Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb. And I'm Joe McCormick and we're back with part two of our discussion of overconfidence. That's right If you did not listen to the previous episode do go back and listen to that episode. Because we're GONNA lay the groundwork we're going to discuss overconfidence. Hubris and mythology in human histories. And then get into the psychology of it and what various psychological studies have revealed and continue to reveal about the nature of overconfidence. And how we can. Divide this sort of amorphous concept of overconfidence out into categories that can be more easily studied and understood. That's right now in the last episode one of the main things we talked about was this huge new review of the scientific literature on something known as the better than average effect. Which is the tendency for people to rate themselves as better than average with respect to their peers on all kinds of stuff One classic example is that something like ninety. Three percent of people think they are a better than average driver. And so if you're if you're listening to this as you drive is back on the road and make sure you use the turn signals principle. Stay save lives turn signals. Let other drivers and the districts. No what you intend to do. Even if you think you're a great driver drive like your less good than you are and it will make you a better driver drive like you can't see all the other cars and around you because sometimes you cannot drive like you're driving a murder weapon because potentially you are. It's quite true. Are Now one of the things we talked about it in the last episode was A paper from two thousand seventeen by dawn Amorin Derek. Shots called the three faces of overconfidence which Which actually broke. Overconfidence down into three distinct categories of of bias or misperception and And we talked about those a little bit last time. We're going to be exploring more of what that paper had to say. And it's critiques of overconfidence. Research specifically with reference. To these three types of overconfidence and has a brief refresher. The three types are overestimation over placement and over precision overestimation is thinking that you're better than you are and this would be with reference to some kind of You know objective measure out in the world so if you think you are taller than you are if you think that you can jump higher than you can if you think that you would get a better score on a test than you actually could. That's overestimation the next one over placement is similar but instead it's comparing yourself with other people so the better than average effect would be an example of over placement. It's you know thinking you are better than average compared to your peers at some task or it would be thinking that you know that you work harder than other people or thinking that you are smarter than other people of course with the. If it's overconfidence. Meaning that those are not actually accurate assessments and then finally the other one would be over precision which is being too sure that you know the truth Again this this might be called EPIs- stomach over-confidence it's just being too certain that your beliefs are correct now to get into more and chances paper from two thousand seventeen one of the questions that they address. What actually drives some of these different Effects as as they are manifested so they they start with overestimation what causes us to say think we would get a better score on a test to than we do or to think we have more money in the bank than we do a common answer that people give to this is the idea of wishful thinking. It would feel good if this were true. Therefore I believe it right the authors don't think that this Explanation is very plausible and they offer several problems with it and we can interrogate these. Maybe disagree with them as we go on but first of all they say you know self delusion is demonstrably maladaptive for example a tendency toward wishful thinking about the safety of kissing sharks. So with tongue is is not a trait that the environment will tend to select for people overconfident about their academic abilities. We'll tend not to study and actually do worse people who believe themselves invulnerable. We'll take risks that sometimes get them killed. This might seem obvious but there is actually plenty of research on this. I mean people who are over confident about their abilities. Do face a lot of downsides when those abilities are put to the test right. Yeah I mean one example from literature that comes to mind is that of Macbeth who believes himself protected by prophecy? And of course snuffs it exactly but then again I think okay so it is true that these people will face a Lotta downside but then again people do engage in self destructive self deluded behavior all the time. This is a common feature of human life. Yeah I mean for instance. We were just recently talking about Sepo Affect Our our movie episode. We're talking about the fly and a about the possibility that the placebo effect is is basically due to You know this innate tendency toward self delusion that may very. Well be adaptive in at least in this scenario where yeah we we benefit from being able to believe something is going to work and And experiencing at least a small physical benefit from it like a small cured of benefit from it. And then you know I also can't help but think that you know self-delusion entails far more than just over-confidence it also entails. All manner of paranoia and there is a strong case for the adaptive nature of say making type one error in cognition a false positive the belief that the Russell in the tall grass is that of a tiger. When it's not because of you make the type to air. You're more likely to be eaten by the Tiger. Right right yeah. Having accurate information about the world is actually very useful and having inaccurate information can kill you. Yeah but but I'm not so much you know trying to disagree with the maladaptive Self-delusion argument That we mentioned earlier but but rather you know to point out. The human experiences is rife with self delusion. So might a dash of overconfidence. Even in the form of overestimation serve do balance out this alchemy of of our perception of reality for example. Have a singer in granted cariocas very low stakes right but it could involve social embarrassment which you could fear would lead to ostracism. And that's actually one of the most powerful negative motivators human behavior right but again curiosity is also one of these things. Where like sometimes? It's cool to do it badly. So this is a perfect example. But so you have a carrier. Karaoke singer then imbibe in a little liquid courage before taking the microphone as most Kariuki participants are are want to do but yeah they they get a little liquid courage because they know they don't have the greatest voice in the world and then they feel a little awkward getting up there but but they they know that a little bit of booze induced. Overconfidence might help matters. I think you're exactly right there and this is funny to start here because I think while the authors make tons of good points this is one of the ones they make that I might disagree with the most. I think that there are antagonist adaptations in human behavior. One pressure might favor having an accurate picture of the world. Assessing things in a clear and accurate way while across pressure favor self-deception especially self-deception in the form of overconfidence. For example. You might be more likely to survive if you have accurate assessments of your own abilities but you might be more likely to take big risks with potentially big rewards if you overestimate your abilities Or Self Delusional. Overconfidence could be adaptive. Because it helps us persuade or even deceive other people about are worth. Yeah old ultimately you have to believe in yourself you know other people are not going to believe in you for you right. I mean we. We talked in the last episode about how. It's probably not a coincidence that you really often notice overconfidence in people who occupy high status leadership roles. Right how did they get there? I mean it's not hard to imagine. The overconfidence helped them get to that point. Yeah it's Something it's a fine sometimes terrifying exercise to like if you if you engage with people like this and then when you realize Oh. They're just really overconfident. They don't they're they're not to say they're not skilled but when you realize here is they're not sometimes they're not but sometimes you realize. Oh there. There is this gap between ability. And and and what? They're they're saying they're going to deliver on what they are. Estimating the future will consist of. Yeah I mean I. It is kind of shocking. How often in life? You will suddenly come to a realization that you know the boss. Or the leader whatever's main skill is B. S. ing. Yeah like that they can just go out there and wing it in a way that you would be too timid in reserve to do right now this idea of the accurate assessments playing into our. You know our own abilities i. I couldn't help but think of the film Butch Cassidy and the Sundance kid scenario because really as it relates to two specific points in the film one is the the whole. Would you make that jump if you didn't have to scenario where they're being tracked? They're being hunted and they've come to this cliff overlooking this river and they realized that if they jump if they jump off this cliff may land in that river and they don't die they'll get away because the stakes are such that those pursuing them will not follow them. They will not make that jump if they don't need to. So so there's there's that and then at the very end there's kind of a going out the old fashioned way. Guns a blazing scenario where corner. They're going to slowly be killed and they decided to just go for it to just bust out shooting and just
A Look Back at '2001: A Space Odyssey'
"Wasn't step to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb and Joe McCormick and Robert. Do you remember about seventeen years ago. How disappointing it was that? The year two thousand one was not like the year two thousand one in the movie. The two thousand one a space odyssey. Well certainly it did not resemble the nineteen sixty eight film. Two thousand one space Odyssey did not resemble that that vision of the future. Not Not exactly. We were not not traveling. We didn't have a moon base. I I want my milk. Carton of corn destructor Straw. Well that can be arranged if if that's if that's the definite futuristic experience you're looking for but yeah this is the this is a classic science fiction film perhaps the League Classic Science Fiction Film. I mean you can. You can certainly make the case for other pivotal works of sci-fi cinema but Stanley Kubrick and and Arthur C Clark's two thousand and one has a film that has stood the test of time inspired countless other sci-fi visions. And and and yeah definitely gave us this sort of benchmark to look for in the future so the reason we're talking about two thousand one space odyssey. He is because this year. That movie is actually fifty years old. Yeah it's hard to believe it half a century old. It was released in April. The one thousand nine hundred sixty eight and so because of the fiftieth anniversary because the movie so endlessly fascinating to talk about. We thought we would vote today to a discussion of two thousand one the film itself. It's ideas and its legacy Robert. How old were you when you first saw two thousand one? ooh I saw it when I was pretty young so I don't have a very very concrete memory of it. I think my dad he either he had headed the H. S. copyrighted playing or it was on TV. I'm not sure but I'd I'd say cu maybe eight or something. I'm not sure about Barack being a very interesting film to watch because it was it. has this dream like in quality to it. That is is there no matter. What level of a awareness You're approaching with viewer. You know whether you understand the more complicated science fictional or philosophical aspects of its message. They're still this hypnotic quality to the film that draws as you in I have a weird question about it I wonder if a kid For whom the plot pretty much goes over their head actually understands the the movie better than an adult who can grasp more of the content of the plot because the movie is in many ways. It's almost almost like a more like a painting or like a work of art that is radically open to interpretation where the stuff that the characters do. Well I'm not so sure that it matters as much as more the kind of visual themes established in the questions raised by you know the the spectacle gold before your eyes. Yeah the spectacle is Is a huge part of it. I actually was tempted. I I'd I thought well should. I let my six year old seat at least part of two two thousand and one I am just see what his take is on it and I did not quite get around to to to performing a test of that sort But I have a feeling he would be drawn in by the visuals for sure. Just thinking about the visuals alone. It's hard to believe this movie's half a century old. Like we were saying a minute ago. It still feels so weird and so fresh and so intellectually adventurous. Apparently you know when it premiered. One of the things about the movie is that it's it's mostly silent. They're only actually very limited parts of it were characters are speaking to each other. And according to the stories about the premier the first audience is just Hayden. Hayden not everybody. There were some people who saw okay. This is revolutionary something very different and new and original is happening here but a lot of the Hollywood hotshots shots who were in attendance just hated it There were tons of people. Walking out of the theater. Allegedly Rock Hudson walked out saying out loud. Will someone tell me what the hell this is about. Talk it's interesting because it is a film in which a lot of stuff does not happen. A lot happens. It's a film that that that kind of sums comes up the scent of humanity and where humanity might go beyond the beyond our planet but at the same time every any time. Something seems to be happening. We kind of get a cut. The scenes where characters are having pivotal discussions about what's happening is becomes just sort of a staple of so many other film like most films are missing. The murder that occurs to in the film is not actually seen so it. When you're watching two thousand one space odyssey there is almost this sense that someone is messing with you by removing these key? Bits of information. That should tell you what you're supposed to think about well. I can understand people hating it at first because it is in a way an intentionally challenging film it's it it goes against narrative conventions in a very Deliberate Way and another thing about it is just. I'm not usually a person to call out special effects. I as a thing I love about the movie but the visual effects in this movie movie are just unparalleled in so many ways. They look astonishingly realistic for for a time in the nineteen sixties when we hadn't even been to the Moon in yet when this movie was made we had not been to the moon. Space photography was very limited. So it's amazing. They could get something looking as accurate to the experience of outerspace as as they did. But then at the same time it so D- realized so monreale and It has almost kind of a Dario are Gento kind of quality though. Of course predates are Gento. But I mean like the you know the strange lights and The way the colors color our moods. I it's so oh good I'm glad Argenta did not directed by the way is very different than the monk. The the the the the dawn of man sequence might have been similar but The yeah the special effects in this film are just so breathtaking. I feel like if anyone out there is wondering what is it like to watch two thousand and one a space odyssey with Robert Atlanta. It's like every five minutes may saying aloud. Why can't we make? Why don't we make movies? That looks like this now. Why can't why can't why don't spaceships look like this anymore? Films and basically they don't look this good in anything else for instance nineteen seventy-two silent running another one of my favorite sci fi films was directed by Douglas. Trumbull who worked on two thousand one worked on the effects and silent running looks fabulous but it. It's not as pristine as two thousand and one in garbage can point to a lot of different reasons for that. But then there's you know you can. You can say well. These other films were not directed by Kubrick they. Maybe they did not have the budget. They didn't have the right key key. Artistic people in place this kind of perfect storm of creativity and intent. But but but you end up with this film that yeah just look so unlike unlike anything else and every single frame of this film I feel like you could you could print out and you could put on the wall and and no one would question the choice. It's also somehow a movie that many people I think have tried to copy and been unable to. It's a movie the style of which is uncopyrightable In my I've talked about this a bit with my friend Dave. He's he often points out that you have the the sequel to the two thousand and ten which which correct Kubrick did not direct came out in the eighties. Oh who was the guy who directed two thousand ten who is the same gentleman and directed outlandish alcohol Peter and not just outland. He made time cop. Oh The guy who made two thousand ten made time cop was interesting just if you just look at the trailers the between the two and you see just to start different because on one on one hand you have again the pristine white you know. Almost hermetically sealed all edible seeming. Like you feel like you could just crowd bite into the white chocolate goodness of the spaceships in two thousand one space Odyssey and then by two thousand ten everything is industrial grimy and not just the says the order of the day was the not only the sets but also also the character interactions because suddenly it's not this this very subdued performance limited interaction limited discussions between characters. No you have Roy. Scheider Heider Running Center Mayor Not Mayor of Amity from Jaws Chief of police. Chief Brody. Yeah chief Brody's just right up front getting into you know loud our discussions with with all of the characters We're GONNA need a bigger space craft
"robert lamb" Discussed on Stuff They Don't Want You To Know Audio
"Inspiring tales from you know various cycads war scare tactics of the the moral panic in the war on drugs pumped in the wake of the counterculture and then after we've had those experiences. Sousse we of course have memories of experience. Memories are highly susceptible to us than tinkering the as we turn them. That's for anyone who can't see because this is Nadia podcast when you said that Robert that's a the point across the table because yes memory is a treacherous territory territory right. It's a it's a domain where you cannot really trust the geography you encounter. I WANNA go back to hallucinogens in general I think growing up at least here in the West I many many children when they encounter the idea of hallucinogens the encounter a very fictionalized representation of this right. Somebody Ingest something maybe Alice in Wonderland would be a good example okay somebody somebody ingests something and then their concept of time and space changes right or size and then they begin begin to see visibly strange creatures right the white rabbits and so on but is that nonsense is is that true when people take. Scylla Sabin is are they seeing visual entities earl. It seems like there's a lot of there's a lot of malarkey about hallucination out there. So what's the fact. What's the fiction well? I mean I think a lot of the Malarkey does come from media representations of it in part of that is it's difficult to capture the second experience in a fictional medium via book certainly in a movie and then so a lot of the examples we have they're going to they're going to be more like a dream sequence. They're going to you know. They might not be that well executed and they're also probably going to play way into something. That's more dramatic right. Maybe even something more horrific as a means of advancing whatever story telling you guys remember the book go ask Alice Alice no so it was a one thousand nine hundred seventy one fictional book for young adults written by Britain anonymously and at the time back when I was a kid it was required book. We had to read and it's basically the story of this young girl who starts taking drugs and ultimately takes. It's like it Alex and ends up like throwing herself off a building in like dot. It's it's it's now looked at as utter propaganda but I was forced forced to read it and it was in the era of dare where they come through the school with like a giant suitcase full of every drug and pointed out and tell you all about all of these horror stories but I gotta say the giant suitcase of drugs just as a kid I might want to try that one and that one and that one what makes you think of Hunters Tomsk say of course which which of course the book and if certainly the movie are I the F. I think for a lot of people were Kinda like their first or at least an early introduction into what psychedelic experience might consist of and yet at the same time that movies completely ridiculous depiction of things you know like I mean it's wonderful but it is. It's a highly highly depends on depictions of hallucinations. Eliezer Visual Hallucinations Las Vegas movie again back country yeah just so this this is interesting though especially the point about hunter S. Thompson because while that is still very much Gonzo right very much his genre. I there are true through events there that that formed the kernel of this so we are reading What are they always say you know a made for TV. Movie is more or less when that little card comes up at the front of the show and it says inspired by true events spire by actual events so so we can say then that a lot of a lot of hundreds of Thompson's work was inspired by true events. If not you know with a lot of poetic license but there's still a factual account and if we look back through the the candidate you know Hunter S. Thompson go ask Alice Various Chamonix experiences. We see the people who have been writing about this stuff for a very very long time and have been doing it since before. We figured out how to write things right yeah yeah yeah. I mean really you look at it so many ancient cultures and it's it's it's difficult to find an example of one where there's not a case or a definite often is strong case where a definite case to be made for loose nugenix playing psychedelics playing some sort of role in their society part of shamanistic practices says install remains a part of shamanistic practices in certain parts of the world to jump back really fast to the Maryland Center physiological Zia logical effects of ingesting suicide in because I think there are a couple in here that speak directly to what we're talking about. That are the reason that this type of substance. Vince is used in shamanistic practices and has been for so long just very very specifically the heightened sensory perceptions that that can occur and that's probably one therapist most interested in the time and space being altered like the feelings of time and space being altered right as well as the detachment from the self from the body basically the third person in that can occur with these substances and it is it's those those three combined become such potent Avenue to explore your own consciousness or the feelings that you're having within in that moment and and the single person's connection to the greater universe or nature or the spirit whatever is being worshiped. You know you can really see it as is a Putin tool and it's not as it doesn't have to be even that lofty it could be something as simple as your connection to something like television the concept of like watching television and what that means and how you interact with something like that and don't even think about what it is under the influence of this you might see it completely different question how much time you spend bend with this box watching other people doing things on TV and your relationship. That might seem very normal otherwise all of a sudden you start to question and be like why why am I doing. That's that's why am I putting so much emphasis on this experience. I like the mention that because there are some studies that indicate if not necessarily suicide been some hallucinogens loosened genes are very helpful with people are struggling with habits or addictions right anything from smoking too. I I imagined I haven't seen a study on it but imagine what if there's someone who watches too much TV or drop this now watch this marathon a Seinfeld. It's just associations in general writer the idea yeah. Let's say I'm addicted to cigarettes in my mind. This is a steadfast part of WHO. I am under the influence of psychedelics you might be able to take a step back and see it as something that you can just very easily cast off or take leave you know so there's a high level look at the nuts and bolts of solicitation in specific some of the history some of the current research and Italy I think of a pretty accurate look at the controversy and the mechanics experience right but what if there is more to the story what if there is something beyond the psychological goal affects that compels our species in has compelled it for thousands of years to to pursue these hallucinogenic experiences roar. This episode of stuff they don't want you to know is brought to you by..
"robert lamb" Discussed on Stuff They Don't Want You To Know Audio
"You can turn back now or learn the stuff. They don't want you to know a production of iheartradio's. A house stuff works. Hello welcome back to the show. My name is Matt Names Knoll Day. Call me Ben. We're joined as always with our super producer Paul Mission Control Deck and most importantly you or you you are here and that makes this stuff. They don't want you to know today. We're we got a welcome you back no so you've been on some trips recently. you have not been tripping necessarily. You don't know that I don't necessarily doesn't necessarily mean I'm not saying yes or deny was in San Francisco for for a little while. would have been a good opportunity to do that but it did not cross my path today's episode for anyone who didn't bother the title you were so excited. You just jumped in Today's episode is about tripping. It's about psychedelics hallucinogens since one in particular and in the past we've talked a little more broadly about hallucinogens psychedelics in our episodes avid listeners would remember did hallucinogens loosener. Jen's create religion or can hallucinogens cure addiction but today we're drilling down into one specific substance and we've brought someone along with us to help that's right. We are not a diving into this rabbit hole alone. Please welcome to the show our good friend co host of stuff have to blow your mind co host of Invention Mr Robert Lamm. Hey thanks for having me We're very excited that you're here. Robert we very much are looking to you as an expert because you you not long ago completed a I believe five part series on this very substance on stuff to blow your mind yeah me and my my co host Joe McCormack we did five park look at suicide and psychedelics in general but with a with a very much of a focus on suicide and it's interesting time for that especially because I think the tide is sort of turning in terms of not only public opinion but even just the laws surrounding is getting loosened. Send up a lot of places and there's legitimate research being done using Silla Sivan to treat things like depression or anxiety or what have you yeah. I think that the research area is perhaps the most exciting area to area to look at because there was a lot of progress made back in the fifties and sixties and then of course things died down almost to a trickle to crawl or for decades and now we're living in an an a true renaissance of psychedelic research. You know where researchers have picked up where others left off and are continuing to to really explore the healing potential of the substance yeah and a lot of this has to do with the social mores right the the way substances and certain drugs have been viewed over tours of history right but before we get too deep into this. Let's talk about what we're talking talking about. What is suicide okay well. Suicide been for starters is a PSYCHEDELIC and you know the term itself is from the Greek words for soul or mind manifesting manifesting but in particular suicide than is a trip to mind psychedelic it naturally occurs some two hundred different varieties of mushroom and the primary compounds responsible for its psychedelic effects are suicide than an Silverstein which ultimately amount to pretty much the same thing since suicide breaks down down into solicited inside the body in you know compared to almost all other known drugs suicide and has an exceptionally low potential for abuse and and exceptionally few known physiological risks. Ray Rada turns out that many of the urban legends people have heard about peep about folks taking gain magic mushrooms and then going completely insane for the rest of their lives are just that urban legends. They're also believed no proven fatalities due to the substance well. It's two things are worth worth pointing out like for starters. A certain segment of the population can experience. It's psychological ramifications sure so people with a predisposition for say schizophrenia and and that's that's a something everyone should always keep in mind on the other hand. I mean they are powerful substances. They're not bubblegum set and setting or extremely important wouldn't the mental state that one has gone into using these substances is extremely important and so therefore. It's you know it's very possible for a special. What he's you know young person who hasn't been a lot of thought into what is going to happen. It's very possible for them to have a a challenging time. I guess the the Diem clarify here is while all of that is true. There has also been this a persistent this persistence public image yes or hallucinogens in general as something that someone would ingest one at one point in their lives lives and then for the rest of the natural span of their of their life they would be functionally insane or unwell or unable unable to perform as a regular member of society and I think that's fake. That's propaganda right. That's negative. Pr In the war on drugs and speaking speaking of PR just really quickly. We're not as we do with any ideas. We discuss not saying you should believe this or this is something you should go out and do are saying you should go out and microdosing. Take Scylla Sivan today it'll improve your life we're going through some of the effects some of the history and some of the current research and the news behind it and speaking of that there was a study that it just came out from Global Drug Survey to your point man that pulled close to one hundred and twenty thousand people in fifty different countries about their drug and alcohol consumption and twelve thousand thousand people in that survey said they did mushrooms in two thousand sixteen and only point two percent of them said they needed emergency medical care afterward as opposed to that was five or six times times lower than LSD cocaine md.. May and alcohol three times lower than than marijuana so when there's also something to be said here about combination of of substance sure when you do those there's always a danger there someone could died being in an unsafe setting era situation right. Yes it causes them to behave erratically. Oh absolutely in just to kind of harp one last time on this this point that both that everybody's kind of making here the there is a small segment of the population that should never likely should never try suicide and but for the overwhelming majority it is is not something that's going to cause dilatory effects right yeah one more statistic here it looks like about eight percents of the US population people counting people over twenty six eight percent of people over twenty six years old have at least self reported using some sort of hallucinogen. Is that number higher in actuality. Maybe but not not that much sooner so again this this war on drugs mentality doesn't really track it is not as if one out of three people on the street are tripping their balls offer something you know what I mean and and to Roberts point. It's not something well historically psychedelics flayed a more formal role in human experience experience or more spiritual role rather than a recreational one hundred percent and that's I think in terms of the tide turning. It's starting to be seen more like that. Instead of just some thing that you pop for jollies at a concert or something like that you know this is something that fascinated me about your discussion on stuff to blow your mind rubber when when we get to the nuts and bolts of Silla siphon specifically would how much do we know about how it actually works in the human in brain yeah well we we still don't know for sure the exact neuro chemical mechanism a classic psychedelics appear to bind to a specific subclass of Serotonin receptor after the Sierra Serotonin receptor in these receptors are found concentrated in the human cortex which is the outer layer of the cerebellar which is associated with a lot of the hotline of Higher Brain Functions Sensation speech of Coarse Language Voluntary Action so when you take a psychedelic like Lsd or suicide aside and mushrooms the active ingredient the active compounds make their way into the brain and and sort of act is active serotonin binding to these receptors sceptres. There are a lot of questions still remain about exactly how it works so there's a lot of questions remain exactly in regarding how serotonin own and really works in our minds when there are a lot of stories that are a little more anecdotal about or or. I guess let's say tales of what suicide and actually is in how it functions functions within the body outside of the medical research right about it being conscious in some way. I mean they're all all kinds of things we can get into later and here. I mean there are stories that you will find across the Internet in perhaps here from acquaintances of yours that go in go a little deeper deeper into the strangeness but let's Imagine that there was like a big Pharma type commercial for Cilla Sivan and let's let's think about what would be rattled off at the end the things that could be caused things like nausea vomiting abdominal cramps diarrhea muscle relaxation twitches yawning drowsiness dizziness lightheadedness and lack of coordination people dilation tearing dry mouth often facial flushing increased heart rate blood pressure and body temperature sweating followed by chills shivering none of tongue lips or mouth feeling of physical heaviness or lightness feeling of floating and I was just reading the other day about how how Darpa is interested in in basically harnessing all of this Alfie the the mind altering aspects to weaponize it as a I Darpa our our attornal fourth co host. You know there's there's another thing when we're dwelling on the anecdotal stuff off we do have to say that this very quickly gets us into some of the more out there or fringe concepts beliefs authors and before we before we get to those ideas which are grand and many are as beautiful as they are unprovable but they're all based on not so much the physical sensations people encounter but the psychological situations they encounter and this. I think Matt is directly tied into some of the anecdotes you've mentioned everybody has sort of a lot of people rather who try hallucinogens hallucinogens have this kind of. Hero's journey tale right and sometimes it's full of young year NARC types sometimes it's just full of strange perceptions of time and space or even sinister Asia things much less easy to quantify any rattled off lists at rapid fire at the end of a television commercial. Yeah I mean the ineffable aspect of it is is always a key factor. Michael Palin has an excellent book. It came out this year about psychedelics called change your mind which which I recommended window everybody just to just a wonderful read but in an interview with Terry Gross he mentioned that William James Once said that the mystical experience of psychedelics is ineffable an affable yet. We try very hard to F- it yeah so so yeah so I think it's a big thing to keep in mind with the subjective experiences of of psychedelics is that first of all sense. It's highly susceptible to set and setting is highly susceptible to your mindset going into it. Therefore it's also highly susceptible to stories. You've heard about the use of psychedelics. Beit.
The Voynich Manuscript: A Book We Cannot Read
"Into stuff to blow your mind. My name is robert lamb and i'm joe mccormack and today do we have a a conundrum consider a book that cannot be read by anyone so it's kind of a riddle in the dark isn't isn't it like something that gall might ask of <hes> of bilbo or bilbo might cunningly ask of ghalem right. It's like i walk but i have no feed. I stand but i have no legs. They're so bad but but it it is an intriguing kinda riddle. Why can't the book in question be read so we instantly. He can think to some of the tricks of riddles right well. Perhaps the book does not exist. You cannot read a nonexistent <hes> fictional book such as <hes> <hes> your hey louis as the book of sand or a thorough peres revert as the book of nine doors to the kingdom of shadows. These are books that exist within stories or within other works that have no reality in our world likewise. You cannot read a book that no longer exists. You know a book that has become law such as you are. The various destroyed meyer. Kota sees or aristotle second book of poetics of which of course a major plot point in berlin echoes the name of the rose right <hes> but no the book <hes> that we're talking about here it is real and it definitely exists okay so that might lead you to the next <hes> like level of contemplation contemplation here okay well. Perhaps this book cannot be read because it is forbidden. You know some powerful librarian or clerk keeps it hidden perhaps alongside the ark of the covenant inter something right okay so like that same aristotle text but in the name of the rose right yeah where's where somebody just preventing you from viewing it and reading it no <hes> that's not not the case with this book because plenty of people have attempted to read it and still attempt to any serious scholar can <hes> you know they can actually travel to its physical location and go oh through the you know the the the necessary of paperwork. One presents can examine it physically and you you the listener can even attempt to read it on the internet or you can so you can acquire a printed facsimile <hes> many of which were very nice understand okay.
"robert lamb" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormack. You know, we've covered a lot of UFO beliefs on the show over the years talked about alien abduction experiences. Strange lights in the sky, ancient alien speculation. And we've covered it all with our usual level of skeptical enthusiasm. Yes, say not coming out at in order to prove all the stories true and believe but also appreciating that fantastical beliefs and experiences and even delusions are interesting phenomena that are worth studying and paying attention to. Yeah. Why are people reporting these stories what what is actually occurring that might be interpreted as such? And and then why do we tell the stories that we tell like all of these questions are sort of bound up in the same riddle, but to refresh this is the basic truth of the matter. Humans have always seen things. They couldn't explain and some of these things were actual phenomena such as Shooting Stars or unusual weather effects. And other times these were hallucinations, which can occur can occur for a variety of reasons. Only some of which entail the ingestion of psychedelics or symptoms of mental illness. And in either case thing seen became become things remembered in memory is a tricky thing on its own highly susceptible to error to manipulation and changed due to personal desires interpretations, cultural priming in a host of other factors. Yeah. That's exactly right. And one of the things that I often think about doesn't get enough attention when when people discuss fantastic experiences like say, you know, you Afo objection experiences and sightings and things like that. Is is all of these inbetween categories that create memory experiences for people or or create, you know, at least in some way, or another lead person to relate an experience that are not exactly one of three clear options, the three clear options, usually presented are somebody actually physically had this UFO abduction experience, and they really were taken up or they are lying, and they're just making up a story, they know to be false or they hallucinated it like they had a vision where they imagined. They've really believed all this stuff was happening to them at the time. And the, you know, and then they remember that hallucination as if it was a real physical event. I think those are actually not the only three options they usually treated as like the main three things that could have happened. I think we'd gets underappreciated or these sort of like weird middle categories where you know, where like imagination. Fancy in retailing and embellishment, and all these different kinds of things sort of interact with in a stew within the mind. And there's so many ways this can happen. One piece of research that I always just think is such an interesting little example of demonstrating how contagious imagery in idealization can be between one brain subsystem and another is a two thousand six study called d you remember proposing marriage to the Pepsi machine..
"robert lamb" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey, welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert lamb. And I'm Joe McCormick back for part two. Or is this partout or does it come a standalone to allergic? I think in stands alone. Yeah. Okay. So we'll last time if you were with us in the last episode we were exploring what we were sort of calling the loss daughters about the the that once were thought to exist somewhere in the school system, whether in ancient times or in recent centuries, but we later found out probably never existed or definitely never existed in some cases. So examples we talked about included in ticket Thon in the central fire. What was the deal with that? Oh, well, you just have to go back and listen to the episode, but this complex notion where son is not the center of the universe. The earth is not the center of the universe. But something called the central fire is at the center and earth is actually closer to the central fire than the sign. So it's this sort of complex model of the cosmos. Based on. You know, the best of observational data of the day of like, you know, ancient times, ancient Greece. Yeah. Combined with certain religious mythological ideas, a Pythagorean cosmetology of. But then also we talked about the scientific thinking that led to the belief in such thing as the planet Vulcan, it planet believed to be inside the orbit of mercury super close to the sun as was proposed by or bomb Leverrier. A then, of course, we also talked about fate on the the Fatana are facing the the the best subject of renaissance painting of all time. Yes. But for the purposes of main purposes of our discussion, the the idea that that they thought wolf the asteroid belt maybe used to be a planet. And maybe this is this is what we would call planet if it were still exactly right. So today we wanted to carry this discussion forward to talk about other ideas about planets that are thought to maybe exist somewhere in the solar system, but have. Not yet been confirmed in the last episode all the planets that we talked about were pretty sure now have never existed anytime. I mean with two of them were quite sure, right. But there are still questions, for example. There has long been a question about what lies at the furthest reaches. We talked about you know, what happens when you go down as far as you can into the solar system like the sun. Is this pit this? Well, we go all the way down there things that are hard to see because they're so close to the sun. When you think about the opposite end could there be things that are hard for us to see because they're so far. And of course, we have to realize how how confusing this may seem at first because it's easy to think that we have our solar system pretty much figured out at this point. Right. I mean, most if you're listening to this. You probably grew up memorizing the planets mercury Venus earth Mars Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. And then there's the whole issue of Pluto. And some of us get a little bit out of shape. Right. When when. When someone tells us, actually, Pluto isn't a full full-fledged planet. It's more of a dwarf planet it cetera. And you know, we're maybe don't roll a change all that. Well, but it's easy to think. Okay. That's it. Right. There's nothing new to discover in the solar system because meanwhile, we are continually spotting new Exo planets that are light years upon light years away like far distant reaches of the observable universe. So if we're figuring that out then surely, we've got everything squared away in our immediate neighborhood. It only makes sense that that's the way it should go. Right. Why are we seeing Exo planets when they're still a question of whether there could be a planet in our own solar system, we don't know about. And unfortunately, that's just a side effect of the different ways, we have of detecting things it actually may be much easier to detect the presence of a planet orbiting a distant star. Because you can definitely see that star. And you can tell by certain thing, you can tell by if the star wobbles if they're. Our other gravitational influences on that star you can tell by the what's known as the transit method. If something is passing in front of the star from our perspective and causing it to dim..
Why a Gaggle of Geese? Where Do Collective Nouns Come From?
"Today's episode is brought to you by listerine ready tabs small discrete tabs, the transform from a solid to a liquid just to switch and swallow no sink required to get that just brushed clean feeling, and they pack a huge punch up to four hours of fresh breath, and the confidence that goes with it on the go wherever life takes you to a surprise meeting a date you want to freshen up for or just from one event to another try listen ready tabs today. Find them near the mouthwash. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain Steph, Lauren vocal bomb here. Have you ever heard of a group of ferrets called a business of ferrets or a collection of jellyfish referred to as a smack of jellyfish? What about shrewdness of apes? We use collective nouns also known as nouns of assemblage to describe all sorts of groups hosts of angels bands of men and shocks of corn. Are commonly heard these days, but the nouns associated with particular groupings of animals can get weird fast because words in their uses are invented by people when we see a bunch of specific construction, you can bet on it being the result of a language fad and sure enough five hundred years ago, nouns of semblage were all the rage. We spoke via Email with Magdalen Jacobs a PHD candidate in the Vanderbilt University department of hearing and speech sciences. She said these are generally terms that came about from upper class hunting culture in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. They're called terms of Venneri, and they're linked to north. And culture and influence into the idea of proper hunting language over one hundred and sixty terms of Venneri are listed in book of Saint Albans, a wildly popular at the time manners guide published in fourteen eighty six the coached the medieval gentlemen through having conversations about hunting falconry fishing sports in heraldry without embarrassing himself at dinner parties. These collective nouns are found in a chapter entitled the companies of beasts and fowls though, some of the terms referred to people rather than animals a bit of a joke. The book Saint Alban's not only described a sleuth of bears and a skulk of FOX's, but also linked women to geese in the collective consciousness by labeling collections of both Gakhal's. According to Jacobs, this is partially because there is a direct linguistic link from the word gaggle to the middle English word for cackle, a collection of wives was labeled and impatience a group of writers on the other hand was called a worship if language tells us how to think about the world we conceive fifteenth. Century European gentleman's social priorities, though. Of course because you can't keep the kids for making up slaying. Once the construction was introduced in the book of Saint Albans, people started coining their own nouns of semblage. Although a lot of these terms slipped into obscurity in the sixteenth century like much of the lingo, we generate on a continual basis. Some of them were adopted into common speech these days. We don't often have occasion to talk about a sneer of butlers or misbelief of portrait painters, but whoever came up with a staff of employee's a congregation of churchgoers or a panel of judges should congratulate themselves on a job well done linguistically. Speaking. A much of the time that correct term for a group of anything. Let us know our collective views on the disposition of whatever we're naming some of the most evocative terms of veteran can be found in birds the book of Saint Albans lists and unkindness of ravens and a murder of crows, definitely creepy negatives. But a charm finches adorable, whoever I referred to a college of cardinals was probably suggesting they thought the group of little red birds looked like a meeting of academics. But why a group of storks is called a mustering is a little less clear. See us Lewis coined the term parliament of als in children's book series, the chronicles of narnia a nod to chaucer's poem, a parliament of fowls. The term is now recognized in dictionaries is being the correct term for a group of AL's. There are meanwhile, few nouns of assemblage for insects mentioned in the book of Saint Albans, we still refer to a swarm of bees which was recorded in the book, but we don't talk as much about a business of flies or a flock of lice. If you've ever heard of a kindle of kittens that comes in the middle English word kindling, which meant to give birth or produce a litter which was originally used only for puppies. But is now commonly used for all kinds baby animals, a group of adult cats might be a glaring or a pounce, but crowd of feral cats is a distraction anyone concerned about the decline of migrating songbirds can understand why that might be. Dogs, which were as much a man's best friend in the middle ages. As today got a lot of play in the book of Saint Albans, hunting hounds alone got several group titles. A cry a mute a pack and a kennel. Some of the most inventive terms of entry are plied to wild animals Jacobs said because they began as hunting terms, the original names from the book of Saint Albans reflected a specific societal disposition towards the animal being hunted. A pride of lions is a good example others that came later such as a wisdom of wombats may be inaccurate. As wombats are rather solitary and don't spend time in groups, others likely referred to qualities of the animals themselves, a business affairs came from a business affair, it's which makes more sense than business. If you've spent any time at all watching ferrets. These days folks continue to make up new nouns of assemblage and bring back old ones. Thus we can talk about April of hedgehogs an obstinacy of buffalo a bloat of hippos and a game of Wales regardless of whether we're planning on hunting them or not. Today's episode was written by when shields and produced by Tyler clang for iheartmedia media, and how stuff works for more on this and a wonder if other topics visit our home planet has Steph works dot com. Hey, brain stuff listeners instead of an ad today. I wanted to tell you about new podcast, they think you might dig from my friends, Robert lamb, and Joe McCormack, you might already know them from the weird science podcast stuff to blow your mind. Their new show is called invention each episode of invention examines, a different technological turning point and the people and cultures the provoked the change they consider the origins and impact of everything from the guillotine to the vending machine. Chopsticks to sunglasses. Braille to x-rays and lots more new episodes of invention come out every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you happen to find your podcasts.
Why Do Coffee Drinks Often Have Italian Names?
"Hey, brain stuff listeners instead of an ad today. I wanted to tell you about new podcast. I think you might dig for my friends, Robert lamb, and Joe McCormack, you might already know them from the weird science podcast stuff to blow your mind. Their new show is called invention each episode of invention examines different technological turning point and the people and cultures the provoked the change they consider the origins and impact of everything from the guillotine to the vending machine. Chopsticks to sunglasses. Braille to x-rays and lots more new episodes of invention come out every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you happen to find your podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, bring stuff on Lauren Vogel bomb. And if you can't start your morning without a Cup of Joe, you're certainly not alone. I'm right there with you. But Americans consumption of coffee is up. It's the highest. It's been since two thousand twelve and global exports are up to according to the International Coffee Organisation world coffee exports increased by seventeen percent from October two thousand seventeen to October of two thousand eighteen and overall global shipments were four point two percent higher year over year, clearly coffee has become an important daily ritual for many Americans which begs the question, why are so many coffee lovers? Ordering those drinks using Italian words from lattice Tamaki autos. How did this happen after all coffee doesn't have its roots in Italy legend has it that the great being originated in the Ethiopian plateau and was discovered by goat herder who noticed his goats veritably danced after eating a certain plant. It's spread throughout the Arabian peninsula and adjacent areas before Europeans encountered coffee in the. Seventeenth century, nevertheless, many of the coffee drinks, we know today and popularized by Starbucks more on that in a minute do originate in Italy, and it has everything to do with the invention of the Espresso machine. Espresso doesn't refer to a particular type of coffee bean. It's actually a coffee preparation method, and it was first developed in Italy in the nineteenth century because brewed coffee could take up to five minutes to make coffee lovers. Sada way to shorten the time between ordering and drinking the first Espresso machines were bulky and difficult, but by the early twentieth century Milanese manufacturer Luigi bizarre had developed a single shot Espresso the produced one Cup of coffee in seconds, though. It did take a while for the machines to improve in terms of ease of use and flavor of the coffee produced we spoke with Paul Bassett former world barista champion, he said, the Espresso machine kind of revolutionized coffee to some extent. Everything was centered around the way Espresso was made the way it was consumed as well, he explained that with the Espresso machine. Coffee could be made on. The spur of the moment and was intended to be drunk immediately after being served typically standing at a bar Italian coffee culture grew and Espresso as we know it today became popular in Italy and France in the nineteen thirties, the nineteen fifties beatnik movement and its coffeehouse culture launched Espresso craze in the United States. We also spoke with Mike Ferguson with OEM specialty coffee, he explained early in the specialty coffee movement authenticity meant Italian in the nineteen eighties. Many if not most coffee houses had Italian names and adopted as much Italian as possible into their cafe menu. So the trend continued the coffee drinks, they served also retained their -talian nomenclature because they were specifically made with Espresso the names referred to what is added to the Espresso, for example. But the word Mark Jato into Google translate and you'll get stained or spotted so the drink name refers to the spot of milk that stains the Espresso Bassett said, I think fundamentally Espresso is directly linked to Italy as beverage and the way it's part of their culture. It's been transported all around the world and reinterpreted despite reinterpretation, the drinks with talion names have an Espresso base. And typically, some kind of milk added. For example, a cafe latte usually just called a lot in the United States consists of Espresso milk and milk foam. It's not brewed coffee with milk. Although that's the literal translation to be fair ordering an Espresso with milk and milk foam doesn't sound as catchy the distinction between Espresso and brewed coffee is important consider the Americano which was named for Americans in Italy who sought a drink. Similar to the brood or filtered coffee. They drink at home because it emerged in Italy and is made by adding water to Espresso, it retains its talion title. So this answers the question about coffee drink names. But what about Starbucks use of sizes like 'Grande inventing, which are also talion words, this sizing nomenclature short tall and 'Grande was introduced when ill Nali opened its doors in one thousand nine hundred six and the venue size came in the early nineties ill. Denali was the name of the coffee houses launched by Starbucks chairman emeritus Howard Schultz during his mid eighties hiatus from the company the company's website states. That sheltered been quote captivated with talion coffee bars and the romance of the coffee experience a tradition. He wanted to bring to the United States he returned to Starbucks and purchase the company in one thousand nine hundred seven and that branding now extends to fo- Italian product names, like the Frappuccino, which is a trademarked name and not actually Italian word by the way bonus back to the episode the caffeine in coffee that perks. You up is considered the most commonly used drug in the world. Today's episode was written Vicary, Whitney and produced by Tyler claiming for I heart media, and how stuff works or more on this and lots of other peppy, topics. Visit our home planet has to work dot com. You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. We're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology at a time the things we made and how they made us invention publishes every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you find your podcasts.
Are the Dare Stones Forgeries or the Key to the Roanoke Mystery?
"Today's episode was brought to you by the new Capital One saver card with which you can earn four percent cashback on dining and entertainment. That means four percent on checking out that new restaurant everyone's talking about and four percent on watching your team win at home. You'll also earn two percent cashback at grocery stores and one percent on all other purchases. Now when you go out you cash in what's in your wallet? Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff. Lauren Bogle bond here. An unsolved mystery can drive people crazy and the fate of the first English settlers ever to establish a colony in the new world ruin oak is a puzzle that will probably never be entirely solved. But it doesn't keep people from trying in July. Fifteen eighty seven a ship carrying ninety men. Seventeen women and eleven children landed on Roanoke island on the Outer Banks of modern day North Carolina a year before when these site was discovered. Fifteen men had volunteered to stay and hold down the proverbial fort, but they were nowhere to be found. So the one hundred and eighteen colonists disembarked and said about carbon colony out of the wilderness. There's much excitement when Eleanor dare the daughter of leader John White gave birth to the first English baby. Born in the new world and named her Virginia after time John White left, the settlers to return to England telling them he'd be back within the year with fresh supplies. However, England's war with Spain slowed the process considerably, and nobody was able to check on the settlement again. Until fifteen ninety when white returned his daughter granddaughter and everyone else was gone. They had dismantled the buildings carved the word Kroto in into a tree. The name of the friendly native American tribe on a nearby island and vanished. There was no sign of the cross white had told them to carve on a tree if they had left under duress. A frankly white didn't look very hard for his daughter and granddaughter before heading back to England for centuries. The story of the lost colony of Roanoke seemed pretty cut and dried to most historians. The settlers went to live with a Kroto and tribe. Whether they stayed there not nobody could say the thing they could say is that no definitive sign of any of the one hundred eighteen colonists was ever found despite rumors in the later established Jamestown colony of massacres and men wearing European clothes deep in the wilderness. No definitive sign that is until more than three centuries later when in nineteen thirty seven a produce dealer from California named L E Helmand showed up at Emory University in Atlanta with a stone. He found while hunting hickory nuts and recently cleared, North Carolina swamp, some fifty miles or eighty kilometers inland of Roanoke island. It was inscribed with a message. He wanted the experts at Emory to decipher turns out, the carved stone told story allegedly written by whites daughter Eleanor. The colonists. Endured two years of only misery and war after her father left for England ending with half. The settlers killed in armed combat and many of the others, including eleanor's husband daughter, slaughtered when a spiritual leader of the tribe. They lived with warned that the presence of the English. Settlers was angering the spirits, according to the stone only six men and one woman escaped. The stone was found to be offended by the experts at the time. It seems legitimate and better still it satisfied. Everyone's thirst foreclosure around to this dusty old riddle the story captured the imagination of the entire country and Emory professor Haywood J Pearce junior published a paper describing the stone in the refutable journal of southern history in nineteen thirty eight. But soon the plausibility of the stone came into question, we spoke with John Bence archivist at the rose library at Emory University. He said Emory became suspicious of Hammond after some professors and administrators traveled with him to Eden to North Carolina where he found the stone. The search for the original location of the stone was fruitless this attitude. The growing list of details about Hammond's discovery that we're hard to corroborate Emory had someone in California look into Hammond, but couldn't find much more than an address after Pierce and his father another academic paid him. And for the first stone and offered a five hundred dollar reward for any additional stones people might find. You can imagine. How many dare stones came out of the woodwork the pierces paid a man named Bill Eberhardt a stonecutter from Fulton County Georgia two thousand dollars for forty two forgeries. He brought them these stones had Eleanor marrying a Cherokee chief giving birth to another daughter named Agnes and eventually dying in a cave in Georgia. In April of nineteen forty one these Saturday Evening Post ran an expose on. The dare stones dismissing them all as forgeries citing an acronym. Stick language, and consistency of spelling that was unheard of at the time the Pierce's career suffered and the dare stones were stuffed in a basement at the father's university an embarrassment to everyone involved, but every so often academic interest turns again to the show on Riverstone. The original dare stone found by him. And in that North Carolina swamp, it's made of different rock than the others. A bright white quartzite interior and dark exterior that would have made a good choice for Eleanor dares missive to her father and in the nineteen thirties. The patina on the stone would have been difficult to chemically replicate. In addition. It doesn't contain the anachronistic language of the other stones some experts have determined. The only problem might be an Eleanor dares. Sign off the initials e WD, which would not have been typical signature in these sixth century. Many experts still dismissed the town Riverstone as an obvious phony. But it's possible that new research into Lisbeth in a pig Raphy chemical analysis and other rocket scriptures of the time period. Will yet shed light on the still unsolved mystery? Today. Episodes written by Jesulin shields and produced by Tyler claim for more on this and lots of other mysterious topics. Visit our home planet. How step works dot com. Hey Breen stuff listeners instead of an ad today. I wanted to tell you about new podcast. I think you might dig for my friends, Robert lamb, and Joe McCormack, you might already know them from the weird science podcast stuff to blow your mind. Their new show is called invention each episode of invention examines different technological turning point and the people and cultures the provoked the change they consider the origins and impact of everything from the guillotine to the vending machine. Chopsticks to sunglasses. Braille to rays and lots more new episodes of invention come out every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you happen to find your podcasts.
Why Do Scorpions Glow Under Black Light?
"Hey, brain stuff listeners for all you fans of true crime investigations. There's a new podcast from glamour, and how stuff works Marcus Hanna. Devante Abigail, Jeremiah and Sierra were all black children adopted by two white women, Sarah and Jennifer heart. It looked as if the hearts were the perfect family, but their lives ended in a murder suicide. Car crash shocked their friends and made national headlines starting Semper forth with new episodes every Tuesday co host Justin and Elizabeth follow. The families beta journey. You can listen subscribe to broken hearts spelled H A R T S on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, Lauren vocal bomb here. Some animals are just over the top take scorpions is it not enough that these stinging arachnids can survive some of the harshest climates in the world and live twenty five times longer than your average cockroach or that some species don't need males to reproduce and can live up to forty eight hours without oxygen and that all of them will eat almost anything. They can subdue even other scorpions. No, it's apparently not enough because scorpions also glow electric Siam green under ultra violet light. Why they do? This is a bit of a mystery. But it makes them pretty easy to study all scorpion researcher has to do to find scorpions go out into the desert at night with the black light and watch those suckers light up like Christmas. Trees, chemically speaking. Nobody's exactly sure. What causes scorpions to glow? But we know it's powerful stuff. When a scorpion is preserved in alcohol. The alcohol itself will floor s scorpion fossils have even been induced to glow under black light after hundreds of millions of years. What we do know is the chemicals that make a scorpion. So rave ready are in the outer layer or cuticle of its excess skeleton scientists call it the Highland layer scorpions their Xs skeleton every so often in order to grow and researchers have observed that intil the slightly mushy outer shell has entirely hardened. The Highland layer does not Flores under UV light. This is all pretty weird. Why would an animal Volve to glow under ultraviolet light? Researchers have posited a bunch of different ideas. Scorpion. Fluorescence might help them. Find each other in the dark protect them from sunlight or even confused their prey, but there's another promising theory that scorpions are somehow using their fluorescence to detect UV light mostly because they want to avoid it. There might hunters after all and a scorpion will always find the darkest place to hang out during the day or even in the moonlight. A study published in the journal of Iraq -nology in two thousand ten tested normal chorusing scorpions, and a group of scorpions that they had produced the fluorescence of with prolonged exposure to UV light, the normal scorpions, then reacted more strongly and negatively to UV light than the desensitized scorpions. But wait, you might be thinking scorpions still have is. And as it turns out, they can visually see light within the ultra violet part of the spectrum. But it doesn't seem like the scorpions were reacting visually a. Britt study published in animal behavior in two thousand twelve basically blindfolded a group of scorpions and found that the critters still reacted to the presence of ultraviolet light. So it seems that they're using their entire bodies as giant UV seeking eyeballs. And that if they sense that they're glowing at all it's time to scurry off somewhere darker. Today's episode was written by just windshields produced by Tyler clang for more on this and lots of other glowing topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. We're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology at a time the things we made and how they made us
BrainStuff Classics: Does Eating Before Bed Give You Nightmares?
"You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. You're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology at a time the things we made and how they made us invention publishes every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you find your podcasts. Welcome to bring stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, Lauren Bogle bomb here with another classic episode from our former host Christian Sager. Today's topic gets to the bottom of an old wives tale will eating before bed. Really give you nightmares. What's up brain stuff? I'm Christian Sager. And it is time for some brain stuff. Have you ever been up alone at night scarfing down some buffalo wings dipped in kimchi and Vindaloo? But you fall asleep on the couch and you start having these terrible nightmares. What is up with that? Why does some foods? Make us have such weird dreams. Well, so far scientists yet to find a direct correlation between certain types of foods, and how we dream, but an excessive amount of rich nocturnal eating can interrupt your sleep in a variety of ways really any type of physical discomfort while you're sleeping can lead to bad dreams. But when you're tummy's a rumbling. That's when the monsters really comes scurrying out of that trap door in the back of your head, for instance, late night snacks increased both your body's metabolism and temperature which makes you hot and sweaty, especially when you have a high carbohydrate meal, Ditto if you have. A bunch of donuts or candy bars before you pass out. A recent study shows that seven out of ten people who junk food before bed are more likely to have nightmares. These researchers hypothesized that the high levels of sugar led to physical sleep discomfort which brought the monsters out from under their beds. Another type of upset stomach that leads to a bad night's sleep is acid reflux also known as GERD or just plain old heartburn more than a third of Americans have this condition. I'm one of them where burning acidic bile comes creeping up your SAFA gifts. If you've had this happen doctors recommend that you don't eat within three hours of bedtime. And that you try lifting your head forty five degrees to keep the acid down. Also, you probably shouldn't have citrus onions, carbonated drinks meant alcohol or cigarettes before you go to sleep. I know I know boring, right? But cutting down on this stuff will keep the sleep goblins away. So it's either be careful what you eat or back to a pit of. Spare filled with evil clowns for you. Actually. There's an interesting food connection between general anxieties and why we sleep poorly when our bodies are stressed. They flush out the mineral magnesium, which increases are mental burden. So we sleep poorly. You can head this off if you eat healthy prior to and during stressful periods, your retained some magnesium helping you maintain a normal sleeping pattern, and there's our old friend insomnia, which can be caused by a variety of food and drinks how about meat or other high protein foods. Well, it turns out protein supplies, your brain with the amino acid tyrosine, which makes you more alert and food high in protein is usually also high in fat which digests slowly causing a rumble in the Bronx. If the Bronx is what you call your belly. Plus remember how carbohydrates bring on the night sweats. Will they also speed up trip to fan and amino acid in your brain that helps you sleep? So if you don't eat enough carbs. Before bed. It's harder to get to sleep my recommendation, a small carbohydrate snack in the evening will promote calmness and help you catch. Some Z's finally alcohol and caffeine before bed can make insomnia even worse. So no, double fist in coffee and beer, and you probably shouldn't drink energy booze drinks, like juice, four Loko or fusion either. In fact, I'd recommend staying away from drinks with purposely. Misspelled names is just a general rule, even the United States food and Drug administration called these drinks. A public health concern back in two thousand and ten and the center for disease control has an entire factsheet about the dangers of mixing alcohol and energy drinks. And it doesn't even get into the whole not being able to get to sleep thing. So there you have it food doesn't necessarily give us nightmares. But the uncomfortable feelings that come with eating certain meals. Episode was written by Christian and produced by Tyler clang. If you miss Christian, check out his pop culture podcast super context available wherever you listen to podcasts. And of course for more on this and lots of other topics that will help you sleep better. Visit our home planet house to works dot com. You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. You're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology to time the things we made and how they made us invention publishes every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple
What Exactly Are Frankincense and Myrrh?
"Support. For brain stuff comes from our friends at rocket mortgage by Quicken Loans are excited to introduce their all new rate shield approval. If you're in the market to buy a home rate shield approval is a real game changer. And here's why first Quicken Loans will lock your rate for up to ninety days while you shop, but here's the crucial part every up your rate stays the same. But if rates go down your rate also drops either way you win. It's the kind of thinking you'd expect from America's largest mortgage lender. To get started. Go to rocketmortgage dot com slash brain stuff rate shield approval. Only valid on certain thirty year purchase transactions. Additional conditions or exclusions may apply based on Quicken Loans. Data in comparison to public data records, equal housing lender. Licensed in all fifty states and m s consumer access dot org number three zero three zero. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, bring stuff Lauren Vogel bomb here. If you've heard of frankencense and Moore, it's probably thanks to the biblical account of the birth of Jesus. According to the book of Matthew chapter, two wise men. Followed a bright star in the east of Bethlehem to where Jesus had been born and presented him with gifts of gold frankencense and Moore during the Christmas season depictions of this event, Argub it quits in American culture, decorating, churches, and shopping, malls alike. But don't let the shiny tinsel and festive candidates distract you from our question today. What exactly are frankencense and mirror? Both frankencense are derived from tree sap or gum resin and are prized for their lowering fragrances frankencense is a milky white resin extracted from species of the genus bus. We Leah which thrive in arid cool areas of the Arabian peninsula, east Africa and India the finest and most aromatic of the species is bus willia- sacra, a small tree that grows in Somalia, Oman and Yemen, these plants which grow to a height of about. Sixteen feet or five meters have papery bark sparse branches of paired leaves and flowers with white petals and a yellow or red center murder is a reddish resin the comes from species of the genus come four, which are native to northeast Africa. And the adjacent areas of the Arabian peninsula. Come a foreign Mira a tree commonly used in the production of Moore can be found in the shallow. Rocky soils of Ethiopia Kenya. Amman Saudi Arabia and small it boasts shiny branches was sparsely that grow in groups of three and can reach a height of nine feet or about three meters. The process for extracting, the sap of these trees is essentially identical harvesters make a longitudinal cut in the tree's trunk which pierces gun resin reservoirs located within the bark the sap slowly uses out from the cut and drips down the tree forming tear-shaped droplets, they're left to harden on the side of the tree. These beans are collected after two weeks people in east Africa and the Arabian peninsula, had produced frankencense and Merv for some five thousand years for much of this time these. Medic resins were the region's most important commodity with a trade network that reached across Africa, Asia and Europe today. Demand for frankencense and Moore has subsided a bit, but numerous Chinese Greek Latin and sanskrit texts reminders of their past importance frankencense and Moore were desired for personal religious and medicinal use in a time before daily bathing people would use the sweet smoke from the resins to make themselves. Smell better. Egyptian women would mix frankencense ash into their I shadow these substances were also widely used in religious ceremonies and burials, according to the Greek writer here notice Egyptians used both frankencense and myrrh in preparation of animals sacrifices and human mummies Jews incorporated them into their religious ceremonies by the third century, BC and Christians by the fourth century, CE the residents also had medical uses in the papyrus Ebbers from fifteen hundred BC priests recommended both resins for the treatment of wounds other ailments. They were once reported to cure included, hemlock poisoning leprosy were. Terms snake bites? Diarrhea plague scurvy and even bald this the high demand for frankencense and Moore created a booming trade in the Middle East lasting several hundred years in the first century, CE around the height of this trade. Plenty the elder claims that Arabia produced approximately one thousand six hundred eighty tonnes about fifteen hundred metric tonnes a frankencense and around four hundred forty eight tons or four hundred metric tons of mir- each year, one of the most important trade centers surrounded and a waste and modern day. Southern Oman this outpost exported frankencense across best Petya India and China for about three hundred BC e to the third century. See the ruins of the settlement remain as UNESCO world. Heritage site known as the land of frankencense, clearly frankencense and Moore were widely available when the wise men visited the baby Jesus around five BC and would have been considered practical gifts with many uses the expensive resins were symbolic as well. A frankencense which was often burned symbolized prayer rising to the heavens like smoke. While mirror, which was often used in bombing symbolized death. So scholars think that frankencense was presented to the infant Jesus to symbolize his later role as a high priest for believers while Mur symbolized, his later, death and burial frankencense and Moore may not be as popular as they once were. But they're still used today in some ways that you might not expect their common ingredients in modern, perfumes, and cosmetics. Continuing a tradition that's lasted years. Scientists are finding new uses for the substances as well. Recent studies suggest that frankencense or its extracts may help intriguing asthma. Rheumatoid arthritis Crohn's disease, and osteoarthritis researchers have also discovered possible benefits of murder in the treatment of gastric ulcers tumors and parasites. This episode was written by Clint pump free and produced by Tyler claim for more on this and lots of other spicy topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. You're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology at a time the things we made and how they made us invention publishes every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever
Why Do We Sing in the Shower?
"Hey, Matt I have yet to ride one of those birds scooters 'cause I hate those things that does not surprise me at all Joel. But you know, I've been getting Instagram adds to give me to become a bird charger to join that gig economy. Oh, that's right. Just like Hoover folks are getting targeted to start side hustles to make an extra buck or even to try to make a career out of it. But should you? Do it not all side hustles created equally exactly every week? We dive into practical money topics like this on our podcast. Listen subscribe to our show on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you get your podcast. Just search for how to money. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff. I'm Lauren vocal bomb. And I think we can all admit that. We've pulled a Peirce bueller once or twice while lathered up in the shower, everyone, sometimes grabs a handy bottle of shampoo was an improv microphone and busts out a tune or two there's just something completely satisfying about singing in the shower. Even celebrities do it, according to people magazine after Jack black likes to belt out Led Zeppelin and Wycliffe Sean digs a little Bruce Springsteen. Everyone's a rockstar in the bathroom, whether you have a voice like Aretha Franklin or couldn't carry a melody if it had a handle, but have you ever wondered about this non some of us wouldn't sing in public? If someone paid us will sing in the shower without embarrassment. Believe it or not there is a scientific explanation behind our soapy musical stylings first. Let's look at why we're relaxed enough in the shower to bust into song. I think about it. You don't sing when you're sad unless you're singing, the blues, maybe for many people shower time is the only time they're alone all day, you're in a warm small safe in. Environment. You're comfortable enough to be in the buff stress. Literally washes off of you when you relax, your brain releases dopamine, which can give your creative juices, a jump start warm waters rushing over you. And now, you're relaxed and feeling good. It turns out that singing makes you feel even better singing because of the breeding that you put into it gets more oxygen into the blood. This gives you better circulation which in turn improves, your body and mood, and because you have to breathe a little deeper to belt out a song. You get some of the same relaxation and mind clearing benefits as meditation. Another neat thing is that when you're singing, you can't really think about your problems more stress relief. But the best thing about sending in the shower, the acoustics you couldn't ask for a better sound system than a bathroom because bathroom tiles, don't absorb sound. Your voice bounces back and forth around the room before fading away. And because the shower is a small space. It boosts your voice and even adds a little base making your singing sound more powerful. The sound bouncing also. As your vocal styling, a reverse effect, which mixer voice hang in the air longer and evens out variations in your singing, think of it as a primitive auto tune. It makes you sound better than you normally would which is a confidence boost we don't sing in the shower simply because we have that song. Stuck in our heads. You know, the one it turns out, we do it for many reasons. Stress relief happiness, great acoustics or maybe just because we like to hear our own voices. No matter what the reason keep it up. It's good for you. And if you've never tried it put the song and put on your own private concert. Today's episode was written by Deborah Ronca and produced by Tyler clang for more on this and lots of other rock and topics are home planet has two forks dot com. You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. We're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology at a time the things we made and how they made us invention publishes every
Do Dogs Get Embarrassed When We Put Them in Costumes?
"Support. For brain stuff comes from our friends at rocket mortgage by Quicken Loans are excited to introduce their all new rate shield approval. If you're in the market to buy a home rate shield approval is a real game changer. And here's why first Quicken Loans will lock your rate for up to ninety days while you shop, but here's the crucial part every up your rate stays the same. But if rates go down your rate also drops either way you win. It's the kind of thinking you'd expect from America's largest mortgage lender. To get started. Go to rocketmortgage dot com slash brain stuff rate shield approval. Only valid on certain thirty year purchase transactions. Additional conditions or exclusions may apply based on Quicken Loans. Data in comparison to public data records, equal housing lender. Licensed in all fifty states and m s consumer access dot org number three zero three zero. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, I'm Lauren Vogel bomb, and I suspect that some of you love dogs. Some of you might even like dressing them up for warmth or fun Hellene costumes holiday outfits birthday dresses, boots, scarves, wigs painted nails. More boots. Some of these outfits are decidedly sillier than anything. Their owners would wear which leads us to the question of the day do dogs get embarrassed. When we dress them up in humans embarrassment is an emotion, just like love, guilt, sadness, fear or happiness, when someone we know dies. We feel sorrow when people make fun of us. We feel humiliated or embarrassed when something good happens, we feel happiness humans have six basic, emotions, love joy, surprise, anger, sadness, and fear. Some researchers argue that we display only four basics. Happy sad a combo of afraid surprised and a combo of angry and disgusted, but that's a topic for another day, whichever set you go by these. Primary emotions then branch out to secondary, motions such as pride relief and optimism tertiary emotions include excitement, loneliness and embarrassment yet, emotions are fleeting they last for only a brief time. We don't stay embarrassed forever. Or at the very least we shouldn't in humans embarrassment is a so called self conscious emotion, just like guilt. We get embarrassed. When we tripper fall when we burp at the dinner table or spill a Cup of coffee on a nice white shirt as a crowd of people look on. But do dogs feel the same emotions that we do. It's a good question and one that scientists have been mulling over for years if your dog owner, there's no question that dogs become emotional. They wag their tail when they're happy. They look guilty years back had down when they pee on the rug or to a book to shreds. We also know that they can get jealous of a new addition to the house like a baby or another dog or the cat who claims their favorite person's lap. Still many scientists have yet to come to grips with the idea that dogs experience emotions like humans while some argue that dogs do feel a range of emotions guilt may not be one of them. Instead dogs may simply be reacting to their owner's body language in the opinion of some dogs, experienced only instant reaction, emotions, fear, joy, sadness, and anger, which brings us back to whether dogs get embarrassed their scale is certainly different if they do given that they don't have our hangups, and thus aren't embarrassed by things that would mortified most humans like getting caught scratching or licking decidedly delicate itches in public. We spoke by Email with Dr Jessica Pierce, a bioethicist who has written extensively on these Ikoyi of dogs and cats she said as far as I know there's been no systematic research into whether or not dogs feel embarrassment. But I would guess they do that said when we dress them up as lobsters Donald Trump for Halloween, and they put their ears back and tuck their tails down it may not be embarrassment. That they're feeling they might simply find the costumes uncomfortable or unfamiliar, and they might be upset by or reacting to the fact that all the people around them are laughing and acting excited if she had to bet on it Pierce things dogs, probably experienced the same basic emotions as humans. She said dogs. Most certainly experienced what are called the primary emotions such as anger, fear, sadness, and joy, they also likely experience a whole range of secondary, motions, including empathy guilt and embarrassment as for which emotions dogs lack. I wouldn't feel confident putting anything on that list. My guess is that the more closely scientists studied emotional experiences and passages of dogs the more they will find so should you dress your dog up to put it bluntly? If you would feel humiliated dressed up as a lobster or Donald Trump. Then chances are your dog will to appear said when people ask me whether it's mean to dress our dogs up in costumes or fancy sweaters. My answer is ask your dog. If your dog seems uncomfortable then take the cost. Hmm off after quickly taking that cute photograph to post on social media. If your dog doesn't seem to care or perhaps even seems to like being fancied up, then it's fine. Today's episode was by John Pera, Tanno and produced by Tyler claim for more on this and lots of other emotional, topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. You're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology at a time the things we made and how they made us invention publishes every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever
"robert lamb" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey, wasn't this stuff to blow your mind? My name is Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. And Robert I have just been out on vacation for a bit. And I came back to find you. Absolutely raring to go about copper, Fiji a-. That's right. The consumption of poop. Yeah. Which I figured is ideal. You should be listening to this episode during the week of American thanksgiving. It's a time when people eat too much, they a lot of grey and brownish foods that are too rich. They probably shouldn't be eating all of this stuff. But they do anyway. So it's a perfect time to talk about poop eating crammed down the gullet with loving care in the presence of one's family, and and inlaws and all that now before anybody turns us off I do want to drive home that most of what we're gonna be talking about in this episode. Relates to animals heating poop as the title of the episode implies at the very end. When when everyone's ready, we may talk a little bit about humans. I we will deal with animals before we deal with the comp- the added complexities of human beings. Now. I'm sure the listeners out there are wondering the same thing. I was so I got back from vacation to find you super excited about animals eating poop, and I was like, well, what got you going on? This Robert y did you fling yourself headlong into a pit of copper Fengxia for the week of thanksgiving? Well, I originally had the idea to do it after watching a David Attenborough narrated special titled spy in the pod, which is fun. It's a fun little show in which they have a remote control robot is hanging out with elephants, and they briefly cover. Copper Faiza practiced by elephant cats, and which we'll get to in this episode. And I thought well that's interesting that that puts a new spin on something that I'd largely just. Dismissed as being essentially, a an active both of human defilement, but also abnormal animal behavior. And I thought well this comes like kind of a grim top Kip topic. But certainly thanksgiving is the time to do it. I think we've talked about what like poisonous foods and stuff like that. Yeah. It kind of fits in with what we've done, and we're rerunning those aren't we just running at least two and three just wait for Saturday. Yeah. But but anyway, in in looking into the topic, then I realized oh, this is a fascinating topic in the grant. Or addition of our episodes on cannibalism. Bestiality necrophilia. I think that there's a there's an awesome challenge in tackling something like this something that is generally considered very admirable behavior for humans and looking at it from just the the boil down no nonsense animal side of things yet. What is it? How does it make sense within the realm of animal, biology and behavior, and then how might we might we apply that to the human scenario even? Yeah. The the sort of like brute chemical energy realities, and and a microbiological ecology of the world in in that kind of context poop eating begins to come into focus as a beautiful thing. Yeah. As I discussed in our Halloween to those in eighteen episode horror anthology volume one there's an episode of night gallery in which a character is tricked into believing himself curse to an irreversible transformation into a human earthworm. Yeah. And it's Leslie Nielsen it is lifting. With an ipad like shooting walls. Yeah. A man with no fear who has overcome with fear of becoming a worm. And I said that one of the reasons we find this concept so horrifying is it reduces us to our elementary track. We fear the worm at the heart of our being. And I think that we see that reflected in this episode is well anything that kind of reduces us to just our digestive system and tends to have an innate har- to us because we're definitely going to be touching on the microbiome and all of this the importance of gut bacteria, which continuing research tells us is far more important than than we ever imagined..
Could We Build A Real Gundam?
"Hello earth. Actually. Hello universe. Yeah. We are here to tell you that. In addition to Tuesdays and Thursdays when you can get your regular stuff. You should know episodes. Just as you always have the last ten thousand years await tenure seniors. We're now adding a whole new episode of a spin off show. That's really the same show. It's just a shorter episode. It's called short stuff. Yeah. We said, hey, sometimes we have topics that maybe aren't robust enough to fill out a full forty five minutes stuff. You shouldn't episode though. We don't want to shortchange these topics these people, and so let's just make them short. Get over here. Short stuff and Trump in our feet, right? Exactly. It's kind of like the Roper to our three's company. Yeah. Or it's kinda like after mash to mash exactly, although it's like neither one of those. We're regular links. This is shorter everybody. Yep. So you can go to apple podcasts or wherever you get your podcasts. Or just look for it in your feet every Wednesday from your friends. Josh chuck. Jerry at stuff, you should know shorter is sometimes better. Welcome to bring stuff from how stuff works. Hey, rain stuff on Lauren vocal bomb. And if science fiction has taught us anything it's that giant piloted robotic humanoids will eventually be essential to the protection of everything we hold dear invading Taiji from another dimension, sending the acres rubies from planet, doomed better assemble voltron, and as James Cameron's aliens, toughtested nine hundred eighty six even a non-combat next suit can make all the difference against an extraterrestrial threat. Another influential example is our x seventy eight dash to Gundem the titular piloted giant robot entered the world in nineteen seventy nine as part of Yoshiyuki Tomino mobile suit Gundem franchise, which remains popular today. But could we build our own Gundem's? The simple answer is. Yes. In fact, scientists have been tackling various aspects of the technology since at least the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries during that time both Russian and American inventors explored the possibility of mechanically enhanced excess skeletons to eight humans in various. Physical movements since that time we've continued to see X skeleton advancements aimed at injury rehabilitation space travel industrial labor, and yes, even military combat and okay power armor is nice and all, but it's hardly a giant robot that stomps around and punches monsters in the face. What about true towering meccas? Well, the answer here is also a yes. Within the field of robotics. We've seen tremendous achievements in the creation of remote control autonomous and semi autonomous machines today. Military drones haunt the skies over various global combat zones and space exploration probes have delivered wheeled Rovers to other worlds, we've even given our wheeled robots arms for tasks from bomb dispersal to Martian soil, sampling and deep sea exploration. But none of these mechanical minions boasts legs, even the humanoid robot developed by Nasr's Lyndon, B Johnson space center didn't acquire climbing legs until its second iteration for proper Gundem's. One day walked the planet will need proper robot legs and this to his featured into the work of various robotics programs. The most famous of these is Boston dynamics military funded Walker programs such as big dog and cheetah and not just because they inspired the killer robots in the black mirror episode metalhead because while aerial and nautical robots can get by just fine without a leg to stand on terrestrial, robots are a different matter. A wheels are great on the road and unobstructed landscapes but legs provide the most versatility for diverse. Environments true. We like structures only rarely occur in biology such as the bacterial Jehlum a structure found in such species as the bacterium e coli legs on the other hand are natural selections primary solution to terrestrial transportation. So it makes sense to copy evolution in this regard. And biomedical engineers have looked to all manner of leg arrangements for inspiration from humans to millipedes. But here's the catch led to me. Movement requires a great deal of programming complexity and power it made feel easy for most of us. But our minds and bodies are highly evolved for the task even fully piloted Gunda say one where it's movements are mapped on those of the pilot would require a tremendous amount of biometric engineering and semi autonomous units would require the dexterity and spatial awareness to avoid the pitfalls of for example, the ED two oh nine in RoboCop which stomped around on two feet, but was incapable of navigating stairs. But the mecca dream is strong while various robotics companies continue to develop the necessary technology. Fi fans also go at it alone. Functional mecca suits have strolled the Playa at burning man and paraded at various conventions and Japanese engineer Masaaki Nagumo built a working life size model of a gun Gundem in two thousand eighteen the mecca dubbed L W Mona no FU stands twenty eight feet tall. That's about eight point five meters and weighs seven point seven tons or about. Seven metric tons. It's too. Big to leave the factory space that it calls home. But Ngubane rinse it and other meccas out for a little under a thousand bucks an hour. It's not protecting the world from alien attacks. But it's quite a hit for kids birthday parties. Though, one note here if alliens or giant monsters do attack well meccas might not be the best option. Anyway, as was pointed out in the magazine, popular mechanics, the acres from the Pacific rim films are entirely outclassed by existing aerial bombers and attack helicopters. Today's episode was written by Robert lamb and produced by Tyler clang. It was also suggested to us by Lucas twelve years of age from on -tario Canada. Lucas we hope that answer was satisfactory exemplary listeners if you have a question you'd like us to answer send it to us. You can Email us at brain stuff at how stuff works dot com or find us on social media by searching, brain stuff on Twitter, Facebook or Instagram, and of course, for more on this and lots of other mechanically advanced, topics. Visit our home planet has stuff works dot com. Hello. I'm Anna Marie, and I'm Laurin Vogel bomb, and our show foodstuff all about these ions history and culture food entering is relaunching as saver re along with our super producer, dealing Fagin are hitting the road to find the stories behind all the things we like to eat and drink. We will be talking to the culinary creators and eaters of the world to get to the bottom of why we like what we like. And how we can find more of those things on our first trip. We went to Asheville North Carolina a city that
"robert lamb" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey, welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert lamb and I'm Joe McCormick and Robert. I wanna put you in a scenario. Obits seasonal, seasonable, Halloween scenario you do. You want to go with me on a hike. It's going to hike. All right. It's late October, and you are on a solitary fall hike through the woods in the leaves are starting to turn orange and red, the Air's dry, and you feel like an adventure. So you head off trail. Okay. Not always a good idea, but let's just say you're brave if this is how all terrible stories start, how all tragedies begin, you leave the trail? Well, it starts very nice. So you're off trail and you find a little mountain brook and it's twisting among the rocks and you decide, oh, how sweet I'm gonna follow this upstream. Maybe I'll find it source and on the way you come across a cluster of what looked like oak trees, thick trunks with roots, spread out, exposed over the Bank of the Brooke, and there's an odd smell. It's a little bit sweet with. Just a hint of deep, earthy nece, kind of like over ripe fruit. Okay. So you approach the stand of trees and the ground is covered with a mad of these beautifully colored fallen leaves. And as you come near the trunk of the nearest tree, your foot knocks against a smooth stone, tangled in the outer routes, but wait a second. That's no stone. It's smooth in white. Partially buried with two is shaped hollows. And then suddenly with a rushing sound scattering of leaves up into the air. Something invalid, Hugh, the light gets blotted out. You feel these wooden fibers pressing into your skin from all sides. What's going on? You struggle to free yourself, but you find that you're becoming sluggish disoriented. There's a powerful smell your throat burns and then the digestive enzymes come..
"robert lamb" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey, wasn't Mr. for blow your mind. My name is Robert lamb and I'm Christian Sager. So Robert. Yep. Sideboard word cyborg and here that what does it mean to you? What is it? What composites up immediately? Well, you know, I'm kind of depends on how far back in my own time when I go like I can't help it instantly go back to being kid. Yeah, we're cyborg mint Terminator cyborg mint RoboCop. And so you and I are both children of the eighties and that's yeah. Yes, cyborgs were at their height of popularity. Probably. Right? Yeah. This idea that like there's a machine, but it's it's got at least a little bit of humanity to it, but nothing. Nothing that's going to hold it back much like a terrorizing robot or this this brutal metal bad ass. Yeah, I am in a tease this a little bit on social media, but for me, I am mmediately go to a comic book character named cyborg and it's. A character that was I created in the seventies and that's seventies eighties. That's when I was reading his comic books. He is an African-American character who becomes a cyborg because he's in some kind of like athletic accident or car accident or something. And his dad is like a cyber next genius in rebuilds his body, and he becomes a superhero joins the teen titans. A lot of people out there may know this character from the teen titans cartoon show in the last decade. My nephew is telling me all about cyborg. Oh, really? I was hanging out with them in the past few months, and it was kind of I was impressed because it sounds like teen titans has done a good job of sort of giving a thoughtful treatment of cyborg. Like, what does it mean that this character is a little bit machine and a little bit human. Have middle ground as he walking. It's kind of, I mean, the cartoon is is more of a comedy, but so the the caveat that wanted to place on this is, you know, DC is rolling out its big summer, blockbuster universe of superhero movies and then cyborg is going to have his own movie and he's going to be in the Justice league movies. Okay. And I haven't seen it, but I guess that Batman v, superman movie spoilers like hints at him in somewhere. So I kept thinking as we were doing the research for this episode, which if you guys out there, haven't guessed by now is about cyborgs. I, I kept thinking, you know, the people who were writing and doing all the pre production on that cyborg tent pole movie right now. I really hope they listen to this episode because we got a lot of interesting themes going on here with the idea of cyborgs and yeah, unreal. And that is what this episode is going to revolve around now. Certainly we've had episodes in the past that have dealt with sort of like mind, machine interfaces, including Joe, and I did one in the past few. Months, I'll make sure we linked to that on the landing page for this episode and there will be doing episodes in the future. I'm sure about cybernetic enhancements, prostatic limbs, etc. But this episode is as the title implies, it's about what do we think about when we think about cyborgs? What is the the meaning of cyborg as a word? And it's a trope and as a metaphor for understanding the human experience? Yeah. And what I especially got out of it is that cyborg in general, there's a lot of philosophical arguments to make that we're already cyborgs and that it is.
"robert lamb" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Name is robert lamb and i'm joe mccormick day we're going to be looking at a question about the future a of the today will be a speculative outing so the question that we wanna start with today is the broad one and then we'll we'll break it down into specifics specific ways of looking at this question the question is how long could a technologist civilization last and notice i just use the word civilization and technological not necessarily human civilization since time and space scales the kind we're talking about could really blur the lines of what it means for civilization to be human or consistently any one biological species so for now i say let's just define civilization is something like a continuous tradition of intelligent behavior if you've got something like that assume a civilization like ours leaves earth and spreads out to colonize other star systems and becomes a presence on the go lactic stage how long could civilization like that actually survive into the future yeah you kind of have to think of of civilization as virus spreading through this this galactic and ultimately cause universal host how how far could it spread how long could it maintain the infection in it's it is challenging at times to think about it because we we can't help but extrapolate what we have now what we know and we have to do that in order to to sort of scale up the model of what galactic civilization might look like and at the you 'cause i think back to star trek for instance star trek is essentially a show about clipper ships it's about a seafaring individuals it's just extrapolated into space and then with a lot of cool science science and science fictional elements explored within it exploring the planets of potted plants yeah but but ultimately it is it is based on the model of the president in the past and then there's also this element to just you know a grandiose pride and and human accomplishment and to wonder where will we be in this distant age it reminds me of a quote from j m coats is waiting for the barbarians and which he writes quote one thought alone preoccupies the submerged mind of empire how not to end how not to die how to prolong its era i think that's quite true though i mean the conception of empire that we have is so time limited i mean people who are trying to prolong the empire's that we're used to thinking about say coats he probably has in mind something like the british empire right that is an empire that even though it existed for a long period of time was on the scale of people's recognizable descendants you know you would be saying i want a hand on my empire to my child or my grandchild or my great grandchild do you do you wanna hand on your impair to something that is maybe not even recognizably the same species as you a million years down the road yeah it kind of becomes the situation where one is they passing on a typewriter or or some other piece of technology where you're like this has been in our family for years and then you're like we'll think but its nit his now obsolete it is it is kind of useless it's it's actually of more value perhaps now as emir museum piece or just as a metal to be recycled that's true i i guess it also it's sorta works out how you don't have to care about that thing that's a million years down the road whether or not you think of that as your direct descendant or not because you care about the next generation and that generation will always care about the next generation rise is just echo through through time and space yeah i i think one of the important things to keep in mind and all this is just to what extent to things scale up you know because we think about the empire's and the technology we have today and i think as we proceed through this discussion we'll be reminded time and time again that that that human life human empires they don't really scale up when you start applying them to even even at the interplanetary stage things begin to get a little difficult but certainly when you get beyond beyond that when you talk about an empire that spans solar systems or or or manages to spread throughout an entire galaxy and.
"robert lamb" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind my name is robert lamb and i'm joe mccormick and we're back part two of our exploration of the loose serie truth affect probably the liars best trick if you haven't heard are less sodas you probably go back listen to that first but if you haven't or if you have let's just do a quick recap of what we talked about last time we discussed all of the research on this thing that's sort of been part of folk wisdom that if you say something and if you repeat it and repeat it and repeat it people become overtime more likely to believe that thing and that is thoroughly validated by experimental research right and we also talked a little bit about why does it even make sense that we would come to believe things that were not true about the world that we live in just because they were repeated yeah and so the the basis that we ultimately ended up on last time that seems to be favored by most of the psychologists who study this is based in the idea of processing fluency that for whatever re reason a one researcher we talked about last time came to believe that it was because of conditioning based on real world effects but for whatever reason we tend to associate things that are easy to process things with high processing fluency with truth so something's easy to read we think it's more true or if something is an idea we've seen or heard or encountered before because that's easier to process because of a millionaire aji we believe that it is more likely to be true than if we're encountering it for the first time but of course in all of this extreme implausibility is going to be a boundary condition that's gonna kick in so this is like the ted cruz is zodiac killer level of of of implausibility what just because the ages don't match up right well just the end is just kind of like all right i'm not bleeding that that sounds ridiculous but some people do believe that so your boundary condition may not be where somebody else's sure emission is the boundary conditions will vary from individual to digital so yeah so the question that we should address start off in this one is in the last episode we discussed how this affect has been thoroughly validated in the lab but here's a question does it work in the real world and is it really all that powerful like a lot of researchers seem to assume that surely if you already know something about a subject repetition of contradictory false statement wouldn't actually undermine your real knowledge would it surely the they would tend to assume that this this loose truth affect only works for st statements that were uncertain about to begin with and statements that seem highly plausible bike if you didn't know anything about either ted cruz or the zodiac killer really and then you would just sort of all right maybe that's possible yes there is an individual who is read multiple books on zodiac killer would say no that doesn't that doesn't match up that is just ridiculous yeah so that's the assumption but unfortunately some more recent research has really turned that assumption action on its head so i wanna talk about an important recent study in the loose retrieve effect that brings its bearer of bad news the study is from the journal of experimental psychology general in twenty fifteen by fosse oh brashear pain and marsh in it's called knowledge does not protect against lucero truth so they pointed out that the illusory truth effect that we talked about last time based on processing fluency is widely accepted well established but it had been previously thought that this affect was constrained by a few things now one constraint shown to actually exist in the literature is recollection of the quality of the source of the information so previous studies have shown that if you specifically remember where a statement came from and you consider the source of the statement a dishonest or untrustworthy source that can produce kind of a reverse truth affect where repetition of a statement known to come from a liar or an untrustworthy source causes us to disbelieve it so this sounds like this should be good news right right yeah did i ultimately the question did i hear that on the radio did or did i see it on a shirt yeah or was this on the cover of the national enquirer right like you remember that's where it came from and your you know that's an untrustworthy source owed actually has the reverse effect you hear.
"robert lamb" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Robert lamb and i'm joe mccormack in today we're going to be talking about one of our favorite subjects our tendency to believe things that aren't true now robert i wonder is there a false factoid or claim that you just always find yourself recalling as true even though you've checked it before and discovered it to be false in the past this is an interesting question because i feel like they're thinks that come up in research all the time certainly key things over the years we research and riot different topics where i have to correct on you know where i think i knew something and then i'm like oh well that's that's actually now that actually do the research it's not not not a fact and then you know the same goes for false believes that police the creep in sort of mandela fag type of scenario for instance there is a time when i thought gene wilder was dead prior to his actual death and then is he actually dead now he is actually dead now i thought he was dead before he was exactly because i think it was just a combination of he was not as active any more and i wasn't really keeping up with the gene wilder filmography and like current events related to gene wilder and something maybe i picked up on some news piece at some point in somehow eight he got clicked to the dead category and then when i found out he was alive it was it was really like he came back to life and i had the same thing happened literally just the other day with a standup comedian larry miller i don't think i remember that is oh he's i he had kind of you know dry observational comedy he he he had a i think he's still acts but he would show up on say night court i think oh wait a minute seen some christopher guest movies he may have been yeah but for some reason years ago i got into my head that he'd passed away and so occasionally i would think of larry miller and book yeah i remember larry miller too bad he he passed and then i actually looked him up the other day and it turns out he not passed away he's still very much alive and active and i was just living in this fantasy world of of dead larry miller's you know i have false beliefs that recur with much more significance like i keep remembering the yet maybe it's just because i was told this all the time when i was a kid that vitamin c supplements will ward off colds that is not experimentally proven that that is like not a finding of science and yet i just always if i haven't checked in a while just seeps right back in like yes that is true vitamin c it'll keep colds away well it's easy to fall into the trap i do this all the time with with various vitamins and supplements where i'm like i don't know if it works probably doesn't work but i'm going to go and take it just in case 'cause he's vitamin c you know what's the what's what's the harm they're it's kind of like believing in god just in case he's he exists believing in vitamins but then you end up with like a weird sort of vitamin tentacle going out of your neck and you didn't see that come under budget that's fake news joe vitamin c will not 'cause a tentacle to grad of your neck but now you've heard it it's true i feel like they are things that have popped up where we're all think well i've always heard ex but i've never actually looked it up and then that's where the the problem seeps in you know where i just think i know something but i'm not sure about i don't care enough to actually investigate there is one possible example that comes up and that is there was this of course the idea that george washington carver invented peanut butter okay he had something to do with peanut he had some somebody was he was a us a famous inventor important to african american inventor and i just i didn't know a lot about him and i had always heard the peanut butter thing but i didn't actually research until i helped my son with a class project about him earlier this year and then i was able to definitely check that.
"robert lamb" Discussed on WDRC
"Robert lamb was inspired to write saturday in the park after spending the fourth of july nineteen seventyone in central park tea is back seriously oh man a new and saying tired brad.